WorldWideScience

Sample records for adh1a variation predisposes

  1. Variation in Telangiectasia Predisposing Genes Is Associated With Overall Radiation Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanteles, George A. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Murray, Robert J.S. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Mills, Jamie [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Barwell, Julian [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Chakraborti, Prabir [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom); Chan, Steve [Department of Clinical Oncology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Cheung, Kwok-Leung [Division of Breast Surgery, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Ennis, Dawn [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom); Khurshid, Nazish [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Lambert, Kelly [Department of Breast Surgery, University Hospitals of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester (United Kingdom); Machhar, Rohan; Meisuria, Mitul [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Osman, Ahmed; Peat, Irene [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Sahota, Harjinder [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Woodings, Pamela [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J., E-mail: cjt14@le.ac.uk [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: In patients receiving radiotherapy for breast cancer where the heart is within the radiation field, cutaneous telangiectasiae could be a marker of potential radiation-induced heart disease. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes known to cause heritable telangiectasia-associated disorders could predispose to such late, normal tissue vascular damage. Methods and Materials: The relationship between cutaneous telangiectasia as a late normal tissue radiation injury phenotype in 633 breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy was examined. Patients were clinically assessed for the presence of cutaneous telangiectasia and genotyped at nine SNPs in three candidate genes. Candidate SNPs were within the endoglin (ENG) and activin A receptor, type II-like 1 (ACVRL1) genes, mutations in which cause hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene associated with ataxia-telangiectasia. Results: A total of 121 (19.1%) patients exhibited a degree of cutaneous telangiectasiae on clinical examination. Regression was used to examine the associations between the presence of telangiectasiae in patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery, controlling for the effects of boost and known brassiere size (n=388), and individual geno- or haplotypes. Inheritance of ACVRL1 SNPs marginally contributed to the risk of cutaneous telangiectasiae. Haplotypic analysis revealed a stronger association between inheritance of a ATM haplotype and the presence of cutaneous telangiectasiae, fibrosis and overall toxicity. No significant association was observed between telangiectasiae and the coinheritance of the candidate ENG SNPs. Conclusions: Genetic variation in the ATM gene influences reaction to radiotherapy through both vascular damage and increased fibrosis. The predisposing variation in the ATM gene will need to be better defined to optimize it as a predictive marker for assessing radiotherapy late effects.

  2. Ancestral Variations of the PCDHG Gene Cluster Predispose to Dyslexia in a Multiplex Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teesta Naskar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dyslexia is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties in reading and writing. In this study, we describe the identification of a set of 17 polymorphisms located across 1.9 Mb region on chromosome 5q31.3, encompassing genes of the PCDHG cluster, TAF7, PCDH1 and ARHGAP26, dominantly inherited with dyslexia in a multi-incident family. Strikingly, the non-risk form of seven variations of the PCDHG cluster, are preponderant in the human lineage, while risk alleles are ancestral and conserved across Neanderthals to non-human primates. Four of these seven ancestral variations (c.460A > C [p.Ile154Leu], c.541G > A [p.Ala181Thr], c.2036G > C [p.Arg679Pro] and c.2059A > G [p.Lys687Glu] result in amino acid alterations. p.Ile154Leu and p.Ala181Thr are present at EC2: EC3 interacting interface of γA3-PCDH and γA4-PCDH respectively might affect trans-homophilic interaction and hence neuronal connectivity. p.Arg679Pro and p.Lys687Glu are present within the linker region connecting trans-membrane to extracellular domain. Sequence analysis indicated the importance of p.Ile154, p.Arg679 and p.Lys687 in maintaining class specificity. Thus the observed association of PCDHG genes encoding neural adhesion proteins reinforces the hypothesis of aberrant neuronal connectivity in the pathophysiology of dyslexia. Additionally, the striking conservation of the identified variants indicates a role of PCDHG in the evolution of highly specialized cognitive skills critical to reading.

  3. Ancestral Variations of the PCDHG Gene Cluster Predispose to Dyslexia in a Multiplex Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Teesta; Faruq, Mohammed; Banerjee, Priyajit; Khan, Massarat; Midha, Rashi; Kumari, Renu; Devasenapathy, Subhashree; Prajapati, Bharat; Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Jain, Deepti; Mukerji, Mitali; Singh, Nandini Chatterjee; Sinha, Subrata

    2018-02-01

    Dyslexia is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties in reading and writing. In this study, we describe the identification of a set of 17 polymorphisms located across 1.9Mb region on chromosome 5q31.3, encompassing genes of the PCDHG cluster, TAF7, PCDH1 and ARHGAP26, dominantly inherited with dyslexia in a multi-incident family. Strikingly, the non-risk form of seven variations of the PCDHG cluster, are preponderant in the human lineage, while risk alleles are ancestral and conserved across Neanderthals to non-human primates. Four of these seven ancestral variations (c.460A>C [p.Ile154Leu], c.541G>A [p.Ala181Thr], c.2036G>C [p.Arg679Pro] and c.2059A>G [p.Lys687Glu]) result in amino acid alterations. p.Ile154Leu and p.Ala181Thr are present at EC2: EC3 interacting interface of γA3-PCDH and γA4-PCDH respectively might affect trans-homophilic interaction and hence neuronal connectivity. p.Arg679Pro and p.Lys687Glu are present within the linker region connecting trans-membrane to extracellular domain. Sequence analysis indicated the importance of p.Ile154, p.Arg679 and p.Lys687 in maintaining class specificity. Thus the observed association of PCDHG genes encoding neural adhesion proteins reinforces the hypothesis of aberrant neuronal connectivity in the pathophysiology of dyslexia. Additionally, the striking conservation of the identified variants indicates a role of PCDHG in the evolution of highly specialized cognitive skills critical to reading. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Copy number variation in CEP57L1 predisposes to congenital absence of bilateral ACL and PCL ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yichuan; Li, Yun; March, Michael E; Nguyen, Kenny; Kenny, Nguyen; Xu, Kexiang; Wang, Fengxiang; Guo, Yiran; Keating, Brendan; Glessner, Joseph; Li, Jiankang; Ganley, Theodore J; Zhang, Jianguo; Deardorff, Matthew A; Xu, Xun; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2015-11-11

    Absence of the anterior (ACL) or posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) are rare congenital malformations that result in knee joint instability, with a prevalence of 1.7 per 100,000 live births and can be associated with other lower-limb abnormalities such as ACL agnesia and absence of the menisci of the knee. While a few cases of absence of ACL/PCL are reported in the literature, a number of large familial case series of related conditions such as ACL agnesia suggest a potential underlying monogenic etiology. We performed whole exome sequencing of a family with two individuals affected by ACL/PCL. We identified copy number variation (CNV) deletion impacting the exon sequences of CEP57L1, present in the affected mother and her affected daughter based on the exome sequencing data. The deletion was validated using quantitative PCR (qPCR), and the gene was confirmed to be expressed in ACL ligament tissue. Interestingly, we detected reduced expression of CEP57L1 in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) cells from the two patients in comparison with healthy controls. Evaluation of 3D protein structure showed that the helix-binding sites of the protein remain intact with the deletion, but other functional binding sites related to microtubule attachment are missing. The specificity of the CNV deletion was confirmed by showing that it was absent in ~700 exome sequencing samples as well as in the database of genomic variations (DGV), a database containing large numbers of annotated CNVs from previous scientific reports. We identified a novel CNV deletion that was inherited through an autosomal dominant transmission from an affected mother to her affected daughter, both of whom suffered from the absence of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments of the knees.

  5. Predisposed to cooperate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Costello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in Toronto and Geneva indicates that asylum seekers and refugees are predisposed to be cooperative with the refugee status determination system and other immigration procedures, and that the design of alternatives to detention can create, foster and support this cooperative predisposition – or can undermine or even demolish it.

  6. Waste predisposal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    All Member States have to a large or small extent nuclear activities that generate radioactive wastes. Hospitals, research in biomedicine or in agriculture, and some industrial applications, beside other large nuclear activities such as Nuclear Power Plants and Nuclear Research, generate unconditioned liquid or solid radioactive wastes that have to be treated, conditioned and stored prior final disposal. Countries with small nuclear activities require of organizations and infrastructure as to be able to manage, in a safe manner, the wastes that they generate. Predisposal management of radioactive waste is any step carried out to convert raw waste into a stable form suitable for the safe disposal, such as pre-treatment, treatment, storage and relevant transport. Transport of radioactive waste do not differ, in general, from other radioactive material and so are not considered within the scope of this fact sheet (Nevertheless the Agency, within the Nuclear Safety Department, has created a special Unit that might give advise Member States in this area). Predisposal management is comprised of a set of activities whose implementation may take some time. In most of the cases, safety issues and strategic and economical considerations have to be solved prior the main decisions are taken. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance for the management of radioactive waste at national and operating level, in the definition and/or implementation of the projects. The services could include, but are not limited to guidance in the definition of national waste management strategy and its implementation, definition of the most adequate equipment and practices taking into account specific Member State conditions, as well as assisting in the procurement, technical expertise for the evaluation of current status of operating facilities and practical guidance for the implementation of corrective actions, assistance in the definition of waste acceptance criteria for

  7. 32 CFR 644.391 - Predisposal conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Predisposal conference. 644.391 Section 644.391... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Predisposal Action § 644.391 Predisposal conference. (a) Where a substantial Army installation, or portion thereof, is involved, the DE will convene a predisposal conference with...

  8. Predisposing factors towards examination malpractice among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    Abstract. The study attempted to examine students' perception of the predisposing factors towards examination malpractice among students in Lagos universities. The study adopted the descriptive survey design involving 240 students from the. Faculty of Education in the two public universities in Lagos State. A.

  9. 65 PREVALENCE, PREDISPOSING FACTORS AND ANTIBIOGRAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the prevalence and predisposing factors of swine skin abscess in selected farms in Ibadan, ... all isolates were resistant to Cloxacillin. Among the sensitive .... Table 3: Overall sensitivity and resistance profiles of bacterial spp. isolated from swine skin abscesses. S/No Antibiotics. No. of sensitive isolates. Sensitivity. %. No of.

  10. Predisposing factors of laminitis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermunt, J J; Greenough, P R

    1994-01-01

    Laminitis is regarded as a major predisposing factor in lameness caused by claw disorders. Despite intensive study, both by experiment and by clinical observation, knowledge of the precise aetiology and pathogenesis of bovine laminitis is still incomplete. It is often hypothesized that changes in the micro-circulation of the corum (dermis) of the bovine claw contribute significantly to the development of laminitis; arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs) playing a crucial role. Many factors have been implicated as contributing causes of laminitis in cattle; the disease has a multifactorial aetiology. The cause of laminitis should be considered as a combination of predisposing factors leading to vascular (AVAs in particular) reactivity and inhibition of normal horn synthesis. Nutrition, disease, management and behaviour appear to be closely involved in the pathogenesis of bovine laminitis. The major factors predisposing to laminitis in cattle, as reported or suggested in the literature, are reviewed, including systemic disease, nutrition (barley grain, protein, carbohydrate and fibre), management (housing, bedding and exercise), calving, season, age, growth, genetics, conformation and behaviour.

  11. Indications & predisposing factors of crown lengthening surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghavan Amini-Behbahani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since crown lengthening surgery could be accompanied by stress, pain and discomfort, knowledge about its predisposing factors could reduce the demands for such surgery.The aim of this study was to identify the most important indications of crown lengthening surgery in order to present new ideas to clinicians on how to reduce the need for this surgery. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 470 patients (aged 12-89 years referred for crown lengthening surgery. The patients' demographic data and their reasons for surgery, the teeth restoration condition and its type, condition of the opposite tooth, type of fractured cusp (posterior teeth, root canal therapy condition and quality, and size of existing intracanal posts were recorded in a data sheet. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software.The chi-square and fisher exact test were used for statistical analysis. The significant difference was p<0.05. Results: The most frequent indication in men and women was dental caries followed by tooth fracture.The second upper premolars and first lower molars needed crown lengthening surgery more often, respectively. Conclusions: Since dental caries and fracture are the most important factors that predispose teeth to crown lengthening surgery, controlling caries with a regular recall sequence can reduce the need for such surgery, especially in the elderly.

  12. What aspects of autism predispose to talent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, Francesca; Vital, Pedro

    2009-05-27

    In this paper, we explore the question, why are striking special skills so much more common in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) than in other groups? Current cognitive accounts of ASC are briefly reviewed in relation to special skills. Difficulties in 'theory of mind' may contribute to originality in ASC, since individuals who do not automatically 'read other minds' may be better able to think outside prevailing fashions and popular theories. However, originality alone does not confer talent. Executive dysfunction has been suggested as the 'releasing' mechanism for special skills in ASC, but other groups with executive difficulties do not show raised incidence of talents. Detail-focused processing bias ('weak coherence', 'enhanced perceptual functioning') appears to be the most promising predisposing characteristic, or 'starting engine', for talent development. In support of this notion, we summarize data from a population-based twin study in which parents reported on their 8-year-olds' talents and their ASC-like traits. Across the whole sample, ASC-like traits, and specifically 'restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests' related to detail focus, were more pronounced in children reported to have talents outstripping older children. We suggest that detail-focused cognitive style predisposes to talent in savant domains in, and beyond, autism spectrum disorders.

  13. Heat intolerance: predisposing factor or residual injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Y

    1990-02-01

    Great individual variability exists in the ability to sustain heat stress. Some individuals are more susceptible to heat than others. Those individuals, among the young active population (athletes, military recruits, laborers), are at risk to contract exertional heat stroke. Low tolerance to heat results from either functional factors, or from congenital or acquired disturbances. In most cases heat intolerance can be foreseen. Cases of dehydration, overweight, low physical fitness, lack of acclimatization, febrile or infectious diseases, and skin disorders should be regarded a priori as predisposing factors for heat intolerance. Special attention should be paid to subjects with previous heat stroke episodes since it might reflect an underlying cause for heat susceptibility. The heat tolerance of these subjects should be tested 8-12 wk postepisode to detect a possible residual injury in the ability to thermoregulate adequately in the heat.

  14. Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste. General Safety Requirements Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    There are a large number of facilities and activities around the world in which radioactive material is produced, handled and stored. This Safety Requirements publication presents international consensus requirements for the management of radioactive waste prior to its disposal. It provides the safety imperatives on the basis of which facilities can be designed, operated and regulated. The publication is supported by a number of Safety Guides that provide up to date recommendations and guidance on best practices for management of particular types of radioactive waste, for storage of radioactive waste, for assuring safety by developing safety cases and supporting safety assessments, and for applying appropriate management systems. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. Responsibilities associated with the predisposal management of radioactive waste; 4. Steps in the predisposal management of radioactive waste; 5. Development and operation of predisposal radioactive waste management facilities and activities; Annex: Predisposal management of radioactive waste and the fundamental safety principles.

  15. Mandibular molar crown-topography, a biological predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandibular molar crown-topography, a biological predisposing factor to development of caries – a post-mortem analysis of 2500 extracted lower permanent molars at ... (12.57%), distol surface attack 1,528 (12.22%) buccal surface attack 926 (7.40%), lingual surface attack 59 (0.47%) occlusal surface attack 6540 (52.32%).

  16. Shoulder injuries in provincial male fast bowlers — predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Fast bowlers with a front-on bowl- ing action are more susceptible to an injury of the shoulder.10. The presence of an imbalance between the agonist and antagonist groups is one of the major risk factors for devel-. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. Shoulder injuries in provincial male fast bowlers — predisposing factors.

  17. Predisposing Factors to Pityriasis Versicolor in Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a superficial infection characterized by pale or dark patches of the skin. The etiologic agents are the yeasts belonging to the genus Malassezia, which are normal flora of human skin. Lack of adequate scientific information about the predisposing factors of PV makes the eradication of the disease ...

  18. Predisposing factors for developing gastric volvulus and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two cases of gastric volvulus are presented to highlight the predisposing factors, mechanism and different types of volvulus, and the role of imaging in making the diagnosis. Eventration of the diaphragm and hiatus hernia are precipitating factors for developing organo-axial and mesentero-axial volvulus. Imaging is key to ...

  19. Prevalence, predisposing factors and antibiogram of swine skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These drugs therefore remain effective for first-line postsurgical chemotherapy in the management of swine skin abscess except Chloramphenicol which is banned in food animal therapy. Running title: Prevalence, Predisposing Factors and Antibiogram of Swine Skin Abscess. Keywords: Abscess, Antibiogram, Ibadan, ...

  20. Risky sexual behavior and predisposing factors among students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of parental control, substance use, peer pressure, campus and outside environment were identified as predisposing factors. CONCLUSION: Risky sexual behaviour such as having multiple sexual partner and sexual practice without condom with non- regular partner exists. The university and local health bodies should ...

  1. Mechanical Birth Trauma – An Evaluation of Predisposing Factors at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty neonates were identified in a study carried out to determine the factors predisposing to mechanical birth trauma in neonates at the Ogun State University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu. Data were collected retrospectively from 1989 to 1990 and prospectively from 1991 to 1994. The incidence of mechanical birth trauma ...

  2. Case Report: Cervical Klippel-Feil syndrome predisposing an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report: Cervical Klippel-Feil syndrome predisposing an elderly African man to central cord myelopathy following minor trauma. ... unique presentation of this case of Klippel-Feil syndrome further supports the impression that following fusion (congenital or acquired) of one segment of the spinal column, hypermobility of ...

  3. Gastrointestinal helminths and their predisposing factors in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accordingly, statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was observed when prevalence of helminths compared with breed, sex, age and management system separately using univariable logistic regression; whereas, when all predisposing factors subjected together using multi-variable backward stepwise analysis, ...

  4. Factors that predispose South African rural university students with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors which predispose South African rural university students with disabilities to HIV infection. A qualitative, interpretative phenomenological analysis study was conducted. Sixteen students with various physical disabilities, purposively recruited using snowballing techniques ...

  5. Factors predisposing to low birth weight in Jimma Hospital South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low birth weight continues to remain a major public health problem in Ethiopia in contrast to what is observed in many developing countries. Objectives: To assess some of the predisposing factors to low birth weight among deliveries in Jimma hospital. Design: Cross-sectional case referent study.

  6. Gastrointestinal helminths and their predisposing factors in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The severity varies accord- ing to management system and associated predisposing factors. Epidemiol- ... female birds and birds in extensive management system were 2.8 times more likely to be affected than intensive ..... Urquhart, G. M., Armour, J., Duncan, J. L., Dunn, A. M., Jennings, F.W. 1996. Veteri- nary Parasitology.

  7. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated...... whole-genome and exome data from probands of 34 melanoma families lacking pathogenic mutations in known high penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, TERT, POT1, ACD and TERF2IP. We found a novel germline mutation, POLE p.(Trp347Cys), in a 7-case cutaneous melanoma family....... Functional assays in S. pombe showed that this mutation led to an increased DNA mutation rate comparable to that seen with a Pol ε mutant with no exonuclease activity. We then performed targeted sequencing of POLE in 1243 cutaneous melanoma cases and found that a further ten probands had novel or rare...

  8. Hereditary syndromes predisposing to endocrine tumors and their skin manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-09-01

    We often think of the lentiginoses, phacomatoses and other neurocutaneous syndromes as conditions that affect the skin and also predispose to a variety of tumors. However, we rarely think of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), Carney complex (CNC), Cowden disease (CD), neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF-1) or tuberous sclerosis (TSC) as conditions that are multiple endocrine neoplasias (MEN). Indeed, all of these conditions predispose to a variety of endocrine tumors, in addition to many other neoplasms. On the other hand, the classic MENs, type 1 and 2 (MEN-1 and MEN-2, respectively) are almost never thought in terms of their skin manifestations. In this review, we present extensively the MEN-1, MEN-2 and PJS syndromes, and briefly refer to CD, NF-1, and TSC. CNC is discussed in another article in this journal issue.

  9. Predisposal of Radioactive Waste from NPP 1000 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryantoro

    2007-01-01

    Predisposal of radioactive waste from NPP 1000 MW which was planned to be operated in 2016 has been conducted. In this study NPP applying PWR type was assumed. This assessment comprises all aspects of radioactive waste coming from NPP. One through cycle was chosen consequently no reprocessing step will be conducted. The assessment shows that technologically all radioactive waste treatment process rising from NPP operation has similarities to the existing radioactive waste process conducted by RWI which has lower scale of waste amount. (author)

  10. Predisposing genes in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Huusko, P. (Pia)

    1999-01-01

    Abstract In the present study, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, the two major genes predisposing individuals to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, were screened in Finnish and Turkish cancer families. Germline BRCA1 mutations were found in 7% (6/88) and BRCA2 mutations in 6% (5/88) of the Finnish families studied in Oulu. Two distinct BRCA1 (3745delT, 4216nt-2A→G) and three BRCA2 (999delTCAAA, 6503delTT, 9346nt-2A→G) mutations were identified, all of which are recurrently found in Finland....

  11. Frequency, predisposing factors and fetomaternal outcome in uterine rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the frequency and to analyze the predisposing factors, maternal and fetal outcome of uterine rupture. All cases of ruptured uterus, who were either admitted with or who developed this complication in the hospital, were included in the study. Demographic data, details regarding the most probable predisposing factor, type of rupture, the management and maternal and fetal outcome were taken into consideration for analysis.During three years, total number of deliveries was 18668, and there were 103 cases of uterine rupture (0.55%).Out of these, only 13 (12.62%) patients were booked. Most of the patients presented between the ages of 26-30 years (42.71%). Majority of ruptures occurred in para 2-4 (44.66%). Fifty five cases (53.39%) had a previous caesarean section scar. In 68 (66.01%) cases, the tear was located in lower uterine segment. In 93 (90.29%) cases, anterior uterine wall was involved. Rupture was complete in 79 (76.69%)cases. Repair of uterus was done in 79 (76.69%) cases. Hysterectomy was performed in 24 (23.30%) cases. There were 8 (7.76% or 77.66/1000) maternal deaths and 85 (81.73% or 825 / 1000) perinatal deaths.This study confirms high frequency of such serious preventable obstetrical problem which can lead to high fetomaternal mortality. Rupture of caesarean section scar was the most common cause of uterine rupture found in this series. (author)

  12. Predisposing Factors in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebicka, J.

    2016-01-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a syndrome with high short-term mortality in patients with chronic liver disease. The definition of ACLF has been addressed recently in many publications, and despite regional differences the number and severity of organ failures are decisive for the prese......Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a syndrome with high short-term mortality in patients with chronic liver disease. The definition of ACLF has been addressed recently in many publications, and despite regional differences the number and severity of organ failures are decisive...... hypertension might predispose for the development of ACLF after proper injury and response. © 2016 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc....

  13. Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Animals: Incidence, Economics, and Predisposing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kr. Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the incidence and economics of subclinical form of bovine mastitis in Central Region of India. Daily milk records of 187 animals during three seasons were collected and subjected to analysis. The economic loss due to reduction in yield, clinical expenses, and additional resources used were quantified and aggregated. The losses due to mastitis in monetary terms were estimated to be INR1390 per lactation, among which around 49% was owing to loss of value from milk and 37% on account of veterinary expenses. Higher losses were observed in crossbred cows due to their high production potential that was affected during mastitis period. The cost of treating an animal was estimated to be INR509 which includes cost of medicine (31.10% and services (5.47%. Inadequate sanitation, hygiene, and veterinary services were the main predisposing factors for incidence and spread of mastitis as perceived by the respondents.

  14. Macrolide antibiotics allosterically predispose the ribosome for translation arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothiselvam, Shanmugapriya; Liu, Bo; Han, Wei; Ramu, Haripriya; Klepacki, Dorota; Atkinson, Gemma Catherine; Brauer, Age; Remm, Maido; Tenson, Tanel; Schulten, Klaus; Vázquez-Laslop, Nora; Mankin, Alexander S

    2014-07-08

    Translation arrest directed by nascent peptides and small cofactors controls expression of important bacterial and eukaryotic genes, including antibiotic resistance genes, activated by binding of macrolide drugs to the ribosome. Previous studies suggested that specific interactions between the nascent peptide and the antibiotic in the ribosomal exit tunnel play a central role in triggering ribosome stalling. However, here we show that macrolides arrest translation of the truncated ErmDL regulatory peptide when the nascent chain is only three amino acids and therefore is too short to be juxtaposed with the antibiotic. Biochemical probing and molecular dynamics simulations of erythromycin-bound ribosomes showed that the antibiotic in the tunnel allosterically alters the properties of the catalytic center, thereby predisposing the ribosome for halting translation of specific sequences. Our findings offer a new view on the role of small cofactors in the mechanism of translation arrest and reveal an allosteric link between the tunnel and the catalytic center of the ribosome.

  15. A Retrospective Analysis of Neonatal Encephalocele Predisposing Factors and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucetas, Seyho Cem; Uçler, Necati

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the predisposing factors and outcomes of surgical management of encephaloceles at our institution. A retrospective analysis of 32 occipital encephaloceles managed operatively at the Neurosurgery Department Clinics of the Faculty of Medicine, Adıyaman University, was performed between 2011 and 2015. Among the study population, 19 mothers had been exposed to TORCH infections (toxoplasma, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus), 18 were in consanguineous marriages, and 3 had regular prenatal screening. Associated congenital anomalies were common. Eight infants required reoperation, and 9 died during follow-up. The study identified key areas for prevention. Knowledge of the intracranial and associated anomalies can guide management. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. A parametric model for analyzing anticipation in genetically predisposed families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus; Petersen, Janne; Bernstein, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Anticipation, i.e. a decreasing age-at-onset in subsequent generations has been observed in a number of genetically triggered diseases. The impact of anticipation is generally studied in affected parent-child pairs. These analyses are restricted to pairs in which both individuals have been affected....... The suggested model corrects for incomplete observations and considers families rather than affected pairs and thereby allows for studies of large sample sets, facilitates subgroup analyses and provides generation effect estimates.......)/Lynch syndrome family cohort from the national Danish HNPCC register. Age-at-onset was analyzed in 824 individuals from 2-4 generations in 125 families with proved disease-predisposing mutations. A significant effect from anticipation was identified with a mean of 3 years earlier age-at-onset per generation...

  17. Inadequate doses of hemodialysis. Predisposing factors, causes and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pehuén Fernández

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving sub-optimal dose of hemodialysis have increased morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to identify predisposing factors and causes of inadequate dialysis, and to design a practical algorithm for the management of these patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Ninety patients in chronic hemodialysis at Hospital Privado Universitario de Córdoba were included, during September 2015. Twenty two received sub-optimal dose of hemodialysis. Those with urea distribution volume (V greater than 40 l (72 kg body weight approximately are 11 times more likely (OR = 11.6; CI 95% = 3.2 to 51.7, p < 0.0001 to receive an inadequate dose of hemodialysis, than those with a smaller V. This situation is more frequent in men (OR = 3.5; 95% CI 1.01-15.8; p = 0.0292. V greater than 40 l was the only independent predictor of sub-dialysis in the multivariate analysis (OR = 10.3; 95% CI 2.8-37; p < 0.0004. The main cause of suboptimal dialysis was receiving a lower blood flow (Qb than the prescribed (336.4 ± 45.8 ml/min vs. 402.3 ± 28.8 ml/min respectively, p < 0.0001 (n = 18. Other causes were identified: shorter duration of the session (n = 2, vascular access recirculation (n = 1, and error in the samples (n = 1. In conclusion, the only independent predisposing factor found in this study for sub-optimal dialysis is V greater than 40 l. The main cause was receiving a slower Qb than prescribed. From these findings, an algorithm for the management of these patients was developed

  18. Acyclovir prophylaxis predisposes to antiviral-resistant recurrent herpetic keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Monique; van de Vijver, David A M C; van Loenen, Freek B; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Remeijer, Lies; Verjans, Georges M G M

    2013-11-01

    Long-term acyclovir (ACV) prophylaxis, recommended to prevent recurrent herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ocular disorders, may pose a risk for ACV-refractory disease due to ACV resistance. We determined the effect of ACV prophylaxis on the prevalence of corneal ACV-resistant (ACV(R)) HSV-1 and clinical consequences thereof in patients with recurrent HSV-1 keratitis (rHK). Frequencies of ACV(R) viruses were determined in 169 corneal HSV-1 isolates from 78 rHK patients with a history of stromal disease. The isolates' ACV susceptibility profiles were correlated with clinical parameters to identify risk factors predisposing to ACV(R) rHK. Corneal HSV-1 isolates with >28% ACV(R) viruses were defined as ACV(R) isolates. Forty-four isolates (26%) were ACV-resistant. Multivariate analyses identified long-term ACV prophylaxis (≥12 months) (odds ratio [OR] 3.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-8.87) and recurrence duration of ≥45 days (OR 2.23; 95% CI, 1.02-4.87), indicative of ACV-refractory disease, as independent risk factors for ACV(R) isolates. Moreover, a corneal ACV(R) isolate was a risk factor for ACV-refractory disease (OR 2.28; 95% CI, 1.06-4.89). The data suggest that long-term ACV prophylaxis predisposes to ACV-refractory disease due to the emergence of corneal ACV(R) HSV-1. ACV-susceptibility testing is warranted during follow-up of rHK patients.

  19. Pathogenesis of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: predisposing anatomy and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitry, Danny; Fleck, Brian W; Wright, Alan F; Campbell, Harry; Charteris, David G

    2010-01-01

    The pathogenesis of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is complex, and our knowledge of the exact mechanism of vitreoretinal attachment and detachment remains incomplete. We performed a Medline, Ovid, and EMBASE search using search words rhegmatogenous, retinal detachment, vitreous, and retinal adhesion. All appropriate articles were reviewed, and the evidence was compiled. Cortical vitreous contains fibrillar collagens type II, V/XI, and IX. The inner limiting membrane of the retina contains collagens type I, IV, VI, and XVIII as well as numerous other glycoproteins and potential adhesion molecules. The distribution and age-related changes in the structure of these molecules play an important role in the formation of a retinal break, which may compromise and disrupt the normal mechanisms of neurosensory retinal adhesion. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment development is intimately related to changes in the fibrillar structure of the aging vitreous culminating in posterior vitreous detachment with regions of persistent and tangential vitreoretinal traction predisposing to retinal tear formation. A complex interplay of factors such as weakening of vitreoretinal adhesion, posterior migration of the vitreous base, and molecular changes at the vitreoretinal interface are important in predisposing to focal areas of vitreoretinal traction precipitating rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Once formed, the passage of liquefied vitreous through a retinal break may overwhelm normal neurosensory-retinal pigment epithelium adhesion perpetuating and extending detachment and causing visual loss. To understand the molecular events underlying rhegmatogenous retinal detachment so that new therapies can be developed, it is important to appreciate the structural organization of the vitreous, the biology underlying vitreous liquefaction and posterior vitreous detachment, and the mechanisms of vitreoretinal attachment and detachment.

  20. Ankle sprain: pathophysiology, predisposing factors, and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia J Hubbard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Tricia J Hubbard, Erik A WikstromUNC Charlotte, Department of Kinesiology, CharlotteAbstract: With the high percentage (up to 75% of initial lateral ankle sprains (LAS leading to repetitive sprains and chronic symptoms, it is imperative to better understand how best to treat and rehabilitate LAS events. The purpose of this paper is to review LAS pathophysiology, predisposing factors, and the current evidence regarding therapeutic modalities and exercises used in the treatment of LAS. Functional rehabilitation, early mobilization with support, is the current standard of care for LAS. However, the high percentage of reinjury occurrence and development of chronic symptoms (up to 75% after a LAS, suggests the current standard of care may not be effective. Recent evidence has shown the need for more stringent immobilization to facilitate ligament healing and restoration of joint stability and function after a LAS. Additionally, the importance of adding adjunctive therapies, specifically joint mobilizations and balance training have been shown to improve function and decrease the incidence of reinjury after a LAS. Modifying current rehabilitation protocols to include protecting the ankle joint with stringent immobilization, and including joint mobilizations and balance training may be the first step to decreasing the incidence of short and long term ankle joint dysfunction.Keywords: rehabilitation, recurrent sprains, chronic ankle instability (CAI

  1. Safety issues in established predisposal waste management practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive wastes generated at various stages in the nuclear fuel cycle vary considerably in relation to volume, physical and chemical properties, and radioactivity. The management of these wastes prior to disposal has to be adapted to these conditions, which calls for suitable characterization and minimization, collection, interim storage and conditioning of the wastes. Experience gained over decades shows that current predisposal waste management practices are well advanced. Whereas problems related to inadequate waste management practices in the past have been encountered at several sites and need ongoing remedial actions, modern practices have good safety records. Considerable development and improvement of waste management practices have been achieved and as a consequence of delays in implementing repositories in several countries they remain important tasks. Decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities also have to be taken into account. In most cases, these activities can be performed using existing technical means and practices. No significant safety concerns have been found for the long term storage of spent fuel and vitrified waste. Dry storage has reached technical maturity and appears to be attractive, especially for aged fuel. It has, however, to be stressed that long term storage is not the ultimate solution. Continued efforts to implement repositories are mandatory in order to maintain a credible and responsible strategy for waste management. (author)

  2. FOXE3 mutations predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Medina-Martinez, Olga; Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S.; Reynolds, Corey L.; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Prakash, Siddharth K.; Kwartler, Callie S.; Zhu, Lawrence Yang; Peters, Andrew M.; Duan, Xue-Yan; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Debbie A.; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Dong, Xiurong; Leal, Suzanne M.; Majesky, Mark W.; Swindell, Eric C.; Jamrich, Milan; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2016-01-01

    The ascending thoracic aorta is designed to withstand biomechanical forces from pulsatile blood. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections (TAADs) occur as a result of genetically triggered defects in aortic structure and a dysfunctional response to these forces. Here, we describe mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXE3 that predispose mutation-bearing individuals to TAAD. We performed exome sequencing of a large family with multiple members with TAADs and identified a rare variant in FOXE3 with an altered amino acid in the DNA-binding domain (p.Asp153His) that segregated with disease in this family. Additional pathogenic FOXE3 variants were identified in unrelated TAAD families. In mice, Foxe3 deficiency reduced smooth muscle cell (SMC) density and impaired SMC differentiation in the ascending aorta. Foxe3 expression was induced in aortic SMCs after transverse aortic constriction, and Foxe3 deficiency increased SMC apoptosis and ascending aortic rupture with increased aortic pressure. These phenotypes were rescued by inhibiting p53 activity, either by administration of a p53 inhibitor (pifithrin-α), or by crossing Foxe3–/– mice with p53–/– mice. Our data demonstrate that FOXE3 mutations lead to a reduced number of aortic SMCs during development and increased SMC apoptosis in the ascending aorta in response to increased biomechanical forces, thus defining an additional molecular pathway that leads to familial thoracic aortic disease. PMID:26854927

  3. A functional variant in ERAP1 predisposes to multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Rosa Guerini

    Full Text Available The ERAP1 gene encodes an aminopeptidase involved in antigen processing. A functional polymorphism in the gene (rs30187, Arg528Lys associates with susceptibility to ankylosying spondylitis (AS, whereas a SNP in the interacting ERAP2 gene increases susceptibility to another inflammatory autoimmune disorder, Crohn's disease (CD. We analysed rs30187 in 572 Italian patients with CD and in 517 subjects suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS; for each cohort, an independent sex- and age-matched control group was genotyped. The frequency of the 528Arg allele was significantly higher in both disease cohorts compared to the respective control population (for CD, OR = 1.20 95%CI: 1.01-1.43, p = 0.036; for RRMS, OR = 1.26; 95%CI: 1.04-1.51, p = 0.01. Meta-analysis with the Wellcome Trust Cases Control Consortium GWAS data confirmed the association with MS (p(meta = 0.005, but not with CD. In AS, the rs30187 variant has a predisposing effect only in an HLA-B27 allelic background. It remains to be evaluated whether interaction between ERAP1 and distinct HLA class I alleles also affects the predisposition to MS, and explains the failure to provide definitive evidence for a role of rs30187 in CD. Results herein support the emerging concept that a subset of master-regulatory genes underlay the pathogenesis of autoimmunity.

  4. Emphysematous cholecystitis in a young male without predisposing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Yu; Lu, Chen; Wang, Yi-fan; Cai, Xiu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This report describes the diagnosis and treatment for Emphysematous cholecystitis (EC) without predisposing factors, and reviews the current literature. A 49-year-old male without predisposition presented to emergency department with a two-day history of sudden onset abdominal pain, hypertension and received empirical antibiotics with Imipenem/Cilastatin 0.5 g via intravenous route every 8 hours. Computed tomography (CT)-scan revealed that air encircling gallbladder is the most important and accurate evidence for EC diagnosis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed, and no stone was seen in gallbladder. The patient's temperature and pulses returned to normal following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The festering bile culture report showed E.coli and pathological analysis of the resected gallbladder disclosed that necrosis and mild mucosal dysphasia. The patient fully recovered without complication at outpatient clinic visit three months later. The EC is an acute infection of the gallbladder wall caused by gas-forming organisms, is a life-threatening cholecystitis with mortality rate as high as 25%. Therefore, the combination of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and antibiotics is recommended as soon as possible once the diagnosis of EC was a clean-cut. PMID:27858922

  5. Mutations in LRRC50 predispose zebrafish and humans to seminomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander G Basten

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seminoma is a subclass of human testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT, the most frequently observed cancer in young men with a rising incidence. Here we describe the identification of a novel gene predisposing specifically to seminoma formation in a vertebrate model organism. Zebrafish carrying a heterozygous nonsense mutation in Leucine-Rich Repeat Containing protein 50 (lrrc50 also called dnaaf1, associated previously with ciliary function, are found to be highly susceptible to the formation of seminomas. Genotyping of these zebrafish tumors shows loss of heterozygosity (LOH of the wild-type lrrc50 allele in 44.4% of tumor samples, correlating with tumor progression. In humans we identified heterozygous germline LRRC50 mutations in two different pedigrees with a family history of seminomas, resulting in a nonsense Arg488* change and a missense Thr590Met change, which show reduced expression of the wild-type allele in seminomas. Zebrafish in vivo complementation studies indicate the Thr590Met to be a loss-of-function mutation. Moreover, we show that a pathogenic Gln307Glu change is significantly enriched in individuals with seminoma tumors (13% of our cohort. Together, our study introduces an animal model for seminoma and suggests LRRC50 to be a novel tumor suppressor implicated in human seminoma pathogenesis.

  6. Germline BAP1 mutations predispose to malignant mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Joseph R.; Cheung, Mitchell; Pei, Jianming; Below, Jennifer E.; Tan, Yinfei; Sementino, Eleonora; Cox, Nancy J.; Dogan, A. Umran; Pass, Harvey I.; Trusa, Sandra; Hesdorffer, Mary; Nasu, Masaki; Powers, Amy; Rivera, Zeyana; Comertpay, Sabahattin; Tanji, Mika; Gaudino, Giovanni; Yang, Haining; Carbone, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Because only a small fraction of asbestos-exposed individuals develop malignant mesothelioma1, and because mesothelioma clustering is observed in some families1, we searched for genetic predisposing factors. We discovered germline mutations in BAP1 (BRCA1-associated protein 1) in two families with a high incidence of mesothelioma. Somatic alterations affecting BAP1 were observed in familial mesotheliomas, indicating biallelic inactivation. Besides mesothelioma, some BAP1 mutation carriers developed uveal melanoma. Germline BAP1 mutations were also found in two of 26 sporadic mesotheliomas: both patients with mutant BAP1 were previously diagnosed with uveal melanoma. Truncating mutations and aberrant BAP1 expression were common in sporadic mesotheliomas without germline mutations. These results reveal a BAP1-related cancer syndrome characterized by mesothelioma and uveal melanoma. We hypothesize that other cancers may also be involved, and that mesothelioma predominates upon asbestos exposure. These findings will help identify individuals at high risk of mesothelioma who could be targeted for early intervention. PMID:21874000

  7. Sleep deprivation predisposes Gujarati Indian adolescents to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Wasim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recent studies on various populations indicate that lack of sleep is one of the potential risk factors predisposing the youth to obesity. Since there is a significant rise in obesity among Indian youth and because research indicating the role of sleep in development of obesity among Indian population is scant, the current study was undertaken to assess the effect of sleep duration on adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A randomized cross-sectional study was done on 489 voluntarily participating Indian adolescents in the age group of 16-19 years. Participants were grouped into two categories 1. Adequate Sleep Duration at Night (more than seven hours, ASDN and 2 Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night (less than seven hours, IASDN as reported by the participants. The participants were later assessed for adiposity in terms of BMI, BF % , FM, FMI and waist circumference, meal frequency per day and physical activity status. Results: In both boys as well as girls, the BMI, BF%, FM and FMI were significantly lower in the ASDN group than the IASDN group. However, there was an insignificant difference in the meal frequency and physical activity status between the ASDN and IASDN group. Conclusion : Inadequate sleep duration increases adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents but further studies are required to find out the mechanisms through which sleep affects adiposity in this population.

  8. Elastin Insufficiency Predisposes Mice to Impaired Glucose Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarsilis, Antea J; Walji, Tezin A; Maedeker, Justine A; Stoka, Kellie V; Kozel, Beth A; Mecham, Robert P; Wagenseil, Jessica E; Craft, Clarissa S

    2014-10-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome is the consequence of a large contiguous-gene deletion on the seventh human chromosome that includes the elastin gene. Elastin is an extracellular matrix protein responsible for the cardiovascular abnormalities associated with Williams's syndrome, including hypertension and aortic stenosis. A high percentage of individuals with Williams's syndrome also have impaired glucose tolerance, independent of traditional risk factors for diabetes. Here, we show that murine adipose tissue does assemble elastic fibers; however, isolated elastin insufficiency ( Eln +/- ) in mice does not independently influence glucose metabolism or tissue lipid accumulation. Similarly, isolated ApoE deficiency ( ApoE -/- ), a model of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis, does not impair insulin sensitivity. However, Eln +/- ; ApoE -/- double mutant mice exhibit notable hyperglycemia, adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammation of adipose tissue, and ectopic lipid accumulation in liver tissue. Further, Eln +/- ; ApoE -/- mutants have significant impairment of insulin sensitivity by insulin tolerance testing, independent of body weight or diet, suggesting that elastin insufficiency predisposes to metabolic disease in susceptible individuals.

  9. OP-11 DO TRAUMATIC LIFE EVENTS PREDISPOSE CHILDREN TO DEVELOP CONSTIPATION?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rrajindrajith, S.; Devanarayana, N. M.; Rajapakshe, N. N.; Benninga, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The aetiology of functional constipation (FC) in children is not been fully understood.Exposure to physical, emotional and sexual abuse are known to predispose children to develop FC. No paediatric study has evaluated traumatic life events other than abuse as a potential predisposing factor for FC

  10. Evaluation of oral and extra-oral factors predisposing to delusional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients' associated oral factors were significantly correlated as predisposing factors for delusional halitosis (p<0.01) Conclusion: This study shows significant correlation of patients' associated oral factors as the triggering event, which could predispose those individuals who may have underlying psychosomatic tendencies ...

  11. Mineral deficiency predisposes occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Sheetal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to investigate the relationship between blood serum concentrations of macro and micro minerals and development of retention of placenta (ROP in crossbred cattle. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out at Instructional Livestock Farm, Bihar Veterinary College and local Khatals in and around Patna. A total of 20 crossbred cattle (n=10 with normal expulsion of the placenta as control and n=10 with ROP were selected in the present study. Blood samples were collected from these animals and serum was separated and stored in the deep freezer at −20°C till further analysis. The estimation of serum macro-minerals (Ca, P, Ca/P ratio was done by Span diagnostic Kits (Surat, India and trace minerals or micro-minerals (Zn, Cu, and Fe were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer AAS 220. Mean values were compared between both the groups at 0 h (at parturition and 12 h after parturition. Results: The mean values of serum calcium and zinc were found significantly lower in cattle having ROP than control at both 0 h and 12 h after parturition. The mean values of serum Ca and P ratio obtained at 0 hour were significantly lower in ROP groups as compared to control groups and non-significant at 12 h. The mean values of serum inorganic phosphorus, copper and iron was found non-significantly lower in ROP cases as compared to control. Conclusions: Macro and micro mineral deficiency such as calcium, iron, zinc and copper in blood serum may be predisposing factor for the occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred cattle.

  12. Host genetic factors predisposing to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallianpur, Asha R; Levine, Andrew J

    2014-09-01

    The success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in transforming the lives of HIV-infected individuals with access to these drugs is tempered by the increasing threat of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) to their overall health and quality of life. Intensive investigations over the past two decades have underscored the role of host immune responses, inflammation, and monocyte-derived macrophages in HAND, but the precise pathogenic mechanisms underlying HAND remain only partially delineated. Complicating research efforts and therapeutic drug development are the sheer complexity of HAND phenotypes, diagnostic imprecision, and the growing intersection of chronic immune activation with aging-related comorbidities. Yet, genetic studies still offer a powerful means of advancing individualized care for HIV-infected individuals at risk. There is an urgent need for 1) longitudinal studies using consistent phenotypic definitions of HAND in HIV-infected subpopulations at very high risk of being adversely impacted, such as children, 2) tissue studies that correlate neuropathological changes in multiple brain regions with genomic markers in affected individuals and with changes at the RNA, epigenomic, and/or protein levels, and 3) genetic association studies using more sensitive subphenotypes of HAND. The NIH Brain Initiative and Human Connectome Project, coupled with rapidly evolving systems biology and machine learning approaches for analyzing high-throughput genetic, transcriptomic and epigenetic data, hold promise for identifying actionable biological processes and gene networks that underlie HAND. This review summarizes the current state of understanding of host genetic factors predisposing to HAND in light of past challenges and suggests some priorities for future research to advance the understanding and clinical management of HAND in the cART era.

  13. Genetically deprived vitamin D exposure predisposes to atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yap-Hang; Yiu, Kai-Hang; Hai, Jo Jo; Chan, Pak-Hei; Lam, Tai-Hing; Cowling, Ben J; Sham, Pak-Chung; Lau, Chu-Pak; Lam, Karen Siu-Ling; Siu, Chung-Wah; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2017-12-01

    Low vitamin D level is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) and may be implicated in its pathogenesis. We studied single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of vitamin D mechanistic pathways and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels in an age- and gender-matched case-control study (controls without AF: mean age 68.6 ± 8.7 years, female 25%; n = 1019; with AF: mean age 69.7 ± 9.5 years, female 30%; n = 156) recruited from a Chinese clinical cohort of patients with stable coronary artery disease. Twelve SNPs involved in the vitamin D mechanistic pathways were studied [biosynthetic: rs4646536, rs10877012, rs3829251, rs1790349; activation: rs2060793, rs1993116; vitamin D-binding protein (VBP)/group-specific component (GC): rs4588, rs7041, rs2282679, rs1155563; and vitamin D receptor: rs1544410, rs10735810]. A genetic risk score (GRS) (0-8) was constructed from SNPs associated with serum 25(OH)D as a proxy to lifelong vitamin D-deficient state. All 4 SNPs involved in the VBP/GC were significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D (rs4588, P P P = 0.011; rs1155563, P P > 0.05). Vitamin D GRS (points 0-8) generated from these 4 SNPs was independently predictive of serum 25(OH)D [B = 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30-0.79; P D status as denoted by a low GRS (0-3) independently predicted an increased risk of AF, compared to a high GRS (4-8) (odds ratio = 1.848, 95% CI 1.217-2.805; P = 0.004). Genetically deprived vitamin D exposure predisposes to increased AF among patients with coronary artery disease. Whether VBP/GC may alter the risk of AF via alternative mechanisms warrants further studies. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Urological complications after radical hysterectomy: Incidence rates and predisposing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likić-Lađević Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Radical hysterectomy is a surgical approach for stage Ib and IIa of cervical cancer. The incidence of intraoperative injuries of the bladder during radical hysterectomy ranges from 0.4-3.7%. The ureter can be crushed, caught in sutures, transsected, obstructed by angulation, or ischemic by the stippling or periureteric fascia. Vesicovaginal and ureterovaginal fistuls are reported to develop in 0.9-2% of patients after radical abdominal hysterectomy. Fistulas usually become manifested or visible at speculum examination within 14 days following the surgery. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence and predisposing factor of urological complications after radical hysterectomy. Methods. The study included a total of 536 patients with invasive stage Ib to IIb cancer of the cervix uteri who had underwent radical hysterectomy. The special elements considered were: the patient’s age; the International Federation of Ginecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stage after pathohistology; duration of operation; the result of preoperative laboratory tests for diabetes, anemia, hypoproteinemia, or disorders of liver or kidney function; ASA status; postoperative surgical infection. Results. The average age of the patients with complications was 48.68 years. All patients with intraoperative ureteric and bladder injuries had statisticaly significant higher stage of disease and operation lasted more than in others without injury. We noticed 1.3% ureteral injuries and 1.49% bladder injuries, more than 50% of the patients with a previously mentioned injuries were operated on more than 3 hours. We found 2.61% vesicovaginal and 2.43% ureterovaginal fistuls. A total of 50% of the patients with bladder injury and vesicovaginal fistuls and 70% of the patients with ureterovaginal fistuls had diabetes mellitus. Postoperative infection of surgical site is a very important factor for the development of fistule. Half of the patients with vesicovaginal

  15. Predisposing Factors of Ischemic Colitis: Data from 14 Years of Experience in a Single Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Il Seo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. While several case reports on ischemic colitis (IC suggest the presence of predisposing causative factors, a few studies have investigated the predisposing factors in IC. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of patients with IC, particularly focusing on the predisposing factors. Methods. We conducted a single-center, retrospective analysis of 159 patients with IC. Clinical characteristics, laboratory data, endoscopic findings, and medical records were reviewed. Data were compared between groups of patients defined according to the predisposing factors. The predisposing factors are defined as temporary states or episodic events occurring within a week before the development of IC such as colonoscopy, enema, use of laxatives, heavy drinking, pancreatitis, shock, and burn. Results. Compared to the group of patients without predisposing factors of IC, the group of patients with predisposing factors was characterized by a relatively higher prevalence of male sex (56.9% versus 33.3%, p=0.005, younger age (60.9 ± 15.4 versus 67.2 ± 13.4 years, p=0.010, lower incidence of hypertension (43.1% versus 60.2%, p=0.044, and fewer risk factors (1.24 ± 1.18 versus 1.82 ± 1.22, p=0.005. Conclusions. Among men with predisposing factors, IC may develop even at a relatively younger age and in the absence of multiple risk factors, suggesting that predisposing factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of IC.

  16. 32 CFR 644.389 - Army military-modified predisposal procedures where E.O. 11954 surveys have been made.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army military-modified predisposal procedures... (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Predisposal Action § 644.389 Army military—modified predisposal procedures where E.O. 11954 surveys have been made. (a) DEs...

  17. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD) IN GENETICALLY PREDISPOSED RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodent CVD models are increasingly used for understanding individual differences in susceptibility to environmental stressors such as air pollution. We characterized pathologies and a number of known human risk factors of CVD in genetically predisposed, male young adult Spontaneo...

  18. Predisposing factors in posterior circulation infarcts: a vascular morphological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoban, Gökçen; Çifçi, Egemen; Yildirim, Erkan; Ağıldere, Ahmet Muhteşem

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the effect of shape, diameter, elongation and deviation criteria of basilar artery (BA), convergence angle and diameter variations of vertebral arteries, and concurrent chronic diseases on posterior circulation infarcts. Between January 2010 and May 2013, 186 patients who underwent brain and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with suspected cerebrovascular accident and were diagnosed with posterior circulation infarct and 120 infarct negative control subjects were included in this case-control retrospective study. Vertebral artery (VA) and BA diameter, right (R) and left (L) VA angles at the level of bifurcation, and BA elongation-deviation, and shape of BA were assessed in a total of 306 subjects. Ischemic lesions in the posterior circulation were classified according to their anatomical location and vascular perfusion areas. No significant difference was noted between the control and patient groups with respect to BA diameter (p = 0.676). The most effective risk factors for posterior circulation infarcts were as follows: BA elongation of 2 or 3, BA transverse location of 2 or 3, increase in left VA angle, and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. Our results suggest that prominent elongation and deviation, C and J shape of BA, and increased L VA angle may be the predictors of at-risk patients in posterior circulation infarcts. Reporting marked morphological BA and VA variations detected at routine brain MRI will aid in selection of patients. Timely detection and treatment of at-risk patients may be life-saving.

  19. Predisposing factors in posterior circulation infarcts: a vascular morphological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coban, Goekcen; Cifci, Egemen; Yildirim, Erkan; Agildere, Ahmet Muhtesem

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the effect of shape, diameter, elongation and deviation criteria of basilar artery (BA), convergence angle and diameter variations of vertebral arteries, and concurrent chronic diseases on posterior circulation infarcts. Between January 2010 and May 2013, 186 patients who underwent brain and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with suspected cerebrovascular accident and were diagnosed with posterior circulation infarct and 120 infarct negative control subjects were included in this case-control retrospective study. Vertebral artery (VA) and BA diameter, right (R) and left (L) VA angles at the level of bifurcation, and BA elongation-deviation, and shape of BA were assessed in a total of 306 subjects. Ischemic lesions in the posterior circulation were classified according to their anatomical location and vascular perfusion areas. No significant difference was noted between the control and patient groups with respect to BA diameter (p = 0.676). The most effective risk factors for posterior circulation infarcts were as follows: BA elongation of 2 or 3, BA transverse location of 2 or 3, increase in left VA angle, and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. Our results suggest that prominent elongation and deviation, C and J shape of BA, and increased L VA angle may be the predictors of at-risk patients in posterior circulation infarcts. Reporting marked morphological BA and VA variations detected at routine brain MRI will aid in selection of patients. Timely detection and treatment of at-risk patients may be life-saving. (orig.)

  20. Predisposing factors in posterior circulation infarcts: a vascular morphological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coban, Goekcen; Cifci, Egemen; Yildirim, Erkan; Agildere, Ahmet Muhtesem [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Konya (Turkey)

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the effect of shape, diameter, elongation and deviation criteria of basilar artery (BA), convergence angle and diameter variations of vertebral arteries, and concurrent chronic diseases on posterior circulation infarcts. Between January 2010 and May 2013, 186 patients who underwent brain and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with suspected cerebrovascular accident and were diagnosed with posterior circulation infarct and 120 infarct negative control subjects were included in this case-control retrospective study. Vertebral artery (VA) and BA diameter, right (R) and left (L) VA angles at the level of bifurcation, and BA elongation-deviation, and shape of BA were assessed in a total of 306 subjects. Ischemic lesions in the posterior circulation were classified according to their anatomical location and vascular perfusion areas. No significant difference was noted between the control and patient groups with respect to BA diameter (p = 0.676). The most effective risk factors for posterior circulation infarcts were as follows: BA elongation of 2 or 3, BA transverse location of 2 or 3, increase in left VA angle, and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. Our results suggest that prominent elongation and deviation, C and J shape of BA, and increased L VA angle may be the predictors of at-risk patients in posterior circulation infarcts. Reporting marked morphological BA and VA variations detected at routine brain MRI will aid in selection of patients. Timely detection and treatment of at-risk patients may be life-saving. (orig.)

  1. Predisposing, enabling and need correlates of mental health treatment utilization among homeless men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Harmony; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S; Kennedy, David P; Ewing, Brett

    2014-11-01

    There is significant unmet need for mental health treatment among homeless men, but little is known about the correlates of treatment utilization in this population. Within the framework of the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations, this study examines predisposing, enabling and need factors that may be associated with mental health care utilization. Participants were a representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men utilizing meal programs in the Skid Row region of LA. Logistic regression examined the association between predisposing, enabling and need factors and past 30 day mental health service utilization on Skid Row. Results indicated that while need, operationalized as positive screens for posttraumatic stress disorder or depression, was associated with recent mental health care utilization, predisposing and enabling factors were also related to utilization. African-American homeless men, and those men who also reported substance abuse treatment and drop-in center use, had increased odds of reporting mental health care utilization.

  2. Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome predisposing to non-WNT, non-SHH, group 3 medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdeaut, Franck; Miquel, Catherine; Richer, Wilfrid; Grill, Jacques; Zerah, Michel; Grison, Camille; Pierron, Gaelle; Amiel, Jeanne; Krucker, Clementine; Radvanyi, Francois; Brugieres, Laurence; Delattre, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    Medulloblastomas (MB) are classified in four subgroups: the well defined WNT and Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) subgroups, and the less defined groups 3 and 4. They occasionally occur in the context of a cancer predisposition syndrome. While germline APC mutations predispose to WNT MB, germline mutations in SUFU, PTCH1, and TP53 predispose to SHH tumors. We report on a child with a Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) due to a germline deletion in CREBBP, who developed a MB. Biological profilings demonstrate that this tumor belongs to the group 3. RTS may therefore be the first predisposition syndrome identified for non-WNT/non-SHH MB. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Genetic factors predisposing to homosexuality may increase mating success in heterosexuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zietsch, B.P.; Morley, K.I.; Shekar, S.N.; Verweij, K.J.H.; Keller, M.C.; MacGregor, S.; Wright, M.J.; Bailey, J.M.; Martin, N.G.

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that human sexual orientation is genetically influenced, so it is not known how homosexuality, which tends to lower reproductive success, is maintained in the population at a relatively high frequency. One hypothesis proposes that while genes predisposing to

  4. The Influence of Predisposing, Enabling and Need Factors on Condom Use in Ivory Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamini Ngui, Andre

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify key determinants of condom use in Ivory Coast. Data stem from Ivory Coast Demographic Health Survey (DHS) conducted by ORC Macro in 2005 among a representative sample of 9,686 persons aged 15 - 49. Following the behavioral model, we use logistic regression to assess the effect of predisposing,…

  5. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Patients May Be Predisposed to Various Cardiomyopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad T. Chebib

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: Coexistence of ADPKD and cardiomyopathy in our tertiary referral center cohort appears to be higher than expected by chance. We suggest that PKD1 and PKD2 mutations may predispose to primary cardiomyopathies and that genetic interactions may account for the observed coexistence of ADPKD and cardiomyopathies.

  6. Predisposing, Precipitating, Perpetuating, Professional Help, and Prevention Factors of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; Chanko, Cathy

    This report describes an eating disorder as a multi-dimensional physiological, psychological, social, and cultural illness. A chart describing the typical anorexic and bulimic is included which has on its horizontal axis the predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating, professional help, and prevention factors of anorexia nervosa and bulimia. On its…

  7. Distribution of extrahepatic congenital portosystemic shunt morphology in predisposed dog breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bossche, L.; van Steenbeek, F.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314417958; Favier, R.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828742; Kummeling, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828793; Leegwater, P.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074236539; Rothuizen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071276033

    2012-01-01

    Distribution of extrahepatic congenital portosystemic shunt morphology in predisposed dog breeds Lindsay van den Bossche, Frank G van Steenbeek, Robert P Favier, Anne Kummeling, Peter A J Leegwater and Jan Rothuizen For all author emails, please log on. BMC Veterinary Research 2012, 8:112

  8. Nested Inversion Polymorphisms Predispose Chromosome 22q11.2 to Meiotic Rearrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demaerel, Wolfram; Hestand, Matthew S.; Vergaelen, Elfi; Swillen, Ann; López-Sánchez, Marcos; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A.; McDonald-Mcginn, Donna M.; Zackai, Elaine; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Morrow, Bernice E.; Breckpot, Jeroen; Devriendt, Koenraad; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Arango, Celso; Armando, Marco; Bassett, Anne S.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Boot, Erik; Bravo-Sanchez, Marta; Breetvelt, Elemi; Busa, Tiffany; Butcher, Nancy J.; Campbell, Linda E.; Carmel, Miri; Chow, Eva W C; Crowley, T. Blaine; Cubells, Joseph; Cutler, David; Demaerel, Wolfram; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Duijff, Sasja; Eliez, Stephan; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Epstein, Michael P.; Evers, Rens; Fernandez Garcia-Moya, Luis; Fiksinski, Ania; Fraguas, David; Fremont, Wanda; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Garcia-Minaur, Sixto; Golden, Aaron; Gothelf, Doron; Guo, Tingwei; Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.; Heine-Suner, Damian; Hestand, Matthew; Hooper, Stephen R.; Kates, Wendy R.; Kushan, Leila; Laorden-Nieto, Alejandra; Maeder, Johanna; Marino, Bruno; Marshall, Christian R.; McCabe, Kathryn; McDonald-Mcginn, Donna M.; Michaelovosky, Elena; Morrow, Bernice E.; Moss, Edward; Mulle, Jennifer; Murphy, Declan; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Niarchou, Maria; Ornstein, Claudia; Owen, Michael J; Philip, Nicole; Repetto, Gabriela M.; Schneider, Maude; Shashi, Vandana; Simon, Tony J.; Swillen, Ann; Tassone, Flora; Unolt, Marta; Van Amelsvoort, Therese; van den Bree, Marianne B M; Van Duin, Esther; Vergaelen, Elfi; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Vicari, Stefano; Vingerhoets, Claudia; Vorstman, Jacob; Warren, Steve; Weinberger, Ronnie; Weisman, Omri; Weizman, Abraham; Zackai, Elaine; Zhang, Zhengdong; Zwick, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Inversion polymorphisms between low-copy repeats (LCRs) might predispose chromosomes to meiotic non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) events and thus lead to genomic disorders. However, for the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the most common genomic disorder, no such inversions have

  9. Macrosomic Births in Abuja: A Case–Control Study of Predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-06

    Mar 6, 2017 ... Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were performed for various predisposing factors and neonatal outcomes of macrosomic births. Results: The incidence of macrosomia was 77 per 1000 births. Independent predictors of macrosomia were parental high social class (P = 0.000), gestational weight.

  10. Analysis of extrinsic and intrinsic factors that predispose elderly individuals to fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Sionara Tamanini de; Soldera, Cristina Loureiro Chaves; Carli, Geraldo Attilio de; Gomes, Irênio; Resende, Thais de Lima

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of elderly individuals from Porto Alegre - RS, Brazil, to analyze the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that predispose them to the risk of falls and fractures. The study included a random sample of 267 elderly individuals, to whom two balance tests were applied: the Functional Reach Test (FRT) and the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG). The elderly also answered a questionnaire (13 questions divided into four categories) on sociodemographic and health factors. Elderly individuals from both genders (76.8% women), aged between 60 and 90 years (mean = 70.22 years, SD = ± 7.30 years) participated in the study. A statistically significant association (p factors that predispose to the risk of falls and fractures are older age, poor self-perception of eyesight, and poor selfrated health; the extrinsic factors are type of dwelling (living in a house) and a monthly income < one minimum wage.

  11. Anterior Coracoscapular Ligament as a Factor Predisposing to or Protective for Suprascapular Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Mariusz; Wysiadecki, Grzegorz; Topol, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Suprascapular neuropathy is a pathology caused by injury or compression of the suprascapular nerve. As the nerve runs from the anterior to posterior side of the scapula, the hot point where it is most susceptible to both injury and compression is the suprascapular notch. A literature search reveals several potential predisposing morphological factors in this area. However the most recent reports indicate that the structures at the suprascapular notch region may also prevent nerve injury and compression. The role of the anterior coracoscapular ligament (ACSL) remains unclear. While some studies indicate that it may predispose to suprascapular neuropathy, the newest study proposes a protective function. The aim of the article was to review the function of the anterior coracoscapular ligament in the light of the most recent studies. An understanding of the role of the ligament is essential for arthroscopic and other surgical procedures of this area in order to avoid iatrogenic injury of the suprascapular nerve. PMID:28105422

  12. Predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors and the common sense model of illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Tina; Kasch, Helge; Frostholm, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    Background: Various predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors are found to be associated with development of persistent symptoms and disability after whiplash trauma. According to the commonsense model of illness, people use commonsense knowledge to develop individual illness models when...... of precollision sick leave on chronic whiplash? Methods: This presentation will integrate findings from research on predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating factors that are associated with poor outcome after whiplash trauma and propose the common-sense model as a unifying model. Data from a study including 740...... into specific factors in the model we found that negative perception of the whiplash trauma mediated the effect of previous sick leave on future neck pain, sum of indirect effect: 0.017, confidence intervals (0.008;0.028). Conclusion: Previous life experiences have an impact on how people make sense of a health...

  13. Premorbid personality traits in Alzheimer's disease: do they predispose to noncognitive behavioral symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meins, W; Frey, A; Thiesemann, R

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether premorbid personality traits predispose to noncognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Munich Personality Test was used to evaluate caregivers' perception of personality prior to symptom onset in 56 outpatients with probable AD. Caregivers also completed the "mood" and "disturbed behavior" scales of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Geriatric Patients. A neuropsychiatrist rated depressive symptoms on the Cornell Scale for Depression and the occurrence of personality change in four domains according to ICD-10. Under statistical control of confounding variables, results showed a moderate association between (high) premorbid neuroticism, subsequent troublesome behavior, and personality change, on the one hand, and (low) frustration tolerance and depression, on the other. Premorbid personality traits may indeed predispose to subsequent noncognitive symptoms in AD.

  14. Predisposing Effect of Elbow Alignment on the Elbow Fracture Type in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seungcheol; Park, Soo-Sung

    2015-08-01

    Under the hypothesis that the elbow alignment, namely the carrying angle, could predispose individuals to a specific type of pediatric elbow fracture after a fall onto an outstretched arm, we investigated the relationship between radiographic carrying angle and elbow fracture type in children. Retrospective case-control study. Level I pediatric trauma center. We reviewed 374 children who were diagnosed with supracondylar fracture (SCF, n = 208), lateral condylar fracture (LCF, n = 132), and radial neck fracture (RNF, n = 34). The association between the radiographic carrying angle and the fracture type was investigated. To adjust for bias, 2 statistical methods were used: multivariate analysis using a baseline-category logistic model and a case-matching method using propensity score analysis. In the multivariate analysis, with SCF patients set as the baseline category, a more valgus-deviated elbow (increased carrying angle, P = 0.011) predisposed individuals to RNF, whereas a more varus-deviated elbow (decreased carrying angle, P predisposed them to LCF. In the case-matched analysis, there were also significant differences in carrying angles between RNF and case-matched SCF patients (14.3 vs. 11.4 degrees, P = 0.013) and between LCF and case-matched SCF patients (7.7 vs. 11.7 degrees, P fall onto an outstretched elbow, could be a predisposing factor for specific types of pediatric elbow fracture. The results provide the additional information about the injury mechanisms of pediatric elbow fracture and may deepen our understanding of the fractures. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  15. Pengaruh Faktor Predisposing Dan Reinforcing Terhadap Keterampilan Berkomunikasi Waria Dalam Menawarkan Kondom Di Kota Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Rehulina

    2011-01-01

    A group that is classified into high risk of HIV infection related to their behaviour and occupation is sissy. In Medan City, there is 1021 sissy noted by Community Health Movement, of 65% use condom. Condom is one of method to prevent HIV/AIDS. The objective of this research is to analyze the influence of predisposing factor (education, occupation, knowledge, and attitude) and reinforcing factor (health workers, NGO, and KPA sub district workers) on waria’s communication skill of condom...

  16. Predisposing and Precipitating Risk Factors for Suicide Ideations and Suicide Attempts In Young and Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S KHUSHABI

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:To investigate the predisposing and precipitating risk factors for suicide ideations and suicide attempts in young and adolescent females,we tried to introduce a holistic model of suicidal behavior in young and adolescent girls. Methods: This study is based on the survey studies and was cross-sectional. Considering high rates of suicide attempts in provinces of Iran,three provinces (Kermanshah, Hamedan,Ilam which had the highest rates of completed suicide were selected. Then among female high school students (aged 14 to 21 years, in two stages a representative sample was selected by a multi-clusteral and simple randomized sampling methods. The research data were gathered by administering (1 The inventory of predisposing and precipitating factors of suicide, demographic and family characteristics (based on the literature review (2 Symptom Check List (SCL 90-R (3Suicidality Subscale of the Depressive Symptom Index (DSI-SS (4 Center for Epidemiological Studies (CED- SSI (5 Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS and (6 Child Abuse Self Report Scale (CASRS.Then,subjects were characterized by dividing them in to two categories: at risk,and low risk. The scores of 2 categories were analyzed and discussed. Results: Relationships were found between suicide ideations and psychological problems and disorders (especially depression.Also,the students who reported suicide ideation and suicide attempt had a history of being abused. Based on the results,predisposing and precipitating risk factors and also some protective factors of suicide ideations and suicide attempts were found and a theoretical model was presented.Conclusion: Some predisposing,precipitating and protective factors can predict suicide ideation and suicide attempts significantly.

  17. Spontaneous Activity Patterns in Primary Visual Cortex Predispose to Visual Hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajani, Auréliane; Kok, Peter; Kouider, Sid; de Lange, Floris P

    2015-09-16

    According to theoretical frameworks casting perception as inference, vision results from the integration of bottom-up visual input with top-down expectations. Under conditions of strongly degraded sensory input, this may occasionally result in false perceptions in the absence of a sensory signal, also termed "hallucinations." Here, we investigated whether spontaneous prestimulus activity patterns in sensory circuits, which may embody a participant's prior expectations, predispose the observer toward false perceptions. Specifically, we used fMRI to investigate whether the representational content of prestimulus activity in early visual cortex is linked to subsequent perception during a challenging detection task. Human participants were asked to detect oriented gratings of a particular orientation that were embedded in noise. We found two characteristics of prestimulus activity that predisposed participants to hallucinations: overall lower prestimulus activity and a bias in the prestimulus activity patterns toward the to-be-detected (expected) grating. These results suggest that perceptual hallucinations may be due to an imprecise and biased state of sensory circuits preceding sensory evidence collection. When sensory stimulation is strongly degraded, we occasionally misperceive a stimulus when only noise is present: a perceptual hallucination. Using fMRI in healthy participants, we investigated whether the state of early visual cortex preceding stimulus onset predisposes an observer to hallucinations. We found two characteristics of prestimulus activity that predisposed participants to hallucinations: overall lower prestimulus activity and a bias in the prestimulus activity patterns toward the expected grating. These results suggest that perceptual hallucinations are due to an imprecise and biased state of sensory circuits preceding sensation. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3512947-07$15.00/0.

  18. Developing a Pre-disposal radioactive waste management framework for malawi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasi, Ephron

    2016-04-01

    In Malawi, uranium mining and other potential radioactive waste generating activities are on the increase. An elaborate national policy document and strategy on radioactive waste management is however not available. A national policy is important because it provides overall direction and the basis for decision making with respect to the management of radioactive waste in a country. Thus the absence of the national policy creates a gap in the country’s regulatory framework for ensuring safety and protection of people and the environment from sources of ionizing radiation. The present study was undertaken to minimize the impact of this regulatory framework gap by proposing a predisposal radioactive waste management framework for Malawi. This was achieved by analyzing the current and anticipated applications of radioactive materials and activities. The international and national regulatory requirements related to predisposal radioactive waste management were also reviewed and analyzed. The study found out that a predisposal radioactive waste management frame work comprised of onsite management of wastes from hospitals and uranium mining and export of high activity disused sources to supplier or management facilities in nearby countries would be the best for Malawi for now and the next ten years. (au)

  19. CvADH1, a member of short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family, is inducible by gibberellin and sucrose in developing watermelon seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonyul; Kang, Hong-Gyu; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Jinwon; Yim, Jieun; An, Gynheung

    2003-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that control seed formation, we selected a seed-preferential gene (CvADH1) from the ESTs of developing watermelon seeds. RNA blot analysis and in situ localization showed that CvADH1 was preferentially expressed in the nucellar tissue. The CvADH1 protein shared about 50% homology with short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase including ABA2 in Arabidopsis thaliana, stem secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase in Forsythia intermedia, and 3beta-hydroxysterol dehydrogenase in Digitalis lanata. We investigated gene-expression levels in seeds from both normally pollinated fruits and those made parthenocarpic via N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea treatment, the latter of which lack zygotic tissues. Whereas the transcripts of CvADH1 rapidly started to accumulate from about the pre-heart stage in normal seeds, they were not detectable in the parthenocarpic seeds. Treating the parthenogenic fruit with GA(3) strongly induced gene expression, up to the level accumulated in pollinated seeds. These results suggest that the CvADH1 gene is induced in maternal tissues by signals made in the zygotic tissues, and that gibberellin might be one of those signals. We also observed that CvADH1 expression was induced by sucrose in the parthenocarpic seeds. Therefore, we propose that the CvADH1 gene is inducible by gibberellin, and that sucrose plays an important role in the maternal tissues of watermelon during early seed development.

  20. Genetic Variation in Renal Expression of Folate Receptor 1 (Folr1) Gene Predisposes Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats to Metabolic Syndrome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Kožich, V.; Krijt, J.; Sokolová, J.; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Mlejnek, Petr; Šilhavý, Jan; Šimáková, Miroslava; Škop, V.; Trnovská, J.; Kazdová, L.; Kajiya, T.; Wang, J. M.; Kurtz, T. W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2016), s. 335-341 ISSN 0194-911X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-09283S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH12061; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : blood pressure * cysteine * folate receptor 1 * metabolic syndrome X * rats * inbred SHR Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 6.857, year: 2016

  1. Tailor-made diagnosis and therapy of breast cancer for familial predisposed women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenberg-Schwager, M.

    2003-01-01

    Familial predisposed women heterozygous for an inherited mutation in a tumor suppressor gene (such as BRCA1+/- or BRCA2+/-) are at a higher risk for loss of tumor suppressor gene function than normal women and may develop breast cancer (BRCA-/-). For early detection of breast cancer these women are advised to start mammography screening at an early age and at annual intervals. Mammography X-rays were shown to enhance neoplastic transformation and mutation in human cell lines. Based on the mutation data it is estimated that a single mammogram confers loss of BRCA function (BRCA-/-) in at least several thousand breast epithelial target cells of a predisposed woman. BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes belong to a group of genes required for the error-free repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination. This pathway is impaired in BRCA1-/- or BRCA2-/- cells and DSBs are channeled into potentially error-prone pathways such as non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and single-strand annealing (SSA). BRCA-deficient cells show a mutator phenotype characterized by an increasing genetic instability. This seems to be the mechanistic explanation for the enhanced risk of breast cancer in predisposed women. Consequently, for the recommended early and frequent screening of predisposed women the induction of DSBs by mammography X-rays should be avoided. Instead, a diagnostic tool not associated with radiation, such as NM imaging, is preferable, which also provides a significantly higher accuracy than conventional imaging to detect breast cancer in high-risk women. BRCA-deficient cells are extremely sensitive to DNA-DNA crosslinking agents. Experimental evidence suggests that repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks occurs in the S-phase of the cell cycle and DSBs are formed as repair intermediates. These can be repaired by homologous recombination between sister chromatids in normal but not in BRCA-deficient cells. Consequently, DNA crosslinking agents appear to be the tailor

  2. Predisposal management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated in the generation of electricity in nuclear power reactors and in the use of radioactive material in industry, research and medicine. The importance of the safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized. The principles and requirements that govern the safety of the management of radioactive waste are presented in 'The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management', 'Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety' and 'Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, Including Decommissioning'. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide regulatory bodies and the operators that generate and manage radioactive waste with recommendations on how to meet the principles and requirements established in Refs for the predisposal management of LLW. This Safety Guide deals with the safety issues associated with the predisposal management of LLW from nuclear fuel cycle facilities, large research and development installations and radioisotope production facilities. This includes all steps and activities in the management of waste, from its initial generation to its final acceptance at a waste disposal facility or the removal of regulatory control. The predisposal management of radioactive waste includes decommissioning. The term 'decommissioning' encompasses both the process of decommissioning a facility and the management of the waste that results (prior to its disposal). Recommendations on the process of decommissioning are provided in Refs. Recommendations on the management of the waste resulting from decommissioning are included in this Safety Guide. Although the mining and milling of uranium and thorium ores is part of the nuclear fuel cycle, the management of the operational waste (e.g. waste rock, tailings and effluent treatment waste) from these activities is not within the scope of this Safety Guide. The LLW that is

  3. Absence of the predisposing factors and signs and symptoms usually associated with overreaching and overtraining in physical fitness centers

    OpenAIRE

    Ackel-D'Elia,Carolina; Vancini,Rodrigo Luiz; Castelo,Adauto; Nouailhetas,Viviane Louise Andrée; Silva,Antonio Carlos da

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of the well‐known predisposing factors and signs and symptoms usually associated with either overreaching or overtraining syndrome in physical fitness centers in São Paulo City, Brazil. METHOD: A questionnaire consisting of 13 question groups pertaining to either predisposing factors (1‐7) or signs and symptoms (8‐13) was given to 413 subjects. The general training schedule of the volunteers was characterized by workout sessions ...

  4. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae can predispose bighorn sheep to fatal Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Herndon, Caroline N; Subramaniam, Renuka; Lawrence, Paulraj K; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Cassirer, E Frances; Haldorson, Gary J; Foreyt, William J; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Knowles, Donald P; Besser, Thomas E; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-10-26

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae has been isolated from the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS). However experimental reproduction of fatal pneumonia in BHS with M. ovipneumoniae was not successful. Therefore the specific role, if any, of M. ovipneumoniae in BHS pneumonia is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether M. ovipneumoniae alone causes fatal pneumonia in BHS, or predisposes them to infection by Mannheimia haemolytica. We chose M. haemolytica for this study because of its isolation from pneumonic BHS, and its consistent ability to cause fatal pneumonia under experimental conditions. Since in vitro culture could attenuate virulence of M. ovipneumoniae, we used ceftiofur-treated lung homogenates from pneumonic BHS lambs or nasopharyngeal washings from M. ovipneumoniae-positive domestic sheep (DS) as the source of M. ovipneumoniae. Two adult BHS were inoculated intranasally with lung homogenates while two others received nasopharyngeal washings from DS. All BHS developed clinical signs of respiratory infection, but only one BHS died. The dead BHS had carried leukotoxin-positive M. haemolytica in the nasopharynx before the onset of this study. It is likely that M. ovipneumoniae colonization predisposed this BHS to fatal infection with the M. haemolytica already present in this animal. The remaining three BHS developed pneumonia and died 1-5 days following intranasal inoculation with M. haemolytica. On necropsy, lungs of all four BHS showed lesions characteristic of bronchopneumonia. M. haemolytica and M. ovipneumoniae were isolated from the lungs. These results suggest that M. ovipneumoniae alone may not cause fatal pneumonia in BHS, but can predispose them to fatal pneumonia due to M. haemolytica infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Technical Note: Assessing predictive capacity and conditional independence of landslide predisposing factors for shallow landslide susceptibility models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pereira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the landslide predisposing factors' combination using a bivariate statistical model that best predicts landslide susceptibility. The best model is one that has simultaneously good performance in terms of suitability and predictive power and has been developed using variables that are conditionally independent. The study area is the Santa Marta de Penaguião council (70 km2 located in the Northern Portugal.

    In order to identify the best combination of landslide predisposing factors, all possible combinations using up to seven predisposing factors were performed, which resulted in 120 predictions that were assessed with a landside inventory containing 767 shallow translational slides. The best landslide susceptibility model was selected according to the model degree of fitness and on the basis of a conditional independence criterion. The best model was developed with only three landslide predisposing factors (slope angle, inverse wetness index, and land use and was compared with a model developed using all seven landslide predisposing factors.

    Results showed that it is possible to produce a reliable landslide susceptibility model using fewer landslide predisposing factors, which contributes towards higher conditional independence.

  6. Bowel Angioedema Associated With Iodinated Contrast Media: Incidence and Predisposing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Nieun; Chung, Yong Eun; Lim, Joon Seok; Song, Mi Kyung; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Kim, Ki Whang

    2017-09-01

    Bowel angioedema is an acute adverse reaction to iodinated contrast media (CM) that involves the gastrointestinal tract. We aimed to investigate the incidence and predisposing factors of iodinated CM-associated bowel angioedema during computed tomography (CT) examinations. This study was approved by our institutional review board, and informed consent was waived due to its retrospective design. From July 2013 to July 2015, adult patients with a history of adverse reactions to iodinated CM during CT (group A, n = 427) and patients without adverse reactions matched for age and sex with the propensity-score matching method (group B, n = 427) were studied. Contrast media-associated bowel angioedema was determined when bowel wall thickness increased after contrast enhancement compared with the precontrast scan. Potential predisposing factors including patient demographics, symptoms and time of adverse reactions, and CM-related factors were compared between patients with and without angioedema in group A. In addition, the incidence of bowel angioedema was compared between groups A and B. The incidence of CM-associated bowel angioedema in group A was 3.3% (14/427) in the per-patient analysis and 2.6% (15/578) in the per-examination analysis. The CM-associated bowel angioedema involved the distal duodenum and/or proximal jejunum and showed long-segmental circumferential bowel wall thickening on CT. None of the studied predisposing factors was different between patients with and without bowel angioedema (P > 0.05). The incidence of CM-associated bowel angioedema in group B was 1.9% (8/427) and 1.7% (8/458) for per-patient and per-examination analyses, respectively, and these rates were not significantly different between groups A and B (P = 0.346 and P = 0.370, respectively). The incidence of CM-associated bowel angioedema during CT was 1.7% to 3.3%, and none of the studied predisposing factors was associated with bowel angioedema.

  7. The role of pollen in chalkbrood disease in Apis mellifera: transmission and predisposing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, J M; Gutiérrez, I; Espejo, R

    2005-01-01

    Chalkbrood in honeybees (Apis mellifera L. Himenoptera: Apidae) is a fungal disease caused by Ascosphaera apis (Maassen ex Claussen) Olive and Spiltoir. This disease requires the presence of fungal spores and a predisposing condition in the susceptible brood for the disease to develop. In this study we examined the role of pollen in the development of chalkbrood disease under two experimental conditions: (i) pollen combs were transferred from infected to uninfected beehives and (ii) colonies were deprived of adequate pollen supplies to feed the brood. The results of both treatments confirmed that pollen is an element that should be taken into account when controlling this honeybee disease.

  8. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: do predisposing risk factors make a difference in MRI appearance?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Mang, Christina; Mang, Thomas; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Pirker, Agnes [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Klein, Katharina [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vienna (Austria); Prchla, Christine [SMZ-Ost Danube Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-06-15

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-neuroradiological entity, characterized by typical neurological deficits, distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, and a usually benign clinical course. Although frequently seen in association with hypertensive conditions, many other predisposing factors, notably cytotoxic and immunosuppressant drugs have been associated with PRES. The aim of this study was to determine differences in the MR appearance of PRES according to various risk factors. Thirty consecutive patients with clinical and MRI findings consistent with PRES were included. We identified 24 patients with hypertension-related conditions, including 14 patients with preeclampsia-eclampsia, and six patients without hypertension, in whom PRES was associated with exposition to neurotoxic substances. Lesion distribution, extent of disease, and number of affected brain regions were compared between patients with PRES with and without hypertension, and patients with PRES with and without preeclampsia-eclampsia, respectively. No statistically significant differences in distribution of lesions and extent of disease were observed between patients with PRES with or without hypertension, and patients with or without preeclampsia-eclampsia, respectively. The number of affected brain regions was significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia-eclampsia (p = 0.046), and the basal ganglia region was more frequently involved in these patients (p = 0.066). Apart from a significant higher number of involved brain regions and a tendency for basal ganglia involvement in patients with PRES associated with preeclampsia-eclampsia, the MRI appearance of patients with PRES does not seem to be influenced by predisposing risk factors. (orig.)

  9. Prevalence and Predisposing Factors of Pediculosis Capitis on Elementary School Students at Jatinangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arani Karimah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediculosis capitis is a lice infestation on scalp with high prevalence on the age of elementary school students. It is one of neglected diseases. Predisposing factors such as hair type and length, self higienities, and sosioeconomic can influence prevalence of pediculosis capitis. The aim of the study was to reveal pediculosis capitis prevalence and its predisposing factors on elementary school students at Jatinangor. Methods: This study used cross-sectional descriptive method which conducted in September 2014 at Jatinangor. The study subjects were elementary school students graded 1 to 6 taken from two elementary schools by multistage random sampling technique. Data was presented in a table. Results: The prevalence of pediculosis capitis from 123 study subjects was 55.3%. The prevalence found on girls (81.3%, students with long hair (76.9%, students with curly hair (52.9%, students of third grade (66.7%, students with washing hair three times or more in a week (59.3%, students with mothers only graduated from elementary school (60%, students parents with income less than one million rupiah (63.3%, students staying with four or more persons in the same house (56.3%, and students with having previous this disease (60.2%. Conclusions: Pediculosis capitis prevalence on elementary school students is quite high. The prevalence based on subject characteristics and sosioeconomic is suitable with previous studies.

  10. Metabolic response to three different diets in lean cats and cats predisposed to overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Claudia; Liesegang, Annette; Frey, Diana; Wichert, Brigitta

    2017-06-19

    The existence of a genetic predisposition to obesity is commonly recognized in humans and rodents. Recently, a link between genetics and overweight was shown in cats. The goal of this study was to identify the effect of diet composition on plasma levels of glucose, insulin, free fatty acids and triglycerides in cats receiving different diets (high-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diets). Insulin and leptin concentrations were significantly correlated with phenotype. Insulin levels were lower, whereas leptin levels were higher in cats predisposed to overweight. The other blood parameters were not correlated with phenotype. Intake of the high-carbohydrate diet resulted in higher insulin concentrations compared with the two other diets. Insulin levels were within the values described for non-obese cats in previous studies. There was no difference in metabolic response between the two groups. As the high-carbohydrate diet led to the highest insulin blood concentrations, it might be useful to avoid such diets in cats predisposed to overweight. In addition, even cats with genetically linked obesity can regain insulin sensitivity after weight loss.

  11. Primary Otomycosis in the Indian Subcontinent: Predisposing Factors, Microbiology, and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Chandra Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To define otomycosis and determine the predisposing factors and microbiology in primary otomycosis. Study Design. Prospective study of two years and review of the literature. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology in a coastal city in India. Patients. 150 immunocompetent individuals of whom 100 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of otomycosis are considered as the study group and 50 consecutive patients with no otomycosis are considered as the control group. Results and Observations. Instillation of coconut oil (42%, use of topical antibiotic eardrops (20%, and compulsive cleaning of external ear with hard objects (32% appeared to be the main predisposing factors in otomycosis. Aspergilli were the most common isolates (80% followed by Penicillium (8%, Candida albicans (4%, Rhizopus (1%, and Chrysosporium (1%, the last being reported for the first time in otomycosis. Among aspergilli, A. niger complex (38% was the most common followed by A. fumigatus complex (27% and A. flavus complex (15%. Bacterial isolates associated with fungi in otomycosis were S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and Proteus spp. In 42% of healthy external ears fungi were isolated. Conclusion. Aspergillus spp. were the most common fungi isolated, followed by Penicillium. Otomycotic ears are often associated with bacterial isolates when compared to normal ears. Fungi are also present in a significant number of healthy external auditory canals and their profiles match those in cases of otomycosis. The use of terms “primary” and “secondary” otomycosis is important to standardize reporting.

  12. OP-11 DO TRAUMATIC LIFE EVENTS PREDISPOSE CHILDREN TO DEVELOP CONSTIPATION?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rrajindrajith, S; Devanarayana, N M; Rajapakshe, N N; Benninga, M A

    2015-10-01

    The aetiology of functional constipation (FC) in children is not been fully understood.Exposure to physical, emotional and sexual abuse are known to predispose children to develop FC. No paediatric study has evaluated traumatic life events other than abuse as a potential predisposing factor for FC in children. We aimed to assess the association between traumatic life events and development of FC in children. We conducted a cross sectional, school based study.Children aged 13-18 years were selected from four semi-urban schools in the Gampaha district, Sri Lanka. A validated, self-administered questionnaires were used for collect data on functional gastrointestinal disease and traumatic life events. FC was defined using the Rome III criteria. A total of1792 children were included in the analysis [males 975 (54.4%), mean age 14.4 years, SD 1.3 yearsyears]. Out of them, 138(7.7%) had FC. Prevalence of FC was significantly higher in those exposed to traumatic life events compared to controls (53.6% vs.32.9%,p children to develop FC. Parental substance abuse (12.8% vs. 7.4%), domestic violence (14.8 vs. 7.5%) were not associated with FC (p > 0.05). FC is associated with childhoodtraumatic experiences. This provides further insight intohow traumatic childhood events are associated withdevelopment and perpetuation of FC in children.

  13. Nested Inversion Polymorphisms Predispose Chromosome 22q11.2 to Meiotic Rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaerel, Wolfram; Hestand, Matthew S; Vergaelen, Elfi; Swillen, Ann; López-Sánchez, Marcos; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine; Emanuel, Beverly S; Morrow, Bernice E; Breckpot, Jeroen; Devriendt, Koenraad; Vermeesch, Joris R

    2017-10-05

    Inversion polymorphisms between low-copy repeats (LCRs) might predispose chromosomes to meiotic non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) events and thus lead to genomic disorders. However, for the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the most common genomic disorder, no such inversions have been uncovered as of yet. Using fiber-FISH, we demonstrate that parents transmitting the de novo 3 Mb LCR22A-D 22q11.2 deletion, the reciprocal duplication, and the smaller 1.5 Mb LCR22A-B 22q11.2 deletion carry inversions of LCR22B-D or LCR22C-D. Hence, the inversions predispose chromosome 22q11.2 to meiotic rearrangements and increase the individual risk for transmitting rearrangements. Interestingly, the inversions are nested or flanking rather than coinciding with the deletion or duplication sizes. This finding raises the possibility that inversions are a prerequisite not only for 22q11.2 rearrangements but also for all NAHR-mediated genomic disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Does nonalcoholic fatty liver disease predispose patients to hepatocellular carcinoma in the absence of cirrhosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Grace; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Petrovic, Lydia M; Chejfec, Gregorio; Layden, Thomas J; Cotler, Scott J

    2008-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is recognized as a complication of cirrhosis related to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Diabetes and the metabolic syndrome are also associated with HCC. However, it is not clear whether NAFLD predisposes patients to HCC in the absence of cirrhosis. To seek evidence that HCC can develop in NAFLD unaccompanied by cirrhosis. Retrospective case study was performed on cases from 2004 to 2007 at the University of Illinois at Chicago Medical Center, using the key words hepatocellular carcinoma, liver explant, and liver resection. The diagnosis of HCC was identified and confirmed by hematoxylin-eosin-stained slides in 50 cases. Cause of liver disease was determined by review of liver histology, clinical history, and laboratory data. Three patients presented with advanced HCC with features of metabolic syndrome, including an elevated body mass index. Each patient had bland steatosis on liver biopsy, without fibrosis or cirrhosis. None of the 3 patients had evidence of any cause for liver disease other than NAFLD. The cases presented here suggest that NAFLD may predispose patients to HCC in the absence of cirrhosis. Further studies are needed to confirm this potentially important observation.

  15. Study of Personality Disorders Among Fertile and Infertile Women and Some Predisposing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Noorbala

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine prevalence and predisposing factors of personality disorders among infertile in comparison to fertile women. Materials and Methods:  By a descriptive- analytic study in Vali-e-asr Reproductive Health Research Center, 300 women entered the research.  Eysenck personality (EPQ and structured researcher questionnaires were applied for all patients. Demographic characteristics and predisposing personality factors were recorded and personality symptoms were scaled. For data analysis, SPSS-11-5 software system, chi-square and T-test were used.  P-value <0.05 was considered significant.Results: Based on EPQ, personality instability was significantly more frequent in infertile women in comparison to fertile women (P<0.001. Housewives are at higher risk of developing personality instability as compared to working women. This finding was also statistically significant (P<0.001. Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of personality disorders among infertile women, it seems that more serious attention is required from gynecologists, psychiatrists and psychologists for better treatment of these disorders. The use of psychotherapy, especially supportive methods, should be considered as part of the general therapeutic framework of infertility.

  16. Predisposing factors and consequences of occupational status for long-term unemployed youth: a longitudinal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, P A

    1999-02-01

    In a longitudinal study, long-term unemployed youth were assessed at T1 on measures of psychological health (self-esteem and psychological distress), general ability and literacy levels. At T2, three occupational groups were established (those employed at T2, those continuously unemployed between T1-T2 and those unemployed at T2 who had been in the paid work force between T1-T2). These three groups were examined, first in relation to predisposing factors for occupational status, and second in relation to psychological health consequences of occupational status. Psychological health was not identified as a predictor of occupational status. Reductions in psychological distress occurred at T2 for the employed group only. No changes occurred in self-esteem for any group. General ability, literacy levels and length of unemployment were identified as predisposing factors for occupational status. Those with higher general ability, better literacy and shorter periods of unemployment at T1 were more likely to be employed at T2. Copyright 1999 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  17. Trematode infections in pregnant ewes can predispose to mastitis during the subsequent lactation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogianni, V S; Papadopoulos, E; Spanos, S A; Mitsoura, A; Ptochos, S; Gougoulis, D A; Barbagianni, M S; Kyriazakis, I; Fthenakis, G C

    2014-02-01

    Objective was to investigate if trematode infections predispose ewes to mastitis and/or metritis. We used 80 trematode-infected ewes: primigravidae in group P-A and multigravidae in M-A remained untreated, primigravidae in P-B and multigravidae in M-B were drenched with netobimin and multigravidae in M-C were given rafoxanide. We collected faecal samples for parasitological examination, blood samples for β-hydroxybutyrate concentration measurement and uterine content, teat duct material and milk samples for bacteriological examination. We found significant differences in blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations between M-A, M-B and M-C during pregnancy (P ⩽ 0.002). We did not observe significant differences between groups regarding development of metritis (P>0.83). We found that for M-A, M-B and M-C ewes, respectively, median time to first case of mastitis was 5.75, 21 and 6.75 days after lambing (P = 0.003) and incidence risk of mastitis was 0.308, 0.069 and 0.222 (P = 0.047). We postulate that trematode infections predispose ewes to mastitis; perhaps, increased β-hydroxybutyrate blood concentrations adversely affect mammary cellular defences. This is the first report associating parasitic infections with mastitis in sheep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Epidemiological characteristics, predisposing factors and microbiological profiles of infectious corneal ulcers: the Portsmouth corneal ulcer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Y W; Boase, D L; Cree, I A

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the epidemiological characteristics, predisposing factors, and the clinical and microbiological diagnosis of infectious corneal ulcers in a population based in southern England. A retrospective review was undertaken of the medical records of patients presenting with infectious corneal ulcers at the eye casualty department of Queen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth, UK, between January 1997 and December 2003. A total of 1786 patients presented with infectious corneal ulcers, with a mean age of 45 years and female predominance (54.5%). Contact lens wear was the main predisposing factor in 554 patients (31%). Corneal scrapes from 1254 patients grew positive cultures in 800 patients. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 696 (71.1%) of the total 979 bacterial isolates, while Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 283 (28.9%) with the predominance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Nine out of 11 patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis were contact lens wearers. The majority of patients 1728 (96.8%) sought medical help more than once and 34 patients (1.9%) had poor visual outcome. Follow-up was completed in 1633 patients (91.4%) with an average of 11.5 days. Wearing contact lenses remains the most important risk factor for infectious corneal ulcers. Reduction of the rate and severity of infectious keratitis requires continuous education of patients, and of professionals.

  19. Primary Candida guilliermondii Infection of the Knee in a Patient without Predisposing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gun Woo Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated primary candidal infection of joint is extremely rare, with only a few reported cases. It occurs as a result of accidental implantations of fungus during traumatic procedures, such as surgery, and is usually reported in patients with predisposing factors such as immunosuppression, malignancy, and drug abuse. If left untreated, irreversible deformity and pain with severe osteoarticular destruction occur. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment are important. This paper presents a case of 72-year-old man with primary C. guilliermondii infection of knee joint without predisposing factors and previous traumatic procedures, who was misdiagnosed with advanced degenerative osteoarthritis. Our case is the second case of primary C. guilliermondii arthritis of knee to be reported in the English-language literature and the first to be successfully treated with total knee arthroplasty following IV amphotericin B and oral fluconazole. Primary candidal infection of joint is generally asymptomatic or involves only mild pain and swelling in the affected knee. Thus, although the majority of knee joint infections are of a pyogenic or tuberculous origin, if a patient complains of mild pain and swelling in the knee and has mild signs of infection, the possibility of fungal infection should be considered.

  20. The predisposing pathology and clinical characteristics in the Scottish retinal detachment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitry, Danny; Singh, Jaswinder; Yorston, David; Siddiqui, M A Rehman; Wright, Alan; Fleck, Brian W; Campbell, Harry; Charteris, David G

    2011-07-01

    To describe the predisposing pathology and clinical features of all incident cases of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) recruited in Scotland during a 2-year period. Prospective surveillance study of incident cases of RRD. All incident cases of RRD recruited as part of the Scottish Retinal Detachment Study. During a 2-year period, we coordinated a comprehensive system in which every case of primary RRD presenting to 1 of 6 vitreoretinal surgical sites in Scotland was examined and approached for study inclusion. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment incidence, predisposing features, and clinical characteristics. A total of 1202 cases were recruited. Detailed clinical information was available on 1130 (94%) of cases. By causative break, the proportions of RRD were horseshoe tear (HST) associated with posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) in 86.2%, giant retinal tear (GRT) and PVD in 1.3%, non-PVD round hole (RH) in 4.9%, retinal dialysis in 5.9%, and retinoschisis RRD in 1.6%. One in 10 cases reported significant ocular trauma. One in 5 cases were pseudophakic. Round hole RRD more frequently presented with multiple retinal breaks compared with HST RRD (67.8% vs. 48.7%; P = 0.003). In PVD-associated RRD, 56.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 53.8-58.3) of breaks were identified in the superotemporal retina. In non-PVD RRD, 54.6% (95% CI, 47.9-61.1) of breaks were inferotemporal, followed by superotemporal in 34.9% (95% CI, 28.7-41.5). Lattice degeneration was present in 18.7% of affected eyes and more common in RH RRD (35.7%) than in HST RRD (19.3%) (P = 0.003). Seven percent reported an affected first-degree relative, and these cases were significantly more myopic than nonfamilial cases. More than 85% of RRD cases are associated with PVD and related tractional tears. Non-PVD RH RRD occurred in younger and more myopic individuals. The majority of cases are caused by more than 1 retinal break, and the macula is affected in more than 50% at presentation. Ocular trauma

  1. Metastatic Colon Cancer in an 18-Year-Old without Predisposing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Mirchandani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While colorectal carcinoma is a common gastrointestinal cancer in adults, it is rare in pediatrics with an incidence of 1 : 1,000,000 and represents a fraction of neoplasms encountered in children. Malignant neoplasms represent a major cause of mortality in the pediatric age group. While presenting with weight loss, iron deficiency, rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, and change in bowel habits, or symptoms similar to acute appendicitis, the working diagnosis may be considered to be anorexia. This case illustrates the importance of considering colon cancer among other disease entities as a cause of unintentional weight loss in adolescents. While this is a rare occurrence in the pediatric population, significant unintentional weight loss with altered bowel habits should prompt a search for underlying malignancy—even in the absence of a positive family history or predisposing cancer syndromes.

  2. Do non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or smoking predispose to Helicobacter pylori infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxton, D G; Srivastava, E D; Whorwell, P J; Jones, D M

    1990-09-01

    Susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori infection is a poorly understood phenomenon. This study was undertaken to establish whether either smoking or chronic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) consumption might in some way predispose to H. pylori infection and hence lead to peptic ulceration. Serological evidence of H. pylori infection was assessed in 100 consecutive subjects receiving NSAIDs without any evidence of gastrointestinal upset and 100 matched controls. All subjects had a full assessment of their smoking habits. Sixty-three per cent of patients taking NSAIDs compared to 51% of controls had evidence of H. pylori infection (NS). Smoking habit also had no effect on H. pylori colonization. The ulcerogenic potential of NSAIDs and smoking does not appear to be mediated via a prediposition to H. pylori infection.

  3. Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste from Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides guidance on the predisposal management of all types of radioactive waste (including spent nuclear fuel declared as waste and high level waste) generated at nuclear fuel cycle facilities. These waste management facilities may be located within larger facilities or may be separate, dedicated waste management facilities (including centralized waste management facilities). The Safety Guide covers all stages in the lifetime of these facilities, including their siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation, and shutdown and decommissioning. It covers all steps carried out in the management of radioactive waste following its generation up to (but not including) disposal, including its processing (pretreatment, treatment and conditioning). Radioactive waste generated both during normal operation and in accident conditions is considered

  4. A BAP1 Mutation in a Danish Family Predisposes to Uveal Melanoma and Other Cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Wadt, Karin; Bojesen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    with predominantly uveal melanoma but also a range of other tumor types including lung, neuroendocrine, stomach, and breast cancer; as well as pigmented skin lesions. Whole-exome sequencing identified a BAP1 splice mutation located at c.581-2A>G, which leads to a premature truncation of BAP1 in an individual...... with uveal melanoma. This mutation was carried by several other family members with melanoma or various cancers. The finding expands on the growing profile of BAP1 as an important uveal and cutaneous melanoma tumor suppressor gene and implicates its involvement in the development of lung, and stomach cancer.......Truncating germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP1) have been reported in families predisposed to developing a wide range of different cancer types including uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma. There has also been an association between amelanotic tumor...

  5. Epigenetic effects of lung cancer predisposing factors impact on clinical diagnosis and prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperi, Christina; Vlastos, Fotis; Farmaki, Elena; Martinet, Nadine; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Lung carcinogenesis is a complex process requiring the acquisition of genetic mutations that confer the malignant phenotype as well as epigenetic alterations that may be both manipulated in the course of therapy. Aberrant gene function and transcriptional silencing by CpG island hypermethylation has become a critical component in the initiation and progression of lung cancer. Growing evidence shows that acquired epigenetic abnormalities participate with genetic alterations to cause this dysregulation. Human and animal studies have fostered significant advances in elucidating the role of gene-specific methylation in cancer initiation and progression, the modulation of DNA methylation by carcinogen exposure and the ability of pharmacologic agents to reverse promoter hypermethylation, making it an attractive target to pursue for prevention of lung cancer. This review focuses on how lung cancer predisposing factors participate in epigenetic alterations of lung neoplasia, and discusses the growing implications of these alterations for strategies to control cancer. PMID:18363846

  6. Dysplastic changes in prophylactically removed Fallopian tubes of women predisposed to developing ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piek, J M; van Diest, P J; Zweemer, R P; Jansen, J W; Poort-Keesom, R J; Menko, F H; Gille, J J; Jongsma, A P; Pals, G; Kenemans, P; Verheijen, R H

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of (pre)neoplastic lesions in overtly normal Fallopian tubes from women predisposed to developing ovarian carcinoma. The presence of (pre)neoplastic lesions was scored in histological specimens from 12 women with a genetically determined predisposition for ovarian cancer, of whom seven tested positive for a germline BRCA1 mutation. A control group included 13 women. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of p21, p27, p53, cyclin A, cyclin D1, bcl-2, Ki67, HER-2/neu, and the oestrogen and progesterone receptors. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis on the BRCA1 locus was also assessed on dysplastic tissue by PCR studies. Of the 12 women with a predisposition for ovarian cancer, six showed dysplasia, including one case of severe dysplasia. Five harboured hyperplastic lesions and in one woman no histological aberrations were found in the Fallopian tube. No hyperplastic, dysplastic or neoplastic lesions were detected in the Fallopian tubes of control subjects. In the cases studied, morphologically normal tubal epithelium contained a higher proportion of Ki67-expressing cells (p=0.005) and lower fractions of cells expressing p21 (pp53 was observed in the severely dysplastic lesion. Expression patterns of other proteins studied, including the hormone receptors, were similar in cases and controls. One subject, a germline BRCA1 mutation carrier, showed loss of the wild-type BRCA1 allele in the severely dysplastic lesion. In conclusion, the Fallopian tubes of women predisposed to developing ovarian cancer frequently harbour dysplastic changes, accompanied by changes in cell-cycle and apoptosis-related proteins, indicating an increased risk of developing tubal cancer. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Vertebral artery injury in destabilized midcervical spine trauma; predisposing factors and proposed mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Daeyeong; Sung, Joo-Kyung; Cho, Dae-Chul; Kang, Dong-Hun

    2012-11-01

    By now it has been well established that vertebral artery injury (VAI) is associated with unstable cervical spine injuries resulting from blunt trauma. A more complete understanding of predisposing factors and the mechanism of injury in VAI should result in improved outcomes and reduced risk for patients with VAI associated with unstable cervical spine injury following blunt trauma. The authors report statistical outcome and hypothesis to more thoroughly examine the predisposing factors for VAI, of which management is controversial, in destabilized midcervical spine trauma. Ninety-one of 131 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for a traumatically destabilized subaxial cervical spine were included, and results were analyzed statistically by logistic regression. Eighteen patients (19.8 % of 91 patients) had a VAI associated with midcervical spine trauma (C2-C6). In univariate statistical analysis, transverse foramen fracture (P = 0.002), facet dislocation (P = 0.014), and facet fracture (P = 0.001) were significant risk factors. However, only facet fracture was determined to be significant risk factor after multivariate analysis (P = 0.006, odds ratio 20.98). It is hypothesized that a VAI occurs in a midcervical spine injury when a facet fracture allows the bony compartment to impinge on the relatively narrow free space of the intervertebral foramen, which is also occupied by the cervical root. A facet fracture is the most important risk factor for VAI in patients with a destabilized midcervical spine injury. Patients with a C2-C6 facet fracture may require a definitive evaluation with vertebral artery imaging.

  8. Taeniasis in non-descript dogs in Ngorongoro, Tanzania: Prevalence and predisposing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel S. Swai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of taeniasis was determined during the period January to April 2013 in a cross-sectional study of non-descript domestic dogs from the livestock–wildlife ecosystem of Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Taeniid eggs were determined by screening faecal samples using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Predisposing factors for dog infection were assessed in relation to demographic, husbandry and management data. Of the 205 faecal samples screened, 150 (73.2% were positive for taeniid eggs. The prevalence of dogs harbouring taeniid eggs was 80%, 30.2% and 75.3% in the less than 1 year, 1–3 years and greater than 3 years of age groups, respectively. Age group and sex prevalence in dogs did not differ significantly (P > 0.05, although the females showed a marginally higher prevalence (73.8% in comparison to the males (72.7%. Taeniid eggs were significantly more likely to be found in the faeces of dogs located in Waso (80.6% and Endulen (75% than in Malambo (63.2%, P < 0.05. The study revealed that dogs owned and raised by agro-pastoralists were at a lower risk of acquiring Taenia spp. infection (P = 0.001 than those that were raised by pastoralists. The majority of dog owners were not aware of the predisposing factors and the mode of transmission of taeniids. Dogs were frequently fed on viscera, trimmings and the heads of slaughtered animals, and they were not treated for parasitic infections. The findings of this study indicate that taeniasis is prevalent among non-descript dogs in Ngorongoro, underscoring the need for further research and active surveillance to better understand the transmission cycle of Taenia spp. in a wider geographical area in Tanzania.

  9. Precipitating and predisposing events and symptoms for admission to assisted living or nursing home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwood, James Kh; Richard, Matthew; Garden, Kathryn; Hominick, Kathryn; Mitnitski, Arnold; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    In Canada, the rise of private-pay assisted living facilities is changing the long-term care landscape. Even so, few clinical implications of having these facilities in the spectrum of care have been studied. Our objective was to compare events and symptoms that might predispose and precipitate a move of older adults to assisted living or to a nursing home. Cross-sectional, descriptive Nova Scotia survey of residents and family members on admission. Health-care use and dementia diagnosis were recorded from the admission record. Dementia was staged using the Global Deterioration Scale and the Dependence Scale. The SymptomGuide, a standardized dementia symptom inventory, was used to assay which symptoms were most influential in the decision to seek long term care. Caregiver stress was elicited by a self-report questionnaire. Of 353 people admitted during the enrolment period, 174 (49%) took part in the survey. Most (97; 55.7%) were involved in a move from the community to a nursing home, 54 (31.0%) from the community to assisted living, and 23 (13.2%) from assisted living to a nursing home. In each setting, dementia was the commonest predisposing factor (seen in >90%) with a precipitating event seen in 120 (69%) people. The precipitating events included a medical illness (n = 97; 55%) or caregiver illness, death or move (33; 19%). Dependence was associated with place of care, with more severely impaired people more commonly represented in people who moved to nursing homes. People move from the community chiefly due to dementia, and often with a precipitant. Compared with a move to assisted living, moving to nursing homes generally indicates greater dependence, and typically worse dementia severity. Even so, assisted-living facilities are not just for the "worried well", but are used by people with dementia, caregiver stress, and recent hospitalization.

  10. Filial responses as predisposed and learned preferences: Early attachment in chicks and babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio, Elisa; Loveland, Jasmine L; Mayer, Uwe; Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Versace, Elisabetta; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2017-05-15

    To what extent are filial responses the outcome of spontaneous or acquired preferences? The case of domestic chicks illustrates the connection between predisposed and learned knowledge in early social responses. In the absence of specific experience, chicks prefer to approach objects that are more similar to natural social partners (e.g. they prefer face-like configurations, biological motion, self-propelled objects and those that move at variable speed). Spontaneous preferences are complemented by filial imprinting, a powerful learning mechanism that enables chicks to quickly learn the features of specific social partners. While neurobiological studies have clarified that the substrates of spontaneous and learned preferences are at least partially distinct in chicks, evidence shows that spontaneous preferences might orient and facilitate imprinting on animate stimuli, such as the mother hen, and that hormones facilitate and strengthen preferences for predisposed stimuli. Preferences towards animate stimuli are observed in human neonates as well. The remarkable consistency between the perceptual cues attended to by newborn babies and naïve chicks suggests that the attentional biases observed in babies are unlikely to result from very rapid post-natal learning, and confirms that research on precocial species can inform and guide human infant research with regards to both typical and atypical development. This has potentially important biomedical implications, opening new possibilities for the early detection of subjects at risk for autism spectrum disorders. We show how the parallel investigation of predispositions in naïve chicks and human infants, both benefiting from contact with social partners since the beginning of life, has greatly improved our understanding of early responses to social stimuli at the behavioural and neurobiological level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Oblique bile duct predisposes to the recurrence of bile duct stones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Strnad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Bile stones represent a highly prevalent condition and abnormalities of the biliary tree predispose to stone recurrence due to development of biliary stasis. In our study, we assessed the importance of an altered bile duct course for stone formation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 1,307 patients with choledocholithiasis in the absence of any associated hepatobiliary disease who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP between 2002 and 2009 were analysed. The angle enclosed between the horizontal portion of the common bile duct (CBD and the horizontal plane was measured (angle α. Oblique common bile duct (OCBD was defined as a CBD with angle α < 45°. RESULTS: 103 patients (7.9% were found to harbour OCBD and these were compared to 104 randomly selected control subjects. Compared to controls, OCBD patients were (i significantly older (72 ± 13 vs. 67 ± 13, p<0.00001; (ii more frequently underwent a cholecystectomy (p = 0.02 and biliary surgery (p = 0.003 prior to the diagnosis and (iii more often developed chronic pancreatitis (p = 0.04 as well as biliary fistulae (p = 0.03. Prior to and after ERCP, OCBD subjects displayed significantly elevated cholestatic parameters and angle α negatively correlated with common bile duct diameter (r = -0.29, p = 0.003. OCBD subjects more often required multiple back-to-back ERCP sessions to remove bile stones (p = 0.005 as well as more ERCPs later on due to recurrent stone formation (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: OCBD defines a novel variant of the biliary tree, which is associated with chronic cholestasis, hampers an efficient stone removal and predisposes to recurrence of bile duct stones.

  12. SIMPLIFYING CELIAC DISEASE PREDISPOSING HLA-DQ ALLELES DETERMINATION BY THE REAL TIME PCR METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole SELLESKI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Genetic susceptibility is associated with two sets of alleles, DQA1*05 - DQB1*02 and DQA1*03 - DQB1*03:02, which code for class II MHC DQ2 and DQ8 molecules, respectively. Approximately 90%-95% of celiac patients are HLA-DQ2 positive, and half of the remaining patients are HLA-DQ8 positive. In fact, during a celiac disease diagnostic workup, the absence of these specific DQA and DQB alleles has a near perfect negative predictive value. Objective Improve the detection of celiac disease predisposing alleles by combining the simplicity and sensitivity of real-time PCR (qPCR and melting curve analysis with the specificity of sequence-specific primers (SSP. Methods Amplifications of sequence-specific primers for DQA1*05 (DQ2, DQB1*02 (DQ2, and DQA1*03 (DQ8 were performed by the real time PCR method to determine the presence of each allele in independent reactions. Primers for Human Growth Hormone were used as an internal control. A parallel PCR-SSP protocol was used as a reference method to validate our results. Results Both techniques yielded equal results. From a total of 329 samples the presence of HLA predisposing alleles was determined in 187 (56.8%. One hundred fourteen samples (61% were positive for a single allele, 68 (36.3% for two alleles, and only 5 (2.7% for three alleles. Conclusion Results obtained by qPCR technique were highly reliable with no discordant results when compared with those obtained using PCR-SSP.

  13. Vitamin D deficiency in mice impairs colonic antibacterial activity and predisposes to colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagishetty, Venu; Misharin, Alexander V; Liu, Nancy Q; Lisse, Thomas S; Chun, Rene F; Ouyang, Yi; McLachlan, Sandra M; Adams, John S; Hewison, Martin

    2010-06-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is a global health issue. Although classically associated with rickets, low vitamin D levels have also been linked to aberrant immune function and associated health problems such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To test the hypothesis that impaired vitamin D status predisposes to IBD, 8-wk-old C57BL/6 mice were raised from weaning on vitamin D-deficient or vitamin D-sufficient diets and then treated with dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) to induce colitis. Vitamin D-deficient mice showed decreased serum levels of precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (2.5 +/- 0.1 vs. 24.4 +/- 1.8 ng/ml) and active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (28.8 +/- 3.1 vs. 45.6 +/- 4.2 pg/ml), greater DSS-induced weight loss (9 vs. 5%), increased colitis (4.71 +/- 0.85 vs. 1.57 +/- 0.18), and splenomegaly relative to mice on vitamin D-sufficient chow. DNA array analysis of colon tissue (n = 4 mice) identified 27 genes consistently (P < 0.05) up-regulated or down-regulated more than 2-fold in vitamin D-deficient vs. vitamin D-sufficient mice, in the absence of DSS-induced colitis. This included angiogenin-4, an antimicrobial protein involved in host containment of enteric bacteria. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that colonic angiogenin-4 protein was significantly decreased in vitamin D-deficient mice even in the absence of colitis. Moreover, the same animals showed elevated levels (50-fold) of bacteria in colonic tissue. These data show for the first time that simple vitamin D deficiency predisposes mice to colitis via dysregulated colonic antimicrobial activity and impaired homeostasis of enteric bacteria. This may be a pivotal mechanism linking vitamin D status with IBD in humans.

  14. Predisposing factors to lateral ankle injury in male comrades marathon runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hiemstra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: More than two million people experience ankle ligament traumaeach year in the United States. Half of these are severe ligament sprains, however verylittle is known about the factors that predispose individuals to these injuries. The purpose of this study, (which was conducted as an undergraduate research project,was to find a correlation between the characteristics of height, weight and limbdominance and lateral ankle ligament injuries. Method: A  retrospective study was conducted on 114 ultra distance runners whoparticipated in the 2006 Comrades Marathon. During race registration, the runners’ height and weight were measuredafter answering a questionnaire regarding their training. Results: 114 runners responded to the questionnaire. From this cohort, 38 (33.3% had sustained previous lateral ankle injuries. Of these 38 injuries, 47.4% of the injuries occurred on the runner’s dominant limb and 36.8% occurred on thenon-dominant side. 15.8% of the runners sustained previous ankle injuries to both ankles. There was a low negative correlation coefficient of 0.24 with regards to weight as a risk factor. This indicated that the power of the correlationwas 5.93%. The study demonstrates that there is no correlation between an increase in weight and an increase in theincidence of ankle injury. The correlation coefficient indicated a low correlation between an increase in height and the incidence of ankle injury. However, the power of the correlation at 18.37% makes inaccurate any attempt to predict the height at which a runner would be at most risk for lateral ankle injury. Conclusion: Height and weight are not risk factors predisposing subjects to lateral ankle injury. In addition, the studyillustrated that there was no effect of limb dominance on the incidence of lateral ankle injury.

  15. Studies on the Predisposing Factors of Protein Energy Malnutrition Among Pregnant Women in a Nigerian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okwu GN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries and affects mostly infants, young children, pregnant and lactating mothers. This study was carried on some of the factors that predispose pregnant women to PEM and hence identify groups at greater risk. A total of 1387 pregnant women (910 in the urban area and 477 in the rural areas were recruited for the study. Anthropometric indices of weight, height and Body Mass Index (BMI of the pregnant women were measured and semi structured questionnaires were used to elicit information on possible predisposing factors such as age, level of education, parity, child spacing etc. Results obtained showed that the mean weight and height of the rural pregnant women, were significantly (p<0.0001 lower than those of the urban pregnant women. The mean BMI of the rural subjects, was also significantly (p< 0.0027 lower than that of the urban subjects. Analysis of the effect of age showed that the younger age category (24 years and below had significantly (p<0.0001 lower mean BMI and higher prevalence of PEM while the effect of level of education showed significantly (p<0006 lower mean BMI and higher PEM prevalence among the less educated (no formal and primary education. Those with parity of two, one and primipara showed significantly (p<0.0175 lower mean BMI while child spacing did not have any significant effect on both mean BMI and prevalence of PEM. The implications of these findings are discussed and recommendations made on how to tackle the problem.

  16. Explaining use of food parenting practices: the importance of predisposing factors and parental cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus Wm; van Assema, Patricia; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef Pj

    2017-09-01

    The high energy intake from energy-dense foods among children in developed countries is undesirable. Improving food parenting practices has the potential to lower snack intakes among children. To inform the development of interventions, we aimed to predict food parenting practice patterns around snacking (i.e. 'high covert control and rewarding', 'low covert control and non-rewarding', 'high involvement and supportive' and 'low involvement and indulgent'). A cross-sectional survey was conducted. To predict the patterns of food parenting practices, multinomial logistic regression analyses were run with 888 parents. Predictors included predisposing factors (i.e. parents' and children's demographics and BMI, parents' personality, general parenting, and parenting practices used by their own parents) and parents' cognitions (i.e. perceived behaviour of other parents, subjective norms, attitudes, self-efficacy and outcome expectations). The Netherlands (October-November 2014). Dutch parents of children aged 4-12 years old. After backward elimination, nineteen factors had a statistically significant contribution to the model (Nagelkerke R 2=0·63). Overall, self-efficacy and outcome expectations were among the strongest explanatory factors. Considering the predisposing factors only, the general parenting factor nurturance most strongly predicted the food parenting clusters. Nurturance particularly distinguished highly involved parents from parents employing a pattern of low involvement. Parental cognitions and nurturance are important factors to explain the use of food parenting practices around snacking. The results suggest that intervention developers should attempt to increase self-efficacy and educate parents about what constitute effective and ineffective parenting practices. Promoting nurturance might be a prerequisite to achieve prolonged change.

  17. Incidence and predisposing factors of cold intolerance after arterial repair in upper extremity injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocker, Josef; Peter, Tobias; Pellegrini, Lukas; Mattesich, Monika; Loescher, Wolfgang; Sieb, Michael; Klein-Weigel, Peter; Fraedrich, Gustav

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this report was to present abnormal posttraumatic cold intolerance in patients that previously underwent repair of arterial injuries after civilian upper limb trauma in our institution. All patients who underwent repair of arterial lesions after upper limb trauma since 1990 were reviewed, and clinical follow-up studies were performed. Patients were asked to complete the cold intolerance symptom severity (CISS) questionnaire to evaluate presence and severity of self-reported cold sensitivity, and the disabilities of arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) questionnaire to analyze functional disability. Abnormal cold intolerance was defined as a CISS score over 30. Further analysis included evaluation of epidemiologic, clinical, and perioperative data for factors predisposing to abnormal cold intolerance. A total of 87 patients with previous repair of upper limb arterial injuries were eligible to answer the CISS and DASH questionnaires, and 56 patients (64%; 43 men; median age: 31.9 years) completed both. In our cohort, blunt trauma was the predominant cause of injury (n = 50; 89%). Accompanying lesions of nerves (n = 22; 39%) and/or orthopedic injuries (n = 36; 64%) were present in 48 patients (86%). After a median follow-up period of 5.5 years (range, 0.5-19.7), 23 patients (41% of 56) reported on abnormal cold intolerance. Patients with cold intolerance had worse functional results (as measured by the DASH questionnaire; mean ± SD, 42.7 ± 29.7 vs 11.5 ± 23.9; P injuries (subclavian or axillary vs brachial or forearm arteries: P = .006), but was not correlated to gender, age, involvement of the dominant or nondominant arm, and the presence of ischemia, bone injury, or an isolated vascular injury. Abnormal cold intolerance is frequently seen in patients with a history of arterial repair in upper limb trauma. It is associated with significant functional impairment. Concomitant nerve injury and involvement of the subclavian or axillary artery are the major

  18. Predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with high service use in a public mental health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindamer, Laurie A; Liu, Lin; Sommerfeld, David H; Folsom, David P; Hawthorne, William; Garcia, Piedad; Aarons, Gregory A; Jeste, Dilip V

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) To investigate the individual- and system-level characteristics associated with high utilization of acute mental health services according to a widely-used theory of service use-Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use -in individuals enrolled in a large, public-funded mental health system; and (2) To document service utilization by high use consumers prior to a transformation of the service delivery system. We analyzed data from 10,128 individuals receiving care in a large public mental health system from fiscal years 2000-2004. Subjects with information in the database for the index year (fiscal year 2000-2001) and all of the following 3 years were included in this study. Using logistic regression, we identified predisposing, enabling, and need characteristics associated with being categorized as a single-year high use consumer (HU: >3 acute care episodes in a single year) or multiple-year HU (>3 acute care episodes in more than 1 year). Thirteen percent of the sample met the criteria for being a single-year HU and an additional 8% met the definition for multiple-year HU. Although some predisposing factors were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of being classified as a HU (younger age and female gender) relative to non-HUs, the characteristics with the strongest associations with the HU definition, when controlling for all other factors, were enabling and need factors. Homelessness was associated with 115% increase in the odds of ever being classified as a HU compared to those living independently or with family and others. Having insurance was associated with increased odds of being classified as a HU by about 19% relative to non-HUs. Attending four or more outpatient visits was an enabling factor that decreased the chances of being defined as a HU. Need factors, such as having a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or other psychotic disorder or having a substance use disorder

  19. Common variants at the MHC locus and at chromosome 16q24.1 predispose to Barrett's esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Zhan; Gay, Laura J.; Strange, Amy; Palles, Claire; Band, Gavin; Whiteman, David C.; Lescai, Francesco; Langford, Cordelia; Nanji, Manoj; Edkins, Sarah; van der Winkel, Anouk; Levine, David; Sasieni, Peter; Bellenguez, Celine; Howarth, Kimberley; Freeman, Colin; Trudgill, Nigel; Tucker, Art T.; Pirinen, Matti; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; van der Laan, Luc J. W.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Drenth, Joost P. H.; Peters, Wilbert H.; Reynolds, John V.; Kelleher, Dermot P.; McManus, Ross; Grabsch, Heike; Prenen, Hans; Bisschops, Raf; Krishnadath, Kausila; Siersema, Peter D.; van Baal, Jantine W. P. M.; Middleton, Mark; Petty, Russell; Gillies, Richard; Burch, Nicola; Bhandari, Pradeep; Paterson, Stuart; Edwards, Cathryn; Penman, Ian; Vaidya, Kishor; Ang, Yeng; Murray, Iain; Patel, Praful; Ye, Weimin; Mullins, Paul; Wu, Anna H.; Bird, Nigel C.; Dallal, Helen; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Murray, Liam J.; Koss, Konrad; Bernstein, Leslie; Romero, Yvonne; Hardie, Laura J.; Zhang, Rui; Winter, Helen; Corley, Douglas A.; Panter, Simon; Risch, Harvey A.; Reid, Brian J.; Sargeant, Ian; Gammon, Marilie D.; Smart, Howard; Dhar, Anjan; McMurtry, Hugh; Ali, Haythem; Liu, Geoffrey; Casson, Alan G.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rutter, Matt; Tawil, Ashref; Morris, Danielle; Nwokolo, Chuka; Isaacs, Peter; Rodgers, Colin; Ragunath, Krish; MacDonald, Chris; Haigh, Chris; Monk, David; Davies, Gareth; Wajed, Saj; Johnston, David; Gibbons, Michael; Cullen, Sue; Church, Nicholas; Langley, Ruth; Griffin, Michael; Alderson, Derek; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah E.; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Potter, Simon C.; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Anderson, Mark; Brooks, Claire; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A.; Casas, Juan P.; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Markus, Hugh S.; Mathew, Christopher G.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Plomin, Robert; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Trembath, Richard C.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Wood, Nicholas; Trynka, Gosia; Wijmenga, Cisca; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Atherfold, Paul; Nicholson, Anna M.; Gellatly, Nichola L.; Glancy, Deborah; Cooper, Sheldon C.; Cunningham, David; Lind, Tore; Hapeshi, Julie; Ferry, David; Rathbone, Barrie; Brown, Julia; Love, Sharon; Attwood, Stephen; MacGregor, Stuart; Watson, Peter; Sanders, Scott; Ek, Weronica; Harrison, Rebecca F.; Moayyedi, Paul; de Caestecker, John; Barr, Hugh; Stupka, Elia; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Peltonen, Leena; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Tomlinson, Ian; Donnelly, Peter; Jankowski, Janusz A. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus is an increasingly common disease that is strongly associated with reflux of stomach acid and usually a hiatus hernia, and it strongly predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a tumor with a very poor prognosis. We report the first genome-wide association study on

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study of Golden Retrievers Identifies Germ-Line Risk Factors Predisposing to Mast Cell Tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendt, Maja L; Melin, Malin; Tonomura, Noriko; Koltookian, Michele; Courtay-Cahen, Celine; Flindall, Netty; Bass, Joyce; Boerkamp, Kim|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313929149; Megquir, Katherine; Youell, Lisa; Murphy, Sue; McCarthy, Colleen; London, Cheryl; Rutteman, Gerard R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074076663; Starkey, Mike; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Canine mast cell tumours (CMCT) are one of the most common skin tumours in dogs with a major impact on canine health. Certain breeds have a higher risk of developing mast cell tumours, suggesting that underlying predisposing germ-line genetic factors play a role in the development of this disease.

  1. Discrete deposition of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on a titanium implant with predisposing substrate microtopography accelerated osseointegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Ichiro [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Huang Yuhong [Chemat Technology, Incorporated, Northridge, CA (United States); Butz, Frank [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ogawa, Takahiro [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lin, Audrey [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Chiachien Jake [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2007-06-20

    We report here a new versatile method to deposit discrete hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles on a titanium (Ti) implant with predisposing substrate microtopography, which exhibited an unexpectedly robust biological effect. Commercially pure Ti substrates were treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, on which HA nanoparticles (20 nm) were deposited and chemically bonded to TiO{sub 2}. The HA deposition rate was linearly related to the treatment time and HA nanoparticles were deposited on up to 50% of the substrate surface. As a result, the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles generated novel 20-40 nm nanotopography on the Ti substrate with microtopography that was smooth (turned) or roughened by double acid etching (DAE). The experimental implants with or without HA nanoparticles were surgically placed in rat femur and an implant push-in test was performed after two weeks of healing. The deposition of HA nanoparticles on the DAE surface increased the mechanical withstanding load by 129% and 782% as compared to the control DAE and turned implants, respectively. Micro-computed tomography-based 3D bone morphometry revealed equivalent bone volumes around the DAE implant with or without HA nanoparticles. These data suggest that the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles accelerates the early osseointegration process, likely through increased shear bonding strengths.

  2. Licence applications for low and intermediate level waste predisposal facilities: A manual for operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    This publication covers all predisposal waste management facilities and practices for receipt, pretreatment (sorting, segregation, characterization), treatment, conditioning, internal relocation and storage of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, including disused sealed radioactive sources. The publication contains an Annex presenting the example of a safety assessment for a small radioactive waste storage facility. Facilities dealing with both short lived and long lived low and intermediate level waste generated from nuclear applications and from operation of small nuclear research reactors are included in the scope. Processing and storage facilities for high activity disused sealed sources and sealed sources containing long lived radionuclides are also covered. The publication does not cover facilities processing or storing radioactive waste from nuclear power plants or any other industrial scale nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Disposal facilities are excluded from the scope of this publication. Authorization process can be implemented in several stages, which may start at the site planning and the feasibility study stage and will continue through preliminary design, final design, commissioning, operation and decommissioning stages. This publication covers primarily the authorization needed to take the facility into operation

  3. Taeniasis in non-descript dogs in Ngorongoro, Tanzania: Prevalence and predisposing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swai, Emmanuel S; Miran, Miran B; Kasuku, Ayubu A; Nzalawahe, Jahashi

    2016-05-24

    The prevalence of taeniasis was determined during the period January to April 2013 in a cross-sectional study of non-descript domestic dogs from the livestock-wildlife ecosystem of Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Taeniid eggs were determined by screening faecal samples using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Predisposing factors for dog infection were assessed in relation to demographic, husbandry and management data. Of the 205 faecal samples screened, 150 (73.2%) were positive for taeniid eggs. The prevalence of dogs harbouring taeniid eggs was 80%, 30.2% and 75.3% in the less than 1 year, 1-3 years and greater than 3 years of age groups, respectively. Age group and sex prevalence in dogs did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), although the females showed a marginally higher prevalence (73.8%) in comparison to the males (72.7%). Taeniid eggs were significantly more likely to be found in the faeces of dogs located in Waso (80.6%) and Endulen (75%) than in Malambo (63.2%, P Ngorongoro, underscoring the need for further research and active surveillance to better understand the transmission cycle of Taenia spp. in a wider geographical area in Tanzania.

  4. Peripheral QCT: a low risk procedure to identify women predisposed to osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.; Rueegsegger, E.; Rueegsegger, P.

    1989-01-01

    A low-risk procedure is described for the precise quantitation of changes of trabecular and cortical bone density at peripheral measuring sites. The method is based on quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Bone parameters are calculated for a sample volume common to all examinations of a patient. This is achieved by matching stacks of tomograms according to the cross sectional area of the bone measured. With the help of a special-purpose CT system the described procedure enables a reproducibility for trabecular and cortical bone parameters of 0.3% (1 SD) at a local radiation dose of of 0.1 mSv (10 mrem). The method was used to assess the individual changes in bone density of 39 perimenopausal women during an observation period of 2 to 3 years. The results are grouped according to their menstrual state. Regularly menstruating women experience minute or no changes in bone density. After menopause the interindividual differences are considerable: some women lose bone excessively, others remain relatively stable. The frequency distribution of the rate of bone loss appears to be bimodal. Hence women can be classified in fast losers and slow losers. We conclude that the rate of bone loss may be most helpful in the identification of those women predisposed to osteoporosis. (author)

  5. Haploinsufficiency of the ESCRT Component HD-PTP Predisposes to Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Manteghi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT drive cell surface receptor degradation resulting in attenuation of oncogenic signaling and pointing to a tumor suppressor function. Here, we show that loss of function of an ESCRT protein (HD-PTP encoded by the PTPN23 gene, located on the tumor suppressor gene cluster 3p21.3 drives tumorigenesis in vivo. Indeed, Ptpn23+/− loss predisposes mice to sporadic lung adenoma, B cell lymphoma, and promotes Myc-driven lymphoma onset, dissemination, and aggressiveness. Ptpn23+/−-derived tumors exhibit an unaltered remaining allele and maintain 50% of HD-PTP expression. Consistent with the role of HD-PTP in attenuation of integrin recycling, cell migration, and invasion, hemizygous Ptpn23+/− loss increases integrin β1-dependent B cell lymphoma survival and dissemination. Finally, we reveal frequent PTPN23 deletion and downregulation in human tumors that correlates with poor survival. Altogether, we establish HD-PTP/PTPN23 as a prominent haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene preventing tumor progression through control of integrin trafficking.

  6. Haploinsufficiency of the ESCRT Component HD-PTP Predisposes to Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteghi, Sanaz; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Kharitidi, Dmitri; Galarneau, Luc; Marques, Maud; Yan, Ming; Cencic, Regina; Robert, Francis; Paquet, Marilène; Witcher, Michael; Pelletier, Jerry; Pause, Arnim

    2016-05-31

    Endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) drive cell surface receptor degradation resulting in attenuation of oncogenic signaling and pointing to a tumor suppressor function. Here, we show that loss of function of an ESCRT protein (HD-PTP encoded by the PTPN23 gene, located on the tumor suppressor gene cluster 3p21.3) drives tumorigenesis in vivo. Indeed, Ptpn23(+/-) loss predisposes mice to sporadic lung adenoma, B cell lymphoma, and promotes Myc-driven lymphoma onset, dissemination, and aggressiveness. Ptpn23(+/-)-derived tumors exhibit an unaltered remaining allele and maintain 50% of HD-PTP expression. Consistent with the role of HD-PTP in attenuation of integrin recycling, cell migration, and invasion, hemizygous Ptpn23(+/-) loss increases integrin β1-dependent B cell lymphoma survival and dissemination. Finally, we reveal frequent PTPN23 deletion and downregulation in human tumors that correlates with poor survival. Altogether, we establish HD-PTP/PTPN23 as a prominent haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene preventing tumor progression through control of integrin trafficking. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Seborrheic dermatitis: predisposing factors and ITS2 secondary structure for Malassezia phylogenic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Yulien; Patiño-Uzcátegui, Anelvi; Cepero de García, Maria C; Tabima, Javier; Motta, Adriana; Cárdenas, Martha; Bernal, Adriana; Restrepo, Silvia; Celis, Adriana

    2013-11-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic, widespread skin condition, which is considered a multifactorial disease influenced, in part, by Malassezia spp. opportunistic activities, as well as various endogenous and exogenous factors. Malassezia species are lipophilic, lipid-dependent yeasts that are members of the normal mycobiota of the human skin. Their isolation from SD lesions varies around the world and the study of the relationship among factors such as gender, age, immunosuppressive condition of the patient and SD development, can lead to a better understanding of this disease. To elucidate the association of age and gender with the development of SD and to precisely determine the Malassezia species involved in the disease, samples were obtained from 134 individuals, including individuals without lesions, human immunodeficiency virus positive patients, individuals with seborrheic dermatitis, and HIV patients with seborrheic dermatitis. Malassezia spp. were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods and a phylogenetic analysis was performed using Bayesian inference. This study revealed that age and gender are not predisposing factors for SD development, and that the most frequent species of Malassezia related to SD development among the Colombian population is M. restricta. We also report the isolation of M. yamatoensis for the first time in Colombia, and propose an ITS2 secondary structure from Malassezia taxa that can be used for precise identification and to establish more robust phylogenetic relationships.

  8. Azithromycin blocks autophagy and may predispose cystic fibrosis patients to mycobacterial infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, Maurizio; Schaffner, Catherine; Brown, Karen; Shang, Shaobin; Tamayo, Marcela Henao; Hegyi, Krisztina; Grimsey, Neil J.; Cusens, David; Coulter, Sarah; Cooper, Jason; Bowden, Anne R.; Newton, Sandra M.; Kampmann, Beate; Helm, Jennifer; Jones, Andrew; Haworth, Charles S.; Basaraba, Randall J.; DeGroote, Mary Ann; Ordway, Diane J.; Rubinsztein, David C.; Floto, R. Andres

    2011-01-01

    Azithromycin is a potent macrolide antibiotic with poorly understood antiinflammatory properties. Long-term use of azithromycin in patients with chronic inflammatory lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF), results in improved outcomes. Paradoxically, a recent study reported that azithromycin use in patients with CF is associated with increased infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Here, we confirm that long-term azithromycin use by adults with CF is associated with the development of infection with NTM, particularly the multi-drug-resistant species Mycobacterium abscessus, and identify an underlying mechanism. We found that in primary human macrophages, concentrations of azithromycin achieved during therapeutic dosing blocked autophagosome clearance by preventing lysosomal acidification, thereby impairing autophagic and phagosomal degradation. As a consequence, azithromycin treatment inhibited intracellular killing of mycobacteria within macrophages and resulted in chronic infection with NTM in mice. Our findings emphasize the essential role for autophagy in the host response to infection with NTM, reveal why chronic use of azithromycin may predispose to mycobacterial disease, and highlight the dangers of inadvertent pharmacological blockade of autophagy in patients at risk of infection with drug-resistant pathogens. PMID:21804191

  9. HTRA1 promoter polymorphism predisposes Japanese to age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tsunehiko; DeWan, Andrew; Zhang, Hong; Sakamoto, Ryosuke; Okamoto, Haru; Minami, Masayoshi; Obazawa, Minoru; Mizota, Atsushi; Tanaka, Minoru; Saito, Yoshihiro; Takagi, Ikue; Hoh, Josephine; Iwata, Takeshi

    2007-04-04

    To study the effect of candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 10q26, recently shown to be associated with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Chinese and Caucasian cohorts, in a Japanese cohort. Using genomic DNA isolated from peripheral blood of wet AMD cases and age-matched controls, we genotyped two SNPs, rs10490924, and rs11200638, on chromosome 10q26, 6.6 kb and 512 bp upstream of the HTRA1 gene, respectively, using temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis (TGCE) and direct sequencing. Association tests were performed for individual SNPs and jointly with SNP complement factor H (CFH) Y402H. The two SNPs, rs10490924 and rs11200638, are in complete linkage disequilibrium (D'=1). Previous sequence comparisons among seventeen species revealed that the genomic region containing rs11200638 was highly conserved while the region surrounding rs10490924 was not. The allelic association test for rs11200638 yielded a p-value fashion: Odds ratio was 10.1 (95% CI 4.36, 23.06), adjusted for SNP CFH 402, for those carrying two copies of the risk allele, whereas indistinguishable from unity if carrying only one risk allele. The HTRA1 promoter polymorphism, rs11200638, is a strong candidate with a functional consequence that predisposes Japanese to develop neovascular AMD.

  10. Haploinsufficiency of the genes encoding the tumor suppressor Pten predisposes zebrafish to hemangiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma Choorapoikayil

    2012-03-01

    PTEN is an essential tumor suppressor that antagonizes Akt/PKB signaling. The zebrafish genome encodes two Pten genes, ptena and ptenb. Here, we report that zebrafish mutants that retain a single wild-type copy of ptena or ptenb (ptena+/−ptenb−/− or ptena−/−ptenb+/− are viable and fertile. ptena+/−ptenb−/− fish develop tumors at a relatively high incidence (10.2% and most tumors developed close to the eye (26/30. Histopathologically, the tumor masses were associated with the retrobulbar vascular network and diagnosed as hemangiosarcomas. A single tumor was identified in 42 ptena−/−ptenb+/− fish and was also diagnosed as hemangiosarcoma. Immunohistochemistry indicated that the tumor cells in ptena+/−ptenb−/− and ptena−/−ptenb+/− fish proliferated rapidly and were of endothelial origin. Akt/PKB signaling was activated in the tumors, whereas Ptena was still detected in tumor tissue from ptena+/−ptenb−/− zebrafish. We conclude that haploinsufficiency of the genes encoding Pten predisposes to hemangiosarcoma in zebrafish.

  11. A BAP1 mutation in a Danish family predisposes to uveal melanoma and other cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren G Aoude

    Full Text Available Truncating germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP1 have been reported in families predisposed to developing a wide range of different cancer types including uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma. There has also been an association between amelanotic tumor development and germline BAP1 mutation suggesting a possible phenotypic characteristic of BAP1 mutation carriers. Though there have been many types of cancer associated with germline BAP1 mutation, the full spectrum of disease association is yet to be ascertained. Here we describe a Danish family with predominantly uveal melanoma but also a range of other tumor types including lung, neuroendocrine, stomach, and breast cancer; as well as pigmented skin lesions. Whole-exome sequencing identified a BAP1 splice mutation located at c.581-2A>G, which leads to a premature truncation of BAP1 in an individual with uveal melanoma. This mutation was carried by several other family members with melanoma or various cancers. The finding expands on the growing profile of BAP1 as an important uveal and cutaneous melanoma tumor suppressor gene and implicates its involvement in the development of lung, and stomach cancer.

  12. Frequency, character and predisposing factor of headache among students of medical college of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Tooba; Sajjad, Ali; Asma, Anoosha

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the frequency, predisposing factors and symptomatology of headache among medical students. The cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2013 and comprised students of two medical colleges of Karachi. International Classification of Headache Disorder-II criterion was used to diagnose and classify headache. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 413 medical students studies, 326(79%) had tension type headache, and 87 (21%) had migraine. Headache was more frequent among females than males, with a ratio of 6.5:1. Both types of headache were significantly associated with self-reported disturbed sleep pattern, stress and various triggering factors (p<0.05 each). Both types greatly influenced individual's daily life with significant association with avoiding academics, extra-curricular activities, family and friends (p<0.05 each). High self-medication rate of 400(96.9%) was observed. The prevalence of headache among medical students was high with female predominance. Infrequent consultation needs to be addressed through awareness programmes.

  13. Predisposing, enabling, and need factors of service utilization in the elderly with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Jana; Andreas, Sylke; Härter, Martin; Dehoust, Maria Christina; Sehner, Susanne; Suling, Anna; Ausín, Berta; Canuto, Alessandra; Crawford, Mike J; Da Ronch, Chiara; Grassi, Luigi; Hershkovitz, Yael; Muñoz, Manuel; Quirk, Alan; Rotenstein, Ora; Santos-Olmo, Ana Belén; Shalev, Arieh Y; Strehle, Jens; Weber, Kerstin; Wegscheider, Karl; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Schulz, Holger

    2017-12-04

    Empirical data on the use of services due to mental health problems in older adults in Europe is lacking. The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with service utilization in the elderly. As part of the MentDis_ICF65+ study, N = 3,142 people aged 65-84 living in the community in six European and associated countries were interviewed. Based on Andersen's behavioral model predisposing, enabling, and need factors were analyzed with logistic regression analyses. Overall, 7% of elderly and 11% of those with a mental disorder had used a service due to mental health problems in the last 12 months. Factors significantly associated with underuse were male sex, lower education, living in the London catchment area, higher functional impairment and more comorbid mental disorders. The most frequently reported barrier to service use was personal beliefs, e.g. "I can deal with my problem on my own" (90%). Underutilization of mental health services among older people in the European community is common and interventions are needed to achieve an adequate use of services.

  14. Relationship of the FKBP5 C/T polymorphism with dysfunctional attitudes predisposing to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Enokido, Masanori; Goto, Kaoru; Otani, Koichi

    2014-08-01

    FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP5) is a co-chaperone of the glucocorticoid receptor, and plays an important role in the negative feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The C/T single nucleotide polymorphism in the intron 2 of the FKBP5 gene affects cortisol secretion, and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. In this study, the relationship of the FKBP5 C/T polymorphism with dysfunctional attitudes predisposing to depression was examined. The subjects were 300 healthy Japanese. The FKBP5 genotypes were determined by a real-time PCR and cycling probe technology for SNP typing. Dysfunctional attitudes were assessed by the 24-item version of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-24), which has the Achievement, Self-control, and Dependency subscales. DAS-24 total scores were significantly higher in the group with the T allele than in that without this allele (p=0.001). Regarding the subscales, scores of the Achievement (p=0.003) and Self-control (p=0.009) subscales, but not those of the Dependency subscale, were significantly higher in the former group than in the latter group. The present study suggests that the FKBP5 C/T polymorphism is implicated in formation of dysfunctional attitudes, especially those about achievement and self-control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of normal childbirth on eyes with abnormalities predisposing to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, D; Seelenfreund, M H; Tadmor, O; Silverstone, B Z; Diamant, Y

    1995-09-01

    Pregnant women who have high myopia, a history of retinal detachment or retinal holes, or have known lattice degeneration are frequently referred to an ophthalmologist for advice concerning the management of pregnancy and labor, i.e. whether a spontaneous vaginal delivery can be allowed and whether prophylaxis for high-risk retinal pathology is indicated. Many obstetricians still believe that pregnant women with ocular abnormalities predisposing to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment should have an instrumental delivery, and a few even advocate cesarian section. Very little has been written about the management of pregnant women with high-risk retinal pathology, and opinions differ considerably. Patient data on this subject are scarce. We studied 10 women who had 19 deliveries (10 prospective and 9 retrospective) and who had a history of retinal detachment, had been diagnosed as having extensive lattice degeneration, or had been treated for symptomatic retinal holes or breaks. The women were followed from the third trimester of pregnancy through labor and delivery into the postpartum period, looking for changes in the retinal status. We found no changes in the retinal status in the postpartum examination. We conclude that prenatal treatment of asymptomatic retinal pathology is not indicated and that spontaneous vaginal delivery may be allowed to take place in women with high-risk retinal pathology.

  16. Is age a predisposing factor of postoperative complications after lung resection for primary pulmonary neoplasms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañizares Carretero, Miguel-Ángel; García Fontán, Eva-María; Blanco Ramos, Montserrat; Soro García, José; Carrasco Rodríguez, Rommel; Peña González, Emilio; Cueto Ladrón de Guevara, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Age has been classically considered as a determining factor for the development of postoperative complications related to lung resection for bronchogenic carcinoma. The Postoperative Complications Study Group of the Spanish Society of Thoracic Surgery has promoted a registry to analyze this factor. A total of 3,307 patients who underwent any type of surgical resection for bronchogenic carcinoma have been systematically and prospectively recorded in any of the 24 units that are part of the group. Several variables related to comorbidity and age, as well as postoperative complications, were analyzed. The mean age of patients was 65,44. Men were significantly more common than female. The most frequent complication was prolonged air leak, which was observed in more than one third of patients. In a univariant analysis, air leak presence and postsurgical atelectasis showed statistical association with patient age, when stratified in age groups. In a multivariate analysis, age was recognized as an independent prognostic factor in relation to air leak onset. However, this could not be confirmed for postoperative atelectasis. Age is a predisposing factor for the development of postoperative complications after lung resection. Other associated factors also influence the occurrence of these complications. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceptions of predisposing and protective factors for perinatal depression in same-sex parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lori E; Steele, Leah; Sapiro, Beth

    2005-01-01

    Increasing numbers of women are choosing to have children in the context of same-sex relationships or as "out" lesbian or bisexual individuals. This study used qualitative methods to assess perceived predisposing and protective factors for perinatal depression in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) women. Two focus groups with LGBQ women were conducted: 1) biological parents of young children and 2) nonbiological parents of young children or whose partners were currently pregnant. Three major themes emerged. Issues related to social support were primary, particularly related to disappointment with the lack of support provided by members of the family of origin. Participants also described issues related to the couple relationship, such as challenges in negotiating parenting roles. Finally, legal and policy barriers (e.g., second parent adoption) were identified as a significant source of stress during the transition to parenthood. Both lack of social support and relationship problems have previously been identified as risk factors for perinatal depression in heterosexual women, and legal and policy barriers may represent a unique risk factor for this population. Therefore, additional study of perinatal mental health among LGBQ women is warranted.

  18. Putting the brakes on mammary tumorigenesis: loss of STAT1 predisposes to intraepithelial neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneckenleithner, Christine; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Dolznig, Helmut; Neugebauer, Nina; Kollmann, Karoline; Kolbe, Thomas; Decker, Thomas; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Müller, Mathias; Stoiber, Dagmar; Sexl, Veronika

    2011-12-01

    Multiparous Stat1-/- mice spontaneously develop mammary tumors with increased incidence: at an average age of 12 months, 55% of the animals suffer from mammary cancer, although the histopathology is heterogeneous. We consistently observed mosaic expression or down-regulation of STAT1 protein in wild-type mammary cancer evolving in the control group. Transplantation experiments show that tumorigenesis in Stat1-/- mice is partially influenced by impaired CTL mediated tumor surveillance. Additionally, STAT1 exerts an intrinsic tumor suppressing role by controlling and blocking proliferation of the mammary epithelium. Loss of STAT1 in epithelial cells enhances cell growth in both transformed and primary cells. The increased proliferative capacity leads to the loss of structured acini formation in 3D-cultures. Analogous effects were observed when Irf1-/- epithelial cells were used. Accordingly, the rate of mammary intraepithelial neoplasias (MINs) is increased in Stat1-/- animals: MINs represent the first step towards mammary tumors. The experiments characterize STAT1/IRF1 as a key growth inhibitory and tumor suppressive signaling pathway that prevents mammary cancer formation by maintaining growth control. Furthermore, they define the loss of STAT1 as a predisposing event via enhanced MIN formation.

  19. Gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis can predispose ewes to clinical mastitis after experimental mammary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogianni, V S; Papadopoulos, E; Gougoulis, D A; Gallidis, E; Ptochos, S; Fragkou, I A; Orfanou, D C; Fthenakis, G C

    2017-10-15

    Objective was to study, in an experimental model, the possible role of gastrointestinal nematode infection in predisposing ewes to mastitis during the lactation period. Twenty-four ewes (A or B [n=12]), free from nematode and trematode helminths, were used. Group A animals received 5000 third-stage larvae of a trichostrongylid helminth cocktail and group B ewes were unparasitised controls. Animals in group A developed gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis confirmed by >500epg in faecal samples; mean epg of group B ewes were mastitis; no ewe in group B developed clinical mastitis, but only subclinical (12 ewes) (P=0.002). M. haemolytica was isolated from 132/132 and 121/132 udder samples from group A or B, respectively (Pmastitis than in others which did not (0.709 and 0.162 versus 0.662 and 0.136, respectively; Pmastitis (in group A or B), inducible-lymphoid-follicles were observed in the teat, which were not observed in ewes with clinical disease. Total pathology scores summed over all days were 127 and 73 for group A or B ewes, respectively (maximum possible 192; Pmastitis. It is concluded that, in view of bacterial challenge, gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis and particularly Teladorsagia infection, might lead to clinical mastitis, through various pathogenetic pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Discrete deposition of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on a titanium implant with predisposing substrate microtopography accelerated osseointegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Ichiro; Huang Yuhong; Butz, Frank; Ogawa, Takahiro; Lin, Audrey; Wang, Chiachien Jake

    2007-01-01

    We report here a new versatile method to deposit discrete hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles on a titanium (Ti) implant with predisposing substrate microtopography, which exhibited an unexpectedly robust biological effect. Commercially pure Ti substrates were treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, on which HA nanoparticles (20 nm) were deposited and chemically bonded to TiO 2 . The HA deposition rate was linearly related to the treatment time and HA nanoparticles were deposited on up to 50% of the substrate surface. As a result, the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles generated novel 20-40 nm nanotopography on the Ti substrate with microtopography that was smooth (turned) or roughened by double acid etching (DAE). The experimental implants with or without HA nanoparticles were surgically placed in rat femur and an implant push-in test was performed after two weeks of healing. The deposition of HA nanoparticles on the DAE surface increased the mechanical withstanding load by 129% and 782% as compared to the control DAE and turned implants, respectively. Micro-computed tomography-based 3D bone morphometry revealed equivalent bone volumes around the DAE implant with or without HA nanoparticles. These data suggest that the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles accelerates the early osseointegration process, likely through increased shear bonding strengths

  1. Haploinsufficiency of the genes encoding the tumor suppressor Pten predisposes zebrafish to hemangiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choorapoikayil, Suma; Kuiper, Raoul V; de Bruin, Alain; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2012-03-01

    PTEN is an essential tumor suppressor that antagonizes Akt/PKB signaling. The zebrafish genome encodes two Pten genes, ptena and ptenb. Here, we report that zebrafish mutants that retain a single wild-type copy of ptena or ptenb (ptena(+/-)ptenb(-/-) or ptena(-/-)ptenb(+/-)) are viable and fertile. ptena(+/-)ptenb(-/-) fish develop tumors at a relatively high incidence (10.2%) and most tumors developed close to the eye (26/30). Histopathologically, the tumor masses were associated with the retrobulbar vascular network and diagnosed as hemangiosarcomas. A single tumor was identified in 42 ptena(-/-)ptenb(+/-) fish and was also diagnosed as hemangiosarcoma. Immunohistochemistry indicated that the tumor cells in ptena(+/-)ptenb(-/-) and ptena(-/-)ptenb(+/-) fish proliferated rapidly and were of endothelial origin. Akt/PKB signaling was activated in the tumors, whereas Ptena was still detected in tumor tissue from ptena(+/-)ptenb(-/-) zebrafish. We conclude that haploinsufficiency of the genes encoding Pten predisposes to hemangiosarcoma in zebrafish.

  2. Status of Taenia solium cysticercosis and predisposing factors in developing countries involved in pig farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Kungu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a disease of pigs and humans populations considered endemic in many developing countries of Latin America, Africa, and South East Asia having serious impact on public health and agriculture. We conducted an in-depth comparative analysis of literature on the disease situation and predisposing factors in selected countries known to be at the interface of poverty-emerging livestock systems-zoonoses and with a growing small holder pig industry. Transmission, methods of diagnosis and employed control strategies of T. solium infection in pig and human populations in these countries are also discussed. Limited knowledge on porcine cysticercosis (PC by various stakeholders expected to be key players in its control has undermined efforts for eliminating this potentially eradicable condition. Poor pig production practices, poor hygiene, and sanitation habits have also been important in the maintenance of the T. solium life-cycle. The major gaps identified in this review include scanty current information on PC prevalence in pigs with hardly any reports on the condition in humans in most developing countries. Factors affecting pattern of the infection and how they interact at the different levels of the pig value chain have not been exhaustively studied. Information on socioeconomic and public health impact is inadequate and not current.

  3. Germline mutations in DNA repair genes predispose asbestos-exposed patients to malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Marta; Casalone, Elisabetta; Ferrante, Daniela; Aspesi, Anna; Morleo, Giulia; Biasi, Alessandra; Sculco, Marika; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Guarrera, Simonetta; Righi, Luisella; Grosso, Federica; Libener, Roberta; Pavesi, Mansueto; Mariani, Narciso; Casadio, Caterina; Boldorini, Renzo; Mirabelli, Dario; Pasini, Barbara; Magnani, Corrado; Matullo, Giuseppe; Dianzani, Irma

    2017-10-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, aggressive cancer caused by asbestos exposure. An inherited predisposition has been suggested to explain multiple cases in the same family and the observation that not all individuals highly exposed to asbestos develop the tumor. Germline mutations in BAP1 are responsible for a rare cancer predisposition syndrome that includes predisposition to mesothelioma. We hypothesized that other genes involved in hereditary cancer syndromes could be responsible for the inherited mesothelioma predisposition. We investigated the prevalence of germline variants in 94 cancer-predisposing genes in 93 MPM patients with a quantified asbestos exposure. Ten pathogenic truncating variants (PTVs) were identified in PALB2, BRCA1, FANCI, ATM, SLX4, BRCA2, FANCC, FANCF, PMS1 and XPC. All these genes are involved in DNA repair pathways, mostly in homologous recombination repair. Patients carrying PTVs represented 9.7% of the panel and showed lower asbestos exposure than did all the other patients (p = 0.0015). This suggests that they did not efficiently repair the DNA damage induced by asbestos and leading to carcinogenesis. This study shows that germline variants in several genes may increase MPM susceptibility in the presence of asbestos exposure and may be important for specific treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A cancer-predisposing "hot spot" mutation of the fumarase gene creates a dominant negative protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzato, Annalisa; Olivero, Martina; Perro, Mario; Brière, Jean Jacques; Rustin, Pierre; Di Renzo, Maria Flavia

    2008-02-15

    The Fumarase (Fumarate Hydratase, FH) is a tumor suppressor gene whose germline heterozygous mutations predispose to hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC). The FH gene encodes an enzyme of the Krebs cycle, functioning as a homotetramer and catalyzing the hydration of fumarate to malate. Among the numerous FH mutations reported so far, the R190H missense mutation is the most frequent in HLRCC patients. Here we show the functional analyses of the R190H, in comparison to the better characterized E319Q mutation. We first expressed wild-type and mutated proteins in FH deficient human skin fibroblasts, using lentiviral vectors. The wild-type transgene was able to restore the FH enzymatic activity in cells, while the R190H- and E319Q-FH were not. More interestingly, when the same transgenes were expressed in normal, FH-proficient cells, only the R190H-FH reduced the endogenous FH enzymatic activity. By enforcing the expression of equal amount of wild-type and R190H-FH in the same cell, we showed that the mutated FH protein directly inhibited enzymatic activity by nearly abrogating the FH homotetramer formation. These data demonstrate the dominant negative effect of the R190H missense mutation in the FH gene and suggest that the FH tumor-suppressing activity might be impaired in cells carrying a heterozygous mutation. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Early severe inflammatory responses to uropathogenic E. coli predispose to chronic and recurrent urinary tract infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Hannan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic infections are an increasing problem due to the aging population and the increase in antibiotic resistant organisms. Therefore, understanding the host-pathogen interactions that result in chronic infection is of great importance. Here, we investigate the molecular basis of chronic bacterial cystitis. We establish that introduction of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC into the bladders of C3H mice results in two distinct disease outcomes: resolution of acute infection or development of chronic cystitis lasting months. The incidence of chronic cystitis is both host strain and infectious dose-dependent. Further, development of chronic cystitis is preceded by biomarkers of local and systemic acute inflammation at 24 hours post-infection, including severe pyuria and bladder inflammation with mucosal injury, and a distinct serum cytokine signature consisting of elevated IL-5, IL-6, G-CSF, and the IL-8 analog KC. Mice deficient in TLR4 signaling or lymphocytes lack these innate responses and are resistant, to varying degrees, to developing chronic cystitis. Treatment of C3H mice with the glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone prior to UPEC infection also suppresses the development of chronic cystitis. Finally, individuals with a history of chronic cystitis, lasting at least 14 days, are significantly more susceptible to redeveloping severe, chronic cystitis upon bacterial challenge. Thus, we have discovered that the development of chronic cystitis in C3H mice by UPEC is facilitated by severe acute inflammatory responses early in infection, which subsequently are predisposing to recurrent cystitis, an insidious problem in women. Overall, these results have significant implications for our understanding of how early host-pathogen interactions at the mucosal surface determines the fate of disease.

  6. Mutations in complement regulatory proteins predispose to preeclampsia: a genetic analysis of the PROMISSE cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E Salmon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or antiphospholipid antibodies (APL Ab--autoimmune conditions characterized by complement-mediated injury--is associated with increased risk of preeclampsia and miscarriage. Our previous studies in mice indicate that complement activation targeted to the placenta drives angiogenic imbalance and placental insufficiency.We use PROMISSE, a prospective study of 250 pregnant patients with SLE and/or APL Ab, to test the hypothesis in humans that impaired capacity to limit complement activation predisposes to preeclampsia. We sequenced genes encoding three complement regulatory proteins--membrane cofactor protein (MCP, complement factor I (CFI, and complement factor H (CFH--in 40 patients who had preeclampsia and found heterozygous mutations in seven (18%. Five of these patients had risk variants in MCP or CFI that were previously identified in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, a disease characterized by endothelial damage. One had a novel mutation in MCP that impairs regulation of C4b. These findings constitute, to our knowledge, the first genetic defects associated with preeclampsia in SLE and/or APL Ab. We confirmed the association of hypomorphic variants of MCP and CFI in a cohort of non-autoimmune preeclampsia patients in which five of 59 were heterozygous for mutations.The presence of risk variants in complement regulatory proteins in patients with SLE and/or APL Ab who develop preeclampsia, as well as in preeclampsia patients lacking autoimmune disease, links complement activation to disease pathogenesis and suggests new targets for treatment of this important public health problem.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00198068.

  7. Urine Stasis Predisposes to Urinary Tract Infection by an Opportunistic Uropathogen in the Megabladder (Mgb Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Becknell

    Full Text Available Urinary stasis is a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI. Homozygous mutant Megabladder (Mgb-/- mice exhibit incomplete bladder emptying as a consequence of congenital detrusor aplasia. We hypothesize that this predisposes Mgb-/- mice to spontaneous and experimental UTI.Mgb-/-, Mgb+/-, and wild-type female mice underwent serial ultrasound and urine cultures at 4, 6, and 8 weeks to detect spontaneous UTI. Urine bacterial isolates were analyzed by Gram stain and speciated. Bladder stones were analyzed by x-ray diffractometry. Bladders and kidneys were subject to histologic analysis. The pathogenicity of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS isolated from Mgb-/- urine was tested by transurethral administration to culture-negative Mgb-/- or wild-type animals. The contribution of urinary stasis to CONS susceptibility was evaluated by cutaneous vesicostomy in Mgb-/- mice.Mgb-/- mice develop spontaneous bacteriuria (42% and struvite bladder stones (31% by 8 weeks, findings absent in Mgb+/- and wild-type controls. CONS was cultured as a solitary isolate from Mgb-/- bladder stones. Bladders and kidneys from mice with struvite stones exhibit mucosal injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These pathologic features of cystitis and pyelonephritis are replicated by transurethral inoculation of CONS in culture-negative Mgb-/- females, whereas wild-type animals are less susceptible to CONS colonization and organ injury. Cutaneous vesicostomy prior to CONS inoculation significantly reduces the quantity of CONS recovered from Mgb-/- urine, bladders, and kidneys.CONS is an opportunistic uropathogen in the setting of urinary stasis, leading to enhanced UTI incidence and severity in Mgb-/- mice.

  8. Peroneal tendinosis as a predisposing factor for the acute lateral ankle sprain in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziai, Pejman; Benca, Emir; Wenzel, Florian; Schuh, Reinhard; Krall, Christoph; Auffahrt, Alexander; Hofstetter, Martin; Windhager, Reinhard; Buchhorn, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    A painful episode in the region of the peroneal tendons, within the retromalleolar groove, is a common precipitating event of an acute lateral ankle sprain. A forefoot striking pattern is suspected to cause peroneal tendinosis. The aim of this study is to analyse the role of peroneal tendinosis as a predisposing factor for ankle sprain trauma in runners. Fifty-eight runners who had experienced acute ankle sprain trauma, with pre-existing pain episodes for up to 4 weeks in the region of the peroneal tendons, were assessed clinically. Fractures were excluded by conventional radiography. An magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan had been performed within 14 days after the traumatic event and was subsequently evaluated by two experienced radiologists. MRI revealed peroneal tendinosis in 55 patients (95% of the total study population). Peroneus brevis (PB) tendinosis was found in 48 patients (87% of all patients with peroneal tendinosis), and peroneus longus (PL) tendinosis was observed in 42 cases (76%). Thirty-five patients (64%) had combined PB and PL tendinosis. A lesion of the anterior talofibular ligament was found to be the most common ligament injury associated with peroneal tendinosis (29 cases; 53%), followed by a lesion of the calcaneofibular ligament (16 cases; 29%) and a lesion of the posterior tibiofibular ligament (13 cases; 24%). The results of this study reflect the correlation between peroneal tendinosis and ankle sprain trauma. Injuries of one or more ligaments are associated with further complications. A period of rest or forbearance of sports as well as adequate treatment of the peroneal tendinosis is essential to prevent subsequent ankle injuries, especially in runners. Modification of the running technique would also be beneficial. IV.

  9. Exploring genetic variants predisposing to diabetes mellitus and their association with indicators of socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Börge; Dragano, Nico; Scherag, André; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hoffmann, Per; Nöthen, Markus M; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne

    2014-06-16

    The relevance of disease-related genetic variants for the explanation of social inequalities in complex diseases is unclear and empirical analyses are largely missing. The aim of our study was to examine whether genetic variants predisposing to diabetes mellitus are associated with socioeconomic status in a population-based cohort. We genotyped 11 selected diabetes-related single nucleotide polymorphisms in 4655 participants (age 45-75 years) of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Diabetes status was self-reported or defined by blood glucose levels. Education, income and paternal occupation were assessed as indicators of socioeconomic status. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the association of socioeconomic status and diabetes by estimating sex-specific and age-adjusted prevalence ratios and their corresponding 95%-confidence intervals. To explore the relationship between individual single nucleotide polymorphisms and socioeconomic status sex- and age-adjusted odds ratios were computed. We adjusted the alpha-level for multiple testing of 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms using Bonferroni's method (α(BF) ~ 0.005). In addition, we explored the association of a genetic risk score with socioeconomic status. Social inequalities in diabetes were observed for all indicators of socioeconomic status. However, there were no significant associations between individual diabetes-related risk alleles and socioeconomic status with odds ratios ranging from 0.87 to 1.23. Similarly, the genetic risk score analysis revealed no evidence for an association. Our data provide no evidence for an association between 11 diabetes-related risk alleles and different indicators of socioeconomic status in a population-based cohort, suggesting that the explored genetic variants do not contribute to health inequalities in diabetes.

  10. Low Plasma Volume in Normotensive Formerly Preeclamptic Women Predisposes to Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Ralph R; Lotgering, Fred K; Hopman, Maria T; Van Dijk, Arie; Van de Vlugt, Maureen; Janssen, Mirian C H; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2015-11-01

    Formerly preeclamptic women are at risk for cardiovascular disease. Low plasma volume may reflect latent hypertension and potentially links preeclampsia with chronic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that low plasma volume in normotensive formerly preeclamptic women predisposes to hypertension. We longitudinally studied n=104 formerly preeclamptic women in whom plasma volume was measured 3 to 30 months after the preeclamptic pregnancy. Cardiovascular variables were assessed at 2 points in time (3-30 months postpartum and 2-5 years thereafter). Study population was divided into low plasma volume (≤1373 mL/m(2)) and normal plasma volume (>1373 mL/m(2)). Primary end point was hypertension at the second visit: defined as ≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic. Secondary outcome of this study was change in traditional cardiovascular risk profile between visits. Variables correlating univariately with change in blood pressure between visits were introduced in regression analysis. Eighteen of 104 (17%) formerly preeclamptic women who were normotensive at first visit had hypertension at second evaluation 2 to 5 years later. Hypertension developed more often in women with low plasma volume (10/35 [29%]) than in women with normal plasma volume (8/69 [12%]; odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-8.6). After adjustments, relationship between plasma volume status and subsequent hypertension persisted (adjusted odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-8.5). Mean arterial pressure at second visit correlated inverse linearly with plasma volume (r=-0.49; Phypertension within 5 years. Women with low plasma volume have higher chance to develop hypertension than women with normal plasma volume. Clinically, follow-up of blood pressure seems warranted in women with history of preeclampsia, even when initially normotensive. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Differences in subependymal vein anatomy may predispose preterm infants to GMH-IVH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Domenico; Severino, Mariasavina; Malova, Mariya; Parodi, Alessandro; Morana, Giovanni; Sedlacik, Jan; Govaert, Paul; Volpe, Joseph J; Rossi, Andrea; Ramenghi, Luca Antonio

    2018-01-01

    The anatomy of the deep venous system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of brain lesions in the preterm brain as shown by different histological studies. The aims of this study were to compare the subependymal vein anatomy of preterm neonates with germinal matrix haemorrhage-intraventricular haemorrhage (GMH-IVH), as evaluated by susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) venography, with a group of age-matched controls with normal brain MRI, and to explore the relationship between the anatomical features of subependymal veins and clinical risk factors for GMH-IVH. SWI venographies of 48 neonates with GMH-IVH and 130 neonates with normal brain MRI were retrospectively evaluated. Subependymal vein anatomy was classified into six different patterns: type 1 represented the classic pattern and types 2-6 were considered anatomic variants. A quantitative analysis of the venous curvature index was performed. Variables were analysed by using Mann-Whitney U and χ 2 tests, and a multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between anatomical features, clinical factors and GMH-IVH. A significant difference was noticed among the six anatomical patterns according to the presence of GMH-IVH (χ 2 =14.242, p=0.014). Anatomic variants were observed with higher frequency in neonates with GMH-IVH than in controls (62.2% and 49.6%, respectively). Neonates with GMH-IVH presented a narrower curvature of the terminal portion of subependymal veins (p<0.05). These anatomical features were significantly associated with GMH-IVH (p<0.05). Preterm neonates with GMH-IVH show higher variability of subependymal veins anatomy confirming a potential role as predisposing factor for GMH-IVH. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Evaluation of White Striping prevalence and predisposing factors in broilers at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Elisa; Drigo, Michele; Longoni, Corrado; Pezzotti, Raffaele; Fasoli, Paolo; Recordati, Camilla

    2015-08-01

    White striping ( WS: ) is an alteration of breast and thigh muscles of broiler chickens characterized by the presence of white striations parallel to the direction of muscle fibers. This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence and the predisposing factors to WS in commercial broilers of different weight reared in northern Italy. Fifty seven broiler flocks, including animals of medium- and heavy-weight, were grossly evaluated at slaughter for the presence of WS. For each flock, breeding data (mean BW at slaughter, ADG, sex, color of skin and fat, genetic line, age, antibiotic treatment, and prevalence of deep pectoral myopathy) were collected and statistically analyzed to assess their correlation with WS. Histology of breast fillets affected by different grades of WS was performed to evaluate potential differences between medium- and heavy-weight broilers. The overall prevalence of WS in medium- and heavy-weight broilers (mean BW 2.59 ± 0.13 kg and 3.64 ± 0.34 kg, respectively) was 70.2 ± 7.9% and 82.51 ± 8.5%, respectively, while the percentage of severe WS was 13.3 ± 7.1% and 25.7 ± 12.8%, respectively. A strong correlation was found between presence of WS, BW at slaughter, and ADG (Pearson correlation = 0.69, P myopathy (Spearman's Rho slaughterhouse 1 = 0.74, Spearman's Rho slaughterhouse 2 = 0.51, P myopathy, and that the lesions, as expected, were more severe in heavy-weight broilers. In conclusion, WS is a major concern in commercial meat poultry reared in Italy, affecting more severely heavier broilers, and it is mainly related to the BW and ADG of animals. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. MC1R variants predisposing to concomitant primary cutaneous melanoma in a monozygotic twin pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrini Cristina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concomitant primary cutaneous melanoma in monozygotic twins has been reported in only two pairs but in neither of them genetic analysis was performed. Two high-penetrance susceptibility genes, CDKN2A and CDK4 and one low-penetrance gene, MC1R, are well-defined genetic risk factors for melanoma. MITF has been recently identified as a novel intermediate risk melanoma-predisposing gene. Case presentation We describe the extraordinary occurrence of a primary cutaneous invasive melanoma in two 44-year-old identical, female twins, on the same body site within 30 days of each other and report for the first time the genetic analysis of melanoma susceptibility genes in both twins. Data on characteristics of the twins were collected through a standardized questionnaire and skin examination. Exons 1α, 1β, 2 and 3 of CDKN2A, exon 2 of CDK4, the entire open reading frame of MC1R and the recently described MITF c.952 G > A (p.Glu318Lys variant were investigated by direct sequencing. Sequencing analysis of the high-penetrance susceptibility genes showed no changes in CDKN2A and in exon 2 of the CDK4 gene. Both patients were heterozygous for the same CDKN2A UTR c.*29C > G variant. Interestingly, the same two heterozygous variants of the MC1R were identified in both twins: the c.451C > T (p.Arg151Cys and the c.456C > A (p.Tyr152* variants. Neither patient showed the c.952 G > A (p.Glu318Lys substitution in the MITF gene. Conclusions Identification of two high-risk MC1R variants in our identical twins in the absence of CDKN2A and CDK4 mutations highlights the contribution of low penetrance genes, such as MC1R, in melanoma susceptibility.

  14. Impact of Predisposing Factors on Academic Stress among Pre-Service Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pershaanbala Balakrishnan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have been done on stress among educators. Teachers, lecturers, and tutors all over the world has been brought into attention when it comes to stress related issues. Our purpose was to investigate the level of academic stress among pre-service teachers in a teaching education institution in Perak, Malaysia. Methods: In this study a cross-sectional comparative survey study was conducted on pre-service teachers from a teacher education institution. The variables that was tested and correlated throughout the study are age, gender, and marital status, and medical history, influence of medications, exercise and social lifestyle. Data was collected through questionnaires to find out the outcome. Descriptive data analysis was used to describe the socio-demographic data. Correlation analysis was used to determine the significant relation between the variables. P<0.05 was considered as significant of the study. Results: Majority of the students, 78.4% represent the severe category of distress according to the Kessler scale. The remaining 13.6% were recorded as being under mild and 7.6% (n=19 under moderate category of distress. Regrettably, less than 1% (n=1 of the pre-service teachers were from the well category. Exercise was found to be significantly associated with the prevalence of severe psychological distress. Simple logistic regressions showed that pre-service teachers who exercised had a significant 91% reduced risk for psychological distress (OR=0.09; 95% CI=0.02, 0.35 compared to those who doesn’t exercise. Conclusion: At the end of this study, a better understanding on the predisposing factors of academic stress among pre-service teachers was determined and therefore interventions on coping with stress can be made simple. Various physiotherapy interventions on preventive and corrective measures were suggested with reference to the results.

  15. A novel recurrent mutation in MITF predisposes to familial and sporadic melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Woods, Susan L.; Boyle, Glen M.; Aoude, Lauren G.; MacGregor, Stuart; Zismann, Victoria; Gartside, Michael; Cust, Anne E.; Haq, Rizwan; Harland, Mark; Taylor, John C.; Duffy, David L.; Holohan, Kelly; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Palmer, Jane M.; Bonazzi, Vanessa; Stark, Mitchell S.; Symmons, Judith; Law, Matthew H.; Schmidt, Christopher; Lanagan, Cathy; O’Connor, Linda; Holland, Elizabeth A.; Schmid, Helen; Maskiell, Judith A.; Jetann, Jodie; Ferguson, Megan; Jenkins, Mark A.; Kefford, Richard F.; Giles, Graham G.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Aitken, Joanne F.; Hopper, John L.; Whiteman, David C.; Pharoah, Paul D.; Easton, Douglas F.; Dunning, Alison M.; Newton-Bishop, Julia A.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mann, Graham J.; Bishop, D. Timothy; Tsao, Hensin; Trent, Jeffrey M.; Fisher, David E.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Brown, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    So far, two familial melanoma genes have been identified, accounting for a minority of genetic risk in families. Mutations in CDKN2A account for approximately 40% of familial cases1, and predisposing mutations in CDK4 have been reported in a very small number of melanoma kindreds2. To identify other familial melanoma genes, here we conducted whole-genome sequencing of probands from several melanoma families, identifying one individual carrying a novel germline variant (coding DNA sequence c.G1075A; protein sequence p.E318K; rs149617956) in the melanoma-lineage-specific oncogene microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Although the variant co-segregated with melanoma in some but not all cases in the family, linkage analysis of 31 families subsequently identified to carry the variant generated a log odds ratio (lod) score of 2.7 under a dominant model, indicating E318K as a possible intermediate risk variant. Consistent with this, the E318K variant was significantly associated with melanoma in a large Australian case–control sample. Likewise, it was similarly associated in an independent case–control sample from the United Kingdom. In the Australian sample, the variant allele was significantly over-represented in cases with a family history of melanoma, multiple primary melanomas, or both. The variant allele was also associated with increased naevus count and non-blue eye colour. Functional analysis of E318K showed that MITF encoded by the variant allele had impaired sumoylation and differentially regulated several MITF targets. These data indicate that MITF is a melanoma-predisposition gene and highlight the utility of whole-genome sequencing to identify novel rare variants associated with disease susceptibility. PMID:22080950

  16. [Predisposing factors, clinical picture and mortality in volvulus of the small intestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Plasencia, J; Huaynalaya, E; Rodríguez, F; Rebaza, H

    1992-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated predisposing factors, clinical picture and the methods of treatment related to morbidity and mortality of 19 small bowel volvulus (SBV) who underwent operation at Belen Hospital (Trujillo-Peru) during the last 26 years (1966-1992). The SBV was 1.6% of all cases of intestinal obstruction in this period and 10.8% of all intestinal volvulus. The median age was of 43 +/- 20.5 years (range, 6 to 78 years) and the majority of them were between 41 and 60 years. Sixteen cases (84.2%) were men from Indian and Spanish extraction and most of them were farmers and came from the Sierra of the Department of La Libertad. Two cases (10.5%) had non-related antecedents previous surgery. In six patients (31.6%) the volvulus was less than seven day's duration and in thirty (68.4%) it was more eight day's duration with previous attacks of obstruction (median: 19.3 days, range: 17 hours to 94 days). Pain, vomiting and distention were present in almost all of these cases. The most frequent abdominal finding was distention. The location of the volvulus was: ileum, 12 cases (63.2%), root of mesentery, 4 cases (21%) and jejunum, 3 cases (15.8%). Gangrenous bowel was present in six patients (31.5) and gangrenous intestine with perforation in two cases (10.5%) who underwent resection of the involved segment with primary anastomosis. In this group one patient (5.2%) died of sepsis and the wound infection rate was of 37.5%. There was no statistically significant correlation with the duration of illness and the presence of gangrenous loops or the mortality rate (p > 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Rilpivirine resistance mutation E138K in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase predisposed by prevalent polymorphic mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Tsunefusa; Hachiya, Atsuko; Ode, Hirotaka; Nishijima, Takeshi; Tsuchiya, Kiyoto; Sugiura, Wataru; Takiguchi, Masafumi; Oka, Shinichi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    Rilpivirine is listed as a recommended or alternative key drug in the current ART guidelines. E138K in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is a primary mutation in resistance to rilpivirine, although in vitro experiments showed it confers only E138K. The objective of this study was to reveal the mechanism amplifying rilpivirine resistance conferred by E138K. HIV-1 RT sequences were compared in patients who failed rilpivirine-containing ART virologically. The effects of mutations commonly identified with E138K on rilpivirine susceptibility were analysed by using recombinant HIV-1 variants. Rilpivirine-containing ART was introduced in 162 HIV-1-infected patients at the outpatient clinic of the AIDS Clinical Center (National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan) between May 2012 and June 2015. Virological treatment failure occurred in six of these patients. E138K emerged in three patients while other rilpivirine resistance mutations emerged in the other three patients. I135T/L were identified in only three patients with E138K and existed before the introduction of rilpivirine-containing ART. Analysis of recombinant HIV-1 variants indicated that E138K conferred low-level rilpivirine resistance and that coexistence of I135T/L with E138K amplified the resistance. I135T/L, escape mutations from HLA-B*51/52-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which are prevalent in Japan, may predispose HIV-1 to harbour E138K upon failure of rilpivirine-containing ART. The mutation patterns of drug resistance may vary due to baseline polymorphic mutations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Low blood glucose precipitates spike-and-wave activity in genetically predisposed animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Christopher A; Kim, Tae Hwan; Berkovic, Samuel F; Petrou, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Absence epilepsies are common, with a major genetic contribution to etiology. Certain environmental factors can influence absence occurrence but a complete understanding of absence precipitation is lacking. Herein we investigate if lowering blood glucose increases spike-wave activity in mouse models with varying seizure susceptibility. Three mouse models were used: an absence seizure model based on the knockin of a human GABA(A) γ2(R43Q) mutation (DBA(R43Q)), the spike-wave discharge (SWD)-prone DBA/2J strain, and the seizure resistant C57Bl/6 strain. Electrocorticography (ECoG) studies were recorded to determine SWDs during hypoglycemia induced by insulin or overnight fasting. An insulin-mediated reduction in blood glucose levels to 4 mm (c.a. 40% reduction) was sufficient to double SWD occurrence in the DBA(R43Q) model and in the SWD-prone DBA/2J mouse strain. Larger reductions in blood glucose further increased SWDs in both these models. However, even with large reductions in blood glucose, no discharges were observed in the seizure-resistant C57Bl/6 mouse strain. Injection of glucose reversed the impact of insulin on SWDs in the DBA(R43Q) model, supporting a reduction in blood glucose as the modulating influence. Overnight fasting reduced blood glucose levels to 4.5 mm (c.a. 35% reduction) and, like insulin, caused a doubling in occurrence of SWDs. Low blood glucose can precipitate SWDs in genetically predisposed animal models and should be considered as a potential environmental risk factor in patients with absence epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. [Prevalence and predisposing factors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in long-term care facilities. An international view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Rita

    2016-07-03

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens of healthcare and long-term care-associated infections over the world, resulting high morbidity, mortality and extra costs in these settings. The authors analyze the prevalence and predisposing factors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in long-term care facilities. Systematic review using PubMed, ScienceDirect and Cochrane Library CENTRAL databases between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2015 was performed. In the past ten years methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in European long-term care facilities (12.6%) was lower than in North America (33.9%). The most frequent predisposing factor was previous antimicrobial therapy, hospital admission and infection/colonisation, chronic wounds, and high care need. Based on the results, the prevention and control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an important public health priority in the European and Hungarian long-term care facilities.

  20. Does a PBL-based medical curriculum predispose training in specific career paths? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigarides, Jordan; Wingfield, Laura R; Kulendran, Myutan

    2017-01-07

    North American medical schools have used problem-based learning (PBL) structured medical education for more than 60 years. However, it has only recently been introduced in other medical schools outside of North America. Since its inception, there has been the debate on whether the PBL learning process predisposes students to select certain career paths. To review available evidence to determine the predisposition of specific career paths when undertaking a PBL-based medical curriculum. The career path trajectory was determined as measured by official Matching Programs, self-reported questionnaires and surveys, and formally defined career development milestones. A systematic literature review was performed. PubMed, Medline, Cochrane and ERIC databases were analysed in addition to reference lists for appropriate inclusion. Eleven studies fitting the inclusion criteria were identified. The majority of studies showed that PBL did not predispose a student to a career in a specific speciality (n = 7 out of 11 studies, 64%). However, three studies reported a significantly increased number of PBL graduates working in primary care compared to those from a non-PBL curriculum. PBL has been shown not to predispose medical students to a career in General Practice or any other speciality. Furthermore, a greater number of similar studies are required before a definitive conclusion can be made in the future.

  1. Inherited cancer predisposition sensitizes colonic mucosa to address Western diet effects and putative cancer-predisposing changes on mouse proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đermadi, Denis; Valo, Satu; Pussila, Marjaana; Reyhani, Nima; Sarantaus, Laura; Lalowski, Maciej; Baumann, Marc; Nyström, Minna

    2014-11-01

    Human epidemiological evidence and previous studies on mice have shown that Western-style diet (WD) may predispose gut mucosa to colorectal cancer (CRC). The mechanisms that mediate the effects of diet on tumorigenesis are largely unknown. To address putative cancer-predisposing events available for early detection, we quantitatively analyzed the proteome of histologically normal colon of a wild-type (Mlh1(+/+)) and an Mlh1(+/-) mouse after a long-term feeding experiment with WD and AIN-93G control diet. The Mlh1(+/-) mouse carries susceptibility to colon cancer analogous to a human CRC syndrome (Lynch syndrome). Remarkably, WD induced expression changes reflecting metabolic disturbances especially in the cancer-predisposed colon, while similar changes were not significant in the wild-type proteome. Overall, the detected changes constitute a complex interaction network of proteins involved in ATP synthesis coupled proton transport, oxidoreduction coenzyme and nicotinamide nucleotide metabolic processes, important in cell protection against reactive oxygen species toxicity. Of these proteins, selenium binding protein 1 and galectin-4, which directly interact with MutL homolog 1, are underlined in neoplastic processes, suggesting that sensitivity to WD is increased by an Mlh1 mutation. The significance of WD on CRC risk is highlighted by the fact that five out of six mice with neoplasias were fed with WD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Frequency and predisposing factors of leg cramps in pregnancy: a prospective clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrabvand F

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Leg cramp is the painful contraction of the muscles that often occurs at night. Pregnancy is the most common cause of muscle cramps that usually occur in the second trimester of pregnancy. Although the reasons of the spasms had not been determined, the imbalance between the absorption and elimination of serum electrolytes such as Ca, Mg and potassium and also insufficiency of some vitamins and probably the changes in activities of motor neurons of spinal cord, can be the source of these problems. The aim of this study was the evaluation of frequency and predisposing factors of leg cramps."n"nMethods: In a cross sectional descriptive analytic study, a group of 400 women in the third trimester of pregnancy were asked to record the symptoms of leg cramp. Their education level and job recorded and their total serum level of Ca and Mg was measured in the first visit. Exclusion criteria included systemic medical conditions such as thyroid disease, diabetes, osteoporosis and prenatal disorders such as gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia and patient cooperation."n"nResults: In our study the prevalence of leg cramp was 54.75%. There was a statistically significant relationship between leg cramp and serum

  3. C4 deficiency is a predisposing factor for Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced autoantibody production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammani, Rama D.; Leyva, Marcela A.; Jennings, Ryan N.; Haas, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Reductions in C4 levels may predispose individuals to infection with encapsulated bacteria as well as autoimmunity. In this study, we examined the role C4 has in protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced autoimmunity. Mild respiratory infection with serotype 19F pneumococci selectively induced systemic anti-dsDNA IgA production in naïve C4-/- mice, but not C3-/- or wild type mice. Systemic challenge with virulent serotype 3 pneumococci also induced anti-dsDNA IgA production in immune C4-/- mice. Remarkably, pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPS) vaccination alone induced C4-/- mice to produce increased anti-dsDNA IgA levels that were maintained in some mice for months. These effects were most pronounced in female C4-/- mice. Importantly, immunization-induced increases in anti-dsDNA IgA levels were strongly associated with increased IgA deposition in kidneys. Cross-reactivity between pneumococcal antigens and dsDNA played a partial role in the induction of anti-dsDNA IgA, but a major role for PPS-associated TLR2 agonists was also revealed. Administration of the TLR2/4 antagonist, OxPAPC, at the time of PPS immunization completely blocked the production of anti-dsDNA IgA in C4-/- mice without suppressing PPS-specific Ab production. The TLR2 agonist, Pam3Csk4, similarly induced anti-dsDNA IgA production in C4-/- mice, which OxPAPC also prevented. LPS, a TLR4 agonist, had no effect. Pam3Csk4, but not LPS, also induced dsDNA-specific IgA production by C4-/- splenic IgA+ B cells in vitro, indicating TLR2 agonists can stimulate autoAb production via B cell-intrinsic mechanisms. Collectively, our results show an important role for C4 in suppressing autoAb production elicited by cross-reactive antigens and TLR2 agonists associated with S. pneumoniae. PMID:25339671

  4. External beam irradiation for choroid metastases: identification of factors predisposing to long-term sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudoler, Shari B.; Corn, Benjamin W.; Shields, Carol L.; De Potter, Patrick; Hyslop, Terry; Shields, Jerry A.; Curran, Walter J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To improve overall quality of life, palliative treatments should attempt to minimize associated complications while effectively controlling specific symptoms. We reviewed our experience treating posterior uveal metastases with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to determine the complication rate and to identify the relationship between patient, tumor, or treatment-related factors and the development of ocular complications. Methods and Materials: 483 consecutive patients (pts) (578 eyes) were diagnosed with intraocular metastatic disease from solid tumors between 1972-1995. Of these, 233 eyes (188 pts) had lesions of the posterior uveal tract and received EBRT. Median follow-up time was 5.8 months (range: 0.7-170.0 months). Follow-up information regarding the development of complications was documented for 230 eyes. Complete EBRT details were available for 189 eyes. Seventy-two percent of the patients received 30.0-40.0 Gy in 2.0-3.0 Gy fractions. Biologically effective dose (BED) was calculated to allow meaningful comparisons between various fractionation regimens and total doses. Concurrent chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy was used for 101 eyes (44%). Results: Median BED was 61 Gy 3 (range, 6.7-105 Gy 3 ), and 80% of treated eyes received BED 50-70 Gy 3 . EBRT energies included photons (70%), 60 Co (19%), electrons (6%), mixed energies (3%), and orthovoltage (2%). Lens-sparing techniques were used in 136 eyes (71%). At last follow-up 28 eyes (12%) developed one or more significant complications, including cataracts (16 eyes), radiation retinopathy (6 eyes), optic neuropathy (5 eyes), exposure keratopathy (5 eyes), and neovascularization of the iris (4 eyes). Two eyes developed narrow-angle glaucoma, and one of these required enucleation. On univariate analysis, Caucasian race (vs. Black/Hispanic, p = 0.03), increased intraocular pressure at diagnosis (>21 mmHg, p = 0.02), and diagnosis by biopsy (vs. no biopsy, p = 0.03) predisposed toward the

  5. Pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch predisposes to adjacent segment disease after lumbar spinal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenfluh, Dominique A; Mueller, Daniel A; Rothenfluh, Esin; Min, Kan

    2015-06-01

    Several risk factors and causes of adjacent segment disease have been debated; however, no quantitative relationship to spino-pelvic parameters has been established so far. A retrospective case-control study was carried out to investigate spino-pelvic alignment in patients with adjacent segment disease compared to a control group. 45 patients (ASDis) were identified that underwent revision surgery for adjacent segment disease after on average 49 months (7-125), 39 patients were selected as control group (CTRL) similar in the distribution of the matching variables, such as age, gender, preoperative degenerative changes, and numbers of segments fused with a mean follow-up of 84 months (61-142) (total n = 84). Several radiographic parameters were measured on pre- and postoperative radiographs, including lumbar lordosis measured (LL), sacral slope, pelvic incidence (PI), and tilt. Significant differences between ASDis and CTRL groups on preoperative radiographs were seen for PI (60.9 ± 10.0° vs. 51.7 ± 10.4°, p = 0.001) and LL (48.1 ± 12.5° vs. 53.8 ± 10.8°, p = 0.012). Pelvic incidence was put into relation to lumbar lordosis by calculating the difference between pelvic incidence and lumbar lordosis (∆PILL = PI-LL, ASDis 12.5 ± 16.7° vs. CTRL 3.4 ± 12.1°, p = 0.001). A cutoff value of 9.8° was determined by logistic regression and ROC analysis and patients classified into a type A (∆PILL adjacent segment disease, whereas 78.3 % of patients classified as type B alignment had revision surgery. Classification of patients into type A and B alignments yields a sensitivity for predicting adjacent segment disease of 71 %, a specificity of 81 % and an odds ratio of 10.6. In degenerative disease of the lumbar spine a high pelvic incidence with diminished lumbar lordosis seems to predispose to adjacent segment disease. Patients with such pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch exhibit a 10-times higher risk for undergoing revision surgery than controls if

  6. Analysis of predisposing factors in elderly people with type II odontoid fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masahiko; Sakai, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Yukihiro; Nagai, Toshihiro; Sato, Masato; Mochida, Joji

    2014-06-01

    analysis. The disproportionate degenerative change between the atlantoodontoid and lateral atlantoaxial joint remained significant, even after adjusting for osteoporosis. Older patients with the dens fixed to the atlas because of degeneration of the atlantoodontoid joint and a smooth lateral atlantoaxial joint seem to sustain Type II odontoid fractures because, during a simple fall, the rotation of the head produces torque force on the osteoporotic dens-body junction, which acts as the rotatory center. The presence of the disproportionate osteoarthritic degeneration between the atlantoodontoid and lateral atlantoaxial joints predisposes older people to a Type II odontoid fracture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Recurrent microdeletions at 15q11.2 and 16p13.11 predispose to idiopathic generalized epilepsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kovel, Carolien G. F.; Trucks, Holger; Helbig, Ingo; Mefford, Heather C.; Baker, Carl; Leu, Costin; Kluck, Christian; Muhle, Hiltrud; von Spiczak, Sarah; Ostertag, Philipp; Obermeier, Tanja; Kleefuß-Lie, Ailing A.; Hallmann, Kerstin; Steffens, Michael; Gaus, Verena; Klein, Karl M.; Hamer, Hajo M.; Rosenow, Felix; Brilstra, Eva H.; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothée; Swinkels, Marielle E. M.; Weber, Yvonne G.; Unterberger, Iris; Zimprich, Fritz; Urak, Lydia; Feucht, Martha; Fuchs, Karoline; Møller, Rikke S.; Hjalgrim, Helle; De Jonghe, Peter; Suls, Arvid; Rückert, Ina-Maria; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Franke, Andre; Schreiber, Stefan; Nürnberg, Peter; Elger, Christian E.; Lerche, Holger; Stephani, Ulrich; Koeleman, Bobby P. C.; Lindhout, Dick; Eichler, Evan E.

    2010-01-01

    Idiopathic generalized epilepsies account for 30% of all epilepsies. Despite a predominant genetic aetiology, the genetic factors predisposing to idiopathic generalized epilepsies remain elusive. Studies of structural genomic variations have revealed a significant excess of recurrent microdeletions at 1q21.1, 15q11.2, 15q13.3, 16p11.2, 16p13.11 and 22q11.2 in various neuropsychiatric disorders including autism, intellectual disability and schizophrenia. Microdeletions at 15q13.3 have recently been shown to constitute a strong genetic risk factor for common idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndromes, implicating that other recurrent microdeletions may also be involved in epileptogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the impact of five microdeletions at the genomic hotspot regions 1q21.1, 15q11.2, 16p11.2, 16p13.11 and 22q11.2 on the genetic risk to common idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndromes. The candidate microdeletions were assessed by high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays in 1234 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy from North-western Europe and 3022 controls from the German population. Microdeletions were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and their breakpoints refined by array comparative genomic hybridization. In total, 22 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (1.8%) carried one of the five novel microdeletions compared with nine controls (0.3%) (odds ratio = 6.1; 95% confidence interval 2.8–13.2; χ2 = 26.7; 1 degree of freedom; P = 2.4 × 10−7). Microdeletions were observed at 1q21.1 [Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE)/control: 1/1], 15q11.2 (IGE/control: 12/6), 16p11.2 IGE/control: 1/0, 16p13.11 (IGE/control: 6/2) and 22q11.2 (IGE/control: 2/0). Significant associations with IGEs were found for the microdeletions at 15q11.2 (odds ratio = 4.9; 95% confidence interval 1.8–13.2; P = 4.2 × 10−4) and 16p13.11 (odds ratio = 7.4; 95% confidence interval 1.3–74.7; P = 0.009). Including nine

  8. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  9. Neonatal Bacterial Colonization Predispose to Lower Respiratory Infections in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa

    2014-01-01

    , the variation has been explained by environmental exposures such as day care attendance, breastfeeding, crowding, siblings, tobacco smoke exposure, low socioeconomic status, and male sex, but these risk factors only explain a minor proportion of the variation. Confidence in the results is hampered by lack...... neonatal airway colonization and risk of the LRI in a validated study cohort, and whether a possible association could be reflected in the early immune response to airway pathogens. In study I we aimed to ascertain the quality of information on child’s health, including asthma, allergy, eczema, respiratory...... at 4 weeks of age, revealing that 21% of the healthy neonates were colonized with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hemofilus influenzae and/or Moraxella catarrhalis. Colonization with at least one of these microorganisms was significantly associated with two-fold increased incidence of LRI, independently...

  10. Nipple Pain Incidence, the Predisposing Factors, the Recovery Period After Care Management, and the Exclusive Breastfeeding Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puapornpong, Pawin; Paritakul, Panwara; Suksamarnwong, Maysita; Srisuwan, Siriwan; Ketsuwan, Sukwadee

    2017-04-01

    Nipple pain is the most common complaint of breastfeeding mothers during the immediate postpartum period. Persistent nipple pain is associated with low breastfeeding rate at 6 months postpartum. To further explore the incidence of nipple pain, associated predisposing factors, time for recovery after management, and the impact on exclusive breastfeeding rates. Included in this study were 1,649 singleton, pregnant women who delivered and had their 1-week follow-up at the breastfeeding clinic during the period of January 2013 to December 2015. The mothers who experienced nipple pain were analyzed for the incidence, the predisposing factors, and the recovery period after care management. The breastfeeding outcome comparison of both, mothers with and without pain, was measured by the exclusive breastfeeding rate at the sixth week postpartum. The incidence of nipple pain was at 9.6% by day 7. A predisposing factor of nipple pain was primiparity (relative risk = 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.3-2.5). The reasons for nipple pain were inappropriate positioning and latching (72.3%), tongue-tie (23.2%), and oversupply (4.4%). The recovery period after care management was 1-2 weeks. There were no statistically significant differences between the 6-week exclusive breastfeeding rates of the mothers with nipple pain with treatment and the mothers without nipple pain. Persistent nipple pain was a common problem. The active management, including early detection and treatment, would help the mothers recover within a 2-week period and there was no significant difference of exclusive breastfeeding rates between the mothers who had early care management and the mothers without nipple pain.

  11. Absence of the predisposing factors and signs and symptoms usually associated with overreaching and overtraining in physical fitness centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ackel-D'Elia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of the well-known predisposing factors and signs and symptoms usually associated with either overreaching or overtraining syndrome in physical fitness centers in São Paulo City, Brazil. METHOD: A questionnaire consisting of 13 question groups pertaining to either predisposing factors (1-7 or signs and symptoms (8-13 was given to 413 subjects. The general training schedule of the volunteers was characterized by workout sessions of 2.18 ± 0.04 h for a total of 11.0 ± 0.3 h/week for 33 ± 2 months independent of the type of exercise performed (walking, running, spinning, bodybuilding and stretching. A mean score was calculated ranging from 1 (completely absent to 5 (severe for each question group. A low occurrence was considered to be a question group score lower than 4, which was observed in all 13 question groups. RESULTS: The psychological evaluation by POMS Mood State Questionnaire indicated a normal non-inverted iceberg. The hematological parameters, creatine kinase activity, cortisol, total testosterone and free testosterone concentrations were within the normal ranges for the majority of the volunteers selected for this analysis (n = 60. CONCLUSION: According to the questionnaire score analysis, no predisposing factors or signs and symptoms usually associated with either overreaching or overtraining were detected among the members of physical fitness centers in São Paulo City, Brazil. This observation was corroborated by the absence of any significant hematological or stress hormone level alterations in blood analyses of the majority of the selected volunteers (n = 60.

  12. Absence of the predisposing factors and signs and symptoms usually associated with overreaching and overtraining in physical fitness centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackel-D'Elia, Carolina; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; Castelo, Adauto; Nouailhetas, Viviane Louise Andrée; Silva, Antonio Carlos da

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of the well-known predisposing factors and signs and symptoms usually associated with either overreaching or overtraining syndrome in physical fitness centers in São Paulo City, Brazil. A questionnaire consisting of 13 question groups pertaining to either predisposing factors (1-7) or signs and symptoms (8-13) was given to 413 subjects. The general training schedule of the volunteers was characterized by workout sessions of 2.18 ± 0.04 h for a total of 11.0 ± 0.3 h/week for 33 ± 2 months independent of the type of exercise performed (walking, running, spinning, bodybuilding and stretching). A mean score was calculated ranging from 1 (completely absent) to 5 (severe) for each question group. A low occurrence was considered to be a question group score lower than 4, which was observed in all 13 question groups. The psychological evaluation by POMS Mood State Questionnaire indicated a normal non-inverted iceberg. The hematological parameters, creatine kinase activity, cortisol, total testosterone and free testosterone concentrations were within the normal ranges for the majority of the volunteers selected for this analysis (n = 60). According to the questionnaire score analysis, no predisposing factors or signs and symptoms usually associated with either overreaching or overtraining were detected among the members of physical fitness centers in São Paulo City, Brazil. This observation was corroborated by the absence of any significant hematological or stress hormone level alterations in blood analyses of the majority of the selected volunteers (n = 60).

  13. Ansa Pancreatica: A Case Report of a Type of Ductal Variation in a Patient with Idiopathic Acute Recurrent Pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Mi; Park, Jung Yup; Kim, Myeong Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Ansa pancreatica is a rare type of pancreatic ductal variation. Recently, ansa pancreatic has been considered as a predisposing factor in patients with idiopathic acute pancreatitis. To the best of our knowledge, no previously published report in Korea has described ansa pancreatica. We report a case of acute recurrent pancreatitis with ansa pancreatica, which was revealed on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)

  14. Healthcare Utilization by Older Age Groups in Northern States of Peninsular Malaysia: The Role of Predisposing, Enabling and Need Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Shamzaeffa; Abdullah, Norehan

    2017-06-01

    Determining factors that affect healthcare utilization by the elderly is vital for the health system to be more responsive in providing care to this vulnerable group. The main objective of this paper is to identify the effect of the predisposing, enabling, and need factors on doctor visits and in-patient care for the elderly residing in the northern region of Malaysia. A multistage cluster sampling was used in selecting the sample for the study. A total of 1414 respondents aged 60 and over were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. A probit model was used in estimating the utilization equations. At a significance level of 0.05, except for age, all predisposing and enabling factors were not statistically significant in affecting the doctor visits. On the other hand, being a male, smoker, medical insurance holder or had not actively involved in social interaction within the reference period increases the likelihood of being in-patient. Health-related variables remain the most significant factors that determine healthcare utilization, including both doctor visits and in-patient stays, in the area of study, which suggests that government policies to improve population health may influence the level of healthcare use in the future.

  15. Neonatal Bacterial Colonization Predispose to Lower Respiratory Infections in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa

    2014-01-01

    Lower respiratory infections (LRI) in childhood are common and account for considerable morbidity and health care utilization. The frequency of LRI varies significantly between otherwise healthy children, but extrinsic and intrinsic triggers of such variation are poorly understood. Traditionally...... infections and other health symptoms collected in the COPSAC2000 cohort. Records from General Practitioners from the first 3 study years were collected as an external reference and compared to COPSAC data. The COPSAC study exhibited full sensitivity to the main study objectives of the cohort, atopic diseases......, and high sensitivity to respiratory, infectious and skin related illness. In particular, sensitivity on LRI was 96%. There was no evidence of bias from concurrent asthmatic disease or socioeconomic status. In conclusion, the study confirmed that COPSAC data is a valid source for investigating childhood...

  16. Do water-limiting conditions predispose Norway spruce to bark beetle attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netherer, Sigrid; Matthews, Bradley; Katzensteiner, Klaus; Blackwell, Emma; Henschke, Patrick; Hietz, Peter; Pennerstorfer, Josef; Rosner, Sabine; Kikuta, Silvia; Schume, Helmut; Schopf, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Drought is considered to enhance susceptibility of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to infestations by the Eurasian spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus, Coleoptera: Curculionidae), although empirical evidence is scarce. We studied the impact of experimentally induced drought on tree water status and constitutive resin flow, and how physiological stress affects host acceptance and resistance. We established rain-out shelters to induce both severe (two full-cover plots) and moderate (two semi-cover plots) drought stress. In total, 18 sample trees, which were divided equally between the above treatment plots and two control plots, were investigated. Infestation was controlled experimentally using a novel ‘attack box’ method. Treatments influenced the ratios of successful and defended attacks, but predisposition of trees to infestation appeared to be mainly driven by variations in stress status of the individual trees over time. With increasingly negative twig water potentials and decreasing resin exudation, the defence capability of the spruce trees decreased. We provide empirical evidence that water-limiting conditions impair Norway spruce resistance to bark beetle attack. Yet, at the same time our data point to reduced host acceptance byI. typographus with more extreme drought stress, indicated by strongly negative pre-dawn twig water potentials. PMID:25417785

  17. PREVALENCE OF CELIAC DISEASE PREDISPOSING GENOTYPES, INCLUDING HLA-DQ2.2 VARIANT, IN BRAZILIAN CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleski, Nicole; Almeida, Lucas Malta; Almeida, Fernanda Coutinho de; Pratesi, Claudia Beatriz; Nóbrega, Yanna Karla de Medeiros; Gandolfi, Lenora

    2018-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Almost all celiac patients carry immune recognition genes coding for HLA-DQ2.5 and DQ8 heterodimers. Over the last few years, great importance has been given to HLA-DQ2.2 as probable predisposing variant, although controversies still exist regarding its relevance. The aim of our study was to determine the possible existence of an association between HLA-DQ2.2 and celiac disease in Brazilian children by analyzing the prevalence of the predisposing variants for celiac disease in a representative group of children of a population in which this determination is still missing. HLA-DQ typing was performed in samples from a group of celiac (n=100) and non-celiac children (n=110). All samples were tested for the presence of the following variants: DQA1*05-DQB1*02 (DQ2.5), DQA1*03-DQB1*03:02 (DQ8) and DQA1*02:01-DQB1*02:02 (DQ2.2). Fisher`s exact test was used for statistical analysis. In the group of 100 celiac children, 78 (78%) were positive for DQ2, 13 (13 %) were DQ2/DQ8 and 6 (6%) were DQ8 positives. The HLA-DQ pattern in the 110 non-celiac children was as follows: positive for DQ2 in 33 (29.9%) samples, in 2 (1.8 %) was positive for DQ2/DQ8 and in 15 (13.6%) was positive for DQ8. We found significant differences between the distribution of some but not all of the analyzed alleles when comparing celiac and non-celiac children. The genotyping of celiac disease HLA-DQ predisposing alleles showed similarities with HLA-DQ patterns found in both European and non-European populations, which may be a reflection of the miscegenation, which gave origin to the current Brazilian population. No significant association was found between DQ2.2 variant and celiac disease in the studied population.

  18. PREVALENCE OF CELIAC DISEASE PREDISPOSING GENOTYPES, INCLUDING HLA-DQ2.2 VARIANT, IN BRAZILIAN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole SELLESKI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Almost all celiac patients carry immune recognition genes coding for HLA-DQ2.5 and DQ8 heterodimers. Over the last few years, great importance has been given to HLA-DQ2.2 as probable predisposing variant, although controversies still exist regarding its relevance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to determine the possible existence of an association between HLA-DQ2.2 and celiac disease in Brazilian children by analyzing the prevalence of the predisposing variants for celiac disease in a representative group of children of a population in which this determination is still missing. METHODS: HLA-DQ typing was performed in samples from a group of celiac (n=100 and non-celiac children (n=110. All samples were tested for the presence of the following variants: DQA1*05-DQB1*02 (DQ2.5, DQA1*03-DQB1*03:02 (DQ8 and DQA1*02:01-DQB1*02:02 (DQ2.2. Fisher`s exact test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: In the group of 100 celiac children, 78 (78% were positive for DQ2, 13 (13 % were DQ2/DQ8 and 6 (6% were DQ8 positives. The HLA-DQ pattern in the 110 non-celiac children was as follows: positive for DQ2 in 33 (29.9% samples, in 2 (1.8 % was positive for DQ2/DQ8 and in 15 (13.6% was positive for DQ8. We found significant differences between the distribution of some but not all of the analyzed alleles when comparing celiac and non-celiac children. CONCLUSION: The genotyping of celiac disease HLA-DQ predisposing alleles showed similarities with HLA-DQ patterns found in both European and non-European populations, which may be a reflection of the miscegenation, which gave origin to the current Brazilian population. No significant association was found between DQ2.2 variant and celiac disease in the studied population.

  19. Acute enteritis or gastroenteritis in young dogs as a predisposing factor for intestinal intussusception: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallis, T S; Papazoglou, L G; Adamama-Moraitou, K K; Prassinos, N N

    2000-10-01

    Various types of intestinal intussusception were diagnosed in 29 of 220 young dogs with acute enteritis or gastroenteritis, due to canine parvovirus (85 cases) or presumably to other infectious agents, inflammation or less common hypermotility and metabolic derangements (135 cases). As the other causes of the disease were excluded, acute enteritis or gastroenteritis was considered to be the most likely predisposing factor for the intestinal intussusception. The most common type of intussusception was found to be the ileocolic. Of the 21 dogs that underwent surgical resection and anastomosis of the intestine, 18 dogs recovered completely and three died due to complications. The high survival rate was due to the effective pre-operative, surgical and post-operative therapy.

  20. Frequency of 3' VNTR Polymorphism in the Dopamine Transporter Gene SLC6A3 in Humans Predisposed to Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepkova, E V; Aftanas, L I; Maksimov, N; Menshanov, P N

    2016-11-01

    Predisposition to antisocial behavior can be related to the presence of certain polymorphic variants of genes encoding dopaminergic system proteins. We studied the frequencies of allele variants and genotypes of variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in 3' untranslated region (3' VTNR) of the dopaminergic transporter SLC6A3 gene in Caucasian men committed socially dangerous violent and non-violent crimes. Alleles with 9 and 10 repeats were most frequent in both the control group and group of men predisposed to antisocial behavior. At the same time, the 10/10 genotype was more frequently observed in the group of men prone to antisocial non-violent behavior. Hence, the presence of certain variants of 3' VTNR polymorphism of SLC6A3 gene in men is associated with predisposition to certain forms of antisocial behavior.

  1. Latest developments in the predisposal of radioactive waste at the radioactive waste management department from ifin-hh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragolici, F.; Dogaru, G.; Neacsu, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Department (DMDR) from IFIN-HH has a wide experience in the management of the non-fuel cycle radioactive wastes from all over Romania generated from nuclear techniques and technologies application, assuring the radiological safety and security of operators, population and environment. During 2011-2015 was implemented a major upgrading programme applied both on the technological systems of the building and on equipment. The paper describes the facility developments having the scope to share to the public and stakeholders the radioactive waste predisposal capabilities available at DMDR-IFIN-HH. As a whole, today DMDR-IFIN-HH represents a complete and complex infrastructure, assuring high quality services in all the steps related to the management of the institutional radioactive waste in Romania. (authors)

  2. Oral exposure to culture material extract containing fumonisins predisposes swine to the development of pneumonitis caused by Pasteurella multocida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halloy, David J.; Gustin, Pascal G.; Bouhet, Sandrine; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2005-01-01

    Fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum that commonly occurs in maize. In swine, consumption of contaminated feed induces liver damage and pulmonary edema. Pasteurella multocida is a secondary pathogen, which can generate a respiratory disorder in predisposed pigs. In this study, we examined the effect of oral exposure to fumonisin-containing culture material on lung inflammation caused by P. multocida. Piglets received by gavage a crude extract of fumonisin, 0.5 mg FB 1 /kg body weight/day, for 7 days. One day later, the animals were instilled intratracheally with a non toxin producing type A strain of P. multocida and followed up for 13 additional days. Pig weight and cough frequency were measured throughout the experiment. Lung lesions, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell composition and the expression of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated at the autopsy. Ingestion of fumonisin culture material or infection with P. multocida did not affect weight gain, induced no clinical sign or lung lesion, and only had minimal effect on BALF cell composition. Ingestion of mycotoxin extract increased the expression of IL-8, IL-18 and IFN-γ mRNA compared with P. multocida infection that increased the expression of TNF-α. The combined treatment with fumonisin culture material and P. multocida delayed growth, induced cough, and increased BALF total cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. Lung lesions were significantly enhanced in these animals and consisted of subacute interstitial pneumonia. TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-18 mRNA expression was also increased. Taken together, our data showed that fumonisin culture material is a predisposing factor to lung inflammation. These results may have implications for humans and animals consuming FB 1 contaminated food or feed

  3. Targeted Exome Sequencing of Krebs Cycle Genes Reveals Candidate Cancer-Predisposing Mutations in Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remacha, Laura; Comino-Méndez, Iñaki; Richter, Susan; Contreras, Laura; Currás-Freixes, María; Pita, Guillermo; Letón, Rocío; Galarreta, Antonio; Torres-Pérez, Rafael; Honrado, Emiliano; Jiménez, Scherezade; Maestre, Lorena; Moran, Sebastian; Esteller, Manel; Satrústegui, Jorgina; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Robledo, Mercedes; Cascón, Alberto

    2017-10-15

    Purpose: Mutations in Krebs cycle genes are frequently found in patients with pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas. Disruption of SDH, FH or MDH2 enzymatic activities lead to accumulation of specific metabolites, which give rise to epigenetic changes in the genome that cause a characteristic hypermethylated phenotype. Tumors showing this phenotype, but no alterations in the known predisposing genes, could harbor mutations in other Krebs cycle genes. Experimental Design: We used downregulation and methylation of RBP1, as a marker of a hypermethylation phenotype, to select eleven pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas for targeted exome sequencing of a panel of Krebs cycle-related genes. Methylation profiling, metabolite assessment and additional analyses were also performed in selected cases. Results: One of the 11 tumors was found to carry a known cancer-predisposing somatic mutation in IDH1 A variant in GOT2 , c.357A>T, found in a patient with multiple tumors, was associated with higher tumor mRNA and protein expression levels, increased GOT2 enzymatic activity in lymphoblastic cells, and altered metabolite ratios both in tumors and in GOT2 knockdown HeLa cells transfected with the variant. Array methylation-based analysis uncovered a somatic epigenetic mutation in SDHC in a patient with multiple pheochromocytomas and a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Finally, a truncating germline IDH3B mutation was found in a patient with a single paraganglioma showing an altered α-ketoglutarate/isocitrate ratio. Conclusions: This study further attests to the relevance of the Krebs cycle in the development of PCC and PGL, and points to a potential role of other metabolic enzymes involved in metabolite exchange between mitochondria and cytosol. Clin Cancer Res; 23(20); 6315-24. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Lung infarction following pulmonary embolism. A comparative study on clinical conditions and CT findings to identify predisposing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, J.; Obermann, A.; Stueckradt, S.; Tueshaus, C. [General Hospital Hagen (Germany). Radiology; Goltz, J.; Kickuth, R. [University Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany). Radiology; Liermann, D. [University Hospital Marienhospital Herne (Germany). Radiology

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this study was to identify factors predisposing to lung infarction in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). We performed a retrospective analysis on 154 patients with the final diagnosis of PE being examined between January 2009 and December 2012 by means of a Toshiba Aquilion 64 CT scanner. The severity of clinical symptoms was defined by means of a clinical index with 4 classes. The pulmonary clot load was quantified using a modified severity index of PE as proposed by Miller. We correlated several potential predictors of pulmonary infarction such as demographic data, pulmonary clot burden, distance of total vascular obstruction and pleura, the presence of cardiac congestion, signs of chronic bronchitis or emphysema with the occurrence of pulmonary infarction. Computed tomography revealed 78 areas of pulmonary infarction in 45/154 (29.2%) patients. The presence of infarction was significantly higher in the right lung than in the left lung (p < 0.001). We found no correlation between pulmonary infarction and the presence of accompanying malignant diseases (r=-0.069), signs of chronic bronchitis (r=-0.109), cardiac congestion (r=-0.076), the quantified clot burden score (r=0.176), and the severity of symptoms (r=-0.024). Only a very weak negative correlation between the presence of infarction and age (r=-0.199) was seen. However, we could demonstrate a moderate negative correlation between the distance of total vascular occlusion and the occurrence of infarction (r=-0.504). Neither cardiac congestion nor the degree of pulmonary vascular obstruction are main factors predisposing to pulmonary infarction in patients with PE. It seems that a peripheral total vascular obstruction more often results in infarction than even massive central clot burden.

  5. Replacing sugary drinks with milk is inversely associated with weight gain among young obesity-predisposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-11-14

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of sugary drink consumption and its substitution with alternative beverages with body weight gain among young children predisposed to future weight gain. Secondary analysis of the Healthy Start Study, a 1·5-year randomised controlled trial designed to prevent overweight among Danish children aged 2-6 years (n 366), was carried out. Multivariate linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of beverage consumption with change in body weight (Δweight) or BMI(ΔBMI) z-score. Substitution models were used to extrapolate the influence of replacing sugary drinks with alternative beverages (water, milk and diet drinks) on Δweight or ΔBMI z-score. Sugary drink intake at baseline and substitution of sugary drinks with milk were associated with both Δweight and ΔBMI z-score. Every 100 g/d increase in sugary drink intake was associated with 0·10 kg and 0·06 unit increases in body weight (P=0·048) and BMI z-score (P=0·04), respectively. Substitution of 100 g/d sugary drinks with 100 g/d milk was inversely associated with Δweight (β=-0·16 kg; P=0·045) and ΔBMI z-score (β=-0·07 units; P=0·04). The results of this study suggest that sugary drink consumption was associated with body weight gain among young children with high predisposition for future overweight. In line with the current recommendations, sugary drinks, whether high in added or natural sugar, should be discouraged to help prevent childhood obesity. Milk may be a good alternative to sugary drinks with regard to weight management among young obesity-predisposed children.

  6. Examining the Diet of Post-Migrant Hispanic Males Using the Precede-Proceed Model: Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Dietary Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Diana Cuy; Downey, Laura; Graham-Kresge, Susan; Yadrick, Kathleen; Zoellner, Jamie; Connell, Carol L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine socio-environmental, behavioral, and predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling (PRE) factors contributing to post-migration dietary behavior change among a sample of traditional Hispanic males. Design: In this descriptive study, semistructured interviews, a group interview, and photovoice, followed by group interviews, were…

  7. Prospective implementation of a software application for pre-disposal L/ILW waste management activities in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fako, Raluca; Sociu, Florin; Stan, Camelia; Georgescu, Roxana; Barariu, Gheorghe [National Authority for Nuclear Activity - Subsidiary of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Projects, 409 Atomistilor Str., P.O. Box 5204, Mg4 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)

    2013-07-01

    Romania is actively engaged to update the Medium and Long Term National Strategy for Safe Management of Radioactive Waste and to approve the Road Map for Geological Repository Development. Considering relevant documents to be further updated, about 122,000 m{sup 3} SL-LILW are to be disposed in a near surface facility that will have room, also, for quantities of VLLW. Planned date for commissioning is under revision. Taking into account that in this moment there are initiated several actions for the improvement of the technical capability for LILW treatment and conditioning, several steps for the possible use of SAFRAN software were considered. In view of specific data for Romanian radioactive waste inventory, authors are trying to highlight the expected limitations and unknown data related with the implementation of SAFRAN software for the foreseen pre-disposal waste management activities. There are challenges that have to be faced in the near future related with clear definition of the properties of each room, area and waste management activity. This work has the aim to address several LILW management issues in accordance with national and international regulatory framework for the assurance of nuclear safety. Also, authors intend to develop their institutional capability for the safety demonstration of the existent and future radioactive waste management facilities and activities. (authors)

  8. Predisposing and Precipitating Factors for Dissociation During Labor in a Cohort Study of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Childbearing Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kristen R; Seng, Julia S

    2016-01-01

    Peritraumatic dissociation is an important predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and impaired bonding following childbirth. The purpose of this study was to follow up on an earlier finding that peritraumatic dissociation in labor was associated with adverse postpartum outcomes by identifying predictors of dissociation in labor. This analysis used data from a prospective cohort study of primiparous women from southeast Michigan. There were 564 women included in the analysis; the primary outcome measure was the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) score measuring dissociation during labor. The prevalence of dissociation in labor for this sample was 7.4%. Important predictors of dissociation in labor included both predisposing (eg, childhood maltreatment trauma, preexisting psychopathology) and precipitating (eg, perception of care, negative appraisal of labor) factors. Overall, these predictors explained 14.7% of variance in PDEQ score. In 3 separate, simple linear regression models, the PDEQ score explained 20% of variance in postpartum PTSD, 13% of variance in postpartum depression, and 9% of variance in impaired bonding. Women with maltreatment history and PTSD are at risk to be retraumatized or overwhelmed by birth and to dissociate. Although it would be optimal to assess for dissociative coping prenatally, assessing with the PDEQ following birth could contribute to evaluation of risk for postpartum psychopathology. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  9. Predisposing and precipitating factors for dissociation during labor in a cohort study of posttraumatic stress disorder and childbearing outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kristen R.; Seng, Julia S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peritraumatic dissociation is an important predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and impaired bonding following childbirth. The purpose of this study was to follow up on an earlier finding that peritraumatic dissociation in labor was associated with adverse postpartum outcomes by identifying predictors of dissociation in labor. Methods This analysis used data from a prospective cohort study of primiparous women from Southeast Michigan. There were 564 women included in the analysis; the primary outcome measure was the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) score measuring dissociation during labor. Results The prevalence of dissociation in labor for this sample was 7.4%. Important predictors of dissociation in labor included both predisposing (eg, childhood maltreatment trauma, pre-existing psychopathology) and precipitating factors (eg, perception of care, negative appraisal of labor). Overall, these predictors explained 14.7% of variance in PDEQ score. In three separate simple linear regression models, the PDEQ score explained 20% of variance in postpartum PTSD, 13% of variance in postpartum depression, and 9% of variance in impaired bonding. Discussion Women with maltreatment history and PTSD are at risk to be re-traumatized or overwhelmed by birth and to dissociate. Although it would be optimal to assess for dissociative coping prenatally, assessing with the PDEQ following birth could contribute to evaluation of risk for postpartum psychopathology. PMID:26774007

  10. Chronic stress exposure may affect the brain's response to high calorie food cues and predispose to obesogenic eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Matthew S; Carter, Cameron S; Decant, Rashel; Laugero, Kevin D

    2013-08-15

    Exaggerated reactivity to food cues involving calorically-dense foods may significantly contribute to food consumption beyond caloric need. Chronic stress, which can induce palatable "comfort" food consumption, may trigger or reinforce neural pathways leading to stronger reactions to highly rewarding foods. We implemented functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess whether chronic stress influences activation in reward, motivation and executive brain regions in response to pictures of high calorie and low calorie foods in thirty women. On separate lab visits, we also assessed food intake from a snack food buffet and circulating cortisol. In women reporting higher chronic stress (HCS), pictures of high calorie foods elicited exaggerated activity in regions of the brain involving reward, motivation, and habitual decision-making. In response to pictures of high calorie food, higher chronic stress was also associated with significant deactivation in frontal regions (BA10; BA46) linked to strategic planning and emotional control. In functional connectivity analysis, HCS strengthened connectivity between amygdala and the putamen, while LCS enhanced connectivity between amygdala and the anterior cingulate and anterior prefrontal cortex (BA10). A hypocortisolemic signature and more consumption of high calorie foods from the snack buffet were observed in the HCS group. These results suggest that persistent stress exposure may alter the brain's response to food in ways that predispose individuals to poor eating habits which, if sustained, may increase risk for obesity. © 2013.

  11. Knockout of the TauT gene predisposes C57BL/6 mice to streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Han

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end stage renal disease in the world. Although tremendous efforts have been made, scientists have yet to identify an ideal animal model that can reproduce the characteristics of human diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we hypothesize that taurine insufficiency is a critical risk factor for development of diabetic nephropathy associated with diabetes mellitus. This hypothesis was tested in vivo in TauT heterozygous (TauT+/- and homozygous (TauT-/- knockout in C57BL/6 background mice. We have shown that alteration of the TauT gene (also known as SLC6A6 has a substantial effect on the susceptibility to development of extensive diabetic kidney disease in both TauT+/- and TauT-/-mouse models of diabetes. These animals developed histological changes characteristic of human diabetic nephropathy that included glomerulosclerosis, nodular lesions, arteriosclerosis, arteriolar dilation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Immunohistochemical staining of molecular markers of smooth muscle actin, CD34, Ki67 and collagen IV further confirmed these observations. Our results demonstrated that both homozygous and heterozygous TauT gene deletion predispose C57BL/6 mice to develop end-stage diabetic kidney disease, which closely replicates the pathological features of diabetic nephropathy in human diabetic patients.

  12. Predisposing factors for colonic torsion/volvulus in dogs: a retrospective study of six cases (1992-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Dominique; Brisson, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this retrospective study were to review cases of colonic torsion/volvulus between July 1992 and August 2010 and to determine if any predisposing factors exist for the development of this condition. Six dogs were diagnosed with colonic torsion/volvulus during the study period. Four dogs had a history of previous gastric dilation-volvulus (GDV) with prophylactic gastropexy. Three of six dogs diagnosed with colonic torsion/volvulus had large intestinal entrapment and strangulation around the gastropexy site at the time of surgery. The history, clinical signs, physical examination, and radiologic findings were not specific for colonic torsion/volvulus in any dog. Early exploratory laparotomy was indicated to confirm the diagnosis and perform surgical correction of the affected bowel segments. Three of five dogs that underwent surgery had a left abdominal wall colopexy performed. All five dogs that underwent surgery in this study survived postoperatively. One patient was euthanized without surgical intervention. Results suggest that colonic torsion/volvulus should be considered in any large-breed dog with nonspecific gastrointestinal clinical signs and a history of previous gastropexy. Early recognition and prompt treatment of this condition may result in a good outcome.

  13. High prevalence of specific KIR types in patients with HHV-8 positive cutaneous vascular lesions: a possible predisposing factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Alessandro; D'Accolti, Maria; Rizzo, Roberta; Virgili, Annarosa; Di Luca, Dario; Corazza, Monica; Caselli, Elisabetta

    2016-07-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) has been hypothesized to be a potential cofactor for the development of diverse cutaneous vascular proliferative lesions, including eruptive cherry angiomas. Recent reports evidenced the influence of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene diversity in defining the susceptibility to symptomatic herpesvirus infections. In this study, skin samples from vascular lesions and healthy controls were characterized simultaneously for the presence of HHV8 and for the KIR genotype, focusing upon the presence of the KIR2DL2/DS2 and KIR2DL3 genes, which have been associated to herpesvirus susceptibility. The results showed that about 64 % of the vascular lesions resulted positive for the presence of HHV8, whereas no control healthy skin samples harbored HHV8 DNA. HHV8-positive patients had a significantly increased frequency of KIR2DL2/DS2 homozigosity and a concomitant decrease of the homozygous KIR2DL3 genotype, compared to healthy controls or HHV8-negative patients. Notably, the simultaneous presence of KIR2DL2/DS2 homozygosity and HHV8 infection resulted in a significantly increased risk to develop cutaneous lesions (OR 5.7) compared to the individual factors alone, suggesting that specific KIR genotypes might predispose to HHV8 symptomatic infection, allowing the virus to exert its angioproliferative activity at skin level.

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study of Golden Retrievers Identifies Germ-Line Risk Factors Predisposing to Mast Cell Tumours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja L Arendt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Canine mast cell tumours (CMCT are one of the most common skin tumours in dogs with a major impact on canine health. Certain breeds have a higher risk of developing mast cell tumours, suggesting that underlying predisposing germ-line genetic factors play a role in the development of this disease. The genetic risk factors are largely unknown, although somatic mutations in the oncogene C-KIT have been detected in a proportion of CMCT, making CMCT a comparative model for mastocytosis in humans where C-KIT mutations are frequent. We have performed a genome wide association study in golden retrievers from two continents and identified separate regions in the genome associated with risk of CMCT in the two populations. Sequence capture of associated regions and subsequent fine mapping in a larger cohort of dogs identified a SNP associated with development of CMCT in the GNAI2 gene (p = 2.2x10-16, introducing an alternative splice form of this gene resulting in a truncated protein. In addition, disease associated haplotypes harbouring the hyaluronidase genes HYAL1, HYAL2 and HYAL3 on cfa20 and HYAL4, SPAM1 and HYALP1 on cfa14 were identified as separate risk factors in European and US golden retrievers, respectively, suggesting that turnover of hyaluronan plays an important role in the development of CMCT.

  15. Fournier’s Gangrene after Open Hemorrhoidectomy without a Predisposing Factor: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guldeniz Karadeniz Cakmak

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Fournier’s gangrene (FG is a fatal synergistic infectious disease with necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and abdominal wall along with the scrotum and penis in men and vulva in women. An unpredictable case of FG two weeks after open hemorrhoidectomy in a previously healthy 55-year-old male is described. Full-thickness patchy skin necrosis of the perianal, perineal and scrotal region associated with rectal perforation was detected on admission. Prompt radical debridement together with aggressive fluid resuscitation and broad-spectrum antibiotic administration was initiated. Because of rectal involvement, diverting sigmoid colostomy was fashioned. The patient survived after two additional local debridements. Nevertheless, loss of sphincter function due to massive muscle destruction led to permanent colostomy. Our case together with others reported in the literature illustrates that, although rare, FG after open hemorrhoidectomy represents a life-threatening complication to otherwise healthy patients. The development of fever and urinary retention should draw the attention of the surgeon, even if the presentation is delayed. The current literature only briefly mentions the potential risk of FG after such a common surgical procedure. However, devastating complications occur more often than anticipated. This disastrous complication without predisposing factor is discussed along with a literature review.

  16. Prevalence of Geographic tongue and Related Predisposing Factors in 7-18 Year-Old Students in Kermanshah, Iran 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Safarzadeh, Mina; Mozafari, Hamidreza; Tavakoli, Payam

    2015-02-24

    Geographic tongue is a benign lesion at the dorsum and margins of the tongue that sometimes causes pain and burning sensation. This lesion is characterized by an erythematous area with white or yellow folded edges. The predisposing factors of this lesion include heredity, allergies, psoriasis, stress, fissured tongue and consumption of some foods. The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of geographic tongue and its related factors among the 7-18 year-old students in Kermanshah, Iran. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in three schools in Kermanshah using multi-stage random cluster sampling method. A total number of 3600 students were examined (1800 girls and 1800 boys). Demographic data and the results of examinations were recorded in a questionnaire. The factors affecting the incidence of geographic tongue were analyzed by the SPSS-20 software and the Chi-square test.The prevalence of geographic tongue was 7.86% (283 individuals). The incidence of this lesion was significantly higher in males than in females (p<0.01). There was no relationship between geographic tongue and psoriasis or fissured tongue.  Pain and discomfort during eating was more prevalent in those with geographic tounge compared to those without this condition (p<0.02). The prevalence of geographic tongue among the studied population was 7.86%, and the prevalence of geographic tongue in male students was higher than in female students.

  17. Pelvic Chlamydial Infection Predisposes to Ectopic Pregnancy by Upregulating Integrin β1 to Promote Embryo-tubal Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Syed F; Brown, Jeremy K; Campbell, Lisa L; Koscielniak, Magda; Oliver, Catriona; Wheelhouse, Nick; Entrican, Gary; McFee, Stuart; Wills, Gillian S; McClure, Myra O; Horner, Patrick J; Gaikoumelou, Sevasti; Lee, Kai F; Critchley, Hilary O D; Duncan, W Colin; Horne, Andrew W

    2018-03-01

    Tubal ectopic pregnancies are a leading cause of global maternal morbidity and mortality. Previous infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is a major risk factor for tubal embryo implantation but the biological mechanism behind this association is unclear. Successful intra-uterine embryo implantation is associated with increased expression of endometrial "receptivity" integrins (cell adhesion molecules). We examined integrin expression in Fallopian tubes of women with previous C. trachomatis infection, in mice experimentally infected with C. trachomatis, in immortalised human oviductal epithelial cells (OE-E6/E7) and in an in vitro model of human embryo attachment (trophoblast spheroid-OE-E6/7 cell co-culture). Previous exposure with C. trachomatis increased Fallopian tube/oviduct integrin-subunit beta-1 (ITGB1) in women and mice compared to controls. C. trachomatis increased OE-E6/E7 cell ITGB1 expression and promoted trophoblast attachment to OE-E6/E7 cells which was negated by anti-ITGB1-antibody. We demonstrate that infection with C. trachomatis increases tubal ITGB1 expression, predisposing to tubal embryo attachment and ectopic pregnancy. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Variation in extinction risk among birds: chance or evolutionary predisposition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, P. M.; Owens, I. P. F.

    1997-01-01

    Collar et al. (1994) estimate that of the 9,672 extant species of bird, 1,111 are threatened by extinction. Here, we test whether these threatened species are simply a random sample of birds, or whether there is something about their biology that predisposes them to extinction. We ask three specific questions. First, is extinction risk randomly distributed among families? Second, which families, if any, contain more, or less, threatened species than would be expected by chance? Third, is variation between taxa in extinction risk associated with variation in either body size or fecundity? Extinction risk is not randomly distributed among families. The families which contain significantly more threatened species than expected are the parrots (Psittacidae), pheasants and allies (Phasianidae), albatrosses and allies (Procellariidae), rails (Rallidae), cranes (Gruidae), cracids (Cracidae), megapodes (Megapodidae) and pigeons (Columbidae). The only family which contains significantly fewer threatened species than expected is the woodpeckers (Picidae). Extinction risk is also not distributed randomly with respect to fecundity or body size. Once phylogeny has been controlled for, increases in extinction risk are independently associated with increases in body size and decreases in fecundity. We suggest that this is because low rates of fecundity, which evolved many tens of millions of years ago, predisposed certain lineages to extinction. Low-fecundity populations take longer to recover if they are reduced to small sizes and are, therefore, more likely to go extinct if an external force causes an increase in the rate of mortality, thereby perturbing the natural balance between fecundity and mortality.

  19. Morphological variation of the maxillary lateral incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Kondo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The maxillary lateral incisor is a variable tooth morphologically. This tooth frequently shows reduction in size, and also various alterations in shape, for example, peg-shaped, cone-shaped, barrel-shaped and canine-shaped. The lateral incisor variant can be analyzed by family studies and using twin models, and these approaches have shown that genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors can all contribute to variation in the trait. Discordance of the phenotype in monozygotic twin pairs could be explained by the following two hypotheses: (1 the embryological environment of monochorionic twin pairs who share the same placenta and chorionic membrane during the prenatal period may differ, (2 phenotypic variation may be caused by epigenetic influences. Possible developmental factors are discussed in this review. Recent studies suggest that Msx1, Pax9 and Axin2 genes predispose to lateral incisor agenesis. Tooth reduction and agenesis seem to represent inter-related complex multifactorial traits, influenced by a combination of gene expression and function, environmental interaction and developing timing. Thus, accumulation of large data banks of morphological data is needed to support and clarify ongoing molecular genetic studies of dental development.

  20. Choice of Postpartum Contraception: Factors Predisposing Pregnant Adolescents to Choose Less Effective Methods Over Long-Acting Reversible Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Mariam R; Wiemann, Constance M; Buzi, Ruth S; Kozinetz, Claudia A; Peskin, Melissa; Smith, Peggy B

    2016-06-01

    The purposes were to determine contraceptive methods pregnant adolescents intend to use postpartum and to understand factors that predispose intention to use less effective birth control than long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). Participants were 247 pregnant minority adolescents in a prenatal program. Intention was assessed by asking "Which of the following methods of preventing pregnancy do you intend to use after you deliver?" Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with intent to use nonhormonal (NH) contraception (male/female condoms, abstinence, withdrawal and no method) or short-/medium-acting hormonal (SMH) contraception (birth control pill, patch, vaginal ring, injectable medroxyprogesterone acetate) compared with LARC (implant and intrauterine device) postpartum. Twenty-three percent intended to use LARC, 53% an SMH method, and 24% an NH method. Participants who intended to use NH or SMH contraceptive methods over LARC were significantly more likely to believe that LARC is not effective at preventing pregnancy, to report that they do not make decisions to help reach their goals and that partners are not important when making contraceptive decisions. Other important factors were having a mother who was aged >19 years at first birth and had not graduated from high school, not having experienced a prior pregnancy or talked with parents about birth control options, and the perception of having limited financial resources. Distinct profiles of factors associated with intending to use NH or SMH contraceptive methods over LARC postpartum were identified and may inform future interventions to promote the use of LARC to prevent repeat pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High Glucose Predisposes Gene Expression and ERK Phosphorylation to Apoptosis and Impaired Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion via the Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Ronne Wee Yeh; Yang, Kaiyuan; Li, GuoDong; Lim, Sai Kiang

    2012-01-01

    Chronic high glucose (HG) inflicts glucotoxicity on vulnerable cell types such as pancreatic β cells and contributes to insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion in diabetic patients. To identify HG-induced cellular aberrations that are candidate mediators of glucotoxicity in pancreatic β cells, we analyzed gene expression in ERoSHK6, a mouse insulin-secreting cell line after chronic HG exposure (six-day exposure to 33.3 mM glucose). Chronic HG exposure which reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) increased transcript levels of 185 genes that clustered primarily in 5 processes namely cellular growth and proliferation; cell death; cellular assembly and organization; cell morphology; and cell-to-cell signaling and interaction. The former two were validated by increased apoptosis of ERoSHK6 cells after chronic HG exposure and reaffirmed the vulnerability of β cells to glucotoxicity. The three remaining processes were partially substantiated by changes in cellular morphology and structure, and instigated an investigation of the cytoskeleton and cell-cell adhesion. These studies revealed a depolymerized actin cytoskeleton that lacked actin stress fibers anchored at vinculin-containing focal adhesion sites as well as loss of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adherence after exposure to chronic HG, and were concomitant with constitutive ERK1/2 phosphorylation that was refractory to serum and glucose deprivation. Although inhibition of ERK phosphorylation by PD98059 promoted actin polymerization, it increased apoptosis and GSIS impairment. These findings suggest that ERK phosphorylation is a proximate regulator of cellular processes targeted by chronic HG-induced gene expression and that dynamic actin polymerization and depolymerization is important in β cell survival and function. Therefore, chronic HG alters gene expression and signal transduction to predispose the cytoskeleton towards apoptosis and GSIS impairment. PMID:23024780

  2. Macrophages and dendritic cells emerge in the liver during intestinal inflammation and predispose the liver to inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Mikami

    Full Text Available The liver is a physiological site of immune tolerance, the breakdown of which induces immunity. Liver antigen-presenting cells may be involved in both immune tolerance and activation. Although inflammatory diseases of the liver are frequently associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, the underlying immunological mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we report two murine models of inflammatory bowel disease: RAG-2(-/- mice adoptively transferred with CD4(+CD45RB(high T cells; and IL-10(-/- mice, accompanied by the infiltration of mononuclear cells in the liver. Notably, CD11b(-CD11c(lowPDCA-1(+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs abundantly residing in the liver of normal wild-type mice disappeared in colitic CD4(+CD45RB(high T cell-transferred RAG-2(-/- mice and IL-10(-/- mice in parallel with the emergence of macrophages (Mφs and conventional DCs (cDCs. Furthermore, liver Mφ/cDCs emerging during intestinal inflammation not only promote the proliferation of naïve CD4(+ T cells, but also instruct them to differentiate into IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells in vitro. The emergence of pathological Mφ/cDCs in the liver also occurred in a model of acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis under specific pathogen-free conditions, but was canceled in germ-free conditions. Last, the Mφ/cDCs that emerged in acute DSS colitis significantly exacerbated Fas-mediated hepatitis. Collectively, intestinal inflammation skews the composition of antigen-presenting cells in the liver through signaling from commensal bacteria and predisposes the liver to inflammation.

  3. A Maternal Low-Fiber Diet Predisposes Offspring to Improved Metabolic Phenotypes in Adulthood in an Herbivorous Rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Ying; Lou, Mei-Fang; Shen, Wei; Fu, Rong-Shu; Wang, De-Hua

    The maternal or paternal dietary composition can have important effects on various aspects of their offspring's physiology. Studies from animal models and humans showed that a maternal high-fiber diet protected offspring against fat accumulation. However, little is known about how a maternal low-fiber diet modifies the metabolism of offspring in herbivorous rodents. We hypothesized that a maternal low-fiber diet would confer long-lasting beneficial effects on offspring metabolic phenotypes in herbivorous Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii). Female voles were fed either a control (12.4% fiber) or a low-fiber (3.5% fiber) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation, and all offspring were fed the control diet after weaning till 14 wk old. Offspring were sampled from each litter at 18 d and 14 wk of age. Another subset of adult offspring at 15 wk of age was fed a high-fat diet for 8 wk. We found that there was no difference in litter size, litter mass, or pup mass before weaning between the two maternal diet groups. Offspring from the maternal low-fiber diet increased energy intake, body mass, and lean mass; suppressed fat accumulation; and improved glucose tolerance compared with those from the control diet. Moreover, the maternal low-fiber diet alleviated high-fat diet-induced obesity in the adult offspring. Serum leptin concentration and uncoupling protein 1 content in brown adipose tissue of offspring were not affected by a maternal low-fiber diet. We demonstrate that herbivorous females fed a low-fiber diet during pregnancy and lactation may predispose their offspring to accelerated growth of lean tissue, which may increase the opportunity for survival and reproduction in offspring.

  4. Analysis of adverse events and predisposing factors in voluntary and replacement whole blood donors: A study from north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Agnihotri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of awareness and community motivation, compounded with fragmented blood transfusion services in our country, Often leads to shortage of blood. Donor recruitment and retention are essential for ensuring adequate blood supply. However, adverse events (AEs in donors have a negative impact on donor return. Aims and Objectives: The present study was aimed to assess the frequency of AEs in whole blood donors and analyze the predisposing factors for AEs. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on allogeneic whole blood donors over a period of 14 months, i.e., from January 2002 to February 2003. A total of 37,896 donors were monitored for any AEs: 22587 (59.6% were voluntary donors (VD and 15,309 (40.4% were replacement donors (RD. Results: Overall reaction rate was 2.5% with vasovagal reactions constituting 63.5% and hematomas 35.0% of all reactions. Vasovagal reactions showed a significant association with young age, lower weight, first time donation status, female gender, and nature of blood donation camps. Amongst male donors, RDs had more reactions (P=0.03 than VDs. Majority of donors (85% with vasovagal reactions admitted to some fear or anxiety prior to donation. Hematoma formation occurred significantly more when less trained staff performed phlebotomy. Conclusion: Donor safety is an essential prerequisite to increase voluntary blood donation. AE analysis helps in identifying the blood donors at risk of donor reactions and adopting appropriate donor motivational strategies, pre-donation counseling, and care during and after donation.

  5. Arterial distensibility in patients with ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms: Is it a predisposing factor for rupture risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusak, Abdurrahim; Kamasak, Kaan; Goya, Cemil; Adin, Mehmet E.; Elbey, Mehmet A.; Bilici, Aslan

    2013-01-01

    Background A risk factor assessment that reliably predicts whether patients are predisposed to intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture has yet to be formulated. As such, the clinical management of unruptured IA remains unclear. Our aim was to determine whether impaired arterial distensibility and hypertrophic remodeling might be indicators of risk for IA rupture. Material/Methods The study population (n=49) was selected from consecutive admissions for either unruptured IA (n=23) or ruptured IA (n=26) from January to December 2010. Hemodynamic measures were taken from every patient, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer. Unruptured IA and ruptured IA characteristics, including aneurysmal shape, size, angle, aspect ratio, and bottleneck factor, were measured and calculated from transverse brain CT angiography images. With ultrasound, the right common carotid artery intima-media thickness was measured, as well as the lumen diameter during systole and diastole. Arterial wall strain, distensibility, stiffness index, and elastic modulus were calculated and compared between patients with unruptured IAs and ruptured IAs. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results General demographic data did not differ between patients with unruptured IAs and ruptured IAs. Greater mean intima-media thickness (p=0.013), mean stiffness index (p=0.044), and mean elastic modulus (p=0.026) were observed for patients with ruptured IAs. Moreover, mean strain (p=0.013) and mean distensibility (p=0.024) were decreased in patients with ruptured IAs. Conclusions Patients with ruptured IAs demonstrated decreased arterial distensibility and increased intima-media thickness at the level of the carotid arteries. By measuring these parameters via ultrasound, it may be possible to predict whether patients with existing IAs might rupture and hemorrhage into the subarachnoid space. PMID:23974299

  6. Variational principles for locally variational forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brajercik, J.; Krupka, D.

    2005-01-01

    We present the theory of higher order local variational principles in fibered manifolds, in which the fundamental global concept is a locally variational dynamical form. Any two Lepage forms, defining a local variational principle for this form, differ on intersection of their domains, by a variationally trivial form. In this sense, but in a different geometric setting, the local variational principles satisfy analogous properties as the variational functionals of the Chern-Simons type. The resulting theory of extremals and symmetries extends the first order theories of the Lagrange-Souriau form, presented by Grigore and Popp, and closed equivalents of the first order Euler-Lagrange forms of Hakova and Krupkova. Conceptually, our approach differs from Prieto, who uses the Poincare-Cartan forms, which do not have higher order global analogues

  7. Child behavioural problems and body size among 2-6 year old children predisposed to overweight. results from the "healthy start" study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Pedersen, Jeanett; Händel, Mina N

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychological adversities among young children may be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. We examined if an increased level of child behavioural problems was associated with body size among a selected group of 2-6 year old children, who were all predisposed to develop...... overweight. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using baseline data from the "Healthy Start" intervention study. A total of 3058 children were invited to participate, and data from 583 children who were all predisposed for obesity was analyzed. The Danish version of the Strengths...... and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess child stress by the SDQ Total Difficulties (SDQ-TD) score and the Prosocial Behavior (PSB) score. Height and weight were measured, and BMI z-scores were calculated. RESULTS: A direct, but non-significant linear trend was found between SDQ-TD score and BMI z...

  8. Predisposing factors for neonatal jaundice in patients discharged from neonatal ICU, in los Ángeles children’s Hospital in Pasto

    OpenAIRE

    Angie Lizeth Galíndez-González; Sara Raquel Carrera-Benavides; Angely Alejandra Díaz-Jiménez; Mavir Bibiana Martínez-Burbano

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Neonatal jaundice is one of the most common conditions in newborns; however, improper treatment can be harmful to the patient, despite being benign. Objective: To determine the predisposing factors of neonatal jaundice in patients discharged from the neonatal ICU of Los Angeles children's Hospital in the city of Pasto (Nariño) between January 2007and August 2011. Materials and methods: An observational, descriptive, retrospective and quantitative study was conducted. 608 clinica...

  9. Low range of ankle dorsiflexion predisposes for patellar tendinopathy in junior elite basketball players: a 1-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Ludvig J; Danielson, Patrik

    2011-12-01

    Patellar tendinopathy (PT) is one of the most common reasons for sport-induced pain of the knee. Low ankle dorsiflexion range might predispose for PT because of load-bearing compensation in the patellar tendon. The purpose of this 1-year prospective study was to analyze if a low ankle dorsiflexion range increases the risk of developing PT for basketball players. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Ninety junior elite basketball players were examined for different characteristics and potential risk factors for PT, including ankle dorsiflexion range in the dominant and nondominant leg. Data were collected over a 1-year period and follow-up, including reexamination, was made at the end of the year. Seventy-five players met the inclusion criteria. At the follow-up, 12 players (16.0%) had developed unilateral PT. These players were found to have had a significantly lower mean ankle dorsiflexion range at baseline than the healthy players, with a mean difference of -4.7° (P = .038) for the dominant limb and -5.1° (P = .024) for the nondominant limb. Complementary statistical analysis showed that players with dorsiflexion range less than 36.5° had a risk of 18.5% to 29.4% of developing PT within a year, as compared with 1.8% to 2.1% for players with dorsiflexion range greater than 36.5°. Limbs with a history of 2 or more ankle sprains had a slightly less mean ankle dorsiflexion range compared to those with 0 or 1 sprain (mean difference, -1.5° to -2.5°), although this was only statistically significant for nondominant legs. This study clearly shows that low ankle dorsiflexion range is a risk factor for developing PT in basketball players. In the studied material, an ankle dorsiflexion range of 36.5° was found to be the most appropriate cutoff point for prognostic screening. This might be useful information in identifying at-risk individuals in basketball teams and enabling preventive actions. A history of ankle sprains might contribute to reduced ankle

  10. Descriptive cross sectional study on prevalence, perceptions, predisposing factors and health seeking behaviour of women with stress urinary incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) leads to considerable physical and psychological morbidity. The highest prevalence reported was found in Caucasian Americans (range 23% -67%) and the lowest in Singaporean females (4.8%). The study assessed the prevalence, perceptions, predisposing factors and health seeking behaviour of women with SUI in an Asian setting which may have different sociocultural implications. Methods 400 consecutive women >20 years of age attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka, for non-urinary conditions were studied over a 3 week period using an interviewer administered questionnaire. SUI was diagnosed on clinical history alone when leakage of urine occurred either with coughing, sneezing, walking or lifting heavy objects. The severity was graded using the Finnish Gynaecological Society’s Urinary Incontinence Severity Score (UISS). Data were analysed using SPSS version 20. Odds ratios were calculated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Ninety three (23.33%) had SUI and only 12 (12.9%) had sought treatment. The prevalence among women >50 years of age was 34.71% ( n = 121) compared to 18.28% (n = 279) in those ≤50 years. 25 (26.88%) had mild SUI, 66 (70.97%) moderate and 2 (2.15%) severe as per UISS. SUI was perceived as an illness by 210 (52.5%). SUI was significantly associated with pregnancy, parity, vaginal delivery, complicated labour, diabetes mellitus, chronic cough, constipation and faecal incontinence (p < 0.05). Among those affected main reasons for not seeking medical advice included; being embarrassed (n = 27, 33.33%), not knowing that it is remediable (n = 23, 28.40%), perceiving SUI to be a normal consequence of childbirth (n = 19, 23.46%) and having to attend to needs of the family (n = 12, 14.81%). None who had been pregnant (n = 313) had received advice on postnatal pelvic floor exercises. SUI interfered with social activities (71;76.34%), sexual

  11. Population testing for cancer predisposing BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in the Ashkenazi-Jewish community: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, Ranjit; Loggenberg, Kelly; Sanderson, Saskia; Burnell, Matthew; Wardle, Jane; Gessler, Sue; Side, Lucy; Balogun, Nyala; Desai, Rakshit; Kumar, Ajith; Dorkins, Huw; Wallis, Yvonne; Chapman, Cyril; Taylor, Rohan; Jacobs, Chris; Tomlinson, Ian; McGuire, Alistair; Beller, Uziel; Menon, Usha; Jacobs, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances raise the possibility of systematic population-based genetic testing for cancer-predisposing mutations, but it is uncertain whether benefits outweigh disadvantages. We directly compared the psychological/quality-of-life consequences of such an approach to family history (FH)-based testing. In a randomized controlled trial of BRCA1/2 gene-mutation testing in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, we compared testing all participants in the population screening (PS) arm with testing those fulfilling standard FH-based clinical criteria (FH arm). Following a targeted community campaign, AJ participants older than 18 years were recruited by self-referral after pretest genetic counseling. The effects of BRCA1/2 genetic testing on acceptability, psychological impact, and quality-of-life measures were assessed by random effects regression analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. One thousand, one hundred sixty-eight AJ individuals were counseled, 1042 consented, 1034 were randomly assigned (691 women, 343 men), and 1017 were eligible for analysis. Mean age was 54.3 (SD = 14.66) years. Thirteen BRCA1/2 carriers were identified in the PS arm, nine in the FH arm. Five more carriers were detected among FH-negative FH-arm participants following study completion. There were no statistically significant differences between the FH and PS arms at seven days or three months on measures of anxiety, depression, health anxiety, distress, uncertainty, and quality-of-life. Contrast tests indicated that overall anxiety (P = .0001) and uncertainty (P = .005) associated with genetic testing decreased; positive experience scores increased (P = .0001); quality-of-life and health anxiety did not change with time. Overall, 56% of carriers did not fulfill clinical criteria for genetic testing, and the BRCA1/2 prevalence was 2.45%. Compared with FH-based testing, population-based genetic testing in Ashkenazi Jews doesn't adversely affect short-term psychological

  12. Phenomenology and predisposing factors of morbid jealousy in a psychiatric outdoor: a cross-sectional, descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyajeet Kumar Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Jealousy in a sexual relation has some advantage that it ensures propagation of one’s own gene as put by evolutionary psychologists. However, if this belief is based on unfounded evidence it may impair the relationship between partners and may be extremely distressful. Morbid jealousy may present as obsession, overvalued idea, or delusion as one of the symptoms in different psychiatric disorders. Aim: The aim of the study was to find the frequency of patients with morbid jealousy presenting in the Department of Psychiatry of Patna Medical College and Hospital (PMCH, the psychiatric diagnoses of such patients, frequency of different forms of morbid jealousy (obsession, overvalued idea, and delusion. Also, to assess predisposing or triggering factors for jealousy and to assess for suicidality in such patients and their partners. Materials and methods: All patients attending the Department of Psychiatry, PMCH were administered a screening questionnaire and if they qualified they were further administered the operational criteria for morbid jealousy. The psychiatric diagnosis was confirmed with the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems: Diagnostic Criteria for Research (ICD-10: DCR. Each patient was then administered a rating scale to quantify the psychopathology. Results: Out of 970 patients who attended outpatient department, 658 patients were administered the screening questionnaire, 174 qualified who were later assessed with the operational criteria for morbid jealousy. Fifty patients who fulfilled the criteria were assessed. The mean age of presentation for both sexes were 36.44 year (SD=13.12 years. Morbid jealousy was found to be twice as common in males as compared in females. Highest prevalence was found among participants who had higher secondary education, belonged to middle socioeconomic status, and having psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia followed by

  13. Infantile spasms are associated with abnormal copy number variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vijay N; Sundaram, Senthil K; Chugani, Harry T; Huq, A H M M

    2013-10-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that de novo copy number variations (CNVs) implicated in known genomic disorders ("pathogenic CNVs") are significant predisposing factors of infantile spasms. The authors performed a genome-wide analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping microarray data to identify the role of de novo/known pathogenic large CNVs in 13 trios of children affected by infantile spasms. A rare, large (4.8 Mb) de novo duplication was detected in the 15q11-13 region of 1 patient. In addition, 3 known pathogenic CNVs (present in the patient as well as 1 of the parents) were detected in total. In 1 patient, a known pathogenic deletion was detected in the region of 2q32.3. Similarly, in 1 other patient, 2 known pathogenic deletions in the regions of 16p11.2 and Xp22.13 (containing CDKL5) were detected. These findings suggest that some specific pathogenic CNVs predispose to infantile spasms and may be associated with different phenotypes.

  14. Variational Monte Carlo Technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ias

    RESONANCE ⎜ August 2014. GENERAL ⎜ ARTICLE. Variational Monte Carlo Technique. Ground State Energies of Quantum Mechanical Systems. Sukanta Deb. Keywords. Variational methods, Monte. Carlo techniques, harmonic os- cillators, quantum mechanical systems. Sukanta Deb is an. Assistant Professor in the.

  15. Predisposing factors of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy: comparison between CT emphysema score and pulmonary function test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Park, Kyung Joo; Park, Dong Won; Jung, Kyung Il; Suh, Jung Ho

    1997-01-01

    To compare the CT emphysema score with various factors of pulmonary function test by simple spirometry and to use the result as a predictor of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy. The CT scans of 106 patients who had undergone percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions within the previous 18 months were retrospectively reviewed. In 75 of these 106 cases, the results of the pulmonary function test were also reviewed. On plain chest radiography, pneumothorax was noted in 20 cases (19%). Emphysema was blindly evaluated. We divided each lung into four segments and determined the severity and involved volume of emphysema, as seen on CT. Severity was classified as one of four grades, as follow : absence of emphysema=0 ; low attenuation area of less than 5mm=1 ; low attenuation area of more than 5mm, and vascular pruning with normal lung intervening=2 ; and diffuse low attenuation without intervening normal lung, and larger confluent low attenuation with vascular pruning and distortion of branching pattern occupying all or almost all the involved parenchyma=3. The involved area was also classified as one of four grades : less than 25%=1 ; 25 - 49%=2 ; 51 - 74%=3 ; and more than 75%=4. The CT emphysema score was defined as the average of the grade of severity multiplied by the grade of involved area. Pulmonary function tests, consisting of simple spirometry and a pulmonologist's interpretation, were evaluated. We also evaluated depth and size of lesion as known predisposing factors in postbioptic pneumothorax. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, Wilcoxon ranks sum W test and the student t test. A comparison between the two groups of occurrence(with or without pneumothorax) showed the emphysema scores to be 1.69±2.0 and 1.11±2.9, respectively ; there was thus no significant difference between the two groups (z= - 0.048, p>0.10). Nor were differences revealed by the pulmonary

  16. Predisposing factors of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy: comparison between CT emphysema score and pulmonary function test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Park, Kyung Joo; Park, Dong Won; Jung, Kyung Il; Suh, Jung Ho [Ajou Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-11-01

    To compare the CT emphysema score with various factors of pulmonary function test by simple spirometry and to use the result as a predictor of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy. The CT scans of 106 patients who had undergone percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions within the previous 18 months were retrospectively reviewed. In 75 of these 106 cases, the results of the pulmonary function test were also reviewed. On plain chest radiography, pneumothorax was noted in 20 cases (19%). Emphysema was blindly evaluated. We divided each lung into four segments and determined the severity and involved volume of emphysema, as seen on CT. Severity was classified as one of four grades, as follow : absence of emphysema=0 ; low attenuation area of less than 5mm=1 ; low attenuation area of more than 5mm, and vascular pruning with normal lung intervening=2 ; and diffuse low attenuation without intervening normal lung, and larger confluent low attenuation with vascular pruning and distortion of branching pattern occupying all or almost all the involved parenchyma=3. The involved area was also classified as one of four grades : less than 25%=1 ; 25 - 49%=2 ; 51 - 74%=3 ; and more than 75%=4. The CT emphysema score was defined as the average of the grade of severity multiplied by the grade of involved area. Pulmonary function tests, consisting of simple spirometry and a pulmonologist's interpretation, were evaluated. We also evaluated depth and size of lesion as known predisposing factors in postbioptic pneumothorax. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, Wilcoxon ranks sum W test and the student t test. A comparison between the two groups of occurrence(with or without pneumothorax) showed the emphysema scores to be 1.69{+-}2.0 and 1.11{+-}2.9, respectively ; there was thus no significant difference between the two groups (z= - 0.048, p>0.10). Nor were differences revealed by the

  17. Studying Variation in Tunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B.; van Kranenburg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in music can be caused by different phenomena: conscious, creative manipulation of musical ideas; but also unconscious variation during music recall. It is the latter phenomenon that we wish to study: variation which occurs in oral transmission, in which a melody is taught without the help

  18. Mechanisms, Predisposing Factors, and Prognosis of Intraoperative Vertebral Subluxation During Pedicle Subtraction Osteotomy in Surgical Correction of Thoracolumbar Kyphosis Secondary to Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Bang-Ping; Mao, Sai-Hu; Jiang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Qiu, Yong

    2017-08-15

    A retrospective study. To analyze the mechanisms, predisposing factors, and prognosis of the intraoperative vertebral subluxation (VS) during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) for thoracolumbar kyphosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis (AS). VS is one of the most daunting challenges that surgeons encounter during PSO closure, especially in patients with AS with ankylosed and mostly osteoporotic spine. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research designed to conceptualize the mechanisms, predisposing factors, and discuss the complication-avoidance strategies and prognosis. A retrospective single-center review was performed for a consecutive series of 153 patients with AS with rigid thoracolumbar kyphosis who underwent one-level PSO from April 2000 to December 2013. The incidence of the VS at the level of PSO during correction was analyzed and the potential causative factors were investigated. VS occurred in six patients with the incidence being 3.9% in this patient cohort. The predisposing factors were (1) early fracture of the anterior cortex of the osteotomized vertebra (OV); (2) excessive decancellation from vertebral body causing parallel collapse of the vertebral column with significant loss of the ability to create local lordosis; (3) improper manual osteoclasis due to insufficient decancellation of the OV; and (4) inappropriate application of cantilever technique and concomitant long instrumentation. The early surgical complication involved one patient with cerebrospinal fluid leakage at the osteotomized site, but no devastating neurological deficits. During follow-up, bone healing and adaptive vertebral remodeling with no rod breakage were observed for all these six patients. Intraoperative VS was a rare occurrence associated with inappropriate manual manipulation of osteotomy, gap closure, and rod insertion. Neurological complication was a potential risk, but could be well prevented with extensive laminectomy and emergency actions favoring partial

  19. Rate and Predisposing Factors for Sacroiliac Joint Radiographic Progression After a Two-Year Follow-up Period in Recent-Onset Spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougados, Maxime; Demattei, Christophe; van den Berg, Rosaline; Vo Hoang, Viet; Thevenin, Fabrice; Reijnierse, Monique; Loeuille, Damien; Feydy, Antoine; Claudepierre, Pascal; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the rate of radiographic structural progression in the sacroiliac (SI) joints in patients with radiographic or nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (SpA), and to determine factors predisposing to such progression, over 2 years. Patients with recent-onset axial SpA (from the Devenir des Spondyloarthropathies Indifferérenciées Récentes cohort) were assigned a radiographic SI joint score according to the modified New York criteria. Demographic characteristics, smoking status, HLA-B27 positivity, inflammation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the SI joints, disease activity, and treatment were investigated as potential predisposing factors. The main analysis consisted of the evaluation of the switch from nonradiographic to radiographic axial SpA, but other definitions of radiographic progression were also evaluated. Of the 708 patients enrolled, 449 had baseline and 2-year pelvic radiographs. Of these patients, 47% were men. Their mean ± SD age was 34 ± 9 years, 61% were B27 positive, and 37% had inflammation of the SI joints on MRI. The percentages of patients who switched from nonradiographic to radiographic axial SpA (4.9% [16 of 326]) and from radiographic to nonradiographic axial SpA (5.7% [7 of 123]) were low. The mean ± SD change in the total SI joint score (range 0-8) was small (0.1 ± 0.8) but highly significant (P < 0.001). The potential baseline predisposing factors for meeting the modified New York criteria in the multivariate analysis were current smoking, HLA-B27 positivity, and inflammation of the SI joints on MRI, with odds ratios of 3.3 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.0-11.5], 12.6 (95% CI 2.3-274), and 48.8 (95% CI 9.3-904), respectively. Our findings suggest that structural progression does exist in early SpA, but it is quite small and observed in a small number of patients, and that environmental (smoking status), genetic (HLA-B27 positivity), and inflammation (inflammation of the SI joints on MRI

  20. Rate and Predisposing Factors for Sacroiliac Joint Radiographic Progression After a Two‐Year Follow‐up Period in Recent‐Onset Spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demattei, Christophe; van den Berg, Rosaline; Vo Hoang, Viet; Thevenin, Fabrice; Reijnierse, Monique; Loeuille, Damien; Feydy, Antoine; Claudepierre, Pascal; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the rate of radiographic structural progression in the sacroiliac (SI) joints in patients with radiographic or nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (SpA), and to determine factors predisposing to such progression, over 2 years. Methods Patients with recent‐onset axial SpA (from the Devenir des Spondyloarthropathies Indifferérenciées Récentes cohort) were assigned a radiographic SI joint score according to the modified New York criteria. Demographic characteristics, smoking status, HLA–B27 positivity, inflammation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the SI joints, disease activity, and treatment were investigated as potential predisposing factors. The main analysis consisted of the evaluation of the switch from nonradiographic to radiographic axial SpA, but other definitions of radiographic progression were also evaluated. Results Of the 708 patients enrolled, 449 had baseline and 2‐year pelvic radiographs. Of these patients, 47% were men. Their mean ± SD age was 34 ± 9 years, 61% were B27 positive, and 37% had inflammation of the SI joints on MRI. The percentages of patients who switched from nonradiographic to radiographic axial SpA (4.9% [16 of 326]) and from radiographic to nonradiographic axial SpA (5.7% [7 of 123]) were low. The mean ± SD change in the total SI joint score (range 0–8) was small (0.1 ± 0.8) but highly significant (P < 0.001). The potential baseline predisposing factors for meeting the modified New York criteria in the multivariate analysis were current smoking, HLA–B27 positivity, and inflammation of the SI joints on MRI, with odds ratios of 3.3 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.0–11.5], 12.6 (95% CI 2.3–274), and 48.8 (95% CI 9.3–904), respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that structural progression does exist in early SpA, but it is quite small and observed in a small number of patients, and that environmental (smoking status), genetic (HLA–B27 positivity

  1. Tumor-mimicking large vegetation attached to the tricuspid valve without predisposing factors: A case report on CT and echocardiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jung Min; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Hwang, Hye Won; Kim, Jung Sun; Kim, Wook Sung; Peck, Kyong Ran; Park, Sung Ji

    2015-01-01

    We report the CT and echocardiographic findings of a tumor-mimicking large vegetation attached to the tricuspid valve (TV) of a 45-year-old man without predisposing factors. Echocardiography revealed a mobile homogeneous echogenic mass attached to the TV. Cardiac CT showed a 4.5 × 2.3 cm irregular low-density mass with scant enhancement in the right ventricle. Based on clinical findings of fever, positive blood culture results for Streptococcus viridans, and pathologic confirmation of the lesion, a diagnosis of infective endocarditis and vegetation was made

  2. Study of Pre-disposing Factors of Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Antibiotic Prescribing Pattern with Reference to Antibiotic Sensitivity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R; Shrestha, B; Shakya Shrestha, S; Pant, A; Prajapati, B; Karmacharya, B M

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects about 329 million people worldwide, which is nearly 5% of the entire global population. In the context of Nepal, COPD accounts for 43% of the non-communicable disease burden and 2.56% of hospitalizations. Various pre-disposing factors like bacterial, viral, fungal, smoking, occupational exposures and genetic factors have been proposed to precipitate COPD and its exacerbation though, the definitive pre-disposing factors and factors related to acute exacerbation have not been determined in the context of Nepal. Objective To find out the pre-disposing factors and the related causative agents for COPD. Method A cross sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Patients of all age group who were diagnosed as COPD and admitted in the hospital were included in this study. Patients were interviewed using structured questionnaire. The sociodemographic data including personal and medical history were recorded from those participants. In addition, sputum from those patients was sent for culture to investigate the possible responsible pathogens as well as its antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Result A total of 150 patients having Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (AECOPD) who have admitted from either emergency or out-patient department of the hospital were included in this study. Among the total number of patients, more than half of them were female (n=82). In addition, analysis of occupations shows that most of them were either farmer (36.0%) or housewife (30.7%). In total studied patients (n=150), most of them were using traditional firewood (83%) for cooking purpose and majority of patients (91%) were smokers. Most of the sputum samples show growth of gram-positive cocci (26.7%) and gram negative bacilli (27.5%). Considering the overall sensitivity pattern, the higher sensitivity was recorded for Co-trimoxazole and Ciprofloxacin while higher rate of resistance was noted

  3. Tumor-mimicking large vegetation attached to the tricuspid valve without predisposing factors: A case report on CT and echocardiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jung Min; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Hwang, Hye Won; Kim, Jung Sun; Kim, Wook Sung; Peck, Kyong Ran; Park, Sung Ji [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We report the CT and echocardiographic findings of a tumor-mimicking large vegetation attached to the tricuspid valve (TV) of a 45-year-old man without predisposing factors. Echocardiography revealed a mobile homogeneous echogenic mass attached to the TV. Cardiac CT showed a 4.5 × 2.3 cm irregular low-density mass with scant enhancement in the right ventricle. Based on clinical findings of fever, positive blood culture results for Streptococcus viridans, and pathologic confirmation of the lesion, a diagnosis of infective endocarditis and vegetation was made.

  4. Prenatal and pubertal testosterone exposure imprint permanent modifications in the prostate that predispose to the development of lesions in old Mongolian gerbils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel F Biancardi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prostate is an accessory sex gland that develops under precise androgenic control. It is known that hormonal imbalance may disrupt its development predisposing this gland to develop diseases during aging. Although the hypothesis regarding earlier origins of prostate diseases was proposed many years ago, the mechanisms underlying this complex phenomenon are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prostates of old male gerbils exposed to testosterone during intrauterine and postnatal life using morphological, biometrical, stereological, Kariometric, immunohistochemical, and immunofluorescence analyses. Our findings demonstrate that prenatal and pubertal exposure to testosterone increases the susceptibility to the development of prostate diseases during aging. The presence of a more proliferative gland associated with foci of adenomatous hyperplasia in animals exposed to testosterone during the prenatal and pubertal phase show that the utero life and the pubertal period are important phases for prostatic morphophysiology establishment, which is a determinant for the health of the gland during aging. Therefore, these findings reinforce the idea that prostate disease may result from hormonal disruptions in early events during prostate development, which imprint permanently on the gland predisposing it to develop lesions in later stages of life.

  5. Is muscle co-activation a predisposing factor for low back pain development during standing? A multifactorial approach for early identification of at-risk individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Wong, Erika; Callaghan, Jack P

    2010-04-01

    Low back pain development has been associated with static standing postures in occupational settings. Previous work has demonstrated gluteus muscle co-activation as a predominant pattern in previously asymptomatic individuals who develop low back pain when exposed to 2-h of standing. The purpose of this work was to investigate muscle co-activation as a predisposing factor in low back pain development while including a multifactorial approach of clinical assessment tools and psychosocial assessments to identify individuals who are at risk for pain development during standing. Forty percent of participants developed low back pain during the 2-h of standing. Pain developers demonstrated bilateral gluteus medius and trunk flexor-extensor muscle co-activation prior to reports of pain development. Pain developers and non-pain developers demonstrated markedly different patterns of muscle activation during the 2-h of standing. A novel screening test of active hip abduction was the only clinical assessment tool that predicted pain development. Gluteus medius and trunk muscle co-activation appears to be a predisposing rather than adaptive factor in low back pain development during standing. A combination of a positive active hip abduction test and presence of muscle co-activation during standing may be useful for early identification of at-risk individuals. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, I M

    2000-01-01

    Based on a series of lectures given by I. M. Gelfand at Moscow State University, this book actually goes considerably beyond the material presented in the lectures. The aim is to give a treatment of the elements of the calculus of variations in a form both easily understandable and sufficiently modern. Considerable attention is devoted to physical applications of variational methods, e.g., canonical equations, variational principles of mechanics, and conservation laws.The reader who merely wishes to become familiar with the most basic concepts and methods of the calculus of variations need on

  7. Rare Deletions at 16p13.11 Predispose to a Diverse Spectrum of Sporadic Epilepsy Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzen, Erin L.; Radtke, Rodney A.; Urban, Thomas J.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Depondt, Chantal; Need, Anna C.; Walley, Nicole M.; Nicoletti, Paola; Ge, Dongliang; Catarino, Claudia B.; Duncan, John S.; Kasperavičiūtė, Dalia; Tate, Sarah K.; Caboclo, Luis O.; Sander, Josemir W.; Clayton, Lisa; Linney, Kristen N.; Shianna, Kevin V.; Gumbs, Curtis E.; Smith, Jason; Cronin, Kenneth D.; Maia, Jessica M.; Doherty, Colin P.; Pandolfo, Massimo; Leppert, David; Middleton, Lefkos T.; Gibson, Rachel A.; Johnson, Michael R.; Matthews, Paul M.; Hosford, David; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Eriksson, Kai; Kantanen, Anne-Mari; Dorn, Thomas; Hansen, Jörg; Krämer, Günter; Steinhoff, Bernhard J.; Wieser, Heinz-Gregor; Zumsteg, Dominik; Ortega, Marcos; Wood, Nicholas W.; Huxley-Jones, Julie; Mikati, Mohamad; Gallentine, William B.; Husain, Aatif M.; Buckley, Patrick G.; Stallings, Ray L.; Podgoreanu, Mihai V.; Delanty, Norman; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Goldstein, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Deletions at 16p13.11 are associated with schizophrenia, mental retardation, and most recently idiopathic generalized epilepsy. To evaluate the role of 16p13.11 deletions, as well as other structural variation, in epilepsy disorders, we used genome-wide screens to identify copy number variation in 3812 patients with a diverse spectrum of epilepsy syndromes and in 1299 neurologically-normal controls. Large deletions (> 100 kb) at 16p13.11 were observed in 23 patients, whereas no control had a deletion greater than 16 kb. Patients, even those with identically sized 16p13.11 deletions, presented with highly variable epilepsy phenotypes. For a subset of patients with a 16p13.11 deletion, we show a consistent reduction of expression for included genes, suggesting that haploinsufficiency might contribute to pathogenicity. We also investigated another possible mechanism of pathogenicity by using hybridization-based capture and next-generation sequencing of the homologous chromosome for ten 16p13.11-deletion patients to look for unmasked recessive mutations. Follow-up genotyping of suggestive polymorphisms failed to identify any convincing recessive-acting mutations in the homologous interval corresponding to the deletion. The observation that two of the 16p13.11 deletions were larger than 2 Mb in size led us to screen for other large deletions. We found 12 additional genomic regions harboring deletions > 2 Mb in epilepsy patients, and none in controls. Additional evaluation is needed to characterize the role of these exceedingly large, non-locus-specific deletions in epilepsy. Collectively, these data implicate 16p13.11 and possibly other large deletions as risk factors for a wide range of epilepsy disorders, and they appear to point toward haploinsufficiency as a contributor to the pathogenicity of deletions. PMID:20398883

  8. Rare deletions at 16p13.11 predispose to a diverse spectrum of sporadic epilepsy syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzen, Erin L; Radtke, Rodney A; Urban, Thomas J; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Depondt, Chantal; Need, Anna C; Walley, Nicole M; Nicoletti, Paola; Ge, Dongliang; Catarino, Claudia B; Duncan, John S; Kasperaviciūte, Dalia; Tate, Sarah K; Caboclo, Luis O; Sander, Josemir W; Clayton, Lisa; Linney, Kristen N; Shianna, Kevin V; Gumbs, Curtis E; Smith, Jason; Cronin, Kenneth D; Maia, Jessica M; Doherty, Colin P; Pandolfo, Massimo; Leppert, David; Middleton, Lefkos T; Gibson, Rachel A; Johnson, Michael R; Matthews, Paul M; Hosford, David; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Eriksson, Kai; Kantanen, Anne-Mari; Dorn, Thomas; Hansen, Jörg; Krämer, Günter; Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Wieser, Heinz-Gregor; Zumsteg, Dominik; Ortega, Marcos; Wood, Nicholas W; Huxley-Jones, Julie; Mikati, Mohamad; Gallentine, William B; Husain, Aatif M; Buckley, Patrick G; Stallings, Ray L; Podgoreanu, Mihai V; Delanty, Norman; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Goldstein, David B

    2010-05-14

    Deletions at 16p13.11 are associated with schizophrenia, mental retardation, and most recently idiopathic generalized epilepsy. To evaluate the role of 16p13.11 deletions, as well as other structural variation, in epilepsy disorders, we used genome-wide screens to identify copy number variation in 3812 patients with a diverse spectrum of epilepsy syndromes and in 1299 neurologically-normal controls. Large deletions (> 100 kb) at 16p13.11 were observed in 23 patients, whereas no control had a deletion greater than 16 kb. Patients, even those with identically sized 16p13.11 deletions, presented with highly variable epilepsy phenotypes. For a subset of patients with a 16p13.11 deletion, we show a consistent reduction of expression for included genes, suggesting that haploinsufficiency might contribute to pathogenicity. We also investigated another possible mechanism of pathogenicity by using hybridization-based capture and next-generation sequencing of the homologous chromosome for ten 16p13.11-deletion patients to look for unmasked recessive mutations. Follow-up genotyping of suggestive polymorphisms failed to identify any convincing recessive-acting mutations in the homologous interval corresponding to the deletion. The observation that two of the 16p13.11 deletions were larger than 2 Mb in size led us to screen for other large deletions. We found 12 additional genomic regions harboring deletions > 2 Mb in epilepsy patients, and none in controls. Additional evaluation is needed to characterize the role of these exceedingly large, non-locus-specific deletions in epilepsy. Collectively, these data implicate 16p13.11 and possibly other large deletions as risk factors for a wide range of epilepsy disorders, and they appear to point toward haploinsufficiency as a contributor to the pathogenicity of deletions. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Variational Fair Autoencoder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louizos, C.; Swersky, K.; Li, Y.; Welling, M.; Zemel, R.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the problem of learning representations that are invariant to certain nuisance or sensitive factors of variation in the data while retaining as much of the remaining information as possible. Our model is based on a variational autoencoding architecture with priors that encourage

  10. The fate of (13)C-labelled and non-labelled inulin predisposed to large bowel fermentation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Christine A; Paturi, Gunaranjan; Tavendale, Michael H; Hedderley, Duncan; Stoklosinski, Halina M; Herath, Thanuja D; Rosendale, Douglas; Roy, Nicole C; Monro, John A; Ansell, Juliet

    2016-04-01

    The fate of stable-isotope (13)C labelled and non-labelled inulin catabolism by the gut microbiota was assessed in a healthy rat model. Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly assigned to diets containing either cellulose or inulin, and were fed these diets for 3 days. On day (d) 4, rats allocated to the inulin diet received (13)C-labelled inulin. The rats were then fed the respective non-labelled diets (cellulose or inulin) until sampling (d4, d5, d6, d7, d10 and d11). Post feeding of (13)C-labelled substrate, breath analysis showed that (13)C-inulin cleared from the host within a period of 36 hours. Faecal (13)C demonstrated the clearance of inulin from gut with a (13)C excess reaching maximum at 24 hours (d5) and then declining gradually. There were greater variations in caecal organic acid concentrations from d4 to d6, with higher concentrations of acetic, butyric and propionic acids observed in the rats fed inulin compared to those fed cellulose. Inulin influenced caecal microbial glycosidase activity, increased colon crypt depth, and decreased the faecal output and polysaccharide content compared to the cellulose diet. In summary, the presence of inulin in the diet positively influenced large bowel microbial fermentation.

  11. Serum potassium monitoring for users of ethinyl estradiol/drospirenone taking medications predisposing to hyperkalemia: physician compliance and survey of knowledge and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona Eng, Patricia; Seeger, John D; Loughlin, Jeanne; Oh, Kelly; Walker, Alexander M

    2007-02-01

    Yasmin-28 [ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg/drospirenone 3 mg (EE/DRSP)] contains drospirenone, a progestin component that possesses antimineralocorticoid activity with a potassium-sparing diuretic effect similar to that in spironolactone. Product labeling recommends potassium monitoring in the first month of use for women concurrently receiving medication that may increase serum potassium. We evaluated compliance with this recommendation by measuring monitoring around the date of oral contraceptive (OC) initiation in women who received EE/DRSP while being treated with medications predisposing to hyperkalemia and in similar women who received other OCs. Because preliminary analyses indicated incomplete compliance, we surveyed physicians who prescribed EE/DRSP to women receiving drugs predisposing to hyperkalemia on their knowledge and attitudes with regard to the recommendation. We conducted this study using data from the Ingenix Research Datamart, which includes insurance claims for reimbursement for medical services and prescription medications for approximately 8,000,000 members of a large nationally dispersed health plan. We used claims for pharmacy dispensings of prescription medications to identify all women aged 10-59 years old who initiated EE/DRSP or other OCs during the first 3 years of EE/DRSP availability (July 2001 to June 2004). The frequency of potassium monitoring was measured by identifying claims for serum potassium tests. We conducted a telephone survey of 58 physicians who had prescribed EE/DRSP up to June 2003 to women who received concomitant hyperkalemic drugs. Although potassium monitoring was generally more frequent among EE/DRSP initiators receiving concomitant hyperkalemic drugs than among other OC initiators receiving similar medications, only 40% of 466 EE/DRSP initiators with concurrent hyperkalemic treatment had potassium tests. More than 98% of surveyed physicians were aware of the potassium-sparing property of EE/DRSP. Compared with

  12. Assessment of the predisposing factors for shallow landslides activation in terraced areas: the case of the Rupinaro catchment, Liguria (northwestern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignetti, Martina; Godone, Danilo; Giordan, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    The shallow landslides occurrence is strongly correlated with climatic conditions and environmental settings. In the Liguria region (northwestern Italy), the landscape presents an ancient human intervention represented by terraces and, in the last century, by a general overbuilding, both in the few flat areas and in the steep slope hinterland. From the twentieth century, the progressive abandonment of agriculture generated a lack of maintenance of terraced areas, which associated to the urban and the road net development, supported the slope susceptibility to instability. This makes the assessment of the predisposing factors for shallow landslides a multidisciplinary task, combining natural and man-made issues. In this work, we try to define all the main predisposing factors of the Rupinaro catchment (southeast Liguria). We operate starting from a high-resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) supplied by an airborne LiDAR survey carried out after the autumn 2014 rainfall events. From this DTM, we mapped a total amount of 96 landslides in the study area. Then, we implemented a classification methodology based on a simple parametric score. In GIS environment we overlaid several layers: i) lithological and hydrogeological map, ii) slope iii) aspect, iv) the land use information, available by the CORINE land cover, and iv) the presence of terraces. Each spatial data was than reclassified according a numerical code. The sum, by raster math, of these factors provided an overall score raster for the entire basin. This method allows the characterization of the entire watershed, gathering all the predisposing factors for the shallow landslides activation. A categorization of the landslides area mapped from the DTM and stored in a vector layer has been made. In particular, we estimated the most frequent code within each landslide polygon, obtaining a representative data of the most influential factors that triggered shallow landslides. The results showed the prevalent

  13. Ensembl variation resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin-Garcia Pablo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maturing field of genomics is rapidly increasing the number of sequenced genomes and producing more information from those previously sequenced. Much of this additional information is variation data derived from sampling multiple individuals of a given species with the goal of discovering new variants and characterising the population frequencies of the variants that are already known. These data have immense value for many studies, including those designed to understand evolution and connect genotype to phenotype. Maximising the utility of the data requires that it be stored in an accessible manner that facilitates the integration of variation data with other genome resources such as gene annotation and comparative genomics. Description The Ensembl project provides comprehensive and integrated variation resources for a wide variety of chordate genomes. This paper provides a detailed description of the sources of data and the methods for creating the Ensembl variation databases. It also explores the utility of the information by explaining the range of query options available, from using interactive web displays, to online data mining tools and connecting directly to the data servers programmatically. It gives a good overview of the variation resources and future plans for expanding the variation data within Ensembl. Conclusions Variation data is an important key to understanding the functional and phenotypic differences between individuals. The development of new sequencing and genotyping technologies is greatly increasing the amount of variation data known for almost all genomes. The Ensembl variation resources are integrated into the Ensembl genome browser and provide a comprehensive way to access this data in the context of a widely used genome bioinformatics system. All Ensembl data is freely available at http://www.ensembl.org and from the public MySQL database server at ensembldb.ensembl.org.

  14. Variational Transition State Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, Donald G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This is the final report on a project involving the development and applications of variational transition state theory. This project involved the development of variational transition state theory for gas-phase reactions, including optimized multidimensional tunneling contributions and the application of this theory to gas-phase reactions with a special emphasis on developing reaction rate theory in directions that are important for applications to combustion. The development of variational transition state theory with optimized multidimensional tunneling as a useful computational tool for combustion kinetics involved eight objectives.

  15. Shorter sleep duration is associated with higher energy intake and an increase in BMI z-score in young children predisposed to overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangan, A.; Zheng, M.; Olsen, N. J.

    2018-01-01

    in a group of young obesity-predisposed children, and to assess whether intakes of energy or macronutrients mediate this relationship. Methods: Participants included 368 Danish children aged 2–6 years from the Healthy Start Study, a 1.3 year randomised controlled intervention trial. Sleep habits were......Background: Inadequate sleep has been shown to be a contributor to obesity in both children and adults. Less evidence is available for toddlers and among those with higher obesity risk. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between sleep patterns and body weight development...... measured using a 7-day sleep diary. Multivariate linear regression with adjustment for confounders was used to assess the association of sleep duration and sleep variability with 1.3 year changes (Δ) in body mass index (BMI) z-score from baseline to follow-up. Results: The average nighttime sleep duration...

  16. Correlation between the findings of magnetic resonance imaging and prognosis of patients with predisposing factors of aseptic necrosis of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatori, Yoshio; Nakamura, Shigeru; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Ninomiya, Setsuo; Kokubo, Takashi (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Sugimoto, Hisayuki

    1991-08-01

    Eighteen patients with the predisposing factors for aseptic necrosis of the femoral head were followed up for more than two years after the initial magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. At the time of the initial examination, 24 femoral heads showed abnormal low-intensity areas on MR images without abnormal findings on plain radiographs. Among them, six femoral heads collapsed in the follow-up period. The initial mid-coronal T{sub 1}-weighted MR images of these femoral heads had shown characteristic findings, that is, band-shaped low-intensity areas with the lateral end not covered by the acetabulum. Subchondral fracture of the femoral head occurred in the vicinity of the lateral end of the band. The findings of initial MR imaging seem to predict subsequent collapse of the femoral head. (author).

  17. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Soldiers 2.5 Years after Military Deployment in Afghanistan: The Role of Personality Traits as Predisposing Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Hellerup Nielsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD implicates research regarding factors besides the preceding traumatic event. This study investigated the influence of predisposing personality traits on development of PTSD in a group of Danish Soldiers deployed to Afghanistan (N = 445. Using a prospective design data was collected using questionnaires including the NEO Five Factor Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. The results showed a PTSD-prevalence of 9.2% in the total sample 2.5 years after homecoming. Using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Spearman¡'s rho significant relationships were identified between pre-existing personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness with development of PTSD symptoms 2.5 years after homecoming, however, a number of additional cofounders were identified.

  18. Child behavioural problems and body size among 2-6 year old children predisposed to overweight. results from the "healthy start" study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanna J Olsen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Psychological adversities among young children may be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. We examined if an increased level of child behavioural problems was associated with body size among a selected group of 2-6 year old children, who were all predisposed to develop overweight. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using baseline data from the "Healthy Start" intervention study. A total of 3058 children were invited to participate, and data from 583 children who were all predisposed for obesity was analyzed. The Danish version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ was used to assess child stress by the SDQ Total Difficulties (SDQ-TD score and the Prosocial Behavior (PSB score. Height and weight were measured, and BMI z-scores were calculated. RESULTS: A direct, but non-significant linear trend was found between SDQ-TD score and BMI z-score (β = 0.021, p = 0.11. Having an SDQ-TD score above the 90(th percentile was associated with BMI z-score (β = 0.36, p = 0.05. PSB score was not associated with BMI z-score. Analyses were adjusted for parental socioeconomic status, parental BMI, family structure, dietary factors, physical activity, and family stress level. CONCLUSION: The results suggested a threshold effect between SDQ-TD score and BMI z-score, where BMI z-score was associated with childhood behavioural problems only for those with the highest scores of SDQ-TD. No significant association between PSB score and BMI z-score was found.

  19. No evidence for genetically determined alteration in insulin secretion or sensitivity predisposing to type 1 diabetes: a study of identical twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawa, Mohammed I; Bonfanti, Riccardo; Valeri, Christina; Delli Castelli, Michela; Beyan, Huriya; Leslie, R David G

    2005-06-01

    To determine whether inherited changes in insulin secretion or sensitivity could predispose to type 1 diabetes, we studied identical twins of type 1 diabetic patients. We studied prospectively a consecutive series of 27 identical twins of patients with type 1 diabetes who were initially nondiabetic, as well as 14 control subjects, over a period of 18 years. Of these 27 twins, 15 remain nondiabetic (now estimated at low disease risk) and 12 developed diabetes (pre-diabetic twins). Subjects were tested when not diabetic on at least two occasions with an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), and we estimated insulin secretion as first-phase insulin response (FPIR), glucose clearance (K(g)), and insulin sensitivity both by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and relative to insulin response by the basal HOMA-IR-to-FPIR ratio. Twins now at low risk and control subjects had similar fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, FPIR, K(g), HOMA-IR, and HOMA-IR-to-FPIR ratio. In contrast, pre-diabetic twins compared with control twins had higher fasting insulin levels (10.3 +/- 6.0 vs. 4.6 +/- 4.0 mIU/ml), lower FPIR (245 +/- 129 vs. 796 +/- 622 mIU . ml(-1) . 10 min(-1)), lower K(g) (1.5 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.6 +/- 0.8% per min), and higher HOMA-IR-to-FPIR ratio (0.007 +/- 0.005 vs. 0.001 +/- 0.0009) (all P alteration in either insulin secretion or sensitivity predisposing to type 1 diabetes.

  20. An inter-correlative study on clinico-pathological profile and different predisposing factors of oral leukoplakia among the ethnics of Darjeeling, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendu Mondal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Idiopathic leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of oral cavity. Owing to the year-wide cold environment in Darjeeling, here the indigenous ethnic people practice a distinct addiction pattern that strongly predisposes them to oral leukoplakia. Aims: The purpose of the present study was to assess the clinico-pathological profile and various predisposing factors involved in oral leukoplakia, and to correlate its exfoliative cytological appearances with the histopathological diagnoses. Materials and Methods: A total of 53 patients were clinically diagnosed with oral leukoplakia during the study period. All information − clinical data pertaining to the patient and the patch, their personal history including addiction and diet, and the cyto-histopathological features of the lesion − was evaluated and methodically compared with each other using the statistical software, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. Results: The female-dominated cohort was chiefly affected with thin leukoplakia (67.9% involving their buccal mucosa (66.1%. Smokeless tobacco (49.1% was the most popular addiction. Alcoholism and smoking, increasing daily frequency of tobacco misuse, and verrucous and granular leukoplakias were significantly associated with dysplastic transformation (P < 0.05. Out of 16 (30.2% dysplastic lesions, exfoliative cytology correctly diagnosed only six (11.3% cases with a sensitivity of 37.5% only. Conclusion: Verrucous and granular variants are the most detrimental forms of oral leukoplakia. Dysplastic transformation frequently occurs in people addicted to smoking and alcoholism, and verrucous and granular leukoplakia. Lastly, exfoliative cytology poorly predicts the dysplastic evolution within a leukoplakic patch.

  1. Child behavioural problems and body size among 2-6 year old children predisposed to overweight. results from the "healthy start" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Pedersen, Jeanett; Händel, Mina N; Stougaard, Maria; Mortensen, Erik L; Heitmann, Berit L

    2013-01-01

    Psychological adversities among young children may be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. We examined if an increased level of child behavioural problems was associated with body size among a selected group of 2-6 year old children, who were all predisposed to develop overweight. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using baseline data from the "Healthy Start" intervention study. A total of 3058 children were invited to participate, and data from 583 children who were all predisposed for obesity was analyzed. The Danish version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess child stress by the SDQ Total Difficulties (SDQ-TD) score and the Prosocial Behavior (PSB) score. Height and weight were measured, and BMI z-scores were calculated. A direct, but non-significant linear trend was found between SDQ-TD score and BMI z-score (β = 0.021, p = 0.11). Having an SDQ-TD score above the 90(th) percentile was associated with BMI z-score (β = 0.36, p = 0.05). PSB score was not associated with BMI z-score. Analyses were adjusted for parental socioeconomic status, parental BMI, family structure, dietary factors, physical activity, and family stress level. The results suggested a threshold effect between SDQ-TD score and BMI z-score, where BMI z-score was associated with childhood behavioural problems only for those with the highest scores of SDQ-TD. No significant association between PSB score and BMI z-score was found.

  2. Variational principles in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  3. Variational Monte Carlo Technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 8. Variational Monte Carlo Technique: Ground State Energies of Quantum Mechanical Systems. Sukanta Deb. General Article Volume 19 Issue 8 August 2014 pp 713-739 ...

  4. Anatomic Variations of the Paranasal Sinuses on CT Scan Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Talaiepour

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Variation in paranasal sinus anatomy as shown on computed tomographic scans is of potential significance for it may pose risks during surgery or predispose to certain pathologic conditions.Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the relative frequency and concurrence of variations in paranasal sinus anatomy in a given population and to compare the results with previous investigations conducted on different populations.Materials and Methods: All patients over 16 years of age referred to Valiasr hospital,Tehran, Iran, with paranasal sinus tomographic scans and a clinical diagnosis of chronic sinusitis were considered for this study. After excluding those with altered anatomy(iatrogenic or pathologic, scans of unaltered patients were meticulously analyzed for variations in sinus anatomy. Findings were recorded on the patient’s data sheet. The distance between the maxillary sinus floor and the alveolar ridge at the level of the 1stmolar was recorded. All findings were analyzed, and tested with Chi square, where applicable.Results: Overall 143 patients were analyzed (48.3% male and 51.7% female. The frequency of major sinus variations was: Agger nasi cell in 56.7%, Haller cell in 3.5%,Onodi cell in 7%, nasal septal deviation in 63%, Concha bullosa in 35%, and dental anomalies in 4.9% of the studied cases. The distance between the upper alveolar ridge and maxillary sinus floor was 0-30mm (mean 12.16 on the right, and 0-52mm (mean 12.20 on the left.Conclusion: The frequency of anatomic variations in sinus anatomy may be related to race and heredity. A lower number of cases in addition to the use of low yield imaging may explain the discrepancies observed between our results and other investigations.The findings of the present study were based on computed tomography.

  5. Generalized quasi variational inequalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor, M.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.

  6. Germanic Verb Particle Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2017-01-01

    This paper has two closely related goals. The more "global" one is to present an overview of the variation conceming verb particles across the Germanic languages (see e.g. den Dikken 1995; Haiden 2005; Mclntyre 2007 and many others), and the more "local" one is to use some of this variation data...... to argue for Yiddish being an SOV-language like German and Dutch rather than an SVO-language like English and the Scandinavian languages....

  7. Variational Bayesian Filtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídl, Václav; Quinn, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 10 (2008), s. 5020-5030 ISSN 1053-587X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Bayesian filtering * particle filtering * Variational Bayes Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2008 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/AS/smidl-variational bayesian filtering.pdf

  8. Variational Neural Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Biao; Xiong, Deyi; Su, Jinsong; Duan, Hong; Zhang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Models of neural machine translation are often from a discriminative family of encoderdecoders that learn a conditional distribution of a target sentence given a source sentence. In this paper, we propose a variational model to learn this conditional distribution for neural machine translation: a variational encoderdecoder model that can be trained end-to-end. Different from the vanilla encoder-decoder model that generates target translations from hidden representations of source sentences al...

  9. Ladder Variational Autoencoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Raiko, Tapani; Maaløe, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Variational autoencoders are powerful models for unsupervised learning. However deep models with several layers of dependent stochastic variables are difficult to train which limits the improvements obtained using these highly expressive models. We propose a new inference model, the Ladder...... Variational Autoencoder, that recursively corrects the generative distribution by a data dependent approximate likelihood in a process resembling the recently proposed Ladder Network. We show that this model provides state of the art predictive log-likelihood and tighter log-likelihood lower bound compared...... to the purely bottom-up inference in layered Variational Autoencoders and other generative models. We provide a detailed analysis of the learned hierarchical latent representation and show that our new inference model is qualitatively different and utilizes a deeper more distributed hierarchy of latent...

  10. Ladder variational autoencoders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Raiko, Tapani; Maaløe, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Variational autoencoders are powerful models for unsupervised learning. However deep models with several layers of dependent stochastic variables are difficult to train which limits the improvements obtained using these highly expressive models. We propose a new inference model, the Ladder...... Variational Autoencoder, that recursively corrects the generative distribution by a data dependent approximate likelihood in a process resembling the recently proposed Ladder Network. We show that this model provides state of the art predictive log-likelihood and tighter log-likelihood lower bound compared...... to the purely bottom-up inference in layered Variational Autoencoders and other generative models. We provide a detailed analysis of the learned hierarchical latent representation and show that our new inference model is qualitatively different and utilizes a deeper more distributed hierarchy of latent...

  11. Fimbrial phase variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khandige, Surabhi; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Surface fimbriae of pathogenic Escherichia coli facilitate sensing, adhesion and even invasion of host epithelial cells. While it is known that the pathogen has the potential to express a plethora of fimbrial variants susceptible to rapid phase ON/OFF variation, it is an open question...... if the fimbrial diversity seen at the population level is the product of random stochasticity or a concerted effort based on active communication. Here we discuss the possibility of a mechanism alternative to a stochastic fimbrial phase variation model affecting the dynamics of a heterogeneous population....

  12. Splines and variational methods

    CERN Document Server

    Prenter, P M

    2008-01-01

    One of the clearest available introductions to variational methods, this text requires only a minimal background in calculus and linear algebra. Its self-contained treatment explains the application of theoretic notions to the kinds of physical problems that engineers regularly encounter. The text's first half concerns approximation theoretic notions, exploring the theory and computation of one- and two-dimensional polynomial and other spline functions. Later chapters examine variational methods in the solution of operator equations, focusing on boundary value problems in one and two dimension

  13. Genetic Variation in NFKBIE Is Associated With Increased Risk of Pneumococcal Meningitis in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbo, Lene F; Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Clausen, Louise N

    2016-01-01

    NFKBIA, NFKBIE and NFKBIZ. We aimed to replicate previous findings of genetic variation associated with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), and to assess whether similar associations could be found in invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). METHODS: Cases with IPD and IMD and controls were identified......BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are frequent pathogens in life-threatening infections. Genetic variation in the immune system may predispose to these infections. Nuclear factor-κB is a key component of the TLR-pathway, controlled by inhibitors, encoded by the genes.......86-1.35). The remaining SNPs were not associated with susceptibility to invasive disease. None of the SNPs were associated with risk of IMD or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: A NFKBIE polymorphism was associated with increased risk of pneumococcal meningitis....

  14. Desrama, crescimento e predisposição à podridão-do-lenho em Acacia mangium Pruning on growth and heartrot predisposing in Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Tonini

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A desrama é um procedimento que aumenta o valor e a qualidade da madeira. Entretanto, se realizada de forma inadequada pode reduzir o crescimento e constituir fator de predisposição à podridão-do-lenho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito da intensidade e época da desrama sobre o crescimento inicial e incidência de árvores com ferimentos não cicatrizados de Acacia mangium. Foi instalado um experimento em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e cinco tratamentos: testemunha (sem desrama; desrama de troncos múltiplos e galhos a 50 e 70% da altura, em época de baixa e alta pluviosidade. As avaliações de crescimento e presença de ferimentos não cicatrizados foram feitas seis meses depois da aplicação dos tratamentos. A época e a intensidade de desrama, quando efetuadas aos 8 e 13 meses, não afetaram o crescimento em diâmetro e altura. Houve boa cicatrização de ferimentos em árvores desramadas oito meses depois do plantio, em época de baixa pluviosidade, independentemente da intensidade. Árvores desramadas aos 13 meses depois do plantio, em época de alta pluviosidade, demonstraram predisposição à podridão-do-lenho.Pruning increases quality and economic value of the wood. Inadequate pruning procedures, however, interfere negatively on growth and consist on a predisposing factor to heartrot. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of intensity and season of pruning on initial growth and on incidence of Acacia mangium trees with non-occluded wounds. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with three replicates and five treatments: control (without pruning; pruning and singling at 50 and 70% of total height, in low and high precipitation season. Growth evaluations and the presence of non-occluded wounds were performed six months after treatments application. The season and intensity of pruning operations did not influence height and diameter growth. Efficient wound

  15. The P9 pocket of HLA-DQ2 (non-Aspbeta57) has no particular preference for negatively charged anchor residues found in other type 1 diabetes-predisposing non-Aspbeta57 MHC class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quarsten, H; Paulsen, G; Johansen, B H

    1998-01-01

    -predisposing class II molecules. The molecular explanation for such a phenomenon could be that class II beta chains with Aspbeta57 form a salt bridge between Aspbeta57 and a conserved Arg of the a chain, whereas in non-Aspbeta57 molecules the Arg is unopposed and free to interact with negatively charged P9 peptide...

  16. Fluency Variation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim; Martins, Vanessa De Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    The Speech Fluency Profile of fluent adolescent speakers of Brazilian Portuguese, were examined with respect to gender and neurolinguistic variations. Speech samples of 130 male and female adolescents, aged between 12;0 and 17;11 years were gathered. They were analysed according to type of speech disruption; speech rate; and frequency of speech…

  17. Generalized Variational Inequalities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; Laurencot, P.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2002), s. 159-183 ISSN 0944-6532 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : hysteresis%evolution variational inequality%Young integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.145, year: 2002

  18. The variational spiked oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Ullah, N.

    1992-08-01

    A variational analysis of the spiked harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian -d 2 / d x 2 + x 2 + δ/ x 5/2 , δ > 0, is reported in this work. A trial function satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions is suggested. The results are excellent for a large range of values of the coupling parameter. (author)

  19. A variational approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the optical switching of the two-dimensional nonlinear coupler in a doped photopolymer. The coupled ... Optical switching; variational approach; Jacobi's elliptic function; surface plasmon resonance ..... [4] G P Agrawal, Applications of nonlinear fiber optics (Academic Press, New York,. 2006). [5] R G Hunsperger ...

  20. Bounded variation and around

    CERN Document Server

    Appell, Jürgen; Merentes Díaz, Nelson José

    2013-01-01

    This monographis a self-contained exposition of the definition and properties of functionsof bounded variation and their various generalizations; the analytical properties of nonlinear composition operators in spaces of such functions; applications to Fourier analysis, nonlinear integral equations, and boundary value problems. The book is written for non-specialists. Every chapter closes with a list of exercises and open problems.

  1. Variation in decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dall, Sasha R. X.; Gosling, Samuel; Gordon D.A., Brown,; Dingemanse, Niels; Ido, Erev,; Martin, Kocher,; Laura, Schulz,; Todd, Peter M; Weissing, Franz; Wolf, Max; Hammerstein, Peter; Stevens, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Variation in how organisms allocate their behavior over their lifetimes is key to determining Darwinian fitness., and thus the evolution of human and nonhuman decision making. This chapter explores how decision making varies across biologically and societally significant scales and what role such

  2. On exterior variational calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, R.; Kraenkel, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Exterior variational calculus is introduced through examples in field theory. It provides a very simple technique to decide on the existence of Lagrangians for given equations of motions and, in the case, to find them. Only local aspects are discussed but the analogy to exterior calculus on finite dimensional manifolds is complete, strongly suggesting its suitability to the study of topological aspects. (Author) [pt

  3. Intronic variation at the

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trimbos, K.B.; Kentie, R.; van der Velde, M.; Hooijmeijer, J.C.E.W.; Poley, C.; Musters, C.J.M.; de Snoo, G.R.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Schroeder etal. (2010, Ibis 152: 368-377) suggested that intronic variation in the CHD1-Z gene of Black-tailed Godwits breeding in southwest Friesland, The Netherlands, correlated with fitness components. Here we re-examine this surprising result using an expanded dataset (2088 birds

  4. Seasonal Variation in Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Seasonality analyses are important in medical research. If the incidence of a disease shows a seasonal pattern, then an environmental factor must be considered in its etiology. We discuss a method for the simultaneous analysis of seasonal variation in multiple groups. The nuts and bolts are explained using simple trigonometry, an elementary…

  5. Variational transition state theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truhlar, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    This project is concerned with the development and applications of generalized transition state theory and multidimensional tunneling approximations to chemical reaction rates. They have developed and implemented several practical versions of variational transition state theory (VTST), namely canonical variational theory (CVT), improved canonical variational theory (ICVT), and microcanonical variational theory (μVT). They have also developed and implemented several accurate multidimensional semiclassical tunneling approximations, the most accurate of which are the small-curvature semiclassical adiabatic (SCSA), large-curvature version-3 (LC3), and least-action (LA) approximations. They have applied the methods to thermal rate constants, using transmission coefficients based on ground-state tunneling, and they have also presented and applied adiabatic and diabatic extensions to calculated rate constants for vibrationally excited reactants. Their general goal is to develop accurate methods for calculating chemical reaction rate constants that remain practical even for reasonably complicated molecules. The approximations mentioned above yield rate constants for systems whose potential energy surface is known or assumed. Thus a second, equally important aspect of their work is the determination or modeling, semi-empirically and/or from electronic structure calculations, of potential energy surfaces

  6. Measuring Linguistic Variation Commensurably

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, M.; Nerbonne, J.

    2011-01-01

    The primary data on pronunciation variation — e.g., dialect atlas data — is often recorded incommensurably, i.e. in different ways in different atlases, and even in different ways within the same atlas when teams of fieldworkers and transcribers are involved. In particular these data collections

  7. Variational transition state theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, D.G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research program involves the development of variational transition state theory (VTST) and semiclassical tunneling methods for the calculation of gas-phase reaction rates and selected applications. The applications are selected for their fundamental interest and/or their relevance to combustion.

  8. Diurnal variations of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1,000 and 1,400 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from 8 close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Though there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ~700 cm-3 below ~1,300 km. Such a plateau is associated with the combination of distinct diurnal variations of light and heavy ions. Light ions (e.g. CH5+, HCNH+, C2H5+) show strong diurnal variation, with clear bite-outs in their nightside distributions. In contrast, heavy ions (e.g. c-C3H3+, C2H3CNH+, C6H7+) present modest diurnal variation, with significant densities observed on the nightside. We propose that the distinctions between light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through "fast" ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through "slow" electron dissociative recombination. The INMS data suggest day-to-night transport as an important source of ions on Titan's nightside, to be distinguished from the conventional scenario of auroral ionization by magnetospheric particles as the only ionizing source on the nightside. This is supported by the strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effects of day-to-night transport on the ionospheric structures of Titan. The predicted diurnal variation has similar general characteristics to those observed, with some apparent discrepancies which could be reconciled by imposing fast horizontal thermal winds in Titan's upper atmosphere.

  9. The Absence of Interferon-β Promotor Stimulator-1 (IPS-1) Predisposes to Bronchiolitis and Asthma-like Pathology in Response to Pneumoviral Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jennifer; Lynch, Jason P; Loh, Zhixuan; Zhang, Vivian; Werder, Rhiannon B; Spann, Kirsten; Phipps, Simon

    2017-05-24

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-bronchiolitis is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality and a risk factor for subsequent asthma. We showed previously that toll-like receptor (TLR)7 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) is critical for protection against bronchiolitis and asthma in mice infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), the mouse homolog of RSV. This lack of redundancy was unexpected as interferon-β promotor stimulator-1 (IPS-1) signalling, downstream of RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and not TLR7 activation, contributes to host defence in hRSV-inoculated adult mice. To further clarify the role of IPS-1 signalling, we inoculated IPS-1 -/- and WT mice with PVM in early-life, and again in later-life, to model the association between bronchiolitis and asthma. IPS-1 deficiency predisposed to severe PVM bronchiolitis, characterised by neutrophilic inflammation and necroptotic airway epithelial cell death, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and IL-33 release, and downstream type-2 inflammation. Secondary infection induced an eosinophilic asthma-like pathophysiology in IPS-1 -/- but not WT mice. Mechanistically, we identified that IPS-1 is necessary for pDC recruitment, IFN-α production and viral control. Our findings suggest that TLR7 and RLR signalling work collaboratively to optimally control the host response to pneumovirus infection thereby protecting against viral bronchiolitis and subsequent asthma.

  10. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses for 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 genes predisposing to chronic glomerular diseases and IgA nephropathy in Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Sui, Weiguo; Xue, Wen; Wu, Junyong; Chen, Jiejing; Dai, Yong

    2014-09-01

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is a complex trait regulated by the interaction among multiple physiologic regulatory systems and probably involving numerous genes, which leads to inconsistent findings in genetic studies. One possibility of failure to replicate some single-locus results is that the underlying genetics of IgAN nephropathy is based on multiple genes with minor effects. To learn the association between 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 14 genes predisposing to chronic glomerular diseases and IgAN in Han males, the 23 SNPs genotypes of 21 Han males were detected and analyzed with a BaiO gene chip, and their associations were analyzed with univariate analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. Analysis showed that CTLA4 rs231726 and CR2 rs1048971 revealed a significant association with IgAN. These findings support the multi-gene nature of the etiology of IgAN and propose a potential gene-gene interactive model for future studies.

  11. Male non-insulin users with type 2 diabetes mellitus are predisposed to gastric corpus-predominant inflammation after H. pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao-Jong; Wu, Chung-Tai; Ou, Horng-Yih; Lin, Chin-Han; Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Chang, Wei-Lun; Chen, Wei-Ying; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Lu, Cheng-Chan; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2017-10-30

    Both H. pylori infection and diabetes increase the risk of gastric cancer. This study investigated whether patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and H. pylori infection had more severe corpus gastric inflammation and higher prevalence of precancerous lesions than non-diabetic controls. A total of 797 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were screened for H. pylori, of whom 264 had H. pylori infection. Of these patients, 129 received esophagogastroduodenoscopy to obtain topographic gastric specimens for gastric histology according to the modified Updated Sydney System, corpus-predominant gastritis index (CGI), Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment, and Operative Link on Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia Assessment. Non-diabetic dyspeptic patients who had H. pylori infection confirmed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy were enrolled as controls. The male as well as total T2DM patients had higher acute/chronic inflammatory and lymphoid follicle scores in the corpus than non-diabetic controls (p H. pylori-infected patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and H. pylori infection had more severe corpus gastric inflammation than non-diabetic controls. Moreover, male gender and non-insulin users of T2DM patients were predisposed to have corpus-predominant gastritis after H. pylori infection. ClinicalTrial: NCT02466919 , retrospectively registered may 17, 2015.

  12. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae does not affect the interferon-related anti-viral response but predisposes the pig to a higher level of inflammation following swine influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblanc, Céline; Delgado-Ortega, Mario; Gorin, Stéphane; Berri, Mustapha; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Berthon, Patricia; Herrler, Georg; Meurens, François; Simon, Gaëlle

    2016-10-01

    In pigs, influenza A viruses and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) are major contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex. Pre-infection with Mhp was previously shown experimentally to exacerbate the clinical outcomes of H1N1 infection during the first week after virus inoculation. In order to better understand the interactions between these pathogens, we aimed to assess very early responses (at 5, 24 and 48 h) after H1N1 infection in pigs pre-infected or not with Mhp. Clinical signs and macroscopic lung lesions were similar in both infected groups at early times post-H1N1 infection; and Mhp pre-infection affected neither the influenza virus replication nor the IFN-induced antiviral responses in the lung. However, it predisposed the animals to a higher inflammatory response to H1N1 infection, as revealed by the massive infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages into the lungs and the increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α). Thus, it seems it is this marked inflammatory state that would play a role in exacerbating the clinical signs subsequent to H1N1 infection.

  13. Postoperative vesicoureteral reflux after high-pressure balloon dilation of the ureterovesical junction in primary obstructive megaureter. Incidence, management and predisposing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aparicio, Luis; Blázquez-Gómez, Eva; de Haro, Irene; Garcia-Smith, Natalie; Bejarano, Miguel; Martin, Oriol; Rodo, Joan

    2015-12-01

    To describe the incidence, predisposing factors and management of postoperative vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) after high-pressure balloon dilation to treat primary obstructive megaureter (POM). We have reviewed patients that underwent endoscopic treatment for POM from May 2008 to November 2013. All patients were evaluated with renal ultrasound, voiding cystourethrography and diuretic renogram. Endoscopic treatment was done with high-pressure balloon dilation of the ureterovesical junction under general anesthesia; a double-J stenting was done in all patients. Follow-up was performed with ultrasonography, voiding cystourethrography and a diuretic renogram in all patients. Fifteen boys and five girls with a mean age of 14.18 months (3-103) were reviewed. A total of 22 ureters underwent HPBD to treat POM. Ureterohydronephrosis improves in 19 ureters. After endoscopic treatment, six ureters developed VUR. Four ureters were managed surgically, and in the other two, VUR disappeared in a second cystogram. The presence of parameatal diverticulum in the preoperative cystography and those patients with bilateral POM are factors related to postoperative VUR (p < 0.05). Urinary tract infection after HPBD was observed in four patients, but only one of them was affected with VUR.

  14. Loss of PKBβ/Akt2 predisposes mice to ovarian cyst formation and increases the severity of polycystic ovary formation in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Restuccia

    2012-05-01

    Ovarian cysts affect women of all ages and decrease fertility. In particular, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, in which multiple follicular cysts develop, affects 5–10% of women of reproductive age and can result in infertility. Current non-invasive treatments for PCOS can resolve cysts and restore fertility, but unresponsive patients must undergo severe ovarian wedge resection and resort to in vitro fertilization. PCOS is related to the deregulation of leutinizing hormone (LH signaling at various levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and resultant hyperproduction of androgens. Because insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia are observed in 50–70% of individuals with PCOS, deregulated insulin signaling in the ovary is considered an important factor in the disease. Here we report that aged mice specifically lacking the PKBβ (also known as Akt2 isoform that is crucial for insulin signaling develop increased testosterone levels and ovarian cysts, both of which are also observed in insulin-resistant PCOS patients. Young PKBβ knockout mice were used to model PCOS by treatment with LH and exhibited a cyst area that was threefold greater than in controls, but without hyperinsulinemia. Thus, loss of PKBβ might predispose mice to ovarian cysts independently of hyperactive insulin signaling. Targeted therapeutic augmentation of specific PKBβ signaling could therefore provide a new avenue for the treatment and management of ovarian cysts.

  15. Determination of Drug Susceptibility of Candida Strains Isolated From Patients With Recurrent Candida Vulvovaginitis and Investigation of Predisposing Factors of the Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minooeianhaghighi MH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis RVVC(, which is mostly caused by Candida albicans C. albicans(, is the second common cause of genital tract infection in females. Th purpose of this research was to identify Candida isolates from RVVC, identify predisposing factors and determine antifungal effct of flconazole against Candida strains isolated from the patients. Methods: In this descriptive-laboratory study, 20 patients with confimed diagnosis of RVVC were selected. Yeast isolates were characterized using mycological standard methods, including culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium and CHROM agar, germ tube test and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR-RFLP( technique. Th susceptibility of Candida isolates against flconazole was determined by microdilution broth method. Results: Th average age of the patients was 29.43 ± 4.63 years. Candida albicans was obtained from 100% of the samples. Th most common clinical sign was vaginal discharge 60%( in females with positive culture. Statistical correlations were observed between parturition frequency and low RVVC occurrence as well as between the previous antifungal therapy and RVVC occurrence. Th mean minimum inhibitory concentration MIC( and minimum fungicidal concentration MFC( of flconazole against diffrent C. albicans strains was determined as 45.3863 µg/mL and 63 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the uncertainty of diagnosis of this disease according to clinical symptoms and also, due to the resistance of Candida species, using culture and molecular methods are recommended as standard methods of diagnosis.

  16. Patients Hospitalized in General Wards via the Emergency Department: Early Identification of Predisposing Factors for Death or Unexpected Intensive Care Unit Admission—A Historical Prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Boulain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To identify, upon emergency department (ED admission, predictors of unexpected death or unplanned intensive care/high dependency units (ICU/HDU admission during the first 15 days of hospitalization on regular wards. Methods. Prospective cohort study in a medical-surgical adult ED in a teaching hospital, including consecutive patients hospitalized on regular wards after ED visit, and identification of predictors by logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards model. Results. Among 4,619 included patients, 77 (1.67% target events were observed: 32 unexpected deaths and 45 unplanned transfers to an ICU/HDU. We identified 9 predictors of the target event including the oxygen administration on the ED, unknown current medications, and use of psychoactive drug(s. All predictors put the patients at risk during the first 15 days of hospitalization. A logistic model for hospital mortality prediction (death of all causes still comprised oxygen administration on the ED, unknown current medications, and the use of psychoactive drug(s as risk factors. Conclusion. The “use of oxygen therapy on the ED,” the “current use of psychoactive drug(s”, and the “lack of knowledge of current medications taken by the patients” were important predisposing factors to severe adverse events during the 15 days of hospitalization on regular wards following the ED visit.

  17. Medical exposures in youth and the frequency of narcolepsy with cataplexy: a population-based case-control study in genetically predisposed people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsell, Thomas D.; Longstreth, William T.; Ton, Thanh G. N.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Epidemiological observations suggest that exposures in youth may trigger narcolepsy in genetically predisposed individuals. In this population-based case–control study, we sought to identify all prevalent cases of narcolepsy with cataplexy aged 18–50 years as of 1 July 2001, in King County, Washington. The 45 eligible cases who were DQB1*0602-positive were compared with 95 controls with this allele, identified through random-digit dialing and buccal smears. Cases and controls were interviewed in person about physician-diagnosed infectious and non-infectious illnesses, immunizations, head trauma and parasomnias or psychiatric problems during youth. Narcolepsy with cataplexy was more frequent in African-Americans and in poorer households. Adjusting for these factors, the condition was 5.4-fold more common [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5–19.1] among people reporting a physician-diagnosed strep throat before the age of 21 years. No other significant associations with childhood diseases, immunizations or head trauma were found. However, prevalence was increased 16.3-fold (95% CI = 6.1–44.1) in subjects who reported having had ‘night terrors’. Strep throat may be related to narcolepsy with cataplexy in genetically susceptible individuals. The association with night terrors could simply reflect early symptoms of narcolepsy, or they could be a prodromal sign of disturbed sleep physiology. keywords epidemiology, head injuries, immunization, narcolepsy, night terrors, streptococcal infections PMID:19732319

  18. Conformable variational iteration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Acan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce the conformable variational iteration method based on new defined fractional derivative called conformable fractional derivative. This new method is applied two fractional order ordinary differential equations. To see how the solutions of this method, linear homogeneous and non-linear non-homogeneous fractional ordinary differential equations are selected. Obtained results are compared the exact solutions and their graphics are plotted to demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the method.

  19. Canonical variate regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chongliang; Liu, Jin; Dey, Dipak K; Chen, Kun

    2016-07-01

    In many fields, multi-view datasets, measuring multiple distinct but interrelated sets of characteristics on the same set of subjects, together with data on certain outcomes or phenotypes, are routinely collected. The objective in such a problem is often two-fold: both to explore the association structures of multiple sets of measurements and to develop a parsimonious model for predicting the future outcomes. We study a unified canonical variate regression framework to tackle the two problems simultaneously. The proposed criterion integrates multiple canonical correlation analysis with predictive modeling, balancing between the association strength of the canonical variates and their joint predictive power on the outcomes. Moreover, the proposed criterion seeks multiple sets of canonical variates simultaneously to enable the examination of their joint effects on the outcomes, and is able to handle multivariate and non-Gaussian outcomes. An efficient algorithm based on variable splitting and Lagrangian multipliers is proposed. Simulation studies show the superior performance of the proposed approach. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in an [Formula: see text] intercross mice study and an alcohol dependence study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Somaclonal variation in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucherenko, L.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: 32 varieties of Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica were used as donors for callus induction from somatic tissues. In some cases, the callus was treated before regeneration with the chemical mutagen MNU. Some of the regenerated plants demonstrated heritable alterations, among them chlorophyll deficiencies, variation in plant height, awness, glume colouring and fertility. Along with these, a number of lines with agronomically valuable alterations concerning maturity time, panicle structure, plant productivity and grain quality were found. The spectrum of variability was very wide. Vivipary was noticed. Superdwarfs with plant height of about 15 cm were found. Plants with no visible distinctions could be variants too, for example, with increased protein content or disease resistance. The rate and the spectrum of the somaclonal variation were not influenced by the culture media but depended on the donor's genotype. On the basis of somaclonal variation a variety 'Bioryza' was developed. It is an early maturing (about 95-100 days), long grain variety, with grain yield up to 8 t/ha. (author)

  1. HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 alleles in Japanese type 1 autoimmune hepatitis: The predisposing role of the DR4/DR8 heterozygous genotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shomi Oka

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH is a chronic progressive liver disease. AIH is composed predominantly of type 1 in Japanese populations. The genetic and environmental factors are associated with the pathogenesis of AIH. HLA-DRB1*03:01 and *04:01 are associated with type 1 AIH in European and *04:05 in Japanese populations. Here, we conducted an HLA association study in order to find HLA alleles or haplotypes predisposing or protective for Japanese AIH.HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 genotyping of 360 type 1 AIH patients and 1026 healthy controls was performed.The predisposing association of DRB1*04:01 (P = 0.0006, corrected P [Pc] = 0.0193, odds ratio [OR] 2.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.62-5.43, DRB1*04:05 (P = 1.89×10-21, Pc = 5.86×10-20, OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.65-4.38, and DQB1*04:01 (P = 4.66×10-18, Pc = 6.99×10-17, OR 3.89, 95% CI 2.84-5.33 and the protective association of DRB1*13:02 (P = 0.0003, Pc = 0.0080, OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.32-0.72 with Japanese type 1 AIH were observed. An association of the DR4/DR8 heterozygous genotype with Japanese AIH was identified for the first time (P = 3.12×10-9, OR 3.52, 95% CI 2.34-5.29. Susceptible diplotypes were DRB1*04:05-DQB1*04:01/DRB1*08:02-DQB1*03:02 (P = 0.0004, OR 24.77, 95% CI 1.45-424.31 and DRB1*04:05-DQB1*04:01/DRB1*08:03-DQB1*06:01 (P = 1.18×10-6, OR 10.64, 95% CI 3.19-35.46. Serum levels of Immunoglobulin G and Immunoglobulin M, International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group score, positive rate of anti-smooth muscle antibodies, and the rate of definite AIH were higher in AIH patients with DRB1*04:05 than without.The important roles of specific combinations of DRB1 and DQB1 alleles or haplotypes in the pathogenesis of type 1 AIH were suggested. The association of DR4/DR8 heterozygous genotype suggested the pathologic importance of trans-complementing DQα-β heterodimer molecules encoded by DQA1 allele of one haplotype and the DQB1 allele of the other haplotype, as it was proposed in the HLA association studies

  2. BACTERIAL PREVALENCE, ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERN AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS IN PATIENTS OF NOSOCOMIAL URINARY TRACT INFECTION (UTI VISITED THE TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN JAMNAGAR REGION, WESTERN GUJARAT, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Somabhai Modi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nosocomial UTI is the most common bacterial infection ranging from asymptomatic bacterial to septicaemia. Gram-negative bacteria contribute 80-85% of UTI and 15-20% by gram positive with major contribution by E. coli. The aim of the study is to assess the bacterial prevalence, drug sensitivity pattern and predisposing factors in nosocomial UTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS 778 midstream urine samples were tested by conventional methods of which 282 (36.25% samples were identified as positive for bacteria. All the isolates were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity testing. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test. RESULTS Bacterial prevalence was 36.25%. 87.95% UTI were caused by gram negative while 12.05% cases were due to gram-positive bacteria. Most prevalent bacterium was E. coli (48.23%. Piperacillin+tazobactam were identified as most sensitive drug for all gram-negative isolates. Among the gram-positive isolates, coagulase-positive bacteria like Staph aureus were sensitive to all tested drugs while coagulase-negative bacteria were less sensitive to all exposed drugs and Enterococcus produced 75% sensitivity rate to vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid. UTI was common between 40-60 years (37.23% with mean age 44.23±20.05 and P value was >0.05. High frequency observed in men (55.32% than women (44.68%, (P >0.05. 53.19% cases had history of catheterisation (P <0.001. CONCLUSION Variable sensitivity pattern and increasing drug resistance observed in uropathogen, so study emphasise over antibiotic sensitivity testing before prescribing empirical therapy, understanding the risk factors helps to contain the UTI.

  3. A Cross Sectional Comparison of Predisposing, Reinforcing and Enabling Factors for Lifestyle Health Behaviours and Weight Gain in Healthy and Overweight Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jersey, Susan J; Mallan, Kimberley; Callaway, Leonie; Daniels, Lynne A; Nicholson, Jan M

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Little is known about the antecedents to dietary and physical activity behaviours that can support healthy gestational weight gain (GWG) across different weight status groups in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to use constructs common to dominant health behaviour theories to determine if predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors for healthy eating, physical activity and weight gain differed between healthy and overweight pregnant women. Methods Pregnant women (n = 664) aged 29 ± 5 (mean ± SD) years were recruited at 16 ± 2 weeks gestation. Measures were self-reported pre-pregnancy weight, psychosocial constructs for healthy eating, physical activity and GWG and demographic data. Height was measured at 16 weeks. Psychosocial constructs were compared between women with pre-pregnancy weight status of healthy (BMI healthy eating and physical activity were not different between healthy (66 %) and overweight (34 %) women. Overweight women had lower self-efficacy for healthy eating, physical activity and GWG (p healthy eating (p = 0.002), and physical activity (p = 0.006). Conclusions for practice Both healthy and overweight women appear motivated to follow a healthy diet, exercise and avoid excess gestational weight during pregnancy. However many psychosocial factors associated with achieving these goals were different between healthy and overweight women. Health behaviour interventions tailored to overweight pregnant women should consider improving self-efficacy, providing support to overcome perceived barriers, validate positive changes made, and assist in managing negative expectations.

  4. Chilling stress--the key predisposing factor for causing Alternaria alternata infection and leading to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingqing; Li, Sha; Jiang, Tengfei; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Wenwei; Jian, Guiliang; Qi, Fangjun

    2012-01-01

    Leaf senescence plays a vital role in nutrient recycling and overall capacity to assimilate carbon dioxide. Cotton premature leaf senescence, often accompanied with unexpected short-term low temperature, has been occurring with an increasing frequency in many cotton-growing areas and causes serious reduction in yield and quality of cotton. The key factors for causing and promoting cotton premature leaf senescence are still unclear. In this case, the relationship between the pre-chilling stress and Alternaria alternata infection for causing cotton leaf senescence was investigated under precisely controlled laboratory conditions with four to five leaves stage cotton plants. The results showed short-term chilling stress could cause a certain degree of physiological impairment to cotton leaves, which could be recovered to normal levels in 2-4 days when the chilling stresses were removed. When these chilling stress injured leaves were further inoculated with A. alternata, the pronounced appearance and development of leaf spot disease, and eventually the pronounced symptoms of leaf senescence, occurred on these cotton leaves. The onset of cotton leaf senescence at this condition was also reflected in various physiological indexes such as irreversible increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage, irreversible decrease in soluble protein content and chlorophyll content, and irreversible damage in leaves' photosynthesis ability. The presented results demonstrated that chilling stress acted as the key predisposing factor for causing A. alternata infection and leading to cotton leaf senescence. It could be expected that the understanding of the key factors causing and promoting cotton leaf senescence would be helpful for taking appropriate management steps to prevent cotton premature leaf senescence.

  5. Chilling stress--the key predisposing factor for causing Alternaria alternata infection and leading to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. leaf senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqing Zhao

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence plays a vital role in nutrient recycling and overall capacity to assimilate carbon dioxide. Cotton premature leaf senescence, often accompanied with unexpected short-term low temperature, has been occurring with an increasing frequency in many cotton-growing areas and causes serious reduction in yield and quality of cotton. The key factors for causing and promoting cotton premature leaf senescence are still unclear. In this case, the relationship between the pre-chilling stress and Alternaria alternata infection for causing cotton leaf senescence was investigated under precisely controlled laboratory conditions with four to five leaves stage cotton plants. The results showed short-term chilling stress could cause a certain degree of physiological impairment to cotton leaves, which could be recovered to normal levels in 2-4 days when the chilling stresses were removed. When these chilling stress injured leaves were further inoculated with A. alternata, the pronounced appearance and development of leaf spot disease, and eventually the pronounced symptoms of leaf senescence, occurred on these cotton leaves. The onset of cotton leaf senescence at this condition was also reflected in various physiological indexes such as irreversible increase in malondialdehyde (MDA content and electrolyte leakage, irreversible decrease in soluble protein content and chlorophyll content, and irreversible damage in leaves' photosynthesis ability. The presented results demonstrated that chilling stress acted as the key predisposing factor for causing A. alternata infection and leading to cotton leaf senescence. It could be expected that the understanding of the key factors causing and promoting cotton leaf senescence would be helpful for taking appropriate management steps to prevent cotton premature leaf senescence.

  6. Is gender still a predisposing factor in contrast-media associated adverse drug reactions? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials and observational studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Heeyoung, E-mail: sselmul@hanmail.net [Evidence-Based Research Laboratory, Division of Health, Social and Clinical Pharmacotherapy, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Seungyeon, E-mail: tmddus0121@hotmail.com [Evidence-Based Research Laboratory, Division of Health, Social and Clinical Pharmacotherapy, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Yun-Kyoung, E-mail: rky221@hanmail.net [Evidence-Based Research Laboratory, Division of Health, Social and Clinical Pharmacotherapy, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pharmacy, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, WonKu, E-mail: wkang@cau.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eunyoung, E-mail: eykimjcb777@cau.ac.kr [Evidence-Based Research Laboratory, Division of Health, Social and Clinical Pharmacotherapy, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Analyzing RCTs and observational studies shows similar CM-ADR developments between genders. • Gender factor is not related to developing CIN and non-renal CM-ADR. • Gender is not a predisposing factor of CM-ADRs under current evidences. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the role of gender as a risk factor for developing contrast media-associated adverse drug reactions (CM-ADRs) by comparing the incidence of CM-ADR between male and female patients according to study design, ADR type, and computed tomography (CT) examination. Material and methods: We systematically searched three electronic databases for eligible studies. In the studies included (n = 18), we assessed effect estimates of the relative incidence of CM-ADR, analysed by experimental design, ADR type and CT examination. This was calculated by using a random effects model if clinical conditions showed heterogeneity; otherwise, a fixed effects model was used. Results: We identified 10,776 patients administered CM. According to the designs, studies were classified into randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. Results were as follows: risk ratio (RR) = 1.07 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79–1.46, P = 0.66) for RCTs, and RR = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.58–1.04, P = 0.09) for observational studies. The results of analysis according to ADR type and for undergoing CT demonstrated that the incidence of CM-ADR did not differ between males and females. Conclusions: We found no significant difference in the incidence of CM-ADRs between male and female patients according to study design, ADR type, or CT examination. Future studies to determine why gender has shown different roles as a risk factor between CM-ADRs and non-CM ADRs are needed.

  7. Influenza A Virus Infection Predisposes Hosts to Secondary Infection with Different Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes with Similar Outcome but Serotype-Specific Manifestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma-Chawla, Niharika; Sender, Vicky; Kershaw, Olivia; Gruber, Achim D.; Volckmar, Julia; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae are major causes of respiratory tract infections, particularly during coinfection. The synergism between these two pathogens is characterized by a complex network of dysregulated immune responses, some of which last until recovery following IAV infection. Despite the high serotype diversity of S. pneumoniae and the serotype replacement observed since the introduction of conjugate vaccines, little is known about pneumococcal strain dependency in the enhanced susceptibility to severe secondary S. pneumoniae infection following IAV infection. Thus, we studied how preinfection with IAV alters host susceptibility to different S. pneumoniae strains with various degrees of invasiveness using a highly invasive serotype 4 strain, an invasive serotype 7F strain, and a carrier serotype 19F strain. A murine model of pneumococcal coinfection during the acute phase of IAV infection showed a significantly increased degree of pneumonia and mortality for all tested pneumococcal strains at otherwise sublethal doses. The incidence and kinetics of systemic dissemination, however, remained bacterial strain dependent. Furthermore, we observed strain-specific alterations in the pulmonary levels of alveolar macrophages, neutrophils, and inflammatory mediators ultimately affecting immunopathology. During the recovery phase following IAV infection, bacterial growth in the lungs and systemic dissemination were enhanced in a strain-dependent manner. Altogether, this study shows that acute IAV infection predisposes the host to lethal S. pneumoniae infection irrespective of the pneumococcal serotype, while the long-lasting synergism between IAV and S. pneumoniae is bacterial strain dependent. These results hold implications for developing tailored therapeutic treatment regimens for dual infections during future IAV outbreaks. PMID:27647871

  8. Predisposing factors to the practice of self-medication in Brazil: Results from the National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines (PNAUM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Emilia da Silva; Knauth, Daniela Riva; Vigo, Álvaro; Mengue, Sotero Serrate

    2017-01-01

    To understand the predisposing factors that lead to the practice of self-medication and the factors associated with the use of medicines via self-medication in the adult population of Brazil. The analyzed data are part of the National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines (PNAUM), a survey whose population consisted of individual residents permanently domiciled in urban areas in Brazil. In this work, the data references the 31 573 respondents aged 20 or higher (76.2% of the final PNAUM sample). Poisson regression models with robust variance were used for estimating the independent effect of each variable with medicine use via self-medication. Of the interviewees, 73.6% stated they had used some medication without medical recommendation if they had previously used the same product; 73.8% stated they had used non-prescribed medicine when the medicine was already present at home; and 35.5% stated they had used some non-prescribed medication when they knew someone who had already taken the same medication. The prevalence of self-medication was 18.3%. The variables associated with the highest probability of using medicine via self-medication were: geographic region within Brazil, gender, age group, per capita income, self-assessment of health, self-reported use of previously used non-prescribed medication, and self-reported use of non-prescribed medication when that medication was already present at home. The use of medicines via self-medication in Brazil is relatively frequent and influenced by previous experience and familiarity with the medications, and is more common among women and individuals with low self-assessment of health.

  9. Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder Predispose Youth to Accelerated Atherosclerosis and Early Cardiovascular Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Matthews, Karen A; McIntyre, Roger S; Miller, Gregory E; Raghuveer, Geetha; Stoney, Catherine M; Wasiak, Hank; McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-09-08

    In the 2011 "Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents," several medical conditions among youth were identified that predispose to accelerated atherosclerosis and early cardiovascular disease (CVD), and risk stratification and management strategies for youth with these conditions were elaborated. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) among youth satisfy the criteria set for, and therefore merit inclusion among, Expert Panel tier II moderate-risk conditions. The combined prevalence of MDD and BD among adolescents in the United States is ≈10%, at least 10 times greater than the prevalence of the existing moderate-risk conditions combined. The high prevalence of MDD and BD underscores the importance of positioning these diseases alongside other pediatric diseases previously identified as moderate risk for CVD. The overall objective of this statement is to increase awareness and recognition of MDD and BD among youth as moderate-risk conditions for early CVD. To achieve this objective, the primary specific aims of this statement are to (1) summarize evidence that MDD and BD are tier II moderate-risk conditions associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and early CVD and (2) position MDD and BD as tier II moderate-risk conditions that require the application of risk stratification and management strategies in accordance with Expert Panel recommendations. In this scientific statement, there is an integration of the various factors that putatively underlie the association of MDD and BD with CVD, including pathophysiological mechanisms, traditional CVD risk factors, behavioral and environmental factors, and psychiatric medications. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. A novel unstable duplication upstream of HAS2 predisposes to a breed-defining skin phenotype and a periodic fever syndrome in Chinese Shar-Pei dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Olsson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation with no known pathogenic or autoimmune cause. In humans, several genes have been implicated in this group of diseases, but the majority of cases remain unexplained. A similar periodic fever syndrome is relatively frequent in the Chinese Shar-Pei breed of dogs. In the western world, Shar-Pei have been strongly selected for a distinctive thick and heavily folded skin. In this study, a mutation affecting both these traits was identified. Using genome-wide SNP analysis of Shar-Pei and other breeds, the strongest signal of a breed-specific selective sweep was located on chromosome 13. The same region also harbored the strongest genome-wide association (GWA signal for susceptibility to the periodic fever syndrome (p(raw = 2.3 × 10⁻⁶, p(genome = 0.01. Dense targeted resequencing revealed two partially overlapping duplications, 14.3 Kb and 16.1 Kb in size, unique to Shar-Pei and upstream of the Hyaluronic Acid Synthase 2 (HAS2 gene. HAS2 encodes the rate-limiting enzyme synthesizing hyaluronan (HA, a major component of the skin. HA is up-regulated and accumulates in the thickened skin of Shar-Pei. A high copy number of the 16.1 Kb duplication was associated with an increased expression of HAS2 as well as the periodic fever syndrome (p < 0.0001. When fragmented, HA can act as a trigger of the innate immune system and stimulate sterile fever and inflammation. The strong selection for the skin phenotype therefore appears to enrich for a pleiotropic mutation predisposing these dogs to a periodic fever syndrome. The identification of HA as a major risk factor for this canine disease raises the potential of this glycosaminoglycan as a risk factor for human periodic fevers and as an important driver of chronic inflammation.

  11. Strain and cocaine-induced differential opioid gene expression may predispose Lewis but not Fischer rats to escalate cocaine self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Marta; Picetti, Roberto; Yuferov, Vadim; Butelman, Eduardo R; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations in gene expression of opioid system components induced by extended access (18 h) cocaine self-administration and to determine the impact of genetic background in the vulnerability to escalate cocaine intake. Comparing two inbred rat strains, we previously reported that Lewis rats progressively escalated cocaine consumption compared to Fischer rats, in a new translational model of intravenous cocaine self-administration, which included 14 sessions of 18-h operant sessions in which rats were allowed to select the cocaine unit dose to self-administer. We compare here Fischer and Lewis rats in the gene expression of endogenous opioid peptides (Pomc, Penk, Pdyn) and cognate receptors (Oprm, Oprk and Oprd) in reward-related brain regions, after exposure to either cocaine self-administration or yoked-saline, in the aforementioned translational paradigm. We performed a correlation analysis between the mRNA level, found in the Dorsal Striatum (DS), Nucleus accumbens (NAcc) shell and core respectively, and individual cocaine intake. Our findings show that the gene expression of all the aforementioned opioid genes exhibit strain-dependent differences in the DS, in absence of cocaine exposure. Also, different strain-specific cocaine-induced mRNA expression of Oprm and Oprk was found in DS. Only few differences were found in the ventral parts of the striatum. Moreover, gene expression level of Pdyn, Penk, Oprk, and Oprm in the DS was significantly correlated with cocaine intake only in Fischer rats. Overall, these data shed light on potential genetic differences which may predispose of subjects to initiate and escalate cocaine consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Is gender still a predisposing factor in contrast-media associated adverse drug reactions? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials and observational studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Heeyoung; Song, Seungyeon; Oh, Yun-Kyoung; Kang, WonKu; Kim, Eunyoung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Analyzing RCTs and observational studies shows similar CM-ADR developments between genders. • Gender factor is not related to developing CIN and non-renal CM-ADR. • Gender is not a predisposing factor of CM-ADRs under current evidences. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the role of gender as a risk factor for developing contrast media-associated adverse drug reactions (CM-ADRs) by comparing the incidence of CM-ADR between male and female patients according to study design, ADR type, and computed tomography (CT) examination. Material and methods: We systematically searched three electronic databases for eligible studies. In the studies included (n = 18), we assessed effect estimates of the relative incidence of CM-ADR, analysed by experimental design, ADR type and CT examination. This was calculated by using a random effects model if clinical conditions showed heterogeneity; otherwise, a fixed effects model was used. Results: We identified 10,776 patients administered CM. According to the designs, studies were classified into randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. Results were as follows: risk ratio (RR) = 1.07 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79–1.46, P = 0.66) for RCTs, and RR = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.58–1.04, P = 0.09) for observational studies. The results of analysis according to ADR type and for undergoing CT demonstrated that the incidence of CM-ADR did not differ between males and females. Conclusions: We found no significant difference in the incidence of CM-ADRs between male and female patients according to study design, ADR type, or CT examination. Future studies to determine why gender has shown different roles as a risk factor between CM-ADRs and non-CM ADRs are needed.

  13. Chilling Stress—The Key Predisposing Factor for Causing Alternaria alternata Infection and Leading to Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Leaf Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingqing; Li, Sha; Jiang, Tengfei; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Wenwei; Jian, Guiliang; Qi, Fangjun

    2012-01-01

    Leaf senescence plays a vital role in nutrient recycling and overall capacity to assimilate carbon dioxide. Cotton premature leaf senescence, often accompanied with unexpected short-term low temperature, has been occurring with an increasing frequency in many cotton-growing areas and causes serious reduction in yield and quality of cotton. The key factors for causing and promoting cotton premature leaf senescence are still unclear. In this case, the relationship between the pre-chilling stress and Alternaria alternata infection for causing cotton leaf senescence was investigated under precisely controlled laboratory conditions with four to five leaves stage cotton plants. The results showed short-term chilling stress could cause a certain degree of physiological impairment to cotton leaves, which could be recovered to normal levels in 2–4 days when the chilling stresses were removed. When these chilling stress injured leaves were further inoculated with A. alternata, the pronounced appearance and development of leaf spot disease, and eventually the pronounced symptoms of leaf senescence, occurred on these cotton leaves. The onset of cotton leaf senescence at this condition was also reflected in various physiological indexes such as irreversible increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage, irreversible decrease in soluble protein content and chlorophyll content, and irreversible damage in leaves' photosynthesis ability. The presented results demonstrated that chilling stress acted as the key predisposing factor for causing A. alternata infection and leading to cotton leaf senescence. It could be expected that the understanding of the key factors causing and promoting cotton leaf senescence would be helpful for taking appropriate management steps to prevent cotton premature leaf senescence. PMID:22558354

  14. Schistosomiasis: predisposing cause for the formation of hepatic abscesses? Case report Esquistossomose: causa predisponente para a formação de abscessos hepáticos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Carvalho Pedroso de Lima

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available An adult patient with chronic schistosomiasis from an endemic area, complained about a seven day fever, along with jaundice and lumbar backache on the right side. Image exams showed multiple pyogenic liver abscesses. All the classic etiologies were discarded through clinical, radiological and laboratorial criteria. Schistosomiasis can cause pylephlebitis as a complication, along with immunesuppression, granulomatous reaction with central lobular liver necrosis and a greater risk of infection. The authors suggest that schistosomiasis in its chronic form may be the predisposing cause of multiple pyogenic liver abscesses, especially in endemic areas.Paciente adulto, natural de região endêmica para esquistossomose e portador crônico da doença, apresentava queixa de febre há sete dias, associada à ictericia e dor lombar em região direita. Os exames radiológicos mostraram abscessos hepáticos piogênicos múltiplos, cuja causa predisponente é conhecida, segundo trabalhos da literatura, em 100% dos casos. Através de parâmetros clínicos, laboratoriais e radiológicos todas as etiologias clássicas foram afastadas. Sabe-se que a esquistossomose pode provocar, como complicação, a pileflebite, além de depressão imunológica e reação granulomatosa com necrose lobular central e maior risco de infecção. Os autores deste relato de caso sugerem ser a esquistossomose, na sua forma crônica, causa predisponente para formação de abscessos hepáticos piogênicos múltiplos, principalmente em regiões endêmicas.

  15. Quantitative trait loci for blood glucose confirm diabetes predisposing and protective genes, Iddm4 and Iddm5r, in the spontaneously diabetic BB/OK rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöting, I; Van Den Brandt, J; Kovács, P

    1998-11-01

    Several crossing studies using diabetic BB/OK and diabetes-resistant rat strains have clearly shown that the MHC class-II-genes of the RT1u haplotype (Iddm1) and the lymphopenia (Iddm2) are essential but not sufficient for type 1 diabetes development. The search for additional diabetogenic genes revealed predisposing non-MHC genes, Iddm3 and Iddm4, and a diabetes protective gene, Iddm5r, cosegregating with diabetes in the BB/OK rat subline. These findings were based on cosegregation studies comparing allele frequencies between diabetic and non-diabetic cross hybrids. Since, type 1 diabetes is characterised by hyperglycaemia we analysed 22 diabetic and 43 non-diabetic [(BB x SHR)FI x BB] backcross hybrids (28M:37F) which were already homozygous for Iddml and Iddm2 to search for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting blood glucose in BB/OK rats. The QTL analysis using 117 microsatellite markers located on 19 autosomal chromosomes and the X chromosome, revealed suggestive linkage for blood glucose at the same position for diabetics (lod score 3.1) and non-diabetics at an age of 16 weeks at locus D6Mgh2 on chromosome 6 (lod score 1.9). In contrast, the peak for nondiabetics at an age of 28 weeks (lod score 3.1) was located in the region on chromosome 1 flanked by D1Mgh12 and D1Mit14, whereas the peak for diabetics (lod score 1.9) was found between Sa and Igf2. The distance between two peaks is ca. 50 cM. These findings are consistent with previously described results and provide strong evidence on the relevance of the described region for the development of diabetes not only in the rat, but, regarding the chromosomal homology also in human.

  16. Increased stiffness is the major early abnormality in a pig model of severe aortic stenosis and predisposes to congestive heart failure in the absence of systolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kiyotake; Aguero, Jaume; Oh, Jae Gyun; Hammoudi, Nadjib; Fish, Lauren A; Leonardson, Lauren; Picatoste, Belén; Santos-Gallego, Carlos G; Fish, Kenneth M; Hajjar, Roger J

    2015-05-20

    It remains unclear whether abnormal systolic function and relaxation are essential for developing heart failure in pathophysiology of severe aortic stenosis. Yorkshire pigs underwent surgical banding of the ascending aorta. The animals were followed for up to 5 months after surgery, and cardiac function was assessed comprehensively by invasive pressure-volume measurements, 3-dimensional echocardiography, echocardiographic speckle-tracking strain, and postmortem molecular and histological analyses. Pigs with aortic banding (n=6) exhibited significant left ventricular hypertrophy with increased stiffness compared with the control pigs (n=7) (end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship β: 0.053±0.017 versus 0.028±0.009 mm Hg/mL, P=0.007); however, all other parameters corresponding to systolic function, including ejection fraction, end-systolic pressure-volume relationship, preload recruitable stroke work, echocardiographic circumferential strain, and longitudinal strain, were not impaired in pigs with aortic banding. Relaxation parameters were also similar between groups. Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium (Ca(2+)) ATPase protein levels in the left ventricle were similar. There were significant increases in 3-dimensional echocardiographic left atrial volumes, suggesting the usefulness of these indexes to detect increased stiffness. Right atrial pacing with a heart rate of 120 beats per minute induced increased end-diastolic pressure in pigs with aortic banding in contrast to decreased end-diastolic pressure in the control pigs. Histological evaluation revealed that increased stiffness was accompanied by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and increased perimysial and perivascular fibrosis. Increased stiffness is the major early pathological process that predisposes to congestive heart failure without abnormalities in systolic function and relaxation in a clinically relevant animal model of aortic stenosis. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart

  17. Investigation of the Association Between Bone Mineral Density and Predisposing Factors in Osteoporotic Postmenopausal Women in a Sample of Patients From Gaziantep and Trabzon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Madenci

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate the association between the bone mineral density and risk factors predisposing to osteoporosis as well as impact of regional factors on bone mineral density by comparing the data obtained from patients who lived in Gaziantep (a province in the south east of this country and Trabzon (a province in the north east of this country. Included in the study were 318 patients, of whom 162 were from Gaziantep and 156 from Trabzon. Bone mineral density of the patients was measured with DEXA, and those who had a t score below (-2.0 SD on bone mineral density measurement in the back and hip regions were included in the study. An osteoporosis follow up questionnaire that was modified from MEDOS study questionnaire was filled. The patients who lived in Gaziantep were fatter than those who lived in Trabzon (p0.05. The bone mineral density (L2-4 femur (total and Wards triangle of the patients who lived in Trabzon was significantly lower than in Gaziantep (p0.05. White skin color and high tea consumption were more common in the second group (p<0.001. Some parameters like dark or wheat skin and black eye color, birth and abortion rate, and sun bathing habis were more common in the first group (p<0.001. In conclusion, fist and cost effective option to estimate whether the patient carries a high risk is to evaluate the place where the patient lives as well the habits and traditions. The proceeding bone mineral density measurement will help to diagnose the disease. We believe that this approach will help not only for early diagnosis of osteoporosis but also useful economically.

  18. Variation, structure and norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Peter

    2014-01-01

    After a period when the focus was essentially on mental architecture, the cognitive sciences are increasingly integrating the social dimension. The rise of a cognitive sociolinguistics is part of this trend. The article argues that this process requires a re-evaluation of some entrenched positions...... in linguistics: those that see linguistic norms as antithetical to a descriptive and variational linguistics. Once such a re-evaluation has taken place, however, the social recontextualization of cognition will enable linguistics (including sociolinguistics as an integral part), to eliminate the cracks...

  19. Introduction to global variational geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Krupka, Demeter

    2015-01-01

    The book is devoted to recent research in the global variational theory on smooth manifolds. Its main objective is an extension of the classical variational calculus on Euclidean spaces to (topologically nontrivial) finite-dimensional smooth manifolds; to this purpose the methods of global analysis of differential forms are used. Emphasis is placed on the foundations of the theory of variational functionals on fibered manifolds - relevant geometric structures for variational principles in geometry, physical field theory and higher-order fibered mechanics. The book chapters include: - foundations of jet bundles and analysis of differential forms and vector fields on jet bundles, - the theory of higher-order integral variational functionals for sections of a fibred space, the (global) first variational formula in infinitesimal and integral forms- extremal conditions and the discussion of Noether symmetries and generalizations,- the inverse problems of the calculus of variations of Helmholtz type- variational se...

  20. Gauging Variational Inference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ahn, Sungsoo [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jinwoo [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-25

    Computing partition function is the most important statistical inference task arising in applications of Graphical Models (GM). Since it is computationally intractable, approximate methods have been used to resolve the issue in practice, where meanfield (MF) and belief propagation (BP) are arguably the most popular and successful approaches of a variational type. In this paper, we propose two new variational schemes, coined Gauged-MF (G-MF) and Gauged-BP (G-BP), improving MF and BP, respectively. Both provide lower bounds for the partition function by utilizing the so-called gauge transformation which modifies factors of GM while keeping the partition function invariant. Moreover, we prove that both G-MF and G-BP are exact for GMs with a single loop of a special structure, even though the bare MF and BP perform badly in this case. Our extensive experiments, on complete GMs of relatively small size and on large GM (up-to 300 variables) confirm that the newly proposed algorithms outperform and generalize MF and BP.

  1. Harmonically excited orbital variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, T.

    1985-01-01

    Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs

  2. Variations in brain DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus eAvila

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that DNA sequences are conserved in the diverse cell types present in a multicellular organism like the human being. Thus, in order to compare the sequences in the genome of DNA from different individuals, nucleic acid is commonly isolated from a single tissue. In this regard, blood cells are widely used for this purpose because of their availability. Thus blood DNA has been used to study genetic familiar diseases that affect other tissues and organs, such as the liver, heart, and brain. While this approach is valid for the identification of familial diseases in which mutations are present in parental germinal cells and, therefore, in all the cells of a given organism, it is not suitable to identify sporadic diseases in which mutations might occur in specific somatic cells. This review addresses somatic DNA variations in different tissues or cells (mainly in the brain of single individuals and discusses whether the dogma of DNA invariance between cell types is indeed correct. We will also discuss how single nucleotide somatic variations arise, focusing on the presence of specific DNA mutations in the brain.

  3. Methodology for Safety Assessment Applied to Predisposal Waste Management. Report of the Results of the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) 2004–2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    Report of the Results of the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) (2004–2010) The IAEA’s progamme on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) focused on approaches and mechanisms for application of safety assessment methodologies for the predisposal management of radioactive waste. The initial outcome of the SADRWMS Project was achieved through the development of flowcharts, which have since been incorporated into IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSG-3, Safety Case and Safety Assessment for Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste. In 2005, an initial specification was developed for the Safety Assessment Framework (SAFRAN) software tool to apply the SADRWMS flowcharts. In 2008, an in-depth application of the SAFRAN tool and the SADRWMS methodology was carried out on the predisposal management facilities of the Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology Radioactive Waste Management Centre (TINT Facility). This publication summarizes the content and outcomes of the SADRWMS programme. The Chairman’s Report of the SADRWMS Project and the Report of the TINT test case are provided on the CD-ROM which accompanies this report

  4. Methodology for Safety Assessment Applied to Predisposal Waste Management. Report of the Results of the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) 2004–2010). Companion CD-ROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    Report of the Results of the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) (2004–2010) The IAEA’s progamme on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) focused on approaches and mechanisms for application of safety assessment methodologies for the predisposal management of radioactive waste. The initial outcome of the SADRWMS Project was achieved through the development of flowcharts, which have since been incorporated into IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSG-3, Safety Case and Safety Assessment for Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste. In 2005, an initial specification was developed for the Safety Assessment Framework (SAFRAN) software tool to apply the SADRWMS flowcharts. In 2008, an in-depth application of the SAFRAN tool and the SADRWMS methodology was carried out on the predisposal management facilities of the Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology Radioactive Waste Management Centre (TINT Facility). This publication summarizes the content and outcomes of the SADRWMS programme. The Chairman’s Report of the SADRWMS Project and the Report of the TINT test case are provided on this CD-ROM which accompanies the report

  5. Evaluation of variational approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevisan, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    In Feynman's approach to quantum statistical mechanics, the partition function can e represented as a path integral. A recently proposed variation method of Feynman-Kleinert is able to transform the path integral into an integral in phase space, in which the quantum fluctuations have been taken care of by introducing the effective classical potential. This method has been testes with succeed for the smooth potentials and for the singular potential of delta. The method to the strong singular potentials is applied: a quadratic potential and a linear potential both with a rigid wall at the origin. By satisfying the condition that the density of the particle be vanish at the origin, and adapted method of Feynman-Kleinert in order to improve the method is introduced. (author)

  6. Dynamics of nonholonomic systems from variational principles embedded variation identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yongxin; Liu Shixing; Liu Chang; Chang Peng

    2009-01-01

    Nondeterminacy of dynamics, i.e., the nonholonomic or the vakonomic, fundamental variational principles, e.g., the Lagrange-d'Alembert or Hamiltonian, and variational operators, etc., of nonholonomic mechanical systems can be attributed to the non-uniqueness of ways how to realize nonholonomic constraints. Making use of a variation identity of nonholonomic constraints embedded into the Hamilton's principle with the method of Lagrange undetermined multipliers, three kinds of dynamics for the nonholonomic systems including the vakonomic and nonholonomic ones and a new one are obtained if the variation is respectively reduced to three conditional variations: vakonomic variation, Hoelder's variation and Suslov's variation, defined by the identity. Therefore, different dynamics of nonholonomic systems can be derived from an integral variational principle, utilizing one way of embedding constraints into the principle, with different variations. It is verified that the similar embedding of the identity into the Lagrange-d'Alembert principle gives rise to the nonholonomic dynamics but fails to give the vakonomic one unless the constraints are integrable.

  7. Prior antimicrobial therapy in the hospital and other predisposing factors influencing the usage of antibiotics in a pediatric critical care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsorva Athina

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine whether prior antimicrobial therapy is an important risk factor for extended antimicrobial therapy among critically ill children. To evaluate other predisposing factors influencing the usage of antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU setting. To examine the relationship between the extent of antimicrobial treatment and the incidence of nosocomial infections and outcome. Methods This prospective observational cohort study was conducted at a university-affiliated teaching hospital (760 beds in Athens. Clinical data were collected upon admission and on each consecutive PICU day. The primary reason for PICU admission was recorded using a modified classification for mutually exclusive disease categories. All administered antibiotics to the PICU patients were recorded during a six-month period. Microbiological and pharmacological data were also collected over this period. The cumulative per patient and the maximum per day numbers of administered antibiotics, as well as the duration of administration were related to the following factors: Number of antibiotics which the patients were already receiving the day before admission, age groups, place of origin, the severity of illness, the primary disease and its complications during the course of hospitalization, the development of nosocomial infections with positive cultures, the presence of chronic disease or immunodeficiency, various interventional techniques (mechanical ventilation, central catheters, and PICU outcome. Results During a six-month period 174 patients were admitted to the PICU and received antibiotics for a total of 950 days (62.3% of the length of stay days. While in PICU, 34 patients did not receive antimicrobial treatment (19.5%, 69 received one antibiotic (39.7%, 42 two (24.1%, 17 three (9.8%, and 12 more than three (6.9%. The number of antibiotics prescribed in PICU or at discharge did not differ from that at

  8. A survey of variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    In this article survey of variational principles has been given. Variational principles play a significant role in mathematical theory with emphasis on the physical aspects. There are two principals used i.e. to represent the equation of the system in a succinct way and to enable a particular computation in the system to be carried out with greater accuracy. The survey of variational principles has ranged widely from its starting point in the Lagrange multiplier to optimisation principles. In an age of digital computation, these classic methods can be adapted to improve such calculations. We emphasize particularly the advantage of basic finite element methods on variational principles. (A.B.)

  9. General strongly nonlinear variational inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, A.H.; Ansari, Q.H.

    1990-07-01

    In this paper we develop iterative algorithms for finding approximate solutions for new classes of variational and quasi-variational inequalities which include, as special case, some known results in this field. It is shown that the solutions of the iterative schemes converge to the exact solutions. (author). 15 refs

  10. Exploiting natural variation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, J.A.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Sanchez-Serrano, J.J.; Salinas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Natural variation for many traits is present within the species Arabidopsis thaliana. This chapter describes the use of natural variation to elucidate genes underlying the regulation of quantitative traits. It deals with the development and use of mapping populations, the detection and handling of

  11. Variational and quasi-variational inequalities in mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kravchuk, Alexander S

    2007-01-01

    The essential aim of the present book is to consider a wide set of problems arising in the mathematical modelling of mechanical systems under unilateral constraints. In these investigations elastic and non-elastic deformations, friction and adhesion phenomena are taken into account. All the necessary mathematical tools are given: local boundary value problem formulations, construction of variational equations and inequalities, and the transition to minimization problems, existence and uniqueness theorems, and variational transformations (Friedrichs and Young-Fenchel-Moreau) to dual and saddle-point search problems. Important new results concern contact problems with friction. The Coulomb friction law and some others are considered, in which relative sliding velocities appear. The corresponding quasi-variational inequality is constructed, as well as the appropriate iterative method for its solution. Outlines of the variational approach to non-stationary and dissipative systems and to the construction of the go...

  12. Observer variation in skeletal radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockshott, W.P.; Park, W.M.

    1983-08-01

    The factors that affect observer variation in bone radiology are analysed from data in the literature and on the basis of studies carried out at McMaster University on the hands and sacroiliac joints. A plea is made for presenting results in terms of Kappa statistics so that agreement due purely to chance is eliminated. In the conclusions the main variables that affect concordance are listed so that strategies can be developed to reduce observer variation. This is important in serial studies to ensure that the observer variations are smaller than the effect one wishes to measure.

  13. Statistics, Uncertainty, and Transmitted Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Joanne Roth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-05

    The field of Statistics provides methods for modeling and understanding data and making decisions in the presence of uncertainty. When examining response functions, variation present in the input variables will be transmitted via the response function to the output variables. This phenomenon can potentially have significant impacts on the uncertainty associated with results from subsequent analysis. This presentation will examine the concept of transmitted variation, its impact on designed experiments, and a method for identifying and estimating sources of transmitted variation in certain settings.

  14. Single-Nucleotide Variations in Cardiac Arrhythmias: Prospects for Genomics and Proteomics Based Biomarker Discovery and Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Abunimer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are a large contributor to causes of early death in developed countries. Some of these conditions, such as sudden cardiac death and atrial fibrillation, stem from arrhythmias—a spectrum of conditions with abnormal electrical activity in the heart. Genome-wide association studies can identify single nucleotide variations (SNVs that may predispose individuals to developing acquired forms of arrhythmias. Through manual curation of published genome-wide association studies, we have collected a comprehensive list of 75 SNVs associated with cardiac arrhythmias. Ten of the SNVs result in amino acid changes and can be used in proteomic-based detection methods. In an effort to identify additional non-synonymous mutations that affect the proteome, we analyzed the post-translational modification S-nitrosylation, which is known to affect cardiac arrhythmias. We identified loss of seven known S-nitrosylation sites due to non-synonymous single nucleotide variations (nsSNVs. For predicted nitrosylation sites we found 1429 proteins where the sites are modified due to nsSNV. Analysis of the predicted S-nitrosylation dataset for over- or under-representation (compared to the complete human proteome of pathways and functional elements shows significant statistical over-representation of the blood coagulation pathway. Gene Ontology (GO analysis displays statistically over-represented terms related to muscle contraction, receptor activity, motor activity, cystoskeleton components, and microtubule activity. Through the genomic and proteomic context of SNVs and S-nitrosylation sites presented in this study, researchers can look for variation that can predispose individuals to cardiac arrhythmias. Such attempts to elucidate mechanisms of arrhythmia thereby add yet another useful parameter in predicting susceptibility for cardiac diseases.

  15. Diurnal variation of radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seftelis, I.; Nicolaou, G.; Trassanidis, S.; Tsagas, F.N.

    2007-01-01

    The diurnal variation of the gross alpha (α) radioactivity in the air near the ground and the gamma (γ) radioactivity emitted from the ground have been monitored in North-eastern Greece. Meteorological information comprising air temperature and humidity has been simultaneously recorded. Over a period of the 24 h of a typical day, the variation of α-radioactivity reaches a peak in the morning followed by a remarkable decrease, rising to a second peak in the afternoon. Furthermore, its significant dependence on the air temperature and humidity is confirmed, rising with an increase in humidity and decrease in temperature. The variation of the ground γ-radioactivity follows that of the air α-radioactivity. A mathematical model has been developed to describe the diurnal variation of the α-radioactivity in the air near the ground in terms of the above meteorological variables and ground level γ-radioactivity

  16. Fractional variational principles with delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Abdeljawad, Thabet Maaraba; Jarad, Fahd

    2008-01-01

    The fractional variational principles within Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives in the presence of delay are analyzed. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are obtained and one example is analyzed in detail

  17. Exploring language variation across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk; Johannsen, Anders Trærup

    2016-01-01

    Language varies not only between countries, but also along regional and sociodemographic lines. This variation is one of the driving factors behind language change. However, investigating language variation is a complex undertaking: the more factors we want to consider, the more data we need....... Traditional qualitative methods are not well-suited to do this, an thus restricted to isolated factors. This reduction limits the potential insights, and risks attributing undue importance to easily observed factors. While there is a large interest in linguistics to improve upon such studies, it requires...... training in both variational linguistics and computational methods, a combination that is still not common. We take a first step here to alleviate the problem by providing an interface to explore large-scale language variation along several socio-demographic factors without programming knowledge. It makes...

  18. Explaining variation in nascent entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship

  19. The P9 pocket of HLA-DQ2 (non-Aspbeta57) has no particular preference for negatively charged anchor residues found in other type 1 diabetes-predisposing non-Aspbeta57 MHC class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quarsten, H; Paulsen, G; Johansen, B H

    1998-01-01

    Susceptibility and resistance to type 1 diabetes are associated with MHC class II alleles that carry non-Asp and Asp at residue 57 of their beta chain respectively. The effect of Asp or non-Aspbeta57 may relate to a differential ability of distinct class II molecules to bind specific immuno......-pathogenic peptides. Recent studies in man and mouse have revealed that some type 1 diabetes-predisposing non-Aspbeta57 class II molecules (i.e. DQ8, DR4Dw15 and I-Ag7) preferentially bind peptides with a negatively charged anchor residue at P9. It has been suggested that this is a common feature of type 1 diabetes......-predisposing class II molecules. The molecular explanation for such a phenomenon could be that class II beta chains with Aspbeta57 form a salt bridge between Aspbeta57 and a conserved Arg of the a chain, whereas in non-Aspbeta57 molecules the Arg is unopposed and free to interact with negatively charged P9 peptide...

  20. Variational aspects of Faddeev calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.L.; Gibson, B.F.

    1993-01-01

    Variational bounds generated from Faddeev solutions for various realistic potential models are presented as a function of the number of partial waves retained in the potential expansion. The authors demonstrate that the Faddeev wave function yields an optimal variational bound for the partial-wave truncated potential from which it was generated, but it does not yield an optimal bound for the full Hamiltonian or when the potential is partial-wave truncated at a different level

  1. Variational calculus on Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uglanov, A V

    2000-01-01

    The problem of variational calculus is considered in a (variable) subdomain of a Banach space. Analogues of the basic principles of the finite-dimensional theory are derived: the main formula for variations of a functional, necessary conditions of an extremum, Noether's theorem. All the results obtained are dimension-invariant and become the classical ones in the finite-dimensional setting. The main tool of the analysis is the theory of surface integration in Banach spaces

  2. Nonlinear Analysis and Variational Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos M

    2010-01-01

    The chapters in this volume, written by international experts from different fields of mathematics, are devoted to honoring George Isac, a renowned mathematician. These contributions focus on recent developments in complementarity theory, variational principles, stability theory of functional equations, nonsmooth optimization, and several other important topics at the forefront of nonlinear analysis and optimization. "Nonlinear Analysis and Variational Problems" is organized into two parts. Part I, Nonlinear Analysis, centers on stability issues for functional equations, fixed point

  3. Is there much variation in variation? Revisiting statistics of small area variation in health services research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibáñez Berta

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of Small Area Variation Analysis for policy-making contrasts with the scarcity of work on the validity of the statistics used in these studies. Our study aims at 1 determining whether variation in utilization rates between health areas is higher than would be expected by chance, 2 estimating the statistical power of the variation statistics; and 3 evaluating the ability of different statistics to compare the variability among different procedures regardless of their rates. Methods Parametric bootstrap techniques were used to derive the empirical distribution for each statistic under the hypothesis of homogeneity across areas. Non-parametric procedures were used to analyze the empirical distribution for the observed statistics and compare the results in six situations (low/medium/high utilization rates and low/high variability. A small scale simulation study was conducted to assess the capacity of each statistic to discriminate between different scenarios with different degrees of variation. Results Bootstrap techniques proved to be good at quantifying the difference between the null hypothesis and the variation observed in each situation, and to construct reliable tests and confidence intervals for each of the variation statistics analyzed. Although the good performance of Systematic Component of Variation (SCV, Empirical Bayes (EB statistic shows better behaviour under the null hypothesis, it is able to detect variability if present, it is not influenced by the procedure rate and it is best able to discriminate between different degrees of heterogeneity. Conclusion The EB statistics seems to be a good alternative to more conventional statistics used in small-area variation analysis in health service research because of its robustness.

  4. [Geographic variations in freshwater molluscs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinarskiĭ, M V

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of geographic variation is known in practically all taxa of living beings. However, the reality of this phenomenon in freshwater molluscs (snails and bivalves) has many times been questioned in the past. It was accepted that these animals do not demonstrate spatially-oriented variation, where specific "local race" is arisen in each specific habitat. Till the beginning of 1970s, there was no statistical evidence that geographic clines in freshwater molluscs really exist. However, a few species of freshwater molluscs has been studied in this respect so far, therefore it is almost impossible to draw any general patterns of geographical variation in this group of animals. Most species of freshwater molluscs studied to the date exhibit statistically significant decrease of their body size in the south-north direction. Perhaps, it may be explained by decrease of the duration of the growth season in high latitudes. Some species of freshwater snails demonstrate clinal changes in shell proportions. This allows to reject subspecies separation within these species since diagnostic characters of such "subspecies" may blur when geographic variation is taken into consideration. The data on geographic variation in anatomical traits in freshwater molluscs is much more scarce. At least one species of pond snails (Lymnaea terebra) demonstrates clinal variation in proportions of the copulative apparatus in the south-north direction. Further studies of geographic variation in freshwater molluscs should reveal whether it is truly adaptive, i.e. whether geographical clines have underlying genetic basis. Otherwise, the clines may arise as a result of direct modifying effect of a habitat.

  5. Seasonal variation in sports participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttoff, Ute; Pawlowski, Tim

    2018-02-01

    This study explores indicators describing socio-demographics, sports participation characteristics and motives which are associated with variation in sports participation across seasons. Data were drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel which contains detailed information on the sports behaviour of adults in Germany. Overall, two different measures of seasonal variation are developed and used as dependent variables in our regression models. The first variable measures the coefficient of (seasonal) variation in sport-related energy expenditure per week. The second variable measures whether activity drops below the threshold as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Results suggest that the organisational setting, the intensity and number of sports practised, and the motive for participation are strongly correlated with the variation measures used. For example, both, participation in a sports club and a commercial facility, are associated with reduced seasonal variation and a significantly higher probability of participating at a volume above the WHO threshold across all seasons. These findings give some impetus for policymaking and the planning of sports programmes as well as future research directions.

  6. No evidence for the presence of genetic variants predisposing to psychotic disorders on the non-deleted 22q11.2 allele of VCFS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guipponi, M; Santoni, F; Schneider, M; Gehrig, C; Bustillo, X B; Kates, W R; Morrow, B; Armando, M; Vicari, S; Sloan-Béna, F; Gagnebin, M; Shashi, V; Hooper, S R; Eliez, S; Antonarakis, S E

    2017-02-21

    The velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is caused by hemizygous deletions on chromosome 22q11.2. The VCFS phenotype is complex and characterized by frequent occurrence of neuropsychiatric symptoms with up to 25-30% of cases suffering from psychotic disorders compared with only ~1% in the general population (odds ratio≈20-25). This makes the 22q11.2 deletion one of the most prominent risk factors for schizophrenia. However, its penetrance for neuropsychiatric phenotypes is incomplete suggesting that additional risk factors are required for disease development. These additional risk factors could lie anywhere on the genome, but by reducing the normal diploid to a haploid state, the 22q11.2 deletion could result in the unmasking of otherwise recessive alleles or functional variants on the non-deleted 22q11.2 allele. To test this hypothesis, we captured and sequenced the whole 22q11.2 non-deleted region in 88 VCFS patients with (n=40) and without (n=48) psychotic disorders to identify genetic variation that could increase the risk for schizophrenia. Single nucleotide variants (SNVs), small insertions/deletions (indels) and copy number variants were called and their distributions were compared between the two diagnostic groups using variant-, gene- and region-based association tests. None of these tests resulted in statistical evidence for the existence of a genetic variation in the non-deleted allele that would increase schizophrenia risk in VCFS patients. Power analysis showed that our study was able to achieve >80% statistical power to detect association of a risk variant with an odd ratio of ⩾22. However, it is certainly under-powered to detect risk variant of smaller effect sizes. Our study did not provide evidence that genetic variants of very large effect size located on the non-deleted 22q1.2 allele in VCFS patients increase the risk for developing psychotic disorders. Variants with smaller effects may be located in the remaining 22q11.2 allele and elsewhere

  7. Genotype-phenotype relationship of F7 R353Q polymorphism and plasma factor VII coagulant activity in Asian Indian families predisposed to coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Jayashree; Perumal, Ganapathy; Maitra, Arindam; Rao, Veena S; Natesha, B K; John, Shibu; Hebbagodi, Sridhar; Kakkar, Vijay V

    2009-12-01

    Elevated factor VII (FVII) level is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the role of R353Q polymorphism in the F7 gene in 139 Indian families with CAD, comprising of 222 affected subjects, 105 unaffected subjects and 126 affected sibling pairs. Plasma per cent FVIIc activity (FVII.c activity) differed ignificantly across R353Q genotype (P F7 R353Q SNP was able to explain up to 7% of variation in FVII.c activity by regression analysis and an additive genetic component of variance of 28.04% by heritability analysis. Quantitative trait loci analysis showed suggestive linkage evidence of F7 SNP with per cent FVII.c activity (LOD score -1.82; P = 0.002). Individuals with RR and RQ genotypes carried an OR of 2.071 (95% c.i. = 1.506-2.850) and 2.472 (95% c.i. = 1.679-3.641), espectively, towards CAD risk. There was significant correlation of FVII.c activity with lipid markers, particularly among those with RR and RQ genotype after covariate adjustment. In conclusion, the F7 R353Q SNP appears to moderately influence plasma FVII.c activity and risk of CAD in Indians.

  8. Variational methods in molecular modeling

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book presents tutorial overviews for many applications of variational methods to molecular modeling. Topics discussed include the Gibbs-Bogoliubov-Feynman variational principle, square-gradient models, classical density functional theories, self-consistent-field theories, phase-field methods, Ginzburg-Landau and Helfrich-type phenomenological models, dynamical density functional theory, and variational Monte Carlo methods. Illustrative examples are given to facilitate understanding of the basic concepts and quantitative prediction of the properties and rich behavior of diverse many-body systems ranging from inhomogeneous fluids, electrolytes and ionic liquids in micropores, colloidal dispersions, liquid crystals, polymer blends, lipid membranes, microemulsions, magnetic materials and high-temperature superconductors. All chapters are written by leading experts in the field and illustrated with tutorial examples for their practical applications to specific subjects. With emphasis placed on physical unders...

  9. Solid mechanics a variational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive L

    2013-01-01

    Solid Mechanics: A Variational Approach, Augmented Edition presents a lucid and thoroughly developed approach to solid mechanics for students engaged in the study of elastic structures not seen in other texts currently on the market. This work offers a clear and carefully prepared exposition of variational techniques as they are applied to solid mechanics. Unlike other books in this field, Dym and Shames treat all the necessary theory needed for the study of solid mechanics and include extensive applications. Of particular note is the variational approach used in developing consistent structural theories and in obtaining exact and approximate solutions for many problems.  Based on both semester and year-long courses taught to undergraduate seniors and graduate students, this text is geared for programs in aeronautical, civil, and mechanical engineering, and in engineering science. The authors’ objective is two-fold: first, to introduce the student to the theory of structures (one- and two-dimensional) as ...

  10. Decadal variations in groundwater quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Søren; Postma, Dieke; Thorling, Lærke

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-five years of groundwater quality monitoring in a sandy aquifer beneath agricultural fields showed large temporal and spatial variations in major ion groundwater chemistry, which were linked closely to the nitrate (NO3) content of agricultural recharge. Between 1988 and 2013, the NO3 content...... loading. Agriculture thus is an important determinant of major ion groundwater chemistry. Temporal and spatial variations in the groundwater quality were simulated using a 2D reactive transport model, which combined effects of the historical NO3 leaching and denitrification, with dispersive mixing...

  11. Structure variations of carbonizing lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, C.; Polidoro, H.A.; Otani, S.; Craievich, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    The studied lignin is a by-product of the process of ethanol production from eucaliptus. It was heat-treated under inert atmosphere conditions at increasing temperatures from 300C up to 2400C. The structural variations were studied by wide-angle X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The bulk and 'real' density of the compacted materials have also been determined as functions of the final temperature. These experimental results enabled us to establish a mechanism of structure variation based on the formation of a turbostratic graphite-like and porous structure within the initially amorphous lignin matrix. (Author) [pt

  12. The Impact of Osteopontin Gene Variations on Multiple Sclerosis Development and Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristoforo Comi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteopontin is a proinflammatory molecule, modulating TH1 and TH17 responses. Several reports suggest its involvement in multiple sclerosis (MS pathogenesis. We previously reported that OPN gene variations at the 3′ end are a predisposing factor for MS development and evolution. In this paper, we extended our analysis to a gene variation at the 5′ end on the -156G>GG single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and replicated our previous findings at the 3′ end on the +1239A>C SNP. We found that only +1239A>C SNP displayed a statistically significant association with MS development, but both +1239A>C and -156G>GG had an influence on MS progression, since patients homozygous for both +1239A and −156GG alleles displayed slower progression of disability and slower switch to secondary progression than those carrying +1239C and/or −156G and those homozygous for +1239A only. Moreover, patients homozygous for +1239A also displayed a significantly lower relapse rate than those carrying +1239C, which is in line with the established role of OPN in MS relapses.

  13. Excessive genomic DNA copy number variation in the Li-Fraumeni cancer predisposition syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlien, Adam; Tabori, Uri; Marshall, Christian R; Pienkowska, Malgorzata; Feuk, Lars; Novokmet, Ana; Nanda, Sonia; Druker, Harriet; Scherer, Stephen W; Malkin, David

    2008-08-12

    DNA copy number variations (CNVs) are a significant and ubiquitous source of inherited human genetic variation. However, the importance of CNVs to cancer susceptibility and tumor progression has not yet been explored. Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder characterized by a strikingly increased risk of early-onset breast cancer, sarcomas, brain tumors and other neoplasms in individuals harboring germline TP53 mutations. Known genetic determinants of LFS do not fully explain the variable clinical phenotype in affected family members. As part of a wider study of CNVs and cancer, we conducted a genome-wide profile of germline CNVs in LFS families. Here, by examining DNA from a large healthy population and an LFS cohort using high-density oligonucleotide arrays, we show that the number of CNVs per genome is well conserved in the healthy population, but strikingly enriched in these cancer-prone individuals. We found a highly significant increase in CNVs among carriers of germline TP53 mutations with a familial cancer history. Furthermore, we identified a remarkable number of genomic regions in which known cancer-related genes coincide with CNVs, in both LFS families and healthy individuals. Germline CNVs may provide a foundation that enables the more dramatic chromosomal changes characteristic of TP53-related tumors to be established. Our results suggest that screening families predisposed to cancer for CNVs may identify individuals with an abnormally high number of these events.

  14. Fatores predisponentes para amputação de membro inferior em pacientes diabéticos internados com pés ulcerados no estado de Sergipe Predisposing factors for amputation of lower extremities in diabetic patients with foot ulceration in the state of Sergipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Prado Nunes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar os fatores predisponentes para a amputação de membros inferiores nos doentes internados com diabetes melito e úlceras nos pés. MÉTODOS: Foram acompanhados os pacientes diabéticos com úlceras nos pés internados no período de 6 meses e analisadas as amputações nesses doentes em relação à idade, sexo, amputação prévia, número de ulcerações, tempo de diagnóstico do diabete, tempo de ulceração, tempo médio de internação, gravidade das lesões, presença de pulso. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que 55% (44/80 dos doentes evoluíram para algum tipo de amputação de membros inferiores; a mediana das idades foi de 61 anos, porém a ocorrência de amputação foi significativamente maior na faixa etária dos 60 aos 90 anos (P = 0,03. Não se observou uma variação significativa da mediana do tempo de diagnóstico do diabetes, do tempo de ulceração e do tempo médio de internação em relação ao grupo de pacientes que foram amputados. Entretanto, as lesões mais graves, quando avaliadas pela classificação de Wagner (P OBJECTIVE: To determine the predisposing factors for amputation of lower limbs in diabetic patients with foot ulceration. METHODS: The research was carried out in hospitals, and all diabetic patients with foot ulceration were included. Amputation was studied in relation to age, sex, previous amputation, number of ulcers, time of diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, time of ulceration, average number of days in hospital, Wagner's classification, and presence of foot pulse. RESULTS: We verified that 55% (44/80 of the patients progressed to some type of amputation of the lower limbs; mean age was 61 years, but the occurrence of amputation was significantly higher in the age group between 60 and 90 years (P = 0.03. We did not observe a significant variation in the following variables: time of diagnosis of diabetes, time of ulceration, and hospitalization time in relation to the group of patients who

  15. Hipogamaglobulinemia como fator de risco para infecção por Cryptococcus neoformans: a propósito de dois casos Hypogammaglobulinemia as predisposing factor for Cryptococcus neoformans infection: regarding two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto da Justa Pires Neto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois pacientes HIV-soronegativos com doença criptocócica refratária à terapia antifúngica convencional foram submetidos a estudo do sistema imune. Hipogamaglobulinemia foi evidenciada em ambos e associada à alteração funcional da imunidade mediada por células. Hipogamaglobulinemia é considerada como um possível fator predisponente para infecção criptocócica. A importância dos anticorpos no controle da infecção por Cryptococcus neoformans é discutida.Two HIV-seronegative patients with cryptococcal disease refractory to conventional antifungal therapy were submitted to an evaluation of the immune system. Hypogammaglobulinemia was found in both and associated with abnormal function of cell-mediated immunity. Hypogammaglobulinemia is considered as a possible predisposing factor for cryptococcal infection. The importance of the antibodies on the control of Cryptococcus neoformans infection is discussed.

  16. Late gestation over- and undernutrition predispose for visceral adiposity in response to a post-natal obesogenic diet, but with differential impacts on glucose-insulin adaptations during fasting in lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanal, Prabhat; Husted, Sanne Vinter; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen

    2014-01-01

    in higher ratios of mesenteric and peri-renal fat relative to subcutaneous fat compared to controls. This was not related to prenatal influences on plasma glucose or insulin. Irrespective of the prenatal diet, high-fat-fed lambs underwent changes resembling the metabolic syndrome with higher plasma glucose......, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids, triglyceride and lactate combined with abdominal obesity. Peri-renal fat appeared to be a particular target of a high-fat diet post-natally. Conclusion: Both prenatal under- and overnutrition predisposed for abdominal adiposity, apparently by reducing the expandability......Aim: To investigate if late gestation under- or overnutrition has similar adverse impacts on visceral adiposity, metabolic and endocrine function in sheep, and if subsequent exposure to a high-fat diet in early post-natal life exaggerates the prenatal programming outcomes later in life. Methods...

  17. Derivation of Schwinger variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmytkowski, R.

    2003-01-01

    We present systematic derivations of bilinear and fractional Schwinger variational principles for matrix elements of a generalized transition operator in the context of quantum mechanical potential scattering. The employed method is based on a generalization of the method of Lagrange multipliers

  18. Variation of elements in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatavaradan, V.S.

    1977-01-01

    A review is made of nuclear reactions and other physical processes during the formations of planets, leading to the existing elemental and isotope variation. Thermonuclear fusion, radioactive decay, nuclear reactions caused by cosmic rays, man-made isotopes as some of the causes are discussed in details

  19. Symmetries and variation of spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Rajendra; Elsner, Ludwig

    1992-01-01

    An interesting class of matrices is shown to have the property that the spectrum of each of its elements is invariant under multiplication by p-th roots of unity. For this class and tor a class of Hamiltonian matrices improved spectral variation bounds are obtained.

  20. Linking numbers and variational method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, I.; Yahikozawa, S.

    1989-09-01

    The ordinary and generalized linking numbers for two surfaces of dimension p and n-p-1 in an n dimensional manifold are derived. We use a variational method based on the properties of topological quantum field theory in order to derive them. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs

  1. Morphological variation of Stromatella monostromatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    1988-09-01

    Thirty two isolates of Stromatella monostromatica (Dangeard) Kornmann were studied in unialgal culture; extensive morphological variation was documented. The shape of bicellular germlings and development of young plants were similar for all isolates which had globular sporangia. These features are, therefore, the most important diagnostic characteristics of the species. The widespread distribution of S. monostromatica suggests that this is a cosmopolitan species.

  2. On quadratic variation of martingales

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    starting point for the development of stochastic calculus for continuous semimartingales without bringing in any results from general theory of processes (see [5]). The almost sure convergence of Qn t to 〈M,M〉t also gives a pathwise formula for the quadratic variation of a continuous local martingale. It also directly shows that ...

  3. On quadratic variation of martingales

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On quadratic variation of martingales. 459. The proof relied on the theory of stochastic integration. Subsequently, in Karandikar. [4], the formula was derived using only Doob's maximal inequality. Thus this could be the starting point for the development of stochastic calculus for continuous semimartingales without bringing in ...

  4. Evolutionary significance of epigenetic variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, C.L.; Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Bossdorf, O.; Wendel, J.F.; Greilhuber, J.; Dolezel, J.; Leitch, I.J.

    2012-01-01

    Several chapters in this volume demonstrate how epigenetic work at the molecular level over the last few decades has revolutionized our understanding of genome function and developmental biology. However, epigenetic processes not only further our understanding of variation and regulation at the

  5. Queratitis infecciosa no viral: factores predisponentes, agentes etiológicos y diagnóstico de laboratorio Non viral infectious keratitis: predisposing factors, etiologic agents and laboratory diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Nicola

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Las queratitis infecciosas poseen una elevada morbilidad, poniendo en riesgo la visión en casos graves. Dada la eficaz protección que brinda el epitelio corneal, para que ocurra una infección se requiere la presencia de factores condicionantes. El principal predisponente para las queratitis infecciosas es el uso de lentes de contacto, seguido por traumatismos y cirugías oculares y luego diversas afecciones locales o generales. Los agentes etiológicos abarcan una enorme diversidad de microorganismos, incluyendo bacterias, micobacterias, virus, hongos y parásitos. Para poder instaurar un tratamiento acotado se necesita un diagnóstico etiológico, lo que requiere una correcta toma de muestra y un exhaustivo análisis microbiológico.Infectious keratitis cause significant morbidity and, if it is not promptly and appropriately treated, can lead to severe ocular disability. Almost all cases of keratitis are associated to predisposing conditions. In occident, the main risk factor is contact lens wear, but previous ocular surgery or trauma are also important, as well as various ocular surface diseases. An enormous diversity of etiologic agents for infectious keratitis exist, including virus, bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi and parasites. This review provides literature and personal based information about main predisposing factors, etiologic agents and pathophysiology of infectious keratitis, excluding those of viral origin. Focus is made on microbiologic procedures, describing stains and media that should be used, and highlighting their utility. A special mention on particular situations is made, including laboratory diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis, utility of lens cases analysis, keratitis in patients with previous treatment, as well as molecular biology techniques described in ophthalmology.

  6. Carriers of aVEGFAenhancer polymorphism selectively binding CHOP/DDIT3 are predisposed to increased circulating levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Troelsen, Jesper Thorvald; Balslev-Harder, Marie; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Linneberg, Allan; Grarup, Niels; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Dalgaard, Louise Torp

    2017-03-01

    Levels of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) indicate thyroid function, because thyroid hormone negatively controls TSH release. Genetic variants in the vascular endothelial growth factor A ( VEGFA ) gene are associated with TSH levels. The aim of this study was to characterise the association of VEGFA variants with TSH in a Danish cohort and to identify and characterise functional variants. We performed an association study of the VEGFA locus for circulating TSH levels in 8445 Danish individuals. Lead variants were tested for allele-specific effects in vitro using luciferase reporter and gel-shift assays. Four SNPs in VEGFA were associated with circulating TSH (rs9472138, rs881858, rs943080 and rs4711751). For rs881858, the presence of each G-allele was associated with a corresponding decrease in TSH levels of 2.3% (p=8.4×10 -9 ) and an increase in circulating free T4 levels (p=0.0014). The SNP rs881858 is located in a binding site for CHOP (C/EBP homology protein) and c/EBPβ (ccaat enhancer binding protein β). Reporter-gene analysis showed increased basal enhancer activity of the rs881858 A-allele versus the G-allele (34.5±9.9% (average±SEM), p=0.0012), while co-expression of CHOP effectively suppressed the rs881858 A-allele activity. The A-allele showed stronger binding to CHOP in gel-shift assays. VEGF is an important angiogenic signal required for tissue expansion. We show that VEGFA variation giving allele-specific response to transcription factors with overlapping binding sites associate closely with circulating TSH levels. Because CHOP is induced by several types of intracellular stress, this indicates that cellular stress could be involved in the normal or pathophysiological response of the thyroid to TSH. NCT00289237, NCT00316667; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Post-mortem analysis of suicide victims shows ABCB1 haplotype 1236T-2677T-3435T as a candidate predisposing factor behind adverse drug reactions in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahikainen, Anna-Liina; Palo, Jukka U; Haukka, Jari; Sajantila, Antti

    2018-04-01

    Genetic variation in efflux transporter, permeability glycoprotein (P-gp), has recently been associated with completed violent suicides and also violent suicide attempts. As depression is known to be a risk factor for suicide and many antidepressants are P-gp substrates, it has been speculated that inadequate antidepressant treatment response or adverse side effects could be involved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between the P-gp coding ABCB1 gene and completed suicides in citalopram users. Also, the effect of sex and suicide method used (violent vs. non-violent) was evaluated. All cases included in the study population, 349 completed suicide victims and 284 controls, were shown to be positive for antidepressant citalopram in a post-mortem toxicological drug screen. ABCB1 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T polymorphisms were determined by TaqMan genotyping assays. Haplotypes were constructed from genotype data using the PHASE software. The association between the manner of death and the ABCB1 haplotype was tested with logistic regression analysis. No statistically significant differences were observed in the ABCB1 allele or genotype frequencies between the suicide and control groups. However, the ABCB1 1236T-2677T-3435T haplotype was associated with completed suicides of female citalopram users (odds ratio: 2.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-4.07; P=0.009). After stratification by the method used for suicide, the association emerged in fatal intoxications (odds ratio: 2.51; 95% confidence interval: 1.29-4.87; P=0.007). In other groups, no statistically significant associations were observed. Our results suggest that female citalopram users with ABCB1 1236T-2677T-3435T are more vulnerable to adverse effects of the drugs as this haplotype was enriched in non-violent suicides of female citalopram users. Even though the biological mechanism behind this observation is unknown, the results provide another example of the importance

  8. Height dependence of secondary cosmic ray variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, A.V.; Dorman, L.I.; Sirotina, I.V.

    1986-01-01

    Altitude dependences of coupling coefficients and secondary cosmic ray variations are investigated. The partial and variational barometric coefficients are calculated according to data on coupling coefficients of a neutron component. Application of data on altitude dependence of variations for calculation of barometric coefficient changes and for determination of a rigidity primary variation spectrum is discussed

  9. Genetic variation for cardiac dysfunction in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A Ocorr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common diseases may be attributed to combinations of variant alleles, but there are few model systems where the interactions among such variants can be studied in controlled genetic crosses. While association studies are designed to detect common polymorphisms of moderate effect, new approaches are required to characterize the impact on disease of interactions among rare alleles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that wild populations of Drosophila melanogaster harbor rare polymorphisms of major effect (RAME that predispose flies to a specific disease phenotype, age-dependent cardiac dysfunction. A screen of fifty inbred wild-type lines revealed a continuous spectrum of pacing-induced heart failure that generally increases in frequency with age. High-speed video analysis of the inbred lines with high rates of inducible heart failure indicates specific defects in cardiac function, including arrhythmias and contractile disorders ('cardiomyopathies'. A combination of bulked segregant analysis and single feature polymorphism (SFP detection localizes one of the cardiac susceptibility loci to the 97C interval on the fly genome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Wild-type Drosophila, like humans, are predisposed to cardiac dysfunction. Identification of factors associated with these naturally occurring cardiac traits promises to provide important insights into the epidemiology of cardiac disease.

  10. Outdoor radon variation in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simion, Elena; Simion, Florin

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The results of a long-term survey (1992 - 2006) of the variations of outdoor radon concentrations in semi-natural location from Romania are reported in the present paper. Measurements, covering between two and four sessions of the day (morning, afternoon, evening and night), were performed on a daily bases by 37 Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Stations from National Environmental Radioactivity Survey Network. The method used was based on indirect determination of outdoor radon from aerosol samples collected on glass micro-fibre filters by drawing the air through the filters. The sampling was performed in a fixed place at a height of 2 m above the ground surface. Total beta counting of aerosol samples collected was performed immediately and after 20 hours. Values recorded during the years of continuous measurement indicated the presence of several patterns in the long-term variation of outdoor radon concentration: diurnal, seasonal and annual variation. For diurnal variation, outdoor radon concentration shows a maximum values in the night (early hours) and minimum values by day (in the afternoon). On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. Late autumn - beginning of winter maximum and an early spring minimum are characteristic for seasonal patterns. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.33 in winter compared with 3.0 in the summer months. The variations of outdoor radon levels showed little correlation with the uranium concentration of the ground and were attributed to changes in soil moisture content. In dry seasons, because of the low precipitation, the soil was drying out in the summer allowing fractures to develop and radon to migrate easily through the ground. Depending on micro-climatic and geological conditions, outdoor radon average concentrations in different regions of Romania are from 1200 mBq/mc to 13065 mBq/mc. The smallest

  11. Bernoulli Variational Problem and Beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Lorz, Alexander

    2013-12-17

    The question of \\'cutting the tail\\' of the solution of an elliptic equation arises naturally in several contexts and leads to a singular perturbation problem under the form of a strong cut-off. We consider both the PDE with a drift and the symmetric case where a variational problem can be stated. It is known that, in both cases, the same critical scale arises for the size of the singular perturbation. More interesting is that in both cases another critical parameter (of order one) arises that decides when the limiting behaviour is non-degenerate. We study both theoretically and numerically the values of this critical parameter and, in the symmetric case, ask if the variational solution leads to the same value as for the maximal solution of the PDE. Finally we propose a weak formulation of the limiting Bernoulli problem which incorporates both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary condition. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  12. VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLE FOR PLANETARY INTERIORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. The variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory, which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying the variational principle to the planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From this principle, a universal mass–radius relation, an estimate of the error propagation from the equation of state to the mass–radius relation, and a form of the virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  13. Tidal variations of earth rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, C. F.; Williams, J. G.; Parke, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The periodic variations of the earths' rotation resulting from the tidal deformation of the earth by the sun and moon were rederived including terms with amplitudes of 0.002 millisec and greater. The series applies to the mantle, crust, and oceans which rotate together for characteristic tidal periods; the scaling parameter is the ratio of the fraction of the Love number producing tidal variations in the moment of inertia of the coupled mantle and oceans (k) to the dimensionless polar moment of inertia of the coupled moments (C). The lunar laser ranging data shows that k/C at monthly and fortnightly frequencies equals 0.99 + or - 0.15 and 0.99 + or - 0.20 as compared to the theoretical value of 0.94 + or - 0.04.

  14. Numerical integration of variational equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokos, Ch; Gerlach, E

    2010-09-01

    We present and compare different numerical schemes for the integration of the variational equations of autonomous Hamiltonian systems whose kinetic energy is quadratic in the generalized momenta and whose potential is a function of the generalized positions. We apply these techniques to Hamiltonian systems of various degrees of freedom and investigate their efficiency in accurately reproducing well-known properties of chaos indicators such as the Lyapunov characteristic exponents and the generalized alignment indices. We find that the best numerical performance is exhibited by the "tangent map method," a scheme based on symplectic integration techniques which proves to be optimal in speed and accuracy. According to this method, a symplectic integrator is used to approximate the solution of the Hamilton equations of motion by the repeated action of a symplectic map S , while the corresponding tangent map TS is used for the integration of the variational equations. A simple and systematic technique to construct TS is also presented.

  15. Variational approach in transport theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panta Pazos, R. [Nucler Engineering Department, UFRGS, Porto-Alegre (Brazil); Tullio de Vilhena, M. [Institute of Mathematics, UFRGS, Porto-Alegre (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this work we present a variational approach to some methods to solve transport problems of neutral particles. We consider a convex domain X (for example the geometry of a slab, or a convex set in the plane, or a convex bounded set in the space) and we use discrete ordinates quadrature to get a system of differential equations derived from the neutron transport equation. The boundary conditions are vacuum for a subset of the boundary, and of specular reflection for the complementary subset of the boundary. Recently some different approximation methods have been presented to solve these transport problems. We introduce in this work the adjoint equations and the conjugate functions obtained by means of the variational approach. First we consider the general formulation, and then some numerical methods such as spherical harmonics and spectral collocation method. (authors)

  16. Quantitative variation in natural populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, P.A.

    1975-01-01

    Quantitative variation is considered in natural populations using Drosophila as the example. A knowledge of such variation enables its rapid exploitation in directional selection experiments as shown for scutellar chaeta number. Where evidence has been obtained, genetic architectures are in qualitative agreement with Mather's concept of balance for traits under stabilizing selection. Additive genetic control is found for acute environmental stresses, but not for less acute stresses as shown by exposure to 60 Co-γ rays. D. simulans probably has a narrower ecological niche than its sibling species D. melanogaster associated with lower genetic heterogeneity. One specific environmental stress to which D. simulans is sensitive in nature is ethyl alcohol as shown by winery data. (U.S.)

  17. Coarse Grained Exponential Variational Autoencoders

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ke

    2017-02-25

    Variational autoencoders (VAE) often use Gaussian or category distribution to model the inference process. This puts a limit on variational learning because this simplified assumption does not match the true posterior distribution, which is usually much more sophisticated. To break this limitation and apply arbitrary parametric distribution during inference, this paper derives a \\\\emph{semi-continuous} latent representation, which approximates a continuous density up to a prescribed precision, and is much easier to analyze than its continuous counterpart because it is fundamentally discrete. We showcase the proposition by applying polynomial exponential family distributions as the posterior, which are universal probability density function generators. Our experimental results show consistent improvements over commonly used VAE models.

  18. Secular variations of tropospheric ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khrgian, A.KH.

    1988-02-01

    The dependence of secular variations of tropospheric ozone on decreases of temperature and cloud growth in Central Europe is assessed on the basis of Vienna, Paris, and Athens data for 1853-1920. Decreases in ozone content occurring with a certain time lag after major volcanic eruptions (e.g., Krakatoa) are examined. The effect of the Tungusk-meteorite fall on ozone content is also discussed. 13 references.

  19. Secular variations of tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrgian, A. Kh.

    1988-02-01

    The dependence of secular variations of tropospheric ozone on decreases of temperature and cloud growth in Central Europe is assessed on the basis of Vienna, Paris, and Athens data for 1853-1920. Decreases in ozone content occurring with a certain time lag after major volcanic eruptions (e.g., Krakatoa) are examined. The effect of the Tungusk-meteorite fall on ozone content is also discussed.

  20. On Quadratic Variation of Martingales

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    where D ( [ 0 , ∞ ) , R ) denotes the class of real valued r.c.l.l. functions on [ 0 , ∞ ) such that for a locally square integrable martingale ( M t ) with r.c.l.l. paths,. Ψ ( M . ( ) ) = A . ( ). gives the quadratic variation process (written usually as [ M , M ] t ) of ( M t ) . We also show that this process ( A t ) is the unique increasing ...

  1. Variations of posterior vitreous detachment

    OpenAIRE

    Kakehashi, A.; Kado, M.; Akiba, J.; Hirokawa, H.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To identify variations in posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and establish a clinical classification system for PVD.
METHODS—400 consecutive eyes were examined using biomicroscopy and vitreous photography and classified the PVD variations—complete PVD with collapse, complete PVD without collapse, partial PVD with thickened posterior vitreous cortex (TPVC), or partial PVD without TPVC.
RESULTS—In each PVD type, the most frequently seen ocular pathologies were as follows: in complete PVD ...

  2. Deep Feature Consistent Variational Autoencoder

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xianxu; Shen, Linlin; Sun, Ke; Qiu, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for constructing Variational Autoencoder (VAE). Instead of using pixel-by-pixel loss, we enforce deep feature consistency between the input and the output of a VAE, which ensures the VAE's output to preserve the spatial correlation characteristics of the input, thus leading the output to have a more natural visual appearance and better perceptual quality. Based on recent deep learning works such as style transfer, we employ a pre-trained deep convolutional neural net...

  3. Variational nodal transport perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurin-Kovitz, K.F.; Lewis, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    A perturbation method based on the variational nodal method for solving the neutron transport equation is developed for multidimensional geometries. The method utilizes the solution of the corresponding adjoint transport equation to calculate changes in the critical eigenvalue due to cross-section changes. Both first-order and exact perturbation theory expressions are derived. The adjoint solution algorithm has been formulated and incorporated into the variational nodal option of the Argonne National Laboratory DIF3D production code. To demonstrate the efficacy of the methods, perturbation calculations are performed on the three-dimensional Takeda benchmark problems in both Cartesian and hexagonal geometries. The resulting changes in eigenvalue are also obtained by direct calculation with the variational nodal method and compared with the change approximated by the first-order and exact theory expressions from the perturbation method. Exact perturbation results are in excellent agreement with the actual eigenvalue differences calculated in VARIANT. First-order theory holds well for sufficiently small perturbations. The times required for the perturbation calculations are small compared with those expended for the base-forward and adjoint calculations

  4. Longitudinal Variations in Jupiter's Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Gierasch, P. J.; Tierney, G.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term studies of Jupiter's zonal wind field revealed temporal variations on the order of 20 to 40 m/s at many latitudes, greater than the typical data uncertainties of 1 to 10 m/s. No definitive periodicities were evident, however, though some latitudinally-confined signals did appear at periods relevant to the Quasi- Quadrennial Oscillation (Simon-Miller & Gierasch, Icarus, in press). As the QQO appears, from vertical temperature profiles, to propagate downward, it is unclear why a signal is not more obvious, unless other processes dominate over possibly weaker forcing from the QQO. An additional complication is that zonal wind profiles represent an average over some particular set of longitudes for an image pair and most data sets do not offer global wind coverage. Lien avoiding known features, such as the large anticyclonic vortices especially prevalent in the south, there can be distinct variations in longitude. We present results on the full wind field from Voyager and Cassini data, showing apparent longitudinal variations of up to 60 m/s or more. These are particularly obvious near disruptions such as the South Equatorial Disturbance, even when the feature itself is not clearly visible. These two dates represent very different states of the planet for comparison: Voyagers 1 & 2 flew by Jupiter shortly after a global upheaval, while many regions were in a disturbed state, while the Cassini view is typical of a more quiescent period present during much of the 1990s and early 2000s.

  5. Common variations in ALG9 are not associated with bipolar I disorder: a family-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacanu Silviu-Alin

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A mannosyltransferase gene (ALG9, DIBD1 at chromosome band 11q23 was previously identified to be disrupted by a balanced chromosomal translocation t(9;11(p24;q23 co-segregating with bipolar affective disorder in a small family. Inborn ALG9 deficiency (congenital disorders of glycosylation type IL is associated with progressive microcephaly, seizures, developmental delay, and hepatomegaly. It is unknown whether common variations of ALG9 predispose to bipolar affective disorder. Methods We tested five polymorphic markers spanning ALG9 (three intragenic and one upstream microsatellite repeats and one common missense variation, V289I (rs10502151 for their association with bipolar I disorder in two pedigree series. The NIMH (National Institute of Mental Health pedigrees had a total of 166 families showing transmissions to 250 affected offspring, whereas The PITT (The University of Pittsburgh pedigrees had a total of 129 families showing transmissions to 135 cases. We used transmission disequilibrium test for the association analyses. Results We identified three common and distinct haplotypes spanning the ALG9 gene. We found no statistically-significant evidence of transmission disequilibrium of marker alleles or multi-marker haplotypes to the affected offspring with bipolar I disorder. Conclusion These results suggest that common variations in ALG9 do not play a major role in predisposition to bipolar affective disorder.

  6. Individual variations in numerically modeled human muscle and temporomandibular joint forces during static biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Laura R; Thornton, Benjamin R; McCall, Willard D; Nickel, Jeffrey C

    2004-01-01

    To test the effects of occlusal force (OF) angle on the variations in predicted muscle and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) forces during unilateral molar bites. The craniomandibular (CM) geometries of 21 individuals were determined from lateral and posteroanterior cephalometric radiographs. These geometries were used in a numerical model based on minimization of muscle effort. This model was previously validated for this subject group through the use of jaw tracking and electromyographic data. The model predicted muscle and TMJ forces associated with static OFs on the right mandibular first molar. OF angle was varied from vertical to 40 degrees in the buccal and lingual directions, in increments of 10 degrees. Intra- and intersubject variations in predicted muscle and TMJ forces for unilateral molar biting were dependent on OF angle and CM geometry. Nonvertical OFs were associated with either large anterior temporalis muscle forces (> 100% of applied OF in 3 subjects) or large inferior lateral pterygoid muscle forces (> 90% of applied OF in 3 subjects). On average, vertically and buccally directed OFs were associated with higher mean contralateral TMJ forces (60% of applied OF, SD 12%). Two subjects had large ipsilateral or contralateral TMJ forces (> 90% of applied OF). In a group of healthy subjects, depending on the individual CM geometry, large muscle and/or TMJ forces were predicted to be associated with specific unilateral molar OF angles. Propensities to increased muscle or joint forces may be predisposing factors in the development of myofascial pain or intracapsular disease. The results may explain, in part, the variation in location of symptoms in individuals who first present with temporomandibular disorders.

  7. Diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Müller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Cravens, T. E.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-06-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1000 and 1300 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from eight close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Although there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ˜700 cm-3 below ˜1300 km. Such a plateau is a combined result of significant depletion of light ions and modest depletion of heavy ones on Titan's nightside. We propose that the distinctions between the diurnal variations of light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through “fast” ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through “slow” electron dissociative recombination. The strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes suggests a scenario in which the ions created on Titan's dayside may survive well to the nightside. The observed asymmetry between the dawn and dusk ion density profiles also supports such an interpretation. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effect of ion survival associated with solid body rotation alone as well as superrotating horizontal winds. For long-lived ions, the predicted diurnal variations have similar general characteristics to those observed. However, for short-lived ions, the model densities on the nightside are significantly lower than the observed values. This implies that electron precipitation from Saturn's magnetosphere may be an additional and important contributor to the densities of the short-lived ions observed on Titan's nightside.

  8. Variational collocation on finite intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Cervantes, Mayra; Fernandez, Francisco M

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study a set of functions, defined on an interval of finite width, which are orthogonal and which reduce to the sinc functions when the appropriate limit is taken. We show that these functions can be used within a variational approach to obtain accurate results for a variety of problems. We have applied them to the interpolation of functions on finite domains and to the solution of the Schroedinger equation, and we have compared the performance of the present approach with others

  9. Quadratic Variation by Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Horel, Guillaume

    We introduce a novel estimator of the quadratic variation that is based on the the- ory of Markov chains. The estimator is motivated by some general results concerning filtering contaminated semimartingales. Specifically, we show that filtering can in prin- ciple remove the effects of market...... microstructure noise in a general framework where little is assumed about the noise. For the practical implementation, we adopt the dis- crete Markov chain model that is well suited for the analysis of financial high-frequency prices. The Markov chain framework facilitates simple expressions and elegant analyti...

  10. Neodymium isotopic variations in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepgras, D. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Direct measurement of the isotopic composition of Nd in the Atlantic agree with the Nd content in ferromanganese sediments and differ from the observed amounts in the Pacific samples. These data indicate the existence of distinctive differences in the isotopic composition of Nd in the waters of major oceans; the average values determined from seawater and ferromanganese sediments are considerably lower than in sources with oceanic mantle affinities showing that the REE in the oceans is dominated by continental sources. The Nd isotopic variations in seawater are applied to relate the residence time of Nd and mixing rates between the oceans.

  11. Análise de fatores extrínsecos e intrínsecos que predispõem a quedas em idosos Analysis of extrinsic and intrinsic factors that predispose elderly individuals to fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sionara Tamanini de Almeida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar, em uma amostra de idosos de Porto Alegre, RS, os fatores intrínsecos e extrínsecos que predispõem ao risco de queda e fraturas. MÉTODOS: O estudo contou com uma amostra aleatória de 267 idosos, aos quais foram aplicados dois testes de equilíbrio: o Teste do Alcance Funcional (TAF e o Timed Up and Go Test (TUG. Os idosos também responderam a um questionário (13 questões divididas em quatro categorias sobre fatores sociodemográficos e sobre a saúde. RESULTADOS: Participaram idosos de ambos os sexos (76,8% mulheres com idades entre 60 e 90 anos (média = 70,22 anos; DP = ± 7,30 anos. Foram encontradas relações estatisticamente significativas (p OBJECTIVE: In a sample of elderly individuals from Porto Alegre - RS, Brazil, to analyze the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that predispose them to the risk of falls and fractures. METHODS: The study included a random sample of 267 elderly individuals, to whom two balance tests were applied: the Functional Reach Test (FRT and the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG. The elderly also answered a questionnaire (13 questions divided into four categories on sociodemographic and health factors. RESULTS: Elderly individuals from both genders (76.8% women, aged between 60 and 90 years (mean = 70.22 years, SD = ± 7.30 years participated in the study. A statistically significant association (p < 0.05 was found between age, self-perception of eyesight, type of dwelling, last monthly income, and the FRT; the same was found between age range, self-rated health (p < 0.001 and the TUG. CONCLUSION: It was identified that, in the sample of elderly individuals living in Porto Alegre - RS, Brazil, the intrinsic factors that predispose to the risk of falls and fractures are older age, poor self-perception of eyesight, and poor selfrated health; the extrinsic factors are type of dwelling (living in a house and a monthly income < one minimum wage.

  12. Control, optimisation and calculus of variations

    OpenAIRE

    Colonius, Fritz (Prof.)

    2002-01-01

    Control, optimisation and calculus of variations : COCV = Contrôle, optimisation et calcul des variations / Editorial Board: F. Colonius ... - Vol. 1-7. - Paris : EDP Sciences, SMAI, 1995/96-2002. - (ESAIM) [http://www.emath.fr/cocv/

  13. Amazing variational approach to chemical reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Francisco M.

    2009-01-01

    In this letter we analyse an amazing variational approach to chemical reactions. Our results clearly show that the variational expressions are unsuitable for the analysis of empirical data obtained from chemical reactions.

  14. Variational inference & deep learning : A new synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, D.P.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, Variational Inference and Deep Learning: A New Synthesis, we propose novel solutions to the problems of variational (Bayesian) inference, generative modeling, representation learning, semi-supervised learning, and stochastic optimization.

  15. On polar daily geomagnetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Michelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the nature of the daily magnetic field perturbations produced by ionospheric and magnetospheric currents at high latitudes. We analyse the hourly means of the X and Y geomagnetic field components recorded by a meridian chain of permanent geomagnetic observatories in the polar region of the Northern Hemisphere during a period of four years (1995-1998 around the solar minimum. We apply a mathematical method, known as natural orthogonal component (NOC, which is capable of characterizing the dominant modes of the geomagnetic field daily variability through a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. Using the first two modes we reconstruct a two-dimensional equivalent current representation of the ionospheric electric currents, which contribute substantially to the geomagnetic daily variations. The obtained current structures resemble the equivalent current patterns of DP2 and DP1. We characterize these currents by studying their evolution with the geomagnetic activity level and by analysing their dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. The obtained results support the idea of a coexistence of two main processes during all analysed period although one of them, the directly driven process, represents the dominant component of the geomagnetic daily variation.

  16. Biological variation of cystatin C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Mark; Erlandsen, Erland; Randers, Else

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Cystatin C has been investigated as a marker of the glomerular filtration rate. However, previous studies have reported conflicting results concerning the biological variation of cystatin C. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological variation of cystatin C...... available for analysis. Serum cystatin C was measured using Dade Behring N Latex Cystatin C assay and serum creatinine by an enzymatic method (Roche). Results: The mean serum concentration of cystatin C was 0.70 mg/l (range 0.44-1.09) and the mean serum creatinine was 77 µmol/l (range 54......-100). The analytical variance (CVA) was 2.0% for cystatin C and 1.6% for creatinine. The intra-individual variance (CVI) was greater for cystatin C than for creatinine (8.6% vs. 4.7%). The inter-individual variance (CVG) was similar for both analytes (cystatin C 15.1% vs. creatinine 14.4%). Accordingly, the index...

  17. Seasonal variation in pediatric dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Sabyasachi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The under-five population is a unique and vulnerable component of our society that always demands special attention. Aims: Our present work aimed to study the seasonal variation, age-wise variation and distribution of lesions of common dermatoses of this age group. Materials and Methods: We clinically studied all fresh cases attending the skin OPD of our hospital for one month each from summer, rainy season and winter. Total number of patients was 879. Results: The top six skin diseases in our study were impetigo, miliaria, scabies, furunculosis, seborrheic dermatitis and papular urticaria. On statistical analysis, scabies and seborrheic dermatitis were more prevalent during winter while impetigo, furunculosis and miliaria were more during summer and rainy season. Papular urticaria was more frequent in the rainy season. Seborrheic dermatitis predominantly affected the infants while impetigo, furunculosis, miliaria and popular urticaria were commoner in older age groups. Conclusion: Distribution of lesions of common dermatoses will help diagnose difficult cases and extensive evaluation of the body parts which, by virtue of being commonly affected, are must-examine sites in under-five children.

  18. Homogenization of variational inequalities for obstacle problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrakov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Results on the convergence of solutions of variational inequalities for obstacle problems are proved. The variational inequalities are defined by a non-linear monotone operator of the second order with periodic rapidly oscillating coefficients and a sequence of functions characterizing the obstacles. Two-scale and macroscale (homogenized) limiting variational inequalities are obtained. Derivation methods for such inequalities are presented. Connections between the limiting variational inequalities and two-scale and macroscale minimization problems are established in the case of potential operators.

  19. Importance of Local Structural Variations on Recrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte; Lin, Fengxiang; Zhang, Yubin

    2013-01-01

    Effects of local variations in the deformation microstructure on subsequent recrystallization are discussed and illustrated by three examples. The three examples consider local variations on different length scales and are: 1. Effects of local variations in the deformation microstructure on the f...

  20. Models of Solar Irradiance Variations: Current Status

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Whereas variations on time scales of minutes to hours are due to solar oscillations and granulation, variations on longer time scales are driven by the evolution of the solar surface magnetic field. Here the most recent advances in modelling of solar irradiance variations on time scales longer than a day are ...

  1. Predisposing, enabling and need factors of heroin addicts’ using prescribed methadone or buprenorphine for a year or longer: An exploratory study of drug treatment for heroin addicts in the Swedish welfare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Marcus Blom

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM - This exploratory study draws on national register data for 2,638 opioid users from 2004- 2008 to examine whether or not certain predisposing, enabling and need factors are associated with taking methadone or buprenorphine continuously on doctor’s orders for one year or more. DESIGN - Chi-square analysis, one-way Anova and logistic regression methods were used to explore the association between self-reported demographic characteristics, alcohol/drug use severity, substance use disorder treatment history, criminal justice history, level of mental health symptomatology, mental health treatment history, and whether or not adult opioid users had taken methadone or buprenorphine continuously on doctor’s orders for one year or longer. RESULTS - Having a job and having had more voluntary treatment episodes were significantly associated with using methadone or buprenorphine. Those opioid users who had a job were 19 times more likely to be on methadone or buprenorphine than opiate users who did not have a job. CONCLUSIONS - In our study, individuals who were working were significantly more likely to medicate against their opioid abuse. This suggests that they may be more socially integrated than their non-medicating counterparts

  2. Variation in human platelet glycoprotein VI content modulates glycoprotein VI-specific prothrombinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furihata, K; Clemetson, K J; Deguchi, H; Kunicki, T J

    2001-11-01

    - Glycoprotein VI (GPVI) is a platelet-specific receptor for collagen that figures prominently in signal transduction. An addition to binding to type I and III collagens, GPVI is also bound specifically by collagen-related peptide and convulxin (CVX), a snake venom protein. We developed a quantitative assay of platelet GPVI in which biotin-conjugated CVX binds selectively to GPVI in separated total platelet proteins by a ligand blot procedure. Using this approach, we have documented a 5-fold range in platelet GPVI content among 23 normal healthy subjects. In addition, we have determined that CVX-induced or collagen-related peptide-induced prothrombinase activity is directly proportional to the platelet content of GPVI. A statistically significant correlation was observed at 2 CVX concentrations: 14.7 ng/mL (R(2)=0.854 and P<0.001, n=11) and 22 ng/mL (R(2)=0.776 and P<0.001, n=12). In previous studies, we established a similar range of expression of the integrin collagen receptor alpha(2)beta(1) on platelets of normal subjects. Among 15 donors, there is a direct correlation between platelet alpha(2)beta(1) density and GPVI content (R(2)=0.475 and P=0.004). In view of the well-documented association of GPVI with platelet procoagulant activity, this study suggests that the variation in GPVI content is a potential risk factor that may predispose individuals to hemorrhagic or thromboembolic disorders.

  3. Variation of Vitamin D in Cow’s Milk and Interaction with β-Lactoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gigliotti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is the collective name for a group of closely related lipids, whose main biological function is to maintain serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations within the normal range by enhancing the efficiency of the small intestine to absorb these minerals from the diet. We used a commercially available ELISA method for the determination of vitamin D in bovine milk. Individual milk samples from two different Italian Friesian herds were analysed. The enzyme immunoassay method used was confirmed as a useful tool to measure the vitamin D in the milk as it greatly reduces the time required to perform the conventional HPLC analysis. An interesting variation was found among individual animals that may be associated with management factors and specific genetic effects. A relationship was highlighted between vitamin D and the genetic polymorphism of β-lactoglobulin, the main bovine whey protein which is involved in the transport of small hydrophobic molecules such as retinol and vitamin D. The relatively high content of vitamin D in most milk samples suggests an opportunity to improve the natural content of vitamin D in milk either by acting on the herd management or selecting individuals genetically predisposed to produce milk with a higher vitamin D content.

  4. Variation of the latissimus dorsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani P Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A typical muscle variation of latissimus dorsi - the axillary arch is represented by the muscular or fibromuscular slip detached from the anteroinferior border of the musculus latissimus dorsi passing over the axilla under the axillary fascia crossing the medial side of the brachial plexus to continue as a septum intermusculare mediale brachii distally to the medial epicondyle of humerus. The full extent of the muscle is rarely present. Slips of muscle extend from the latissimus dorsi at the inferior angle of scapula to insert into pectoralis major (Langer, coracobrachilis, biceps or coracoid process forming what is described as a common variant - the muscular axillary arch. We report three cases of variants of latissimus dorsi, one of which has not been reported in the literature before.

  5. Variational identities and Hamiltonian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen-Xiu

    2010-03-01

    This report is concerned with Hamiltonian structures of classical and super soliton hierarchies. In the classical case, basic tools are variational identities associated with continuous and discrete matrix spectral problems, targeted to soliton equations derived from zero curvature equations over general Lie algebras, both semisimple and non-semisimple. In the super case, a supertrace identity is presented for constructing Hamiltonian structures of super soliton equations associated with Lie superalgebras. We illustrate the general theories by the KdV hierarchy, the Volterra lattice hierarchy, the super AKNS hierarchy, and two hierarchies of dark KdV equations and dark Volterra lattices. The resulting Hamiltonian structures show the commutativity of each hierarchy discussed and thus the existence of infinitely many commuting symmetries and conservation laws.

  6. Equilibrium models and variational inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Konnov, Igor

    2007-01-01

    The concept of equilibrium plays a central role in various applied sciences, such as physics (especially, mechanics), economics, engineering, transportation, sociology, chemistry, biology and other fields. If one can formulate the equilibrium problem in the form of a mathematical model, solutions of the corresponding problem can be used for forecasting the future behavior of very complex systems and, also, for correcting the the current state of the system under control. This book presents a unifying look on different equilibrium concepts in economics, including several models from related sciences.- Presents a unifying look on different equilibrium concepts and also the present state of investigations in this field- Describes static and dynamic input-output models, Walras, Cassel-Wald, spatial price, auction market, oligopolistic equilibrium models, transportation and migration equilibrium models- Covers the basics of theory and solution methods both for the complementarity and variational inequality probl...

  7. Variational identities and Hamiltonian structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Wenxiu

    2010-01-01

    This report is concerned with Hamiltonian structures of classical and super soliton hierarchies. In the classical case, basic tools are variational identities associated with continuous and discrete matrix spectral problems, targeted to soliton equations derived from zero curvature equations over general Lie algebras, both semisimple and non-semisimple. In the super case, a supertrace identity is presented for constructing Hamiltonian structures of super soliton equations associated with Lie superalgebras. We illustrate the general theories by the KdV hierarchy, the Volterra lattice hierarchy, the super AKNS hierarchy, and two hierarchies of dark KdV equations and dark Volterra lattices. The resulting Hamiltonian structures show the commutativity of each hierarchy discussed and thus the existence of infinitely many commuting symmetries and conservation laws.

  8. MDCT evaluation of sternal variations: Pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraikannu, Chary; Noronha, Olma V; Sundarrajan, Pushparajan

    2016-01-01

    Sternal variations and anomalies have been identified in the past during autopsy or cadaveric studies. Recently, an increasing number of minor sternal variations have been reported with the advent of multidetector computed tomography (CT). Although there are many sternal variations that occur with varying appearance and prevalence, most of them are not recognized or are underreported during routine imaging of thorax. Identification of sternal variations is important to differentiate from pathological conditions and to prevent fatal complications prior to sternal interventions like marrow aspiration or acupuncture. This article aims to describe the minor and asymptomatic sternal variations by multidetector CT and their clinical significance

  9. Variational methods for field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Menahem, S.

    1986-09-01

    Four field theory models are studied: Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics (PQED) in (2 + 1) dimensions, free scalar field theory in (1 + 1) dimensions, the Quantum XY model in (1 + 1) dimensions, and the (1 + 1) dimensional Ising model in a transverse magnetic field. The last three parts deal exclusively with variational methods; the PQED part involves mainly the path-integral approach. The PQED calculation results in a better understanding of the connection between electric confinement through monopole screening, and confinement through tunneling between degenerate vacua. This includes a better quantitative agreement for the string tensions in the two approaches. Free field theory is used as a laboratory for a new variational blocking-truncation approximation, in which the high-frequency modes in a block are truncated to wave functions that depend on the slower background modes (Boron-Oppenheimer approximation). This ''adiabatic truncation'' method gives very accurate results for ground-state energy density and correlation functions. Various adiabatic schemes, with one variable kept per site and then two variables per site, are used. For the XY model, several trial wave functions for the ground state are explored, with an emphasis on the periodic Gaussian. A connection is established with the vortex Coulomb gas of the Euclidean path integral approach. The approximations used are taken from the realms of statistical mechanics (mean field approximation, transfer-matrix methods) and of quantum mechanics (iterative blocking schemes). In developing blocking schemes based on continuous variables, problems due to the periodicity of the model were solved. Our results exhibit an order-disorder phase transition. The transfer-matrix method is used to find a good (non-blocking) trial ground state for the Ising model in a transverse magnetic field in (1 + 1) dimensions

  10. Variational methods for field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Menahem, S.

    1986-09-01

    Four field theory models are studied: Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics (PQED) in (2 + 1) dimensions, free scalar field theory in (1 + 1) dimensions, the Quantum XY model in (1 + 1) dimensions, and the (1 + 1) dimensional Ising model in a transverse magnetic field. The last three parts deal exclusively with variational methods; the PQED part involves mainly the path-integral approach. The PQED calculation results in a better understanding of the connection between electric confinement through monopole screening, and confinement through tunneling between degenerate vacua. This includes a better quantitative agreement for the string tensions in the two approaches. Free field theory is used as a laboratory for a new variational blocking-truncation approximation, in which the high-frequency modes in a block are truncated to wave functions that depend on the slower background modes (Boron-Oppenheimer approximation). This ''adiabatic truncation'' method gives very accurate results for ground-state energy density and correlation functions. Various adiabatic schemes, with one variable kept per site and then two variables per site, are used. For the XY model, several trial wave functions for the ground state are explored, with an emphasis on the periodic Gaussian. A connection is established with the vortex Coulomb gas of the Euclidean path integral approach. The approximations used are taken from the realms of statistical mechanics (mean field approximation, transfer-matrix methods) and of quantum mechanics (iterative blocking schemes). In developing blocking schemes based on continuous variables, problems due to the periodicity of the model were solved. Our results exhibit an order-disorder phase transition. The transfer-matrix method is used to find a good (non-blocking) trial ground state for the Ising model in a transverse magnetic field in (1 + 1) dimensions.

  11. Matter tensor from the Hilbert variational principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandres, D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    We consider the Hilbert variational principle which is conventionally used to derive Einstein's equations for the source-free gravitational field. We show that at least one version of the equivalence principle suggests an alternative way of performing the variation, resulting in a different set of Einstein equations with sources automatically present. This illustrates a technique which may be applied to any theory that is derived from a variational principle and that admits a gauge group. The essential point is that, if one first imposes a gauge condition and then performs the variation, one obtains field equations with source terms which do not appear if one first performs the variation and then imposes the gauge condition. A second illustration is provided by the variational principle conventionally used to derive Maxwell's equations for the source-free electromagnetic field. If one first imposes the Lorentz gauge condition and then performs the variation, one obtains Maxwell's equations with sources present

  12. Hemophagocytic syndrome: primary forms and predisposing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Fernando E; de Saint Basile, Geneviève

    2017-12-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH, also referred to a hemophagocytic syndrome) is a life-threatening condition in which uncontrolled activation of lymphocytes and macrophages, and thus the secretion of large amounts of inflammatory cytokines, leads to a severe hyperinflammatory state. Over the last few decades, researchers have characterized primary forms of HLH caused by genetic defects that impair lymphocytes' cytotoxic machinery. Other genetic causes of HLH not related to impaired cytotoxicity have also recently been identified. Furthermore, the so-called 'acquired' forms of HLH are encountered in the context of severe infections, autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases, malignancy, and metabolic disorders, and may also be associated with primary immunodeficiencies. This implies that a variety of disease mechanisms can lead to HLH. Today's research seeks to gain a better understanding of the various pathogenetic and environmental factors that converge to induce HLH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors predisposing to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10.5%] patients. Conclusion: The study showed that myopia, ocular trauma, pseudophakia and aphakia in decreasing frequency were the main risk factors associated with RRD among Ethiopians attending a tertiary eye care centre.

  14. Molecular pathology of colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puijenbroek, Marjo van

    2008-01-01

    Each year, approximately eleven thousand new colorectal cancer (CRC) patients are registered in the Netherlands. Half of these patients will eventually die of this disease. Consequently, it is of great importance to identify individuals with an increased risk for CRC. In this thesis, we evaluate the

  15. Factors predisposing to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjørn

    also increase correspondingly. As a result, in developing countries like Ethiopia, where there is lack of optimal operating facilities and few vitreoretinal surgeons, blindness from retinal diseases like RD, diabetic retinopathies and age-related macular degeneration will increase unless a strategy is designed to increase the.

  16. Psychosocial factors predisposing university undergraduates to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, for mentoring relationship to be effective and successful, locus of control (internal locus of control), age and year of study of university undergraduates should be considered. This is believed will enhance and develop individual and management skills; reduce stress, increase academic performance, and reduction ...

  17. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz

    2011-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD

  18. Pregnancy predisposes to rhabdomyolysis due to hypokalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukrishnan Jayaraman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased predilection for hypokalemia-induced rhabdomyolysis has been noted in pregnant women. We managed a woman with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA with persistent hypokalemia who presented with recurrent rhabdomyolysis in her consecutive pregnancies despite adequate potassium citrate therapy.

  19. The God Allusion : Individual Variation in Agency Detection, Mentalizing and Schizotypy and Their Association with Religious Beliefs and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Pearce, Eiluned

    2016-06-01

    It has previously been suggested that the historically and geographically widespread persistence of religious beliefs occurs because it is a by-product of normal cognitive processes, ones which first evolved to confer survival advantages in the social domain. If this theory holds, then it is likely that inter-individual variation in the same biases may predict corresponding variation in religious thoughts and behaviors. Using an online questionnaire, 298 participants answered questions regarding their tendency to detect agency, the degree to which they displayed schizotypal traits, their ability to understand the emotions and motivations of others ("mentalizing"), and their religious beliefs and behaviors. Path analysis suggests that mentalizing, agency detection, and schizotypal thinking were each independently related to religiosity. Furthermore, schizotypal thinking and agency detection were highly interrelated with one another, whereas mentalizing was not. Although the degree to which an individual engages with religious or spiritual beliefs will be influenced by their cultural and historical context, this paper helps to elucidate the interplay between various cognitive processes that might predispose some individuals but not others toward holding such beliefs in the first place.

  20. Hollow glass waveguides: New variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Daniel Joseph

    This study is an effort to develop new variations on the infrared silver-silver iodide hollow glass waveguide (HGW) with application specific properties. Four variations are presented: a HGW with a long, gradual taper, a HGW with a rectangular cross-section, curved HGW tips and a new all-dielectric hollow waveguide based on photonic bandgap guidance principles. A hollow glass waveguide tapered over its entire length offers ease of coupling at the proximal end and excellent flexibility at the distal end. Waveguides tapered from 1000 to 500 mum and 700 to 500 mum over 1.5 m were fabricated in this study. Compared to similarly sized non-tapered waveguides, laser losses for the tapered guides were high but decreased when bent. This behavior is contrary to that of non-tapered guides and an iterative ray tracing model was also developed to explain the observed loss characteristics of tapered hollow waveguides. Hollow glass waveguides with round profiles do not maintain the polarization state of the delivered radiation to any appreciable degree. HGWs with large- and small-aspect ratio rectangular cross sections were developed and shown to preserve polarization up to 96%, even when bent. The large aspect ratio guide was able to effectively rotate the transmitted polarization when twisted along its axis. Curved distal tips for medical and dental laser applications were developed by removing the low-OH silica fiber from commercially available stainless steel dental tips, and inserting HGWs of various sizes. The optical performances and heating profiles of the various configurations indicate the tips are suitable for certain medical applications, but the minimum bending radius is limited by the mechanical properties of the glass substrate. A small radii bending loss study confirms that propagating modes periodically couple as the radius of curvature is reduced. Through the application of the photonic bandgap (PBG) guidance, hollow waveguides can be made entirely from

  1. How variation between individuals affects species coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Simon P; Schreiber, Sebastian J; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-08-01

    Although the effects of variation between individuals within species are traditionally ignored in studies of species coexistence, the magnitude of intraspecific variation in nature is forcing ecologists to reconsider. Compelling intuitive arguments suggest that individual variation may provide a previously unrecognised route to diversity maintenance by blurring species-level competitive differences or substituting for species-level niche differences. These arguments, which are motivating a large body of empirical work, have rarely been evaluated with quantitative theory. Here we incorporate intraspecific variation into a common model of competition and identify three pathways by which this variation affects coexistence: (1) changes in competitive dynamics because of nonlinear averaging, (2) changes in species' mean interaction strengths because of variation in underlying traits (also via nonlinear averaging) and (3) effects on stochastic demography. As a consequence of the first two mechanisms, we find that intraspecific variation in competitive ability increases the dominance of superior competitors, and intraspecific niche variation reduces species-level niche differentiation, both of which make coexistence more difficult. In addition, individual variation can exacerbate the effects of demographic stochasticity, and this further destabilises coexistence. Our work provides a theoretical foundation for emerging empirical interests in the effects of intraspecific variation on species diversity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  2. LGBTI Variations in Crime Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Miles-Johnson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that people vary in their willingness to report crime to police depending on the type of crime experienced, their gender, age, and their race or ethnicity. Whether or not lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI and heterosexual people vary in their willingness to report crime to the police is not well understood in the extant literature. In this article, I examine variations in LGBTI respondents’ attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control on their intentions to report crimes to the police. Drawing on a survey of LGBTI individuals sampled from a Gay Pride community event and online LGBTI community forums (N = 329, I use quantitative statistical methods to examine whether LGBTI people’s beliefs in police homophobia are also directly associated with the behavioral intention to report crime. Overall, the results indicate that LGBTI and heterosexual people differ significantly in their intention to report crime to the police, and that a belief in police homophobia strongly influences LGBTI people’s intention to underreport crime to the police.

  3. PLURILINGUAL COMPETENCE, STYLES AND VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Kalliokoski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores plurilingual competence in respect to language proficiency, language education and pluri- and multilingualism. The notion of communicative competence was introduced by Hymes (1972 as a reaction to chomskyan view of language as an autonomous system. Hymes’ notion of communicative competence originally included plurilingualism. The concept of communicative competence was quickly adopted to applied linguistics but the idea of a linguistic repertoire consisting of the competencies of linguistic varieties was not imported to SLA or language testing. The Hymesian perspective to plurilingualism as an essential dimension of communicative competence was revived in the Common European Framework (CEFR. However,the practice of applying the CEFR has mostly neglected the dimension on plurilingualism and plurilingual competence. The focus in the use of the CEFR has been on the different areas of language skills within one single language at a time, while the application of plurilingual practices has gained very little attention. The Hymesian notion of communicative competence has lived on in the sociolinguistic research tradition, especially within interactional sociolinguistics. The present paper relates the notion of plurilingual competence to its hymesian origin, to recent trends in plurilingual and pluricultural education, and to the sociolinguistic study of style and linguistic variation in multilingual communities. The article uses Finnish L2 data to show how plurilingual competence is used as an interactional resource.From the perspective of language learning, plurilingual competence enables speakers with different linguistic backgrounds to use their shared linguistic repertoire in order to ensure smooth interaction and achieve mutual understanding.

  4. Urinary tract diseases revealed after DTP vaccination in infants and young children: cytokine irregularities and down-regulation of cytochrome P-450 enzymes induced by the vaccine may uncover latent diseases in genetically predisposed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandota, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    -lasting induction of cytokine release and down-regulation of hepatic cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme activities after administration of DTP vaccine to mice and may be supported by the fact that TH1 phenotype is associated with the up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and RANTES, whereas TH2 phenotype is associated with the up-regulation of the vascular cell adhesion molecule and P-selectin, which are key players in the migration into inflamed tissues and localization of lymphocytes and other allergic effector and inflammatory cells. Because several inflammatory cytokines down-regulate gene expression of major cytochrome P-450 and/or other enzymes with the specific effects on mRNA levels, protein expression, and enzyme activity, thus affecting the metabolism of several endogenous lipophilic substances such as steroids, lipid-soluble vitamins, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, and exogenous substances, their irregularities in the body may eventually lead to the flare of latent diseases in some predisposed subjects. Also, interleukin genetic polymorphisms, especially the constellation of TNF-alpha and IL-6 genetic variants, might predispose some infants with infection to a more than usually intense inflammatory response in the kidneys after vaccination. It seems that the aforementioned pathomechanism may also be responsible for some cases of sudden infant death syndrome, which is often preceded by infection/inflammation.

  5. The prevalence of traumatic dental injuries to permanent anterior teeth and its relation with predisposing risk factors among 8-13 years school children of Vadodara city: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M C Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: dental trauma is an irreversible pathology that after occurrence is characterized by life-long debilitating effects. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence of anterior teeth fracture and their association with predisposing factors such as lip coverage, molar relationship, overjet, and variables such as age, sex, cause, and place of trauma. Materials and Methods: an epidemiological cross-sectional study was carried out among 3708 school children aged 8-13 years in the Vadodara city. All children completed a questionnaire related to history of trauma to their anterior teeth after which they were examined for lip competence, Angle′s molar relationship amount of overjet and nature of trauma sustained. The results were statistically analyzed using the prevalence test, Chi-square test, and Mantel-Haenszel Common Odds Ratio. Results: the prevalence of traumatic injuries was 8.79% and the ratio of boys: girl′s was 1.28:1. Inadequate lip coverage group sustained about five times more injuries than the adequate lip coverage group (P = 0.000, OR= 5.407. The maximum traumatic injuries were seen in children having Angle Class II Div 1 molar relationship and/or overjet greater than 5.5 mm and was statistically significant (P<0.05. Maximum number of injuries occurred at 9 years of age. The most predominant injuries were enamel fractures, the most common place for occurrence was home and fall against object, the most frequent cause. Conclusion: the prevalence of dental injuries in the Vadodara city is high and it has a great potential to be considered as an emerging public health problem.

  6. Environmental variation partitioned into separate heritable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, Michael; Rohde, Palle Duun; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2018-01-01

    Trait variation is normally separated into genetic and environmental components, yet genetic factors also control the expression of environmental variation, encompassing plasticity across environmental gradients and within-environment responses. We defined four components of environmental variation...... functionally validated the effects of a subset of candidate genes affecting each of the four components of environmental variation and also confirmed the genetic and phenotypic correlations obtained from the DGRP in distinct genetic backgrounds. We delineate selection targets associated with environmental...... variation and the constraints acting upon them, providing a framework for evolutionary and applied studies on environmental sensitivity. Based on our results we suggest that the traditional quantitative genetic view of environmental variation and genotype-by-environment interactions needs revisiting....

  7. Procedural facade variations from a single layout

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Fan

    2013-02-19

    We introduce a framework to generate many variations of a facade design that look similar to a given facade layout. Starting from an input image, the facade is hierarchically segmented and labeled with a collection of manual and automatic tools. The user can then model constraints that should be maintained in any variation of the input facade design. Subsequently, facade variations are generated for different facade sizes, where multiple variations can be produced for a certain size. Computing such new facade variations has many unique challenges, and we propose a new algorithm based on interleaving heuristic search and quadratic programming. In contrast to most previous work, we focus on the generation of new design variations and not on the automatic analysis of the input\\'s structure. Adding a modeling step with the user in the loop ensures that our results routinely are of high quality. © 2013 ACM.

  8. Genetic variation in bovine milk fat composition

    OpenAIRE

    Stoop, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In her thesis, Stoop shows that there is considerable genetic variation in milk fat composition, which opens opportunities to improve milk fat composition by selective breeding. Short and medium chain fatty acids had high heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd (mainly feed effects) was moderate. Long chain fatty acids had moderate heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd was high. Several genomic regions (QTL) with effect on short and medium chain, long chain, or both types of fat...

  9. Influence of Design Variations on Systems Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Irem Y.; Stone, Robert B.; Huff, Edward M.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    High-risk aerospace components have to meet very stringent quality, performance, and safety requirements. Any source of variation is a concern, as it may result in scrap or rework. poor performance, and potentially unsafe flying conditions. The sources of variation during product development, including design, manufacturing, and assembly, and during operation are shown. Sources of static and dynamic variation during development need to be detected accurately in order to prevent failure when the components are placed in operation. The Systems' Health and Safety (SHAS) research at the NASA Ames Research Center addresses the problem of detecting and evaluating the statistical variation in helicopter transmissions. In this work, we focus on the variations caused by design, manufacturing, and assembly of these components, prior to being placed in operation (DMV). In particular, we aim to understand and represent the failure and variation information, and their correlation to performance and safety and feed this information back into the development cycle at an early stage. The feedback of such critical information will assure the development of more reliable components with less rework and scrap. Variations during design and manufacturing are a common source of concern in the development and production of such components. Accounting for these variations, especially those that have the potential to affect performance, is accomplished in a variety ways, including Taguchi methods, FMEA, quality control, statistical process control, and variation risk management. In this work, we start with the assumption that any of these variations can be represented mathematically, and accounted for by using analytical tools incorporating these mathematical representations. In this paper, we concentrate on variations that are introduced during design. Variations introduced during manufacturing are investigated in parallel work.

  10. HGVA: the Human Genome Variation Archive

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Javier; Coll, Jacobo; Haimel, Matthias; Kandasamy, Swaathi; Tarraga, Joaquin; Furio-Tari, Pedro; Bari, Wasim; Bleda, Marta; Rueda, Antonio; Gr?f, Stefan; Rendon, Augusto; Dopazo, Joaquin; Medina, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract High-profile genomic variation projects like the 1000 Genomes project or the Exome Aggregation Consortium, are generating a wealth of human genomic variation knowledge which can be used as an essential reference for identifying disease-causing genotypes. However, accessing these data, contrasting the various studies and integrating those data in downstream analyses remains cumbersome. The Human Genome Variation Archive (HGVA) tackles these challenges and facilitates access to genomic...

  11. Large-scale cosmic ray variations caused by variations of the total solar magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charakhch'yan, A.N.; Charakhch'yan, T.N.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.

    1983-01-01

    Large-scale cosmic ray (CR) variations caused by variations of the total solar magnetic field (TSMF) are discussed. Three classes of variations: variations connected with TSMF inversion observed in the same CR energy range as 11-year variations; zone modulation observed in the 5-20 GeV energy range and variations connected with appearance of short-range particles in stratosphere during TSMF growth, are considered using the results of CR probe measurements in atmosphere in the vicinity of Murmansk, Alma-Ata and Mirnij (Antarctica). Large lag times of effects for particles of different energies and asymptotic directions, as well as between effects in magnetic fields on the Sun and in CR are the general feature for the variations under consideration. The character of the discussed variations significantly depends on the TSMF direction resulting in the dependence of effects on the particle charge sign and 22-year recurrence period of properties of the observed variations

  12. Variations in injury characteristics among paediatric patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations in injury characteristics among paediatric patients following trauma: A retrospective descriptive analysis comparing pre-hospital and in-hospital deaths at Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi.

  13. Extensive Variation in Chromatin States Across Humans

    KAUST Repository

    Kasowski, M.

    2013-10-17

    The majority of disease-associated variants lie outside protein-coding regions, suggesting a link between variation in regulatory regions and disease predisposition. We studied differences in chromatin states using five histone modifications, cohesin, and CTCF in lymphoblastoid lines from 19 individuals of diverse ancestry. We found extensive signal variation in regulatory regions, which often switch between active and repressed states across individuals. Enhancer activity is particularly diverse among individuals, whereas gene expression remains relatively stable. Chromatin variability shows genetic inheritance in trios, correlates with genetic variation and population divergence, and is associated with disruptions of transcription factor binding motifs. Overall, our results provide insights into chromatin variation among humans.

  14. Variational approach to 68 Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovici, A.; Schmid, K.W.; Faessler, A.; Baktash, C.; Shashi, P.

    1999-01-01

    For a unified description of the structure of medium mass proton-rich nuclei at low as well as high angular momenta we used the complex version of the Excited Vampir approach. We employed chains of variational calculations based on symmetry-projected essentially complex Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) vacua which include neutron-proton pairing and unnatural-parity correlations. Since the Vampir approaches allow the use of rather large model spaces and of general two-body interactions, large-scale nuclear structure studies going far beyond the abilities of the conventional shell-model configuration-mixing approach are possible. Furthermore, since these approaches provide detailed spectroscopic information for the lowest few states for each spin and parity, they also have considerable advantages with respect to the shell-model Monte Carlo method in which only expectation values of operators in the thermodynamic ensembles or the ground state can be calculated. Our previous investigations on microscopic aspects of shape coexistence in N∼Z nuclei in the A∼70 mass region indicated the presence of a strong competition between particular configurations based on large and small oblate and prolate quadrupole deformations. Furthermore, since in N = Z nuclei neutrons and protons fill the same single particle orbits, the isovector neutron-proton and the like-nucleon pairing correlations were found to be strongly competitive in even-even systems. In addition, the neutron and proton alignments with increasing angular momentum occur simultaneously in these nuclei. On the other hand the theoretical results suggest that certain properties of these nuclei are extremely sensitive to small variations of particular parts of the effective Hamiltonian. Thus, our results indicate that the oblate-prolate coexistence and mixing at low spins depend on the strengths of the neutron-proton T = 0 matrix elements involving nucleons occupying f 5/2 (f 7/2 ) and g 9/2 single particle orbits

  15. Handling large variations in mechanics: Some applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    alpha-stable distribution; power-law distributions. 1. ... The alpha-stable distribution derived from the WRW is applied to describe the variations in surface strains in RC flexural members and in describing the large variations in ..... ical mechanisms generating the fluctuating forces are distinct from, and independent of, those.

  16. Groupoids, Discrete Mechanics, and Discrete Variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jiafeng; Jia Xiaoyu; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong

    2008-01-01

    After introducing some of the basic definitions and results from the theory of groupoid and Lie algebroid, we investigate the discrete Lagrangian mechanics from the viewpoint of groupoid theory and give the connection between groupoids variation and the methods of the first and second discrete variational principles

  17. Approximate solutions to variational inequalities and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beatrice Lignola

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate two concepts of approximate solutions to parametric variational inequalities in topological vector spaces for which the corresponding solution map is closed graph and/or lower semicontinuous and to apply the results to the stability of optimization problems with variational inequality constrains.

  18. Variation principle for nonlinear wave propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Lee, Y.C.; Nishikawa, Kyoji; Hojo, H.; Yoshida, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Variation principle is derived which determines stationary nonlinear propagation of electrostatic waves in the self-consistent density profile. Example is given for lower-hybrid waves and the relation to the variation principle for the Lagrangian density of electromagnetic fluids is discussed

  19. Geometric Total Variation for Texture Deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bespalov, Dmitriy; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Shokoufandeh, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In this work we propose a novel variational method that we intend to use for estimating non-rigid texture deformation. The method is able to capture variation in grayscale images with respect to the geometry of its features. Our experimental evaluations demonstrate that accounting for geometry of...

  20. Genetic variation in bovine milk fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In her thesis, Stoop shows that there is considerable genetic variation in milk fat composition, which opens opportunities to improve milk fat composition by selective breeding. Short and medium chain fatty acids had high heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd (mainly feed effects) was

  1. Intramuscular variation in mitochondrial functionality of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intramuscular color stability variations in beef semimembranosus have been reported previously. Mitochondria remain biochemically active in postmortem muscle and can influence fresh beef color stability. However, the role of mitochondrial functionality in intramuscular color variations in beef semimembranosus is yet to be ...

  2. Genetic variation between ecotypic populations of Chloris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic variation between ecotypic populations of Chloris roxburghiana grass detected through RAPD analysis. ... frequency indicated that the four populations of C. roxburghiana were genetically distinct, probably as a result of variation in soil fertility, geographical isolation and socio-ecological history of the study sites.

  3. Variations in Developmental Patterns across Pragmatic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the findings of longitudinal studies in uninstructed contexts over the last two decades, this synthesis explores variations in developmental patterns across second language (L2) pragmatic features. Two synthesis questions were addressed: (a) What are the variations in developmental patterns across pragmatic features?, and (b) What are…

  4. Variation as a main feature of norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Poladova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The past half-century has witnessed remarkable growth in the study of language variation, and it has now become a highly productive subfield of research in sociolinguistics. Variability is everywhere in language, from the unique details in each production of a sound or sign to the auditory or visual processing of the linguistic signal. All languages that we can observe today show variation; what is more, they vary in identical ways, namely geographically and socially. It’s no secret that languages like English are full of variation. So, the aim of the article is to detect the reasons of variation and to uncover rates of usage of different free variations for a given set of lexical items. The research work is carried out by using the descriptive, comparative methods by subjecting to analysis the specific language materials. The discovery of law of variation became a starting point for the evolution of linguistics. The problem of search of variation facts and its role in the functioning of language system concerns many specialists from the outset. The scope of the investigation was to set up a system out of chaos of phenomena. Currently, the fact of conditionality of variation by system relations existing in the language is considered to be established.

  5. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  6. Collecting genetic variation on a small island

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Kallow; C. Trivedi

    2017-01-01

    Genetic variation is the most powerful factor in ensuring the long term success of trees and forests in times of change. In order to protect against loss of genetic variation from threats, including pests and diseases and climate change, the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, is developing a national tree seed collection for the United Kingdom. This paper...

  7. Hamiltonian and Variational Linear Distributed Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapisarda, P.; Trentelman, H.L.

    2002-01-01

    We use the formalism of bilinear- and quadratic differential forms in order to study Hamiltonian and variational linear distributed systems. It was shown that a system described by ordinary linear constant-coefficient differential equations is Hamiltonian if and only if it is variational. In this

  8. Seasonal variations in hospital admissions for mania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medici, Clara Reece; Vestergaard, Claus Høstrup; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder is characterized by a seasonal pattern with emerging evidence that weather conditions may trigger symptoms. Thus, our aims were to investigate if year-to-year variations in admissions with mania correlated with year-to-year variations in key meteorological variables, ...

  9. Seasonal variation in chromium hexavalent and copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation in heavy metal contamination of groundwater in the Jimeta- Yola area was investigated. The objectives of the study were to determine the seasonal variation in heavy metal contamination and to determine the influence of anthropogenic activities on heavy metal contamination. Groundwater samples were ...

  10. Genetic variation and population structure in Oryza ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We assessed the nature and distribution of genetic variation among 11 populations of O. malampuzhaensis using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. The analysis revealed low genetic variation in O. malampuzhaensis. Cluster analysis of pairwise genetic distances of populations revealed three distinct clusters ...

  11. Size variation in Middle Pleistocene humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, J L; Carretero, J M; Lorenzo, C; Gracia, A; Martínez, I; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Carbonell, E

    1997-08-22

    It has been suggested that European Middle Pleistocene humans, Neandertals, and prehistoric modern humans had a greater sexual dimorphism than modern humans. Analysis of body size variation and cranial capacity variation in the large sample from the Sima de los Huesos site in Spain showed instead that the sexual dimorphism is comparable in Middle Pleistocene and modern populations.

  12. Parkinson's disease and mitochondrial gene variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andalib, Sasan; Vafaee, Manouchehr Seyedi; Gjedde, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common disorder of the central nervous system in the elderly. The pathogenesis of PD is a complex process, with genetics as an important contributing factor. This factor may stem from mitochondrial gene variations and mutations as well as from nuclear gene variations...

  13. The Needs of Students with Intersex Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    To date, people with intersex variations have been mainly studied via small-scale clinical research, with only a small amount of reflective commentary contributed by sociocultural scholars. This paper reports on findings from a 2015 online Australian survey of 272 people with intersex variations, which aimed to redress the gap in research on this…

  14. Macroinvertebrate variation in endorheic depression wetlands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquatic macroinvertebrates are rarely used in wetland assessments due to their variation. However, in terms of biodiversity, these invertebrates form an important component of wetland fauna. Spatial and temporal variation of macroinvertebrate assemblages in endorheic depressions (locally referred to as 'pans') in ...

  15. Medical practice variations: changing the theoretical approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westert, G.P.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    1999-01-01

    Variations in medical practice are well documented, but there has been less progress in explaining these variations. This paper discusses the existing theories and hypotheses and concludes that a change in theoretical approach is required, to one that more directly highlights the social context

  16. Variational theory of nuclear and neutron matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandharipande, V.R.; Wiringa, R.B.

    1989-06-01

    In these lectures we will discuss attempts to solve the A = 3 to ∞ nuclear many-body problems with the variational method. We choose the form of a variational wave function Χ v (1, 2 hor-ellipsis A) to describe the ground state. The Χ v and the ground-state energy E v are obtained by minimizing E v = left-angle Χ v |H|Χ v right-angle/left-angle Χ v |Χ v right-angle with respect to variations in Χ v . If the form of the variational wave function is chosen properly we can expect Χ v ∼ Χ 0 and E v ∼ E 0 where Χ 0 and E 0 are the exact ground-state wave function and energy. In general E v ≥ E 0 in variational calculations. 63 refs., 11 figs

  17. Variation Tolerant On-Chip Interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Nigussie, Ethiopia Enideg

    2012-01-01

    This book presents design techniques, analysis and implementation of high performance and power efficient, variation tolerant on-chip interconnects.  Given the design paradigm shift to multi-core, interconnect-centric designs and the increase in sources of variability and their impact in sub-100nm technologies, this book will be an invaluable reference for anyone concerned with the design of next generation, high-performance electronics systems. Provides comprehensive, circuit-level explanation of high-performance, energy-efficient, variation-tolerant on-chip interconnect; Describes design techniques to mitigate problems caused by variation; Includes techniques for design and implementation of self-timed on-chip interconnect, delay variation insensitive communication protocols, high speed signaling techniques and circuits, bit-width independent completion detection and process, voltage and temperature variation tolerance.                          

  18. Variation tolerant SoC design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhikkottu, Vivek J.

    The scaling of integrated circuits into the nanometer regime has led to variations emerging as a primary concern for designers of integrated circuits. Variations are an inevitable consequence of the semiconductor manufacturing process, and also arise due to the side-effects of operation of integrated circuits (voltage, temperature, and aging). Conventional design approaches, which are based on design corners or worst-case scenarios, leave designers with an undesirable choice between the considerable overheads associated with over-design and significantly reduced manufacturing yield. Techniques for variation-tolerant design at the logic, circuit and layout levels of the design process have been developed and are in commercial use. However, with the incessant increase in variations due to technology scaling and design trends such as near-threshold computing, these techniques are no longer sufficient to contain the effects of variations, and there is a need to address variations at all stages of design. This thesis addresses the problem of variation-tolerant design at the earliest stages of the design process, where the system-level design decisions that are made can have a very significant impact. There are two key aspects to making system-level design variation-aware. First, analysis techniques must be developed to project the impact of variations on system-level metrics such as application performance and energy. Second, variation-tolerant design techniques need to be developed to absorb the residual impact of variations (that cannot be contained through lower-level techniques). In this thesis, we address both these facets by developing robust and scalable variation-aware analysis and variation mitigation techniques at the system level. The first contribution of this thesis is a variation-aware system-level performance analysis framework. We address the key challenge of translating the per-component clock frequency distributions into a system-level application

  19. Language Variation and Score Variation in the Testing of English Language Learners, Native Spanish Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Li, Min

    2009-01-01

    We investigated language variation and score variation in the testing of English language learners, native Spanish speakers. We gave students the same set of National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics items in both their first language and their second language. We examined the amount of score variation due to the main and interaction…

  20. Some remarks on variational and quasi-variational inequalities of monotone operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, A.H.

    1990-08-01

    In this paper we study a fairly general class of variational and quasi-variational inequalities problem which represent some important physical phenomena. Several well-known results concerning variational inequalities are special cases of our results. Existence, uniqueness and numerical analysis of this problem have been studied. (author). 39 refs

  1. DQB1*06:02-Associated Pathogenic Anti-Myelin Autoimmunity in Multiple Sclerosis-like disease: Potential role of DQB1*06:02 as a disease predisposing allele.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathali eKaushansky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis (MS has been linked mainly to the HLA-DRB1 locus, with the HLA-DR15 haplotype (DRB1*1501-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602- DRB5*0101 dominating MS-risk in Caucasians. Although genes in the HLA-II region, particularly DRB1*1501, DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602, are in tight linkage disequilibrium (LD, genome-wide-association and gene candidate studies identified the DRB1*15:01 allele as the primary risk factor in MS. Many genetic and immune-functional studies have indicated DRB1*15:01 as a primary risk factor in MS, while only some functional studies suggested a disease-modifying role for the DRB5*01 or DQB1*06 alleles. In this respect, the susceptibility of DRB1*15:01- transgenic (Tg mice to MBP- or MOG-induced MS-like disease is consistent with primary contribution of DRB1*15:01 to HLA-DR15+ MS. The studies summarized here show that susceptibility to MS-like disease, induced in HLA- humanized mice by MOBP or by the PLP, one of the most prominent encephalitogenic target-antigens implicated in human MS, is determined by DQB1*06:02, rather than by the DRB1*15:01 allele. These findings not only offer a rationale for a potential role for DQB1*06:02 in predisposing susceptibility to MS, but also suggest a more complex and differential functional role for HLA-DR15 alleles, depending on the primary target myelin antigen. However, the conflict between these findings in HLA-Tg mice and the extensive genome-wide-association studies (GWASs which could not detect any significant effect from the DQB1*06:02 allele on MS risk is rather puzzling. Functional analysis of MS PBLs for DQB1*06:02-associated anti-myelin autoimmunity may resolve whether or not the DQB1*06:02 is associated with MS pathogenesis.

  2. Serous carcinomatous component championed by heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) predisposing to metastasis and recurrence in stage I uterine malignant mixed mullerian tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Shimizu, David; Killeen, Jeffrey L; Honda, Stacey A; Lu, Di; Stanoyevitch, Alexander; Lin, Fritz; Wang, Beverly; Monuki, Edwin S; Carbone, Michele

    2016-07-01

    The stage I uterine malignant mixed mullerian tumor (MMMT) shows different potential for progression. We reason that MMMTs with high-grade carcinomatous component and positivity for HB-EGF are prone to recurrence/metastasis in the early stage. A retrospective clinical and histopathologic review with immunohistochemical staining for HB-EGF, EGFR, and integrin-α5 was performed for 62 surgically staged MMMT cases. Recurrence/metastasis (RM) is 6/18 (33%) in stage I disease. Of all the clinicopathologic variables and biomarkers analyzed for stage I MMMT, serous carcinomatous component (83% [5/6] versus 17% [1/12], P = .0015) and HB-EGF expression (100% [6/6] versus 50% [6/12], P=.0339) were significantly different between groups with RM and without RM. The presence of serous carcinoma in all stages was 83% (5/6) in stage I with RM, 8% (1/12) in stage I without RM, 20% (1/5) in stage II, 36.4% (8/22) in stage III and 64.7% (11/17) in stage IV; this was paralleled by HB-EGF expression of 100% (6/6), 50% (6/12), 40% (2/5), 50% (11/22) and 71% (12/17) with a correlation coefficient r=0.9131 (P=.027). HB-EGF and integrin-α5 were highly expressed in MMMTs bearing serous carcinoma component, compared to endometrioid and unclassifiable/miscellaneous subtypes (84.6%/47.6%/33.3%, P=.025 for HB-EGF; and 61.5%/42.9%/20.0%, P=.021 for integrin-α5). The EGFR positivity was comparable among the three subtypes (48.1%, 47.6% and 26.7%, P=.326). This study indicates that serous carcinomatous component championed by expression of HB-EGF predisposes to recurrence/metastasis in stage I MMMT. This process might involve integrin-α5 and does not seem to require overexpression of EGFR. Further study is required. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. SD variations on magnetically quiet days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogrebnoj, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    A method for determining the degree of evolution of the SD variations field in magnetically quiet days is proposed. The method takes into account the asymmetry in the daily variations of the geomagnetic field Y component occurred during simultaneous development of the SD- and S q current systems. Using a particular example it is shown that SD variations take place in the world quiet days. Application of the given method will improve the manifestation of the space-time structure of the geomagnetic perturbation field and specify the classification of days according to the degree of their magnetic disturbance

  4. Ethnopsychologies: cultural variations in theories of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, A

    1998-01-01

    A set of basic beliefs about others' minds and behavior, referred to as folk psychology or theory of mind, is often discussed as if it were the same the world over. Yet, certainly variation in folk psychology exists. This article compares several aspects of European American theory of mind with other cultural models, as suggested by experiments and ethnographies, with the purpose of illuminating the degree to which there is variation. After summarizing 4 types of variation, the author explores possible sources of variability, implications for the mindreading process, potential universals, and directions for future research.

  5. Solar cycle variations in IMF intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Annual averages of logarithms of hourly interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) intensities, obtained from geocentric spacecraft between November 1963 and December 1977, reveal the following solar cycle variation. For 2--3 years at each solar minimum period, the IMF intensity is depressed by 10--15% relative to its mean value realized during a broad 9-year period contered at solar maximum. No systematic variations occur during this 9-year period. The solar minimum decrease, although small in relation to variations in some other solar wind parameters, is both statistically and physically significant

  6. Solar cycle variations in IMF intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.H.

    1979-03-01

    Annual averages of logarithms of hourly interplanetary magnetic field intensities, obtained from geocentric spacecraft between November 1963 and December 1977, reveal the following solar cycle variation. For 2 to 3 years at each solar minimum period, the IMF intensity is depressed by 10-15 percent relative to its mean value realized during a broad nine-year period centered at solar maximum. No systematic variations occur during this nine-year period. The solar minimum decrease, although small relative to variations in some other solar wind parameters, is both statistically and physically significant

  7. Accounting for Population Variation in Targeted Proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Grant M.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Rodriguez, Larissa; Wu, Chaochao; MacLean, Brendan; Smith, Richard D.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Payne, Samuel H.

    2014-01-03

    Individual proteomes typically differ from the reference human proteome at ~10,000 single amino acid variants. When viewed at the population scale, this individual variation results in a wide variety of protein sequences. In targeted proteomics experiments, such variability would confound accurate protein quantification. To facilitate researchers in identifying target peptides with high variability within the human population we have created the Population Variation plug-in for Skyline, which provides easy access to the polymorphisms stored in dbSNP. Given a set of peptides, the tool reports minor allele frequency for common polymorphisms. We highlight the importance of considering genetic variation by applying the tool to public datasets.

  8. [Variation im heutigen Deutsch...] / Laura Tidrike

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tidrike, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Variation im heutigen Deutsch : Perspektiven für den Sprachunterricht / hrsg. v. Eva Neuland. Frankfurt am Main : Lang, 2006. (Sprache - Kommunikation - Kultur. Soziolinguistische Beiträge ; Vol. 4)

  9. The circadian variation of premature atrial contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjørn Strøier; Kumarathurai, Preman; Nielsen, Olav W

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess a possible circadian variation of premature atrial contractions (PACs) in a community-based population and to determine if the daily variation could be used to assess a more vulnerable period of PACs in predicting later incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF...... subgroups were studied based on a cut-off point of ≥720 PACs/day termed frequent PACs (n = 66) and not frequent PACs with ... variation in heart rate. After adjusting for relevant risk factors, the risk of AF was equal in all time intervals throughout the day. CONCLUSION: Premature atrial contractions showed a circadian variation in subjects with frequent PACs. No specific time interval of the day was more predictive of AF than...

  10. Variational inequalities and flow in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipot, M.

    1984-01-01

    This book is concerned with regularity theory for obstacle problems, and with the dam problem, which, in the rectangular case, is one of the most interesting applications of variational inequalities with an obstacle

  11. Modeling Per Capita State Health Expenditure Variat...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Modeling Per Capita State Health Expenditure Variation State-Level Characteristics Matter, published in Volume 3, Issue 4, of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  12. Fixed point theory, variational analysis, and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Mezel, Saleh Abdullah R; Ansari, Qamrul Hasan

    2015-01-01

    ""There is a real need for this book. It is useful for people who work in areas of nonlinear analysis, optimization theory, variational inequalities, and mathematical economics.""-Nan-Jing Huang, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China

  13. Variational continuum multiphase poroelasticity theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Serpieri, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This book collects the theoretical derivation of a recently presented general variational macroscopic continuum theory of multiphase poroelasticity (VMTPM), together with its applications to consolidation and stress partitioning problems of interest in several applicative engineering contexts, such as in geomechanics and biomechanics. The theory is derived based on a purely-variational deduction, rooted in the least-Action principle, by considering a minimal set of kinematic descriptors. The treatment herein considered keeps a specific focus on the derivation of most general medium-independent governing equations. It is shown that VMTPM recovers paradigms of consolidated use in multiphase poroelasticity such as Terzaghi's stress partitioning principle and Biot's equations for wave propagation. In particular, the variational treatment permits the derivation of a general medium-independent stress partitioning law, and the proposed variational theory predicts that the external stress, the fluid pressure, and the...

  14. Variational principles for amenable metric mean dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ercai; Dou, Dou; Zheng, Dongmei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we prove variational principles between metric mean dimension and rate distortion function for countable discrete amenable group actions which extend recently results by Lindenstrauss and Tsukamoto.

  15. On convexity and Schoenberg's variation diminishing splines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yuyu; Kozak, J.

    1992-11-01

    In the paper we characterize a convex function by the monotonicity of a particular variation diminishing spline sequence. The result extends the property known for the Bernstein polynomial sequence. (author). 4 refs

  16. Biochemical, haematological and morphological variations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical, haematological and morphological variations in juvenile Clarias gariepinus exposed to Carbendazim® fungicide. ... protein levels and neutrophil numbers. Consequently, the use and environmental concentrations of CBZ should be closely monitored to safeguard fish health condition in aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Diurnal variation of zooplankton off Versova (Bombay)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.; Desai, B.N.

    Physicochemical parameters and diurnal variaion of zooplankton were studied off Versova on 17/18 February 1981. Salinity and dissolved oxygen showed limited variation during the period of study. Nutrient values followed the tidal rhythm and high...

  18. From genomic variation to personalized medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesolowska, Agata; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    Genomic variation is the basis of interindividual differences in observable traits and disease susceptibility. Genetic studies are the driving force of personalized medicine, as many of the differences in treatment efficacy can be attributed to our genomic background. The rapid development...... of nextgeneration sequencing technologies accelerates the discovery of the complete landscape of human variation. The main limitation is not anymore the available genotyping technology or cost, but rather the lack of understanding of the functionality of individual variations. Single polymorphisms rarely explain...... a considerable amount of the phenotype variability, hence the major difficulty of interpretation lies in the complexity of molecular interactions. This PhD thesis describes the state-of-art of the functional human variation research (Chapter 1) and introduces childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL...

  19. Alternation vs. variation in Old English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elvira Ojanguren López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the phenomena of variation and alternation as reflected by the Old English version of De Temporibus Anni (Blake 2009.The analysis, which focuses on the stem vowels of verbs and is based on the diatopic and diachronic contrasts found by de la Cruz (1986 as well as the alternations identified by Kastovsky (1968, aims at deciding if a given equivalence is a product of variation or alternation. The results obtained reveal that alternation is a more predictable and systematic phenomenon than variation. The conclusions stress the importance of the diphthong /ie/ for discerning between Early and Late West-Saxon and as a point of contact between the phenomena of i-mutation, alternation and diachronic variation.

  20. Medicare Geographic Variation - Public Use File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Geographic Variation Public Use File provides the ability to view demographic, utilization and quality indicators at the state level (including...

  1. Epigenetic variation, phenotypic heritability, and evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furrow, Robert E.; Christiansen, Freddy Bugge; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2014-01-01

    families. The potential importance of this interaction, recognized in classical studies of the genetic epidemiology of complex diseases and other quantitative characters, has reemerged in studies of the effects of epigenetic modifications, their variation, and their transmission between generations....

  2. Geographic Variation in Medicare Spending Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Geographic Variation Dashboards present Medicare fee-for-service per-capita spending at the state and county level in an interactive format. We calculated the...

  3. The Essex-Lopresti injury: a variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargadon, E J; Porter, M L

    1988-11-01

    The Essex-Lopresti fracture-dislocation consists of a radial head fracture associated with dislocation of the inferior radio-ulnar joint. We report a variation of this injury in which there was an additional fracture through the scalphoid.

  4. A variational approach to niche construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Axel; Ramstead, Maxwell J D; Veissière, Samuel P L; Campbell, John O; Friston, Karl J

    2018-04-01

    In evolutionary biology, niche construction is sometimes described as a genuine evolutionary process whereby organisms, through their activities and regulatory mechanisms, modify their environment such as to steer their own evolutionary trajectory, and that of other species. There is ongoing debate, however, on the extent to which niche construction ought to be considered a bona fide evolutionary force, on a par with natural selection. Recent formulations of the variational free-energy principle as applied to the life sciences describe the properties of living systems, and their selection in evolution, in terms of variational inference. We argue that niche construction can be described using a variational approach. We propose new arguments to support the niche construction perspective, and to extend the variational approach to niche construction to current perspectives in various scientific fields. © 2018 The Authors.

  5. VARIATIONS IN SUBSCAPULAR ARTERY: A STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpalatha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the variations in the origin of subscapular artery and its branches in the dissecting room. METHOD: The morphological study of 40 formalin fixed adult human cadavers of both sexes was carried out following a standard dissecting manual. OBSERVATION: Variations in origin of Subscapular artery was observed in 15% of the cadavers, origin from 2 nd part of axillary artery in 15%, as a common branch with Lateral thoracic artery in 10%, associated variations of posterior circumflex humeral artery, thoraco dorsal artery and circumflex scapular artery in 10%. CONCLUSION: In comparison with other similar studies, the present one also shows a near to equal scenario which helps us to strengthen the already existing knowledge. Appreciation of these variations is important to vascular surgeons for vascular graft surgeries, general and on co - surgeons while exposure of axilla and axillary artery so also to radiologists and anatomists

  6. Study of cosmic ray semidiurnal variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krymsky, G F; Krivoshapkin, P A; Gerasimova, S K; Gololobov, P Yu

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of long-term registration of cosmic rays with the muon spectrograph at Yakutsk (62°01'N, 129°43'E) and multidirectional muon telescope at Nagoya (35°10'N, 136°58'E) the cosmic ray semidiurnal variation seasonal change and the change of cosmic ray semiduirnal variation with the solar activity level has been found. The modeling of the seasonal change has been made.

  7. Introduction to the calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Sagan, Hans

    1992-01-01

    Excellent text provides basis for thorough understanding of the problems, methods and techniques of the calculus of variations and prepares readers for the study of modern optimal control theory. Treatment limited to extensive coverage of single integral problems in one and more unknown functions. Carefully chosen variational problems and over 400 exercises. ""Should find wide acceptance as a text and reference.""-American Mathematical Monthly. 1969 edition. Bibliography.

  8. Antigenic variation in vector-borne pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Barbour, A. G.; Restrepo, B. I.

    2000-01-01

    Several pathogens of humans and domestic animals depend on hematophagous arthropods to transmit them from one vertebrate reservoir host to another and maintain them in an environment. These pathogens use antigenic variation to prolong their circulation in the blood and thus increase the likelihood of transmission. By convergent evolution, bacterial and protozoal vector-borne pathogens have acquired similar genetic mechanisms for successful antigenic variation. Borrelia spp. and Anaplasma marg...

  9. On a class of general variational inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, A.H.

    1990-06-01

    The study of variational inequalities was initiated by the Italian Mathematician, Guido Stampacchia in the early 60's. Besides several other important problems of Physics and Engineering this theory has been applied to solve the problem of Elasticity with unilateral constraints. In this paper we introduce a new class of variational inequalities and study the existence and uniqueness of its solution. Error estimates, convergence of approximate solution and the penalty method are also discussed. (author). 25 refs

  10. Sex reduces genetic variation: a multidisciplinary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Root; Heng, Henry H Q

    2011-04-01

    For over a century, the paradigm has been that sex invariably increases genetic variation, despite many renowned biologists asserting that sex decreases most genetic variation. Sex is usually perceived as the source of additive genetic variance that drives eukaryotic evolution vis-à-vis adaptation and Fisher's fundamental theorem. However, evidence for sex decreasing genetic variation appears in ecology, paleontology, population genetics, and cancer biology. The common thread among many of these disciplines is that sex acts like a coarse filter, weeding out major changes, such as chromosomal rearrangements (that are almost always deleterious), but letting minor variation, such as changes at the nucleotide or gene level (that are often neutral), flow through the sexual sieve. Sex acts as a constraint on genomic and epigenetic variation, thereby limiting adaptive evolution. The diverse reasons for sex reducing genetic variation (especially at the genome level) and slowing down evolution may provide a sufficient benefit to offset the famed costs of sex. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. The four variational principles of mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C.G.; Karl, G.; Novikov, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    We argue that there are four basic forms of the variational principles of mechanics: Hamilton close-quote s least action principle (HP), the generalized Maupertuis principle (MP), and their two reciprocal principles, RHP and RMP. This set is invariant under reciprocity and Legendre transformations. One of these forms (HP) is in the literature: only special cases of the other three are known. The generalized MP has a weaker constraint compared to the traditional formulation, only the mean energy bar E is kept fixed between virtual paths. This reformulation of MP alleviates several weaknesses of the old version. The reciprocal Maupertuis principle (RMP) is the classical limit of Schroedinger close-quote s variational principle of quantum mechanics, and this connection emphasizes the importance of the reciprocity transformation for variational principles. Two unconstrained formulations (UHP and UMP) of these four principles are also proposed, with completely specified Lagrange multipliers Percival close-quote s variational principle for invariant tori and variational principles for scattering orbits are derived from the RMP. The RMP is very convenient for approximate variational solutions to problems in mechanics using Ritz type methods Examples are provided. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  12. A rare variation of the digastric muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    KALNIEV, MANOL; KRASTEV, DIMO; KRASTEV, NIKOLAY; VIDINOV, KALIN; VELTCHEV, LUDMIL; APOSTOLOV, ALEXANDER; MILEVA, MILKA

    2013-01-01

    The digastric muscle is composed by two muscle bellies: an anterior and a posterior, joined by an intermediate tendon. This muscle is situated in the anterior region of the neck. The region between the hyoid bone and the mandible is divided by an anterior belly into two triangles: the submandibular situated laterally and the submental triangle which is located medially. We found that the anatomical variations described in the literature relate mainly to the anterior belly and consist of differences in shape and attachment of the muscle. During routine dissection in February 2013 in the section hall of the Department of Anatomy and Histology in Medical University – Sofia we came across a very interesting variation of the digastric muscle. The digastric muscles that presented anatomical variations were photographed using a Sony Cyber-shot DSC-T1 camera, with a Carl Zeiss Vario-Tessar lens. We found out bilateral variation of the digastric muscle in one cadaver. The anterior bellies were very thin and insert to the hyoid bone. Two anterior bellies connect each other and thus they formed a loop. The anatomical variations observed of our study related only to the anterior belly, as previously described by other authors. It is very important to consider the occurrence of the above mentioned variations in the digastric muscle when surgical procedures are performed on the anterior region of the neck. PMID:26527971

  13. Exploring subdomain variation in biomedical language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séaghdha Diarmuid Ó

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Applications of Natural Language Processing (NLP technology to biomedical texts have generated significant interest in recent years. In this paper we identify and investigate the phenomenon of linguistic subdomain variation within the biomedical domain, i.e., the extent to which different subject areas of biomedicine are characterised by different linguistic behaviour. While variation at a coarser domain level such as between newswire and biomedical text is well-studied and known to affect the portability of NLP systems, we are the first to conduct an extensive investigation into more fine-grained levels of variation. Results Using the large OpenPMC text corpus, which spans the many subdomains of biomedicine, we investigate variation across a number of lexical, syntactic, semantic and discourse-related dimensions. These dimensions are chosen for their relevance to the performance of NLP systems. We use clustering techniques to analyse commonalities and distinctions among the subdomains. Conclusions We find that while patterns of inter-subdomain variation differ somewhat from one feature set to another, robust clusters can be identified that correspond to intuitive distinctions such as that between clinical and laboratory subjects. In particular, subdomains relating to genetics and molecular biology, which are the most common sources of material for training and evaluating biomedical NLP tools, are not representative of all biomedical subdomains. We conclude that an awareness of subdomain variation is important when considering the practical use of language processing applications by biomedical researchers.

  14. copy number variation analysis in familial BRCA1/2-negative Finnish breast and ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi M Kuusisto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inherited factors predisposing individuals to breast and ovarian cancer are largely unidentified in a majority of families with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC. We aimed to identify germline copy number variations (CNVs contributing to HBOC susceptibility in the Finnish population. METHODS: A cohort of 84 HBOC individuals (negative for BRCA1/2-founder mutations and pre-screened for the most common breast cancer genes and 36 healthy controls were analysed with a genome-wide SNP array. CNV-affecting genes were further studied by Gene Ontology term enrichment, pathway analyses, and database searches to reveal genes with potential for breast and ovarian cancer predisposition. CNVs that were considered to be important were validated and genotyped in 20 additional HBOC individuals (6 CNVs and in additional healthy controls (5 CNVs by qPCR. RESULTS: An intronic deletion in the EPHA3 receptor tyrosine kinase was enriched in HBOC individuals (12 of 101, 11.9% compared with controls (27 of 432, 6.3% (OR = 1.96; P = 0.055. EPHA3 was identified in several enriched molecular functions including receptor activity. Both a novel intronic deletion in the CSMD1 tumor suppressor gene and a homozygous intergenic deletion at 5q15 were identified in 1 of 101 (1.0% HBOC individuals but were very rare (1 of 436, 0.2% and 1 of 899, 0.1%, respectively in healthy controls suggesting that these variants confer disease susceptibility. CONCLUSION: This study reveals new information regarding the germline CNVs that likely contribute to HBOC susceptibility in Finland. This information may be used to facilitate the genetic counselling of HBOC individuals but the preliminary results warrant additional studies of a larger study group.

  15. Toward Meaningful Manufacturing Variation Data in Design - Feature Based Description of Variation in Manufacturing Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eifler, Tobias; Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    a lack of objective variation data in design. As a result, variation analyses and tolerancing activities rely on numerous assumptions made to fill the gaps of missing or incomplete data. To overcome this hidden subjectivity, a schema for a consistent and standardised description of manufacturing...... variation is suggested. It extends existing ISO GPS annotation by information about influences on the manufacturability of a chosen design solution and in this way enables the systematic acquisition of variation data meaningful for design practice.......The need to mitigate the effects of manufacturing variation already in design is nowadays commonly acknowledged and has led to a wide use of predictive modeling techniques, tolerancing approaches, etc. in industry. The trustworthiness of corresponding variation analyses is, however, not ensured...

  16. Intrapopulation genome size variation in D. melanogaster reflects life history variation and plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa L Ellis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We determined female genome sizes using flow cytometry for 211 Drosophila melanogaster sequenced inbred strains from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, and found significant conspecific and intrapopulation variation in genome size. We also compared several life history traits for 25 lines with large and 25 lines with small genomes in three thermal environments, and found that genome size as well as genome size by temperature interactions significantly correlated with survival to pupation and adulthood, time to pupation, female pupal mass, and female eclosion rates. Genome size accounted for up to 23% of the variation in developmental phenotypes, but the contribution of genome size to variation in life history traits was plastic and varied according to the thermal environment. Expression data implicate differences in metabolism that correspond to genome size variation. These results indicate that significant genome size variation exists within D. melanogaster and this variation may impact the evolutionary ecology of the species. Genome size variation accounts for a significant portion of life history variation in an environmentally dependent manner, suggesting that potential fitness effects associated with genome size variation also depend on environmental conditions.

  17. The ecological importance of intraspecific variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Roches, Simone; Post, David M; Turley, Nash E; Bailey, Joseph K; Hendry, Andrew P; Kinnison, Michael T; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Palkovacs, Eric P

    2018-01-01

    Human activity is causing wild populations to experience rapid trait change and local extirpation. The resulting effects on intraspecific variation could have substantial consequences for ecological processes and ecosystem services. Although researchers have long acknowledged that variation among species influences the surrounding environment, only recently has evidence accumulated for the ecological importance of variation within species. We conducted a meta-analysis comparing the ecological effects of variation within a species (intraspecific effects) with the effects of replacement or removal of that species (species effects). We evaluated direct and indirect ecological responses, including changes in abundance (or biomass), rates of ecological processes and changes in community composition. Our results show that intraspecific effects are often comparable to, and sometimes stronger than, species effects. Species effects tend to be larger for direct ecological responses (for example, through consumption), whereas intraspecific effects and species effects tend to be similar for indirect responses (for example, through trophic cascades). Intraspecific effects are especially strong when indirect interactions alter community composition. Our results summarize data from the first generation of studies examining the relative ecological effects of intraspecific variation. Our conclusions can help inform the design of future experiments and the formulation of strategies to quantify and conserve biodiversity.

  18. Prostate Contouring Variation: Can It Be Fixed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, Eric L.H.; Schick, Karlissa; Plank, Ashley W.; Poulsen, Michael; Wong, Winnie W.G.; Middleton, Mark; Martin, Jarad M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether an education program on CT and MRI prostate anatomy would reduce inter- and intraobserver prostate contouring variation among experienced radiation oncologists. Methods and Materials: Three patient CT and MRI datasets were selected. Five radiation oncologists contoured the prostate for each patient on CT first, then MRI, and again between 2 and 4 weeks later. Three education sessions were then conducted. The same contouring process was then repeated with the same datasets and oncologists. The observer variation was assessed according to changes in the ratio of the encompassing volume to intersecting volume (volume ratio [VR]), across sets of target volumes. Results: For interobserver variation, there was a 15% reduction in mean VR with CT, from 2.74 to 2.33, and a 40% reduction in mean VR with MRI, from 2.38 to 1.41 after education. A similar trend was found for intraobserver variation, with a mean VR reduction for CT and MRI of 9% (from 1.51 to 1.38) and 16% (from 1.37 to 1.15), respectively. Conclusion: A well-structured education program has reduced both inter- and intraobserver prostate contouring variations. The impact was greater on MRI than on CT. With the ongoing incorporation of new technologies into routine practice, education programs for target contouring should be incorporated as part of the continuing medical education of radiation oncologists.

  19. Variational theory of nuclear and neutron matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandharipande, V.R.; Wiringa, R.B. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Physics; Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1989-06-01

    In these lectures we will discuss attempts to solve the A = 3 to {infinity} nuclear many-body problems with the variational method. We choose the form of a variational wave function {Chi}{sub v}(1, 2{hor ellipsis}A) to describe the ground state. The {Chi}{sub v} and the ground-state energy E{sub v} are obtained by minimizing E{sub v} = {l angle}{Chi}{sub v}{vert bar}H{vert bar}{Chi}{sub v}{r angle}/{l angle}{Chi}{sub v}{vert bar}{Chi}{sub v}{r angle} with respect to variations in {Chi}{sub v}. If the form of the variational wave function is chosen properly we can expect {Chi}{sub v} {approx} {Chi}{sub 0} and E{sub v} {approx} E{sub 0} where {Chi}{sub 0} and E{sub 0} are the exact ground-state wave function and energy. In general E{sub v} {ge} E{sub 0} in variational calculations. 63 refs., 11 figs.

  20. Period Variations for the Cepheid VZ Cyg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirorattanakul, Krittanon; Engle, Scott; Pepper, Joshua; Wells, Mark; Laney, Clifton D.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2017-12-01

    The Cepheid Period-Luminosity law is a key rung on the extragalactic distance ladder. However, numerous Cepheids are known to undergo period variations. Monitoring, refining, and understanding these period variations allows us to better determine the parameters of the Cepheids themselves and of the instability strip in which they reside, and to test models of stellar evolution. VZ Cyg, a classical Cepheid pulsating at ˜4.864 days, has been observed for over 100 years. Combining data from literature observations, the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) transit survey, and new targeted observations with the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak, we find a period change rate of dP/dt = -0.0642 ± 0.0018 s yr-1. However, when only the recent observations are examined, we find a much higher period change rate of dP/dt = -0.0923 ± 0.0110 s yr-1. This higher rate could be due to an apparent long-term (P ≈ 26.5 years) cyclic period variation. The possible interpretations of this single Cepheid’s complex period variations underscore both the need to regularly monitor pulsating variables and the important benefits that photometric surveys such as KELT can have on the field. Further monitoring of this interesting example of Cepheid variability is recommended to confirm and better understand the possible cyclic period variations. Further, Cepheid timing analyses are necessary to fully understand their current behaviors and parameters, as well as their evolutionary histories.

  1. Seismic noise level variation in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, D.; Shin, J.

    2008-12-01

    The variations of seismic background noise in South Korea have been investigated by means of power spectral analysis. The Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and the Korea Meteorological Administation (KMA) have national wide seismic networks in South Korea, and, in the end of 2007, there are 30 broadband stations which have been operating for more than a year. In this study, we have estimated the power spectral density of seismic noise for 30 broadband stations from 2005 to 2007. Since we estimate PSDs from a large dataset of continuous waveform in this study, a robust PSD estimate of McNamara and Buland (2004) is used. In the frequency range 1-5 Hz, the diurnal variations of noise are observed at most of stations, which are especially larger at coastal stations and at insular than at inland. Some stations shows daily difference of diurnal variations, which represents that cultural activities contribute to the noise level of a station. The variation of number of triggered stations, however, shows that cultural noise has little influence on the detection capability of seismic network in South Korea. Seasonal variations are observed well in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz, while much less found in the frequency range 1-5 Hz. We observed that strong peaks in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz occur at the summer when Pacific typhoons are close to the Korean Peninsula.

  2. Antigenic variation: Molecular and genetic mechanisms of relapsing disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruse, J.M.; Lewis, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. They are: Contemporary Concepts of Antigenic Variation; Antigenic Variation in the Influenza Viruses; Mechanisms of Escape of Visna Lentiviruses from Immunological Control; A Review of Antigenic Variation by the Equine Infectious Anemia Virus; Biologic and Molecular Variations in AIDS Retrovirus Isolates; Rabies Virus Infection: Genetic Mutations and the Impact on Viral Pathogenicity and Immunity; Immunobiology of Relapsing Fever; Antigenic Variation in African Trypanosomes; Antigenic Variation and Antigenic Diversity in Malaria; and Mechanisms of Immune Evasion in Schistosomiasis.

  3. Pulse pressure and diurnal blood pressure variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren Tang; Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Hansen, Klavs Würgler

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In nondiabetic subjects pulse pressure (PP) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and microalbuminuria. Reduced circadian blood pressure (BP) variation is a potential risk factor for the development of diabetic complications. We investigated the association between...... retinopathy, nephropathy, macrovascular disease, PP, and diurnal BP variation in a group of type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: In 80 type 2 diabetic patients we performed 24-h ambulatory BP (AMBP) and fundus photographs. Urinary albumin excretion was evaluated by urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Presence...... and 3-6 had higher PP and blunted diurnal BP variation: night PP 55 +/- 10 mm Hg, 64 +/- 10 mm Hg, 61 +/- 15 mm Hg, P groups (45 normo-, 19 micro-, and 15...

  4. Solar wind velocity and geomagnetic moment variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, Yu.D.; Rozanova, T.S.

    1982-01-01

    The mean year values of the solar wind velocity have been calculated from the mean-year values of a geomagnetic activity index am according to the Svalgard equation of regression for the pe-- riod from 1930 to 1960. For the same years the values of the geomagnetic moment M and separately of its ''inner'' (causes of which'' are inside the Earth) and ''external'' (causes of which are outside the Earth) parts have been calculated from the mean year data of 12 magnetic observatories. The proof of the presence of the 11-year variation in the moment M has been obtained. It is concluded that the 11-year variations in M result from the variations of the solar wind velocity

  5. Variational approach to nuclear fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Providencia, J.P.; Holzwarth, G.

    1983-01-01

    A variational derivation of a fluid-dynamical formalism for finite Fermi systems is presented which is based on a single determinant as variational function and does not exclude the possibility of transverse flow. Therefore the explicit specification of the time-odd part has to go beyond the local chi-approximation, while the time-even part is taken in the generalized scaling form. The necessary boundary conditions are derived from the variation of the lagrangian. The results confirm previous simplified approaches to a remarkable degree for quadrupole modes; for other multipolarities the deviations are much less than might be expected according to a sizeable change in the transverse sound speed. (orig.)

  6. Precipitation drives global variation in natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepielski, Adam M; Morrissey, Michael B; Buoro, Mathieu; Carlson, Stephanie M; Caruso, Christina M; Clegg, Sonya M; Coulson, Tim; DiBattista, Joseph; Gotanda, Kiyoko M; Francis, Clinton D; Hereford, Joe; Kingsolver, Joel G; Augustine, Kate E; Kruuk, Loeske E B; Martin, Ryan A; Sheldon, Ben C; Sletvold, Nina; Svensson, Erik I; Wade, Michael J; MacColl, Andrew D C

    2017-03-03

    Climate change has the potential to affect the ecology and evolution of every species on Earth. Although the ecological consequences of climate change are increasingly well documented, the effects of climate on the key evolutionary process driving adaptation-natural selection-are largely unknown. We report that aspects of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, along with the North Atlantic Oscillation, predicted variation in selection across plant and animal populations throughout many terrestrial biomes, whereas temperature explained little variation. By showing that selection was influenced by climate variation, our results indicate that climate change may cause widespread alterations in selection regimes, potentially shifting evolutionary trajectories at a global scale. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Practice Variation in Public Sector Internal Auditing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arena, Marika; Jeppesen, Kim Klarskov

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the rise of practice variations in public sector internal auditing (IA), giving special attention to the role of agents’ embeddedness in multiple institutional arrangements. IA's trends of development and the characteristics of the public sector context, in fact, make...... of the interplay between actors’ contemporary embeddedness in professional systems and the focal social system as a relevant source of practice variation. In this respect, the case of IA can contribute to previous studies of practice variation in the field of management accounting, shedding some light on the types...... IA inherently subject to multiple institutional forces that interact with the system of values and beliefs of individual internal auditors. The empirical analysis, which relies on case study methodology, highlights the inherent tensions associated with the changing role of IA and shows how different...

  8. Geographical localisation of the geomagnetic secular variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubert, Julien; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Directly observed changes in Earth’s magnetic field occur most prominently at low latitudes beneath the Atlantic hemisphere, while the Pacific is comparatively quiet. This striking hemispheric asymmetry in geomagnetic secular variation is a consequence of the geographical localisation of intense...... control from either, or both, the inner-core boundary and the core-mantle boundary. In addition to presenting an Earth-like magnetic field morphology, these new numerical models also reproduce the morphology and localization of geomagnetic secular variation. In our models, the conservation of the angular...... momentum in the coupled inner-core / outer core / mantle system (the inner core and the mantle being held together by gravitational coupling) creates a westward columnar gyre circling around the inner core, which localises the secular variation in a narrow latitudinal band. An additional heterogeneous...

  9. Geomagnetic Core Field Secular Variation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillet, N.; Lesur, V.; Olsen, Nils

    2010-01-01

    We analyse models describing time changes of the Earth’s core magnetic field (secular variation) covering the historical period (several centuries) and the more recent satellite era (previous decade), and we illustrate how both the information contained in the data and the a priori information...... (regularisation) affect the result of the ill-posed geomagnetic inverse problem. We show how data quality, frequency and selection procedures govern part of the temporal changes in the secular variation norms and spectra, which are sometimes difficult to dissociate from true changes of the core state. We...... highlight the difficulty of resolving the time variability of the high degree secular variation coefficients (i.e. the secular acceleration), arising for instance from the challenge to properly separate sources of internal and of external origin. In addition, the regularisation process may also result...

  10. A Climatological Analysis of Geoelectric Field Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, C. C.; Cilliers, P. J.; Viljanen, A.; Thomson, A. W. P.; Gaunt, T.; Lotz, S.

    2015-12-01

    Geomagnetic variations induce currents that flow along natural and artificial conducting pathways including critical infrastructure such as the electrical power grid. The level of induction is controlled by the geoelectric field at the Earth's surface, which may be calculated by convolving the geomagnetic variations with an earth-conductivity model. We carry out a long-term statistical analysis of calculated geoelectric field variations using about 30 years of geomagnetic observations from selected locations. We find two dominant classes of geoelectric field events: those that are driven by shock arrival at the Earth which produces a sudden impulse or sudden storm commencement, and those that are associated with geomagnetic storm activity. We provide a historical perspective on the distribution of the geoelectric field for these types of events and compare the geoelectric field with other measures of geomagnetic activity. We also demonstrate the sensitivity of these results to different conductivity models and to geomagnetic latitude.

  11. Process Variations and Probabilistic Integrated Circuit Design

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainty in key parameters within a chip and between different chips in the deep sub micron era plays a more and more important role. As a result, manufacturing process spreads need to be considered during the design process.  Quantitative methodology is needed to ensure faultless functionality, despite existing process variations within given bounds, during product development.   This book presents the technological, physical, and mathematical fundamentals for a design paradigm shift, from a deterministic process to a probability-orientated design process for microelectronic circuits.  Readers will learn to evaluate the different sources of variations in the design flow in order to establish different design variants, while applying appropriate methods and tools to evaluate and optimize their design.  Trains IC designers to recognize problems caused by parameter variations during manufacturing and to choose the best methods available to mitigate these issues during the design process; Offers both qual...

  12. Heterogeneous treatment in the variational nodal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, T.H.

    1995-01-01

    The variational nodal transport method is reduced to its diffusion form and generalized for the treatment of heterogeneous nodes while maintaining nodal balances. Adapting variational methods to heterogeneous nodes requires the ability to integrate over a node with discontinuous cross sections. In this work, integrals are evaluated using composite gaussian quadrature rules, which permit accurate integration while minimizing computing time. Allowing structure within a nodal solution scheme avoids some of the necessity of cross section homogenization, and more accurately defines the intra-nodal flux shape. Ideally, any desired heterogeneity can be constructed within the node; but in reality, the finite set of basis functions limits the practical resolution to which fine detail can be defined within the node. Preliminary comparison tests show that the heterogeneous variational nodal method provides satisfactory results even if some improvements are needed for very difficult, configurations

  13. Smart variations: Functional substructures for part compatibility

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi

    2013-05-01

    As collections of 3D models continue to grow, reusing model parts allows generation of novel model variations. Naïvely swapping parts across models, however, leads to implausible results, especially when mixing parts across different model families. Hence, the user has to manually ensure that the final model remains functionally valid. We claim that certain symmetric functional arrangements (sFarr-s), which are special arrangements among symmetrically related substructures, bear close relation to object functions. Hence, we propose a purely geometric approach based on such substructures to match, replace, and position triplets of parts to create non-trivial, yet functionally plausible, model variations. We demonstrate that starting even from a small set of models such a simple geometric approach can produce a diverse set of non-trivial and plausible model variations. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. COELIAC TRUNK BRANCHING PATTERN AND VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Jose Thomson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anatomical variations involving the visceral arteries are common. However, variations in coeliac trunk are usually asymptomatic, they may become important in patients undergoing diagnostic angiography for gastrointestinal bleeding or prior to an operative procedure. This study was useful for knowing the possible morphological variations before an upper abdominal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive study done by cadaveric dissection, conducted on thirty cadavers. The coeliac trunk being examined for its origin, branching pattern, distribution, and variations. Results were statistically analysed and compared with the previous studies. RESULTS In our study, 60% of the coeliac trunk shows variations and 40% have normal branching pattern. A complete absence of coeliac trunk was observed in one case. In the present study the Right inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6% and left inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 3 cases (9.9%. Both inferior phrenic arteries are arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6%. The common hepatomesenteric trunk and gastro splenic trunk was found in 1 case (3.3%. Hepatosplenic trunk was found in 2 cases (6.6%. In another 2 cases (6.6% gastric and hepatic artery originate from coeliac trunk but splenic artery has a separate origin from abdominal aorta. An absent trunk was also found in 1 case (3.3%. In 5 cases (16.7% showed trifurcation with variation in the branching pattern. CONCLUSION The branching pattern and extreme degree variability in coeliac trunk as brought out in the observations of the present study make it obvious that the present study almost falls in description with previous studies.

  15. An MHD variational principle that admits reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilee, M. L.; Sudan, R. N.; Pfirsch, D.

    1997-01-01

    The variational approach of Pfirsch and Sudan's averaged magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) to the stability of a line-tied current layer is summarized. The effect of line-tying on current sheets that might arise in line-tied magnetic flux tubes by estimating the growth rates of a resistive instability using a variational method. The results show that this method provides a potentially new technique to gauge the stability of nearly ideal magnetohydrodynamic systems. The primary implication for the stability of solar coronal structures is that tearing modes are probably constant at work removing magnetic shear from the solar corona.

  16. New Variational Techniques in Mathematical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Capriz, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    This title covers such topics as: C. Baiocchi - Problemes a frontiere libre lies a des questions d'hydraulique; Ch. Castaing - Integrales convexes duales; G. Duvaut - Etude de problemes unilateraux en mecanique par des methodes variationnelles; D. Kinderlehrer - Remarks about the free boundaries occurring in variational inequalities; H. Lanchon - Torsion elastoplastique d'arbres cylindriques: problemes ouverts; J.M. Lasry - Dualite en calcul des variations; J.J. Moreau - On unilateral constraints, friction and plasticity; B. Nayroles - Point de vue algebrique: Convexite et integrantes convexes

  17. Cost-variation index for 2000

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This document is in line with the method approved in December 1995 for calculating the Personnel budget cost-variation index (Staff Rules and Regulations 10th edition - 1st January 1996) and that approved in June 1996 for calculating the Materials budget cost-variation index (CERN/FC/3881). In accordance with its mandate and with the procedure outlined in document CERN/RTG/8, Finance Committee is invited to recommend to Council to approve the salary adjustment and other indices as specified in part 4 of this document.

  18. Managing Cultural Variation in Software Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Müller, Sune Dueholm; Mathiassen, Lars

    The scale and complexity of change in software process improvement (SPI) are considerable and managerial attention to organizational culture during SPI can therefore potentially contribute to successful outcomes. However, we know little about the impact of variations in organizational subculture...... CMMI level 2 as planned, ASY struggled to implement even modest improvements. To explain these differences, we analyzed the underlying organizational culture within ISY and ASY using two different methods for subculture assessment. The study demonstrates how variations in culture across software...... organizations can have important implications for SPI outcomes. Furthermore, it provides insights into how software managers can practically assess subcultures to inform decisions about and help prepare plans for SPI initiatives....

  19. Variational constraints for electrical-impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.; Kohn, R.V.

    1990-01-01

    The task of electrical-impedance tomography is to invert boundary measurements for the conductivity distribution of a body. This inverse problem can be formulated so the primary data are the measured powers dissipated across injection electrodes. Then, since these powers are minima of the pertinent (dual) variational principles, feasibility constraints can be found for the nonlinear inversion problem. When power may be measured accurately, the existence of these dual variational principles implies that any exact solution must lie at a point of intersection of the two feasibility boundaries

  20. Delay Variation Model with Two Service Queues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Rezac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Delay in VoIP technology is very unpleasant issue and therefore a voice packets prioritization must be ensured. To maintain the high call quality a maximum information delivery time from the sender to the recipient is set to 150 ms. This paper focuses on the design of a mathematical model of end-to-end delay of a VoIP connection, in particular on a delay variation. It describes all partial delay components and mechanisms, their generation, facilities and mathematical formulations. A new approach to the delay variation model is presented and its validation has been done by experimention.