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Sample records for adh1a variation predisposes

  1. An Evaluation of Factors Predisposing Building Elements to Variation in Nigeria

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    Babatunde, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry has been consistently criticized for poor performance in attaining clients’ requirements. The study, thus, assessed the factors predisposing building elements to variation with a view to providing cost-design information that enhance construction project delivery, that is, on-time completion of project within budget. The building elements considered in this study include substructure, frame, upper floors, and roof. Data were collected using well-structured questionnaires administered on professionals in consulting firms, contracting firms, and client organizations in Lagos metropolis. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the analysis revealed nine factors through factor analysis that predispose substructure to variation, seven factors predispose frame, six factors predispose upper floors, and seven factors predispose roofs to variation during construction process in Nigeria.

  2. Variation in Telangiectasia Predisposing Genes Is Associated With Overall Radiation Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanteles, George A. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Murray, Robert J.S. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Mills, Jamie [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Barwell, Julian [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Chakraborti, Prabir [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom); Chan, Steve [Department of Clinical Oncology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Cheung, Kwok-Leung [Division of Breast Surgery, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Ennis, Dawn [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom); Khurshid, Nazish [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Lambert, Kelly [Department of Breast Surgery, University Hospitals of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester (United Kingdom); Machhar, Rohan; Meisuria, Mitul [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Osman, Ahmed; Peat, Irene [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Sahota, Harjinder [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Woodings, Pamela [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J., E-mail: cjt14@le.ac.uk [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: In patients receiving radiotherapy for breast cancer where the heart is within the radiation field, cutaneous telangiectasiae could be a marker of potential radiation-induced heart disease. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes known to cause heritable telangiectasia-associated disorders could predispose to such late, normal tissue vascular damage. Methods and Materials: The relationship between cutaneous telangiectasia as a late normal tissue radiation injury phenotype in 633 breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy was examined. Patients were clinically assessed for the presence of cutaneous telangiectasia and genotyped at nine SNPs in three candidate genes. Candidate SNPs were within the endoglin (ENG) and activin A receptor, type II-like 1 (ACVRL1) genes, mutations in which cause hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene associated with ataxia-telangiectasia. Results: A total of 121 (19.1%) patients exhibited a degree of cutaneous telangiectasiae on clinical examination. Regression was used to examine the associations between the presence of telangiectasiae in patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery, controlling for the effects of boost and known brassiere size (n=388), and individual geno- or haplotypes. Inheritance of ACVRL1 SNPs marginally contributed to the risk of cutaneous telangiectasiae. Haplotypic analysis revealed a stronger association between inheritance of a ATM haplotype and the presence of cutaneous telangiectasiae, fibrosis and overall toxicity. No significant association was observed between telangiectasiae and the coinheritance of the candidate ENG SNPs. Conclusions: Genetic variation in the ATM gene influences reaction to radiotherapy through both vascular damage and increased fibrosis. The predisposing variation in the ATM gene will need to be better defined to optimize it as a predictive marker for assessing radiotherapy late effects.

  3. CHRM2 variation predisposes to personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness.

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    Luo, Xingguang; Kranzler, Henry R; Zuo, Lingjun; Zhang, Huiping; Wang, Shuang; Gelernter, Joel

    2007-07-01

    Personality traits are among the most complex quantitative traits. Certain personality traits have been postulated to be part of the inherited component of substance dependence (SD) risk. Association between the M2 cholinergic receptor gene (CHRM2) and SD has recently been reported and replicated (Wang et al. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2004);13:1903-1911; Luo et al. Hum. Mol. Genet. 2005;14:2421-2434). In this study, we investigated the relationship between CHRM2 variation and personality traits in two American populations. We assessed dimensions of the five-factor model of personality, and genotyped six CHRM2 markers and 38 unlinked ancestry-informative markers in 239 subjects with SD [173 European-Americans (EAs) and 66 African-Americans (AAs)] and 275 healthy subjects (237 EAs and 38 AAs). The relationships between CHRM2 markers and personality traits were examined using multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for marker-marker interaction effects and potential confounders. Associations were decomposed by Roy Bargmann stepdown analysis of covariance. Generally, substance-dependent patients, older individuals, males, and AAs scored higher on Neuroticism and lower on other personality factors. Diplotype CTCAAA/CTCGTT (P = 0.005) and the interaction between its two haplotypes (CTCAAA x CTCGTT) (P = 0.003) were associated with lower Conscientiousness scores. Haplotype CTCGAT (P = 0.006) and its interaction with haplotype TCAAAT (P = 0.002) were associated with higher Agreeableness scores. The trait-influencing variant site in CHRM2 for Agreeableness was close to marker rs1824024 (SNP3) (P = 0.002). CHRM2 variation may contribute to the genetic component of variation in personality traits. Personality traits might substantially underlie the heritable component of SD.

  4. Allelic variation in CRHR1 predisposes to panic disorder: evidence for biased fear processing.

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    Weber, H; Richter, J; Straube, B; Lueken, U; Domschke, K; Schartner, C; Klauke, B; Baumann, C; Pané-Farré, C; Jacob, C P; Scholz, C-J; Zwanzger, P; Lang, T; Fehm, L; Jansen, A; Konrad, C; Fydrich, T; Wittmann, A; Pfleiderer, B; Ströhle, A; Gerlach, A L; Alpers, G W; Arolt, V; Pauli, P; Wittchen, H-U; Kent, L; Hamm, A; Kircher, T; Deckert, J; Reif, A

    2016-06-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a major regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Binding to its receptor CRHR1 triggers the downstream release of the stress response-regulating hormone cortisol. Biochemical, behavioral and genetic studies revealed CRHR1 as a possible candidate gene for mood and anxiety disorders. Here we aimed to evaluate CRHR1 as a risk factor for panic disorder (PD). Allelic variation of CRHR1 was captured by 9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which were genotyped in 531 matched case/control pairs. Four SNPs were found to be associated with PD, in at least one sub-sample. The minor allele of rs17689918 was found to significantly increase risk for PD in females after Bonferroni correction and furthermore decreased CRHR1 mRNA expression in human forebrains and amygdalae. When investigating neural correlates underlying this association in patients with PD using functional magnetic resonance imaging, risk allele carriers of rs17689918 showed aberrant differential conditioning predominantly in the bilateral prefrontal cortex and safety signal processing in the amygdalae, arguing for predominant generalization of fear and hence anxious apprehension. Additionally, the risk allele of rs17689918 led to less flight behavior during fear-provoking situations but rather increased anxious apprehension and went along with increased anxiety sensitivity. Thus reduced gene expression driven by CRHR1 risk allele leads to a phenotype characterized by fear sensitization and hence sustained fear. These results strengthen the role of CRHR1 in PD and clarify the mechanisms by which genetic variation in CRHR1 is linked to this disorder.

  5. Genome-wide survey reveals predisposing diabetes type 2-related DNA methylation variations in human peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toperoff, Gidon; Aran, Dvir; Kark, Jeremy D; Rosenberg, Michael; Dubnikov, Tatyana; Nissan, Batel; Wainstein, Julio; Friedlander, Yechiel; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Glaser, Benjamin; Hellman, Asaf

    2012-01-15

    Inter-individual DNA methylation variations were frequently hypothesized to alter individual susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Sequence-influenced methylations were described in T2DM-associated genomic regions, but evidence for direct, sequence-independent association with disease risk is missing. Here, we explore disease-contributing DNA methylation through a stepwise study design: first, a pool-based, genome-scale screen among 1169 case and control individuals revealed an excess of differentially methylated sites in genomic regions that were previously associated with T2DM through genetic studies. Next, in-depth analyses were performed at selected top-ranking regions. A CpG site in the first intron of the FTO gene showed small (3.35%) but significant (P = 0.000021) hypomethylation of cases relative to controls. The effect was independent of the sequence polymorphism in the region and persists among individuals carrying the sequence-risk alleles. The odds of belonging to the T2DM group increased by 6.1% for every 1% decrease in methylation (OR = 1.061, 95% CI: 1.032-1.090), the odds ratio for decrease of 1 standard deviation of methylation (adjusted to gender) was 1.5856 (95% CI: 1.2824-1.9606) and the sensitivity (area under the curve = 0.638, 95% CI: 0.586-0.690; males = 0.675, females = 0.609) was better than that of the strongest known sequence variant. Furthermore, a prospective study in an independent population cohort revealed significant hypomethylation of young individuals that later progressed to T2DM, relative to the individuals who stayed healthy. Further genomic analysis revealed co-localization with gene enhancers and with binding sites for methylation-sensitive transcriptional regulators. The data showed that low methylation level at the analyzed sites is an early marker of T2DM and suggests a novel mechanism by which early-onset, inter-individual methylation variation at isolated non-promoter genomic sites predisposes to T2DM.

  6. Recurrent microdeletions at 15q11.2 and 16p13.11 predispose to idiopathic generalized epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Kovel, Carolien G F; Trucks, Holger; Helbig, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Idiopathic generalized epilepsies account for 30% of all epilepsies. Despite a predominant genetic aetiology, the genetic factors predisposing to idiopathic generalized epilepsies remain elusive. Studies of structural genomic variations have revealed a significant excess of recurrent microdeletio...

  7. Variation.

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    Hamilton City Board of Education (Ontario).

    Suggestions for studying the topic of variation of individuals and objects (balls) to help develop elementary school students' measurement, comparison, classification, evaluation, and data collection and recording skills are made. General suggestions of variables that can be investigated are made for the study of human variation. Twelve specific…

  8. Double-strand break damage and associated DNA repair genes predispose smokers to gene methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Leng, Shuguang; Stidley, Christine A.; Willink, Randy; Bernauer, Amanda; Do, Kieu; Picchi, Maria A.; Sheng, Xin; Frasco, Melissa, A.; Berg, David Van Den; Gilliland, Frank D.; Zima, Christopher; Crowell, Richard E.; Belinsky, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Gene promoter hypermethylation in sputum is a promising biomarker for predicting lung cancer. Identifying factors that predispose smokers to methylation of multiple gene promoters in the lung could impact strategies for early detection and chemoprevention. This study evaluated the hypothesis that double-strand break repair capacity and sequence variation in genes in this pathway are associated with a high methylation index in a cohort of current and former cancer-free smokers. A 50% reduction...

  9. Gastrointestinal helminths and their predisposing factors in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing to management system and associated predisposing factors. Epidemiol- ... ductivity of poultry kept under different management systems. Infection of ..... Urquhart, G. M., Armour, J., Duncan, J. L., Dunn, A. M., Jennings, F.W. 1996. Veteri-.

  10. Influence Of Age, Gender, Subject Background And Predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence Of Age, Gender, Subject Background And Predisposing Factors On The ... of Nigerian universities apply to study library and information science unless as ... Chi-square tests revealed significant relationships between undergraduates ...

  11. Abnormal ulnar nerve anatomy in the distal forearm pre-disposes to post-traumatic ulnar neuritis at the wrist.

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    Yeo, C J; Little, C P; Deshmukh, S C

    2005-01-01

    Anatomical variations of the ulnar nerve have been described at the level of the elbow and in Guyon's canal, while the path in the forearm has always been assumed to be constant. We present a case of compressive ulnar neuropathy at the wrist pre-disposed by a presumed congenital variation of the path of the ulnar nerve at the level of the wrist which improved following surgical release of the constriction caused as a result of it.

  12. Clinical course of incidental syringomyelia without predisposing pathologies.

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    Kim, Jiha; Kim, Chi Heon; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Chung, Chun Kee

    2012-05-01

    Although the widespread use of MRI has facilitated the diagnosis of subclinical syringomyelia, little information has been established regarding its natural course. To elucidate the clinical course and treatment strategy of incidental syringomyelia without predisposing pathologies, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical course of 12 adult patients with incidental syringomyelia. No patients had any predisposing pathology, including Chiari malformation or spinal cord tumor. Using the medical records and MRI, we analyzed the neurological and radiological features of each patient. After a mean of 39.9 months follow-up, no patient developed neurological deterioration. Although one patient had radiological progression without neurological deterioration, 11 patients (91.7%) had no change on MRI. Additionally, all patients experienced a favorable clinical course without surgery. These results indicate that, for patients with incidental syringomyelia without predisposing pathology, close observation rather than surgery can be recommended.

  13. Detecting disease-predisposing variants: The haplotype method

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    Valdes, A.M.; Thomson, G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    For many HLA-associated diseases, multiple alleles - and, in some cases, multiple loci - have been suggested as the causative agents. The haplotype method for identifying disease-predisposing amino acids in a genetic region is a stratification analysis. We show that, for each haplotype combination containing all the amino acid sites involved in the disease process, the relative frequencies of amino acid variants at sites not involved in disease but in linkage disequilibrium with the disease-predisposing sites are expected to be the same in patients and controls. The haplotype method is robust to mode of inheritance and penetrance of the disease and can be used to determine unequivocally whether all amino acid sites involved in the disease have not been identified. Using a resampling technique, we developed a statistical test that takes account of the nonindependence of the sites sampled. Further, when multiple sites in the genetic region are involved in disease, the test statistic gives a closer fit to the null expectation when some - compared with none - of the true predisposing factors are included in the haplotype analysis. Although the haplotype method cannot distinguish between very highly correlated sites in one population, ethnic comparisons may help identify the true predisposing factors. The haplotype method was applied to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) HLA class II DQA1-DQB1 data from Caucasian, African, and Japanese populations. Our results indicate that the combination DQA1 No. 52 (Arg predisposing) DQB1 No. 57 (Asp protective), which has been proposed as an important IDDM agent, does not include all the predisposing elements. With rheumatoid arthritis HLA class H DRB1 data, the results were consistent with the shared-epitope hypothesis. 35 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. The prevalence of predisposing deformity in osteoarthritic hip joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Jakob; Gosvig, Kasper; Jacobsen, Steffen;

    2011-01-01

    relationship in both sexes with the clinical presentation. The study cohort which fulfilled these inclusion criteria consisted of 322 females (149 right hips and 173 left hips) and 162 males (77 right hips and 85 left hips) with osteoarthritis. We found an overall prevalence of predisposing hip deformities...... in females of 62.4% and in males of 78.9%. Minor and major deformities showed the same prevalence. Both sexes had a comparable prevalence of minor and major hip joint deformity, except for pistol grip deformity, which was more prevalent in men. We concluded that 'idiopathic osteoarthritis' is uncommon......, and that even minor predisposing deformities are associated with hip osteoarthritis....

  15. Mutations in LRRC50 predispose zebrafish and humans to seminomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, S.G.; Davis, E.E.; Gillis, A.J.; van Rooijen, E.; Stoop, H.; Babala, N.; Logister, I.; Heath, Z.G.; Jonges, T.N.; Katsanis, N.; Voest, E.E.; van Eeden, F.J.; Medema, R.H.; Ketting, R.F.; Schulte-Merker, S.; Looijenga, L.H.; Giles, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    Seminoma is a subclass of human testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), the most frequently observed cancer in young men with a rising incidence. Here we describe the identification of a novel gene predisposing specifically to seminoma formation in a vertebrate model organism. Zebrafish carrying a

  16. Factors predisposing to obesity: a review of the literature | Ali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors predisposing to obesity: a review of the literature. ... Excess body fat deposition is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure and there are many genetic and environmental factors that can influence this balance. The present ... Keywords: obesity, caloric intake, genetic factors, evolution ...

  17. Iron deficiency: an overlooked predisposing factor in angular cheilitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, N C; Bissada, N F

    1979-10-01

    Clinicians who recommend the use of antifungal agents for angular cheilitis may be treating the symptoms and not the predisposing cause of the disease. Iron deficiency should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis whenever angular cheilitis is encountered, especially in women of child-bearing age.

  18. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated...... whole-genome and exome data from probands of 34 melanoma families lacking pathogenic mutations in known high penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, TERT, POT1, ACD and TERF2IP. We found a novel germline mutation, POLE p.(Trp347Cys), in a 7-case cutaneous melanoma family....... Functional assays in S. pombe showed that this mutation led to an increased DNA mutation rate comparable to that seen with a Pol ε mutant with no exonuclease activity. We then performed targeted sequencing of POLE in 1243 cutaneous melanoma cases and found that a further ten probands had novel or rare...

  19. Predisposing factors and prevention of Clostridium perfringens-associated enteritis.

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    Allaart, Janneke G; van Asten, Alphons J A M; Gröne, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Clostridium perfringens is one of the major causes of intestinal disease in humans and animals. Its pathogenicity is contributed to by the production of a variety of toxins. In addition, predisposing environmental factors are important for the induction of C. perfringens-associated enteritis as shown by infection models. Environmental contamination, gastric and intestinal pH, intestinal microflora, nutrition, concurrent infections, and medical interventions may influence the intestinal colonization, growth, and toxin production by C. perfringens. Prevention of C. perfringens-associated enteritis may be mediated by the use of feed additives like probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, essential oils, bacteriophages, lysozymes, bacteriocins, and antimicrobial peptides. Here we summarize and discuss published data on the influence of different environmental predisposing factors and preventive measures. Further research should focus on feed composition and feed additives in order to prevent C. perfringens-associated enteritis.

  20. Depressive behavior induced by social isolation of predisposed female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanier-Gomes, Patrícia Helena; de Abreu Silva, Tomaz Eugênio; Zanetti, Guilherme Cia; Benati, Évelyn Raquel; Pinheiro, Nanci Mendes; Murta, Beatriz Martins Tavares; Crema, Virgínia Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Depression is a mood disorder that is more prevalent in women and has been closely associated with chronic stress. Many models of depression have been suggested that consider different forms of stress. In fact, stress is present in the life of every human being, but only a few develop depression. Accordingly, it seems wrong to consider all stressed animals to be depressed, emphasizing the importance of predisposition for this mood disorder. Based on this finding, we evaluated a predisposition to depressive behavior of female rats on the forced swim test (FST), and the more immobile the animal was during the FST, the more predisposed to depression it was considered to be. Then, animals were subjected to the stress of social isolation for 21 days and were re-evaluated by the FST. The Predisposed/Isolated rats presented higher immobility times. Once all the rats had prior experience in the FST, we calculated an Index of Increase by Isolation, confirming the previous results. Based on this result, we considered the Predisposed/Isolated group as presenting depressive behavior ('Depressed') and the Nonpredisposed/Nonisolated group as the control group ('Nondepressed'). The animals were distributed into 4 new groups: Nondepressed/Vehicle, Nondepressed/Amitriptyline, Depressed/Vehicle, Depressed/Amitriptyline. After 21 days of treatment, only the Depressed/Vehicle group differed from the other 3 groups, demonstrating the efficacy of amitriptyline in treating the depressive behavior of the Depressed animals, validating the model. This study shows that conducting an FST prior to any manipulation can predict predisposition to depressive behavior in female rats and that the social isolation of predisposed animals for 21 days is effective in inducing depressive behavior. This behavior can be considered real depressive behavior because it takes into account predisposition, chronic mild stress, and the prevalent gender.

  1. Predisposing factors and surgical outcome of complicated liver hydatid cysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alper; Akcan; Erdogan; Sozuer; Hizir; Akyildiz; Zeki; Yilmaz; Ahmet; Ozturk; Altay; Atalay

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the predisposing factors for peritoneal perforation and intrabiliary rupture and the effects of these complications on surgical outcome in liver hydatid disease.METHODS: A total of 372 patients with liver hydatid cysts who had undergone surgical treatment were evaluated retrospectively. Twenty eight patients with peritoneal perforation, 93 patients with spontaneous intrabiliary perforation, and 251 patients with noncomplicated hydatid cysts were treated in our clinics.RESULTS: When the pred...

  2. Predisposing Factors in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebicka, J.

    2016-01-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a syndrome with high short-term mortality in patients with chronic liver disease. The definition of ACLF has been addressed recently in many publications, and despite regional differences the number and severity of organ failures are decisive for the prese...... hypertension might predispose for the development of ACLF after proper injury and response. © 2016 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc....

  3. MAT2A mutations predispose individuals to thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S; Santos-Cortez, Regie L; Zhao, Ren; Cai, Bo; Veeraraghavan, Sudha; Prakash, Siddharth K; Johnson, Ralph J; Muilenburg, Ann; Willing, Marcia; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Moran, Rocio; Debacker, Julie; Bamshad, Michael J; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A; Leal, Suzanne M; Raman, C S; Swindell, Eric C; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2015-01-08

    Up to 20% of individuals who have thoracic aortic aneurysms or acute aortic dissections but who do not have syndromic features have a family history of thoracic aortic disease. Significant genetic heterogeneity is established for this familial condition. Whole-genome linkage analysis and exome sequencing of distant relatives from a large family with autosomal-dominant inheritance of thoracic aortic aneurysms variably associated with the bicuspid aortic valve was used for identification of additional genes predisposing individuals to this condition. A rare variant, c.1031A>C (p.Glu344Ala), was identified in MAT2A, which encodes methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha (MAT IIα). This variant segregated with disease in the family, and Sanger sequencing of DNA from affected probands from unrelated families with thoracic aortic disease identified another MAT2A rare variant, c.1067G>A (p.Arg356His). Evidence that these variants predispose individuals to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections includes the following: there is a paucity of rare variants in MAT2A in the population; amino acids Glu344 and Arg356 are conserved from humans to zebrafish; and substitutions of these amino acids in MAT Iα are found in individuals with hypermethioninemia. Structural analysis suggested that p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His disrupt MAT IIα enzyme function. Knockdown of mat2aa in zebrafish via morpholino oligomers disrupted cardiovascular development. Co-transfected wild-type human MAT2A mRNA rescued defects of zebrafish cardiovascular development at significantly higher levels than mRNA edited to express either the Glu344 or Arg356 mutants, providing further evidence that the p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His substitutions impair MAT IIα function. The data presented here support the conclusion that rare genetic variants in MAT2A predispose individuals to thoracic aortic disease.

  4. Influenza A Virus as a Predisposing Factor for Cryptococcosis

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    Lorena V. N. Oliveira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV infects millions of people annually and predisposes to secondary bacterial infections. Inhalation of fungi within the Cryptococcus complex causes pulmonary disease with secondary meningo-encephalitis. Underlying pulmonary disease is a strong risk factor for development of C. gattii cryptococcosis though the effect of concurrent infection with IAV has not been studied. We developed an in vivo model of Influenza A H1N1 and C. gattii co-infection. Co-infection resulted in a major increase in morbidity and mortality, with severe lung damage and a high brain fungal burden when mice were infected in the acute phase of influenza multiplication. Furthermore, IAV alters the host response to C. gattii, leading to recruitment of significantly more neutrophils and macrophages into the lungs. Moreover, IAV induced the production of type 1 interferons (IFN-α4/β and the levels of IFN-γ were significantly reduced, which can be associated with impairment of the immune response to Cryptococcus during co-infection. Phagocytosis, killing of cryptococci and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by IAV-infected macrophages were reduced, independent of previous IFN-γ stimulation, leading to increased proliferation of the fungus within macrophages. In conclusion, IAV infection is a predisposing factor for severe disease and adverse outcomes in mice co-infected with C. gattii.

  5. Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Animals: Incidence, Economics, and Predisposing Factors

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    Mukesh Kr. Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the incidence and economics of subclinical form of bovine mastitis in Central Region of India. Daily milk records of 187 animals during three seasons were collected and subjected to analysis. The economic loss due to reduction in yield, clinical expenses, and additional resources used were quantified and aggregated. The losses due to mastitis in monetary terms were estimated to be INR1390 per lactation, among which around 49% was owing to loss of value from milk and 37% on account of veterinary expenses. Higher losses were observed in crossbred cows due to their high production potential that was affected during mastitis period. The cost of treating an animal was estimated to be INR509 which includes cost of medicine (31.10% and services (5.47%. Inadequate sanitation, hygiene, and veterinary services were the main predisposing factors for incidence and spread of mastitis as perceived by the respondents.

  6. Latex glove allergy in dental workers: complications and predisposing factors

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    Rezaee M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermal- respiratory reactions to latex glove is a common problem and sometimes life threatening. Among health care workers, dental working personnel have extensive use of latex gloves. A few numbers of researches have been done in Iran about prevalence of these reactions but there is no comprehensive study for dental workers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate reactions to latex gloves amongst dental workers in military dental health centers.Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive survey, dental workers with a minimum of three months length of employment and most often use of latex gloves were asked to fill standard questionnaire (derived from South Carolina Medical University regarding latex related clinical manifestation and personal medical history and predisposing factors Data analysis was done by χ2 and Student's t test.Results: In our study 330 personnel were assessed. The mean age and length of employment was 31.6 and 8 years respectively. The most occupation was dentistry. A total of 232 subjects (70.3% reported latex gloves-allergic symptoms. 72 (21.8% of persons have history of atopy and food allergy was seen in 114 (34.5%. 63 (19.1% of subjects reported history of hand dermatitis. All of these predisposing factors had positive regression with dermal and respiratory reactions.Conclusion: In this survey the prevalence of allergic reactions was higher than similar studies which may be due to type of gloves, lack of preemployment assessments and other factors. Use of diagnostic methods such as serologic measures, SPT and pulmonary function testing (such as spirogram could be considered as tools for confirmatory and differential diagnosis and important complementary for these studies. Because of relationship between allergic reactions to latex gloves and some medical histories, it seems to be necessary for preemployment evaluation and periodic health surveillance of dental workers.

  7. Acyclovir prophylaxis predisposes to antiviral-resistant recurrent herpetic keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Monique; van de Vijver, David A M C; van Loenen, Freek B; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Remeijer, Lies; Verjans, Georges M G M

    2013-11-01

    Long-term acyclovir (ACV) prophylaxis, recommended to prevent recurrent herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ocular disorders, may pose a risk for ACV-refractory disease due to ACV resistance. We determined the effect of ACV prophylaxis on the prevalence of corneal ACV-resistant (ACV(R)) HSV-1 and clinical consequences thereof in patients with recurrent HSV-1 keratitis (rHK). Frequencies of ACV(R) viruses were determined in 169 corneal HSV-1 isolates from 78 rHK patients with a history of stromal disease. The isolates' ACV susceptibility profiles were correlated with clinical parameters to identify risk factors predisposing to ACV(R) rHK. Corneal HSV-1 isolates with >28% ACV(R) viruses were defined as ACV(R) isolates. Forty-four isolates (26%) were ACV-resistant. Multivariate analyses identified long-term ACV prophylaxis (≥12 months) (odds ratio [OR] 3.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-8.87) and recurrence duration of ≥45 days (OR 2.23; 95% CI, 1.02-4.87), indicative of ACV-refractory disease, as independent risk factors for ACV(R) isolates. Moreover, a corneal ACV(R) isolate was a risk factor for ACV-refractory disease (OR 2.28; 95% CI, 1.06-4.89). The data suggest that long-term ACV prophylaxis predisposes to ACV-refractory disease due to the emergence of corneal ACV(R) HSV-1. ACV-susceptibility testing is warranted during follow-up of rHK patients.

  8. Inadequate doses of hemodialysis. Predisposing factors, causes and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pehuén Fernández

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving sub-optimal dose of hemodialysis have increased morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to identify predisposing factors and causes of inadequate dialysis, and to design a practical algorithm for the management of these patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Ninety patients in chronic hemodialysis at Hospital Privado Universitario de Córdoba were included, during September 2015. Twenty two received sub-optimal dose of hemodialysis. Those with urea distribution volume (V greater than 40 l (72 kg body weight approximately are 11 times more likely (OR = 11.6; CI 95% = 3.2 to 51.7, p < 0.0001 to receive an inadequate dose of hemodialysis, than those with a smaller V. This situation is more frequent in men (OR = 3.5; 95% CI 1.01-15.8; p = 0.0292. V greater than 40 l was the only independent predictor of sub-dialysis in the multivariate analysis (OR = 10.3; 95% CI 2.8-37; p < 0.0004. The main cause of suboptimal dialysis was receiving a lower blood flow (Qb than the prescribed (336.4 ± 45.8 ml/min vs. 402.3 ± 28.8 ml/min respectively, p < 0.0001 (n = 18. Other causes were identified: shorter duration of the session (n = 2, vascular access recirculation (n = 1, and error in the samples (n = 1. In conclusion, the only independent predisposing factor found in this study for sub-optimal dialysis is V greater than 40 l. The main cause was receiving a slower Qb than prescribed. From these findings, an algorithm for the management of these patients was developed

  9. Recurrent microdeletions at 15q11.2 and 16p13.11 predispose to idiopathic generalized epilepsies

    OpenAIRE

    de Kovel, Carolien G.F.; Trucks, Holger; Helbig, Ingo; Mefford, Heather C.; Baker, Carl; Leu, Costin; Kluck, Christian; Muhle, Hiltrud; von Spiczak, Sarah; Ostertag, Philipp; Obermeier, Tanja; Kleefuß-Lie, Ailing A.; Hallmann, Kerstin; Steffens, Michael; Gaus, Verena

    2009-01-01

    Idiopathic generalized epilepsies account for 30% of all epilepsies. Despite a predominant genetic aetiology, the genetic factors predisposing to idiopathic generalized epilepsies remain elusive. Studies of structural genomic variations have revealed a significant excess of recurrent microdeletions at 1q21.1, 15q11.2, 15q13.3, 16p11.2, 16p13.11 and 22q11.2 in various neuropsychiatric disorders including autism, intellectual disability and schizophrenia. Microdeletions at 15q13.3 have recently...

  10. FOXE3 mutations predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Medina-Martinez, Olga; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S; Reynolds, Corey L; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Prakash, Siddharth K; Kwartler, Callie S; Zhu, Lawrence Yang; Peters, Andrew M; Duan, Xue-Yan; Bamshad, Michael J; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Debbie A; Santos-Cortez, Regie L; Dong, Xiurong; Leal, Suzanne M; Majesky, Mark W; Swindell, Eric C; Jamrich, Milan; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2016-03-01

    The ascending thoracic aorta is designed to withstand biomechanical forces from pulsatile blood. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections (TAADs) occur as a result of genetically triggered defects in aortic structure and a dysfunctional response to these forces. Here, we describe mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXE3 that predispose mutation-bearing individuals to TAAD. We performed exome sequencing of a large family with multiple members with TAADs and identified a rare variant in FOXE3 with an altered amino acid in the DNA-binding domain (p.Asp153His) that segregated with disease in this family. Additional pathogenic FOXE3 variants were identified in unrelated TAAD families. In mice, Foxe3 deficiency reduced smooth muscle cell (SMC) density and impaired SMC differentiation in the ascending aorta. Foxe3 expression was induced in aortic SMCs after transverse aortic constriction, and Foxe3 deficiency increased SMC apoptosis and ascending aortic rupture with increased aortic pressure. These phenotypes were rescued by inhibiting p53 activity, either by administration of a p53 inhibitor (pifithrin-α), or by crossing Foxe3-/- mice with p53-/- mice. Our data demonstrate that FOXE3 mutations lead to a reduced number of aortic SMCs during development and increased SMC apoptosis in the ascending aorta in response to increased biomechanical forces, thus defining an additional molecular pathway that leads to familial thoracic aortic disease.

  11. Dog obesity--the need for identifying predisposing genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switonski, M; Mankowska, M

    2013-12-01

    Incidence of overweight and obesity in dogs exceeds 30%, and several breeds are predisposed to this heritable phenotype. Rapid progress of canine genomics and advanced knowledge on the genetic background of human obesity bring a unique opportunity to perform such studies in dogs. Natural candidate genes for obesity are these encoding adipokines. Extended studies in humans indicated that polymorphisms of three of them, i.e. ADIPOQ, IL1 and TNF, are associated with predisposition to obesity. On the other hand, the use of genome-wide association studies revealed an association between human obesity and polymorphism of more than 50 other genes. Until now only few preliminary reports on polymorphism of canine FTO, MC4R, MC3R and PPARG genes have been published. Since the dog is a valuable model organism for human diseases one can foresee that such studies may also contribute to an in-depth understanding of human obesity pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep deprivation predisposes gujarati Indian adolescents to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal; Singh, Sk

    2009-07-01

    Recent studies on various populations indicate that lack of sleep is one of the potential risk factors predisposing the youth to obesity. Since there is a significant rise in obesity among Indian youth and because research indicating the role of sleep in development of obesity among Indian population is scant, the current study was undertaken to assess the effect of sleep duration on adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents. A randomized cross-sectional study was done on 489 voluntarily participating Indian adolescents in the age group of 16-19 years. Participants were grouped into two categories 1). Adequate Sleep Duration at Night (more than seven hours, ASDN) and 2) Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night (less than seven hours, IASDN) as reported by the participants. The participants were later assessed for adiposity in terms of BMI, BF %, FM, FMI and waist circumference, meal frequency per day and physical activity status. In both boys as well as girls, the BMI, BF%, FM and FMI were significantly lower in the ASDN group than the IASDN group. However, there was an insignificant difference in the meal frequency and physical activity status between the ASDN and IASDN group. Inadequate sleep duration increases adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents but further studies are required to find out the mechanisms through which sleep affects adiposity in this population.

  13. Runx1 deficiency predisposes mice to T-lymphoblastic lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Mondira; Compton, Sheila; Garrett-Beal, Lisa; Stacy, Terryl; Starost, Matthew F.; Eckhaus, Michael; Speck, Nancy A.; Liu, P. Paul

    2005-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements affecting RUNX1 and CBFB are common in acute leukemias. These mutations result in the expression of fusion proteins that act dominant-negatively to suppress the normal function of the Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX)/core binding factor β (CBFβ) complexes. In addition, loss-of-function mutations in Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) have been identified in sporadic cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and in association with the familial platelet disorder with propensity to develop AML (FPD/AML). In order to examine the hypothesis that decreased gene dosage of RUNX1 may be a critical event in the development of leukemia, we treated chimeric mice generated from Runx1lacZ/lacZ embryonic stem (ES) cells that have homozygous disruption of the Runx1 gene with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). We observed an increased incidence of T-lymphoblastic lymphoma in Runx1lacZ/lacZ compared with wild-type chimeras and confirmed that the tumors were of ES-cell origin. Our results therefore suggest that deficiency of Runx1 can indeed predispose mice to hematopoietic malignancies. PMID:16051740

  14. Inverse association between obesity predisposing FTO genotype and completed suicide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Chojnicka

    Full Text Available The A allele of rs9939609 in the FTO gene predisposes to increased body mass index (BMI and obesity. Recently we showed an inverse association between the obesity related A allele of rs9939609 and alcohol dependence which was replicated by others. Since this finding raises a possibility that FTO may be associated with other psychiatric phenotypes, we aimed to examine association of rs9939609 with completed suicide. We genotyped rs9939609 in 912 suicide victims and 733 controls using TaqMan approach. We observed an inverse association between suicide and the rs9939609 A allele (OR = 0.80, P = 0.002, Pcor = 0.006 with genotype distribution suggesting a co-dominant effect. Given the link between alcoholism and suicide under influence of alcohol reported in Polish population, confounding by alcohol addiction was unlikely due to apparently similar effect size among cases who were under influence of ethanol at the time of death (OR = 0.76, P = 0.003, N = 361 and those who were not (OR = 0.80, P = 0.007, N = 469. The search for genotype-phenotype correlations did not show significant results. In conclusion, our study proves that there is an inverse association between rs9939609 polymorphism in FTO gene and completed suicide which is independent from association between FTO and alcohol addiction.

  15. Mutations in LRRC50 Predispose Zebrafish and Humans to Seminomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basten, Sander G.; van Rooijen, Ellen; Stoop, Hans; Babala, Nikolina; Logister, Ive; Heath, Zachary G.; Jonges, Trudy N.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Voest, Emile E.; van Eeden, Freek J.; Medema, Rene H.; Ketting, René F.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Looijenga, Leendert H. J.; Giles, Rachel H.

    2013-01-01

    Seminoma is a subclass of human testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), the most frequently observed cancer in young men with a rising incidence. Here we describe the identification of a novel gene predisposing specifically to seminoma formation in a vertebrate model organism. Zebrafish carrying a heterozygous nonsense mutation in Leucine-Rich Repeat Containing protein 50 (lrrc50 also called dnaaf1), associated previously with ciliary function, are found to be highly susceptible to the formation of seminomas. Genotyping of these zebrafish tumors shows loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the wild-type lrrc50 allele in 44.4% of tumor samples, correlating with tumor progression. In humans we identified heterozygous germline LRRC50 mutations in two different pedigrees with a family history of seminomas, resulting in a nonsense Arg488* change and a missense Thr590Met change, which show reduced expression of the wild-type allele in seminomas. Zebrafish in vivo complementation studies indicate the Thr590Met to be a loss-of-function mutation. Moreover, we show that a pathogenic Gln307Glu change is significantly enriched in individuals with seminoma tumors (13% of our cohort). Together, our study introduces an animal model for seminoma and suggests LRRC50 to be a novel tumor suppressor implicated in human seminoma pathogenesis. PMID:23599692

  16. Predisposing factors for primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtomo, Kazuyoshi; Ueta, Takashi; Toyama, Taku; Nagahara, Miyuki

    2013-07-01

    Pathological origin of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO) is considered as inflammation of unknown causes; however, specific predisposing factors have not been fully addressed to date. In an institutional setting, background factors of 45 patients with PANDO were compared to those in 67 control subjects. The control subjects were persons with senile cataract, representing the non-pathological general population. The evaluated background factors were inflammatory medical histories (infectious conjunctivitis and allergic conjunctivitis and/or rhinitis), previously reported factors (POAG and topical timolol), and a novel factor proposed in the current study (exposure to swimming pool). Data were extracted from the patients through interview based on a standardized questionnaire as well as from their clinical records. After adjustment for age and gender, a history of infectious conjunctivitis was more common in the PANDO group than in the control group (55.6 % vs 32.8 %, P = 0.0027), and regular attendance to indoor swimming pools was also more common in the PANDO group (33.3 % vs 0 %, P history of conjunctivitis and swimming pool exposure were independently associated with the development of PANDO (P = 0.022 and P histories of POAG, topical timolol, and allergic conjunctivitis and/or rhinitis were similar between the two groups. Histories of infectious conjunctivitis and swimming pool exposure could be associated with the development of PANDO, although the pathogenesis of this condition has been considered as inflammation of unknown causes.

  17. Factors predisposing to severe acute pancreatitis: evaluation and prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bei Sun; Ha-Li Li; Yue Gao; Jun Xu; Hong-Chi liang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To analyze factors predisposing to the infections associated with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and to work out ways for its prevention.METHODS: Total 208 cases of SAP treated in this hospital from Jan. 1980 to Dec. 2001 were retrospectively analyzed.RESULTS: Statistical difference in the incidence of the aforementioned infections was found between the following pairs: between the groups of bloody or non-bloody ascites,paralytic ileus lasting shorter or longer than 5 days, Ranson scores lower or higher than 5, hematocrit lower or higher than 45 %, CT Balthazar scores lower or higher than 7 and between 1980.1-1992.6 or 1992.7-2001.12 admissions (χ2>3.84, P<0.05), while no statistical difference was established between the groups of biliogenic and nonbiliogenic pancreatitis, serum amylase <200 U/L and ≥200U/L, serum calcium <2 mmol/L and ≥ 2 mmol/L or groups of total parenteral nutrition shorter or longer than 7 days (χ2<3.84, P>0.05).CONCLUSION: Occurrence of infection in patients with SAP is closely related with bloody ascites, paralytic ileus ≥5 days, Ranson scores ≥5, hematocrit ≥45 % and CT Balthazar Scores ≥7, but not with pathogens, serum calcium and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Comprehensive prevention of pancreatic infection and practice of individualized therapy contribute to reducing the incidence of infection.

  18. Sleep deprivation predisposes Gujarati Indian adolescents to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Wasim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recent studies on various populations indicate that lack of sleep is one of the potential risk factors predisposing the youth to obesity. Since there is a significant rise in obesity among Indian youth and because research indicating the role of sleep in development of obesity among Indian population is scant, the current study was undertaken to assess the effect of sleep duration on adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A randomized cross-sectional study was done on 489 voluntarily participating Indian adolescents in the age group of 16-19 years. Participants were grouped into two categories 1. Adequate Sleep Duration at Night (more than seven hours, ASDN and 2 Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night (less than seven hours, IASDN as reported by the participants. The participants were later assessed for adiposity in terms of BMI, BF % , FM, FMI and waist circumference, meal frequency per day and physical activity status. Results: In both boys as well as girls, the BMI, BF%, FM and FMI were significantly lower in the ASDN group than the IASDN group. However, there was an insignificant difference in the meal frequency and physical activity status between the ASDN and IASDN group. Conclusion : Inadequate sleep duration increases adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents but further studies are required to find out the mechanisms through which sleep affects adiposity in this population.

  19. Somatic overgrowth predisposes to seizures in autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Valvo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Comorbidity of Autism Spectrum Disorders with seizures or abnormal EEG (Autism-Epilepsy Phenotype suggests shared pathomechanisms, and might be a starting point to identify distinct populations within the clinical complexity of the autistic spectrum. In this study, we tried to assess whether distinct subgroups, having distinctive clinical hallmarks, emerge from this comorbid condition. METHODS: Two-hundred and six individuals with idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorders were subgrouped into three experimental classes depending on the presence of seizures and EEG abnormalities. Neurobehavioral, electroclinical and auxological parameters were investigated to identify differences among groups and features which increase the risk of seizures. Our statistical analyses used ANOVA, post-hoc multiple comparisons, and the Chi-squared test to analyze continuous and categorical variables. A correspondence analysis was also used to decompose significant Chi-squared and reduce variables dimensions. RESULTS: The high percentage of children with seizures (28.2% of our whole cohort and EEG abnormalities (64.1% confirmed that the prevalence of epilepsy in Autism Spectrum Disorders exceeds that of the general population. Seizures were associated with severe intellectual disability, and not with autism severity. Interestingly, tall stature (without macrocephaly was significantly associated with EEG abnormalities or later onset seizures. However, isolated macrocephaly was equally distributed among groups or associated with early onset seizures when accompanied by tall stature. CONCLUSIONS: Tall stature seems to be a phenotypic "biomarker" of susceptibility to EEG abnormalities or late epilepsy in Autism Spectrum Disorders and, when concurring with macrocephaly, predisposes to early onset seizures. Growth pattern might act as an endophenotypic marker in Autism-Epilepsy comorbidity, delineating distinct pathophysiological subtypes and addressing personalized

  20. Factors predisposing women to chronic pelvic pain: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latthe, Pallavi; Mignini, Luciano; Gray, Richard; Hills, Robert; Khan, Khalid

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate factors predisposing women to chronic and recurrent pelvic pain. Design, data sources, and methods Systematic review of relevant studies without language restrictions identified through Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library. SCISEARCH, conference papers, and bibliographies of retrieved primary and review articles. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics, quality, and results. Exposure to risk factors was compared between women with and without pelvic pain. Results were pooled within subgroups defined by type of pain and risk factors. Results There were 122 studies (in 111 articles) of which 63 (in 64 286 women) evaluated 54 risk factors for dysmenorrhoea, 19 (in 18 601 women) evaluated 14 risk factors for dyspareunia, and 40 (in 12 040 women) evaluated 48 factors for non-cyclical pelvic pain. Age < 30 years, low body mass index, smoking, earlier menarche (< 12 years), longer cycles, heavy menstrual flow, nulliparity, premenstrual syndrome, sterilisation, clinically suspected pelvic inflammatory disease, sexual abuse, and psychological symptoms were associated with dysmenorrhoea. Younger age at first childbirth, exercise, and oral contraceptives were negatively associated with dysmenorrhoea. Menopause, pelvic inflammatory disease, sexual abuse, anxiety, and depression were associated with dyspareunia. Drug or alcohol abuse, miscarriage, heavy menstrual flow, pelvic inflammatory disease, previous caesarean section, pelvic pathology, abuse, and psychological comorbidity were associated with an increased risk of non-cyclical pelvic pain. Conclusion Several gynaecological and psychosocial factors are strongly associated with chronic pelvic pain. Randomised controlled trials of interventions targeting these potentially modifiable factors are needed to assess their clinical relevance in chronic pelvic pain. PMID:16484239

  1. [Analysis of predisposing factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You-yi; Sun, Bei; Jiang, Hong-chi

    2013-08-01

    To analyze the predisposing factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy. The clinical data of 323 patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy from January 2007 to March 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. There were 185 male and 138 female patients, aging from 27 to 82 years. All the patients were devided into pancreatic fistula group (n = 52) and non-pancreatic fistula group (n = 271). Twenty variables, such as age, sex, primary disease, alcohol abuse, cholangitis, bilirubin, albumin, hemoglobin, operating time, blood loss, transfusion, texture of the remnant pancreas, diameter of wirsung, drainages of pancreatic duct, specialized group which potentially affect the incidence, were analyzed by t test for continuous variables and χ(2) test for discrete variables. The variables with significance (P fistula rate was 16.1% (52/323), 7 patients died for pancreatic fistula PF. In univariate analysis, primary disease, preoperative high bilirubin level, intraoperative blood loss and transfusion, texture of the remnant pancreas, diameter of wirsung, drainages of pancreatic duct, specialized group had significant difference between two groups (χ(2) = 4.072 to 9.008, P analysis revealed that primary disease (OR = 2.091, P = 0.001), texture of the remnant pancreas (OR = 7.715, P = 0.040), diameter of wirsung (OR = 5.405, P = 0.006), pancreatic duct stent (OR = 4.313, P = 0.001) and specialized group (OR = 6.404, P = 0.006) were independent risk factors in pancreatic fistula. Primary disease, texture of the remnant pancreas, diameter of wirsung, pancreatic duct stent and specialized group are independent risk factors in pancreatic fistula. With the purpose of decreasing pancreatic fistula rate after PD, it is necessary to operate meticulously and precisely, place external pancreatic duct stent and establish pancreatic center or specialized group.

  2. Mineral deficiency predisposes occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Sheetal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to investigate the relationship between blood serum concentrations of macro and micro minerals and development of retention of placenta (ROP in crossbred cattle. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out at Instructional Livestock Farm, Bihar Veterinary College and local Khatals in and around Patna. A total of 20 crossbred cattle (n=10 with normal expulsion of the placenta as control and n=10 with ROP were selected in the present study. Blood samples were collected from these animals and serum was separated and stored in the deep freezer at −20°C till further analysis. The estimation of serum macro-minerals (Ca, P, Ca/P ratio was done by Span diagnostic Kits (Surat, India and trace minerals or micro-minerals (Zn, Cu, and Fe were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer AAS 220. Mean values were compared between both the groups at 0 h (at parturition and 12 h after parturition. Results: The mean values of serum calcium and zinc were found significantly lower in cattle having ROP than control at both 0 h and 12 h after parturition. The mean values of serum Ca and P ratio obtained at 0 hour were significantly lower in ROP groups as compared to control groups and non-significant at 12 h. The mean values of serum inorganic phosphorus, copper and iron was found non-significantly lower in ROP cases as compared to control. Conclusions: Macro and micro mineral deficiency such as calcium, iron, zinc and copper in blood serum may be predisposing factor for the occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred cattle.

  3. Urological complications after radical hysterectomy: Incidence rates and predisposing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likić-Lađević Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Radical hysterectomy is a surgical approach for stage Ib and IIa of cervical cancer. The incidence of intraoperative injuries of the bladder during radical hysterectomy ranges from 0.4-3.7%. The ureter can be crushed, caught in sutures, transsected, obstructed by angulation, or ischemic by the stippling or periureteric fascia. Vesicovaginal and ureterovaginal fistuls are reported to develop in 0.9-2% of patients after radical abdominal hysterectomy. Fistulas usually become manifested or visible at speculum examination within 14 days following the surgery. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence and predisposing factor of urological complications after radical hysterectomy. Methods. The study included a total of 536 patients with invasive stage Ib to IIb cancer of the cervix uteri who had underwent radical hysterectomy. The special elements considered were: the patient’s age; the International Federation of Ginecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stage after pathohistology; duration of operation; the result of preoperative laboratory tests for diabetes, anemia, hypoproteinemia, or disorders of liver or kidney function; ASA status; postoperative surgical infection. Results. The average age of the patients with complications was 48.68 years. All patients with intraoperative ureteric and bladder injuries had statisticaly significant higher stage of disease and operation lasted more than in others without injury. We noticed 1.3% ureteral injuries and 1.49% bladder injuries, more than 50% of the patients with a previously mentioned injuries were operated on more than 3 hours. We found 2.61% vesicovaginal and 2.43% ureterovaginal fistuls. A total of 50% of the patients with bladder injury and vesicovaginal fistuls and 70% of the patients with ureterovaginal fistuls had diabetes mellitus. Postoperative infection of surgical site is a very important factor for the development of fistule. Half of the patients with vesicovaginal

  4. Predisposing Factors of Ischemic Colitis: Data from 14 Years of Experience in a Single Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Il Seo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. While several case reports on ischemic colitis (IC suggest the presence of predisposing causative factors, a few studies have investigated the predisposing factors in IC. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of patients with IC, particularly focusing on the predisposing factors. Methods. We conducted a single-center, retrospective analysis of 159 patients with IC. Clinical characteristics, laboratory data, endoscopic findings, and medical records were reviewed. Data were compared between groups of patients defined according to the predisposing factors. The predisposing factors are defined as temporary states or episodic events occurring within a week before the development of IC such as colonoscopy, enema, use of laxatives, heavy drinking, pancreatitis, shock, and burn. Results. Compared to the group of patients without predisposing factors of IC, the group of patients with predisposing factors was characterized by a relatively higher prevalence of male sex (56.9% versus 33.3%, p=0.005, younger age (60.9 ± 15.4 versus 67.2 ± 13.4 years, p=0.010, lower incidence of hypertension (43.1% versus 60.2%, p=0.044, and fewer risk factors (1.24 ± 1.18 versus 1.82 ± 1.22, p=0.005. Conclusions. Among men with predisposing factors, IC may develop even at a relatively younger age and in the absence of multiple risk factors, suggesting that predisposing factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of IC.

  5. 32 CFR 644.389 - Army military-modified predisposal procedures where E.O. 11954 surveys have been made.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army military-modified predisposal procedures... (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Predisposal Action § 644.389 Army military—modified predisposal procedures where E.O. 11954 surveys have been made. (a)...

  6. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis in patients without predisposing medical conditions: a review of the literature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elinav, H; Zimhony, O; Cohen, M. J; Marcovich, A. L; Benenson, S

    2009-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect15: 693-697 Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare disease, affecting almost exclusively patients with known predisposing conditions such as diabetes mellitus, immunocompromised status, haemochromatosis or major trauma...

  7. Prevalence and Predisposing Factors of Pediculosis Capitis on Elementary School Students at Jatinangor

    OpenAIRE

    Arani Karimah; Risa Miliawati Nurul Hidayah; Anisah Dahlan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pediculosis capitis is a lice infestation on scalp with high prevalence on the age of elementary school students. It is one of neglected diseases. Predisposing factors such as hair type and length, self higienities, and sosioeconomic can influence prevalence of pediculosis capitis. The aim of the study was to reveal pediculosis capitis prevalence and its predisposing factors on elementary school students at Jatinangor. Methods: This study used cross-sectional descriptive metho...

  8. Crohn’s Disease Localization Displays Different Predisposing Genetic Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossa, Fabrizio; Valvano, Maria Rosa; Corritore, Giuseppe; Latiano, Tiziana; Martino, Giuseppina; D’Incà, Renata; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Pastore, Maria; D’Altilia, Mario; Scimeca, Daniela; Biscaglia, Giuseppe; Andriulli, Angelo; Latiano, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Background Crohn’s disease (CD) is a pathologic condition with different clinical expressions that may reflect an interplay between genetics and environmental factors. Recently, it has been highlighted that three genetic markers, NOD2, MHC and MST1, were associated to distinct CD sites, supporting the concept that genetic variations may contribute to localize CD. Genetic markers, previously shown to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), were tested in CD patients with the aim to better dissect the genetic relationship between ileal, ileocolonic and colonic CD and ascertain whether a different genetic background would support the three disease sites as independent entities. Methods A panel of 29 SNPs of 19 IBD loci were analyzed by TaqMan SNP allelic discrimination method both evaluating their distinct contribute and analyzing all markers jointly. Results Seven hundred and eight CD patients and 537 healthy controls were included in the study. Of the overall population of patients, 237 patients had an ileal involvement (L1), 171 a colonic localization (L2), and the 300 remaining an ileocolon location (L3). We confirmed the association for 23 of 29 variations (P < 0.05). Compared to healthy controls, 16 variations emerged as associated to an ileum disease, 7 with a colonic disease and 14 with an ileocolonic site (P < 0.05). Comparing ileum to colonic CD, 5 SNPs (17%) were differentially associated (P < 0.05). A genetic model score that aggregated the risks of 23 SNPs and their odds ratios (ORs), yielded an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.70 for the overall CD patients. By analyzing each CD location, the AUC remained at the same level for the ileal and ileocolonic sites (0.73 and 0.72, respectively), but dropped to a 0,66 value in patients with colon localization. Conclusions Our findings reaffirm the existence of at least three different subgroups of CD patients, with a genetic signature distinctive for the three main CD sites. PMID:28052082

  9. Predisposing factors in posterior circulation infarcts: a vascular morphological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coban, Goekcen; Cifci, Egemen; Yildirim, Erkan; Agildere, Ahmet Muhtesem [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Konya (Turkey)

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the effect of shape, diameter, elongation and deviation criteria of basilar artery (BA), convergence angle and diameter variations of vertebral arteries, and concurrent chronic diseases on posterior circulation infarcts. Between January 2010 and May 2013, 186 patients who underwent brain and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with suspected cerebrovascular accident and were diagnosed with posterior circulation infarct and 120 infarct negative control subjects were included in this case-control retrospective study. Vertebral artery (VA) and BA diameter, right (R) and left (L) VA angles at the level of bifurcation, and BA elongation-deviation, and shape of BA were assessed in a total of 306 subjects. Ischemic lesions in the posterior circulation were classified according to their anatomical location and vascular perfusion areas. No significant difference was noted between the control and patient groups with respect to BA diameter (p = 0.676). The most effective risk factors for posterior circulation infarcts were as follows: BA elongation of 2 or 3, BA transverse location of 2 or 3, increase in left VA angle, and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. Our results suggest that prominent elongation and deviation, C and J shape of BA, and increased L VA angle may be the predictors of at-risk patients in posterior circulation infarcts. Reporting marked morphological BA and VA variations detected at routine brain MRI will aid in selection of patients. Timely detection and treatment of at-risk patients may be life-saving. (orig.)

  10. Quantification of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Predisposal Stage of Municipal Solid Waste Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanbin; Jiang, Daqian; Zhao, Zhilan

    2017-01-03

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal represents one of the largest sources of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, the biogenic GHG emissions in the predisposal stage of MSW management (i.e., the time from waste being dropped off in community or household garbage bins to being transported to disposal sites) are excluded from the IPCC inventory methodology and rarely discussed in academic literature. Herein, we quantify the effluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) from garbage bins in five communities along the urban-rural gradient in Beijing in four seasons. We find that the annual average CO2, CH4, and N2O effluxes in the predisposal stage were (1.6 ± 0.9)10(3), 0.049 ± 0.016, and 0.94 ± 0.54 mg kg(-1)h(-1) (dry matter basis) and had significant seasonal differences (24- to 159-fold) that were strongly correlated with temperature. According to our estimate, the N2O emission in the MSW predisposal stage amounts to 20% of that in the disposal stage in Beijing, making the predisposal stage a nontrivial source of waste-induced N2O emissions. Furthermore, the CO2 and CH4 emissions in the MSW predisposal account for 5% (maximum 10% in summer) of the total carbon contents in a Beijing's household food waste stream, which has significance in the assessment of MSW-related renewable energy potential and urban carbon cycles.

  11. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis in patients without predisposing medical conditions: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinav, H; Zimhony, O; Cohen, M J; Marcovich, A L; Benenson, S

    2009-07-01

    Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare disease, affecting almost exclusively patients with known predisposing conditions such as diabetes mellitus, immunocompromised status, haemochromatosis or major trauma. Subsequent to a case of rhinocerebral mucormycosis in a 78-year-old woman without any known risk factor, we reviewed the published English-language literature and found an additional 72 cases. Reviewing all the published case series of mucormycosis involving any site, the proportion of apparently normal hosts among cases of rhinocerebral mucormycosis was found to be 9.06% (95% confidence interval 6.7-11.8). These findings suggest that rhinocerebral mucormycosis in patients without known predisposing factors is more prevalent than was previously believed.

  12. Identification of two lineages of host-associated eriophyoid mites predisposed to different levels of host diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao-Sen; Hoffmann, Ary A; Guo, Jing-Feng; Zuo, Yun; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Pang, Hong; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2016-12-01

    Herbivorous arthropods can diversify as a consequence of evolutionary changes in response to their plant hosts. Current patterns of host association of herbivores are likely to reflect a long evolutionary history of herbivore-plant co-evolution. Here, we used molecular phylogenetics to track the evolutionary history of host shifts and diversification of 66 eriophyoid mites (Acari, Eriophyoidea), and linked past patterns of evolutionary diversification to more recent patterns of divergence by tracking population genetic variation in 13 of the eriophyoid mite species feeding on different gymnosperm hosts. This allowed us to explore the relationship between a past history of diversification and the current potential of mites to undergo host range shifts. We found that population-level diversity across gymnosperm hosts as measured by 28S rRNA markers was greater in species from the mite clade that had radiated across evolutionary time to utilize a variety of hosts including angiosperms, compared to species from the clade that has remained restricted to ancestral gymnosperm hosts. Species from the radiated clade exhibited higher variation in host use. Lineages of mites that have in the past been able to radiate and adapt to diverse plants may therefore be predisposed to continue their expansion on new hosts, although additional clades need to be tested.

  13. Candidate colorectal cancer predisposing gene variants in Chinese early-onset and familial cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.X.; Fu, L.; Voer, R.M. de; Hahn, M.M.; Jin, P.; Lv, C.X.; Verwiel, E.T.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Kuiper, R.P.; Sheng, J.Q.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether whole-exome sequencing may serve as an efficient method to identify known or novel colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposing genes in early-onset or familial CRC cases. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing in 23 Chinese patients from 21 families with non-polyposis CRC

  14. The Influence of Predisposing, Enabling and Need Factors on Condom Use in Ivory Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamini Ngui, Andre

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify key determinants of condom use in Ivory Coast. Data stem from Ivory Coast Demographic Health Survey (DHS) conducted by ORC Macro in 2005 among a representative sample of 9,686 persons aged 15 - 49. Following the behavioral model, we use logistic regression to assess the effect of predisposing,…

  15. Macrosomic births in abuja: A case–control study of predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macrosomic births in abuja: A case–control study of predisposing factors and early ... Independent predictors of macrosomia were parental high social class (P ... between the macrosomic group (2.5%) and the control group (0.8%) was not ...

  16. Chromosome 21 Scan in Down Syndrome Reveals DSCAM as a Predisposing Locus in Hirschsprung Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A-S. Jannot (Anne-Sophie); A. Pelet (Anna); A. Henrion-Caude (Alexandra); A. Chaoui (Asma); M. Masse-Morel (Marine); S. Arnold (Stacey); D. Sanlaville (Damien); I. Ceccherini (Isabella); S. Borrego (Salud); R.M.W. Hofstra (Robert); A. Munnich (Arnold); N. Bondurand (Nadège); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); F. Clerget-Darpoux (Françoise); J. Amiel (Jeanne); S. Lyonnet (Stanislas)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractHirschsprung disease (HSCR) genetics is a paradigm for the study and understanding of multigenic disorders. Association between Down syndrome and HSCR suggests that genetic factors that predispose to HSCR map to chromosome 21. To identify these additional factors, we performed a dose-dep

  17. Genetic factors predisposing to homosexuality may increase mating success in heterosexuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zietsch, B.P.; Morley, K.I.; Shekar, S.N.; Verweij, K.J.H.; Keller, M.C.; MacGregor, S.; Wright, M.J.; Bailey, J.M.; Martin, N.G.

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that human sexual orientation is genetically influenced, so it is not known how homosexuality, which tends to lower reproductive success, is maintained in the population at a relatively high frequency. One hypothesis proposes that while genes predisposing to homosexual

  18. Identifying Some Factors That Might Predispose Drug Abuse among Learners in a South African Township School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, R.; Khatite, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study inquires into some of the factors that might predispose the use and abuse of drugs among secondary school learners in a township school. The objective of this research is to identify these factors and to offer a few suggestions on how the abuse may be prevented. A quantitative research strategy is used and a document analysis technique…

  19. Diet- and colonization-dependent intestinal dysfunction predisposes to necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangild, Per T.; Siggers, Richard H.; Schmidt, Mette;

    2006-01-01

    Background & Aims: Preterm birth and formula feeding are key risk factors associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in infants, but little is known about intestinal conditions that predispose to disease. Thus, structural, functional, and microbiologic indices were used to investigate the et...

  20. Levofloxacin-Induced Achilles Tendinitis in a Young Adult in the Absence of Predisposing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, Areum; Baek, Yong Soo; Park, Jin Seok; Lee, Kwangsoo; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Cheong, Moon-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones (FQs) represent a major class of antimicrobials that have a high potential as therapeutic agents. Although FQs are generally safe for the use as antimicrobials, they may induce tendinopathic complications such as tendinitis and tendon rupture. A number of factors have been suggested to further predispose a patient to such injuries. Hitherto, a few published cases on tendon disorders have implicated levofloxacin, a more recently introduced FQ. Here, we report a patient with levofloxacin-induced Achilles tendinitis, who exhibited no known predisposing factors. A 20-year-old man without any history of disease or medication presented with community-acquired pneumonia. Levofloxacin was administered and 3 days later, he complained of pain in the left Achilles tendon and revealed redness and swelling in the area. On suspecting Achilles tendinitis, levofloxacin treatment was discontinued, and the tendinitis subsequently improved. To our knowledge, this is the first case report on FQ-induced Achilles tendinitis in Korea. PMID:20376902

  1. Extremely high frequency of autoimmune-predisposing alleles in medieval specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WITAS H.W.; J(E)DRYCHOWSKA-DA(N)SKA K.; ZAWICKI P.

    2007-01-01

    The precise etiology and reasons for the increase in incidence of autoimmune disorders still remain unclear, and although both genetic and environmental factors have been proven to shape individual predisposition, it is not known which of the factors, if not both, is responsible for the boom observed during the last decades. In order to establish whether a higher frequency of autoimmune-predisposing alleles may explain this increase we took advantage of ancient DNA methodology to establish the genetic predisposition, conferred by cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) +49A/G and human leukocyte antigens (HLA)DQB157, in population inhabiting Poland in the Middle Ages. After successful typing of 42 individuals from a 12th~14th's century archeological burial site, we found that frequencies of the predisposing alleles in the medieval population were higher than they are at present, suggesting thus that the recently observed incidence increase results most probably from factors of other than genetic nature.

  2. Predisposing factors for early retirement in patients with schizophrenia in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Reinhard; Friedel, Heiko; Erfurth, Andreas; Angermayer, Matthias; Clouth, Johannes; Eichmann, Florian

    2008-08-01

    Although early retirement causes major changes in the life of schizophrenic patients and is among the major cost factors to be covered by payers, the causes leading to early retirement of schizophrenic patients have not been investigated in detail. Therefore, the objective of this retrospective non-interventional case-control study was to generate hypotheses on predisposing factors for early retirement in schizophrenia. Logistic regression was used to explore potential predisposing parameters with regard to their effect on the outcome early retirement. As the study results indicate, schizophrenia severity, assistance or care in the patient's everyday life, age and antipsychotic treatment with typical antipsychotics are linked to the occurrence of early retirement. Further research should be planned to confirm or refute the hypotheses determined in this retrospective analysis and to determine whether atypical antipsychotics could help to avoid early retirement and to improve the situation of schizophrenic patients.

  3. Predisposing and Precipitating Risk Factors for Suicide Ideations and Suicide Attempts In Young and Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S KHUSHABI

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:To investigate the predisposing and precipitating risk factors for suicide ideations and suicide attempts in young and adolescent females,we tried to introduce a holistic model of suicidal behavior in young and adolescent girls. Methods: This study is based on the survey studies and was cross-sectional. Considering high rates of suicide attempts in provinces of Iran,three provinces (Kermanshah, Hamedan,Ilam which had the highest rates of completed suicide were selected. Then among female high school students (aged 14 to 21 years, in two stages a representative sample was selected by a multi-clusteral and simple randomized sampling methods. The research data were gathered by administering (1 The inventory of predisposing and precipitating factors of suicide, demographic and family characteristics (based on the literature review (2 Symptom Check List (SCL 90-R (3Suicidality Subscale of the Depressive Symptom Index (DSI-SS (4 Center for Epidemiological Studies (CED- SSI (5 Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS and (6 Child Abuse Self Report Scale (CASRS.Then,subjects were characterized by dividing them in to two categories: at risk,and low risk. The scores of 2 categories were analyzed and discussed. Results: Relationships were found between suicide ideations and psychological problems and disorders (especially depression.Also,the students who reported suicide ideation and suicide attempt had a history of being abused. Based on the results,predisposing and precipitating risk factors and also some protective factors of suicide ideations and suicide attempts were found and a theoretical model was presented.Conclusion: Some predisposing,precipitating and protective factors can predict suicide ideation and suicide attempts significantly.

  4. Predisposing Factors In Patients With Silent Myocardial Infarction Farabi Hospital (2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodi M j

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction sequel of coronary artery diseases, can be sometimes asymptomatic, called silent myocardial infarction. Some risk factors predispose the patients to this condition. In this study, we intend to determine the predisposing factors in such patients."nMethods and Materials: We included those patients with electrocardiogram changes, consistent with myocardial infarction, who had not any symptoms of ischemia or a previous history of coronary artery disease, consulted for preoperative work up of eye surgery during the year 2000."nResults: We analyzed 100 patients with the diagnosis of silent myocardial infarction. (59 males and 41 females. Among our patients. 99 percent were above age 50 years of age. Their mean age at the time of study was 69.7 years. 78 percent of patients were illiterate. In 41 of them body mass index was above the normal limits (overweight and obese. Their past medical history revealed that 46 patients had hypertension, 38 patients had hyper-lipidemia. and 26 patients had diabetes mellitus. Also, a positive family history of coronary artery disease was seen in 52 percent of the patients. The rate of cigarette smokers and opium addicts, among our patients, was 33 and 13 percents. respectively. Analysis of electrocardiogram changes, showed that 43 patients had inferior myocardial infarction, 24 had antero-septal. and 17 of them suffered from anterior myocardial infarction."nConclusion: Almost all of our patients with silent myocardial infarction were in old age group. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, overweight, hyper-lipidemia, and a positive family history of coronary artery disease were the most important predisposing factors, found in such patients, thus taking into account these predisposing factors and control of them would dramatically reduce the prevalence of morbidity and mortality of silent myocardial infarction.

  5. Synergistic effect of multiple predisposing risk factors on the development of bezoars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Metin Kement; Nuraydin Ozlem; Elif Colak; Sadik Kesmer; Cem Gezen; Selahattin Vural

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To describe the clinical characteristics of patients with gastric or intestinal bezoars recently treated in our hospital.METHODS:In this study,a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients with gastrointestinal bezoars,who were treated at the Samsun Education and Research Hospital between January 2006 and March 2011,was conducted.Data on demographic characteristics,clinical presentation,history of risk factors,diagnostic procedures,localization of bezoars,treatment interventions,and postoperative morbidity and mortality rates were collected and evaluated.RESULTS:Forty-two patients [26 (61.9%) males and 16 (31.1%) females] with a mean ± SD (range) age of 55.8 ± 10.5 (37-74) years were enrolled in this study,.Thirty-six patients (85.7%) had one or more predisposing risk factors for gastrointestinal bezoars.The most common predisposing risk factor was a history of previous gastric surgery which was identified in 18 patients (42.8%).Twenty three patients (54.8%) had multiple predisposing risk factors.Phytobezoars were identified in all patients except one who had a trichobezoar in the stomach.Non-operative endoscopic fragmentation was performed either initially or after unsuccessful medical treatment in 14 patients with gastric bezoars and was completely successful in 10 patients (71.5%).Surgery was the most frequent treatment method in our study,which was required in 28 patients (66.7%).Intestinal obstruction secondary to bezoars was the most common complication (n =18,42.8%) in our study.CONCLUSION:The presence of multiple predisposing factors may create a synergistic effect in the development of bezoars.

  6. Predisposing Factors of Complicated Deep Neck Infection: An Analysis of 158 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joon-Kyoo; Kim, Hee-Dae; Lim, Sang-Chul

    2007-01-01

    Both the introduction of antibiotics and improvements in oral hygiene have made deep neck infections occur less frequently today than in the past. Nevertheless, the complications from these infections are often life-threatening. The purpose of this article was to review the clinical findings of deep neck infections and identify the predisposing factors of these complications. The present study reviewed 158 cases of deep neck infections between the years of 1995 to 2004, 23 of which had life-t...

  7. Is malaria a predisposing factor for third molar pericoronitis in the tropics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owotade, Foluso J; Adebiyi, Kehinde E; Aboderin, Oladipo A; Fatusi, Olawunmi A; Ogunbodede, Eyitope O; Akueme, Okechukwu

    2006-07-01

    Malaria is an important disease in the tropics, and its role as a predisposing factor or co morbidity has been investigated in many diseases including HIV infection and tuberculosis. There are very few studies, which have investigated its role in oral and dental diseases. Our study aimed to demonstrate the possible role of malaria in predisposing to pericoronitis, an infection affecting impacted third molars predominantly. Thirty-eight patients presenting with pericoronitis were tested for malaria parasites and results compared with that obtained from controls that were equally susceptible to pericoronitis but did not have the infection. 19.7% of the study group compared to 6.6% of control group had malaria parasite in their blood. This difference was statistically significant, P=0.018 (Fisher's exact). The odds ratio was 4.3 (95% CI=1.2-17.0). Malaria appears to be a predisposing factor to pericoronitis in this study. There is a need for further studies on the possible role of malaria in oral and dental diseases.

  8. Maternal air pollution exposure induces fetal neuroinflammation and predisposes offspring to obesity in aduthood in a sex-specific manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence suggests environmental chemical exposures during critical windows of development may contribute to the escalating prevalence of obesity. We tested the hypothesis that prenatal air pollution exposure would predispose the offspring to weight gain in adulthood. Pre...

  9. The predisposing factors of pericoronitis of mandibular third molars in a Jordanian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataineh, Anwar B; Al, Qudah Mansour A

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the most frequently encountered predisposing factors in relation to the etiology of pericoronitis in young adults and to compare these findings with similar studies. The patients included in this prospective study were those presenting for treatment of signs and symptoms of pericoronitis in the mandibular third molar area during an 8-year period from 1994 to 2001. A standard check sheet of subjective and objective observations was completed, and female patients were asked about menstruation or pregnancy. Each patient with a diagnosis of pericoronitis was interviewed and observations were recorded. Patients were asked about the symptoms relating to the pericoronitis. Patients were divided into five 5-year age groups ranging from 16 to 40 years. During the 8-year period, 2,151 patients presented diagnosed cases of pericoronitis; 932 (43.3%) patients were male and 1,219 (56.7%) were female. The peak age of occurrence of pericoronitis varied from 21 to 25 years (55.2% of the patients). The incidence of pericoronitis was highest in September (207 [9.6%]), followed by April (181 [8.4%]); for subacute pericoronitis, the highest was in February (128 [5.95%]) and April (112 [5.2%]), followed by October (97 [4.5%]). The most frequently seen predisposing factor was upper respiratory tract infection in 815 (37.9%) patients, followed by stress in 473 (22%) patients. It was concluded that the upper respiratory tract infection was the most frequently predisposing factor, which could precipitate pericoronitis.

  10. Predisposing cardiac conditions, interventional procedures, and antibiotic prophylaxis among patients with infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirillo, Fabio; Faggiano, Pompilio; Cecconi, Moreno; Moreo, Antonella; Squeri, Angelo; Gaddi, Oscar; Cecchi, Enrico

    2016-09-01

    Efficacy and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) for prevention of infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with predisposing cardiac condition (PCC) undergoing invasive procedures is still debated. We sought to assess the prevalence of PCC, the type of interventional procedures preceding the onset of symptoms, and the usefulness of AP in a large cohort of consecutive patients with definite IE. We examined 677 (median age 65.34 years; male 492 [73%]) consecutive patients with IE enrolled from July 2007 through 2010 into the Italian Registry of Infective Endocarditis. Predisposing cardiac condition was present in 341 patients (50%).Thirty-two patients (4.7%) underwent dental procedures. Of 20 patients with PCC undergoing dental procedure, 13 had assumed AP. Viridans group streptococci were isolated from blood cultures in 8 of 20 patients with PCC and prior dental procedure. Nondental procedures preceded IE in 139 patients (21%). They were significantly older and had more comordibities compared with patients undergoing dental procedures. Predisposing cardiac condition was identified in 91 patients. Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis was administered to 67 patients. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent causative agent. Cardiac surgery was necessary in 85 patients (20 with prior dental and 65 with nondental procedure). Surgical mortality (12% vs 0%, P = .03) and hospital mortality (23% vs 3%, P = .001) were significantly larger among patients with nondental procedures. In a large unselected cohort of patients with IE, the incidence of preceding dental procedures was minimal. The number of cases potentially preventable by means of AP was negligible. Nondental procedures were more frequent than dental procedures and were correlated with poorer prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae can predispose bighorn sheep to fatal Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Herndon, Caroline N; Subramaniam, Renuka; Lawrence, Paulraj K; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Cassirer, E Frances; Haldorson, Gary J; Foreyt, William J; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Knowles, Donald P; Besser, Thomas E; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-10-26

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae has been isolated from the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS). However experimental reproduction of fatal pneumonia in BHS with M. ovipneumoniae was not successful. Therefore the specific role, if any, of M. ovipneumoniae in BHS pneumonia is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether M. ovipneumoniae alone causes fatal pneumonia in BHS, or predisposes them to infection by Mannheimia haemolytica. We chose M. haemolytica for this study because of its isolation from pneumonic BHS, and its consistent ability to cause fatal pneumonia under experimental conditions. Since in vitro culture could attenuate virulence of M. ovipneumoniae, we used ceftiofur-treated lung homogenates from pneumonic BHS lambs or nasopharyngeal washings from M. ovipneumoniae-positive domestic sheep (DS) as the source of M. ovipneumoniae. Two adult BHS were inoculated intranasally with lung homogenates while two others received nasopharyngeal washings from DS. All BHS developed clinical signs of respiratory infection, but only one BHS died. The dead BHS had carried leukotoxin-positive M. haemolytica in the nasopharynx before the onset of this study. It is likely that M. ovipneumoniae colonization predisposed this BHS to fatal infection with the M. haemolytica already present in this animal. The remaining three BHS developed pneumonia and died 1-5 days following intranasal inoculation with M. haemolytica. On necropsy, lungs of all four BHS showed lesions characteristic of bronchopneumonia. M. haemolytica and M. ovipneumoniae were isolated from the lungs. These results suggest that M. ovipneumoniae alone may not cause fatal pneumonia in BHS, but can predispose them to fatal pneumonia due to M. haemolytica infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Technical Note: Assessing predictive capacity and conditional independence of landslide predisposing factors for shallow landslide susceptibility models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pereira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the landslide predisposing factors' combination using a bivariate statistical model that best predicts landslide susceptibility. The best model is one that has simultaneously good performance in terms of suitability and predictive power and has been developed using variables that are conditionally independent. The study area is the Santa Marta de Penaguião council (70 km2 located in the Northern Portugal.

    In order to identify the best combination of landslide predisposing factors, all possible combinations using up to seven predisposing factors were performed, which resulted in 120 predictions that were assessed with a landside inventory containing 767 shallow translational slides. The best landslide susceptibility model was selected according to the model degree of fitness and on the basis of a conditional independence criterion. The best model was developed with only three landslide predisposing factors (slope angle, inverse wetness index, and land use and was compared with a model developed using all seven landslide predisposing factors.

    Results showed that it is possible to produce a reliable landslide susceptibility model using fewer landslide predisposing factors, which contributes towards higher conditional independence.

  13. Anatomic variation and orgasm: Could variations in anatomy explain differences in orgasmic success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emhardt, E; Siegel, J; Hoffman, L

    2016-07-01

    Though the public consciousness is typically focused on factors such as psychology, penis size, and the presence of the "G-spot," there are other anatomical and neuro-anatomic differences that could play an equal, or more important, role in the frequency and intensity of orgasms. Discovering these variations could direct further medical or procedural management to improve sexual satisfaction. The aim of this study is to review the available literature of anatomical sexual variation and to explain why this variation may predispose some patients toward a particular sexual experience. In this review, we explored the available literature on sexual anatomy and neuro-anatomy. We used PubMed and OVID Medline for search terms, including orgasm, penile size variation, clitoral variation, Grafenberg spot, and benefits of orgasm. First we review the basic anatomy and innervation of the reproductive organs. Then we describe several anatomical variations that likely play a superior role to popular known variation (penis size, presence of g-spot, etc). For males, the delicate play between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems is vital to achieve orgasm. For females, the autonomic component is more complex. The clitoris is the primary anatomical feature for female orgasm, including its migration toward the anterior vaginal wall. In conclusions, orgasms are complex phenomena involving psychological, physiological, and anatomic variation. While these variations predispose people to certain sexual function, future research should explore how to surgically or medically alter these. Clin. Anat. 29:665-672, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: do predisposing risk factors make a difference in MRI appearance?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Mang, Christina; Mang, Thomas; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Pirker, Agnes [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Klein, Katharina [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vienna (Austria); Prchla, Christine [SMZ-Ost Danube Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-06-15

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-neuroradiological entity, characterized by typical neurological deficits, distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, and a usually benign clinical course. Although frequently seen in association with hypertensive conditions, many other predisposing factors, notably cytotoxic and immunosuppressant drugs have been associated with PRES. The aim of this study was to determine differences in the MR appearance of PRES according to various risk factors. Thirty consecutive patients with clinical and MRI findings consistent with PRES were included. We identified 24 patients with hypertension-related conditions, including 14 patients with preeclampsia-eclampsia, and six patients without hypertension, in whom PRES was associated with exposition to neurotoxic substances. Lesion distribution, extent of disease, and number of affected brain regions were compared between patients with PRES with and without hypertension, and patients with PRES with and without preeclampsia-eclampsia, respectively. No statistically significant differences in distribution of lesions and extent of disease were observed between patients with PRES with or without hypertension, and patients with or without preeclampsia-eclampsia, respectively. The number of affected brain regions was significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia-eclampsia (p = 0.046), and the basal ganglia region was more frequently involved in these patients (p = 0.066). Apart from a significant higher number of involved brain regions and a tendency for basal ganglia involvement in patients with PRES associated with preeclampsia-eclampsia, the MRI appearance of patients with PRES does not seem to be influenced by predisposing risk factors. (orig.)

  15. Study of psychiatric disorders among fertile and infertile women and some predisposing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Noorbala

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine prevalence and predisposing factors of psychiatric disorders among infertile in comparison to fertile women. Materials and Methods:  By a descriptive- analytic study in Vali-e-asr Reproductive Health Research Center, 300 women entered the research.   Symptom Checklist -90 -Revised (SCL-90-R test and structured researcher questionnaires were applied for all patients. Demographic characteristics and predisposing psychological and personality factors were recorded and psychological symptoms were scaled. For data analysis, SPSS-11-5 software system, chi-square and T-test were used.  P-value <0.05 was considered significant.Results: Results showed that 44% of infertile and 28.7% of fertile women had psychiatric disorders. Using SCL-90-R test, the highest mean scores among infertile women were found for paranoid ideation, depression and interpersonal sensitivity scales and the lowest scores were related to psychoticism and phobic anxiety scales. Interpersonal sensitivity, depression, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideas and psychoticism scales were significantly different between infertile and fertile women (p<0.05. Housewives were at a statistically significant higher risk for psychiatric disorders as compared to working women (p<0.001. Conclusion: The significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders among infertile women mandates a more serious attention from gynecologists, psychiatrists and psychologists regarding to diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.

  16. Primary Otomycosis in the Indian Subcontinent: Predisposing Factors, Microbiology, and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Chandra Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To define otomycosis and determine the predisposing factors and microbiology in primary otomycosis. Study Design. Prospective study of two years and review of the literature. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology in a coastal city in India. Patients. 150 immunocompetent individuals of whom 100 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of otomycosis are considered as the study group and 50 consecutive patients with no otomycosis are considered as the control group. Results and Observations. Instillation of coconut oil (42%, use of topical antibiotic eardrops (20%, and compulsive cleaning of external ear with hard objects (32% appeared to be the main predisposing factors in otomycosis. Aspergilli were the most common isolates (80% followed by Penicillium (8%, Candida albicans (4%, Rhizopus (1%, and Chrysosporium (1%, the last being reported for the first time in otomycosis. Among aspergilli, A. niger complex (38% was the most common followed by A. fumigatus complex (27% and A. flavus complex (15%. Bacterial isolates associated with fungi in otomycosis were S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and Proteus spp. In 42% of healthy external ears fungi were isolated. Conclusion. Aspergillus spp. were the most common fungi isolated, followed by Penicillium. Otomycotic ears are often associated with bacterial isolates when compared to normal ears. Fungi are also present in a significant number of healthy external auditory canals and their profiles match those in cases of otomycosis. The use of terms “primary” and “secondary” otomycosis is important to standardize reporting.

  17. A new predisposing factor for trigemino-cardiac reflex during subdural empyema drainage: a case report

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    Arasho Belachew

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The trigemino-cardiac reflex is defined as the sudden onset of parasympathetic dysrhythmia, sympathetic hypotension, apnea, or gastric hypermotility during stimulation of any of the sensory branches of the trigeminal nerve. Clinically, trigemino-cardiac reflex has been reported to occur during neurosurgical skull-base surgery. Apart from the few clinical reports, the physiological function of this brainstem reflex has not yet been fully explored. Little is known regarding any predisposing factors related to the intraoperative occurrence of this reflex. Case presentation We report the case of a 70-year-old Caucasian man who demonstrated a clearly expressed form of trigemino-cardiac reflex with severe bradycardia requiring intervention that was recorded during surgical removal of a large subdural empyema. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an intracranial infection leading to perioperative trigemino-cardiac reflex. We therefore add a new predisposing factor for trigemino-cardiac reflex to the existing literature. Possible mechanisms are discussed in the light of the relevant literature.

  18. Primary Candida guilliermondii Infection of the Knee in a Patient without Predisposing Factors

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    Gun Woo Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated primary candidal infection of joint is extremely rare, with only a few reported cases. It occurs as a result of accidental implantations of fungus during traumatic procedures, such as surgery, and is usually reported in patients with predisposing factors such as immunosuppression, malignancy, and drug abuse. If left untreated, irreversible deformity and pain with severe osteoarticular destruction occur. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment are important. This paper presents a case of 72-year-old man with primary C. guilliermondii infection of knee joint without predisposing factors and previous traumatic procedures, who was misdiagnosed with advanced degenerative osteoarthritis. Our case is the second case of primary C. guilliermondii arthritis of knee to be reported in the English-language literature and the first to be successfully treated with total knee arthroplasty following IV amphotericin B and oral fluconazole. Primary candidal infection of joint is generally asymptomatic or involves only mild pain and swelling in the affected knee. Thus, although the majority of knee joint infections are of a pyogenic or tuberculous origin, if a patient complains of mild pain and swelling in the knee and has mild signs of infection, the possibility of fungal infection should be considered.

  19. Trematode infections in pregnant ewes can predispose to mastitis during the subsequent lactation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogianni, V S; Papadopoulos, E; Spanos, S A; Mitsoura, A; Ptochos, S; Gougoulis, D A; Barbagianni, M S; Kyriazakis, I; Fthenakis, G C

    2014-02-01

    Objective was to investigate if trematode infections predispose ewes to mastitis and/or metritis. We used 80 trematode-infected ewes: primigravidae in group P-A and multigravidae in M-A remained untreated, primigravidae in P-B and multigravidae in M-B were drenched with netobimin and multigravidae in M-C were given rafoxanide. We collected faecal samples for parasitological examination, blood samples for β-hydroxybutyrate concentration measurement and uterine content, teat duct material and milk samples for bacteriological examination. We found significant differences in blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations between M-A, M-B and M-C during pregnancy (P ⩽ 0.002). We did not observe significant differences between groups regarding development of metritis (P>0.83). We found that for M-A, M-B and M-C ewes, respectively, median time to first case of mastitis was 5.75, 21 and 6.75 days after lambing (P = 0.003) and incidence risk of mastitis was 0.308, 0.069 and 0.222 (P = 0.047). We postulate that trematode infections predispose ewes to mastitis; perhaps, increased β-hydroxybutyrate blood concentrations adversely affect mammary cellular defences. This is the first report associating parasitic infections with mastitis in sheep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and Predisposing Factors of Pediculosis Capitis on Elementary School Students at Jatinangor

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    Arani Karimah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediculosis capitis is a lice infestation on scalp with high prevalence on the age of elementary school students. It is one of neglected diseases. Predisposing factors such as hair type and length, self higienities, and sosioeconomic can influence prevalence of pediculosis capitis. The aim of the study was to reveal pediculosis capitis prevalence and its predisposing factors on elementary school students at Jatinangor. Methods: This study used cross-sectional descriptive method which conducted in September 2014 at Jatinangor. The study subjects were elementary school students graded 1 to 6 taken from two elementary schools by multistage random sampling technique. Data was presented in a table. Results: The prevalence of pediculosis capitis from 123 study subjects was 55.3%. The prevalence found on girls (81.3%, students with long hair (76.9%, students with curly hair (52.9%, students of third grade (66.7%, students with washing hair three times or more in a week (59.3%, students with mothers only graduated from elementary school (60%, students parents with income less than one million rupiah (63.3%, students staying with four or more persons in the same house (56.3%, and students with having previous this disease (60.2%. Conclusions: Pediculosis capitis prevalence on elementary school students is quite high. The prevalence based on subject characteristics and sosioeconomic is suitable with previous studies.

  1. Factors predisposing to wound infection in cardiac surgery. A prospective study of 517 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A P; Livesey, S A; Treasure, T; Grüneberg, R N; Sturridge, M F

    1987-01-01

    Postoperative wound infection can greatly prolong hospital stay after cardiac surgery, so the identification of predisposing factors may help in prevention or early institution of treatment. Transfer of organisms from the leg to the sternum during coronary artery surgery has been proposed as a major additional cause of sepsis. The definition of wound infection is not standardised and therefore makes comparison between centres difficult. In a prospective study of 517 patients, a wound scoring method (ASEPSIS) has been used to register all abnormal wounds to maximise the chances of identifying factors predisposing to infection. Abnormal healing was noted in 99 (19%) sternal wounds and 29 (8%) leg wounds. Obesity was the principal risk factor (P less than 0.005). Diabetes, reoperation, length of preoperative hospital stay, age, sex, or previous cardiac surgery had little effect on wound healing. The range of bacteria isolated from chest wounds after coronary artery surgery was similar to that after valvular surgery, but the rate of isolation was significantly greater. With careful attention to technique, leg wound infection rarely presented a clinical problem and did not appear to be a source of bacteria infecting the chest wound.

  2. Reduced life expectancy seen in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors

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    Evans DGR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available D Gareth R Evans,1 Sarah Louise Ingham21Genetic Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Central Manchester Foundation Trust, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, UK; 2Centre for Health Informatics, Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: There are several hereditary diseases that are a predisposition to early-onset tumors. These include syndromic conditions like neurofibromatosis 1 and 2, von Hippel–Lindau syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia, and familial adenomatous polyposis; and conditions which are usually not possible to diagnose clinically in a single individual, such as Lynch syndrome and BRCA1/2. Understanding of the mortality in hereditary cancer predisposing diseases is important for developing effective disease treatment programs. A number of studies have been undertaken to investigate the genetic predictors, prevalence and incidence, and treatment outcomes of these diseases; however, the majority examine only the most common of these diseases (eg, neurofibromatosis or BRCA, or look into postoperative survival. The mortality of individuals who are diagnosed with one of these hereditary diseases remains an area for investigation. This review is the first to attempt identification of studies investigating life expectancy in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors.Keywords: mortality, survival, life expectancy, early-onset, tumors

  3. Neonatal Diesel Exhaust Particulate Exposure Does Not Predispose Mice to Adult Cardiac Hypertrophy or Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonggang; Weldy, Chad S; Chin, Michael T

    2016-11-24

    Background: We have previously reported that in utero and early life exposure to diesel exhaust particulates predisposes mice to adult heart failure, and that in utero exposure alone is sufficient to confer this predisposition. This follow up study addresses whether neonatal exposure alone can also confer this predisposition. Methods: Newborn male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to diesel exhaust (DE) particulates immediately after birth until weaning at 21 days of age, whereupon they were transferred to filtered air (FA) conditions. At the age of 12 weeks, transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was performed followed by weekly echocardiography for three weeks. After the last echocardiogram, mice were euthanized for organ harvest, gravimetry and histology. Results: Neonatal exposure to DE particulates did not increase susceptibility to cardiac hypertrophy or heart failure after TAC when compared to FA exposed controls (ventricular weight/body weight ratio 7.505 vs. 7.517 mg/g, p = Not Significant (NS)). The left ventricular ejection fraction after TAC was similar between groups at one week, two weeks, and three weeks after procedure. Histological analysis showed no difference in the degree of cardiac hypertrophy or fibrosis. Conclusions: Neonatal exposure to DE particulates does not predispose mice to TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in adulthood, in contrast to previously published results showing susceptibility due to in utero exposure.

  4. Study of Personality Disorders Among Fertile and Infertile Women and Some Predisposing Factors

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    Ahmad Ali Noorbala

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine prevalence and predisposing factors of personality disorders among infertile in comparison to fertile women. Materials and Methods:  By a descriptive- analytic study in Vali-e-asr Reproductive Health Research Center, 300 women entered the research.  Eysenck personality (EPQ and structured researcher questionnaires were applied for all patients. Demographic characteristics and predisposing personality factors were recorded and personality symptoms were scaled. For data analysis, SPSS-11-5 software system, chi-square and T-test were used.  P-value <0.05 was considered significant.Results: Based on EPQ, personality instability was significantly more frequent in infertile women in comparison to fertile women (P<0.001. Housewives are at higher risk of developing personality instability as compared to working women. This finding was also statistically significant (P<0.001. Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of personality disorders among infertile women, it seems that more serious attention is required from gynecologists, psychiatrists and psychologists for better treatment of these disorders. The use of psychotherapy, especially supportive methods, should be considered as part of the general therapeutic framework of infertility.

  5. [Factors predisposing to acute urine retention in patients with prostatic adenoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidov, M I

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the trial was to study factors predisposing to acute urine retention (AUR) in patients with prostatic adenoma (PA). The trial was made in Perm Center for Urgent Urological Care. This allowed registration and analysis of all cases of AUR in the city with population of 1 million people. For 11 years there were 1504 episodes of AUR in 1130 PA patients. One AUR episode was registered in 888 (78.6%) patients, two to four--in 242. Questioning of the patients, the disease histories analysis provided information on the factors predisposing to AUR. The following factors provoked AUR: alcohol intake (25.9%), water loading (11.5%), medication (atropin, belladonna, efedrin, aminasin, tizercin, phenobarbital, imisin, promedol, lazix, etc.; 11.4%), acute inflammation of the adenomatous nodes (7.4%), cold (6.7%), spicy food (5.5%), flebitis of the hemorrhoidal veins (5.5%), fatigue (5.1%), emotional stress (3.9%), forced urine retention (3.1%), bed rest (2.8%), sexual excesses (2%), surgical interventions (2%), etc. AUR occurred more often in the morning (at 4 to 8 o'clock a.m.), in the holidays and after them (92.5% of these patients took alcohol), on days with acute fluctuations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, air humidity. A complex of meteoprophylaxis of AUR is proposed.

  6. Does clamping during liver surgery predispose to thrombosis of the hepatic veins? Analysis of 210 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikolaos Arkadopoulos; Vaia Stafyla; Athanasios Marinis; Vassilios Koutoulidis; Kassiani Theodoraki; Theodosios Theodosopoulos; Ioannis Vassiliou; Nikolaos Dafnios; Georgios Fragulidis; Vassilios Smyrniotis

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To test whether clamping during liver surgery predisposes to hepatic vein thrombosis.METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 210 patients who underwent liver resection with simultaneous inflow and outflow occlusion.Intraoperatively, flow in the hepatic veins was assessed by Doppler ultrasonography during the reperfusion phase. Postoperatively, patency of the hepatic veins was assessed by contrast-enhanced CT angiography,when necessary after 3-6 mo follow up.RESULTS: Twelve pat ients (5.7%) developed intraoperative liver remnant swelling. However,intraoperative ultrasonography did not reveal evidence of hepatic vein thrombosis. In three of these patients a kinking of the common trunk of the middle and left hepatic veins hindering outflow was recognized and was managed successfully by suturing the liver remnant to the diaphragm. Twenty three patients (10.9%) who developed signs of mild outflow obstruction postoperatively, had no evidence of thrombi in the hepatic veins or flow disturbances on ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced CT angiography, while hospitalized. Long term assessment of the patency of the hepatic veins over a 3-6 mo follow-up period did not reveal thrombi formation or clinical manifestations of outflow obstruction.CONCLUSION: Extrahepatic dissection and clamping of the hepatic veins does not predispose to clinically important thrombosis.

  7. Polymorphism in the serotonin receptor 2a (HTR2A gene as possible predisposal factor for aggressive traits.

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    Zsofia Banlaki

    Full Text Available Aggressive manifestations and their consequences are a major issue of mankind, highlighting the need for understanding the contributory factors. Still, aggression-related genetic analyses have so far mainly been conducted on small population subsets such as individuals suffering from a certain psychiatric disorder or a narrow-range age cohort, but no data on the general population is yet available. In the present study, our aim was to identify polymorphisms in genes affecting neurobiological processes that might explain some of the inter-individual variation between aggression levels in the non-clinical Caucasian adult population. 55 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP were simultaneously determined in 887 subjects who also filled out the self-report Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ. Single marker association analyses between genotypes and aggression scores indicated a significant role of rs7322347 located in the HTR2A gene encoding serotonin receptor 2a following Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (p = 0.0007 both for males and females. Taking the four BPAQ subscales individually, scores for Hostility, Anger and Physical Aggression showed significant association with rs7322347 T allele in themselves, while no association was found with Verbal Aggression. Of the subscales, relationship with rs7322347 was strongest in the case of Hostility, where statistical significance virtually equaled that observed with the whole BPAQ. In conclusion, this is the first study to our knowledge analyzing SNPs in a wide variety of genes in terms of aggression in a large sample-size non-clinical adult population, also describing a novel candidate polymorphism as predisposal to aggressive traits.

  8. Hormonal regulation of energy-protein homeostasis in hemodialysis patients: an anorexigenic profile that may predispose to adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneja, Manish; Murry, Daryl J; Stokes, John B; Lim, Victoria S

    2011-01-01

    To assess whether endocrine dysfunction may cause derangement in energy homeostasis in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD), we profiled hormones, during a 3-day period, from the adipose tissue and the gut and the nervous system around the circadian clock in 10 otherwise healthy HD patients and 8 normal controls. The protocol included a 40-h fast. We also measured energy-protein intake and output and assessed appetite and body composition. We found many hormonal abnormalities in HD patients: 1) leptin levels were elevated, due, in part, to increased production, and nocturnal surge in response to daytime feeding, exaggerated. 2) Peptide YY (PYY), an anorexigenic gut hormone, was markedly elevated and displayed an augmented response to feeding. 3) Acylated ghrelin, an orexigenic gut hormone, was lower and did not exhibit the premeal spike as observed in the controls. 4) neuropeptide Y (NPY), a potent orexigenic peptide, was markedly elevated and did not display any circadian variation. 5) Norepinephrine, marginally elevated, did not exhibit the normal nocturnal dip. By contrast, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and glucagon-like peptide-1 were not different between the two groups. Despite these hormonal abnormalities, HD patients maintained a good appetite and had normal body lean and fat mass, and there was no evidence of increased energy expenditure or protein catabolism. We explain the hormonal abnormalities as well as the absence of anorexia on suppression of parasympathetic activity (vagus nerve dysfunction), a phenomenon well documented in dialysis patients. Unexpectedly, we noted that the combination of high leptin, PYY, and NPY with suppressed ghrelin may increase arterial blood pressure, impair vasodilatation, and induce cardiac hypertrophy, and thus could predispose to adverse cardiovascular events that are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the HD population. This is the first report attempting to link hormonal abnormalities associated with

  9. Radiographic analysis of factors predisposing toward tendon tears in the knee extensor mechanism

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    Rodrigo Pires e Albuquerque

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:To review radiographs of patients who suffered tendon tears of the knee extensor apparatus and observe alterations that might be factors predisposing toward this type of injury.Methods:We retrospectively analyzed 60 cases of injury to the knee extensor mechanism that were treated surgically at the Miguel Couto Municipal Hospital between March 2004 and March 2011. Four patients were excluded due to poor quality of the examination.Results:Of the 56 patients evaluated, 23 were considered to be normal and 33 presented radiographic alterations. Among these, eight (24.3% presented suprapatellar osteophytes alone; seven (21.2%, infrapatellar calcification; seven (21.2%, suprapatellar calcification; six (18.2%, supra- and infrapatellar osteophytes; and five (15.1%, infrapatellar osteophytes alone.Conclusion:Radiographic alterations were frequently observed in patients with extensor mechanism tears.

  10. Metastatic Colon Cancer in an 18-Year-Old without Predisposing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchandani, Divya; Kulpa, Jolanta; Khawar, Nayaab; Kochin, Israel; Narula, Pramod; Sundaram, Revathy

    2016-01-01

    While colorectal carcinoma is a common gastrointestinal cancer in adults, it is rare in pediatrics with an incidence of 1 : 1,000,000 and represents a fraction of neoplasms encountered in children. Malignant neoplasms represent a major cause of mortality in the pediatric age group. While presenting with weight loss, iron deficiency, rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, and change in bowel habits, or symptoms similar to acute appendicitis, the working diagnosis may be considered to be anorexia. This case illustrates the importance of considering colon cancer among other disease entities as a cause of unintentional weight loss in adolescents. While this is a rare occurrence in the pediatric population, significant unintentional weight loss with altered bowel habits should prompt a search for underlying malignancy-even in the absence of a positive family history or predisposing cancer syndromes.

  11. A BAP1 mutation in a Danish family predisposes to uveal melanoma and other cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Wadt, Karin; Bojesen, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    with predominantly uveal melanoma but also a range of other tumor types including lung, neuroendocrine, stomach, and breast cancer; as well as pigmented skin lesions. Whole-exome sequencing identified a BAP1 splice mutation located at c.581-2A>G, which leads to a premature truncation of BAP1 in an individual......Truncating germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP1) have been reported in families predisposed to developing a wide range of different cancer types including uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma. There has also been an association between amelanotic tumor...... development and germline BAP1 mutation suggesting a possible phenotypic characteristic of BAP1 mutation carriers. Though there have been many types of cancer associated with germline BAP1 mutation, the full spectrum of disease association is yet to be ascertained. Here we describe a Danish family...

  12. Metastatic Colon Cancer in an 18-Year-Old without Predisposing Factors

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    Divya Mirchandani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While colorectal carcinoma is a common gastrointestinal cancer in adults, it is rare in pediatrics with an incidence of 1 : 1,000,000 and represents a fraction of neoplasms encountered in children. Malignant neoplasms represent a major cause of mortality in the pediatric age group. While presenting with weight loss, iron deficiency, rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, and change in bowel habits, or symptoms similar to acute appendicitis, the working diagnosis may be considered to be anorexia. This case illustrates the importance of considering colon cancer among other disease entities as a cause of unintentional weight loss in adolescents. While this is a rare occurrence in the pediatric population, significant unintentional weight loss with altered bowel habits should prompt a search for underlying malignancy—even in the absence of a positive family history or predisposing cancer syndromes.

  13. Predisposing factors on the surface of the skin in persons with pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloor, M; Kümpel, D; Friederich, H C

    1975-12-31

    This is a report on biochemical and physiological examinations carried out on 20 test persons who in the last 2 years had contacted and completely recovered from pityriasis versicolor and on 25 control persons of corresponding age and sex. The tests on the skin surface of the patients with pityriasis versicolor show, when compared with the corresponding control group, the following significant results: 1. Significantly more amino acids could be extracted from the skin of the pityriasis versicolor patients than from the skin of the control persons. 2. A significantly shorter alkali neutralisation time was to be found in the pityriasis versicolor patients than in the control persons. 3. The degree of water spreading on the skin was found to be significantly reduced in the pityriasis versicolor patients when compared with the control persons. It is probable that these results point to important predisposing factors for pityriasis versicolor.

  14. Predisposing effects of cigarette advertising on children's intentions to smoke when older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, P P; Eadie, D R; Hastings, G B; Haywood, A J

    1991-04-01

    Six hundred and forty Glasgow children, initially aged between 11 and 14 years, were interviewed twice, with approximately one year between interviews. Children whose intentions to smoke when older became more positive between the two interviews tended to be more aware of cigarette advertising at the time of the first interview (compared with children whose intentions to smoke were negative at both interviews). Children whose intentions to smoke became more negative between the interviews tended to be less appreciative of cigarette advertisements at the time of the first interview (compared with children whose intentions to smoke were positive at both interviews). Since both groups differed from their respective contrast groups before their declared intentions changed, these findings support the view that cigarette advertising has predisposing as well as reinforcing effects on children's attitudes and behaviour with respect to smoking.

  15. Highlights Regarding Host Predisposing Factors to Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Chronic Stress and Reduced Antioxidant Capacity.

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    Luciene Akimoto-Gunther

    Full Text Available We studied host factors that could predispose women to develop recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC, including glycemia, insulin resistance, chronic stress, antioxidant capacity, overall immune status, local inflammation and vaginal microbiota. The presence of yeasts in vaginal culture was screened in 277 women, with or without signs and symptoms of VVC and RVVC. The presence of an inflammatory process and microbiota were analyzed through vaginal bacterioscopy and cervical-vaginal cytology, respectively. Fasting-blood samples were collected by standard venipuncture for biochemical analyses. Flow cytometry was employed to obtain the T helper/T cytotoxic lymphocyte ratio, and insulin resistance was assessed by the HOMA index (HI. Yeasts were isolated from 71 (26% women: 23 (32.4% with a positive culture but without symptoms (COL, 22 (31% in an acute episode (VVC, and 26 (36.6% with RVVC. C. albicans was the main yeast isolated in all clinical profiles. The control group (negative culture comprised 206 women. Diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance were more associated with the positive-culture groups (COL, VVC and RVVC than with negative ones. The RVVC group showed lower mean levels of cortisol than the control group and lower antioxidant capacity than all other groups. The T Helper/T cytotoxic lymphocyte ratio was similar in all groups. The RVVC group showed a similar level of vaginal inflammation to the control group, and lower than in the COL and VVC groups. Only the CVV group showed a reduction in vaginal lactobacillus microbiota. Our data suggest that both chronic stress (decreased early-morning cortisol levels and reduced antioxidant capacity can be host predisposing factors to RVVC.

  16. Studies on the Predisposing Factors of Protein Energy Malnutrition Among Pregnant Women in a Nigerian Community

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    Okwu GN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries and affects mostly infants, young children, pregnant and lactating mothers. This study was carried on some of the factors that predispose pregnant women to PEM and hence identify groups at greater risk. A total of 1387 pregnant women (910 in the urban area and 477 in the rural areas were recruited for the study. Anthropometric indices of weight, height and Body Mass Index (BMI of the pregnant women were measured and semi structured questionnaires were used to elicit information on possible predisposing factors such as age, level of education, parity, child spacing etc. Results obtained showed that the mean weight and height of the rural pregnant women, were significantly (p<0.0001 lower than those of the urban pregnant women. The mean BMI of the rural subjects, was also significantly (p< 0.0027 lower than that of the urban subjects. Analysis of the effect of age showed that the younger age category (24 years and below had significantly (p<0.0001 lower mean BMI and higher prevalence of PEM while the effect of level of education showed significantly (p<0006 lower mean BMI and higher PEM prevalence among the less educated (no formal and primary education. Those with parity of two, one and primipara showed significantly (p<0.0175 lower mean BMI while child spacing did not have any significant effect on both mean BMI and prevalence of PEM. The implications of these findings are discussed and recommendations made on how to tackle the problem.

  17. SIMPLIFYING CELIAC DISEASE PREDISPOSING HLA-DQ ALLELES DETERMINATION BY THE REAL TIME PCR METHOD

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    Nicole SELLESKI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Genetic susceptibility is associated with two sets of alleles, DQA1*05 - DQB1*02 and DQA1*03 - DQB1*03:02, which code for class II MHC DQ2 and DQ8 molecules, respectively. Approximately 90%-95% of celiac patients are HLA-DQ2 positive, and half of the remaining patients are HLA-DQ8 positive. In fact, during a celiac disease diagnostic workup, the absence of these specific DQA and DQB alleles has a near perfect negative predictive value. Objective Improve the detection of celiac disease predisposing alleles by combining the simplicity and sensitivity of real-time PCR (qPCR and melting curve analysis with the specificity of sequence-specific primers (SSP. Methods Amplifications of sequence-specific primers for DQA1*05 (DQ2, DQB1*02 (DQ2, and DQA1*03 (DQ8 were performed by the real time PCR method to determine the presence of each allele in independent reactions. Primers for Human Growth Hormone were used as an internal control. A parallel PCR-SSP protocol was used as a reference method to validate our results. Results Both techniques yielded equal results. From a total of 329 samples the presence of HLA predisposing alleles was determined in 187 (56.8%. One hundred fourteen samples (61% were positive for a single allele, 68 (36.3% for two alleles, and only 5 (2.7% for three alleles. Conclusion Results obtained by qPCR technique were highly reliable with no discordant results when compared with those obtained using PCR-SSP.

  18. Predisposing factors to lateral ankle injury in male comrades marathon runners

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    J. Hiemstra

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: More than two million people experience ankle ligament traumaeach year in the United States. Half of these are severe ligament sprains, however verylittle is known about the factors that predispose individuals to these injuries. The purpose of this study, (which was conducted as an undergraduate research project,was to find a correlation between the characteristics of height, weight and limbdominance and lateral ankle ligament injuries. Method: A  retrospective study was conducted on 114 ultra distance runners whoparticipated in the 2006 Comrades Marathon. During race registration, the runners’ height and weight were measuredafter answering a questionnaire regarding their training. Results: 114 runners responded to the questionnaire. From this cohort, 38 (33.3% had sustained previous lateral ankle injuries. Of these 38 injuries, 47.4% of the injuries occurred on the runner’s dominant limb and 36.8% occurred on thenon-dominant side. 15.8% of the runners sustained previous ankle injuries to both ankles. There was a low negative correlation coefficient of 0.24 with regards to weight as a risk factor. This indicated that the power of the correlationwas 5.93%. The study demonstrates that there is no correlation between an increase in weight and an increase in theincidence of ankle injury. The correlation coefficient indicated a low correlation between an increase in height and the incidence of ankle injury. However, the power of the correlation at 18.37% makes inaccurate any attempt to predict the height at which a runner would be at most risk for lateral ankle injury. Conclusion: Height and weight are not risk factors predisposing subjects to lateral ankle injury. In addition, the studyillustrated that there was no effect of limb dominance on the incidence of lateral ankle injury.

  19. Highlights Regarding Host Predisposing Factors to Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Chronic Stress and Reduced Antioxidant Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto-Gunther, Luciene; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patrícia de Souza; Takahachi, Gisele; Irie, Mary Mayumi T.; Miyamoto, Sônia; Consolaro, Márcia Edilaine Lopes; Svidzinsk, Terezinha I. Estivalet

    2016-01-01

    We studied host factors that could predispose women to develop recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC), including glycemia, insulin resistance, chronic stress, antioxidant capacity, overall immune status, local inflammation and vaginal microbiota. The presence of yeasts in vaginal culture was screened in 277 women, with or without signs and symptoms of VVC and RVVC. The presence of an inflammatory process and microbiota were analyzed through vaginal bacterioscopy and cervical-vaginal cytology, respectively. Fasting-blood samples were collected by standard venipuncture for biochemical analyses. Flow cytometry was employed to obtain the T helper/T cytotoxic lymphocyte ratio, and insulin resistance was assessed by the HOMA index (HI). Yeasts were isolated from 71 (26%) women: 23 (32.4%) with a positive culture but without symptoms (COL), 22 (31%) in an acute episode (VVC), and 26 (36.6%) with RVVC. C. albicans was the main yeast isolated in all clinical profiles. The control group (negative culture) comprised 206 women. Diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance were more associated with the positive-culture groups (COL, VVC and RVVC) than with negative ones. The RVVC group showed lower mean levels of cortisol than the control group and lower antioxidant capacity than all other groups. The T Helper/T cytotoxic lymphocyte ratio was similar in all groups. The RVVC group showed a similar level of vaginal inflammation to the control group, and lower than in the COL and VVC groups. Only the CVV group showed a reduction in vaginal lactobacillus microbiota. Our data suggest that both chronic stress (decreased early-morning cortisol levels) and reduced antioxidant capacity can be host predisposing factors to RVVC. PMID:27415762

  20. Filial responses as predisposed and learned preferences: Early attachment in chicks and babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio, Elisa; Loveland, Jasmine L; Mayer, Uwe; Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Versace, Elisabetta; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-09-08

    To what extent are filial responses the outcome of spontaneous or acquired preferences? The case of domestic chicks illustrates the connection between predisposed and learned knowledge in early social responses. In the absence of specific experience, chicks prefer to approach objects that are more similar to natural social partners (e.g. they prefer face-like configurations, biological motion, self-propelled objects and those that move at variable speed). Spontaneous preferences are complemented by filial imprinting, a powerful learning mechanism that enables chicks to quickly learn the features of specific social partners. While neurobiological studies have clarified that the substrates of spontaneous and learned preferences are at least partially distinct in chicks, evidence shows that spontaneous preferences might orient and facilitate imprinting on animate stimuli, such as the mother hen, and that hormones facilitate and strengthen preferences for predisposed stimuli. Preferences towards animate stimuli are observed in human neonates as well. The remarkable consistency between the perceptual cues attended to by newborn babies and naïve chicks suggests that the attentional biases observed in babies are unlikely to result from very rapid post-natal learning, and confirms that research on precocial species can inform and guide human infant research with regards to both typical and atypical development. This has potentially important biomedical implications, opening new possibilities for the early detection of subjects at risk for autism spectrum disorders. We show how the parallel investigation of predispositions in naïve chicks and human infants, both benefiting from contact with social partners since the beginning of life, has greatly improved our understanding of early responses to social stimuli at the behavioural and neurobiological level.

  1. Taeniasis in non-descript dogs in Ngorongoro, Tanzania: Prevalence and predisposing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel S. Swai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of taeniasis was determined during the period January to April 2013 in a cross-sectional study of non-descript domestic dogs from the livestock–wildlife ecosystem of Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Taeniid eggs were determined by screening faecal samples using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Predisposing factors for dog infection were assessed in relation to demographic, husbandry and management data. Of the 205 faecal samples screened, 150 (73.2% were positive for taeniid eggs. The prevalence of dogs harbouring taeniid eggs was 80%, 30.2% and 75.3% in the less than 1 year, 1–3 years and greater than 3 years of age groups, respectively. Age group and sex prevalence in dogs did not differ significantly (P > 0.05, although the females showed a marginally higher prevalence (73.8% in comparison to the males (72.7%. Taeniid eggs were significantly more likely to be found in the faeces of dogs located in Waso (80.6% and Endulen (75% than in Malambo (63.2%, P < 0.05. The study revealed that dogs owned and raised by agro-pastoralists were at a lower risk of acquiring Taenia spp. infection (P = 0.001 than those that were raised by pastoralists. The majority of dog owners were not aware of the predisposing factors and the mode of transmission of taeniids. Dogs were frequently fed on viscera, trimmings and the heads of slaughtered animals, and they were not treated for parasitic infections. The findings of this study indicate that taeniasis is prevalent among non-descript dogs in Ngorongoro, underscoring the need for further research and active surveillance to better understand the transmission cycle of Taenia spp. in a wider geographical area in Tanzania.

  2. SPONTANEOUS SPINAL EPIDURAL ABSCESS FOLLOWING TRAUMA TO BACK IN A HEALTHY ADULT WITHOUT PREDISPOSING FACTORS - A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmuga Sundaram

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidural abscess due to its varied presentation , poses a great challenge, more so in a healthy adult, without any predisposing factors. Early diagnosis and treatment is paramount, as late diagnosis and delayed treatment result in increased mortality and morbidity. In this case report, we are presenting a case of spinal extradural abscess in a healthy young adult without predisposing factors, provisionally diagnosed as extradural hematoma and early surgical intervention confirmed the diagnosis of spinal epidural abscess and prevented any devastating consequence

  3. CHRM2 gene predisposes to alcohol dependence, drug dependence and affective disorders: results from an extended case-control structured association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xingguang; Kranzler, Henry R; Zuo, Lingjun; Wang, Shuang; Blumberg, Hilary P; Gelernter, Joel

    2005-08-15

    Cholinergic muscarinic 2 receptor (CHRM2) is implicated in memory and cognition, functions impaired in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Wang et al. [Wang, J.C., Hinrichs, A.L., Stock, H., Budde, J., Allen, R., Bertelsen, S., Kwon, J.M., Wu, W., Dick, D.M., Rice, J. et al. (2004) Evidence of common and specific genetic effects: association of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) gene with alcohol dependence and major depressive syndrome. Hum. Mol. Genet., 13, 1903-1911] reported that variation in CHRM2 gene predisposed to alcohol dependence (AD) and major depressive syndrome. We examined the relationships between variation in CHRM2 and AD, drug dependence (DD) and affective disorders, using a novel extended case-control structured association (SA) method. Six markers at CHRM2 and 38 ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) were genotyped in a sample of 871 subjects, including 333 healthy controls [287 European-Americans (EAs) and 46 African-Americans (AAs)] and 538 AD and/or DD subjects (415 with AD and 346 with DD and 382 EAs and 156 AAs). The same CHRM2 markers were genotyped in a sample of 137 EA subjects with affective disorders. All of the six markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in controls, but SNP3 (rs1824024) was in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium in the AD and DD groups. Using conventional case-control comparisons, some markers were nominally significantly or suggestively associated with phenotypes before or after controlling for population stratification and admixture effects, but these associations were not significant after multiple test correction. However, regression analysis identified specific alleles, genotypes, haplotypes and diplotypes that were significantly associated with risk for each disorder. We conclude that variation in CHRM2 predisposes to AD, DD and affective disorders. One haplotype block within the 5'-UTR of CHRM2 may be more important for the development of these disorders than other regions. Interaction between two

  4. The predisposing factors between dental caries and deviations from normal weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Chopra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors. So it′s important to understand any relationship between dental state and body weight if either is to be managed appropriately. Aims: The study was done to find out the correlation between body mass index (BMI, diet, and dental caries among 12-15-year-old schoolgoing children in Panchkula District. Materials and Methods: A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school children (n = 810 in Panchkula district, Haryana was considered. Child demographic details and diet history for 5 days was recorded. Data regarding dental caries status was collected using World Health Organization (1997 format. BMI was calculated and categorized according to the World Health Organization classification system for BMI. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square test and binomial regression developed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0. Results: The mean Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT score was found to be 1.72 with decayed, missing, and filled teeth to be 1.22, 0.04, and 0.44, respectively. When the sample was assessed based on type of diet, it was found that vegetarians had higher mean DMFT (1.72 as compared to children having mixed diet. Overweight children had highest DMFT (3.21 which was followed by underweight (2.31 and obese children (2.23. Binomial regression revealed that females were 1.293 times at risk of developing caries as compared to males. Fair and poor Simplified-Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S showed 3.920 and 4.297 times risk of developing caries as compared to good oral hygiene, respectively. Upper high socioeconomic status (SES is at most risk of developing caries. Underweight, overweight, and obese are at 2.7, 2.5, and 3 times risk of developing caries as compared to children with normal BMI, respectively. Conclusion: Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two

  5. The Predisposing Factors between Dental Caries and Deviations from Normal Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Amandeep; Rao, Nanak Chand; Gupta, Nidhi; Vashisth, Shelja; Lakhanpal, Manav

    2015-04-01

    Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors. So it's important to understand any relationship between dental state and body weight if either is to be managed appropriately. The study was done to find out the correlation between body mass index (BMI), diet, and dental caries among 12-15-year-old schoolgoing children in Panchkula District. A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school children (n = 810) in Panchkula district, Haryana was considered. Child demographic details and diet history for 5 days was recorded. Data regarding dental caries status was collected using World Health Organization (1997) format. BMI was calculated and categorized according to the World Health Organization classification system for BMI. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square test and binomial regression developed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 20.0. The mean Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT) score was found to be 1.72 with decayed, missing, and filled teeth to be 1.22, 0.04, and 0.44, respectively. When the sample was assessed based on type of diet, it was found that vegetarians had higher mean DMFT (1.72) as compared to children having mixed diet. Overweight children had highest DMFT (3.21) which was followed by underweight (2.31) and obese children (2.23). Binomial regression revealed that females were 1.293 times at risk of developing caries as compared to males. Fair and poor Simplified-Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) showed 3.920 and 4.297 times risk of developing caries as compared to good oral hygiene, respectively. Upper high socioeconomic status (SES) is at most risk of developing caries. Underweight, overweight, and obese are at 2.7, 2.5, and 3 times risk of developing caries as compared to children with normal BMI, respectively. Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors such as diet

  6. Common variants at the MHC locus and at chromosome 16q24.1 predispose to Barrett's esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Zhan; Gay, Laura J.; Strange, Amy; Palles, Claire; Band, Gavin; Whiteman, David C.; Lescai, Francesco; Langford, Cordelia; Nanji, Manoj; Edkins, Sarah; van der Winkel, Anouk; Levine, David; Sasieni, Peter; Bellenguez, Celine; Howarth, Kimberley; Freeman, Colin; Trudgill, Nigel; Tucker, Art T.; Pirinen, Matti; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; van der Laan, Luc J. W.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Drenth, Joost P. H.; Peters, Wilbert H.; Reynolds, John V.; Kelleher, Dermot P.; McManus, Ross; Grabsch, Heike; Prenen, Hans; Bisschops, Raf; Krishnadath, Kausila; Siersema, Peter D.; van Baal, Jantine W. P. M.; Middleton, Mark; Petty, Russell; Gillies, Richard; Burch, Nicola; Bhandari, Pradeep; Paterson, Stuart; Edwards, Cathryn; Penman, Ian; Vaidya, Kishor; Ang, Yeng; Murray, Iain; Patel, Praful; Ye, Weimin; Mullins, Paul; Wu, Anna H.; Bird, Nigel C.; Dallal, Helen; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Murray, Liam J.; Koss, Konrad; Bernstein, Leslie; Romero, Yvonne; Hardie, Laura J.; Zhang, Rui; Winter, Helen; Corley, Douglas A.; Panter, Simon; Risch, Harvey A.; Reid, Brian J.; Sargeant, Ian; Gammon, Marilie D.; Smart, Howard; Dhar, Anjan; McMurtry, Hugh; Ali, Haythem; Liu, Geoffrey; Casson, Alan G.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rutter, Matt; Tawil, Ashref; Morris, Danielle; Nwokolo, Chuka; Isaacs, Peter; Rodgers, Colin; Ragunath, Krish; MacDonald, Chris; Haigh, Chris; Monk, David; Davies, Gareth; Wajed, Saj; Johnston, David; Gibbons, Michael; Cullen, Sue; Church, Nicholas; Langley, Ruth; Griffin, Michael; Alderson, Derek; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah E.; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Potter, Simon C.; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Anderson, Mark; Brooks, Claire; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A.; Casas, Juan P.; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Markus, Hugh S.; Mathew, Christopher G.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Plomin, Robert; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Trembath, Richard C.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Wood, Nicholas; Trynka, Gosia; Wijmenga, Cisca; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Atherfold, Paul; Nicholson, Anna M.; Gellatly, Nichola L.; Glancy, Deborah; Cooper, Sheldon C.; Cunningham, David; Lind, Tore; Hapeshi, Julie; Ferry, David; Rathbone, Barrie; Brown, Julia; Love, Sharon; Attwood, Stephen; MacGregor, Stuart; Watson, Peter; Sanders, Scott; Ek, Weronica; Harrison, Rebecca F.; Moayyedi, Paul; de Caestecker, John; Barr, Hugh; Stupka, Elia; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Peltonen, Leena; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Tomlinson, Ian; Donnelly, Peter; Jankowski, Janusz A. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus is an increasingly common disease that is strongly associated with reflux of stomach acid and usually a hiatus hernia, and it strongly predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a tumor with a very poor prognosis. We report the first genome-wide association study on Barrett'

  7. Common variants at the MHC locus and at chromosome 16q24.1 predispose to Barrett's esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Zhan; Gay, Laura J.; Strange, Amy; Palles, Claire; Band, Gavin; Whiteman, David C.; Lescai, Francesco; Langford, Cordelia; Nanji, Manoj; Edkins, Sarah; van der Winkel, Anouk; Levine, David; Sasieni, Peter; Bellenguez, Celine; Howarth, Kimberley; Freeman, Colin; Trudgill, Nigel; Tucker, Art T.; Pirinen, Matti; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; van der Laan, Luc J. W.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Drenth, Joost P. H.; Peters, Wilbert H.; Reynolds, John V.; Kelleher, Dermot P.; McManus, Ross; Grabsch, Heike; Prenen, Hans; Bisschops, Raf; Krishnadath, Kausila; Siersema, Peter D.; van Baal, Jantine W. P. M.; Middleton, Mark; Petty, Russell; Gillies, Richard; Burch, Nicola; Bhandari, Pradeep; Paterson, Stuart; Edwards, Cathryn; Penman, Ian; Vaidya, Kishor; Ang, Yeng; Murray, Iain; Patel, Praful; Ye, Weimin; Mullins, Paul; Wu, Anna H.; Bird, Nigel C.; Dallal, Helen; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Murray, Liam J.; Koss, Konrad; Bernstein, Leslie; Romero, Yvonne; Hardie, Laura J.; Zhang, Rui; Winter, Helen; Corley, Douglas A.; Panter, Simon; Risch, Harvey A.; Reid, Brian J.; Sargeant, Ian; Gammon, Marilie D.; Smart, Howard; Dhar, Anjan; McMurtry, Hugh; Ali, Haythem; Liu, Geoffrey; Casson, Alan G.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rutter, Matt; Tawil, Ashref; Morris, Danielle; Nwokolo, Chuka; Isaacs, Peter; Rodgers, Colin; Ragunath, Krish; MacDonald, Chris; Haigh, Chris; Monk, David; Davies, Gareth; Wajed, Saj; Johnston, David; Gibbons, Michael; Cullen, Sue; Church, Nicholas; Langley, Ruth; Griffin, Michael; Alderson, Derek; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah E.; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Potter, Simon C.; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Anderson, Mark; Brooks, Claire; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A.; Casas, Juan P.; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Markus, Hugh S.; Mathew, Christopher G.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Plomin, Robert; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Trembath, Richard C.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Wood, Nicholas; Trynka, Gosia; Wijmenga, Cisca; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Atherfold, Paul; Nicholson, Anna M.; Gellatly, Nichola L.; Glancy, Deborah; Cooper, Sheldon C.; Cunningham, David; Lind, Tore; Hapeshi, Julie; Ferry, David; Rathbone, Barrie; Brown, Julia; Love, Sharon; Attwood, Stephen; MacGregor, Stuart; Watson, Peter; Sanders, Scott; Ek, Weronica; Harrison, Rebecca F.; Moayyedi, Paul; de Caestecker, John; Barr, Hugh; Stupka, Elia; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Peltonen, Leena; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Tomlinson, Ian; Donnelly, Peter; Jankowski, Janusz A. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus is an increasingly common disease that is strongly associated with reflux of stomach acid and usually a hiatus hernia, and it strongly predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a tumor with a very poor prognosis. We report the first genome-wide association study on Barrett'

  8. Common variants at the MHC locus and at chromosome 16q24.1 predispose to Barrett's esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Zhan; Gay, Laura J.; Strange, Amy; Palles, Claire; Band, Gavin; Whiteman, David C.; Lescai, Francesco; Langford, Cordelia; Nanji, Manoj; Edkins, Sarah; van der Winkel, Anouk; Levine, David; Sasieni, Peter; Bellenguez, Celine; Howarth, Kimberley; Freeman, Colin; Trudgill, Nigel; Tucker, Art T.; Pirinen, Matti; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; van der Laan, Luc J. W.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Drenth, Joost P. H.; Peters, Wilbert H.; Reynolds, John V.; Kelleher, Dermot P.; McManus, Ross; Grabsch, Heike; Prenen, Hans; Bisschops, Raf; Krishnadath, Kausila; Siersema, Peter D.; van Baal, Jantine W. P. M.; Middleton, Mark; Petty, Russell; Gillies, Richard; Burch, Nicola; Bhandari, Pradeep; Paterson, Stuart; Edwards, Cathryn; Penman, Ian; Vaidya, Kishor; Ang, Yeng; Murray, Iain; Patel, Praful; Ye, Weimin; Mullins, Paul; Wu, Anna H.; Bird, Nigel C.; Dallal, Helen; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Murray, Liam J.; Koss, Konrad; Bernstein, Leslie; Romero, Yvonne; Hardie, Laura J.; Zhang, Rui; Winter, Helen; Corley, Douglas A.; Panter, Simon; Risch, Harvey A.; Reid, Brian J.; Sargeant, Ian; Gammon, Marilie D.; Smart, Howard; Dhar, Anjan; McMurtry, Hugh; Ali, Haythem; Liu, Geoffrey; Casson, Alan G.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rutter, Matt; Tawil, Ashref; Morris, Danielle; Nwokolo, Chuka; Isaacs, Peter; Rodgers, Colin; Ragunath, Krish; MacDonald, Chris; Haigh, Chris; Monk, David; Davies, Gareth; Wajed, Saj; Johnston, David; Gibbons, Michael; Cullen, Sue; Church, Nicholas; Langley, Ruth; Griffin, Michael; Alderson, Derek; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah E.; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Potter, Simon C.; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Anderson, Mark; Brooks, Claire; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A.; Casas, Juan P.; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Markus, Hugh S.; Mathew, Christopher G.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Plomin, Robert; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Trembath, Richard C.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Wood, Nicholas; Trynka, Gosia; Wijmenga, Cisca; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Atherfold, Paul; Nicholson, Anna M.; Gellatly, Nichola L.; Glancy, Deborah; Cooper, Sheldon C.; Cunningham, David; Lind, Tore; Hapeshi, Julie; Ferry, David; Rathbone, Barrie; Brown, Julia; Love, Sharon; Attwood, Stephen; MacGregor, Stuart; Watson, Peter; Sanders, Scott; Ek, Weronica; Harrison, Rebecca F.; Moayyedi, Paul; de Caestecker, John; Barr, Hugh; Stupka, Elia; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Peltonen, Leena; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Tomlinson, Ian; Donnelly, Peter; Jankowski, Janusz A. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus is an increasingly common disease that is strongly associated with reflux of stomach acid and usually a hiatus hernia, and it strongly predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a tumor with a very poor prognosis. We report the first genome-wide association study on

  9. TGFBR2 mutations alter smooth muscle cell phenotype and predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamoto, Sakiko; Kwartler, Callie S.; Lafont, Andrea L.; Liang, Yao Yun; Fadulu, Van Tran; Duraisamy, Senthil; Willing, Marcia; Estrera, Anthony; Safi, Hazim; Hannibal, Mark C.; Carey, John; Wiktorowicz, John; Tan, Filemon K.; Feng, Xin-Hua; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is critical for the differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) into quiescent cells expressing a full repertoire of contractile proteins. Heterozygous mutations in TGF-β receptor type II (TGFBR2) disrupt TGF-β signaling and lead to genetic conditions that predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAADs). The aim of this study is to determine the molecular mechanism by which TGFBR2 mutations cause TAADs. Methods and results Using aortic SMCs explanted from patients with TGFBR2 mutations, we show decreased expression of SMC contractile proteins compared with controls. Exposure to TGF-β1 fails to increase expression of contractile genes in mutant SMCs, whereas control cells further increase expression of these genes. Analysis of fixed and frozen aortas from patients with TGFBR2 mutations confirms decreased in vivo expression of contractile proteins relative to unaffected aortas. Fibroblasts explanted from patients with TGFBR2 mutations fail to transform into mature myofibroblasts with TGF-β1 stimulation as assessed by expression of contractile proteins. Conclusions These data support the conclusion that heterozygous TGFBR2 mutations lead to decreased expression of SMC contractile protein in both SMCs and myofibroblasts. The failure of TGFBR2-mutant SMCs to fully express SMC contractile proteins predicts defective contractile function in these cells and aligns with a hypothesis that defective SMC contractile function contributes to the pathogenesis of TAAD. PMID:20628007

  10. Predisposing factors for renal scarring in children with urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Beiraghdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the predisposing factors for renal scarring in children with urinary tract infection. In this prospective cohort study, 176 children with documented urinary tract infection were categorized into four groups: ≤1 year old, 1-2 years old, 2-7 years and 7-14 years old. Ultrasonography and Technetium-99 m-DMSA scan were used to detect the possible abnormalities. Infants under 12 months old presented as the most common group for renal scarring (27 cases, 52.9%, and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR was diagnosed in 29 cases (56.8%. Fifteen (41.67% children between the ages of one and two years had renal scar, and VUR was detected in half of the patients. In the third group, 36.3%, and in fourth group, 41.6% of the patients had renal scar. Also, 38.6% in group three and 50% in the final group had VUR. A co-incidental finding that was observed in this study was the high incidence of pseudohypoaldesteronism (PHA in our patients: in 39.2% of the children in group one, 22.2% in group two and 4% in group three. In group four however, none of the patients had PHA. Risk of scar formation with urinary tract infection (UTI was higher in the younger age group and in those with recurrent UTIs.

  11. Prevalence of low back pain among nurses: predisposing factors and role of work place violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Maryam; Ghasemi, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Ergonomic factors predispose nurses to low back pain (LBP). Few studies have clarified the role of workplace violence in LBP occurrence. The present study was designed to investigate acute and chronic LBP in Iranian nurses and its association with exposure to physical violence as well as its personal and ergonomic risk factors. In this analytic cross sectional study, the rate of acute and chronic LBP and contributing factors were investigated among 1246 nurses using a validated questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by chi square, student t-test, and logistic regression, to determine the association between independent variables and LBP. In total, 1246 nurses, consisting of 576 (46.23%) males and 670 (53.77%) females, were included. The mean age and the mean years of employment were 31.23 ± 5.33 and 16.18 ± 7.05, respectively. Both acute low back pain (ALBP) and chronic low back pain (CLBP) were associated with physical violence experience. Moreover, acute and chronic LBP were predicted by positive past history of LBP as well as two ergonomic factors, frequent bending and frequent carrying of patients. Besides a history of low back pain and ergonomic factors, physical violence may be considered a contributing factor for acute low back injuries. Special attention to all personal, occupational, and psychological risk factors is recommended.

  12. Predictive genetic testing in children: constitutional mismatch repair deficiency cancer predisposing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwer, Zandrè; Algar, Ursula; Vorster, Alvera; Fieggen, Karen; Davidson, Alan; Goldberg, Paul; Wainwright, Helen; Ramesar, Rajkumar

    2014-04-01

    Biallelic germline mutations in mismatch repair genes predispose to constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome (CMMR-D). The condition is characterized by a broad spectrum of early-onset tumors, including hematological, brain and bowel and is frequently associated with features of Neurofibromatosis type 1. Few definitive screening recommendations have been suggested and no published reports have described predictive testing. We report on the first case of predictive testing for CMMR-D following the identification of two non-consanguineous parents, with the same heterozygous mutation in MLH1: c.1528C > T. The genetic counseling offered to the family, for their two at-risk daughters, is discussed with a focus on the ethical considerations of testing children for known cancer-causing variants. The challenges that are encountered when reporting on heterozygosity in a child younger than 18 years (disclosure of carrier status and risk for Lynch syndrome), when discovered during testing for homozygosity, are addressed. In addition, the identification of CMMR-D in a three year old, and the recommended clinical surveillance that was proposed for this individual is discussed. Despite predictive testing and presymptomatic screening, the sudden death of the child with CMMR-D syndrome occurred 6 months after her last surveillance MRI. This report further highlights the difficulty of developing guidelines, as a result of the rarity of cases and diversity of presentation.

  13. Sex differences in soleus strength may predispose middle age women to falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimera, Nicole J; Manal, Kurt T

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated middle age healthy adults to elucidate if plantar flexion (PF) strength differences exist because of the triceps surae or the soleus when comparing between sexes. A random population sample was stratified by sex and included 25 healthy (12 women and 13 men) subjects who volunteered for participation. Dorsiflexion range of motion was measured using a biplane goniometer. Self-reported function was assessed using the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure. Ankle PF strength was assessed using the Biodex System 3. To determine triceps surae vs. soleus strength, testing positions included (1) full ankle dorsiflexion with the knee in full extension and (2) full ankle dorsiflexion with 90° of knee flexion. Results indicated that women were significantly weaker than men in absolute PF strength for both triceps surae and soleus testing positions. Furthermore, even with normalizing PF strength to body mass PF strength deficits persisted. Additionally, when the contribution of the soleus was accounted for in the full knee extended position (triceps surae), normalized strength differences no longer existed between sexes. Therefore, these results indicate that what appeared as triceps surae complex strength deficits in middle age women compared with men was actually soleus weakness. This may suggest that middle age women are predisposed to increased falls at an early age than previously reported. Additionally, this may indicate that the soleus muscle should be a focus of strength training for women during middle age.

  14. Dietary zinc deficiency predisposes mice to the development of preneoplastic lesions in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romualdo, Guilherme Ribeiro; Goto, Renata Leme; Henrique Fernandes, Ana Angélica; Cogliati, Bruno; Barbisan, Luis Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Although there is a concomitance of zinc deficiency and high incidence/mortality for hepatocellular carcinoma in certain human populations, there are no experimental studies investigating the modifying effects of zinc on hepatocarcinogenesis. Thus, we evaluated whether dietary zinc deficiency or supplementation alter the development of hepatocellular preneoplastic lesions (PNL). Therefore, neonatal male Balb/C mice were submitted to a diethylnitrosamine/2-acetylaminefluorene-induced hepatocarcinogenesis model. Moreover, mice were fed adequate (35 mg/kg diet), deficient (3 mg/kg) or supplemented (180 mg/kg) zinc diets. Mice were euthanized at 12 (early time-point) or 24 weeks (late time-point) after introducing the diets. At the early time-point, zinc deficiency decreased Nrf2 protein expression and GSH levels while increased p65 and p53 protein expression and the number of PNL/area. At the late time-point, zinc deficiency also decreased GSH levels while increased liver genotoxicity, cell proliferation into PNL and PNL size. In contrast, zinc supplementation increased antioxidant defense at both time-points but not altered PNL development. Our findings are the first to suggest that zinc deficiency predisposes mice to the PNL development in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. The decrease of Nrf2/GSH pathway and increase of liver genotoxicity, as well as the increase of p65/cell proliferation, are potential mechanisms to this zinc deficiency-mediated effect.

  15. Status of Taenia solium cysticercosis and predisposing factors in developing countries involved in pig farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Kungu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a disease of pigs and humans populations considered endemic in many developing countries of Latin America, Africa, and South East Asia having serious impact on public health and agriculture. We conducted an in-depth comparative analysis of literature on the disease situation and predisposing factors in selected countries known to be at the interface of poverty-emerging livestock systems-zoonoses and with a growing small holder pig industry. Transmission, methods of diagnosis and employed control strategies of T. solium infection in pig and human populations in these countries are also discussed. Limited knowledge on porcine cysticercosis (PC by various stakeholders expected to be key players in its control has undermined efforts for eliminating this potentially eradicable condition. Poor pig production practices, poor hygiene, and sanitation habits have also been important in the maintenance of the T. solium life-cycle. The major gaps identified in this review include scanty current information on PC prevalence in pigs with hardly any reports on the condition in humans in most developing countries. Factors affecting pattern of the infection and how they interact at the different levels of the pig value chain have not been exhaustively studied. Information on socioeconomic and public health impact is inadequate and not current.

  16. Constitutional abnormalities of chromosome 21 predispose to iAMP21-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christine J; Schwab, Claire

    2016-03-01

    In addition to Down syndrome, individuals with other constitutional abnormalities of chromosome 21 have an increased risk of developing childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Specifically, carriers of the Robertsonian translocation between chromosomes 15 and 21, rob(15;21) (q10; q10)c, have ∼2,700 increased risk of developing ALL with iAMP21 (intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21). In these patients, chromosome 15 as well as chromosome 21 is involved in the formation of iAMP21, referred to here as der(21)(15;21). Individuals with constitutional ring chromosomes involving chromosome 21, r(21)c, are also predisposed to iAMP21-ALL, involving the same series of mutational processes as seen in sporadic- and der(21)(15;21)-iAMP21 ALL. Evidence is accumulating that the dicentric nature of the Robertsonian and ring chromosome is the initiating factor in the formation of the complex iAMP21 structure. Unravelling these intriguing predispositions to iAMP21-ALL may provide insight into how other complex rearrangements arise in cancer.

  17. Incisional Hernia in Women: Predisposing Factors and Management Where Mesh is Not Readily Available

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Agbakwuru

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background / Aim: Incisional hernia is still relatively common in our practice. The aim of the studywas to identify risk factors associated with incisional hernia in our region. The setting is the ObafemiAwolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria during a period when prostheticmesh was not readily available. Patients and Methods: All the women who presented with incisionalhernia between 1996 and 2005 were prospectively studied using a standard form to obtaininformation on pre-hernia (index operations and possible predisposing factors. They all had opensurgical repair and were followed up for 18-60 months. Results: Forty-four women were treatedduring study period. The index surgeries leading to the hernias were emergency caesarian section26/44 (59.1%, emergency exploratory laparotomy 6/44 (13.6%, and elective surgeries 12/44(27.3%. Major associated risk factors were the use of wrong suture materials for fascia repair, midlineincisions, wound sepsis, and overweight. Conclusion: For elective surgeries, reduction of weightshould be encouraged when appropriate, and transverse incisions are preferred. Absorbable sutures,especially chromic catgut, should be avoided in fascia closure. Antibiotics should be used forcomplicated obstetric cases.

  18. Germline mutations in DNA repair genes predispose asbestos-exposed patients to malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Marta; Casalone, Elisabetta; Ferrante, Daniela; Aspesi, Anna; Morleo, Giulia; Biasi, Alessandra; Sculco, Marika; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Guarrera, Simonetta; Righi, Luisella; Grosso, Federica; Libener, Roberta; Pavesi, Mansueto; Mariani, Narciso; Casadio, Caterina; Boldorini, Renzo; Mirabelli, Dario; Pasini, Barbara; Magnani, Corrado; Matullo, Giuseppe; Dianzani, Irma

    2017-10-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, aggressive cancer caused by asbestos exposure. An inherited predisposition has been suggested to explain multiple cases in the same family and the observation that not all individuals highly exposed to asbestos develop the tumor. Germline mutations in BAP1 are responsible for a rare cancer predisposition syndrome that includes predisposition to mesothelioma. We hypothesized that other genes involved in hereditary cancer syndromes could be responsible for the inherited mesothelioma predisposition. We investigated the prevalence of germline variants in 94 cancer-predisposing genes in 93 MPM patients with a quantified asbestos exposure. Ten pathogenic truncating variants (PTVs) were identified in PALB2, BRCA1, FANCI, ATM, SLX4, BRCA2, FANCC, FANCF, PMS1 and XPC. All these genes are involved in DNA repair pathways, mostly in homologous recombination repair. Patients carrying PTVs represented 9.7% of the panel and showed lower asbestos exposure than did all the other patients (p = 0.0015). This suggests that they did not efficiently repair the DNA damage induced by asbestos and leading to carcinogenesis. This study shows that germline variants in several genes may increase MPM susceptibility in the presence of asbestos exposure and may be important for specific treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Urine Stasis Predisposes to Urinary Tract Infection by an Opportunistic Uropathogen in the Megabladder (Mgb) Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Mohamed, Ahmad Z; Li, Birong; Wilhide, Michael E; Ingraham, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Urinary stasis is a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Homozygous mutant Megabladder (Mgb-/-) mice exhibit incomplete bladder emptying as a consequence of congenital detrusor aplasia. We hypothesize that this predisposes Mgb-/- mice to spontaneous and experimental UTI. Mgb-/-, Mgb+/-, and wild-type female mice underwent serial ultrasound and urine cultures at 4, 6, and 8 weeks to detect spontaneous UTI. Urine bacterial isolates were analyzed by Gram stain and speciated. Bladder stones were analyzed by x-ray diffractometry. Bladders and kidneys were subject to histologic analysis. The pathogenicity of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS) isolated from Mgb-/- urine was tested by transurethral administration to culture-negative Mgb-/- or wild-type animals. The contribution of urinary stasis to CONS susceptibility was evaluated by cutaneous vesicostomy in Mgb-/- mice. Mgb-/- mice develop spontaneous bacteriuria (42%) and struvite bladder stones (31%) by 8 weeks, findings absent in Mgb+/- and wild-type controls. CONS was cultured as a solitary isolate from Mgb-/- bladder stones. Bladders and kidneys from mice with struvite stones exhibit mucosal injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These pathologic features of cystitis and pyelonephritis are replicated by transurethral inoculation of CONS in culture-negative Mgb-/- females, whereas wild-type animals are less susceptible to CONS colonization and organ injury. Cutaneous vesicostomy prior to CONS inoculation significantly reduces the quantity of CONS recovered from Mgb-/- urine, bladders, and kidneys. CONS is an opportunistic uropathogen in the setting of urinary stasis, leading to enhanced UTI incidence and severity in Mgb-/- mice.

  20. Discrete deposition of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on a titanium implant with predisposing substrate microtopography accelerated osseointegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Ichiro [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Huang Yuhong [Chemat Technology, Incorporated, Northridge, CA (United States); Butz, Frank [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ogawa, Takahiro [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lin, Audrey [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Chiachien Jake [UCLA School of Dentistry, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology and Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2007-06-20

    We report here a new versatile method to deposit discrete hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles on a titanium (Ti) implant with predisposing substrate microtopography, which exhibited an unexpectedly robust biological effect. Commercially pure Ti substrates were treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, on which HA nanoparticles (20 nm) were deposited and chemically bonded to TiO{sub 2}. The HA deposition rate was linearly related to the treatment time and HA nanoparticles were deposited on up to 50% of the substrate surface. As a result, the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles generated novel 20-40 nm nanotopography on the Ti substrate with microtopography that was smooth (turned) or roughened by double acid etching (DAE). The experimental implants with or without HA nanoparticles were surgically placed in rat femur and an implant push-in test was performed after two weeks of healing. The deposition of HA nanoparticles on the DAE surface increased the mechanical withstanding load by 129% and 782% as compared to the control DAE and turned implants, respectively. Micro-computed tomography-based 3D bone morphometry revealed equivalent bone volumes around the DAE implant with or without HA nanoparticles. These data suggest that the discrete deposition of HA nanoparticles accelerates the early osseointegration process, likely through increased shear bonding strengths.

  1. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ gene mutation predisposes to respiratory infection and airway damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Ivan; Vadas, Oscar; Garçon, Fabien; Banham-Hall, Edward; Plagnol, Vincent; Leahy, Timothy R.; Baxendale, Helen; Coulter, Tanya; Curtis, James; Wu, Changxin; Blake-Palmer, Katherine; Perisic, Olga; Smyth, Deborah; Maes, Mailis; Fiddler, Christine; Juss, Jatinder; Cilliers, Deirdre; Markelj, Gašper; Chandra, Anita; Farmer, George; Kielkowska, Anna; Clark, Jonathan; Kracker, Sven; Debré, Marianne; Picard, Capucine; Pellier, Isabelle; Jabado, Nada; Morris, James A.; Barcenas-Morales, Gabriela; Fischer, Alain; Stephens, Len; Hawkins, Phillip; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Abinun, Mario; Clatworthy, Menna; Durandy, Anne; Doffinger, Rainer; Chilvers, Edwin; Cant, Andrew J.; Kumararatne, Dinakantha; Okkenhaug, Klaus; Williams, Roger L.; Condliffe, Alison; Nejentsev, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mutations cause primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), which predispose to infections. Here we describe Activated PI3K-δ Syndrome (APDS), a PID associated with a dominant gain-of-function mutation E1021K in the p110δ protein, the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ), encoded by the PIK3CD gene. We found E1021K in 17 patients from seven unrelated families, but not among 3,346 healthy subjects. APDS was characterized by recurrent respiratory infections, progressive airway damage, lymphopenia, increased circulating transitional B cells, increased IgM and reduced IgG2 levels in serum and impaired vaccine responses. The E1021K mutation enhanced membrane association and kinase activity of p110δ. Patient-derived lymphocytes had increased levels of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and phosphorylated AKT protein and were prone to activation-induced cell death. Selective p110δ inhibitors IC87114 and GS-1101 reduced the activity of the mutant enzyme in vitro, suggesting a therapeutic approach for patients with APDS. PMID:24136356

  2. Is age a predisposing factor of postoperative complications after lung resection for primary pulmonary neoplasms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañizares Carretero, Miguel-Ángel; García Fontán, Eva-María; Blanco Ramos, Montserrat; Soro García, José; Carrasco Rodríguez, Rommel; Peña González, Emilio; Cueto Ladrón de Guevara, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Age has been classically considered as a determining factor for the development of postoperative complications related to lung resection for bronchogenic carcinoma. The Postoperative Complications Study Group of the Spanish Society of Thoracic Surgery has promoted a registry to analyze this factor. A total of 3,307 patients who underwent any type of surgical resection for bronchogenic carcinoma have been systematically and prospectively recorded in any of the 24 units that are part of the group. Several variables related to comorbidity and age, as well as postoperative complications, were analyzed. The mean age of patients was 65,44. Men were significantly more common than female. The most frequent complication was prolonged air leak, which was observed in more than one third of patients. In a univariant analysis, air leak presence and postsurgical atelectasis showed statistical association with patient age, when stratified in age groups. In a multivariate analysis, age was recognized as an independent prognostic factor in relation to air leak onset. However, this could not be confirmed for postoperative atelectasis. Age is a predisposing factor for the development of postoperative complications after lung resection. Other associated factors also influence the occurrence of these complications. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Diabetes mellitus in classical trigeminal neuralgia: A predisposing factor for its development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenq; Zhang, Ping; Long, Li; He, Huiy; Zhang, Jianch; Sun, Shup

    2016-12-01

    A higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus in classical trigeminal neuralgia patients was observed in few pilot surveys. The study was aimed to investigate whether diabetes mellitus is a predisposing factor for developing trigeminal neuralgia. Patients with classical trigeminal neuralgia were enrolled in the case study group. The control group consisted of the same number of age- and gender-matched, randomly sampled subjects without trigeminal neuralgia. Characteristics of classical trigeminal neuralgia cases were analyzed. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the cases and controls was calculated using the Chi-square test. The onset age ranged from 31 to 93 in 256 patients affected classical trigeminal neuralgia (162 females; 94 males) with a peak age between the fifth and seventh decade; right-side involvement and mandibular branch affliction occurred at a greater frequency. 21.9% patients in the study group was affected by diabetes mellitus compared to 12.9% of controls. The increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the trigeminal neuralgia group was statistically significant (P=0.01). Diabetes is a risk factor to the development of classical trigeminal neuralgia, and nerve damage duing to hyperglycemia might be the linkage to the two diseases. More works should be done to consolidate the correlation and to clarify the underlying mechanism for the positive association which would provide new insight into the pathogenesis of trigeminal neuralgia and may open new therapeutic perspectives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Haploinsufficiency of the ESCRT Component HD-PTP Predisposes to Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Manteghi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT drive cell surface receptor degradation resulting in attenuation of oncogenic signaling and pointing to a tumor suppressor function. Here, we show that loss of function of an ESCRT protein (HD-PTP encoded by the PTPN23 gene, located on the tumor suppressor gene cluster 3p21.3 drives tumorigenesis in vivo. Indeed, Ptpn23+/− loss predisposes mice to sporadic lung adenoma, B cell lymphoma, and promotes Myc-driven lymphoma onset, dissemination, and aggressiveness. Ptpn23+/−-derived tumors exhibit an unaltered remaining allele and maintain 50% of HD-PTP expression. Consistent with the role of HD-PTP in attenuation of integrin recycling, cell migration, and invasion, hemizygous Ptpn23+/− loss increases integrin β1-dependent B cell lymphoma survival and dissemination. Finally, we reveal frequent PTPN23 deletion and downregulation in human tumors that correlates with poor survival. Altogether, we establish HD-PTP/PTPN23 as a prominent haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene preventing tumor progression through control of integrin trafficking.

  5. A cancer-predisposing "hot spot" mutation of the fumarase gene creates a dominant negative protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzato, Annalisa; Olivero, Martina; Perro, Mario; Brière, Jean Jacques; Rustin, Pierre; Di Renzo, Maria Flavia

    2008-02-15

    The Fumarase (Fumarate Hydratase, FH) is a tumor suppressor gene whose germline heterozygous mutations predispose to hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC). The FH gene encodes an enzyme of the Krebs cycle, functioning as a homotetramer and catalyzing the hydration of fumarate to malate. Among the numerous FH mutations reported so far, the R190H missense mutation is the most frequent in HLRCC patients. Here we show the functional analyses of the R190H, in comparison to the better characterized E319Q mutation. We first expressed wild-type and mutated proteins in FH deficient human skin fibroblasts, using lentiviral vectors. The wild-type transgene was able to restore the FH enzymatic activity in cells, while the R190H- and E319Q-FH were not. More interestingly, when the same transgenes were expressed in normal, FH-proficient cells, only the R190H-FH reduced the endogenous FH enzymatic activity. By enforcing the expression of equal amount of wild-type and R190H-FH in the same cell, we showed that the mutated FH protein directly inhibited enzymatic activity by nearly abrogating the FH homotetramer formation. These data demonstrate the dominant negative effect of the R190H missense mutation in the FH gene and suggest that the FH tumor-suppressing activity might be impaired in cells carrying a heterozygous mutation. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. A BAP1 mutation in a Danish family predisposes to uveal melanoma and other cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren G Aoude

    Full Text Available Truncating germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP1 have been reported in families predisposed to developing a wide range of different cancer types including uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma. There has also been an association between amelanotic tumor development and germline BAP1 mutation suggesting a possible phenotypic characteristic of BAP1 mutation carriers. Though there have been many types of cancer associated with germline BAP1 mutation, the full spectrum of disease association is yet to be ascertained. Here we describe a Danish family with predominantly uveal melanoma but also a range of other tumor types including lung, neuroendocrine, stomach, and breast cancer; as well as pigmented skin lesions. Whole-exome sequencing identified a BAP1 splice mutation located at c.581-2A>G, which leads to a premature truncation of BAP1 in an individual with uveal melanoma. This mutation was carried by several other family members with melanoma or various cancers. The finding expands on the growing profile of BAP1 as an important uveal and cutaneous melanoma tumor suppressor gene and implicates its involvement in the development of lung, and stomach cancer.

  7. Helminth infections predispose mice to pneumococcal pneumonia but not to other pneumonic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apiwattanakul, Nopporn; Thomas, Paul G; Kuhn, Raymond E; Herbert, De'Broski R; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2014-10-01

    Pneumonia is the leading killer of children worldwide. Here, we report that helminth-infected mice develop fatal pneumonia when challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mice were chronically infected with either the flatworm Taenia crassiceps or the roundworm Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Upon challenge with a pneumonic type 3 strain of S. pneumoniae (A66.1), the worm-infected mice developed pneumonia at a rate and to a degree higher than age-matched control mice as measured by bioluminescent imaging and lung titers. This predisposition to pneumonia appears to be specific to S. pneumoniae, as worm-infected mice did not show evidence of increased morbidity when challenged with a lethal dose of influenza virus or sublethal doses of Staphylococcus aureus or Listeria monocytogenes. The defect was also present when worm-infected mice were challenged with a type 2 sepsis-causing strain (D39); an increased rate of pneumonia, decreased survival, and increased lung and blood titers were found. Pneumococcal colonization and immunity against acute otitis media were unaffected. Anti-helminthic treatment in the H. polygyrus model reversed this susceptibility. We conclude that helminth coinfection predisposes mice to fatal pneumococcal pneumonia by promoting increased outgrowth of bacteria in the lungs and blood. These data have broad implications for the prevention and treatment for pneumonia in the developing world, where helminth infections are endemic and pneumococcal pneumonia is common.

  8. Taeniasis in non-descript dogs in Ngorongoro, Tanzania: Prevalence and predisposing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swai, Emmanuel S; Miran, Miran B; Kasuku, Ayubu A; Nzalawahe, Jahashi

    2016-05-24

    The prevalence of taeniasis was determined during the period January to April 2013 in a cross-sectional study of non-descript domestic dogs from the livestock-wildlife ecosystem of Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Taeniid eggs were determined by screening faecal samples using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Predisposing factors for dog infection were assessed in relation to demographic, husbandry and management data. Of the 205 faecal samples screened, 150 (73.2%) were positive for taeniid eggs. The prevalence of dogs harbouring taeniid eggs was 80%, 30.2% and 75.3% in the less than 1 year, 1-3 years and greater than 3 years of age groups, respectively. Age group and sex prevalence in dogs did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), although the females showed a marginally higher prevalence (73.8%) in comparison to the males (72.7%). Taeniid eggs were significantly more likely to be found in the faeces of dogs located in Waso (80.6%) and Endulen (75%) than in Malambo (63.2%, P taeniasis is prevalent among non-descript dogs in Ngorongoro, underscoring the need for further research and active surveillance to better understand the transmission cycle of Taenia spp. in a wider geographical area in Tanzania.

  9. [Predisposing factors, clinical picture and mortality in volvulus of the small intestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Plasencia, J; Huaynalaya, E; Rodríguez, F; Rebaza, H

    1992-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated predisposing factors, clinical picture and the methods of treatment related to morbidity and mortality of 19 small bowel volvulus (SBV) who underwent operation at Belen Hospital (Trujillo-Peru) during the last 26 years (1966-1992). The SBV was 1.6% of all cases of intestinal obstruction in this period and 10.8% of all intestinal volvulus. The median age was of 43 +/- 20.5 years (range, 6 to 78 years) and the majority of them were between 41 and 60 years. Sixteen cases (84.2%) were men from Indian and Spanish extraction and most of them were farmers and came from the Sierra of the Department of La Libertad. Two cases (10.5%) had non-related antecedents previous surgery. In six patients (31.6%) the volvulus was less than seven day's duration and in thirty (68.4%) it was more eight day's duration with previous attacks of obstruction (median: 19.3 days, range: 17 hours to 94 days). Pain, vomiting and distention were present in almost all of these cases. The most frequent abdominal finding was distention. The location of the volvulus was: ileum, 12 cases (63.2%), root of mesentery, 4 cases (21%) and jejunum, 3 cases (15.8%). Gangrenous bowel was present in six patients (31.5) and gangrenous intestine with perforation in two cases (10.5%) who underwent resection of the involved segment with primary anastomosis. In this group one patient (5.2%) died of sepsis and the wound infection rate was of 37.5%. There was no statistically significant correlation with the duration of illness and the presence of gangrenous loops or the mortality rate (p > 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Mutations in complement regulatory proteins predispose to preeclampsia: a genetic analysis of the PROMISSE cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E Salmon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnancy in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or antiphospholipid antibodies (APL Ab--autoimmune conditions characterized by complement-mediated injury--is associated with increased risk of preeclampsia and miscarriage. Our previous studies in mice indicate that complement activation targeted to the placenta drives angiogenic imbalance and placental insufficiency. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use PROMISSE, a prospective study of 250 pregnant patients with SLE and/or APL Ab, to test the hypothesis in humans that impaired capacity to limit complement activation predisposes to preeclampsia. We sequenced genes encoding three complement regulatory proteins--membrane cofactor protein (MCP, complement factor I (CFI, and complement factor H (CFH--in 40 patients who had preeclampsia and found heterozygous mutations in seven (18%. Five of these patients had risk variants in MCP or CFI that were previously identified in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, a disease characterized by endothelial damage. One had a novel mutation in MCP that impairs regulation of C4b. These findings constitute, to our knowledge, the first genetic defects associated with preeclampsia in SLE and/or APL Ab. We confirmed the association of hypomorphic variants of MCP and CFI in a cohort of non-autoimmune preeclampsia patients in which five of 59 were heterozygous for mutations. CONCLUSION: The presence of risk variants in complement regulatory proteins in patients with SLE and/or APL Ab who develop preeclampsia, as well as in preeclampsia patients lacking autoimmune disease, links complement activation to disease pathogenesis and suggests new targets for treatment of this important public health problem. STUDY REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00198068.

  11. Differences in subependymal vein anatomy may predispose preterm infants to GMH-IVH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Domenico; Severino, Mariasavina; Malova, Mariya; Parodi, Alessandro; Morana, Giovanni; Sedlacik, Jan; Govaert, Paul; Volpe, Joseph J; Rossi, Andrea; Ramenghi, Luca Antonio

    2017-06-06

    The anatomy of the deep venous system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of brain lesions in the preterm brain as shown by different histological studies. The aims of this study were to compare the subependymal vein anatomy of preterm neonates with germinal matrix haemorrhage-intraventricular haemorrhage (GMH-IVH), as evaluated by susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) venography, with a group of age-matched controls with normal brain MRI, and to explore the relationship between the anatomical features of subependymal veins and clinical risk factors for GMH-IVH. SWI venographies of 48 neonates with GMH-IVH and 130 neonates with normal brain MRI were retrospectively evaluated. Subependymal vein anatomy was classified into six different patterns: type 1 represented the classic pattern and types 2-6 were considered anatomic variants. A quantitative analysis of the venous curvature index was performed. Variables were analysed by using Mann-Whitney U and χ(2) tests, and a multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between anatomical features, clinical factors and GMH-IVH. A significant difference was noticed among the six anatomical patterns according to the presence of GMH-IVH (χ(2)=14.242, p=0.014). Anatomic variants were observed with higher frequency in neonates with GMH-IVH than in controls (62.2% and 49.6%, respectively). Neonates with GMH-IVH presented a narrower curvature of the terminal portion of subependymal veins (p<0.05). These anatomical features were significantly associated with GMH-IVH (p<0.05). Preterm neonates with GMH-IVH show higher variability of subependymal veins anatomy confirming a potential role as predisposing factor for GMH-IVH. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Urine Stasis Predisposes to Urinary Tract Infection by an Opportunistic Uropathogen in the Megabladder (Mgb) Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Mohamed, Ahmad Z.; Li, Birong; Wilhide, Michael E.; Ingraham, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Urinary stasis is a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Homozygous mutant Megabladder (Mgb-/-) mice exhibit incomplete bladder emptying as a consequence of congenital detrusor aplasia. We hypothesize that this predisposes Mgb-/- mice to spontaneous and experimental UTI. Methods Mgb-/-, Mgb+/-, and wild-type female mice underwent serial ultrasound and urine cultures at 4, 6, and 8 weeks to detect spontaneous UTI. Urine bacterial isolates were analyzed by Gram stain and speciated. Bladder stones were analyzed by x-ray diffractometry. Bladders and kidneys were subject to histologic analysis. The pathogenicity of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS) isolated from Mgb-/- urine was tested by transurethral administration to culture-negative Mgb-/- or wild-type animals. The contribution of urinary stasis to CONS susceptibility was evaluated by cutaneous vesicostomy in Mgb-/- mice. Results Mgb-/- mice develop spontaneous bacteriuria (42%) and struvite bladder stones (31%) by 8 weeks, findings absent in Mgb+/- and wild-type controls. CONS was cultured as a solitary isolate from Mgb-/- bladder stones. Bladders and kidneys from mice with struvite stones exhibit mucosal injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These pathologic features of cystitis and pyelonephritis are replicated by transurethral inoculation of CONS in culture-negative Mgb-/- females, whereas wild-type animals are less susceptible to CONS colonization and organ injury. Cutaneous vesicostomy prior to CONS inoculation significantly reduces the quantity of CONS recovered from Mgb-/- urine, bladders, and kidneys. Conclusions CONS is an opportunistic uropathogen in the setting of urinary stasis, leading to enhanced UTI incidence and severity in Mgb-/- mice. PMID:26401845

  13. 痤疮易感基因的研究进展%Predisposing genes in acne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小燕; 何黎

    2011-01-01

    痤疮是发生于毛囊皮脂腺的一种慢性炎症性疾病,发病机制尚不完全清楚.目前认为,主要与雄激素、皮脂分泌增多、毛囊导管的异常角化、痤疮丙酸杆菌感染、外界因素、机体的免疫反应和遗传有关.近年来研究表明,痤疮是一种多基因遗传病,尤其是重型痤疮与遗传密切相关.CYP11α、CYP17、CYP1A1、雄激素受体基因、CYP21等基因被认为是痤疮易感基因.因此,探讨痤疮的易感基因,对痤疮尤其是重型痤疮的早期诊断、治疗和预防具有重要意义.%Acne is a common chronic inflammatory disease affecting hair follicles and sebaceous glands with unclear pathogenesis. It is a multifactorial disease and several pathogenetic factors have been identified, including the increase of androgen and sebum excretion, follicular hyperkeratinization, infection with Propionibacterium acnes, external factors, innate immunity, genetics, etc. Latest studies have indicated that acne is a polygenic disease and there is a particularly close correlation between severe acne and heredity. Many predisposing genes have been discovered for acne, including human CYP11α gene, CYP17 gene, CYP1A1gene, androgen receptor gene, CYP21 gene, etc. Therefore, the investigation into susceptible genes for acne may be beneficial to the early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of severe acne.

  14. Pre-exposure to ozone predisposes oak leaves to attacks by Diplodia corticola and Biscogniauxia mediterranea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Elena; Anselmi, Naldo; Franceschini, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    One-year-old cork oak (Quercus suber) and turkey oak (Q. cerris) seedlings were exposed to ozone (110 ppb, 5 h day(-1), for 30 days) and were inoculated with Diplodia corticola and Biscogniauxia mediterranea, respectively, by spraying a suspension of spores on the leaves. Both fungi are endophytic and may act as weak parasites, contributing to oak decline. Ozone exposure stimulated leaf attacks after inoculation, although the physiological, visible, and structural responses of both oaks to O3 exposure were weak. In fact, steady-state gas exchange, leaf waxes, and wettability were not significantly affected by O3. In Q. cerris, O3 altered the structure of stomata, as observed by scanning microscopy, and reduced the leaf relative water content. No hyphal entry through stomata or growth towards stomata was, however, observed. Inoculations were performed in a humid chamber at low light; stomata were likely to be closed. When Q. cerris was inoculated in natural conditions, i.e., in a forest infected by B. mediterranea, seedlings pre-exposed to the enhanced O3 regime had a higher number of B. mediterranea isolates than the controls. This suggests that pre-exposure to O3 predisposed Q. cerris leaves to attacks by B. mediterranea independent of stomata. The hyphae of both fungi were able to enter the leaf through the cuticle, either by gradual in-growth into the cuticle or erosion of a hollow in the cuticle at the point of contact. The primary cause of increased leaf injury in O3-exposed seedlings appeared to be higher germination of spores than on control leaves.

  15. CARDIAC RUPTURE IN MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: INCIDENCE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS (15 YEAR FOLLOW-UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Shulman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the incidence of cardiac rupture (CR in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI as well as predisposing factors during 15-year follow-up.Material and methods. 1453 patients with acute MI who were admitted to Krasnoyarsk cardiological center during 1989, 1993 and 2003 years were studied. All patients were divided into three groups: group I - 447 patients, who were on treatment in 1989, group II - 475 patients of 1993, and group III – 531 patients of 2003. There were no differences in groups on patient sex, location and depth of MI, previous MI, arrhythmias, heart failure and diabetes mellitus.Results. CR was found in 18 of 447 patients (4% of group I (1989, in 16 of 475 patients (3,4% of group II (1993 and in 10 of 531 patients (1,9% of group 3 (2003, (p1,3 <0,05. Incidence of CR significantly decreased from 1989 to 2003 in female patients (7,2%; 5,7% and 1,6% in 1989, 1993 and 2003, respectively; p1,3 < 0,01, p2,3 < 0,05. Incidence of CR in male patients didn’t changed (2,5%, 1,8% and 2,1%, respectively. The average blood pressure (BP during the first day of MI in female patients was higher than this in male ones in 1989 and 1993. There were no significant differences in BP between women and men in 2003. Heart rate (HR during the first day of MI in female patients was higher than this in male patients in 1989. However in 1993 and 2003 there were no differences in HR between women and men. MI therapy more often included betablockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, intravenous nitrates, statins, thrombolythics and anticoagulants in 2003 than in 1989 and 1993.Conclusion. Effective BP and HR control is the most effective way to prevent CR in patients with MI.

  16. CARDIAC RUPTURE IN MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: INCIDENCE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS (15 YEAR FOLLOW-UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Shulman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the incidence of cardiac rupture (CR in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI as well as predisposing factors during 15-year follow-up.Material and methods. 1453 patients with acute MI who were admitted to Krasnoyarsk cardiological center during 1989, 1993 and 2003 years were studied. All patients were divided into three groups: group I - 447 patients, who were on treatment in 1989, group II - 475 patients of 1993, and group III – 531 patients of 2003. There were no differences in groups on patient sex, location and depth of MI, previous MI, arrhythmias, heart failure and diabetes mellitus.Results. CR was found in 18 of 447 patients (4% of group I (1989, in 16 of 475 patients (3,4% of group II (1993 and in 10 of 531 patients (1,9% of group 3 (2003, (p1,3 <0,05. Incidence of CR significantly decreased from 1989 to 2003 in female patients (7,2%; 5,7% and 1,6% in 1989, 1993 and 2003, respectively; p1,3 < 0,01, p2,3 < 0,05. Incidence of CR in male patients didn’t changed (2,5%, 1,8% and 2,1%, respectively. The average blood pressure (BP during the first day of MI in female patients was higher than this in male ones in 1989 and 1993. There were no significant differences in BP between women and men in 2003. Heart rate (HR during the first day of MI in female patients was higher than this in male patients in 1989. However in 1993 and 2003 there were no differences in HR between women and men. MI therapy more often included betablockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, intravenous nitrates, statins, thrombolythics and anticoagulants in 2003 than in 1989 and 1993.Conclusion. Effective BP and HR control is the most effective way to prevent CR in patients with MI.

  17. Why do young women smoke? III. Attention and impulsivity as neurocognitive predisposing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakir, Avi; Rigbi, Amihai; Kanyas, Kyra; Pollak, Yehudah; Kahana, Gazit; Karni, Osnat; Eitan, Renana; Kertzman, Semion; Lerer, Bernard

    2007-04-01

    Since nicotine has been shown to facilitate sustained attention and control of impulsivity, impairment in these domains may influence individuals who initiate smoking for various reasons to continue to smoke cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether young women who smoke regularly but are not abstinent at the time of testing, differ in their cognitive functioning from non-smokers and whether they resemble women who smoked in the past but quit. Female undergraduate students aged 20-30 years were recruited by advertisement from institutes of higher education in the Jerusalem area. The study sample consisted of 91 current smokers (CS), 40 past smokers (PS) and 151 non-smokers (NS). 46 occasional smokers (OS) were also tested. Confounding by withdrawal state was neutralized by including only CS and OS who smoked their last cigarette less than 90 min before testing. Subjects performed a computerized neurocognitive battery, which tests the domains of attention, memory, impulsivity, planning, information processing and motor performance. Analyses were controlled for age. The results showed that CS made significantly more errors than NS on the Continuous Performance Task (CPT), Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) and Tower of London (TOL) test. PS were significantly worse than NS on the MFFT and TOL test. PS did not differ significantly from CS on any test. No association was found between duration of smoking and performance. These findings suggest that a neurocognitive profile characterized by impairments in sustained attention and control of impulsivity may be one of the factors that predispose young women who initiate cigarette smoking to maintain the habit.

  18. Paget-Schroetter syndrome in the absence of common predisposing factors: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ramy; Dashkova, Irina; Williams, Myia; Kozikowski, Andrzej; Abrol, Neeraj; Gandhi, Anjula; Pekmezaris, Renee

    2017-01-01

    Paget-Schrotter Syndrome (PSS) also known as "effort thrombosis" is a form of primary thrombosis in the subclavian vein at the costoclavicular junction is usually seen in younger patients after repeated strenuous activity of the shoulders and arms. When occurring in younger patients, PSS presents itself with predisposing factors such as unilateral dull, aching pain in the shoulder or axilla and swelling of the arm and hand. We report a rare case of unusual left axillo-subclavian vein thrombosis in absence of clear risk factors and a negative hypercoagulable workup in a 36-year-old Hispanic woman who presented with 2 days duration of left upper extremity pain and swelling after a week of heavy exercise in aerobic class. Very few documented cases of primary or spontaneous ASVT in absence of clear factors and in such anatomical location have been previously reported. The patient was started on strict precautions of left upper extremity immobilization, analgesics in the form of Tylenol 650 mg every 6 h for pain as well as cold compresses. Lovenox 90 mg subcutaneous twice daily (1 mg/kg BID) was started together with warfarin to keep INR 2-3. In addition to the unusual location in the left upper extremity in our case, the absence of common etiologic factors makes our case of Paget-Schroetter Syndrome a very unique one. Presently, there is a lack of guided management of rare conditions such as our case, or consensus among the sources. Physicians should be aware of this rare disease since untreated conditions may be debilitating for the patient and very costly especially if diagnosed with a delay.

  19. Early severe inflammatory responses to uropathogenic E. coli predispose to chronic and recurrent urinary tract infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Hannan

    Full Text Available Chronic infections are an increasing problem due to the aging population and the increase in antibiotic resistant organisms. Therefore, understanding the host-pathogen interactions that result in chronic infection is of great importance. Here, we investigate the molecular basis of chronic bacterial cystitis. We establish that introduction of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC into the bladders of C3H mice results in two distinct disease outcomes: resolution of acute infection or development of chronic cystitis lasting months. The incidence of chronic cystitis is both host strain and infectious dose-dependent. Further, development of chronic cystitis is preceded by biomarkers of local and systemic acute inflammation at 24 hours post-infection, including severe pyuria and bladder inflammation with mucosal injury, and a distinct serum cytokine signature consisting of elevated IL-5, IL-6, G-CSF, and the IL-8 analog KC. Mice deficient in TLR4 signaling or lymphocytes lack these innate responses and are resistant, to varying degrees, to developing chronic cystitis. Treatment of C3H mice with the glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone prior to UPEC infection also suppresses the development of chronic cystitis. Finally, individuals with a history of chronic cystitis, lasting at least 14 days, are significantly more susceptible to redeveloping severe, chronic cystitis upon bacterial challenge. Thus, we have discovered that the development of chronic cystitis in C3H mice by UPEC is facilitated by severe acute inflammatory responses early in infection, which subsequently are predisposing to recurrent cystitis, an insidious problem in women. Overall, these results have significant implications for our understanding of how early host-pathogen interactions at the mucosal surface determines the fate of disease.

  20. Astroglia overexpressing heme oxygenase-1 predispose co-cultured PC12 cells to oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Linyang; Song, Wei; Schipper, Hyman M

    2007-08-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and pathologic iron deposition in the substantia nigra pars compacta of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) remain unclear. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the oxidative degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin, is upregulated in affected PD astroglia and may contribute to abnormal mitochondrial iron sequestration in these cells. To determine whether glial HO-1 hyper-expression is toxic to neuronal compartments, we co-cultured dopaminergic PC12 cells atop monolayers of human (h) HO-1 transfected, sham-transfected, or non-transfected primary rat astroglia. We observed that PC12 cells grown atop hHO-1 transfected astrocytes, but not the astroglia themselves, were significantly more susceptible to dopamine (1 microM) + H(2)O(2) (1 microM)-induced death (assessed by nuclear ethidium monoazide bromide staining and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence microscopy) relative to control preparations. In the experimental group, PC12 cell death was attenuated significantly by the administration of the HO inhibitor, SnMP (1.5 microM), the antioxidant, ascorbate (200 microM), or the iron chelators, deferoxamine (400 microM), and phenanthroline (100 microM). Exposure to conditioned media derived from HO-1 transfected astrocytes also augmented PC12 cell killing in response to dopamine (1 microM) + H(2)O(2) (1 microM) relative to control media. In PD brain, overexpression of HO-1 in nigral astroglia and accompanying iron liberation may facilitate the bioactivation of dopamine to neurotoxic free radical intermediates and predispose nearby neuronal constituents to oxidative damage. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Fumonisins affect the intestinal microbial homeostasis in broiler chickens, predisposing to necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, Gunther; Croubels, Siska; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Devreese, Mathias; Verlinden, Marc; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Eeckhout, Mia; De Saeger, Sarah; Antlinger, Birgit; Novak, Barbara; Martel, An; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2015-09-23

    Fumonisins (FBs) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi. This study aimed to investigate the effect of these feed contaminants on the intestinal morphology and microbiota composition, and to evaluate whether FBs predispose broilers to necrotic enteritis. One-day-old broiler chicks were divided into a group fed a control diet, and a group fed a FBs contaminated diet (18.6 mg FB1+FB2/kg feed). A significant increase in the plasma sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in the FBs-treated group (0.21 ± 0.016) compared to the control (0.14 ± 0.014) indicated disturbance of the sphingolipid biosynthesis. Furthermore, villus height and crypt depth of the ileum was significantly reduced by FBs. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed a shift in the microbiota composition in the ileum in the FBs group compared to the control. A reduced presence of low-GC containing operational taxonomic units in ileal digesta of birds exposed to FBs was demonstrated, and identified as a reduced abundance of Candidatus Savagella and Lactobaccilus spp. Quantification of total Clostridium perfringens in these ileal samples, previous to experimental infection, using cpa gene (alpha toxin) quantification by qPCR showed an increase in C. perfringens in chickens fed a FBs contaminated diet compared to control (7.5 ± 0.30 versus 6.3 ± 0.24 log10 copies/g intestinal content). After C. perfringens challenge, a higher percentage of birds developed subclinical necrotic enteritis in the group fed a FBs contaminated diet as compared to the control (44.9 ± 2.22% versus 29.8 ± 5.46%).

  2. Peroneal tendinosis as a predisposing factor for the acute lateral ankle sprain in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziai, Pejman; Benca, Emir; Wenzel, Florian; Schuh, Reinhard; Krall, Christoph; Auffahrt, Alexander; Hofstetter, Martin; Windhager, Reinhard; Buchhorn, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    A painful episode in the region of the peroneal tendons, within the retromalleolar groove, is a common precipitating event of an acute lateral ankle sprain. A forefoot striking pattern is suspected to cause peroneal tendinosis. The aim of this study is to analyse the role of peroneal tendinosis as a predisposing factor for ankle sprain trauma in runners. Fifty-eight runners who had experienced acute ankle sprain trauma, with pre-existing pain episodes for up to 4 weeks in the region of the peroneal tendons, were assessed clinically. Fractures were excluded by conventional radiography. An magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan had been performed within 14 days after the traumatic event and was subsequently evaluated by two experienced radiologists. MRI revealed peroneal tendinosis in 55 patients (95% of the total study population). Peroneus brevis (PB) tendinosis was found in 48 patients (87% of all patients with peroneal tendinosis), and peroneus longus (PL) tendinosis was observed in 42 cases (76%). Thirty-five patients (64%) had combined PB and PL tendinosis. A lesion of the anterior talofibular ligament was found to be the most common ligament injury associated with peroneal tendinosis (29 cases; 53%), followed by a lesion of the calcaneofibular ligament (16 cases; 29%) and a lesion of the posterior tibiofibular ligament (13 cases; 24%). The results of this study reflect the correlation between peroneal tendinosis and ankle sprain trauma. Injuries of one or more ligaments are associated with further complications. A period of rest or forbearance of sports as well as adequate treatment of the peroneal tendinosis is essential to prevent subsequent ankle injuries, especially in runners. Modification of the running technique would also be beneficial. IV.

  3. Pre-Exposure to Ozone Predisposes Oak Leaves to Attacks by Diplodia corticola and Biscogniauxia mediterranea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Paoletti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One-year-old cork oak (Quercus suber and turkey oak (Q. cerris seedlings were exposed to ozone (110 ppb, 5 h day˗1, for 30 days and were inoculated with Diplodia corticola and Biscogniauxia mediterranea, respectively, by spraying a suspension of spores on the leaves. Both fungi are endophytic and may act as weak parasites, contributing to oak decline. Ozone exposure stimulated leaf attacks after inoculation, although the physiological, visible, and structural responses of both oaks to O3 exposure were weak. In fact, steady-state gas exchange, leaf waxes, and wettability were not significantly affected by O3. In Q. cerris, O3 altered the structure of stomata, as observed by scanning microscopy, and reduced the leaf relative water content. No hyphal entry through stomata or growth towards stomata was, however, observed. Inoculations were performed in a humid chamber at low light; stomata were likely to be closed. When Q. cerris was inoculated in natural conditions, i.e., in a forest infected by B. mediterranea, seedlings pre-exposed to the enhanced O3 regime had a higher number of B. mediterranea isolates than the controls. This suggests that pre-exposure to O3 predisposed Q. cerris leaves to attacks by B. mediterranea independent of stomata. The hyphae of both fungi were able to enter the leaf through the cuticle, either by gradual in-growth into the cuticle or erosion of a hollow in the cuticle at the point of contact. The primary cause of increased leaf injury in O3-exposed seedlings appeared to be higher germination of spores than on control leaves.

  4. Urine Stasis Predisposes to Urinary Tract Infection by an Opportunistic Uropathogen in the Megabladder (Mgb Mouse.

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    Brian Becknell

    Full Text Available Urinary stasis is a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI. Homozygous mutant Megabladder (Mgb-/- mice exhibit incomplete bladder emptying as a consequence of congenital detrusor aplasia. We hypothesize that this predisposes Mgb-/- mice to spontaneous and experimental UTI.Mgb-/-, Mgb+/-, and wild-type female mice underwent serial ultrasound and urine cultures at 4, 6, and 8 weeks to detect spontaneous UTI. Urine bacterial isolates were analyzed by Gram stain and speciated. Bladder stones were analyzed by x-ray diffractometry. Bladders and kidneys were subject to histologic analysis. The pathogenicity of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS isolated from Mgb-/- urine was tested by transurethral administration to culture-negative Mgb-/- or wild-type animals. The contribution of urinary stasis to CONS susceptibility was evaluated by cutaneous vesicostomy in Mgb-/- mice.Mgb-/- mice develop spontaneous bacteriuria (42% and struvite bladder stones (31% by 8 weeks, findings absent in Mgb+/- and wild-type controls. CONS was cultured as a solitary isolate from Mgb-/- bladder stones. Bladders and kidneys from mice with struvite stones exhibit mucosal injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These pathologic features of cystitis and pyelonephritis are replicated by transurethral inoculation of CONS in culture-negative Mgb-/- females, whereas wild-type animals are less susceptible to CONS colonization and organ injury. Cutaneous vesicostomy prior to CONS inoculation significantly reduces the quantity of CONS recovered from Mgb-/- urine, bladders, and kidneys.CONS is an opportunistic uropathogen in the setting of urinary stasis, leading to enhanced UTI incidence and severity in Mgb-/- mice.

  5. Low Plasma Volume in Normotensive Formerly Preeclamptic Women Predisposes to Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Ralph R; Lotgering, Fred K; Hopman, Maria T; Van Dijk, Arie; Van de Vlugt, Maureen; Janssen, Mirian C H; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2015-11-01

    Formerly preeclamptic women are at risk for cardiovascular disease. Low plasma volume may reflect latent hypertension and potentially links preeclampsia with chronic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that low plasma volume in normotensive formerly preeclamptic women predisposes to hypertension. We longitudinally studied n=104 formerly preeclamptic women in whom plasma volume was measured 3 to 30 months after the preeclamptic pregnancy. Cardiovascular variables were assessed at 2 points in time (3-30 months postpartum and 2-5 years thereafter). Study population was divided into low plasma volume (≤1373 mL/m(2)) and normal plasma volume (>1373 mL/m(2)). Primary end point was hypertension at the second visit: defined as ≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic. Secondary outcome of this study was change in traditional cardiovascular risk profile between visits. Variables correlating univariately with change in blood pressure between visits were introduced in regression analysis. Eighteen of 104 (17%) formerly preeclamptic women who were normotensive at first visit had hypertension at second evaluation 2 to 5 years later. Hypertension developed more often in women with low plasma volume (10/35 [29%]) than in women with normal plasma volume (8/69 [12%]; odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-8.6). After adjustments, relationship between plasma volume status and subsequent hypertension persisted (adjusted odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-8.5). Mean arterial pressure at second visit correlated inverse linearly with plasma volume (r=-0.49; Phypertension within 5 years. Women with low plasma volume have higher chance to develop hypertension than women with normal plasma volume. Clinically, follow-up of blood pressure seems warranted in women with history of preeclampsia, even when initially normotensive.

  6. A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayling, Timothy M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Weedon, Michael N; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Freathy, Rachel M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Perry, John R B; Elliott, Katherine S; Lango, Hana; Rayner, Nigel W; Shields, Beverley; Harries, Lorna W; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Ellard, Sian; Groves, Christopher J; Knight, Bridget; Patch, Ann-Marie; Ness, Andrew R; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Ring, Susan M; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sovio, Ulla; Bennett, Amanda J; Melzer, David; Ferrucci, Luigi; Loos, Ruth J F; Barroso, Inês; Wareham, Nicholas J; Karpe, Fredrik; Owen, Katharine R; Cardon, Lon R; Walker, Mark; Hitman, Graham A; Palmer, Colin N A; Doney, Alex S F; Morris, Andrew D; Smith, George Davey; Hattersley, Andrew T; McCarthy, Mark I

    2007-05-11

    Obesity is a serious international health problem that increases the risk of several common diseases. The genetic factors predisposing to obesity are poorly understood. A genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes-susceptibility genes identified a common variant in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene that predisposes to diabetes through an effect on body mass index (BMI). An additive association of the variant with BMI was replicated in 13 cohorts with 38,759 participants. The 16% of adults who are homozygous for the risk allele weighed about 3 kilograms more and had 1.67-fold increased odds of obesity when compared with those not inheriting a risk allele. This association was observed from age 7 years upward and reflects a specific increase in fat mass.

  7. Predisposing Factors for Mucormycosis in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus; An Experience of 21 Years in Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Sarvestani, Amene; Pishdad, Gholamreza; Bolandparvaz, Shahram

    2013-10-01

    To determine the prevalence and predisposing factors of mucormycosis in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in a Shiraz referral centers. This retrospective case control study, reviewed the medical records of 162 patients with pathologically confirmed diagnosis of mucormycosis hospitalized in two major Shiraz University hospitals during the last 21 years. For each diabetic patient, two patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) matched for age, sex and the date of admission was selected as control group. Age, type of diabetes mellitus (DM) and duration of involvement as well as paraclinical findings were compared between cases and controls. There were 162 patients with murormycosis of which 30 (18.5%) had DM as predisposing factor. Diabetes was the second common predisposing disease next to leukemia. There were 19 (63.3%) women and 11 (36.7%) men among the patients. The overall mortality rate was 53.33% mortality rate. The mean age of the patients was 45.3 ± 17.6 years. The mean duration of diabetes in case and control groups were 5.75 ± 5.43 and 7.2 ± 7.85 years respectively, without any statistical significance between them (p=0.063). Blood sugar in patients was lower than control group (p=0.012). Serum bicarbonate level in case group was higher than in control group (ppatients with mucormycosis over the last 7 years has been decreased which is due to better control of infection in diabetics. In addition to hyperglycemia and acidosis, several other unknown factors like immune defects may predispose diabetics to this fungal infection.

  8. Does a facultative precocious life cycle predispose the marine trematode Proctoeces cf. lintoni to inbreeding and genetic differentiation among host species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, I M; Criscione, C D; Cárdenas, L; Durán, C P; Oliva, M E

    2014-03-01

    Intraspecific variability in parasite life cycle complexity (number of hosts and species of hosts in the life cycle) may have an impact how parasite genetic variation is partitioned among individual parasites, host individuals or host species within a given area. Among digenean trematodes, a three-host life cycle is common. However, a few species are precocious and may reach sexual maturity in what is typically regarded as the second intermediate host. The objective of this study was to determine whether a precocious life cycle predisposes digeneans to possible inbreeding or genetic subdivision among host species. As a study system, we used the digenean Proctoeces cf. lintoni whose metacercariae precociously mature (facultative) without a cyst wall in the gonads of multiple sympatric species of keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.), typically regarded as the second intermediate hosts. Genotyped parasites were collected from four species of limpets and the clingfish Sicyases sanguineus, the third and final host where sexual maturity occurs. We found very high microsatellite diversity, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium over all genotyped individuals, and little to no genetic structuring among parasites collected from the different host species. The fact that metacercariae do not encyst in the keyhole limpets, coupled with the high mixing potential of an aquatic environment, likely promote panmixia in local populations of P. cf. lintoni.

  9. A Case of Candida albicans Endophthalmitis with No Predisposing Risk Factors and a Distant Source of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhir Chavan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of Candida albicans endophthalmitis with no identifiable predisposing risk factors. Case Report: A 57-year-old male presented with a 3-day history of worsening floaters and reduced visual acuity. Fundoscopy and optical coherence tomography showed presence of fluffy white preretinal and intraretinal infiltrates. With no past medical history or evidence of immunosuppression but having travelled abroad and suffered from diarrhoea, fungal aetiology was thought to be unlikely and as a result, treatment was commenced for toxoplasma. Despite treatment, his vision did not improve. Initial investigations including inflammatory markers, serology for toxoplasmosis, blood culture, chest radiograph and aqueous sampling could not identify a source of infection. However, polymerase chain reaction results from vitreous sampling revealed C. albicans. As a result, the patient was treated with intravenous voriconazole and intravitreal amphotericin B. As initial clinical improvement was limited, a vitrectomy was performed with further intravitreal amphotericin B. Clinical improvement was rapid following vitrectomy. After repeated Gram staining and culture of infected toenails, Gram-positive yeast cells were isolated. Conclusion: Although C. albicans is a frequent cause of endogenous endophthalmitis, patients often have one or more predisposing systemic condition assisting the diagnosis. The present case illustrates that (1 even in the absence of any predisposing risk factors, C.albicans should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in recalcitrant uveitis, and (2 endogenous candida endophthalmitis can be a result of fungal infections from distant sites such as the toenails.

  10. Does a PBL-based medical curriculum predispose training in specific career paths? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigarides, Jordan; Wingfield, Laura R; Kulendran, Myutan

    2017-01-07

    North American medical schools have used problem-based learning (PBL) structured medical education for more than 60 years. However, it has only recently been introduced in other medical schools outside of North America. Since its inception, there has been the debate on whether the PBL learning process predisposes students to select certain career paths. To review available evidence to determine the predisposition of specific career paths when undertaking a PBL-based medical curriculum. The career path trajectory was determined as measured by official Matching Programs, self-reported questionnaires and surveys, and formally defined career development milestones. A systematic literature review was performed. PubMed, Medline, Cochrane and ERIC databases were analysed in addition to reference lists for appropriate inclusion. Eleven studies fitting the inclusion criteria were identified. The majority of studies showed that PBL did not predispose a student to a career in a specific speciality (n = 7 out of 11 studies, 64%). However, three studies reported a significantly increased number of PBL graduates working in primary care compared to those from a non-PBL curriculum. PBL has been shown not to predispose medical students to a career in General Practice or any other speciality. Furthermore, a greater number of similar studies are required before a definitive conclusion can be made in the future.

  11. Frequency and predisposing factors of leg cramps in pregnancy: a prospective clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrabvand F

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Leg cramp is the painful contraction of the muscles that often occurs at night. Pregnancy is the most common cause of muscle cramps that usually occur in the second trimester of pregnancy. Although the reasons of the spasms had not been determined, the imbalance between the absorption and elimination of serum electrolytes such as Ca, Mg and potassium and also insufficiency of some vitamins and probably the changes in activities of motor neurons of spinal cord, can be the source of these problems. The aim of this study was the evaluation of frequency and predisposing factors of leg cramps."n"nMethods: In a cross sectional descriptive analytic study, a group of 400 women in the third trimester of pregnancy were asked to record the symptoms of leg cramp. Their education level and job recorded and their total serum level of Ca and Mg was measured in the first visit. Exclusion criteria included systemic medical conditions such as thyroid disease, diabetes, osteoporosis and prenatal disorders such as gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia and patient cooperation."n"nResults: In our study the prevalence of leg cramp was 54.75%. There was a statistically significant relationship between leg cramp and serum

  12. Pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch predisposes to adjacent segment disease after lumbar spinal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenfluh, Dominique A; Mueller, Daniel A; Rothenfluh, Esin; Min, Kan

    2015-06-01

    Several risk factors and causes of adjacent segment disease have been debated; however, no quantitative relationship to spino-pelvic parameters has been established so far. A retrospective case-control study was carried out to investigate spino-pelvic alignment in patients with adjacent segment disease compared to a control group. 45 patients (ASDis) were identified that underwent revision surgery for adjacent segment disease after on average 49 months (7-125), 39 patients were selected as control group (CTRL) similar in the distribution of the matching variables, such as age, gender, preoperative degenerative changes, and numbers of segments fused with a mean follow-up of 84 months (61-142) (total n = 84). Several radiographic parameters were measured on pre- and postoperative radiographs, including lumbar lordosis measured (LL), sacral slope, pelvic incidence (PI), and tilt. Significant differences between ASDis and CTRL groups on preoperative radiographs were seen for PI (60.9 ± 10.0° vs. 51.7 ± 10.4°, p = 0.001) and LL (48.1 ± 12.5° vs. 53.8 ± 10.8°, p = 0.012). Pelvic incidence was put into relation to lumbar lordosis by calculating the difference between pelvic incidence and lumbar lordosis (∆PILL = PI-LL, ASDis 12.5 ± 16.7° vs. CTRL 3.4 ± 12.1°, p = 0.001). A cutoff value of 9.8° was determined by logistic regression and ROC analysis and patients classified into a type A (∆PILL lordosis mismatch. In type A spino-pelvic alignment, 25.5 % of patients underwent revision surgery for adjacent segment disease, whereas 78.3 % of patients classified as type B alignment had revision surgery. Classification of patients into type A and B alignments yields a sensitivity for predicting adjacent segment disease of 71 %, a specificity of 81 % and an odds ratio of 10.6. In degenerative disease of the lumbar spine a high pelvic incidence with diminished lumbar lordosis seems to predispose to adjacent segment disease. Patients with such pelvic incidence

  13. Micronutrient deficiencies as predisposing factors for hypertension in lacto-vegetarian Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Agte, Vaishali V; Tarwadi, Kirtan V; Paknikar, Kishor M; Diwate, Uma P

    2004-06-01

    With the increasing knowledge about the antioxidant potential of many micronutrients such as zinc and vitamin C, their roles in oxidative stress related health disorders have been postulated. This study therefore investigated low micronutrient status as a predisposing factor for hypertension in a traditionally lacto-vegetarian population like Indians. Micronutrient profile was assessed in 109 hypertensives with age-gender-socio-economic status matched 115 healthy normotensives (30-58 years of age). Food intakes were estimated through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Nutrient intakes were then evaluated by previous estimates of cooked foods from our laboratory. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), age, weight, height, waist and hip circumference, occupation, physical activity, smoking habits were recorded. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, serum level of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, ceruloplasmin, plasma level of ascorbic acid, folic acid, retinol, erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGRAC) and erythrocyte membrane zinc. There were no significant differences between protein, fat intakes of normal and hypertensive individuals, though intakes of men were higher than those of women (p 0.2) in these subjects. Conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that intakes of vitamin C, folic acid and zinc were associated with 18% (OR = 1.18, 95% CI:1.08, 1.26), 51% (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 0.94, 2.1) higher odds for hypertension, and 3% lower odds for hypertension (OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.92, 1.01), respectively. Mean plasma vitamin C and folic acid were significantly higher (p < 0.01), and serum ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte membrane zinc were marginally higher (p = 0.07) in normal than hypertensive subjects. In multivariate linear regression analyses, plasma vitamin C, serum ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte membrane zinc were negatively associated with SBP (p = 0.00001) and plasma vitamin C was

  14. Does Salter innominate osteotomy predispose the patient to acetabular retroversion in adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Satsuma, Shinichi; Kinugasa, Maki; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2015-05-01

    Salter innominate osteotomy has been identified as an effective additional surgery for the dysplastic hip. However, because in this procedure, the distal segment of the pelvis is displaced laterally and anteriorly, it may predispose the patient to acetabular retroversion. The degree to which this may be the case, however, remains incompletely characterized. We asked, in a group of pediatric patients with acetabular dysplasia who underwent Salter osteotomy, whether the operated hip developed (1) acetabular retroversion compared with contralateral unaffected hips; (2) radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis; or (3) worse functional scores. (4) In addition, we asked whether femoral head deformity resulting from aseptic necrosis was a risk factor for acetabular retroversion. Between 1971 and 2001, we performed 213 Salter innominate osteotomies for unilateral pediatric dysplasia, of which 99 hips (47%) in 99 patients were available for review at a mean of 16 years after surgery (range, 12-25 years). Average patient age at surgery was 4 years (range, 2-9 years) and the average age at the most recent followup was 21 years (range, 18-29 years). Acetabular retroversion was diagnosed based on the presence of a positive crossover sign and prominence of the ischial spine sign at the final visit. The center-edge angle, acetabular angle of Sharp, and acetabular index were measured at preoperative and final visits. Contralateral unaffected hips were used as controls, and statistical comparison was made in each patient. Clinical findings, including Harris hip score (HHS) and the anterior impingement sign, were recorded at the final visit. Patients were no more likely to have a positive crossover sign in the surgically treated hips (20 of 99 hips [20%]) than in the contralateral control hips (17 of 99 hips [17%]; p = 0584). In addition, the percentage of positive prominence of the ischial spine sign was not different between treated hips (22 of 99 hips [22%]) and contralateral hips

  15. MAPT as a predisposing gene for sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Chinese Han population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Fang; Wenyuan Xu; Chengsi Wu; Min Zhu; Xiaobing Li; Daojun Hong

    2013-01-01

    A previous study of European Caucasian patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis demonstrated that a polymorphism in the microtubule-associated protein Tau (MAPT) gene was significantly associated with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis. Here, we tested this association in 107 sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and 100 healthy controls from the Chinese Han population. We screened the mutation-susceptible regions of MAPT-the 3′and 5′untranslated regions as wel as introns 9, 10, 11, and 12-by direct sequencing, and identified 33 genetic variations. Two of these, 105788 A>G in intron 9 and 123972 T>A in intron 11, were not present in the control group. The age of onset in patients with the 105788 A>G and/or the 123972 T>A variant was younger than that in patients without either genetic variation. Moreover, the pa-tients with a genetic variation were more prone to bulbar palsy and breathing difficulties than those with the wild-type genotype. This led to a shorter survival period in patients with a MAPT genetic variant. Our study suggests that the MAPT gene is a potential risk gene for sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Chinese Han population.

  16. Absence of the predisposing factors and signs and symptoms usually associated with overreaching and overtraining in physical fitness centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ackel-D'Elia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of the well-known predisposing factors and signs and symptoms usually associated with either overreaching or overtraining syndrome in physical fitness centers in São Paulo City, Brazil. METHOD: A questionnaire consisting of 13 question groups pertaining to either predisposing factors (1-7 or signs and symptoms (8-13 was given to 413 subjects. The general training schedule of the volunteers was characterized by workout sessions of 2.18 ± 0.04 h for a total of 11.0 ± 0.3 h/week for 33 ± 2 months independent of the type of exercise performed (walking, running, spinning, bodybuilding and stretching. A mean score was calculated ranging from 1 (completely absent to 5 (severe for each question group. A low occurrence was considered to be a question group score lower than 4, which was observed in all 13 question groups. RESULTS: The psychological evaluation by POMS Mood State Questionnaire indicated a normal non-inverted iceberg. The hematological parameters, creatine kinase activity, cortisol, total testosterone and free testosterone concentrations were within the normal ranges for the majority of the volunteers selected for this analysis (n = 60. CONCLUSION: According to the questionnaire score analysis, no predisposing factors or signs and symptoms usually associated with either overreaching or overtraining were detected among the members of physical fitness centers in São Paulo City, Brazil. This observation was corroborated by the absence of any significant hematological or stress hormone level alterations in blood analyses of the majority of the selected volunteers (n = 60.

  17. Two necrotic enteritis predisposing factors, dietary fishmeal and Eimeria infection, induce large changes in the caecal microbiota of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Biao; Stanley, Dragana; Rodgers, Nicholas; Swick, Robert A; Moore, Robert J

    2014-03-14

    It is widely established that a high-protein fishmeal supplemented starter diet and Eimeria infection can predispose birds to the development of clinical necrotic enteritis symptoms following Clostridium perfringens infection. However, it has not been clearly established what changes these treatments cause to predispose birds to succumb to necrotic enteritis. We analysed caecal microbiota of 4 groups of broilers (n=12) using deep pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons: (1) control chicks fed a control diet, (2) Eimeria infected chicks fed control diet, (3) chicks fed fishmeal supplemented diet and lastly (4) both fishmeal fed and Eimeria infected chicks. We found that the high-protein fishmeal diet had a strong effect on the intestinal microbiota similar to the previously reported effect of C. perfringens infection. We noted major changes in the prevalence of various lactobacilli while the total culturable Lactobacillus counts remained stable. The Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, unknown Clostridiales and Lactobacillaceae families were most affected by fishmeal with increases in a number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that had previously been linked to Crohn's disease and reductions in OTUs known to be butyrate producers. Eimeria induced very different changes in microbiota; Ruminococcaceae groups were reduced in number and three unknown Clostridium species were increased in abundance. Additionally, Eimeria did not significantly influence changes in pH, formic, propionic or isobutyric acid while fishmeal induced dramatic changes in all these measures. Both fishmeal feeding and Eimeria infection induced significant changes in the gut microbiota; these changes may play an important role in predisposing birds to necrotic enteritis.

  18. Experiencing variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Berge, Maria; Grout, Brian William Wilson

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes towards a better understanding of learning dynamics in doctoral supervision by analysing how learning opportunities are created in the interaction between supervisors and PhD students, using the notion of experiencing variation as a key to learning. Empirically, we have based...... were discussed, created more complex patterns of variation. Both PhD students and supervisors can learn from this. Understanding of this mechanism that creates learning opportunities can help supervisors develop their competences in supervisory pedagogy....

  19. A magnetic resonance imaging study of abnormalities of the patella and patellar tendon that predispose children to acute patellofemoral dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Barış; Çiçek, Esin Derin; Şirin, Evrim; Özdemir, Güzelali; Karakuş, Özgün; Muratlı, Hasan Hilmi

    This study compared 20 children hospitalised with acute patellofemoral dislocation with an age-matched healthy control group with no history of knee problems or patellar dislocation. The following morphological parameters were significantly different between the groups: the mean patellar width and length, mean sulcus depth, mean patellar tendon width and total patellar volume. The magnetic resonance imaging findings of this study suggested that structurally smaller than normal patella and patellar tendon volumes are predisposing factors for acute patellofemoral dislocation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Predisposing factors and histopathological variants of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: Experience from a North Indian teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeti Khullar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Squamous and basal cell carcinomas together constitute the majority of non-melanoma skin cancers. These malignancies are infrequent in Indians as compared to the white skinned population. Literature on squamous cell carcinoma in dark skin is limited. Aim: To analyze the risk factors and to characterize the histopathological subtypes of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Indian patients in an area, non-endemic for arsenicosis. Methods: A retrospective analysis of data from January 2003 to August 2013 was performed to evaluate the predisposing factors and histopathological types of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER, Chandigarh. Demographic and disease characteristics such as age, gender and predisposing factors, particularly premalignant dermatoses were recorded and histopathology slides were reviewed. Results: Of the 13,426 skin biopsy specimens received during the 10-year period, there were 82 (0.6% cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 170 (1.7% of basal cell carcinoma. The mean age at diagnosis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma was 53.7 years and the male to female ratio was 2:1. The most common site of involvement was the lower limbs in 34 (41.5% patients. Marjolin's ulcer was present in 36 (43.9% cases. No predisposing factor was identified in 35 (42.7% patients. Histopathologically, the tumors were classified most commonly as squamous cell carcinoma not otherwise specified in 33 (40.2% cases. Limitations: This was a retrospective study and details of occupation and interval between the precursor lesions and development of tumor were not recorded. Immunohistochemistry for human papilloma virus and p53 tumor suppressor protein were not performed as these tests were not available. Conclusion: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is uncommon in Indian patients and a high index of suspicion is necessary when a rapidly enlarging nodule, verrucous fungating plaque

  1. Somatic inactivation of ATM in hematopoietic cells predisposes mice to cyclin D3 dependent T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Lori A; Yang-Iott, Katherine; DeMicco, Amy; Bassing, Craig H

    2015-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a cancer of immature T cells that exhibits heterogeneity of oncogenic lesions, providing an obstacle for development of more effective and less toxic therapies. Inherited deficiency of ATM, a regulator of the cellular DNA damage response, predisposes young humans and mice to T-ALLs with clonal chromosome translocations. While acquired ATM mutation or deletion occurs in pediatric T-ALLs, the role of somatic ATM alterations in T-ALL pathogenesis remains unknown. We demonstrate here that somatic Atm inactivation in haematopoietic cells starting as these cells differentiate in utero predisposes mice to T-ALL at similar young ages and harboring analogous translocations as germline Atm-deficient mice. However, some T-ALLs from haematopoietic cell specific deletion of Atm were of more mature thymocytes, revealing that the developmental timing and celluar origin of Atm inactivation influences the phenotype of ATM-deficient T-ALLs. Although it has been hypothesized that ATM suppresses cancer by preventing deletion and inactivation of TP53, we find that Atm inhibits T-ALL independent of Tp53 deletion. Finally, we demonstrate that the Cyclin D3 protein that drives immature T cell proliferation is essential for transformation of Atm-deficient thymocytes. Our study establishes a pre-clinical model for pediatric T-ALLs with acquired ATM inactivation and identifies the cell cycle machinery as a therapeutic target for this aggressive childhood T-ALL subtype.

  2. [Candida carriage in the oral mucosa of a student population: adhesiveness of the strains and predisposing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, M; González, M I; Levin, B; Cuesta, A; Iovanniti, C

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish oral carriage of Candida and possible factors associated to their virulence in young adults and their relation with local and general situations considered as predisposing factors. Samples were obtained from dorsum tongue in 70 students attending the Faculty of Dentistry (University of Buenos Aires) average age: 23, all in healthy oral conditions. Of these, 21.42% were Candida positive. These samples were seeded in CHROMagar. Candida identification was completed in milk agar and Fungichrom 1. The following species were identified: 11 Candida albicans (C.a), 2 Candida parapsilosis (C.p) and 1 Candida glabrata (C.g). In one case, 2 species (C.a and C.g) were isolated in the same sample. Virulence was determined as adherence capacity by biofilm or in vitro plaque formation and hydrophobicity. Different host factors were analyzed statistically to establish their importance as predisposing factors to allow Candida colonization. Adherence of C.a. was found to be similar in all C.a. strains, whereas significant differences were found between C.a. and C.p. and between C.a. and C.g. Only the antiseptic mouthrinse and the diet were significant among the considered factors.

  3. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  4. Ansa Pancreatica: A Case Report of a Type of Ductal Variation in a Patient with Idiopathic Acute Recurrent Pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Mi; Park, Jung Yup; Kim, Myeong Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Ansa pancreatica is a rare type of pancreatic ductal variation. Recently, ansa pancreatic has been considered as a predisposing factor in patients with idiopathic acute pancreatitis. To the best of our knowledge, no previously published report in Korea has described ansa pancreatica. We report a case of acute recurrent pancreatitis with ansa pancreatica, which was revealed on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)

  5. Need, enabling, predisposing, and behavioral determinants of access to preventative care in Argentina: analysis of the national survey of risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiman Jahangir

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Health care utilization is an important step to disease management, providing opportunities for prevention and treatment. Anderson's Health Behavior Model has defined utilization by need, predisposing, and enabling determinants. We hypothesize that need, predisposing, and enabling, highlighting behavioral factors are associated with utilization in Argentina. METHODS: We performed a logistic regression analysis of the 2005 and 2009 Argentinean Survey of Risk Factors, a cohort of 41,392 and 34,732 individuals, to explore the association between need, enabling, predisposing, and behavioral factors to blood pressure measurement in the last year. RESULTS: In the 2005 cohort, blood pressure measurement was associated with perception of health, insurance coverage, basic needs met, and income. Additionally, female sex, civil state, household type, older age groups, education, and alcohol use were associated with utilization. The 2009 cohort showed similar associations with only minor differences between the models. CONCLUSIONS: We explored the association between utilization of clinical preventive services with need, enabling, predisposing, and behavioral factors. While predisposing and need determinants are associated with utilization, enabling factors such as insurance coverage provides an area for public intervention. These are important findings where policies should be focused to improve utilization of preventive services in Argentina.

  6. Need, Enabling, Predisposing, and Behavioral Determinants of Access to Preventative Care in Argentina: Analysis of the National Survey of Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangir, Eiman; Irazola, Vilma; Rubinstein, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Health care utilization is an important step to disease management, providing opportunities for prevention and treatment. Anderson’s Health Behavior Model has defined utilization by need, predisposing, and enabling determinants. We hypothesize that need, predisposing, and enabling, highlighting behavioral factors are associated with utilization in Argentina. Methods We performed a logistic regression analysis of the 2005 and 2009 Argentinean Survey of Risk Factors, a cohort of 41,392 and 34,732 individuals, to explore the association between need, enabling, predisposing, and behavioral factors to blood pressure measurement in the last year. Results In the 2005 cohort, blood pressure measurement was associated with perception of health, insurance coverage, basic needs met, and income. Additionally, female sex, civil state, household type, older age groups, education, and alcohol use were associated with utilization. The 2009 cohort showed similar associations with only minor differences between the models. Conclusions We explored the association between utilization of clinical preventive services with need, enabling, predisposing, and behavioral factors. While predisposing and need determinants are associated with utilization, enabling factors such as insurance coverage provides an area for public intervention. These are important findings where policies should be focused to improve utilization of preventive services in Argentina. PMID:22984608

  7. Detection of localized tooth-related factors that predispose to periodontal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Debora C; Tabesh, Moe

    2004-01-01

    The primary goal of periodontal therapy is to produce an environment that is conducive to oral health. This is achieved by eliminating the subgingival infection and implementing supragingival plaque control measures designed to prevent the re-colonization of the sulcus. Local etiologic factors, as described above, my prevent the removal of subgingival plaque, and may even contribute to destruction of the periodontal tissues. Thus, it is crucial to be able to recognize and, when possible, eliminate any plaque-retentive factor that could contribute to disease progression. Iatrogenic factors such as subgingival margins, restorative overhangs, overcontoured restorations and unpolished surfaces can be altered. Similarly, cervical enamel projections, enamel pearls and, in certain instances, palatal grooves can be removed or recontoured to enable the patient to access the area for good plaque control. There are some things that we cannot alter. Anatomic anomalies, particularly in posterior teeth, cannot be changed. However, awareness of potential anatomic variations and early detection of them may be able to prevent future attachment loss.

  8. Therapeutics Targeting Drivers of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Acute Aortic Dissections: Insights from Predisposing Genes and Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewicz, Dianna M; Prakash, Siddharth K; Ramirez, Francesco

    2017-01-14

    Thoracic aortic diseases, including aneurysms and dissections of the thoracic aorta, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for thoracic aortic disease include increased hemodynamic forces on the ascending aorta, typically due to poorly controlled hypertension, and heritable genetic variants. The altered genes predisposing to thoracic aortic disease either disrupt smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction or adherence to an impaired extracellular matrix, or decrease canonical transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling. Paradoxically, TGF-β hyperactivity has been postulated to be the primary driver for the disease. More recently, it has been proposed that the response of aortic SMCs to the hemodynamic load on a structurally defective aorta is the primary driver of thoracic aortic disease, and that TGF-β overactivity in diseased aortas is a secondary, unproductive response to restore tissue function. The engineering of mouse models of inherited aortopathies has identified potential therapeutic agents to prevent thoracic aortic disease.

  9. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol predisposes for the development of Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, Gunther; Van Immerseel, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Timbermont, Leen; Verlinden, Marc; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Eeckhout, Mia; De Saeger, Sarah; Hessenberger, Sabine; Martel, An; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-01

    Both mycotoxin contamination of feed and Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis have an increasing global economic impact on poultry production. Especially the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common feed contaminant. This study aimed at examining the predisposing effect of DON on the development of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. An experimental Clostridium perfringens infection study revealed that DON, at a contamination level of 3,000 to 4,000 µg/kg feed, increased the percentage of birds with subclinical necrotic enteritis from 20±2.6% to 47±3.0% (Penteritis in broilers. These results are associated with a negative effect of DON on the intestinal barrier function and increased intestinal protein availability, which may stimulate growth and toxin production of Clostridium perfringens.

  10. Frequency of 3' VNTR Polymorphism in the Dopamine Transporter Gene SLC6A3 in Humans Predisposed to Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepkova, E V; Aftanas, L I; Maksimov, N; Menshanov, P N

    2016-11-01

    Predisposition to antisocial behavior can be related to the presence of certain polymorphic variants of genes encoding dopaminergic system proteins. We studied the frequencies of allele variants and genotypes of variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in 3' untranslated region (3' VTNR) of the dopaminergic transporter SLC6A3 gene in Caucasian men committed socially dangerous violent and non-violent crimes. Alleles with 9 and 10 repeats were most frequent in both the control group and group of men predisposed to antisocial behavior. At the same time, the 10/10 genotype was more frequently observed in the group of men prone to antisocial non-violent behavior. Hence, the presence of certain variants of 3' VTNR polymorphism of SLC6A3 gene in men is associated with predisposition to certain forms of antisocial behavior.

  11. Peritoneal dialysis impairs nitric oxide homeostasis and may predispose infants with low systolic blood pressure to cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlström, Mattias; Cananau, Carmen; Checa, Antonio; Wide, Katarina; Sartz, Lisa; Svensson, Anders; Wheelock, Craig E; Westphal, Susanne; Békássy, Zivile; Bárány, Peter; Lundberg, Jon O; Hansson, Sverker; Weitzberg, Eddie; Krmar, Rafael T

    2016-08-31

    Infants on chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) have an increased risk of developing neurological morbidities; however, the underlying biological mechanisms are poorly understood. In this clinical study, we investigated whether PD-mediated impairment of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and signaling, in patients with persistently low systolic blood pressure (SBP), can explain the occurrence of cerebral ischemia. Repeated blood pressure measurements, serial neuroimaging studies, and investigations of systemic nitrate and nitrite levels, as well as NO signaling, were performed in ten pediatric patients on PD. We consistently observed the loss of both inorganic nitrate (-17 ± 3%, P low SBP developed ischemic cerebral complications. Our data suggests that PD impairs NO homeostasis and predisposes infants with persistently low SBP to cerebral ischemia. These findings improve current understanding of the pathogenesis of infantile cerebral ischemia induced by PD and may lead to the new treatment strategies to reduce neurological morbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lung infarction following pulmonary embolism. A comparative study on clinical conditions and CT findings to identify predisposing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, J.; Obermann, A.; Stueckradt, S.; Tueshaus, C. [General Hospital Hagen (Germany). Radiology; Goltz, J.; Kickuth, R. [University Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany). Radiology; Liermann, D. [University Hospital Marienhospital Herne (Germany). Radiology

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this study was to identify factors predisposing to lung infarction in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). We performed a retrospective analysis on 154 patients with the final diagnosis of PE being examined between January 2009 and December 2012 by means of a Toshiba Aquilion 64 CT scanner. The severity of clinical symptoms was defined by means of a clinical index with 4 classes. The pulmonary clot load was quantified using a modified severity index of PE as proposed by Miller. We correlated several potential predictors of pulmonary infarction such as demographic data, pulmonary clot burden, distance of total vascular obstruction and pleura, the presence of cardiac congestion, signs of chronic bronchitis or emphysema with the occurrence of pulmonary infarction. Computed tomography revealed 78 areas of pulmonary infarction in 45/154 (29.2%) patients. The presence of infarction was significantly higher in the right lung than in the left lung (p < 0.001). We found no correlation between pulmonary infarction and the presence of accompanying malignant diseases (r=-0.069), signs of chronic bronchitis (r=-0.109), cardiac congestion (r=-0.076), the quantified clot burden score (r=0.176), and the severity of symptoms (r=-0.024). Only a very weak negative correlation between the presence of infarction and age (r=-0.199) was seen. However, we could demonstrate a moderate negative correlation between the distance of total vascular occlusion and the occurrence of infarction (r=-0.504). Neither cardiac congestion nor the degree of pulmonary vascular obstruction are main factors predisposing to pulmonary infarction in patients with PE. It seems that a peripheral total vascular obstruction more often results in infarction than even massive central clot burden.

  13. Replacing sugary drinks with milk is inversely associated with weight gain among young obesity-predisposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-11-14

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of sugary drink consumption and its substitution with alternative beverages with body weight gain among young children predisposed to future weight gain. Secondary analysis of the Healthy Start Study, a 1·5-year randomised controlled trial designed to prevent overweight among Danish children aged 2-6 years (n 366), was carried out. Multivariate linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of beverage consumption with change in body weight (Δweight) or BMI(ΔBMI) z-score. Substitution models were used to extrapolate the influence of replacing sugary drinks with alternative beverages (water, milk and diet drinks) on Δweight or ΔBMI z-score. Sugary drink intake at baseline and substitution of sugary drinks with milk were associated with both Δweight and ΔBMI z-score. Every 100 g/d increase in sugary drink intake was associated with 0·10 kg and 0·06 unit increases in body weight (P=0·048) and BMI z-score (P=0·04), respectively. Substitution of 100 g/d sugary drinks with 100 g/d milk was inversely associated with Δweight (β=-0·16 kg; P=0·045) and ΔBMI z-score (β=-0·07 units; P=0·04). The results of this study suggest that sugary drink consumption was associated with body weight gain among young children with high predisposition for future overweight. In line with the current recommendations, sugary drinks, whether high in added or natural sugar, should be discouraged to help prevent childhood obesity. Milk may be a good alternative to sugary drinks with regard to weight management among young obesity-predisposed children.

  14. Predisposing factors, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of cerebral venous thrombosis during pregnancy and postpartum: a case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hui; YANG Bao-jun; JIN Li-ping; JIA Xiao-fang

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous investigations have demonstrated a relatively low incidence of stroke among young women,though both pregnancy and delivery can substantially increase the risk.Cerebral venous thrombosis may manifest different characteristics during pregnancy and postpartum as a result of their specific physiological statuses.This study aimed to identify the clinical manifestations,diagnosis,treatment,and prognosis of cerebral venous thrombosis during pregnancy and postpartum.Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of 22 patients with cerebral venous thrombosis who were assigned to either group A (during pregnancy) or group B (during postpartum).The relevant risk factors,initiation and development of the disease,clinical presentations,diagnosis,treatment,and prognosis were compared between the two stages.Results Cerebral venous thrombosis occurred during both pregnancy and postpartum,but was more common postpartum.Patients in group A had a longer hospitalization period than those in group B.Confirmed predisposing factors in 85.7% of patients of group A were dehydration,infection,and underlying cerebrovascular disorders.No obvious predisposing factors were identified in group B.The most frequent symptom was headache,with epileptic seizures,hemiparalysis and aphasia being less frequent symptoms.Focal neurological symptoms (P=0.022) and cerebral infarction (P=0.014) occurred more frequently in group A than in group B.Anticoagulation therapy proved to be safe for cerebral venous thrombosis patients during puerperium,regardless of parenchymal hemorrhage.However,more attention should be paid to spontaneous in-site placental hemorrhage in pregnant patients.Both groups had similar prognoses (P=1.000),with 36.3% patients suffering from consequential dysfunction or recurrent intracranial hypertension.Delayed diagnosis was associated with a poorer prognosis.Conclusions Cerebral venous thrombosis manifests different clinical characteristics during pregnancy and

  15. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol predisposes for the development of Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

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    Gunther Antonissen

    Full Text Available Both mycotoxin contamination of feed and Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis have an increasing global economic impact on poultry production. Especially the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON is a common feed contaminant. This study aimed at examining the predisposing effect of DON on the development of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. An experimental Clostridium perfringens infection study revealed that DON, at a contamination level of 3,000 to 4,000 µg/kg feed, increased the percentage of birds with subclinical necrotic enteritis from 20±2.6% to 47±3.0% (P<0.001. DON significantly reduced the transepithelial electrical resistance in duodenal segments (P<0.001 and decreased duodenal villus height (P = 0.014 indicating intestinal barrier disruption and intestinal epithelial damage, respectively. This may lead to an increased permeability of the intestinal epithelium and decreased absorption of dietary proteins. Protein analysis of duodenal content indeed showed that DON contamination resulted in a significant increase in total protein concentration (P = 0.023. Furthermore, DON had no effect on in vitro growth, alpha toxin production and netB toxin transcription of Clostridium perfringens. In conclusion, feed contamination with DON at concentrations below the European maximum guidance level of 5,000 µg/kg feed, is a predisposing factor for the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. These results are associated with a negative effect of DON on the intestinal barrier function and increased intestinal protein availability, which may stimulate growth and toxin production of Clostridium perfringens.

  16. Targeted Exome Sequencing of Krebs Cycle Genes Reveals Candidate Cancer-Predisposing Mutations in Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remacha, Laura; Comino-Méndez, Iñaki; Richter, Susan; Contreras, Laura; Currás-Freixes, María; Pita, Guillermo; Letón, Rocío; Galarreta, Antonio; Torres-Pérez, Rafael; Honrado, Emiliano; Jiménez, Scherezade; Maestre, Lorena; Moran, Sebastian; Esteller, Manel; Satrústegui, Jorgina; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Robledo, Mercedes; Cascón, Alberto

    2017-07-18

    Purpose: Mutations in Krebs cycle genes are frequently found in patients with pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas. Disruption of SDH, FH or MDH2 enzymatic activities lead to accumulation of specific metabolites, which give rise to epigenetic changes in the genome that cause a characteristic hypermethylated phenotype. Tumors showing this phenotype, but no alterations in the known predisposing genes, could harbor mutations in other Krebs cycle genes.Experimental Design: We used downregulation and methylation of RBP1, as a marker of a hypermethylation phenotype, to select eleven pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas for targeted exome sequencing of a panel of Krebs cycle-related genes. Methylation profiling, metabolite assessment and additional analyses were also performed in selected cases.Results: One of the 11 tumors was found to carry a known cancer-predisposing somatic mutation in IDH1. A variant in GOT2, c.357A>T, found in a patient with multiple tumors, was associated with higher tumor mRNA and protein expression levels, increased GOT2 enzymatic activity in lymphoblastic cells, and altered metabolite ratios both in tumors and in GOT2 knockdown HeLa cells transfected with the variant. Array methylation-based analysis uncovered a somatic epigenetic mutation in SDHC in a patient with multiple pheochromocytomas and a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Finally, a truncating germline IDH3B mutation was found in a patient with a single paraganglioma showing an altered α-ketoglutarate/isocitrate ratio.Conclusions: This study further attests to the relevance of the Krebs cycle in the development of PCC and PGL, and points to a potential role of other metabolic enzymes involved in metabolite exchange between mitochondria and cytosol. Clin Cancer Res; 1-10. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Modeling tumor predisposing FH mutations in yeast: effects on fumarase activity, growth phenotype and gene expression profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Antti; Ylisaukko-Oja, Sanna S K; Kiuru, Maija; Takatalo, Maarit S; Salmikangas, Paula; Tuimala, Jarno; Arango, Diego; Karhu, Auli; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Jäntti, Jussi

    2006-03-15

    Heterozygous mutations in the fumarase (FH) gene cause the tumor predisposition syndrome hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (MIM 605839). While most families segregate a benign phenotype of multiple leiomyomas, others display a phenotype with early-onset renal cancer and leiomyosarcoma. Modifier genes may play a role in this, but an alternative explanation is simple genotype-phenotype association. FH mutations predisposing to cancer appear to be truncating or in fully conserved amino acids, suggesting that mutations severely affecting FH activity might predispose to malignancy. In the present study, we analyzed 2 conserved fumarase mutations in yeast. H153R has been described in 3 cancer predisposition families; whereas all 3 reported K187R families have displayed the benign phenotype. Examining H153R and K187R should clarify whether cancer-related FH mutations differ from their benign phenotype-associated counterparts. Yeast strains containing the 2 mutations, and knockout and wild type (WT) references, were created and the growth phenotypes studied on selected carbon sources to assess mitochondrial function. Additionally, Fum1 protein production and activity were measured, and the strains were subjected to transcriptional profiling. On nonfermentable lactate medium, the fumarase knockout strains did not grow, whereas the mutants showed no differences, as compared to WT yeast. Although both mutant strains produced fumarase, a considerable decrease in enzyme activity was seen in mutants with respect to WT. Transcription of the majority of Krebs cycle enzymes was downregulated in response to mutations in fumarase. In conclusion, both mutants displayed some, albeit greatly reduced, fumarase activity. This activity was sufficient to support normal growth on nonfermentable carbon source, unlike the deletion phenotype, demonstrating the significance of the residual activity. The findings support the hypothesis that modifier gene(s), rather than phenotype

  18. Genetic variations of bile salt transporters as predisposing factors for drug-induced cholestasis, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and therapeutic response of viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Bruno; Geier, Andreas

    2011-04-01

    Drug-induced cholestasis, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and viral hepatitis are acquired forms of liver disease. Cholestasis is a pathophysiologic state with impaired bile formation and subsequent accumulation of bile salts in hepatocytes. The bile salt export pump (BSEP) (ABCB11) is the key export system for bile salts from hepatocytes. This article provides an introduction into the physiology of bile formation followed by a summary of the current knowledge on the key bile salt transporters, namely, the sodium-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide NTCP, the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), BSEP and the multi-drug resistance protein 3. The pathophysiologic consequences of altered functions of these transporters, with an emphasis on molecular and genetic aspects, are then discussed. Knowledge of the role of hepatocellullar transporters, especially BSEP, in acquired cholestasis is continuously increasing. A common variant of BSEP (p.V444A) is now a well-established susceptibility factor for acquired cholestasis and recent evidence suggests that the same variant also influences the therapeutic response and disease progression of viral hepatitis C. Studies in large independent cohorts are now needed to confirm the relevance of p.V444A. Genome-wide association studies should lead to the identification of additional genetic factors underlying cholestatic liver disease.

  19. Genetic variation in the beta2-adrenergic receptor but not catecholamine-O-methyltransferase predisposes to chronic pain: results from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Lynne J; Smith, Blair H; Jones, Gareth T; Reid, David M; Strachan, David P; Macfarlane, Gary J

    2010-04-01

    More than 1 in 10 adults in the general population experience chronic widespread body pain (CWP), which lies at one end of a continuous spectrum of pain ranging in both severity and duration. Neuroendocrine factors can modify the effect of known psychological and psychosocial risk factors for progression along the spectrum of pain and development of CWP, and genetic variants that affect neuroendocrine and neural processing potentially affect susceptibility to chronic pain development. We have examined variants across genes encoding the beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) and catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT) - key neuroendocrine signalling factors - in a large population-based sample to determine whether these may be involved in pain progression and CWP development. A nested association study was conducted using individuals from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study who had been assessed for pain status. Genotypes were available for nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across ADRB2 and 11 SNPs across COMT. ADRB2 SNPs rs12654778 and rs1042713 were associated either with CWP alone (p=0.02 for both) or with position along pain spectrum (pain status; p=0.04). Common functional ADRB2 haplotype combinations were also associated with pain status (p(model)=0.002) and, further, with both extent and duration of pain (p(model)=0.003 and p(model)=0.002, respectively). There were no associations of either CWP or pain status with COMT genotypes or haplotypes. These results are the first to suggest that functional ADRB2 variants are involved in regulating pain status at a population level. A role for COMT in chronic pain development was not identified, though could not be excluded.

  20. Are adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and ankylosing spondylitis counter-opposing conditions? A hypothesis on biomechanical contributions predisposing to these spinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, A T; Dorsch, J L; Cholewicki, J

    2003-01-01

    Human spinal biomechanics are profoundly complex and not well understood, especially in terms of the dynamic spine function. Translation of biomechanics to disease is difficult, particularly since cause must be separated from effect. Primary dynamics predisposing to the onset of chronic spinal disorders, e.g., adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) or ankylosing spondylitis (AS), must clearly be differentiated from secondary alterations. This commentary addresses primary biomechanics that may predispose to these idiopathic diseases. A novel hypothesis is proposed, based upon inferences regarding their contrasting muscular dynamics. The hypothesis postulates opposing inherent muscle tonicity in AIS versus AS. Converse degrees of spinal stability may predispose to the respective curvature deformities of AIS and the enthesopathy lesions of AS. One condition is suspected to counter-oppose the other, within a polymorphic spectrum of spinal stability.

  1. 甲状腺癌易感基因的研究进展%Research progression of thyroid carcimoma's predisposing genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟晓云; 焦淑贤

    2011-01-01

    甲状腺癌是多因素参与的一类复杂性疾病,其病因及发病机制尚不完全清楚.研究表明环境因素与遗传易感因素相互作用是大多数肿瘤的病因,并且遗传易感因素起关键作用.本文就国内外对甲状腺癌易感基因的研究进展做一综述.%Thyroid carcimoma is a complex desease participated of multiple factors.Which etiopathogenisis and invasion mechanism is unknown.Investigation indicated that the interaction of environmental fator and descent predisposing fator was majority carcinoma's etiopathogenisis , and descent predisposing fator was more important.This article reviewed the globle research progression of thyroid carcimoma's predisposing genes.

  2. Anatomical Variations of Anterior Osteomeatal Complex in Patients With Chronic Sinusitis

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    Sarafraz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Identifying predisposing factors for chronic sinusitis is very important. Objectives Anatomical variation of the lateral nasal wall has been investigated in several studies and it has been suggested as a predisposing factor for sinusitis. Patients and Methods In this case-control study, 74 patients who were diagnosed with chronic sinusitis (the case group based on clinical criteria and CT scan were entered into the study and 74 patients without chronic sinusitis were considered as the control group. CT scans of all patients were reviewed by a radiologist to interpret and evaluate anatomic variations of anterior osteomeatal complex including nasal deviation, concha bullosa, agger nasi, lateralized uncinate, Haller’s cells, paradoxical middle turbinate, and maxillary hypoplasia. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact test with SPSS software version 18. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Results showed that the most common sinus involved was maxillary sinus. Among anatomic variations, septal deviation and concha bullosa were associated with chronic sinusitis (P < 0.01 and P < 0.032, respectively. Conclusions Among anatomic variations, septal deviation and concha bullosa are predisposing factors for chronic sinusitis and we recommend that patients with chronic sinusitis be treated by surgical procedures.

  3. PREVALENCE OF ANATOMIC VARIATIONS IN CHRONIC RHINOSINUSITIS.

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    Shrikrishna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of anatomic variations in patients suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS and to compare them with normal population. DESIGN: This is a case control study. A prospective s tudy of anatomic variations was done on 100 computed tomography (CT scans of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Prevalence of anatomic variations in control group was assessed by studying 100 CT scans of non- CRS patients. RESULTS: Even though proportion of concha bullosa was more among chronic rhinosinusitis patients compared to normal individual s, it was statistically not significant. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of pa radoxical middle turbinate, retroverted uncinate process, overpneumatized ethmoid bulla and s eptal deviation in chronic rhinosinusitis patients compared to normal individuals. There was s ignificantly lesser proportion of individuals having haller cells and agger nasi cell s in chronic rhinosinusitis compared to normal individuals. CONCLUSION: There is no significant prevalence of anatomic vari ations in osteomeatal unit in patients with chronic rhinosinus itis. The anatomic variations may predispose to pathological changes only if they are bi gger in size. More detailed studies are recommended in this regard as a good knowledge of c omplex anatomy of the paranasal sinuses is essential to understand chronic rhinosinusitis a nd to plan its treatment

  4. Avaliação dos fatores predisponentes nas instabilidades femoropatelares Avaliation of predisposing factors in patellofemoral instabilities

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    Ricardo Carli Burmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência dos fatores predisponentes à instabilidade femoropatelar (displasia de tróclea, patela alta, TAGT, báscula patelar em um grupo de pacientes acompanhados em nível ambulatorial. MÉTODOS: Avaliou-se 70 pacientes, sendo 52 do sexo feminino (74,28% e 18 (25,72% do sexo masculino, num total de 127 joelhos, com uma média de idade de 17,71 anos. A avaliação por imagem foi realizada através de radiografias e tomografia computadorizada. As instabilidades femoropatelares foram classificadas seguindo-se a classificação de Henri Dejour (instabilidade maior, objetiva e potencial. Enquadraram-se as displasias trocleares de acordo com a classificação de David Dejour (tipo A, B, C, D. RESULTADOS: Observou-se displasia troclear em 118 (92,91% joelhos, sendo 91 (77,11% joelhos dos tipos A e B. A altura patelar apresentou uma média de 1,23, com 44 (34,64% consideradas patela alta e 83 (65,36% normais. A báscula patelar alterada foi encontrada em 92 (72,44% joelhos e a elevação da TAGT em 63 (49,60% joelhos. Obteve-se predominância de instabilidades objetivas 89 (70,07% joelhos, Quanto a associação de fatores predisponentes,, 117 (92,13% joelhos apresentaram mais quem um fator. CONCLUSÕES: A instabilidade femoropatelar é uma doença multifatorial, os distúrbios trocleares são mais prevalentes e há uma forte associação entre 2 ou mais fatores predisponentes.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of predisposing factors for femoropatelar instability (dysplasia of the trochlea, high patella, TTTG, and patellar tilt in a group of patients in outpatient follow-up. METHODS: 70 patients were evaluated; 52 (74.28 % female and 18 (25.72 % male, with an average age of 17.71 years and a total of 127 knees. The evaluation by imaging was carried out through radiologic examination and computerized tomography. The femoropatelar instabilities were classified according to Henri Dejour's classification (major, objective and

  5. ANALYSIS OF PREDISPOSING FACTORS TO ABORTION IN WOMEN OF THE FIRST PERIOD OF MATURE AGE OF DIFFERENT SOMATOTYPES WITH 22 - 27 WEEKS GESTATIONAL PERIOD

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    L. V. Muzurova

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Frequency of occurance ofdifferent somatotypes and predisposing factors to abortion in women at the age of 22 to 35 of the 2-nd trimester of pregnancy has been understudy. It is determined the women with different somatotypes are characterized by different frequency of occurance of extragenital and genital pathology

  6. Predisposing and Enabling Factors Associated with Mammography Use among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Women Living in a Rural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, Silvia; Thompson, Beti; Coronado, Gloria D.; Martin, Diane P.; Heagerty, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Women who do not receive regular mammograms are more likely than others to have breast cancer diagnosed at an advanced stage. Purpose: To examine predisposing and enabling factors associated with mammography use among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women. Methods: Baseline data were used from a larger study on cancer prevention in rural…

  7. Examining the Diet of Post-Migrant Hispanic Males Using the Precede-Proceed Model: Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Dietary Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Diana Cuy; Downey, Laura; Graham-Kresge, Susan; Yadrick, Kathleen; Zoellner, Jamie; Connell, Carol L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine socio-environmental, behavioral, and predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling (PRE) factors contributing to post-migration dietary behavior change among a sample of traditional Hispanic males. Design: In this descriptive study, semistructured interviews, a group interview, and photovoice, followed by group interviews, were…

  8. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in patients with and without predisposing habits in glossal and extra-glossal site: An institutional experience in South India

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    K Ranganathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We report our cohort of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC patients with or without predisposing habits in glossal and extraglossal sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of OSCC cases over a period of 13.75 years from the archives of Ragas Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India. Demographic details, site, details of habits, and grade of OSCC were retrieved. Social Package for Social Service version 17.0 was used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and comparison of mean were employed appropriately. RESULTS: There were 151 OSCC cases, of which 60.9% (92/151 were males, 21.2% (32/151 were aged ≤40 years and 27.82% (42/151 occurred in the tongue. The glossal to extraglossal site ratio was 1:2.6. Predisposing habits were present in 52.4% of glossal OSCC and 82.6% with extra-glossal sites (P = 0.000. Besides tobacco, exclusive areca nut chewing was observed in 15.23% (23/151 patients. Thirty-nine (25.8% belonged to non-tobacco, non-areca nut, non-alcohol (NTND group with male to female ratio was1:3. DISCUSSION: In our cohort, 112 of 151 OSCC (74.8% had at least one predisposing habit. Chewing of areca nut alone was a predisposing habit by itself. In addition, there was a small, subset of cases that were not associated with history of any habits. This study brings to focus the subsets of OSCC predisposed by areca nut and NTND, that needs to be studied further.

  9. Fournier’s Gangrene after Open Hemorrhoidectomy without a Predisposing Factor: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

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    Guldeniz Karadeniz Cakmak

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Fournier’s gangrene (FG is a fatal synergistic infectious disease with necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and abdominal wall along with the scrotum and penis in men and vulva in women. An unpredictable case of FG two weeks after open hemorrhoidectomy in a previously healthy 55-year-old male is described. Full-thickness patchy skin necrosis of the perianal, perineal and scrotal region associated with rectal perforation was detected on admission. Prompt radical debridement together with aggressive fluid resuscitation and broad-spectrum antibiotic administration was initiated. Because of rectal involvement, diverting sigmoid colostomy was fashioned. The patient survived after two additional local debridements. Nevertheless, loss of sphincter function due to massive muscle destruction led to permanent colostomy. Our case together with others reported in the literature illustrates that, although rare, FG after open hemorrhoidectomy represents a life-threatening complication to otherwise healthy patients. The development of fever and urinary retention should draw the attention of the surgeon, even if the presentation is delayed. The current literature only briefly mentions the potential risk of FG after such a common surgical procedure. However, devastating complications occur more often than anticipated. This disastrous complication without predisposing factor is discussed along with a literature review.

  10. Detection of a Tumor Suppressor Gene Variant Predisposing to Colorectal Cancer in an 18th Century Hungarian Mummy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Michal; Hershkovitz, Israel; Sklan, Ella H; Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila; Pap, Ildikó; Szikossy, Ildikó; Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are common and strongly associated with the development of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. While extensively studied in modern populations, reports on visceral tumors in ancient populations are scarce. To the best of our knowledge, genetic characterization of mutations associated with colorectal cancer in ancient specimens has not yet been described. In this study we have sequenced hotspots for mutations in the APC gene isolated from 18th century naturally preserved human Hungarian mummies. While wild type APC sequences were found in two mummies, we discovered the E1317Q missense mutation, known to be a colorectal cancer predisposing mutation, in a large intestine tissue of an 18th century mummy. Our data suggests that this genetic predisposition to cancer already existed in the pre-industrialization era. This study calls for similar investigations of ancient specimens from different periods and geographical locations to be conducted and shared for the purpose of obtaining a larger scale analysis that will shed light on past cancer epidemiology and on cancer evolution.

  11. Upper respiratory tract disease in captive orangutans (Pongo sp.): prevalence in 20 European zoos and predisposing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, N; Pirovino, M; Zingg, R; Clauss, M; Kaup, F J; Heistermann, M; Hatt, J M; Steinmetz, H W

    2011-12-01

    Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) is a significant cause of morbidity in captive orangutans (Pongo abelii, Pongo pygmaeus), and the pathogenesis is often unknown.  The prevalence of respiratory disease in captive European orangutans (201 animals; 20 zoos) and possible predisposing factors were investigated. Bornean orangutans (P. pygmaeus) showed chronic respiratory signs significantly more often (13.8%) than Sumatran (P. abelii; 3.6%), and males (15.8%) were more often afflicted than females (3.9%). Hand-reared animals (21%) developed air sacculitis more often than parent-reared animals (5%). Diseased animals were more often genetically related to animals with respiratory diseases (93%) than to healthy animals (54%). None of the environmental conditions investigated had a significant effect on disease prevalence. Results suggest a higher importance of individual factors for the development of URTD than environmental conditions. Bornean, male and hand-reared orangutans and animals related to diseased animals need increased medical surveillance for early detection of respiratory disease. © 2011 University of Zurich.

  12. Aspergillus citrinoterreus, a new species of section Terrei isolated from samples of patients with nonhematological predisposing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinea, Jesús; Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Escribano, Pilar; Peláez, Teresa; Guarro, Josep; Bouza, Emilio

    2015-02-01

    The use of molecular identification techniques has revealed an increasing number of new species within Aspergillus section Terrei. We phenotyped a set of 26 clinical isolates that showed genetic differences from Aspergillus terreus sensu stricto by analyzing sequences from PCR-amplified β-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the internal transcribed spacer region. Since the isolates were phylogenetically and morphologically different from all of the members of Aspergillus section Terrei, they are described here as a new species, Aspergillus citrinoterreus, so named because it produces a diffusible yellowish pigment in agar. A. citrinoterreus isolates were significantly more susceptible to itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole than A. terreus sensu stricto isolates were; in contrast, the amphotericin B MICs for both species were high. A. citrinoterreus was found in clinical samples from patients with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis and colonized patients, none of whom had hematological malignancies as predisposing conditions. However, they did have other underlying conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cirrhosis, and cancer or had received a solid organ transplants and presented not only with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis but also with mediastinitis. A. citrinoterreus isolates were detected for the first time in 2002. In all cases of invasive aspergillosis, A. citrinoterreus was found to be a copathogen, mostly with A. fumigatus.

  13. Prospective implementation of a software application for pre-disposal L/ILW waste management activities in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fako, Raluca; Sociu, Florin; Stan, Camelia; Georgescu, Roxana; Barariu, Gheorghe [National Authority for Nuclear Activity - Subsidiary of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Projects, 409 Atomistilor Str., P.O. Box 5204, Mg4 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)

    2013-07-01

    Romania is actively engaged to update the Medium and Long Term National Strategy for Safe Management of Radioactive Waste and to approve the Road Map for Geological Repository Development. Considering relevant documents to be further updated, about 122,000 m{sup 3} SL-LILW are to be disposed in a near surface facility that will have room, also, for quantities of VLLW. Planned date for commissioning is under revision. Taking into account that in this moment there are initiated several actions for the improvement of the technical capability for LILW treatment and conditioning, several steps for the possible use of SAFRAN software were considered. In view of specific data for Romanian radioactive waste inventory, authors are trying to highlight the expected limitations and unknown data related with the implementation of SAFRAN software for the foreseen pre-disposal waste management activities. There are challenges that have to be faced in the near future related with clear definition of the properties of each room, area and waste management activity. This work has the aim to address several LILW management issues in accordance with national and international regulatory framework for the assurance of nuclear safety. Also, authors intend to develop their institutional capability for the safety demonstration of the existent and future radioactive waste management facilities and activities. (authors)

  14. Developmental androgen excess programs sympathetic tone and adipose tissue dysfunction and predisposes to a cardiometabolic syndrome in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Kazunari; Waraich, Rizwana S; Liu, Suhuan; Ferron, Mathieu; Waget, Aurélie; Meyers, Matthew S; Karsenty, Gérard; Burcelin, Rémy; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck

    2013-06-15

    Among women, the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is considered a form of metabolic syndrome with reproductive abnormalities. Women with PCOS show increased sympathetic tone, visceral adiposity with enlarged adipocytes, hypoadiponectinemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, increased inactive osteocalcin, and hypertension. Excess fetal exposure to androgens has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Previously, we showed that neonatal exposure to the androgen testosterone (NT) programs leptin resistance in adult female mice. Here, we studied the impact of NT on lean and adipose tissues, sympathetic tone in cardiometabolic tissues, and the development of metabolic dysfunction in mice. Neonatally androgenized adult female mice (NTF) displayed masculinization of lean tissues with increased cardiac and skeletal muscle as well as kidney masses. NTF mice showed increased and dysfunctional white adipose tissue with increased sympathetic tone in both visceral and subcutaneous fat as well as increased number of enlarged and insulin-resistant adipocytes that displayed altered expression of developmental genes and hypoadiponectinemia. NTF exhibited dysfunctional brown adipose tissue with increased mass and decreased energy expenditure. They also displayed decreased undercarboxylated and active osteocalcin and were predisposed to obesity during chronic androgen excess. NTF showed increased renal sympathetic tone associated with increased blood pressure, and they developed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Thus, developmental exposure to testosterone in female mice programs features of cardiometabolic dysfunction, as can be observed in women with PCOS, including increased sympathetic tone, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, prediabetes, and hypertension.

  15. Detection of a Tumor Suppressor Gene Variant Predisposing to Colorectal Cancer in an 18th Century Hungarian Mummy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Feldman

    Full Text Available Mutations of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene are common and strongly associated with the development of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. While extensively studied in modern populations, reports on visceral tumors in ancient populations are scarce. To the best of our knowledge, genetic characterization of mutations associated with colorectal cancer in ancient specimens has not yet been described. In this study we have sequenced hotspots for mutations in the APC gene isolated from 18th century naturally preserved human Hungarian mummies. While wild type APC sequences were found in two mummies, we discovered the E1317Q missense mutation, known to be a colorectal cancer predisposing mutation, in a large intestine tissue of an 18th century mummy. Our data suggests that this genetic predisposition to cancer already existed in the pre-industrialization era. This study calls for similar investigations of ancient specimens from different periods and geographical locations to be conducted and shared for the purpose of obtaining a larger scale analysis that will shed light on past cancer epidemiology and on cancer evolution.

  16. Prevalence of Geographic tongue and Related Predisposing Factors in 7-18 Year-Old Students in Kermanshah, Iran 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Safarzadeh, Mina; Mozafari, Hamidreza; Tavakoli, Payam

    2015-01-01

    Geographic tongue is a benign lesion at the dorsum and margins of the tongue that sometimes causes pain and burning sensation. This lesion is characterized by an erythematous area with white or yellow folded edges. The predisposing factors of this lesion include heredity, allergies, psoriasis, stress, fissured tongue and consumption of some foods. The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of geographic tongue and its related factors among the 7-18 year-old students in Kermanshah, Iran. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in three schools in Kermanshah using multi-stage random cluster sampling method. A total number of 3600 students were examined (1800 girls and 1800 boys). Demographic data and the results of examinations were recorded in a questionnaire. The factors affecting the incidence of geographic tongue were analyzed by the SPSS-20 software and the Chi-square test.The prevalence of geographic tongue was 7.86% (283 individuals). The incidence of this lesion was significantly higher in males than in females (pstudents was higher than in female students.

  17. Cigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Disease Predisposes to More Severe Infection with Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: Protective Effects of Andrographolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W S Daniel; Peh, Hong Yong; Liao, Wupeng; Pang, Chu Hui; Chan, Tze Khee; Lau, Suk Hiang; Chow, Vincent T; Wong, W S Fred

    2016-05-27

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is associated with many maladies, one of which is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As the disease progresses, patients are more prone to develop COPD exacerbation episodes by bacterial infection, particularly to nontypeable Haemophilus influenza (NTHi) infection. The present study aimed to develop a CS-exposed mouse model that increases inflammation induced by NTHi challenge and investigate the protective effects of andrographolide, a bioactive molecule with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties isolated from the plant Andrographis paniculata. Female BALB/c mice exposed to 2 weeks of CS followed by a single intratracheal instillation of NTHi developed increased macrophage and neutrophil pulmonary infiltration, augmented cytokine levels, and heightened oxidative damage. Andrographolide effectively reduced lung cellular infiltrates and decreased lung levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, CXCL1/KC, 8-OHdG, matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), and MMP-9. The protective actions of andrographolide on CS-predisposed NTHi inflammation might be attributable to increased nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation and decreased Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) repressor function, resulting in enhanced gene expression of antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPx-2), glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier (GCLM), and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Taken together, these findings strongly support a therapeutic potential for andrographolide in preventing lung inflammation caused by NTHi in cigarette smokers.

  18. Knockout of the TauT gene predisposes C57BL/6 mice to streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Han

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end stage renal disease in the world. Although tremendous efforts have been made, scientists have yet to identify an ideal animal model that can reproduce the characteristics of human diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we hypothesize that taurine insufficiency is a critical risk factor for development of diabetic nephropathy associated with diabetes mellitus. This hypothesis was tested in vivo in TauT heterozygous (TauT+/- and homozygous (TauT-/- knockout in C57BL/6 background mice. We have shown that alteration of the TauT gene (also known as SLC6A6 has a substantial effect on the susceptibility to development of extensive diabetic kidney disease in both TauT+/- and TauT-/-mouse models of diabetes. These animals developed histological changes characteristic of human diabetic nephropathy that included glomerulosclerosis, nodular lesions, arteriosclerosis, arteriolar dilation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Immunohistochemical staining of molecular markers of smooth muscle actin, CD34, Ki67 and collagen IV further confirmed these observations. Our results demonstrated that both homozygous and heterozygous TauT gene deletion predispose C57BL/6 mice to develop end-stage diabetic kidney disease, which closely replicates the pathological features of diabetic nephropathy in human diabetic patients.

  19. Brain network reorganization differs in response to stress in rats genetically predisposed to depression and stress-resilient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, N; Becker, R; Schwarz, A J; Weber-Fahr, W; Clemm von Hohenberg, C; Vollmayr, B; Sartorius, A

    2016-12-06

    Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) remains a pressing clinical problem. Optimizing treatment requires better definition of the specificity of the involved brain circuits. The rat strain bred for negative cognitive state (NC) represents a genetic animal model of TRD with high face, construct and predictive validity. Vice versa, the positive cognitive state (PC) strain represents a stress-resilient phenotype. Although NC rats show depressive-like behavior, some symptoms such as anhedonia require an external trigger, i.e. a stressful event, which is similar to humans when stressful event induces a depressive episode in genetically predisposed individuals (gene-environment interaction). We aimed to distinguish neurobiological predisposition from the depressogenic pathology at the level of brain-network reorganization. For this purpose, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging time series were acquired at 9.4 Tesla scanner in NC (N=11) and PC (N=7) rats before and after stressful event. We used a graph theory analytical approach to calculate the brain-network global and local properties. There was no difference in the global characteristics between the strains. At the local level, the response in the risk strain was characterized with an increased internodal role and reduced local clustering and efficiency of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and prelimbic cortex compared to the stress-resilient strain. We suggest that the increased internodal role of these prefrontal regions could be due to the enhancement of some of their long-range connections, given their connectivity with the amygdala and other default-mode-like network hubs, which could create a bias to attend to negative information characteristic for depression.

  20. Polymorphism of alcohol metabolizing gene ADH3 predisposes to development of alcoholic pancreatitis in North Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya eSingh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim- Genetic factors regulating alcohol metabolism could predispose in developing alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP. Studies revealed that alcohol could be metabolized by both ways, oxidative and non-oxidative. The main oxidative pathway includes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH and cytochrome P450 enzyme. We investigated whether polymorphism in these alcohol metabolizing enzyme genes could be associated with alcoholic pancreatitis and is the purpose of our study. Method- Patients with alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP (n=72, tropical calcific pancreatitis (TCP (n=75, alcoholic controls (AC (n=40 and healthy controls (HC (n=100 were included in the study. Blood samples were collected from the subjects in EDTA coated vials. DNA was extracted and genotyping for ADH3, ALDH2 and CYP2E1 was done by PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism. The products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis. Result- The frequency distribution of ADH3*1/*1 genotype was significantly higher in ACP group (59.7% compared with TCP (38.7%, HC (42% and AC (37.5% and was found to be associated with increased risk of alcoholic pancreatitis. There was no statistically significant difference between the frequency distribution of ADH3*1/*1, ADH3*1/*2 and ADH3*2/*2 genotype between TCP and HC and healthy alcoholics. ALDH2 gene was monomorphic in our population, and the frequencies for CYP2E1 intron 6 Dra I polymorphism were comparable in all four groups. Conclusion- This study shows that carriers of ADH3*1/*1 individuals consuming alcohol are at higher risk for alcoholic pancreatitis than those with other genotypes such as ADH3*1/*2 and ADH3*2/*2.

  1. Mice with altered brain lipoprotein metabolism display maladaptive responses to environmental challenges that may predispose to weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellinen, Jacob; Wang, Hong; Eckel, Robert H

    2014-08-01

    Three-month-old neuron-specific lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-depleted mice (NEXLP(-/-)) mice are preobese and have normal body weight before developing obesity by 4.5 months. This series of experiments investigated responses to novel environment stimuli and acute sleep deprivation in preobese NEXLPL(-/-)) mice to test the hypothesis that neuron-specific LPL deletion alters normal adaptive metabolic responses to environmental challenges. Three-month-old, age- and weight-matched, male NEXLPL(-/-)) (n=10) and wild-type (WT) (n=10) mice were housed in individual metabolic chambers with a 12-hr dark cycle. Food and water intake, locomotor activity, and calorimetry data were recorded in 12-min intervals. Novel environmental responses were elicited by first-time introduction to chambers at dark onset, followed by acclimation, baseline recording, and 6-hr of sleep deprivation on subsequent experimental days. NEXLPL(-/-)) mice displayed a 1.5-fold greater increase in activity in response to a novel environment than seen in WT controls (P=0.0308), and a two-fold greater increase in food intake following acute sleep deprivation (P=0.0117). NEXLPL(-/-)) mice averaged a 27% higher metabolic rate than WT mice throughout the experiments (Pweight, composition, and temperature did not differ between murine groups throughout the experiments. Levels of free fatty acid, insulin, glucose, and triglycerides were similar between groups at the terminus. A deficiency in neuronal LPL signaling disrupts normal responses to novel environmental exposure and acute sleep deprivation, a maladaptive response that may contribute to weight gain in genetically predisposed mice, and perhaps humans.

  2. Clinical profile, predisposing factors, and associated co-morbidities of children with cerebral palsy in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vykuntaraju K Gowda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebral palsy (CP is the most common physical disorder of children. Causes like jaundice and birth injury though are decreasing; complications resulting from the survival of low birth weight babies are replacing some of the older etiologies. Hence, this study was planned. Objectives: The objective was to study the clinical patterns, predisposing factors, and co-morbidities in children with CP. Materials and Methods: The present study is a hospital based prospective study conducted from January 2012 to January 2013 in children presenting to neurodevelopmental clinic at a tertiary care teaching hospital in India. Hundred cases with clinical features suggestive of CP were included in the study. Cases were evaluated by history, clinical examination, and necessary investigations. Results: Results of the study showed 81% of spastic, 12% of hypotonic, 5% of dystonic, and 2% of mixed CP cases. The mean age of presentation was 2 year, 2 month, and male to female ratio of 1:2. Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH was the most common antenatal complication observed in 6%. Four percent had neonatal sepsis and 19% were born premature. Associated co-morbidities were mental retardation (55%, seizure disorder (46%, visual problems (26%, hearing problems (19%, and failure to thrive (47%. Discussion: Sex distribution observed in our study was male to female ratio of 1.2, which was comparable with a multicenter study in Europe. PIH was observed in 6% of cases, which was comparable with prior studies. Birth asphyxia was observed in 43% of cases. Eighty-one percent of the cases constituted a spastic variety of CP which was comparable to other studies. Conclusion: Perinatal asphyxia was the important etiological factor. We found preventable intranatal causes (60% and antenatal causes (20% forming a significant proportion. Co-morbidities were significantly observed in our study.

  3. Serological evidence of brucellosis among predisposed patients with pyrexia of unknown origin in the north eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, M M; Sarkindared, S E; Brisibe, F

    2001-08-01

    Brucellosis is the zoonosis of world wide distribution and common cause of economic loss and ill health among animals and human populations. Patients with pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) who were predisposed to brucellosis through rearing of animals and consumption of different animal products were tested for presence of Brucella abortus antibodies using Rose Bengal and serum agglutination antigens. Twenty six (5.2%) of the 500 patients had B. abortus antibody. The high titres of 320, 640 and 1280 obtained in the sera of patients in this study are suggestive of the endemicity of the disease in this environment. No significant difference in age and sex distribution of brucella antibody prevalence was observed. Similarly, spatial distribution of brucella antibody in different locations was not statistically significant. Although higher serological prevalence was noted in children and students than in other populations examined, the difference in prevalence between the various occupational groups was not significant. Animal handling activities including rearing are not important factors in the prevalence of brucellosis. However, among the rearers, the highest prevalence (20%) was observed among cattle handlers followed in decreasing order of prevalence by goat rearers (10%), mixed sheep and cattle rearers (9%), mixed sheep and goat rearers (8%), and 4% among each of sheep rearers and non rearers of animals. In addition, consumers of yoghurt and fresh goat milk had higher prevalence (20%) than consumers of other milk products. However, brucella antibody prevalence between consumers and non-consumers of animal products was not significantly different. The high economic loss and public health implications of brucellosis necessitates the need for effective surveillance as well as appropriate preventive and control measure among human and animal populations.

  4. [Predisposing factors affecting drop-out rates in preventive treatment in a series of patients with migraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Naya, Manuel; Santos-Lasaosa, Sonia; Ríos-Gómez, Consuelo; Sánchez-Valiente, Sara; García-Gomara, M José; Latorre-Jiménez, Ana M; Artal-Roy, Jorge; Mauri-Llerda, José A

    2011-08-16

    The drop-out rate among patients receiving preventive treatment for migraine is higher than 30%. This situation is not very widely known and the risk factors that lead patients to drop out from treatment have yet to be identified. To evaluate some of the factors that can predispose patients to drop out of preventive treatment. We conducted a prospective study of patients suffering from migraine who required preventive treatment for the first time with one of what are considered the top three first-choice drugs, i.e. a beta-blocker (nadolol), a neuromodulator (topiramate) or a calcium antagonist (flunarizine). Two groups were established according to whether patients dropped out of treatment or not. Different demographic and clinical variables were analysed and compared in the two groups. Of 800 patients with migraine who required preventive treatment for the first time, the drop-out rate was 19.7%. In the drop-out group, the variables 'age', 'number of seizures', 'number of seizures prior to preventive treatment' and 'side effects' showed significant differences with those from the group of patients who did not drop out of preventive treatment. The drug used as preventive treatment, the side effects, a younger age and a lower number of seizures before starting the preventive treatment favoured higher drop-out rates. Whether the migraine was episodic or chronic, the presence of medication abuse and the drugs used to treat the seizures were not related with dropping out of preventive treatment. © 2011 Revista de Neurología

  5. Predisposing genes for vitiligo%白癜风易感基因的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭吕娇; 康晓静

    2014-01-01

    白癜风是一种获得性色素脱失性皮肤疾病,其发病机制复杂.近年来研究表明,白癜风是一种多基因遗传病,尤其是泛发性白癜风与遗传密切相关.在近年研究中,认为谷胱甘肽巯基转移酶基因、过氧化氢酶基因、Toll样受体家族基因、酪氨酸酶基因、盘状结构域受体基因、人类白细胞抗原等位基因和超氧化物歧化酶基因等是白癜风易感基因.探讨白癜风的易感基因为进一步阐明其发病机制提供依据,对白癜风尤其是泛发性白癜风的早期诊断、治疗、预防具有重要作用.%Vitiligo is an acquired dermatosis characterized principally by skin depigmentation with complex pathogenesis.Recent studies have indicated that vitiligo is a polygenic disease,and generalized vitiligo is particularly closely related to heredity.Many predisposing genes have been discovered for vitiligo,including the glutathione S-transferase gene,Catalase gene,Toll-like receptor gene family,tyrosinase gene,discoidin domain receptor 1 gene,human leukocyte antigen alleles,superoxide dismutase gene,etc.To study the susceptible genes for vitiligo may provide a basis for the elucidation of vitiligo pathogenesis,and greatly benefit the early diagnosis,treatment and prevention of vitiligo,especially generalized vitiligo.

  6. Macrophages and dendritic cells emerge in the liver during intestinal inflammation and predispose the liver to inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Mikami

    Full Text Available The liver is a physiological site of immune tolerance, the breakdown of which induces immunity. Liver antigen-presenting cells may be involved in both immune tolerance and activation. Although inflammatory diseases of the liver are frequently associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, the underlying immunological mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we report two murine models of inflammatory bowel disease: RAG-2(-/- mice adoptively transferred with CD4(+CD45RB(high T cells; and IL-10(-/- mice, accompanied by the infiltration of mononuclear cells in the liver. Notably, CD11b(-CD11c(lowPDCA-1(+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs abundantly residing in the liver of normal wild-type mice disappeared in colitic CD4(+CD45RB(high T cell-transferred RAG-2(-/- mice and IL-10(-/- mice in parallel with the emergence of macrophages (Mφs and conventional DCs (cDCs. Furthermore, liver Mφ/cDCs emerging during intestinal inflammation not only promote the proliferation of naïve CD4(+ T cells, but also instruct them to differentiate into IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells in vitro. The emergence of pathological Mφ/cDCs in the liver also occurred in a model of acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis under specific pathogen-free conditions, but was canceled in germ-free conditions. Last, the Mφ/cDCs that emerged in acute DSS colitis significantly exacerbated Fas-mediated hepatitis. Collectively, intestinal inflammation skews the composition of antigen-presenting cells in the liver through signaling from commensal bacteria and predisposes the liver to inflammation.

  7. Child behavioural problems and body size among 2-6 year old children predisposed to overweight. results from the "healthy start" study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Pedersen, Jeanett; Händel, Mina N

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychological adversities among young children may be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. We examined if an increased level of child behavioural problems was associated with body size among a selected group of 2-6 year old children, who were all predisposed to develop...... overweight. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using baseline data from the "Healthy Start" intervention study. A total of 3058 children were invited to participate, and data from 583 children who were all predisposed for obesity was analyzed. The Danish version of the Strengths......, and family stress level. CONCLUSION: The results suggested a threshold effect between SDQ-TD score and BMI z-score, where BMI z-score was associated with childhood behavioural problems only for those with the highest scores of SDQ-TD. No significant association between PSB score and BMI z-score was found....

  8. Molecular analysis of a family with three cases of first cousins with free trisomy 21 excludes the existence of a familial predisposing factor for nondisjunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girginoudis, P.; Avramopoulos, D. [Diagnostic Genetic Center, Athens (Greece); Robert, E. [Institut Europeen des Genomutations, Lyon (France)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We have studied a French family with three individuals, paternally related first cousins, that presented free and complete trisomy 21. Using short sequence repeat polymorphisms from chromosome 21, we analyzed the DNA of two of the three affected individuals that were available. We determined the parental origin of the supernumerary chromosome in both cases. The trisomy in these cases was found to be due to maternal meiotic errors. Since the individuals were related through their paternal grandparents (their fathers were siblings) we conclude that the recurrence of trisomy 21 in this family is a result of chance and is not due to any possible genetic predisposing factors. This is in accordance with previous results on recurrent trisomy 21 families, where predisposing factors were also often excluded through the same kind of analysis.

  9. Variations in the size of focal nodular hyperplasia on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Fuentes, C; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Torregrosa, A; Del Val, A; Martínez, C

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the changes in the size of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) during long-term magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up. We reviewed 44 FNHs in 30 patients studied with MRI with at least two MRI studies at least 12 months apart. We measured the largest diameter of the lesion (inmm) in contrast-enhanced axial images and calculated the percentage of variation as the difference between the maximum diameter in the follow-up and the maximum diameter in the initial study. We defined significant variation in size as variation greater than 20%. We also analyzed predisposing hormonal factors. The mean interval between the two imaging studies was 35±2 months (range: 12-94). Most lesions (80%) remained stable during follow-up. Only 9 of the 44 lesions (20%) showed a significant variation in diameter: 7 (16%) decreased in size and 2 (4%) increased, with variations that reached the double of the initial size. The change in size was not related to pregnancy, menopause, or the use of birth control pills or corticoids. Changes in the size of FNHs during follow-up are relatively common and should not lead to a change in the diagnosis. These variations in size seem to be independent of hormonal factors that are considered to predispose. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Soldiers 2.5 Years after Military Deployment in Afghanistan: The Role of Personality Traits as Predisposing Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) implicates research regarding factors besides the preceding traumatic event. This study investigated the influence of predisposing personality traits on development of PTSD in a group of Danish Soldiers deployed to Afghanistan (N = 445). Using a prospective design data was collected using questionnaires including the NEO Five Factor Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. The results showed a PTSD-prevale...

  11. [Prevalence and spectrum of diseases that predispose to sudden cardiac death in Mexican children: a sample obtained from The Children's Hospital of Mexico Federico Gomez].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Hernández, Karla Sarahí; Nava-Townsend, Santiago; Sánchez-Boiso, Adriana; Sánchez-Urbina, Rocío; Contreras-Ramos, Alejandra; Erdmenger-Orellana, Julio Roberto; Tamayo-Espinosa, Tania; Becerra-Becerra, Rosario; Segura-Stanford, Begoña; Solano-Fiesco, Liborio; Balderrábano-Saucedo, Norma Alicia

    2017-09-22

    To determine the prevalence and spectrum of diseases that predispose to sudden cardiac death in Mexican children and to identify the main early signs and symptoms that can enable the health personnel to suspect about these diseases and to refer the patients to a tertiary hospital in a timely manner. Incidence, prevalence and prevalence of period as well as early symptoms, clinical data and follow-up are described in all children found with diseases that predispose to sudden cardiac death at The Children's Hospital of Mexico. Fifty-nine patients 8 ± 5 years old, 40 with cardiomyopathies and 19 with inherited arrhythmogenic diseases. The prevalence of period was 9.5/1,000 patients/year. Early more common symptoms were dyspnea, palpitations and syncope. In 9 cases a Mendelian inheritance pattern was found. Three patients died of sudden cardiac death during the period of study. Diseases that predispose to sudden cardiac death in children are not very well known for general and medical community. Every child with dyspnea, palpitations and/or syncope, should refer to the intensive search of this diseases. A complete cardiological evaluation in all members of the family is indicated. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 as a predisposing risk factor for the development of angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Annie; Dubuc, Isabelle; Morissette, Guillaume; Sedlak, Ruth H; Jerome, Keith R; Flamand, Louis

    2015-06-30

    Inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus-6 (iciHHV-6) results in the germ-line transmission of the HHV-6 genome. Every somatic cell of iciHHV-6+ individuals contains the HHV-6 genome integrated in the telomere of chromosomes. Whether having iciHHV-6 predisposes humans to diseases remains undefined. DNA from 19,597 participants between 40 and 69 years of age were analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the presence of iciHHV-6. Telomere lengths were determined by qPCR. Medical records, hematological, biochemical, and anthropometric measurements and telomere lengths were compared between iciHHV-6+ and iciHHV-6- subjects. The prevalence of iciHHV-6 was 0.58%. Two-way ANOVA with a Holm-Bonferroni correction was used to determine the effects of iciHHV6, sex, and their interaction on continuous outcomes. Two-way logistic regression with a Holm-Bonferroni correction was used to determine the effects of iciHHV6, sex, and their interaction on disease prevalence. Of 50 diseases monitored, a single one, angina pectoris, is significantly elevated (3.3×) in iciHHV-6+ individuals relative to iciHHV-6- subjects (P = 0.017; 95% CI, 1.73-6.35). When adjusted for potential confounding factors (age, body mass index, percent body fat, and systolic blood pressure), the prevalence of angina remained three times greater in iciHHV-6+ subjects (P = 0.015; 95%CI, 1.23-7.15). Analyses of telomere lengths between iciHHV-6- without angina, iciHHV-6- with angina, and iciHHV-6+ with angina indicate that iciHHV-6+ with angina have shorter telomeres than age-matched iciHHV-6- subjects (P = 0.006). Our study represents, to our knowledge, the first large-scale analysis of disease association with iciHHV-6. Our results are consistent with iciHHV-6 representing a risk factor for the development of angina.

  13. Phenomenology and predisposing factors of morbid jealousy in a psychiatric outdoor: a cross-sectional, descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyajeet Kumar Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Jealousy in a sexual relation has some advantage that it ensures propagation of one’s own gene as put by evolutionary psychologists. However, if this belief is based on unfounded evidence it may impair the relationship between partners and may be extremely distressful. Morbid jealousy may present as obsession, overvalued idea, or delusion as one of the symptoms in different psychiatric disorders. Aim: The aim of the study was to find the frequency of patients with morbid jealousy presenting in the Department of Psychiatry of Patna Medical College and Hospital (PMCH, the psychiatric diagnoses of such patients, frequency of different forms of morbid jealousy (obsession, overvalued idea, and delusion. Also, to assess predisposing or triggering factors for jealousy and to assess for suicidality in such patients and their partners. Materials and methods: All patients attending the Department of Psychiatry, PMCH were administered a screening questionnaire and if they qualified they were further administered the operational criteria for morbid jealousy. The psychiatric diagnosis was confirmed with the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems: Diagnostic Criteria for Research (ICD-10: DCR. Each patient was then administered a rating scale to quantify the psychopathology. Results: Out of 970 patients who attended outpatient department, 658 patients were administered the screening questionnaire, 174 qualified who were later assessed with the operational criteria for morbid jealousy. Fifty patients who fulfilled the criteria were assessed. The mean age of presentation for both sexes were 36.44 year (SD=13.12 years. Morbid jealousy was found to be twice as common in males as compared in females. Highest prevalence was found among participants who had higher secondary education, belonged to middle socioeconomic status, and having psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia followed by

  14. Rare Deletions at 16p13.11 Predispose to a Diverse Spectrum of Sporadic Epilepsy Syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Deletions at 16p13.11 are associated with schizophrenia, mental retardation, and most recently idiopathic generalized epilepsy. To evaluate the role of 16p13.11 deletions, as well as other structural variation, in epilepsy disorders, we used genome-wide screens to identify copy number variation in 3812 patients with a diverse spectrum of epilepsy syndromes and in 1299 neurologically-normal controls. Large deletions (> 100 kb) at 16p13.11 were observed in 23 patients, whereas no c...

  15. Promoter and 3'-untranslated-region haplotypes in the vitamin d receptor gene predispose to osteoporotic fracture: the rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Fang (Yue); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); A. d' Alesio; M. Jhamai (Mila); H. Zhao (Hui); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); F. Jehan; H.A.P. Pols (Huib); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractPolymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) have been shown to be associated with several complex diseases, including osteoporosis, but the mechanisms are unknown and study results have been inconsistent. We therefore determined sequence variation across the majo

  16. Canine epidermal lipid sampling by skin scrub revealed variations between different body sites and normal and atopic dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Angelbeck-Schulze, Mandy; Mischke, Reinhard; Rohn, Karl; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Naim, Hassan Y.; Bäumer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Background Previously, we evaluated a minimally invasive epidermal lipid sampling method called skin scrub, which achieved reproducible and comparable results to skin scraping. The present study aimed at investigating regional variations in canine epidermal lipid composition using the skin scrub technique and its suitability for collecting skin lipids in dogs suffering from certain skin diseases. Eight different body sites (5 highly and 3 lowly predisposed for atopic lesions) were sampled by ...

  17. Canine epidermal lipid sampling by skin scrub revealed variations between different body sites and normal and atopic dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Angelbeck-Schulze, Mandy; Mischke, Reinhard; Rohn, Karl; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Naim, Hassan Y.; Bäumer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Background Previously, we evaluated a minimally invasive epidermal lipid sampling method called skin scrub, which achieved reproducible and comparable results to skin scraping. The present study aimed at investigating regional variations in canine epidermal lipid composition using the skin scrub technique and its suitability for collecting skin lipids in dogs suffering from certain skin diseases. Eight different body sites (5 highly and 3 lowly predisposed for atopic lesions) were sampled by ...

  18. Predisposing factors of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy: comparison between CT emphysema score and pulmonary function test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Park, Kyung Joo; Park, Dong Won; Jung, Kyung Il; Suh, Jung Ho [Ajou Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-11-01

    To compare the CT emphysema score with various factors of pulmonary function test by simple spirometry and to use the result as a predictor of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy. The CT scans of 106 patients who had undergone percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions within the previous 18 months were retrospectively reviewed. In 75 of these 106 cases, the results of the pulmonary function test were also reviewed. On plain chest radiography, pneumothorax was noted in 20 cases (19%). Emphysema was blindly evaluated. We divided each lung into four segments and determined the severity and involved volume of emphysema, as seen on CT. Severity was classified as one of four grades, as follow : absence of emphysema=0 ; low attenuation area of less than 5mm=1 ; low attenuation area of more than 5mm, and vascular pruning with normal lung intervening=2 ; and diffuse low attenuation without intervening normal lung, and larger confluent low attenuation with vascular pruning and distortion of branching pattern occupying all or almost all the involved parenchyma=3. The involved area was also classified as one of four grades : less than 25%=1 ; 25 - 49%=2 ; 51 - 74%=3 ; and more than 75%=4. The CT emphysema score was defined as the average of the grade of severity multiplied by the grade of involved area. Pulmonary function tests, consisting of simple spirometry and a pulmonologist's interpretation, were evaluated. We also evaluated depth and size of lesion as known predisposing factors in postbioptic pneumothorax. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, Wilcoxon ranks sum W test and the student t test. A comparison between the two groups of occurrence(with or without pneumothorax) showed the emphysema scores to be 1.69{+-}2.0 and 1.11{+-}2.9, respectively ; there was thus no significant difference between the two groups (z= - 0.048, p>0.10). Nor were differences revealed by the

  19. Characteristics and Predisposing Factors of Bacterial Corneal Ulcer in the National Eye Center, Cicendo Eye Hospital, Bandung from January to December 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Maharani Putri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corneal ulcer is an emergency condition in ophthalmology, causing visual impairment, mostly by bacterial infection with rapid pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to discover the characteristics of bacterial corneal ulcer patients in the National Eye Center, Cicendo Eye Hospital, Bandung. Methods: A total of 99 medical records consisted of patients diagnosed with bacterial corneal ulcer were selected in this descriptive study. The clinical patterns and predisposing factors of the patients were analyzed. The study also identified the pathogenic bacteria of the cases. This study was carried out in the National Eye Center, Cicendo Eye Hospital, Bandung from January to December 2011 Clinical patterns. The collected data were analyzed and presented in frequency tabulation. Results: The male to female ratio was 2:1, with the average age of 44.4 years. The most common presenting symptom was eye pain (70.7%. Most patients came with decreased visual acuity that was categorized as (near- blindness (78.8% and the location of the ulcer was in central area of the cornea (56.5%. The most common predisposing factor was ocular trauma (74.7% that was caused by exposed to plants. Single-bacterial infection (67.7% was predominant, with 56 cases (56.6% of Gram-positive cocci infection. Conclusions: Bacterial corneal ulcer contributes to 48.8% of all microbial corneal ulcers. Most patients came with mild condition, centralized location, and poor visual function. The common predisposing factor was trauma associated with exposed to plants.

  20. Acquired long QT syndrome and its predisposing factors%获得性长QT综合征及其易感因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱玲; 赵楠; 张亚同; 胡欣

    2013-01-01

    临床上常用的一些药物如抗组胺药、抗微生物药、抗精神病药以及胆碱能拮抗剂等均可诱导获得性长QT综合征(acquired Long QT syndrome,aLQTs)的发生甚至尖端扭转型室性心动过速(Torsades de Pointes,TdP).正常情况下发生概率低,但当存在各种易感因素时发生率增高.主要的易感因素包括致先天性长QT综合征(congenital Long QT syndrome,cLQTs)的基因突变、药物代谢酶遗传多态性,以及药物相互作用、年龄、性别、电解质平衡紊乱等非遗传因素.我们需要正确认识aLQTs发生机理和相关易感因素,进一步构建其遗传背景.%Some drugs, such as antiarrhythmic drugs, antihistamines, antimicrobials, antipsychotics and cholinergic antagonists, can cause acquired long QT syndrome (aLQTs) and Torsades de Pointes (TdP). Although it is rare, the incidence rate becomes higher when several predisposing factors exist. The predisposing factors include mutations that are associated with congenital long QT syndrome (cLQTs) , the polymorphisms of drug's metabolic enzymes, and non-genetic factors such as drug interaction, age, gender and electrolyte disturbances. Recognition of the mechanisms and predisposing factors is necessary for preventing the occurrence of the fatal toxic effect of these drugs. We should establish the genetic background of aLQTs.

  1. Frequency of different types of precocious puberty, determining the predisposing factor and need to treatment in children - Emam Hospital (1993-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayeri H

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was performed in order to detect the frequency of different types of precocious puberty, predisposing factors and to show which group of patients need to treatment. Materials and Methods: In this study, 74 patients who referred to pediatric endocrine clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital and private office from 1993-2000 were assessed. A complete history was taken and physical examination was done in all patients by pediatrics endocrinologist. Bone age was done in all patients and specific hormonal tests were measured in some of them. Results: Among 74 patients, 50 cases (67.6 percent were female and 24 cases (32.4 percent were male. The age of the patients was between 0.8-10 years old with mean 5.37 year. 75 percent of male patients had central (complete precocious puberty and 25 percent had peripheral (incomplete precocious puberty. 40 percent of female patients had central precocious puberty, 46 percent had premature telarche, 8 percent had premature pubarche, 2 percent had premature menarche and 4 percent had other kinds of precocious puberty (one case with hypothyroidism and one case with Mccune-Albright syndrome. 10 percent of female patients with central precocious puberty had predisposing factor and 90 percent of them were idiopathic. 38.8 percent of male patients with central precocious puberty had predisposing factor and 61.2 percent of them were idiopathic. 100 percent of male patients with peripheral precocious puberty had congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. 38 percent of female patients and 100 percent of male patients needed to treatment. Conclusion: According to this study and references, precocious puberty in female usually benign but in male patients it should be evaluated thoroughly because they usually have a serious disorder which needs treatment.

  2. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria: Predisposing conditions and clinical characteristics of six cases and a review of 63 cases in the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung-Jong; Kim, Uh-Jin; Kim, Hong Bin; Park, Sang Won; Oh, Myoung-Don; Park, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Nam Joong

    2016-07-01

    Background Several case series have reported on clinical and radiographic characteristics of patients with vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). However, only a few patients were included, and systematic reviews are still lacking. The aim of this study was to update and summarise the pre-disposing conditions, clinical and radiographic characteristics of such cases due to NTM. Methods In this study, a systematic review was conducted of the English-language literature from 1961-2014 to investigate the pre-disposing conditions and characteristics of cases of VO due to NTM. Also, six additional cases diagnosed in the study hospitals were described; these cases are included in an analysis of a total of 69 cases of NTM VO. Results The most common species, regardless of the presence of HIV co-infection, was M. avium Complex followed by M. xenopi. Ten cases with HIV infection had a median CD4 lymphocyte count of 320/mm(3) (range = 41-465/mm(3)) at the time of diagnosis of NTM VO. The VO in the cases with HIV infections occurred at an earlier age and more often involved the thoracic spine than in the cases without HIV infection. Pre-disposing trauma or surgery was reported in 14.5% (10/69) of the cases. A variety of immunosuppressive diseases were observed in 49.3% of the patients, including the 10 with HIV infections and corticosteroids were used in 27.5% of the cases. Surgery was performed in 67.6% and improvement was reported in 80.6%. Conclusion NTM should be considered in immunocompromised patients with indolent VO without confirmation of tuberculosis.

  3. Calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Elsgolc, L E; Stark, M

    1961-01-01

    Calculus of Variations aims to provide an understanding of the basic notions and standard methods of the calculus of variations, including the direct methods of solution of the variational problems. The wide variety of applications of variational methods to different fields of mechanics and technology has made it essential for engineers to learn the fundamentals of the calculus of variations. The book begins with a discussion of the method of variation in problems with fixed boundaries. Subsequent chapters cover variational problems with movable boundaries and some other problems; sufficiency

  4. Tumor-mimicking large vegetation attached to the tricuspid valve without predisposing factors: A case report on CT and echocardiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jung Min; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Hwang, Hye Won; Kim, Jung Sun; Kim, Wook Sung; Peck, Kyong Ran; Park, Sung Ji [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We report the CT and echocardiographic findings of a tumor-mimicking large vegetation attached to the tricuspid valve (TV) of a 45-year-old man without predisposing factors. Echocardiography revealed a mobile homogeneous echogenic mass attached to the TV. Cardiac CT showed a 4.5 × 2.3 cm irregular low-density mass with scant enhancement in the right ventricle. Based on clinical findings of fever, positive blood culture results for Streptococcus viridans, and pathologic confirmation of the lesion, a diagnosis of infective endocarditis and vegetation was made.

  5. An Obesity-Predisposing Variant of the FTO Gene Regulates D2R-Dependent Reward Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevgi, Meltem; Rigoux, Lionel; Kühn, Anne B; Mauer, Jan; Schilbach, Leonhard; Hess, Martin E; Gruendler, Theo O J; Ullsperger, Markus; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Brüning, Jens C; Tittgemeyer, Marc

    2015-09-09

    Variations in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are linked to obesity. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms by which these genetic variants influence obesity, behavior, and brain are unknown. Given that Fto regulates D2/3R signaling in mice, we tested in humans whether variants in FTO would interact with a variant in the ANKK1 gene, which alters D2R signaling and is also associated with obesity. In a behavioral and fMRI study, we demonstrate that gene variants of FTO affect dopamine (D2)-dependent midbrain brain responses to reward learning and behavioral responses associated with learning from negative outcome in humans. Furthermore, dynamic causal modeling confirmed that FTO variants modulate the connectivity in a basic reward circuit of meso-striato-prefrontal regions, suggesting a mechanism by which genetic predisposition alters reward processing not only in obesity, but also in other disorders with altered D2R-dependent impulse control, such as addiction. Significance statement: Variations in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are associated with obesity. Here we demonstrate that variants of FTO affect dopamine-dependent midbrain brain responses and learning from negative outcomes in humans during a reward learning task. Furthermore, FTO variants modulate the connectivity in a basic reward circuit of meso-striato-prefrontal regions, suggesting a mechanism by which genetic vulnerability in reward processing can increase predisposition to obesity. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3512584-09$15.00/0.

  6. The effects of joint legal custody on mothers, fathers, and children controlling for factors that predispose a sole maternal versus joint legal award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnoe, M L; Braver, S L

    2001-02-01

    Findings from comparisons of joint and sole custody families that do not control for predivorce differences in demographic and family process variables (factors that may predispose families to choose or be awarded joint custody) are of limited generalizability, since obtained group differences may be attributable to predisposing (self-selection) factors, custody, or both. This study compared a random sample of 254 recently separated, not-yet-divorced families on 71 predivorce variables that might plausibly differentiate between families awarded joint legal versus sole maternal custody. Twenty such factors were identified and controlled for in subsequent comparisons of 52 sole maternal and 26 joint legal custody families 2 years postdivorce. Families with joint custody had more frequent father-child visitation, lower maternal satisfaction with custody arrangements, more rapid maternal repartnering, and fewer child adjustment problems (net of predivorce selection factors). Moreover, these effects did not appear to be moderated by level of predecree parental conflict. No association between custody and fathers' compliance with child support orders was obtained.

  7. Functions of bounded variation

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The paper begins with a short survey of monotone functions. The functions of bounded variation are introduced and some basic properties of these functions are given. Finally the jump function of a function of bounded variation is defined.

  8. Studying Variation in Tunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B.; van Kranenburg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in music can be caused by different phenomena: conscious, creative manipulation of musical ideas; but also unconscious variation during music recall. It is the latter phenomenon that we wish to study: variation which occurs in oral transmission, in which a melody is taught without the help

  9. Studying Variation in Tunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B.; van Kranenburg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in music can be caused by different phenomena: conscious, creative manipulation of musical ideas; but also unconscious variation during music recall. It is the latter phenomenon that we wish to study: variation which occurs in oral transmission, in which a melody is taught without the help

  10. Subtle variations in Pten dose determine cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimonti, Andrea; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Clohessy, John G; Trotman, Lloyd C; Nardella, Caterina; Egia, Ainara; Salmena, Leonardo; Sampieri, Katia; Haveman, William J; Brogi, Edi; Richardson, Andrea L; Zhang, Jiangwen; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2010-05-01

    Cancer susceptibility has been attributed to at least one heterozygous genetic alteration in a tumor suppressor gene (TSG). It has been hypothesized that subtle variations in TSG expression can promote cancer development. However, this hypothesis has not yet been definitively supported in vivo. Pten is a TSG frequently lost in human cancer and mutated in inherited cancer-predisposition syndromes. Here we analyze Pten hypermorphic mice (Pten(hy/+)), expressing 80% normal levels of Pten. Pten(hy/+) mice develop a spectrum of tumors, with breast tumors occurring at the highest penetrance. All breast tumors analyzed here retained two intact copies of Pten and maintained Pten levels above heterozygosity. Notably, subtle downregulation of Pten altered the steady-state biology of the mammary tissues and the expression profiles of genes involved in cancer cell proliferation. We present an alterative working model for cancer development in which subtle reductions in the dose of TSGs predispose to tumorigenesis in a tissue-specific manner.

  11. Assessment of the predisposing factors for shallow landslides activation in terraced areas: the case of the Rupinaro catchment, Liguria (northwestern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignetti, Martina; Godone, Danilo; Giordan, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    The shallow landslides occurrence is strongly correlated with climatic conditions and environmental settings. In the Liguria region (northwestern Italy), the landscape presents an ancient human intervention represented by terraces and, in the last century, by a general overbuilding, both in the few flat areas and in the steep slope hinterland. From the twentieth century, the progressive abandonment of agriculture generated a lack of maintenance of terraced areas, which associated to the urban and the road net development, supported the slope susceptibility to instability. This makes the assessment of the predisposing factors for shallow landslides a multidisciplinary task, combining natural and man-made issues. In this work, we try to define all the main predisposing factors of the Rupinaro catchment (southeast Liguria). We operate starting from a high-resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) supplied by an airborne LiDAR survey carried out after the autumn 2014 rainfall events. From this DTM, we mapped a total amount of 96 landslides in the study area. Then, we implemented a classification methodology based on a simple parametric score. In GIS environment we overlaid several layers: i) lithological and hydrogeological map, ii) slope iii) aspect, iv) the land use information, available by the CORINE land cover, and iv) the presence of terraces. Each spatial data was than reclassified according a numerical code. The sum, by raster math, of these factors provided an overall score raster for the entire basin. This method allows the characterization of the entire watershed, gathering all the predisposing factors for the shallow landslides activation. A categorization of the landslides area mapped from the DTM and stored in a vector layer has been made. In particular, we estimated the most frequent code within each landslide polygon, obtaining a representative data of the most influential factors that triggered shallow landslides. The results showed the prevalent

  12. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism in vitiligo: protective and predisposing effects of genotypes in disease susceptibility and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippisetty, Surekha; Ishaq, Mohammed; Komaravalli, Prasanna Latha; Jahan, Parveen

    2011-01-01

    Vitiligo is a depigmenting skin disorder with profound heterogenity in its aetio-pathophysiology, and is associated with inter-individual variation in progression of disease. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a regulator of renin angiotensin system (RAS) that plays an important role in the physiology of the vasculature, blood pressure, inflammation, adipocyte distribution of various diseases. The present study was carried out in 243 vitiligo patients (132 males and 111 females), aged between 3-62 years with a mean age at onset of 21.6  ±  13.6 yrs, and in 205 healthy controls of south Indian origin. The main objectives of the present study were to evaluate the ACE I/D (insertion/deletion) polymorphism in the patient and control groups. Further, I/D genotypes were compared among the patients with and without the family history of vitiligo as well as the progression of the disease, through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods.The results revealed a highly significant association of DD genotype with disease susceptibility (p vitiligo (p < 0.05) in terms of early age at onset. Further, the pre-dominance of ID genotype among patients revealed its association with a slow progression of the disease (p < 0.05). The present study is the first report to highlight the protective role of II genotype and the significant association of ID genotype with slow progression of the disease.

  13. The fate of (13)C-labelled and non-labelled inulin predisposed to large bowel fermentation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Christine A; Paturi, Gunaranjan; Tavendale, Michael H; Hedderley, Duncan; Stoklosinski, Halina M; Herath, Thanuja D; Rosendale, Douglas; Roy, Nicole C; Monro, John A; Ansell, Juliet

    2016-04-01

    The fate of stable-isotope (13)C labelled and non-labelled inulin catabolism by the gut microbiota was assessed in a healthy rat model. Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly assigned to diets containing either cellulose or inulin, and were fed these diets for 3 days. On day (d) 4, rats allocated to the inulin diet received (13)C-labelled inulin. The rats were then fed the respective non-labelled diets (cellulose or inulin) until sampling (d4, d5, d6, d7, d10 and d11). Post feeding of (13)C-labelled substrate, breath analysis showed that (13)C-inulin cleared from the host within a period of 36 hours. Faecal (13)C demonstrated the clearance of inulin from gut with a (13)C excess reaching maximum at 24 hours (d5) and then declining gradually. There were greater variations in caecal organic acid concentrations from d4 to d6, with higher concentrations of acetic, butyric and propionic acids observed in the rats fed inulin compared to those fed cellulose. Inulin influenced caecal microbial glycosidase activity, increased colon crypt depth, and decreased the faecal output and polysaccharide content compared to the cellulose diet. In summary, the presence of inulin in the diet positively influenced large bowel microbial fermentation.

  14. The major predisposing factors to human papilloma virus (HPV infection among patients with cancer of the cervix and their knowledge of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Lipke

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the main predisposing factors to human papilloma virus (HPV infection among patients with cancer of the cervix as well as establish their knowledge and awareness of the disease, so as to design educational programmes to minimise the future occurrence of the disease.

    Opsomming
    Doel: Die doel van hierdie studie was om die vernaamste predisposionele faktore tot Menslike Papilloma Virus (HPV infeksie te identifiseer by pasiente met kanker van die serviks, insluitende hulle kennis en bewustheid van die siekte, ten einde opvoedkundige programme tot stand te bring en te ontwerp wat die hoe voorkoms van die siekte kan minimiseer. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  15. Study on Salmonella Typhi occurrence in gallbladder of patients suffering from chronic cholelithiasis-a predisposing factor for carcinoma of gallbladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walawalkar, Yogesh D; Gaind, Rajni; Nayak, Vijayashree

    2013-09-01

    Cholelithiasis is frequently associated with carcinoma of gallbladder, and the presence of Salmonella Typhi in gallbladder of patients suffering from cholelithiasis is implicated as a predisposing factor for carcinogenesis. This study was conducted on patients suffering from chronic cholelithiasis from a region in North India-endemic area for enteric fever with high incidence of gallstones and gallbladder cancer. Since culture studies rarely reveal the chronic Salmonella Typhi persistence, we use PCR assay to specifically amplify the H1-d flagellin gene sequence homologous with Salmonella Typhi. Seven cases (17.5%), none of which were positive for culture, showed positive PCR results for Salmonella Typhi, 4 (10%) of which were tissue, 2 bile (5%), and 1 gallstone (2.5%). The chronic existence of Salmonella Typhi in gallbladder disease was confirmed. Thus, the study would indicate the importance of vaccination so as to prevent chronic infection and need for early diagnostic tools to prevent any further complications.

  16. Lack of Rb and p53 delays cerebellar development and predisposes to large cell anaplastic medulloblastoma through amplification of N-Myc and Ptch2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhova, Olga; Leung, Carly; van Montfort, Erwin; Berns, Anton; Marino, Silvia

    2006-05-15

    Medulloblastomas are among the most common malignant brain tumors in childhood. They typically arise from neoplastic transformation of granule cell precursors in the cerebellum via deregulation of molecular pathways involved in normal cerebellar development. In a mouse model, we show here that impairment of the balance between proliferation and differentiation of granule cell precursors in the external granular layer of the developing cerebellum predisposes but is not sufficient to induce neoplastic transformation of these progenitor cells. Using array-based chromosomal comparative genomic hybridization, we show that genetic instability resulting from inactivation of the p53 pathway together with deregulation of proliferation induced by Rb loss eventually leads to neoplastic transformation of these cells by acquiring additional genetic mutations, mainly affecting N-Myc and Ptch2 genes. Moreover, we show that p53 loss influences molecular mechanisms that cannot be mimicked by the loss of either p19(ARF), p21, or ATM.

  17. Correlation between the findings of magnetic resonance imaging and prognosis of patients with predisposing factors of aseptic necrosis of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatori, Yoshio; Nakamura, Shigeru; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Ninomiya, Setsuo; Kokubo, Takashi (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Sugimoto, Hisayuki

    1991-08-01

    Eighteen patients with the predisposing factors for aseptic necrosis of the femoral head were followed up for more than two years after the initial magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. At the time of the initial examination, 24 femoral heads showed abnormal low-intensity areas on MR images without abnormal findings on plain radiographs. Among them, six femoral heads collapsed in the follow-up period. The initial mid-coronal T{sub 1}-weighted MR images of these femoral heads had shown characteristic findings, that is, band-shaped low-intensity areas with the lateral end not covered by the acetabulum. Subchondral fracture of the femoral head occurred in the vicinity of the lateral end of the band. The findings of initial MR imaging seem to predict subsequent collapse of the femoral head. (author).

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Soldiers 2.5 Years after Military Deployment in Afghanistan: The Role of Personality Traits as Predisposing Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Hellerup Nielsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD implicates research regarding factors besides the preceding traumatic event. This study investigated the influence of predisposing personality traits on development of PTSD in a group of Danish Soldiers deployed to Afghanistan (N = 445. Using a prospective design data was collected using questionnaires including the NEO Five Factor Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. The results showed a PTSD-prevalence of 9.2% in the total sample 2.5 years after homecoming. Using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Spearman¡'s rho significant relationships were identified between pre-existing personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness with development of PTSD symptoms 2.5 years after homecoming, however, a number of additional cofounders were identified.

  19. Cytomegalovirus retinitis after central retinal vein occlusion in a patient on systemic immunosuppression: does venooclusive disease predispose to cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients already at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welling JD

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available John D Welling, Ahmad B Tarabishy, John ChristoforidisDepartment of Ophthalmology, Havener Eye Institute, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis remains the most common opportunistic ocular infection in immunocompromised patients. Patients with immunocompromising diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, inherited immunodeficiency states, malignancies, and those on systemic immunosuppressive therapy, are known to be at risk. Recently, it has been suggested that patients undergoing intravitreal injection of immunosuppressive agents may also be predisposed. One previous case report speculated that there may be an additional risk for CMV retinitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with venoocclusive disease. This case study presents a case of CMV retinitis following central retinal vein occlusion in a patient on systemic immunosuppressants.Keywords: cytomegalovirus retinitis, central retinal vein occlusion, immunosuppression, solid organ transplant, venous stasis, risk factor

  20. An inter-correlative study on clinico-pathological profile and different predisposing factors of oral leukoplakia among the ethnics of Darjeeling, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendu Mondal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Idiopathic leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of oral cavity. Owing to the year-wide cold environment in Darjeeling, here the indigenous ethnic people practice a distinct addiction pattern that strongly predisposes them to oral leukoplakia. Aims: The purpose of the present study was to assess the clinico-pathological profile and various predisposing factors involved in oral leukoplakia, and to correlate its exfoliative cytological appearances with the histopathological diagnoses. Materials and Methods: A total of 53 patients were clinically diagnosed with oral leukoplakia during the study period. All information − clinical data pertaining to the patient and the patch, their personal history including addiction and diet, and the cyto-histopathological features of the lesion − was evaluated and methodically compared with each other using the statistical software, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. Results: The female-dominated cohort was chiefly affected with thin leukoplakia (67.9% involving their buccal mucosa (66.1%. Smokeless tobacco (49.1% was the most popular addiction. Alcoholism and smoking, increasing daily frequency of tobacco misuse, and verrucous and granular leukoplakias were significantly associated with dysplastic transformation (P < 0.05. Out of 16 (30.2% dysplastic lesions, exfoliative cytology correctly diagnosed only six (11.3% cases with a sensitivity of 37.5% only. Conclusion: Verrucous and granular variants are the most detrimental forms of oral leukoplakia. Dysplastic transformation frequently occurs in people addicted to smoking and alcoholism, and verrucous and granular leukoplakia. Lastly, exfoliative cytology poorly predicts the dysplastic evolution within a leukoplakic patch.

  1. 多囊卵巢综合征易感基因研究进展%Progress in predisposing genes of polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢田; 李海燕

    2014-01-01

    多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)是育龄期妇女常见的生殖内分泌和代谢紊乱疾病之一,是导致女性不孕最常见的原因之一,其发病机制复杂,具有多种临床表现。PCOS单卵双生子的高共患率、发病的家族聚集倾向及种族差异提示遗传易感性在其发病机制中起重要作用。近年来研究认为PCOS是一种多基因遗传性疾病,相关基因已成为研究热点。本文就近年来PCOS相关易感基因的研究进展作一综述。%Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common reproductive endocrine and metabolic disorders in women at childbearing age, which is also one of the most common causes of female infertility. Its pathogenesis is complex, associated with a variety of clinical manifestations. Epidemiology data, including family aggregation, twin studies and ethnic differences in disease prevalence indicate that genes contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS. Recent studies suggest that PCOS is a polygenic hereditary disease and predisposing genes associated with it have become a hot topic. In this review, we discussed the progress of predisposing genes of PCOS in recent years.

  2. Spine fractures in ankylosing spondylitis: a case report and review of imaging as well as predisposing factors to falls and fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Gita; Gensler, Lianne S; Learch, Thomas J; Weisman, Michael H

    2014-08-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS), an inflammatory arthritis that affects the axial skeleton, predisposes patients with severe disease to falls and spinal fractures. Advanced imaging has improved the process of fracture detection. In spite of increased knowledge about early diagnosis and management of AS, little attention is being paid to the environmental hazards that pose a risk for patient outcome. To identify risk factors for falls and fractures and evaluate imaging modalities in the detection of fractures in AS patients. A case report and review of the literature using PubMed for English articles from 2000 to 2013 regarding AS patients׳ risk factors for falls and fractures and imaging modalities used to diagnose fracture in this population. Potential impairments in balance and coordination in the AS population include vestibular dysfunction, thoracolumbar kyphosis, and deficits in proprioception. A common and significant environmental risk factor for falls includes the use of a tub-shower arrangement. Furthermore, osteoporosis is a well-known complication of AS, which can predispose to a fracture. Lastly, there are no comprehensive studies that have evaluated the ability of advanced imaging modalities to identify an acute spine fracture in this patient population. AS patients with advanced disease are at an increased risk of falls and fractures due to many factors including but not limited to a rigid spine and difficulty with peripheral vision. A tub-shower arrangement commonly found in homes and hotel rooms is a major hazard. A consistent approach to diagnosis of fractures involving advanced imaging recommendations should be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Variation of fundamental constants

    CERN Document Server

    Flambaum, V V

    2006-01-01

    We present a review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant alpha, strong interaction and fundamental masses. There are some hints for the variation in quasar absorption spectra, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. A very promising method to search for the variation of the fundamental constants consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transition between accidentally degenerate atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a ``nuclear'' clock based on the ultraviolet transition between very low excited state and ground state in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude! Huge enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feschbach resonance.

  4. Calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, I M

    2000-01-01

    Based on a series of lectures given by I. M. Gelfand at Moscow State University, this book actually goes considerably beyond the material presented in the lectures. The aim is to give a treatment of the elements of the calculus of variations in a form both easily understandable and sufficiently modern. Considerable attention is devoted to physical applications of variational methods, e.g., canonical equations, variational principles of mechanics, and conservation laws.The reader who merely wishes to become familiar with the most basic concepts and methods of the calculus of variations need on

  5. Ladder Variational Autoencoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Raiko, Tapani; Maaløe, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Variational autoencoders are powerful models for unsupervised learning. However deep models with several layers of dependent stochastic variables are difficult to train which limits the improvements obtained using these highly expressive models. We propose a new inference model, the Ladder Variat...

  6. Variation of Fundamental Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flambaum, V. V.

    2006-11-01

    Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest temporal and spatial variation of the fundamental ``constants'' in expanding Universe. The spatial variation can explain a fine tuning of the fundamental constants which allows humans (and any life) to appear. We appeared in the area of the Universe where the values of the fundamental constants are consistent with our existence. We present a review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant α, strong interaction and fundamental masses. There are some hints for the variation in quasar absorption spectra. Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. A very promising method to search for the variation of the fundamental constants consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transition between accidentally degenerate atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a ``nuclear'' clock based on the ultraviolet transition between very low excited state and ground state in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude! Huge enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feshbach resonance.

  7. Genetic variation in variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Herman; Gienapp, Phillip; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Variation in traits is essential for natural selection to operate and genetic and environmental effects can contribute to this phenotypic variation. From domesticated populations, we know that families can differ in their level of within-family variance, which leads to the intriguing situation th

  8. Physiology of biological variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    In agricultural products, variation exists in quality attributes between batches. Examples of this biological variation are well known and the general response is trying to suppress it as much as possible; to create uniformity using pre- andpostharvestmethods. This thesis

  9. Total variation regularization with bounded linear variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovetskii, Artyom; Voronin, Sergei; Kober, Vitaly

    2016-09-01

    One of the most known techniques for signal denoising is based on total variation regularization (TV regularization). A better understanding of TV regularization is necessary to provide a stronger mathematical justification for using TV minimization in signal processing. In this work, we deal with an intermediate case between one- and two-dimensional cases; that is, a discrete function to be processed is two-dimensional radially symmetric piecewise constant. For this case, the exact solution to the problem can be obtained as follows: first, calculate the average values over rings of the noisy function; second, calculate the shift values and their directions using closed formulae depending on a regularization parameter and structure of rings. Despite the TV regularization is effective for noise removal; it often destroys fine details and thin structures of images. In order to overcome this drawback, we use the TV regularization for signal denoising subject to linear signal variations are bounded.

  10. Variations of the perforin gene in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttini, S; Cappellano, G; Ripellino, P; Briani, C; Cocito, D; Osio, M; Cantello, R; Dianzani, U; Comi, C

    2015-01-01

    Perforin (PRF) has a key role in the function of cytotoxic T and natural killer cells. Rare variations of PRF1 predispose to autoimmunity. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system, involving defective lymphocyte apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PRF1 in CIDP. The entire coding region of PRF1 was sequenced in 94 patients and 158 controls. We found three missense variations leading to amino acid substitutions and one nonsense variation resulting in a premature stop codon. All variations would decrease PRF activity. Their overall frequency was significantly higher in patients than in controls (odds ratio (OR)=4.47). The most frequent variation was p.Ala91Val (OR=3.92) previously associated with other autoimmune diseases. Clinical analysis showed that PRF1 variations were more frequent in relapsing patients and in patients displaying axonal damage. These data suggest that PRF1 variations may influence CIDP development and course.

  11. Ensembl variation resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin-Garcia Pablo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maturing field of genomics is rapidly increasing the number of sequenced genomes and producing more information from those previously sequenced. Much of this additional information is variation data derived from sampling multiple individuals of a given species with the goal of discovering new variants and characterising the population frequencies of the variants that are already known. These data have immense value for many studies, including those designed to understand evolution and connect genotype to phenotype. Maximising the utility of the data requires that it be stored in an accessible manner that facilitates the integration of variation data with other genome resources such as gene annotation and comparative genomics. Description The Ensembl project provides comprehensive and integrated variation resources for a wide variety of chordate genomes. This paper provides a detailed description of the sources of data and the methods for creating the Ensembl variation databases. It also explores the utility of the information by explaining the range of query options available, from using interactive web displays, to online data mining tools and connecting directly to the data servers programmatically. It gives a good overview of the variation resources and future plans for expanding the variation data within Ensembl. Conclusions Variation data is an important key to understanding the functional and phenotypic differences between individuals. The development of new sequencing and genotyping technologies is greatly increasing the amount of variation data known for almost all genomes. The Ensembl variation resources are integrated into the Ensembl genome browser and provide a comprehensive way to access this data in the context of a widely used genome bioinformatics system. All Ensembl data is freely available at http://www.ensembl.org and from the public MySQL database server at ensembldb.ensembl.org.

  12. Variational Transition State Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, Donald G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This is the final report on a project involving the development and applications of variational transition state theory. This project involved the development of variational transition state theory for gas-phase reactions, including optimized multidimensional tunneling contributions and the application of this theory to gas-phase reactions with a special emphasis on developing reaction rate theory in directions that are important for applications to combustion. The development of variational transition state theory with optimized multidimensional tunneling as a useful computational tool for combustion kinetics involved eight objectives.

  13. Porosity variation in chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Ida; Grøn, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Vertical porosity variations in chalk are generally assumed to result from either a vaguely defined combination of primary sedimentary and diagenetic processes or solely to diagenetic processes. In this study, image analysis of backscatter electron images of polished samples and geochemical...... microprobe mapping were applied to measure the porosity variation in a limited number of chalk samples. Microscope data indicate that in all cases the chalk has been subjected to diagenetic processes, but our data suggest that the variations in porosity originate in primary sedimentary differences....

  14. Saturn chorus latitudinal variations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menietti, J. D; Hospodarsky, G. B; Shprits, Y. Y; Gurnett, D. A

    2014-01-01

    The variation of propagation properties of whistler mode chorus as a function of latitude is not well known at Saturn but is important for the calculation of pitch angle diffusion and nonlinear growth of chorus...

  15. Variation within categories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das-Smaal, E.A.; Swart, de J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Two aspects of variation within categories, relating to different models of categorization, were investigated - frequency of dimensional values and typicality differences within values. The influence of range of typicality experienced during learning and of informational value of feedback was also

  16. Variational principles in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  17. Loss of PKBβ/Akt2 predisposes mice to ovarian cyst formation and increases the severity of polycystic ovary formation in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Restuccia

    2012-05-01

    Ovarian cysts affect women of all ages and decrease fertility. In particular, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, in which multiple follicular cysts develop, affects 5–10% of women of reproductive age and can result in infertility. Current non-invasive treatments for PCOS can resolve cysts and restore fertility, but unresponsive patients must undergo severe ovarian wedge resection and resort to in vitro fertilization. PCOS is related to the deregulation of leutinizing hormone (LH signaling at various levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and resultant hyperproduction of androgens. Because insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia are observed in 50–70% of individuals with PCOS, deregulated insulin signaling in the ovary is considered an important factor in the disease. Here we report that aged mice specifically lacking the PKBβ (also known as Akt2 isoform that is crucial for insulin signaling develop increased testosterone levels and ovarian cysts, both of which are also observed in insulin-resistant PCOS patients. Young PKBβ knockout mice were used to model PCOS by treatment with LH and exhibited a cyst area that was threefold greater than in controls, but without hyperinsulinemia. Thus, loss of PKBβ might predispose mice to ovarian cysts independently of hyperactive insulin signaling. Targeted therapeutic augmentation of specific PKBβ signaling could therefore provide a new avenue for the treatment and management of ovarian cysts.

  18. Determination of Drug Susceptibility of Candida Strains Isolated From Patients With Recurrent Candida Vulvovaginitis and Investigation of Predisposing Factors of the Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minooeianhaghighi MH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis RVVC(, which is mostly caused by Candida albicans C. albicans(, is the second common cause of genital tract infection in females. Th purpose of this research was to identify Candida isolates from RVVC, identify predisposing factors and determine antifungal effct of flconazole against Candida strains isolated from the patients. Methods: In this descriptive-laboratory study, 20 patients with confimed diagnosis of RVVC were selected. Yeast isolates were characterized using mycological standard methods, including culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium and CHROM agar, germ tube test and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR-RFLP( technique. Th susceptibility of Candida isolates against flconazole was determined by microdilution broth method. Results: Th average age of the patients was 29.43 ± 4.63 years. Candida albicans was obtained from 100% of the samples. Th most common clinical sign was vaginal discharge 60%( in females with positive culture. Statistical correlations were observed between parturition frequency and low RVVC occurrence as well as between the previous antifungal therapy and RVVC occurrence. Th mean minimum inhibitory concentration MIC( and minimum fungicidal concentration MFC( of flconazole against diffrent C. albicans strains was determined as 45.3863 µg/mL and 63 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the uncertainty of diagnosis of this disease according to clinical symptoms and also, due to the resistance of Candida species, using culture and molecular methods are recommended as standard methods of diagnosis.

  19. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses for 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 genes predisposing to chronic glomerular diseases and IgA nephropathy in Han Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN is a complex trait regulated by the inter-action among multiple physiologic regulatory systems and probably involving numerous genes, which leads to inconsistent findings in genetic studies. One possibility of failure to replicate some single-locus results is that the underlying genetics of IgAN nephropathy is based on multiple genes with minor effects. To learn the association between 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 14 genes predisposing to chronic glomerular diseases and IgAN in Han males, the 23 SNPs genotypes of 21 Han males were detected and analyzed with a BaiO gene chip, and their asso-ciations were analyzed with univariate analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. Analysis showed that CTLA4 rs231726 and CR2 rs1048971 revealed a significant association with IgAN. These findings support the multi-gene nature of the etiology of IgAN and propose a potential gene-gene interactive model for future studies.

  20. Patients Hospitalized in General Wards via the Emergency Department: Early Identification of Predisposing Factors for Death or Unexpected Intensive Care Unit Admission—A Historical Prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Boulain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To identify, upon emergency department (ED admission, predictors of unexpected death or unplanned intensive care/high dependency units (ICU/HDU admission during the first 15 days of hospitalization on regular wards. Methods. Prospective cohort study in a medical-surgical adult ED in a teaching hospital, including consecutive patients hospitalized on regular wards after ED visit, and identification of predictors by logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards model. Results. Among 4,619 included patients, 77 (1.67% target events were observed: 32 unexpected deaths and 45 unplanned transfers to an ICU/HDU. We identified 9 predictors of the target event including the oxygen administration on the ED, unknown current medications, and use of psychoactive drug(s. All predictors put the patients at risk during the first 15 days of hospitalization. A logistic model for hospital mortality prediction (death of all causes still comprised oxygen administration on the ED, unknown current medications, and the use of psychoactive drug(s as risk factors. Conclusion. The “use of oxygen therapy on the ED,” the “current use of psychoactive drug(s”, and the “lack of knowledge of current medications taken by the patients” were important predisposing factors to severe adverse events during the 15 days of hospitalization on regular wards following the ED visit.

  1. The Schwinger Variational Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Winifred M.

    1995-01-01

    Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. For collisional problems they can be grouped into two types: those based on the Schroedinger equation and those based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions.

  2. Generalized quasi variational inequalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor, M.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.

  3. Variation in Metaphor Variation in Metaphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zóltan Kövecses

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Cognitive linguists have so far paid a great deal of attention to the emarkable universality of many conceptual metaphors. However, their theories fail to account for the equally impressive diversity of metaphorical conceptualization both across and within cultures. The present paper is an attempt to lay down the foundations of a theory of metaphor that is capable of simultaneously accounting for both universality and variation in metaphor.

     

    Cognitive linguists have so far paid a great deal of attention to the emarkable universality of many conceptual metaphors. However, their theories fail to account for the equally impressive diversity of metaphorical conceptualization both across and within cultures. The present paper is an attempt to lay down the foundations of a theory of metaphor that is capable of simultaneously accounting for both universality and variation in metaphor.

  4. Structural variations in pig genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Paudel, Y. (2015). Structural variations in pig genomes. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands Structural variations are chromosomal rearrangements such as insertions-deletions (INDELs), duplications, inversions, translocations, and copy number variations (CNVs

  5. Evaluation of molecular genetic variation associated with deep venous thrombosis in lower limb fractures in traumatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tabrizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetic variation in multiple genes associated with hemostasis and thrombosis is well documented to impact the rates of future venous thromboembolism; in addition, trauma and orthopedic surgery in lower limb and immobilization are important factors in increasing the incidence of thrombosis. Gene mutation can be predisposing factor for thrombosis in traumatic patients under anti-coagulant agent prophylaxis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the different gene mutations in these patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, the sample consisted of 53 patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT and 32 traumatic patients without thrombosis as the control group. Two groups matched together according to sex, age, weight, and medications. DNA analysis for mutation of multivariate of genes in thrombosis was studied. Results: Regarding gene variations, there was statistically significant difference only in Prothrombin (Factor II, G20210A between the patients with thrombosis and control group (P = 0.01. But, there was no difference between two groups considering other gene mutations. Mutation of Prothrombin gene (G20210A was a predictive factor for thrombosis with odds ratio of 1.1 (CI 0.3-1.9. Conclusion: According to the outcomes resulted from this study, genetic mutation in Prothrombin (Factor II [G20210A] is one of the most important genetic variations involved in traumatic patients with DVT despite prophylaxis. Genetic mutation in Prothrombin appears to be predisposing factor for thrombosis associated with trauma.

  6. Discrete Variational Optimal Control

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Fernando; de Diego, David Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops numerical methods for optimal control of mechanical systems in the Lagrangian setting. It extends the theory of discrete mechanics to enable the solutions of optimal control problems through the discretization of variational principles. The key point is to solve the optimal control problem as a variational integrator of a specially constructed higher-dimensional system. The developed framework applies to systems on tangent bundles, Lie groups, underactuated and nonholonomic systems with symmetries, and can approximate either smooth or discontinuous control inputs. The resulting methods inherit the preservation properties of variational integrators and result in numerically robust and easily implementable algorithms. Several theoretical and a practical examples, e.g. the control of an underwater vehicle, will illustrate the application of the proposed approach.

  7. Discrete Variational Optimal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Fernando; Kobilarov, Marin; Martín de Diego, David

    2013-06-01

    This paper develops numerical methods for optimal control of mechanical systems in the Lagrangian setting. It extends the theory of discrete mechanics to enable the solutions of optimal control problems through the discretization of variational principles. The key point is to solve the optimal control problem as a variational integrator of a specially constructed higher dimensional system. The developed framework applies to systems on tangent bundles, Lie groups, and underactuated and nonholonomic systems with symmetries, and can approximate either smooth or discontinuous control inputs. The resulting methods inherit the preservation properties of variational integrators and result in numerically robust and easily implementable algorithms. Several theoretical examples and a practical one, the control of an underwater vehicle, illustrate the application of the proposed approach.

  8. Variation and Synthetic Speech

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, C; Massey, N; Miller, Corey; Karaali, Orhan; Massey, Noel

    1997-01-01

    We describe the approach to linguistic variation taken by the Motorola speech synthesizer. A pan-dialectal pronunciation dictionary is described, which serves as the training data for a neural network based letter-to-sound converter. Subsequent to dictionary retrieval or letter-to-sound generation, pronunciations are submitted a neural network based postlexical module. The postlexical module has been trained on aligned dictionary pronunciations and hand-labeled narrow phonetic transcriptions. This architecture permits the learning of individual postlexical variation, and can be retrained for each speaker whose voice is being modeled for synthesis. Learning variation in this way can result in greater naturalness for the synthetic speech that is produced by the system.

  9. Variational electrodynamics of Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    De Luca, Jayme

    2013-01-01

    We study extrema with velocity discontinuities for the variational electromagnetic two-body problem. Along $C^2$ segments, these broken extrema satisfy the Euler-Lagrange equations of the variational principle, which are neutral differential delay equations with state-dependent deviating arguments. At points where accelerations are not defined and velocities are discontinuous, broken extrema satisfy Weierstrass-Erdmann corner conditions that energies and momenta are continuous. Here we construct periodic broken extrema near the $C^{\\infty}$ two-body circular orbits, using piecewise-defined $C^2$ solutions of the neutral differential delay equations along regular segments and a variational approximation for the boundary-layer segments. Broken periodic extrema with an integer number of corner points bifurcate from a discrete set of circular orbits, with scales defined by the Weierstrass-Erdmann corner conditions. We consider the three cases of hydrogen, muonium and positronium atoms. In each case the broken ext...

  10. Fimbrial phase variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khandige, Surabhi; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Surface fimbriae of pathogenic Escherichia coli facilitate sensing, adhesion and even invasion of host epithelial cells. While it is known that the pathogen has the potential to express a plethora of fimbrial variants susceptible to rapid phase ON/OFF variation, it is an open question if the fimb......Surface fimbriae of pathogenic Escherichia coli facilitate sensing, adhesion and even invasion of host epithelial cells. While it is known that the pathogen has the potential to express a plethora of fimbrial variants susceptible to rapid phase ON/OFF variation, it is an open question...... if the fimbrial diversity seen at the population level is the product of random stochasticity or a concerted effort based on active communication. Here we discuss the possibility of a mechanism alternative to a stochastic fimbrial phase variation model affecting the dynamics of a heterogeneous population....

  11. Investigation of the Association Between Bone Mineral Density and Predisposing Factors in Osteoporotic Postmenopausal Women in a Sample of Patients From Gaziantep and Trabzon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Madenci

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate the association between the bone mineral density and risk factors predisposing to osteoporosis as well as impact of regional factors on bone mineral density by comparing the data obtained from patients who lived in Gaziantep (a province in the south east of this country and Trabzon (a province in the north east of this country. Included in the study were 318 patients, of whom 162 were from Gaziantep and 156 from Trabzon. Bone mineral density of the patients was measured with DEXA, and those who had a t score below (-2.0 SD on bone mineral density measurement in the back and hip regions were included in the study. An osteoporosis follow up questionnaire that was modified from MEDOS study questionnaire was filled. The patients who lived in Gaziantep were fatter than those who lived in Trabzon (p0.05. The bone mineral density (L2-4 femur (total and Wards triangle of the patients who lived in Trabzon was significantly lower than in Gaziantep (p0.05. White skin color and high tea consumption were more common in the second group (p<0.001. Some parameters like dark or wheat skin and black eye color, birth and abortion rate, and sun bathing habis were more common in the first group (p<0.001. In conclusion, fist and cost effective option to estimate whether the patient carries a high risk is to evaluate the place where the patient lives as well the habits and traditions. The proceeding bone mineral density measurement will help to diagnose the disease. We believe that this approach will help not only for early diagnosis of osteoporosis but also useful economically.

  12. A novel unstable duplication upstream of HAS2 predisposes to a breed-defining skin phenotype and a periodic fever syndrome in Chinese Shar-Pei dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Olsson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation with no known pathogenic or autoimmune cause. In humans, several genes have been implicated in this group of diseases, but the majority of cases remain unexplained. A similar periodic fever syndrome is relatively frequent in the Chinese Shar-Pei breed of dogs. In the western world, Shar-Pei have been strongly selected for a distinctive thick and heavily folded skin. In this study, a mutation affecting both these traits was identified. Using genome-wide SNP analysis of Shar-Pei and other breeds, the strongest signal of a breed-specific selective sweep was located on chromosome 13. The same region also harbored the strongest genome-wide association (GWA signal for susceptibility to the periodic fever syndrome (p(raw = 2.3 × 10⁻⁶, p(genome = 0.01. Dense targeted resequencing revealed two partially overlapping duplications, 14.3 Kb and 16.1 Kb in size, unique to Shar-Pei and upstream of the Hyaluronic Acid Synthase 2 (HAS2 gene. HAS2 encodes the rate-limiting enzyme synthesizing hyaluronan (HA, a major component of the skin. HA is up-regulated and accumulates in the thickened skin of Shar-Pei. A high copy number of the 16.1 Kb duplication was associated with an increased expression of HAS2 as well as the periodic fever syndrome (p < 0.0001. When fragmented, HA can act as a trigger of the innate immune system and stimulate sterile fever and inflammation. The strong selection for the skin phenotype therefore appears to enrich for a pleiotropic mutation predisposing these dogs to a periodic fever syndrome. The identification of HA as a major risk factor for this canine disease raises the potential of this glycosaminoglycan as a risk factor for human periodic fevers and as an important driver of chronic inflammation.

  13. Fatores predisponentes das complicações incisionaisde laparotomias medianas em eqüinos Predisposal factors to incisional complications of ventral midline laparotomies in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geane Maciel Pagliosa

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available As complicações incisionais após laparotomia mediana em eqüinos têm prevalência de 35 a 87,5% e levam a aumento no período de convalescença ou mesmo ao óbito. Os fatores predisponentes destas complicações são pouco abordados na literatura médica eqüina e são inerentes ao paciente, ao ato cirúrgico, à anestesia e ao período pós-operatório. Considerações sobre os cuidados no pré-operatório, tamanho da incisão, roupa do cirurgião, escolha do fio cirúrgico e as condições clínicas e comportamentais do eqüino são salientadas entre os fatores predisponentes que, quando bem conhecidos, podem ser melhor administrados, no sentido de minimizar as complicações incisionais na laparotomia mediana.Incisional complications after equine midline laparotomy have an incidence of 35 to 87.5% and lead an increase in the convalescence period or to death. Predisposed factors to these complications are little approached in the equine medicine literature and consist of inherent factors to the patient, surgery, anesthesia and postoperative period. Preoperative cares, size of the incision, surgeon clothes, the choice of the suture material and equine clinical and behaviour conditions may be considered and well known in order to decrease the incisional complications after the midline laparotomy.

  14. 胎盘早剥与围产儿预后的临床研究%Explore the Early Diagnosis of Placental Abruption, Predisposing Factors and Clinical Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索胎盘早剥的早期诊断,发病诱因和临床特点,分娩方式,胎盘剥离面积等,从而改善妊娠结局与围产儿预后. 方法:回顾性分析本院收治的18例胎盘早剥患者的临床资料,分析和病情观察及对母婴预后的影响. 结果:引发胎盘早剥的病因是妊娠高血压疾病,前次妊娠胎盘早剥史,脐带过短,外伤,横位等重要因素,胎盘早剥导致产后出血,围产儿死亡高. 结论:及早诊断、及时采取有效的预防及治疗措施,可有效降低母婴围产期的死亡率.%Objective:To explore the early diagnosis of placental abruption, predisposing factors and clinical characteristics, mode of delivery, placental abruption area, so as to improve the outcome of pregnancy and perinatal prognosis.Methods:Retrospective analysis of the clinical data of 18 cases of placental abruption in patients admitted to our hospital, analysis and observation of disease and the effects on maternal and neonatal outcomes.Results:The etiology of placental abruption is caused by pregnancy induced hypertension, previous pregnancy history of placental abruption, umbilical cord is too short, trauma, an important factor in transverse position, placental abrup-tion, postpartum hemorrhage due to high, perinatal death.Conclusion:early diagnosis, timely take effective measures of prevention and treatment, which can effectively reduce the maternal perinatal mortality.

  15. Schistosomiasis: predisposing cause for the formation of hepatic abscesses? Case report Esquistossomose: causa predisponente para a formação de abscessos hepáticos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Carvalho Pedroso de Lima

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available An adult patient with chronic schistosomiasis from an endemic area, complained about a seven day fever, along with jaundice and lumbar backache on the right side. Image exams showed multiple pyogenic liver abscesses. All the classic etiologies were discarded through clinical, radiological and laboratorial criteria. Schistosomiasis can cause pylephlebitis as a complication, along with immunesuppression, granulomatous reaction with central lobular liver necrosis and a greater risk of infection. The authors suggest that schistosomiasis in its chronic form may be the predisposing cause of multiple pyogenic liver abscesses, especially in endemic areas.Paciente adulto, natural de região endêmica para esquistossomose e portador crônico da doença, apresentava queixa de febre há sete dias, associada à ictericia e dor lombar em região direita. Os exames radiológicos mostraram abscessos hepáticos piogênicos múltiplos, cuja causa predisponente é conhecida, segundo trabalhos da literatura, em 100% dos casos. Através de parâmetros clínicos, laboratoriais e radiológicos todas as etiologias clássicas foram afastadas. Sabe-se que a esquistossomose pode provocar, como complicação, a pileflebite, além de depressão imunológica e reação granulomatosa com necrose lobular central e maior risco de infecção. Os autores deste relato de caso sugerem ser a esquistossomose, na sua forma crônica, causa predisponente para formação de abscessos hepáticos piogênicos múltiplos, principalmente em regiões endêmicas.

  16. Elevation of fatty acid-binding protein 4 is predisposed by family history of hypertension and contributes to blood pressure elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Hideki; Furuhashi, Masato; Ishimura, Shutaro; Koyama, Masayuki; Okazaki, Yusuke; Mita, Tomohiro; Fuseya, Takahiro; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Tanaka, Marenao; Yoshida, Hideaki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Miura, Tetsuji

    2012-10-01

    Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2), a lipid chaperone, is expressed in both adipocytes and macrophages. Recent studies have shown secretion of FABP4 from adipocytes and association of elevated serum FABP4 level with obesity, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the role of FABP4 in essential hypertension. We first examined serum FABP4 concentrations in 18 normotensives (NT) and 30 nontreated essential hypertensives (EHT). The EHT were divided into 18 insulin-sensitive EHT (EHT-S) and 12 insulin-resistant EHT (EHT-R) based on their insulin-sensitivity index, the M value, determined by the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique. In the second study, we determined FABP4 levels in 30 young NT men with or without a family history of hypertension (FH(+) and FH(-), respectively; n = 15 each). Serum FABP4 level was significantly higher in the EHT-R than in the NT, whereas elevation of FABP4 level in the EHT-S was not statistically significant. FABP4 level was positively correlated with age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and triglycerides and negatively correlated with the M value. FABP4 level was an independent predictor of mean arterial pressure after adjustment of age, gender, and adiposity. The FH(+) group had a significantly lower level of M value and higher level of FABP4 than did the FH(-) group, and FABP4 concentration was an independent determinant of the M value. FABP4 contributes to blood pressure elevation and atherogenic metabolic phenotype in hypertensives, and the elevation of FABP4 is predisposed by a family history of hypertension.

  17. Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder Predispose Youth to Accelerated Atherosclerosis and Early Cardiovascular Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Matthews, Karen A; McIntyre, Roger S; Miller, Gregory E; Raghuveer, Geetha; Stoney, Catherine M; Wasiak, Hank; McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-09-08

    In the 2011 "Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents," several medical conditions among youth were identified that predispose to accelerated atherosclerosis and early cardiovascular disease (CVD), and risk stratification and management strategies for youth with these conditions were elaborated. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) among youth satisfy the criteria set for, and therefore merit inclusion among, Expert Panel tier II moderate-risk conditions. The combined prevalence of MDD and BD among adolescents in the United States is ≈10%, at least 10 times greater than the prevalence of the existing moderate-risk conditions combined. The high prevalence of MDD and BD underscores the importance of positioning these diseases alongside other pediatric diseases previously identified as moderate risk for CVD. The overall objective of this statement is to increase awareness and recognition of MDD and BD among youth as moderate-risk conditions for early CVD. To achieve this objective, the primary specific aims of this statement are to (1) summarize evidence that MDD and BD are tier II moderate-risk conditions associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and early CVD and (2) position MDD and BD as tier II moderate-risk conditions that require the application of risk stratification and management strategies in accordance with Expert Panel recommendations. In this scientific statement, there is an integration of the various factors that putatively underlie the association of MDD and BD with CVD, including pathophysiological mechanisms, traditional CVD risk factors, behavioral and environmental factors, and psychiatric medications. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on behavior and key members of the brain serotonin system in mouse strains genetically predisposed to behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, Vladimir S; Bazovkina, Daria V; Semenova, Alina A; Tsybko, Anton S; Il'chibaeva, Tatyana V; Kondaurova, Elena M; Popova, Nina K

    2013-12-01

    The effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on behavior and on the serotonin (5-HT) system of a mouse strain predisposed to depressive-like behavior, ASC/Icg (Antidepressant Sensitive Cataleptics), in comparison with the parental "nondepressive" CBA/Lac mice was studied. Within 7 days after acute administration, GDNF (800 ng, i.c.v.) decreased cataleptic immobility but increased depressive-like behavioral traits in both investigated mouse strains and produced anxiolytic effects in ASC mice. The expression of the gene encoding the key enzyme for 5-HT biosynthesis in the brain, tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph-2), and 5-HT1A receptor gene in the midbrain as well as 5-HT2A receptor gene in the frontal cortex were increased in GDNF-treated ASC mice. At the same time, GDNF decreased 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in the hippocampus of ASC mice. GDNF failed to change Tph2, 5-HT1A , or 5-HT2A receptor mRNA levels in CBA mice as well as 5-HT transporter gene expression and 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor functional activity in both investigated mouse strains. The results show 1) a GDNF-induced increase in the expression of key genes of the brain 5-HT system, Tph2, 5-HT1A , and 5-HT2A receptors, and 2) significant genotype-dependent differences in the 5-HT system response to GDNF treatment. The data suggest that genetically defined cross-talk between neurotrophic factors and the brain 5-HT system underlies the variability in behavioral response to GDNF.

  19. Chilling stress--the key predisposing factor for causing Alternaria alternata infection and leading to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. leaf senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqing Zhao

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence plays a vital role in nutrient recycling and overall capacity to assimilate carbon dioxide. Cotton premature leaf senescence, often accompanied with unexpected short-term low temperature, has been occurring with an increasing frequency in many cotton-growing areas and causes serious reduction in yield and quality of cotton. The key factors for causing and promoting cotton premature leaf senescence are still unclear. In this case, the relationship between the pre-chilling stress and Alternaria alternata infection for causing cotton leaf senescence was investigated under precisely controlled laboratory conditions with four to five leaves stage cotton plants. The results showed short-term chilling stress could cause a certain degree of physiological impairment to cotton leaves, which could be recovered to normal levels in 2-4 days when the chilling stresses were removed. When these chilling stress injured leaves were further inoculated with A. alternata, the pronounced appearance and development of leaf spot disease, and eventually the pronounced symptoms of leaf senescence, occurred on these cotton leaves. The onset of cotton leaf senescence at this condition was also reflected in various physiological indexes such as irreversible increase in malondialdehyde (MDA content and electrolyte leakage, irreversible decrease in soluble protein content and chlorophyll content, and irreversible damage in leaves' photosynthesis ability. The presented results demonstrated that chilling stress acted as the key predisposing factor for causing A. alternata infection and leading to cotton leaf senescence. It could be expected that the understanding of the key factors causing and promoting cotton leaf senescence would be helpful for taking appropriate management steps to prevent cotton premature leaf senescence.

  20. Pathogenic Mutations in Cancer-Predisposing Genes: A Survey of 300 Patients with Whole-Genome Sequencing and Lifetime Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Karen Y.; McPherson, Elizabeth W.; Li, Quan; Xia, Fan; Weng, Chunhua; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether and how whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data can be used to implement genomic medicine. Our objective is to retrospectively evaluate whether WGS can facilitate improving prevention and care for patients with susceptibility to cancer syndromes. Methods and Findings We analyzed genetic mutations in 60 autosomal dominant cancer-predisposition genes in 300 deceased patients with WGS data and nearly complete long-term (over 30 years) medical records. To infer biological insights from massive amounts of WGS data and comprehensive clinical data in a short period of time, we developed an in-house analysis pipeline within the SeqHBase software framework to quickly identify pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. The clinical data of the patients who carried pathogenic and/or likely pathogenic variants were further reviewed to assess their clinical conditions using their lifetime EHRs. Among the 300 participants, 5 (1.7%) carried pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in 5 cancer-predisposing genes: one in APC, BRCA1, BRCA2, NF1, and TP53 each. When assessing the clinical data, each of the 5 patients had one or more different types of cancers, fully consistent with their genetic profiles. Among these 5 patients, 2 died due to cancer while the others had multiple disorders later in their lifetimes; however, they may have benefited from early diagnosis and treatment for healthier lives, had the patients had genetic testing in their earlier lifetimes. Conclusions We demonstrated a case study where the discovery of pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline mutations from population-wide WGS correlates with clinical outcome. The use of WGS may have clinical impacts to improve healthcare delivery. PMID:27930734

  1. Splines and variational methods

    CERN Document Server

    Prenter, P M

    2008-01-01

    One of the clearest available introductions to variational methods, this text requires only a minimal background in calculus and linear algebra. Its self-contained treatment explains the application of theoretic notions to the kinds of physical problems that engineers regularly encounter. The text's first half concerns approximation theoretic notions, exploring the theory and computation of one- and two-dimensional polynomial and other spline functions. Later chapters examine variational methods in the solution of operator equations, focusing on boundary value problems in one and two dimension

  2. Seasonal Variation in Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Seasonality analyses are important in medical research. If the incidence of a disease shows a seasonal pattern, then an environmental factor must be considered in its etiology. We discuss a method for the simultaneous analysis of seasonal variation in multiple groups. The nuts and bolts are explained using simple trigonometry, an elementary…

  3. Variational transition state theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, D.G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research program involves the development of variational transition state theory (VTST) and semiclassical tunneling methods for the calculation of gas-phase reaction rates and selected applications. The applications are selected for their fundamental interest and/or their relevance to combustion.

  4. Bounded variation and around

    CERN Document Server

    Appell, Jürgen; Merentes Díaz, Nelson José

    2013-01-01

    This monographis a self-contained exposition of the definition and properties of functionsof bounded variation and their various generalizations; the analytical properties of nonlinear composition operators in spaces of such functions; applications to Fourier analysis, nonlinear integral equations, and boundary value problems. The book is written for non-specialists. Every chapter closes with a list of exercises and open problems.

  5. Progress in variational methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The International Conference on Variational Methods (ICVAM) was held from May 20th to 26th in 2007 at the Chern Institute of Mathematics, Nankai University, Tianjin, China. Twenty eight invited speakers from ten countries and areas worldwide gave their lectures at the conference.

  6. Variation and Linguistic Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Charles-James N.

    This volume presents principles and models for describing language variation, and introduces a time-based, dynamic framework for linguistic description. The book first summarizes some of the problems of grammatical description encountered from Saussure through the present and then outlines possibilities for new descriptions of language which take…

  7. The role of botfly myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis L.Jr. (Diptera:Cuterebridae) as a predisposing factor to New World screwworm myiasis (Cochliomyia hominivorax coquerel) (Diptera:Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-Martínez, I; Gómez, F; Pérez, J M; Poudevigne, F A

    1996-07-23

    In the tropics, the botfly Dermatobia hominis and the NWS Cochliomyia hominivorax are the most important myiasis agents in cattle. It is frequently reported that furuncular lesions due to D. hominis are a predisposing cause for screwworm myiasis. Our results pointed out that only 5.2 to 7.4% of C. hominivorax gravid females oviposited in the offered furuncular lesions. Of 3242 eggs layed on botfly lesions (BFL), only 82 (2.5%) developed to second instar and died. In the flies tested, the furuncular lesions due to Dermatobia were used as food supply in 81.3% of the cases. In our opinion, the role of pH, the microflora associated with BFL, and the foruncular structure were the reasons for this lack of attraction. BFL do not serve as a predisposing factor for screwworm myiasis in the tropics.

  8. [Influence of anatomic variations of the structures of the middle nasal meatus on sinonasal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljcik-Cupić, Maja M; Savović, Slobodan N; Jovićević, Jasna S

    2008-01-01

    in 50% patients. Eives's correlation coefficient i.e. the degree of correlation between sinonasal disorders and the presence of anatomic variation statistically significantly correlate at r > or = 0.05 of anatomic variation of the middle nasal chonha (r = 0.23) and the presence of deviation/deformation of nasal septum (r = 0.6) with sinonasal disorders. Anatomic variations of the structures of the middle nasal meatus can additionally complicate the anatomy of the lateral nasal wall and the conditions of the ostiomeatal unit. Therefore we must view these variations as factors predisposing to more rapid and frequent appearance and persistence of chronic inflammations. Also, familiary with the variations in sinonasal anatomy is a prerequisite to safe and effective surgical treatment of sinonasal disease. Recognition of this anatomic variation should minimize catastrophic violation of vital structures such as orbit or skull base.

  9. Genetic analysis of environmental variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, W.G.; Mulder, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental variation (VE) in a quantitative trait – variation in phenotype that cannot be explained by genetic variation or identifiable genetic differences – can be regarded as being under some degree of genetic control. Such variation may be either between repeated expressions of the same trait

  10. Genetic analysis of environmental variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, W.G.; Mulder, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental variation (VE) in a quantitative trait – variation in phenotype that cannot be explained by genetic variation or identifiable genetic differences – can be regarded as being under some degree of genetic control. Such variation may be either between repeated expressions of the same trait

  11. On functions of bounded variation

    OpenAIRE

    Aistleitner, Christoph; Pausinger, Florian; Svane, Anne Marie; Tichy, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    The recently introduced concept of $\\mathcal{D}$-variation unifies previous concepts of variation of multivariate functions. In this paper, we give an affirmative answer to the open question from Pausinger \\& Svane (J. Complexity, 2014) whether every function of bounded Hardy--Krause variation is Borel measurable and has bounded $\\mathcal{D}$-variation. Moreover, we show that the space of functions of bounded $\\mathcal{D}$-variation can be turned into a commutative Banach algebra.

  12. Human immune system variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, Petter; Davis, Mark M

    2017-01-01

    The human immune system is highly variable between individuals but relatively stable over time within a given person. Recent conceptual and technological advances have enabled systems immunology analyses, which reveal the composition of immune cells and proteins in populations of healthy individuals. The range of variation and some specific influences that shape an individual's immune system is now becoming clearer. Human immune systems vary as a consequence of heritable and non-heritable influences, but symbiotic and pathogenic microbes and other non-heritable influences explain most of this variation. Understanding when and how such influences shape the human immune system is key for defining metrics of immunological health and understanding the risk of immune-mediated and infectious diseases.

  13. Prior antimicrobial therapy in the hospital and other predisposing factors influencing the usage of antibiotics in a pediatric critical care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsorva Athina

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine whether prior antimicrobial therapy is an important risk factor for extended antimicrobial therapy among critically ill children. To evaluate other predisposing factors influencing the usage of antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU setting. To examine the relationship between the extent of antimicrobial treatment and the incidence of nosocomial infections and outcome. Methods This prospective observational cohort study was conducted at a university-affiliated teaching hospital (760 beds in Athens. Clinical data were collected upon admission and on each consecutive PICU day. The primary reason for PICU admission was recorded using a modified classification for mutually exclusive disease categories. All administered antibiotics to the PICU patients were recorded during a six-month period. Microbiological and pharmacological data were also collected over this period. The cumulative per patient and the maximum per day numbers of administered antibiotics, as well as the duration of administration were related to the following factors: Number of antibiotics which the patients were already receiving the day before admission, age groups, place of origin, the severity of illness, the primary disease and its complications during the course of hospitalization, the development of nosocomial infections with positive cultures, the presence of chronic disease or immunodeficiency, various interventional techniques (mechanical ventilation, central catheters, and PICU outcome. Results During a six-month period 174 patients were admitted to the PICU and received antibiotics for a total of 950 days (62.3% of the length of stay days. While in PICU, 34 patients did not receive antimicrobial treatment (19.5%, 69 received one antibiotic (39.7%, 42 two (24.1%, 17 three (9.8%, and 12 more than three (6.9%. The number of antibiotics prescribed in PICU or at discharge did not differ from that at

  14. The NEI/NCBI dbGAP database: Genotypes and haplotypes that may specifically predispose to risk of neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Joan W

    2008-06-01

    additive model based on LRT. After applying a Bonferonni correction, no other significant interactions were identified between any other SNPs. Conclusion This is the first replication study on the NEI dbGAP SNPs, demonstrating that alleles on 1q, 2q and 10q may predispose an individual to AMD.

  15. Partial nephrectomy vs. radical nephrectomy for stage I renal cell carcinoma in the presence of predisposing systemic diseases for chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Demir

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study is to compare the effects of partial nephrectomy (PN and radical nephrectomy (RN for stage I renal cell carcinoma (RCC on renal functions in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM and/or hypertension (HT. Charts of patients who underwent surgery for stage I RCC in our department were retrospectively reviewed and patients with DM and/or HT were enrolled. Preoperative and postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR were calculated according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD formulation for both RN and PN groups. Groups were compared for patient demographics, preoperative eGFR, postoperative eGFR and ΔeGFR [(preoperative eGFR – (postoperative eGFR] which reflects the renal functional loss. There were 85 patients in the RN and 33 patients in the PN groups. Demographic data were similar but the patients in the PN group had smaller tumor size compared to RN group (32.2 ± 11.8 mm vs 47.1 ± 15.2 mm, p < 0.001. Preoperative eGFR did not differ between groups (75 ± 28.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 vs 75.5 ± 23.8 mL/min/1.73 m2 in RN and PN groups, p = 0.929. However, there were significant differences between groups in terms of postoperative eGFR (57.5 ± 21.7 mL/min/1.73 m2 vs 74 ± 27.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 in RN and PN groups, p < 0.001 and ΔeGFR (17.5 ± 4.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 vs 1.5 ± 0.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 in RN and PN groups, p < 0.001. Our findings favor the use of PN over RN for stage I RCC whenever feasible in patients with predisposing systemic diseases for chronic kidney disease for better preservation of renal functions.

  16. Promoter and 3′-untranslated-region haplotypes in the vitamin D receptor gene predispose to osteoporotic fracture: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Fang (Yue); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); A. d' Alesio; M. Jhamai (Mila); H. Zhao (Hui); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A. Hofman (Albert); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); F. Jehan; H.A.P. Pols (Huib); A.G. Uitterlinden (André)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractPolymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) have been shown to be associated with several complex diseases, including osteoporosis, but the mechanisms are unknown and study results have been inconsistent. We therefore determined sequence variation across the major relevant parts o

  17. An improved variational method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhuo-Quan; SHEN Peng-Nian; DING Yi-Bing

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve the unitarity of the S-matrix, an improved variational formulism is derived by proposing new generating functionals and adopting proper asymptotic boundary conditions for trial relative wave functions. The formulas with the weighted line-column balance for the single-channel and multi-channel scatterings, where the non-central interaction is implicitly considered, are presented. A numerical check is performed with a soluble model in a four coupled channel scattering problem. The result shows that the high accuracy and the unitarity of the S-matrix are reached.

  18. Subtle variations in Pten dose determine cancer susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimonti, Andrea; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Clohessy, John G; Trotman, Lloyd C; Nardella, Caterina; Egia, Ainara; Salmena, Leonardo; Sampieri, Katia; Haveman, William J; Brogi, Edi; Richardson, Andrea L; Zhang, Jiangwen; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Cancer susceptibility has been attributed to at least one heterozygous genetic alteration in a tumor suppressor gene (TSG)1. It has been hypothesized that subtle variations in TSG expression can promote cancer development2,3. However, this hypothesis has not yet been definitively supported in vivo. PTEN is a TSG frequently lost in human cancer and mutated in inherited cancer-predisposition syndromes4. Here, we analyze Pten hypermorphic mice (Ptenhy/+), expressing 80% normal levels of Pten. Ptenhy/+ mice develop a spectrum of tumors, with breast tumors occurring at the highest penetrance. All breast tumors analyzed here retained two intact copies of Pten and maintained Pten levels above heterozygosis. Notably, subtle downregulation of Pten altered the steady-state biology of the mammary tissues and the expression profiles of genes involved in cancer cell proliferation. We present an alterative working model for cancer development in which subtle reductions in the dose of TSGs predispose to tumorigenesis in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:20400965

  19. Taking Stock of Regulatory Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurano, Matthew T; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A

    2015-07-29

    Three recent studies measure individual variation in regulatory DNA accessibility. What do they tell us about the prospects of assessing variation in single cells and across populations? Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lexical Variation in Akokoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fádorò Jacob Oludare

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Language contact among Akokoid, Yoruboid and Edoid has resulted in extensive borrowing from Yoruboid and Edoid to Akokoid. Thus, the speech forms subsumed under Akokoid exhibit lexical items which are similar to Yoruboid and Edoid. To the best of our knowledge, no other scholarly work has addressed the concept ‘lexical variation in these speech forms, hence, the need for this present effort. Twenty lexical items were carefully selected for analysis in this paper. Data were elicited from 34 informants who are competent speakers of Akokoid. Apart from the linguistic data, these informants, including  traditional rulers, supplied us with historical facts about the migration patterns of the progenitors of Akokoid. The historical facts coupled with the linguistic data helped us to arrive at the conclusion that some of the words used in contemporary Akokoid found their way into Akokoid as a result of the contact between Akokoid and their neighbours, Yoruboid and Edoid.Keywords: Akokoid, Language Contact, Lexical Variation, Yoruboid, Edoid

  1. Multifunctions of bounded variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinter, R. B.

    2016-02-01

    Consider control systems described by a differential equation with a control term or, more generally, by a differential inclusion with velocity set F (t , x). Certain properties of state trajectories can be derived when it is assumed that F (t , x) is merely measurable w.r.t. the time variable t. But sometimes a refined analysis requires the imposition of stronger hypotheses regarding the time dependence. Stronger forms of necessary conditions for minimizing state trajectories can be derived, for example, when F (t , x) is Lipschitz continuous w.r.t. time. It has recently become apparent that significant addition properties of state trajectories can still be derived, when the Lipschitz continuity hypothesis is replaced by the weaker requirement that F (t , x) has bounded variation w.r.t. time. This paper introduces a new concept of multifunctions F (t , x) that have bounded variation w.r.t. time near a given state trajectory, of special relevance to control. We provide an application to sensitivity analysis.

  2. Gauging Variational Inference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ahn, Sungsoo [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jinwoo [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-25

    Computing partition function is the most important statistical inference task arising in applications of Graphical Models (GM). Since it is computationally intractable, approximate methods have been used to resolve the issue in practice, where meanfield (MF) and belief propagation (BP) are arguably the most popular and successful approaches of a variational type. In this paper, we propose two new variational schemes, coined Gauged-MF (G-MF) and Gauged-BP (G-BP), improving MF and BP, respectively. Both provide lower bounds for the partition function by utilizing the so-called gauge transformation which modifies factors of GM while keeping the partition function invariant. Moreover, we prove that both G-MF and G-BP are exact for GMs with a single loop of a special structure, even though the bare MF and BP perform badly in this case. Our extensive experiments, on complete GMs of relatively small size and on large GM (up-to 300 variables) confirm that the newly proposed algorithms outperform and generalize MF and BP.

  3. Variational Theory for Chandrasekharaiah Thermopizoelectricity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiHuanHE

    1999-01-01

    Via the semi-inverse method of establishing generalized variational principle for physical problems,a classical variational model(non Gurtin-type and not involving convolutions) for Chandrasekharaiah thermopiezoelectricity is established directly from the governing equations.The present theory aims at providing a more complete theoretical basis for the variational-based finite element applications and variational-based meshless method(element-free method).

  4. Genetic Variation in NFKBIE Is Associated With Increased Risk of Pneumococcal Meningitis in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbo, Lene F; Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Clausen, Louise N;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are frequent pathogens in life-threatening infections. Genetic variation in the immune system may predispose to these infections. Nuclear factor-κB is a key component of the TLR-pathway, controlled by inhibitors, encoded by the genes...... and 1273 controls were included. We included 406 cases with meningococcal meningitis, 272 with meningococcal bacteremia, and 672 controls. The NFKBIE SNP was associated with increased risk of pneumococcal meningitis (aOR 1.68; 95% CI: 1.20-2.36), but not bacteremia (aOR 1.08; 95% CI: 0.......86-1.35). The remaining SNPs were not associated with susceptibility to invasive disease. None of the SNPs were associated with risk of IMD or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: A NFKBIE polymorphism was associated with increased risk of pneumococcal meningitis....

  5. Spatial Variations of Fundamental Constants

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D; Barrow, John D.; Toole, Chris O'

    1999-01-01

    We show that observational limits on the possible time variation of constants of Nature are significantly affected by allowing for both space and time variation. Bekenstein's generalisation of Maxwell's equations to allow for cosmological variation of $alpha$ is investigated in a universe containing spherically symmetric inhomogeneities. The time variation of $alpha$ is determined by the local matter density and hence limits obtained in high-density geophysical enviroments are far more constraining than those obtained at high redshift. This new feature is expected to be a property of a wide class of theories for the variation of constants.

  6. Variations on tremor parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boose, A.; Jentgens, Ch.; Spieker, S.; Dichgans, J.

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes our analysis procedure for long-term tremor EMG recordings, as well as three examples of applications. The description of the method focuses on how characteristics of the tremor (e.g. frequency, intensity, agonist-antagonist interaction) can be defined and calculated based on surface EMG data. The resulting quantitative characteristics are called ``tremor parameters.'' We discuss sinusoidally modulated, band-limited white noise as a model for pathological tremor-EMG, and show how the basic parameters can be extracted from this class of signals. The method is then applied to (1) estimate tremor severity in clinical studies, (2) quantify agonist-antagonist interaction, and (3) investigate the variations of the tremor parameters using simple methods from time-series analysis.

  7. Copy number variations in alternative splicing gene networks impact lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T Glessner

    Full Text Available Longevity has a strong genetic component evidenced by family-based studies. Lipoprotein metabolism, FOXO proteins, and insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathways in model systems have shown polygenic variations predisposing to shorter lifespan. To test the hypothesis that rare variants could influence lifespan, we compared the rates of CNVs in healthy children (0-18 years of age with individuals 67 years or older. CNVs at a significantly higher frequency in the pediatric cohort were considered risk variants impacting lifespan, while those enriched in the geriatric cohort were considered longevity protective variants. We performed a whole-genome CNV analysis on 7,313 children and 2,701 adults of European ancestry genotyped with 302,108 SNP probes. Positive findings were evaluated in an independent cohort of 2,079 pediatric and 4,692 geriatric subjects. We detected 8 deletions and 10 duplications that were enriched in the pediatric group (P=3.33×10(-8-1.6×10(-2 unadjusted, while only one duplication was enriched in the geriatric cohort (P=6.3×10(-4. Population stratification correction resulted in 5 deletions and 3 duplications remaining significant (P=5.16×10(-5-4.26×10(-2 in the replication cohort. Three deletions and four duplications were significant combined (combined P=3.7×10(-4-3.9×10(-2. All associated loci were experimentally validated using qPCR. Evaluation of these genes for pathway enrichment demonstrated ~50% are involved in alternative splicing (P=0.0077 Benjamini and Hochberg corrected. We conclude that genetic variations disrupting RNA splicing could have long-term biological effects impacting lifespan.

  8. Geometric constrained variational calculus. II: The second variation (Part I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Enrico; Bruno, Danilo; Luria, Gianvittorio; Pagani, Enrico

    2016-10-01

    Within the geometrical framework developed in [Geometric constrained variational calculus. I: Piecewise smooth extremals, Int. J. Geom. Methods Mod. Phys. 12 (2015) 1550061], the problem of minimality for constrained calculus of variations is analyzed among the class of differentiable curves. A fully covariant representation of the second variation of the action functional, based on a suitable gauge transformation of the Lagrangian, is explicitly worked out. Both necessary and sufficient conditions for minimality are proved, and reinterpreted in terms of Jacobi fields.

  9. FROG - Fingerprinting Genomic Variation Ontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Abinaya

    Full Text Available Genetic variations play a crucial role in differential phenotypic outcomes. Given the complexity in establishing this correlation and the enormous data available today, it is imperative to design machine-readable, efficient methods to store, label, search and analyze this data. A semantic approach, FROG: "FingeRprinting Ontology of Genomic variations" is implemented to label variation data, based on its location, function and interactions. FROG has six levels to describe the variation annotation, namely, chromosome, DNA, RNA, protein, variations and interactions. Each level is a conceptual aggregation of logically connected attributes each of which comprises of various properties for the variant. For example, in chromosome level, one of the attributes is location of variation and which has two properties, allosomes or autosomes. Another attribute is variation kind which has four properties, namely, indel, deletion, insertion, substitution. Likewise, there are 48 attributes and 278 properties to capture the variation annotation across six levels. Each property is then assigned a bit score which in turn leads to generation of a binary fingerprint based on the combination of these properties (mostly taken from existing variation ontologies. FROG is a novel and unique method designed for the purpose of labeling the entire variation data generated till date for efficient storage, search and analysis. A web-based platform is designed as a test case for users to navigate sample datasets and generate fingerprints. The platform is available at http://ab-openlab.csir.res.in/frog.

  10. Analysis of predisposing factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy%胰十二指肠切除术后胰漏的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈友谊; 孙备; 姜洪池

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the predisposing factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy.Methods The clinical data of 323 patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy from January 2007 to March 2012 were analyzed retrospectively.There were 185 male and 138 female patients,aging from 27 to 82 years.All the patients were devided into pancreatic fistula group (n = 52) and non-pancreatic fistula group (n = 271).Twenty variables,such as age,sex,primary disease,alcohol abuse,cholangitis,bilirubin,albumin,hemoglobin,operating time,blood loss,transfusion,texture of the remnant pancreas,diameter of wirsung,drainages of pancreatic duct,specialized group which potentially affect the incidence,were analyzed by t test for continuous variables and x2 test for discrete variables.The variables with significance (P < 0.05) were then analyzed with Logistic regression model.Results Of all the 323 patients,the overall morbidity rate was 30.3% (98/323),and the mortality was 3.7% (12/323).Pancreatic fistula rate was 16.1% (52/323),7 patients died for pancreatic fistula PF.In univariate analysis,primary disease,preoperative high bilirubin level,intraoperative blood loss and transfusion,texture of the remnant pancreas,diameter of wirsung,drainages of pancreatic duct,specialized group had significant difference between two groups (x2 = 4.072 to 9.008,P < 0.05).Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that primary disease (OR = 2.091,P = 0.001),texture of the remnant pancreas (OR =7.715,P = 0.040),diameter of wirsung (OR = 5.405,P = 0.006),pancreatic duct stent (OR = 4.313,P =0.001) and specialized group (OR = 6.404,P = 0.006) were independent risk factors in pancreatic fistula.Conclusions Primary disease,texture of the remnant pancreas,diameter of wirsung,pancreatic duct stent and specialized group are independent risk factors in pancreatic fistula.With the purpose of decreasing pancreatic fistula rate after PD,it is necessary to operate meticulously and

  11. Mothers depart. Variations 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Czyżak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes some considerations on a particular variation of the elegiac mood represented by and manifested in lyrical farewells of departing mothers. A review of the variants commences with an analysis of a particularly important work by Tadeusz Różewicz written at the beginning of this century — Matka odchodzi. The book was, at the time, a particular reference point for the following poetic volumes in which the theme of the death of the poet’s mother was paramount and significant. The article also focuses on volumes of poems, written by poets that belonged to different generations but shared the same date of publication, i.e. the year 2009. Both clear similarities and marked differences in the actual commitment in carrying out the theme and in creating the profiles of mothers that have passed away are to be found in the works of Piotr Sommer (Dni i noce, Jan Polkowski (Cantus and Eugeniusz Tkaczyszyn-Dycki (Piosenka o zależnościach i uzależnieniach.

  12. Spectral-collocation variational integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiqun; Wu, Boying; Leok, Melvin

    2017-03-01

    Spectral methods are a popular choice for constructing numerical approximations for smooth problems, as they can achieve geometric rates of convergence and have a relatively small memory footprint. In this paper, we introduce a general framework to convert a spectral-collocation method into a shooting-based variational integrator for Hamiltonian systems. We also compare the proposed spectral-collocation variational integrators to spectral-collocation methods and Galerkin spectral variational integrators in terms of their ability to reproduce accurate trajectories in configuration and phase space, their ability to conserve momentum and energy, as well as the relative computational efficiency of these methods when applied to some classical Hamiltonian systems. In particular, we note that spectrally-accurate variational integrators, such as the Galerkin spectral variational integrators and the spectral-collocation variational integrators, combine the computational efficiency of spectral methods together with the geometric structure-preserving and long-time structural stability properties of symplectic integrators.

  13. The Split Variational Inequality Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Censor, Yair; Reich, Simeon

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new variational problem which we call the Split Variational Inequality Problem (SVIP). It entails finding a solution of one Variational Inequality Problem (VIP), the image of which under a given bounded linear transformation is a solution of another VIP. We construct iterative algorithms that solve such problems, under reasonable conditions, in Hilbert space and then discuss special cases, some of which are new even in Euclidean space.

  14. Diurnal variation of mountain waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountain waves could be modified as the boundary layer varies between stable and convective. However case studies show mountain waves day and night, and above e.g. convective rolls with precipitation lines over mountains. VHF radar measurements of vertical wind (1990–2006 confirm a seasonal variation of mountain-wave amplitude, yet there is little diurnal variation of amplitude. Mountain-wave azimuth shows possible diurnal variation compared to wind rotation across the boundary layer.

  15. Periodic insolation variations on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, B C; Ward, W R; Yeung, S C

    1973-05-11

    Previously unrecognized insolation variations on Mars are a consequence of periodic variations in eccentricity, first established by the theory of Brouwer and Van Woerkom (1950). Such annual insolation variations, characterized by both 95,000-year and 2,000,000-year periodicities, may actually be recorded in newly discovered layered deposits in the polar regions of Mars. An additional north-south variation in seasonal insolation, but not average annual insolation, exists with 51,000-year and 2,000,000-year periodicities.

  16. Explorations in Regional Variation: A Variational Pragmatic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The present article introduces the Special Issue entitled "A Variational Pragmatic Approach to Regional Variation in Language," a collection of papers which celebrates the work of Klaus P. Schneider (Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany) on the occasion of his 60th birthday.

  17. Single-Nucleotide Variations in Cardiac Arrhythmias: Prospects for Genomics and Proteomics Based Biomarker Discovery and Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Abunimer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are a large contributor to causes of early death in developed countries. Some of these conditions, such as sudden cardiac death and atrial fibrillation, stem from arrhythmias—a spectrum of conditions with abnormal electrical activity in the heart. Genome-wide association studies can identify single nucleotide variations (SNVs that may predispose individuals to developing acquired forms of arrhythmias. Through manual curation of published genome-wide association studies, we have collected a comprehensive list of 75 SNVs associated with cardiac arrhythmias. Ten of the SNVs result in amino acid changes and can be used in proteomic-based detection methods. In an effort to identify additional non-synonymous mutations that affect the proteome, we analyzed the post-translational modification S-nitrosylation, which is known to affect cardiac arrhythmias. We identified loss of seven known S-nitrosylation sites due to non-synonymous single nucleotide variations (nsSNVs. For predicted nitrosylation sites we found 1429 proteins where the sites are modified due to nsSNV. Analysis of the predicted S-nitrosylation dataset for over- or under-representation (compared to the complete human proteome of pathways and functional elements shows significant statistical over-representation of the blood coagulation pathway. Gene Ontology (GO analysis displays statistically over-represented terms related to muscle contraction, receptor activity, motor activity, cystoskeleton components, and microtubule activity. Through the genomic and proteomic context of SNVs and S-nitrosylation sites presented in this study, researchers can look for variation that can predispose individuals to cardiac arrhythmias. Such attempts to elucidate mechanisms of arrhythmia thereby add yet another useful parameter in predicting susceptibility for cardiac diseases.

  18. Variational Bounds for Creeping Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procházka, Petr

    2010-05-01

    In the paper time dependent variational bounds are derived based on Extended Hashin-Shtrikman variational principles. Direct calculation leads to explicit formulas to be presented in the text. For various mechanical properties easy coding in Excel, say, can be used and verification of accuracy for numerical procedures is available using the derived formulas.

  19. Robust Understanding of Statistical Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a framework that captures the complexity of reasoning about variation in ways that are indicative of robust understanding and describes reasoning as a blend of design, data-centric, and modeling perspectives. Robust understanding is indicated by integrated reasoning about variation within each perspective and across…

  20. Exploiting Natural Variation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, J.A.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Natural variation for many traits is present within the species Arabidopsis thaliana . This chapter describes the use of natural variation to elucidate genes underlying the regulation of quantitative traits. It deals with the development and use of mapping populations, the detection and handling of

  1. Exploiting natural variation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Molenaar; J.J.B. Keurentjes

    2014-01-01

    Natural variation for many traits is present within the species Arabidopsis thaliana. This chapter describes the use of natural variation to elucidate genes underlying the regulation of quantitative traits. It deals with the development and use of mapping populations, the detection and handling of g

  2. Exploring language variation across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk; Johannsen, Anders Trærup

    2016-01-01

    Language varies not only between countries, but also along regional and sociodemographic lines. This variation is one of the driving factors behind language change. However, investigating language variation is a complex undertaking: the more factors we want to consider, the more data we need...... training in both variational linguistics and computational methods, a combination that is still not common. We take a first step here to alleviate the problem by providing an interface to explore large-scale language variation along several socio-demographic factors without programming knowledge. It makes...... use of large amounts of data and provides statistical analyses, maps, and interactive features that enable scholars to explore language variation in a data-driven way....

  3. Comparing variation across European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau C; Baixauli-Pérez, Cristobal; Librero-López, Julián

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In geographical studies, population distribution is a key issue. An unequal distribution across units of analysis might entail extra-variation and produce misleading conclusions on healthcare performance variations. This article aims at assessing the impact of building more homogeneous...... units of analysis in the estimation of systematic variation in three countries. METHODS: Hospital discharges for six conditions (congestive heart failure, short-term complications of diabetes, hip fracture, knee replacement, prostatectomy in prostate cancer and percutaneous coronary intervention...... of variation such as Extremal Quotient, Interquartile Interval ratio, Systematic Component of Variation and Empirical Bayes statistic. RESULTS: Ward's method reduced the number of areas, allowing a more homogeneous population distribution, yet 20% of the areas in Portugal exhibited less than 100 000...

  4. Fonetisk variation som social praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maegaard, Marie

    2010-01-01

    VARIATION I KØBENHAVNSK Sproglig variation kan betragtes på mange måder og ud fra mange forskellige perspektiver alt afhængig af erkendelsesinteresse og fagligt ståsted. I denne artikel vil jeg redegøre for et praksisperspektiv på sproglig variation, og jeg vil give eksempler på analyser af...... fonetisk variation blandt københavnske unge set som social praksis. Fonetisk variation i københavnsk er i de fleste kvantitative sociolingvistiske undersøgelser studeret med udgangspunkt i makrosociale kategorier baseret på alder, køn eller socialklasse (eks. Brink & Lund 1975, Jørgensen 1980, Gregersen...

  5. Some Variations on Total Variation-Based Image Smoothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    influential paper, Rudin, Osher, and Fatemi [23] suggested using the bounded variation seminorm to smooth images. The functional proposed in their work has...unit square I = [0, 1]2, where the bounded variation seminorm is defined as |f |BV(I) := ∫ I |Df(x)| dx := sup {∫ I f ∇ · p ∣∣∣ p : I → R2,(1) p ∈ C1(I...approximation to the ROF functional. In Section 3, we propose a new formulation of an upwind finite-difference approximation to the bounded variation seminorm

  6. 产科弥散性血管内凝血患者的诱发因素和治疗效果探讨%Discussion on the predisposing factors and clinical efficacy of obstetric patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy and predisposing factors of obstetric patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation.Methods:100 patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation were selected.They were randomly divided into two equal groups according to the order of admission.Patients in the control group were given routine treatment. Patients in the experimental group received supportive treatment on the basis of the control group.We observed the predisposing factors of obstetric patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation,and observed the clinical therapeutic effect of the two groups after treatment and the amount of bleeding.Results:Predisposing factors included amniotic fluid embolism,placental abruption,fetal death,postpartum hemorrhage and pregnancy induced hypertension.The amount of bleeding within 24 hours after treatment of the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group,the rescue efficiency was higher than the control group,the differences between the groups were statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:Strengthen support for treatment on the basis of conventional therapy had significant effect on the treatment of obstetric disseminated intravascular coagulation and reduce the bleeding.%目的:探讨产科弥散性血管内凝血患者的诱发因素和临床疗效。方法:收治弥散性血管内凝血患者100例,按照入院顺序随机均分为两组,对照组予以常规治疗,试验组在对照组的基础上予以支持治疗,观察产科弥散性血管内凝血患者的诱发因素,治疗后观察两组的临床治疗效果与出血量。结果:诱发因素包括羊水栓塞、胎盘早剥、死胎、产后出血及妊娠期高血压。试验组患者治疗的24 h 内出血量明显少于对照组,抢救有效率也明显高于对照组,组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:常规治疗基础上加强支持治疗对治疗产科弥散性血管内凝

  7. Analysis of predisposing factors, pathogenic bacteria and their drug sensitivity of pulmonary infection in lung cancer patients%肺癌患者肺部感染的易感因素、病原菌及药敏分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费君; 陆友金; 赵大海

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the predisposing factors, pathogenic bacteria and their drug sensitivity of pulmonary infection in lung cancer patients so as to provide clinical evidence for the anti-infective therapy of lung cancer. Methods The sputum samples of 103 patients with lung cancer complicated with pulmonary infection were cultured and given drug sensitivity test. Besides, the predisposing factors were analyzed. Results There were 252 qualified sputum samples, and 75 strains of pathogenic bacteria were detected, including 45. 3% fungi, 44% Gram-negative bacteria, and 10.7% Gram-positive bacteria. The 6 major kinds of pathogenic bacteria all showed different degrees of drug resistance. In addition, the major predisposing factors were age, duration of hospital stay, chemicotherapy and clinical stages. Conclusion The monitoring of pulmonary infection pathogenic bacteria should be strengthened in lung cancer patients, which can provide the basic clinical evidence for the use of antibacterials.%目的 分析肺癌患者肺部感染的易感因素、病原菌变迁及药敏状况,为肺癌患者的抗感染治疗提供临床依据.方法 对103例肺癌合并肺部感染患者易感因素、痰标本进行培养及药敏分析.结果 103例患者送检252份合格痰标本,其易感因素主要为年龄、住院时间、放化疗、临床分期.检出病原菌75株,其中真菌45.3%,革兰阴性菌44%,革兰阳性菌10.7%.6种主要病原菌对抗菌药物都具有不同程度的耐药性.结论 加强肺癌患者肺部感染病原菌的监测,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供参考依据.

  8. Genotype–phenotype relationship of F7 R353Q polymorphism and plasma factor VII coagulant activity in Asian Indian families predisposed to coronary artery disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jayashree Shanker; Ganapathy Perumal; Arindam Maitra; Veena S. Rao; B. K. Natesha; Shibu John; Sridhar Hebbagodi; Vijay V. Kakkar

    2009-12-01

    Elevated factor VII (FVII) level is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the role of R353Q polymorphism in the F7 gene in 139 Indian families with CAD, comprising of 222 affected subjects, 105 unaffected subjects and 126 affected sibling pairs. Plasma per cent FVIIc activity (FVII.c activity) differed significantly across R353Q genotype ($P \\lt 0.0001$). Frequency of subjects with RR and QQ genotypes were higher in 4th quartile and 1st quartile of FVII.c activity, respectively ($P \\lt 0.0001$). F7 R353Q SNP was able to explain up to 7% of variation in FVII.c activity by regression analysis and an additive genetic component of variance of 28.04% by heritability analysis. Quantitative trait loci analysis showed suggestive linkage evidence of F7 SNP with per cent FVII.c activity (LOD score $-1.82$; $P = 0.002$). Individuals with RR and RQ genotypes carried an OR of 2.071 (95% c.i. = 1.506–2.850) and 2.472 (95% c.i. = 1.679–3.641), respectively, towards CAD risk. There was significant correlation of FVII.c activity with lipid markers, particularly among those with RR and RQ genotype after covariate adjustment. In conclusion, the F7 R353Q SNP appears to moderately influence plasma FVII.c activity and risk of CAD in Indians.

  9. Genotype-phenotype relationship of F7 R353Q polymorphism and plasma factor VII coagulant activity in Asian Indian families predisposed to coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Jayashree; Perumal, Ganapathy; Maitra, Arindam; Rao, Veena S; Natesha, B K; John, Shibu; Hebbagodi, Sridhar; Kakkar, Vijay V

    2009-12-01

    Elevated factor VII (FVII) level is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the role of R353Q polymorphism in the F7 gene in 139 Indian families with CAD, comprising of 222 affected subjects, 105 unaffected subjects and 126 affected sibling pairs. Plasma per cent FVIIc activity (FVII.c activity) differed ignificantly across R353Q genotype (P F7 R353Q SNP was able to explain up to 7% of variation in FVII.c activity by regression analysis and an additive genetic component of variance of 28.04% by heritability analysis. Quantitative trait loci analysis showed suggestive linkage evidence of F7 SNP with per cent FVII.c activity (LOD score -1.82; P = 0.002). Individuals with RR and RQ genotypes carried an OR of 2.071 (95% c.i. = 1.506-2.850) and 2.472 (95% c.i. = 1.679-3.641), espectively, towards CAD risk. There was significant correlation of FVII.c activity with lipid markers, particularly among those with RR and RQ genotype after covariate adjustment. In conclusion, the F7 R353Q SNP appears to moderately influence plasma FVII.c activity and risk of CAD in Indians.

  10. ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS IN SINONASAL REGION IN CASES OF SINUS HEADACHE - CT SCAN - PNS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sinus headache secondary to Chronic Rhinosinusitis refers to episode of pain over the sinus area of the face and is often associated with nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, facial pressure, lacrimation, nausea and sensory sensitivity. Any small lesions or anatomical variations over lateral wall of nose may giv e rise to sinus headache. CT scan play a vital role in accurate assessment of osteomeatal complex area and anatomical variations at this site. AIM: To study anatomical variations of osteomeatal complex area and deviated septum in cases of chronic sinus hea dache secondary to Chronic Rhinosinusitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This study was conducted in Jhalawar Medical College, ENT Department between Sept. 2012 to Dec. 2014. In this study 75 patients withchronic sinus headache was selected who had chronic headac he for more than 3 months duration not responding to medical line of treatment and who were willing to undergo function endoscopic sinus surgery. All patients underwent for CT scan para nasal sinus. RESULT: In this study deviated nasal septum was found in 77.33% patients, apart from that it was observed that 54.66% of the sinus headache cases had two or more anatomical variations and 28% had single anatomical variations, out of them commonest finding is concha bullosa followed by enlarge bulla ethmoid, para doxical middle turbinate, medialiseduncinate process, lateraliseduncinate process, prominent aggar nasi cells, haller cells and onodi cells in decreasing order . CONCLUSION: The study of CT scan PNS conclude that Deviated Nasal Septum and anatomical variati ons at lateral wall of nose causes narrowing of osteomeatal complex area which predisposed patients to sino nasal disease and sinus headache

  11. Variational and quasi-variational inequalities in mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kravchuk, Alexander S

    2007-01-01

    The essential aim of the present book is to consider a wide set of problems arising in the mathematical modelling of mechanical systems under unilateral constraints. In these investigations elastic and non-elastic deformations, friction and adhesion phenomena are taken into account. All the necessary mathematical tools are given: local boundary value problem formulations, construction of variational equations and inequalities, and the transition to minimization problems, existence and uniqueness theorems, and variational transformations (Friedrichs and Young-Fenchel-Moreau) to dual and saddle-point search problems. Important new results concern contact problems with friction. The Coulomb friction law and some others are considered, in which relative sliding velocities appear. The corresponding quasi-variational inequality is constructed, as well as the appropriate iterative method for its solution. Outlines of the variational approach to non-stationary and dissipative systems and to the construction of the go...

  12. Variational formulation of high performance finite elements: Parametrized variational principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippa, Carlos A.; Militello, Carmello

    1991-01-01

    High performance elements are simple finite elements constructed to deliver engineering accuracy with coarse arbitrary grids. This is part of a series on the variational basis of high-performance elements, with emphasis on those constructed with the free formulation (FF) and assumed natural strain (ANS) methods. Parametrized variational principles that provide a foundation for the FF and ANS methods, as well as for a combination of both are presented.

  13. Fatores predisponentes para amputação de membro inferior em pacientes diabéticos internados com pés ulcerados no estado de Sergipe Predisposing factors for amputation of lower extremities in diabetic patients with foot ulceration in the state of Sergipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Prado Nunes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar os fatores predisponentes para a amputação de membros inferiores nos doentes internados com diabetes melito e úlceras nos pés. MÉTODOS: Foram acompanhados os pacientes diabéticos com úlceras nos pés internados no período de 6 meses e analisadas as amputações nesses doentes em relação à idade, sexo, amputação prévia, número de ulcerações, tempo de diagnóstico do diabete, tempo de ulceração, tempo médio de internação, gravidade das lesões, presença de pulso. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que 55% (44/80 dos doentes evoluíram para algum tipo de amputação de membros inferiores; a mediana das idades foi de 61 anos, porém a ocorrência de amputação foi significativamente maior na faixa etária dos 60 aos 90 anos (P = 0,03. Não se observou uma variação significativa da mediana do tempo de diagnóstico do diabetes, do tempo de ulceração e do tempo médio de internação em relação ao grupo de pacientes que foram amputados. Entretanto, as lesões mais graves, quando avaliadas pela classificação de Wagner (P OBJECTIVE: To determine the predisposing factors for amputation of lower limbs in diabetic patients with foot ulceration. METHODS: The research was carried out in hospitals, and all diabetic patients with foot ulceration were included. Amputation was studied in relation to age, sex, previous amputation, number of ulcers, time of diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, time of ulceration, average number of days in hospital, Wagner's classification, and presence of foot pulse. RESULTS: We verified that 55% (44/80 of the patients progressed to some type of amputation of the lower limbs; mean age was 61 years, but the occurrence of amputation was significantly higher in the age group between 60 and 90 years (P = 0.03. We did not observe a significant variation in the following variables: time of diagnosis of diabetes, time of ulceration, and hospitalization time in relation to the group of patients who

  14. Statistics, Uncertainty, and Transmitted Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Joanne Roth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-05

    The field of Statistics provides methods for modeling and understanding data and making decisions in the presence of uncertainty. When examining response functions, variation present in the input variables will be transmitted via the response function to the output variables. This phenomenon can potentially have significant impacts on the uncertainty associated with results from subsequent analysis. This presentation will examine the concept of transmitted variation, its impact on designed experiments, and a method for identifying and estimating sources of transmitted variation in certain settings.

  15. Predisposing Factors Analysis for 105 Patients With Acute Gouty Arthritis in the Coastal Area%沿海地区105例急性痛风性关节炎患病诱因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国建文; 张涌泉; 贾忠林; 盖永乐

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe predisposing factors of acute gouty arthritis in Shandong coastal area,and to investigate the relationship between gout and activities induced energy metabolism level. Methods In this clinical investigation,105 patients with acute gouty arthritis were observed and predisposing factors were described. Activities induced energy metabolism levels of the patients were determined by the intensity of labor and physical exercise activities. The body mass index(BMI)and serum uric acid were determined. Data were analyzed statistical y using simple correlation. Results The main predisposing factors of acute gouty arthritis were drinking(29.5%)and careless diet(25.7%). The patients were in the low level of activities induced energy metabolism. Meanwhile,BMI(25.9)of gout patients was positive correlation with serum uric acid(533 μmol/L).Conclusion There were many inducements of acute gouty arthritis and the main precipitating factors were drinking and careless diet. The low level of activities induced energy metabolism could be one of the long-term predisposing factors of gout.%目的:描述山东沿海地区急性痛风性关节炎诱发因素的分布情况,并探讨活动能量代谢水平与痛风的关系。方法收集了105例急性痛风性关节炎患者资料,调查其发病诱因;通过劳动强度和体育锻炼情况确定患者的活动能量代谢水平,同时测定体重指数和血尿酸水平。对数据进行描述性统计分析和简单相关性分析。结果导致痛风性关节炎急性发作最主要的诱发因素是大量饮酒(29.5%)和饮食不慎(25.7%);痛风人群的日常活动能量代谢水平较低;体重指数平均值为(25.9±2.23),血尿酸平均值为(533±69.2)μmol/L,二者呈正相关。结论众多因素可引起痛风性关节炎的急性发作,其中大量饮酒和饮食不慎是最主要的诱发因素;较低的活动能量代谢水平是痛风的长期发病诱因之一。

  16. Late gestation over- and undernutrition predispose for visceral adiposity in response to a post-natal obesogenic diet, but with differential impacts on glucose-insulin adaptations during fasting in lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanal, Prabhat; Husted, Sanne Vinter; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen;

    2014-01-01

    of subcutaneous adipose tissue and induced differential physiological adaptations to fasting. This study does not suggest that exposure to gestational overnutrition will provide a protective effect against development of hyperglycaemia later in life. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society.......Aim: To investigate if late gestation under- or overnutrition has similar adverse impacts on visceral adiposity, metabolic and endocrine function in sheep, and if subsequent exposure to a high-fat diet in early post-natal life exaggerates the prenatal programming outcomes later in life. Methods......, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids, triglyceride and lactate combined with abdominal obesity. Peri-renal fat appeared to be a particular target of a high-fat diet post-natally. Conclusion: Both prenatal under- and overnutrition predisposed for abdominal adiposity, apparently by reducing the expandability...

  17. Polymorphisms in the pituitary growth hormone gene and its receptor associated with coronary artery disease in a predisposed cohort from India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arindam Maitra; Jayashree Shanker; Debabrata Dash; Prathima R. Sannappa; Shibu John; Pratibha Siwach; Veena S. Rao; H. Sridhara; Vijay V. Kakkar

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the promoter polymorphisms of the pituitary growth hormone gene (GH1) and exon 3 deletion polymorphism (GHRd3) in its receptor gene (GHR) in 299 angiographically proven patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 231 asymptomatic controls enrolled in the ongoing Indian Atherosclerosis Research Study. Real time PCR based analysis of the GHR variant showed significant association of the GHRd3 deletion allele with CAD (OR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.30–0.76, $P = 0.0014$) and a dominant model of inheritance (Akaike information criterion = 482). The deletion allele showed significant association with high plasma HDL-c levels ($P = 0.001$). Sequencing of the proximal promoter region of GH1 revealed 12 novel polymorphisms and a TAGA haplotype constituted by the functional SNPs rs2005171, rs11568828, rs2005172 and rs6171, that showed significant association with CAD alone (adjusted OR of 3.31 (95% CI = 1.33–8.29, $P = 0.011$) and in CAD patients with diabetes ($P = 0.019$). Mean standardized height was associated with three of the four haplotype-tagging SNPs in the cohort ($P \\leq 0.03$). Eleven of the 12 polymorphic promoter SNPs contributed to 14.7% of variation in height in females in the whole dataset ($P = 0.029$). CAD patients with history of stroke exhibited marginally significantly lower mean height as compared to rest of the cohort ($P \\lt 0.006$). In conclusion, genetic polymorphisms in the GHR gene and its ligand, GH1, may modulate the risk of CAD in the Asian Indian population.

  18. 终端陈列对顾客冲动性购买行为的诱发机制%Predisposing Mechanism of Terminal Assortment on Customer's Impulsive Buying Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白建磊; 陈立平

    2016-01-01

    Based on the reciprocal determinism theory,the predisposing mechanism of impulsive buying caused by the terminal assortment is divided into two levels in this paper.By adopting several rounds of interviews of senior practitioners from academic and practical staff,the first layer of inducing factors is divided into attention,comfort and urgency with the Delphi method.The second layer of inducing factors is divided into assortment position,vitality,selling point environment and personal promotion.The influence coefficients of each index to the impulse buying are determined by AHP according to the survey in sales terminal of customers.The predisposing mechanism of customers' impulsive purchase behaviors caused by the terminal assortment is constructed sequentially.%本文以三元交互理论为基础,把终端陈列对顾客冲动性购买的诱发机制分为两个层次。通过对学界和业界资深从业人士的多轮访谈,运用德尔菲法,把第一层诱发因素分为注意力、舒适度和紧迫性三个指标,第二层诱发因素分为陈列位置、售点环境、人员推介及生动化四个指标。随后根据对终端顾客的调查,运用层次分析法,确定了每个指标对顾客冲动性购买行为的影响系数,从而构建了终端陈列对顾客冲动性购买的诱发机制。

  19. Does proximal femoral varus osteotomy in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease predispose to angular mal-alignment of the knee? A clinical and radiographic study at skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercier, Stéphane; Shah, Hitesh; Siddesh, N D; Joseph, Benjamin

    2013-06-01

    Though there is an impression that proximal femoral varus osteotomy (FVO) can result in a valgus deformity at the knee there is no agreement on this issue. This study was undertaken to ascertain whether a FVO predisposes to the development of genu valgum in children with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD). One hundred and one children with unilateral LCPD who underwent a FVO during the active stage of the disease and 32 children who were treated non-operatively were followed till skeletal maturity. The FVO was performed with a 20° varus angulation in all the patients and weight-bearing was not permitted till the stage of reconstitution. The alignment of the knee was assessed clinically at skeletal maturity. A subset of 33 operated children also had full length standing radiographs of the limbs. The mechanical axis deviation, femur-tibial angle, lateral distal femoral angle and the medial proximal tibial angle of both limbs were measured on these radiographs. The frequency of clinically appreciable mal-alignment of the knee was not greater on the affected side in patients who had undergone FVO when compared to the unaffected limb and also when compared to the affected limb in non-operated patients. The mechanical axis of the lower limb of operated children was relatively in more valgus than that of normal limbs but they fell within the normal range. This study does not support the impression that a proximal femoral osteotomy for LCPD predisposes to clinically discernable degrees of genu valgum in children who have had 20° of varus angulation at the osteotomy site and who have avoided weight-bearing for a prolonged period following surgery. Further studies are needed to clarify if genu valgum would develop if early post-operative weight-bearing is permitted. III.

  20. Variational Approach to Molecular Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüske, Feliks; Keller, Bettina G; Pérez-Hernández, Guillermo; Mey, Antonia S J S; Noé, Frank

    2014-04-08

    The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the molecular dynamics propagator (or transfer operator) contain the essential information about the molecular thermodynamics and kinetics. This includes the stationary distribution, the metastable states, and state-to-state transition rates. Here, we present a variational approach for computing these dominant eigenvalues and eigenvectors. This approach is analogous to the variational approach used for computing stationary states in quantum mechanics. A corresponding method of linear variation is formulated. It is shown that the matrices needed for the linear variation method are correlation matrices that can be estimated from simple MD simulations for a given basis set. The method proposed here is thus to first define a basis set able to capture the relevant conformational transitions, then compute the respective correlation matrices, and then to compute their dominant eigenvalues and eigenvectors, thus obtaining the key ingredients of the slow kinetics.

  1. Variational Integrators in Plasma Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Variational integrators are a special kind of geometric discretisation methods applicable to any system of differential equations that obeys a Lagrangian formulation. In this thesis, variational integrators are developed for several important models of plasma physics: guiding centre dynamics (particle dynamics), the Vlasov-Poisson system (kinetic theory), and ideal magnetohydrodynamics (plasma fluid theory). Special attention is given to physical conservation laws like conservation of energy and momentum. Most systems in plasma physics do not possess a Lagrangian formulation to which the variational integrator methodology is directly applicable. Therefore the theory is extended towards nonvariational differential equations by linking it to Ibragimov's theory of integrating factors and adjoint equations. It allows us to find a Lagrangian for all ordinary and partial differential equations and systems thereof. Consequently, the applicability of variational integrators is extended to a much larger family of syst...

  2. Explaining variation in nascent entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship r

  3. Variation of fundamental constants: theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flambaum, Victor

    2008-05-01

    Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest temporal and spatial variation of the fundamental ``constants'' in expanding Universe. There are some hints for the variation of different fundamental constants in quasar absorption spectra and Big Bang nucleosynthesis data. A large number of publications (including atomic clocks) report limits on the variations. We want to study the variation of the main dimensionless parameters of the Standard Model: 1. Fine structure constant alpha (combination of speed of light, electron charge and Plank constant). 2. Ratio of the strong interaction scale (LambdaQCD) to a fundamental mass like electron mass or quark mass which are proportional to Higgs vacuum expectation value. The proton mass is propotional to LambdaQCD, therefore, the proton-to-electron mass ratio comes into this second category. We performed necessary atomic, nuclear and QCD calculations needed to study variation of the fundamental constants using the Big Bang Nucleosynthsis, quasar spectra, Oklo natural nuclear reactor and atomic clock data. The relative effects of the variation may be enhanced in transitions between narrow close levels in atoms, molecules and nuclei. If one will study an enhanced effect, the relative value of systematic effects (which are not enhanced) may be much smaller. Note also that the absolute magnitude of the variation effects in nuclei (e.g. in very narrow 7 eV transition in 229Th) may be 5 orders of magnitude larger than in atoms. A different possibility of enhancement comes from the inversion transitions in molecules where splitting between the levels is due to the quantum tunneling amplitude which has strong, exponential dependence on the electron to proton mass ratio. Our study of NH3 quasar spectra has already given the best limit on the variation of electron to proton mass ratio.

  4. Variational integrators for electric circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ober-Blöbaum, Sina, E-mail: sinaob@math.upb.de [Computational Dynamics and Optimal Control, University of Paderborn (Germany); Tao, Molei [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Cheng, Mulin [Applied and Computational Mathematics, California Institute of Technology (United States); Owhadi, Houman; Marsden, Jerrold E. [Control and Dynamical Systems, California Institute of Technology (United States); Applied and Computational Mathematics, California Institute of Technology (United States)

    2013-06-01

    In this contribution, we develop a variational integrator for the simulation of (stochastic and multiscale) electric circuits. When considering the dynamics of an electric circuit, one is faced with three special situations: 1. The system involves external (control) forcing through external (controlled) voltage sources and resistors. 2. The system is constrained via the Kirchhoff current (KCL) and voltage laws (KVL). 3. The Lagrangian is degenerate. Based on a geometric setting, an appropriate variational formulation is presented to model the circuit from which the equations of motion are derived. A time-discrete variational formulation provides an iteration scheme for the simulation of the electric circuit. Dependent on the discretization, the intrinsic degeneracy of the system can be canceled for the discrete variational scheme. In this way, a variational integrator is constructed that gains several advantages compared to standard integration tools for circuits; in particular, a comparison to BDF methods (which are usually the method of choice for the simulation of electric circuits) shows that even for simple LCR circuits, a better energy behavior and frequency spectrum preservation can be observed using the developed variational integrator.

  5. The impact of osteopontin gene variations on multiple sclerosis development and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comi, Cristoforo; Cappellano, Giuseppe; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Buttini, Sara; Ghezzi, Laura; Galimberti, Daniela; Guerini, Franca; Barizzone, Nadia; Perla, Franco; Leone, Maurizio; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Caputo, Domenico; Scarpini, Elio; Cantello, Roberto; Dianzani, Umberto

    2012-01-01

    Osteopontin is a proinflammatory molecule, modulating TH1 and TH17 responses. Several reports suggest its involvement in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. We previously reported that OPN gene variations at the 3' end are a predisposing factor for MS development and evolution. In this paper, we extended our analysis to a gene variation at the 5' end on the -156G > GG single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and replicated our previous findings at the 3' end on the +1239A > C SNP. We found that only +1239A > C SNP displayed a statistically significant association with MS development, but both +1239A > C and -156G > GG had an influence on MS progression, since patients homozygous for both +1239A and -156GG alleles displayed slower progression of disability and slower switch to secondary progression than those carrying +1239C and/or -156G and those homozygous for +1239A only. Moreover, patients homozygous for +1239A also displayed a significantly lower relapse rate than those carrying +1239C, which is in line with the established role of OPN in MS relapses.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of copy number variation in type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britney L Grayson

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D tends to cluster in families, suggesting there may be a genetic component predisposing to disease. However, a recent large-scale genome-wide association study concluded that identified genetic factors, single nucleotide polymorphisms, do not account for overall familiality. Another class of genetic variation is the amplification or deletion of >1 kilobase segments of the genome, also termed copy number variations (CNVs. We performed genome-wide CNV analysis on a cohort of 20 unrelated adults with T1D and a control (Ctrl cohort of 20 subjects using the Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 in combination with the Birdsuite copy number calling software. We identified 39 CNVs as enriched or depleted in T1D versus Ctrl. Additionally, we performed CNV analysis in a group of 10 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T1D. Eleven of these 39 CNVs were also respectively enriched or depleted in the Twin cohort, suggesting that these variants may be involved in the development of islet autoimmunity, as the presently unaffected twin is at high risk for developing islet autoimmunity and T1D in his or her lifetime. These CNVs include a deletion on chromosome 6p21, near an HLA-DQ allele. CNVs were found that were both enriched or depleted in patients with or at high risk for developing T1D. These regions may represent genetic variants contributing to development of islet autoimmunity in T1D.

  7. Is there much variation in variation? Revisiting statistics of small area variation in health services research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibáñez Berta

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of Small Area Variation Analysis for policy-making contrasts with the scarcity of work on the validity of the statistics used in these studies. Our study aims at 1 determining whether variation in utilization rates between health areas is higher than would be expected by chance, 2 estimating the statistical power of the variation statistics; and 3 evaluating the ability of different statistics to compare the variability among different procedures regardless of their rates. Methods Parametric bootstrap techniques were used to derive the empirical distribution for each statistic under the hypothesis of homogeneity across areas. Non-parametric procedures were used to analyze the empirical distribution for the observed statistics and compare the results in six situations (low/medium/high utilization rates and low/high variability. A small scale simulation study was conducted to assess the capacity of each statistic to discriminate between different scenarios with different degrees of variation. Results Bootstrap techniques proved to be good at quantifying the difference between the null hypothesis and the variation observed in each situation, and to construct reliable tests and confidence intervals for each of the variation statistics analyzed. Although the good performance of Systematic Component of Variation (SCV, Empirical Bayes (EB statistic shows better behaviour under the null hypothesis, it is able to detect variability if present, it is not influenced by the procedure rate and it is best able to discriminate between different degrees of heterogeneity. Conclusion The EB statistics seems to be a good alternative to more conventional statistics used in small-area variation analysis in health service research because of its robustness.

  8. The UMD-APC database, a model of nation-wide knowledge base: update with data from 3,581 variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandval, Philippe; Blayau, Martine; Buisine, Marie-Pierre; Coulet, Florence; Maugard, Christine; Pinson, Stéphane; Remenieras, Audrey; Tinat, Julie; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Béroud, Christophe; Olschwang, Sylviane

    2014-05-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a rare autosomal-inherited disease that highly predisposes to colorectal cancer, characterized by a diffuse duodenal and colorectal polyposis associated with various extradigestive tumors and linked to germline mutations within the APC gene. A French consortium of laboratories involved in APC mutation screening has progressively improved the description of the variation spectrum, inferred functional significance of nontruncating variations, and delineated phenotypic characteristics of the disease. The current version of the UMD-APC database is described here. The total number of variations has risen to 5,453 representing 1,473 distinct variations. The published records initially registered into the database were extended with 3,581 germline variations found through genetic testing performed by the eight licensed laboratories belonging to the French APC network. Sixty six of 149 variations of previously unknown significance have now been classified as (likely) causal or neutral. The database is available on the Internet (http://www.umd.be/APC/) and updated twice per year according to the consensus rules of the network. The UMD-APC database is thus expected to facilitate functional classification of rare synonymous, nonsynonymous, and intronic mutations and consequently improve genetic counseling and medical care in FAP families.

  9. The Role of Variation in Lexicography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Ceil

    2003-01-01

    Explores the relationship between lexicography and variation in both spoken languages and sign languages. Examines the function of dictionaries and discusses the nature of linguistic variation, using an example of lexical variation in American Sign Language. (Author/VWL)

  10. Variational methods in molecular modeling

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book presents tutorial overviews for many applications of variational methods to molecular modeling. Topics discussed include the Gibbs-Bogoliubov-Feynman variational principle, square-gradient models, classical density functional theories, self-consistent-field theories, phase-field methods, Ginzburg-Landau and Helfrich-type phenomenological models, dynamical density functional theory, and variational Monte Carlo methods. Illustrative examples are given to facilitate understanding of the basic concepts and quantitative prediction of the properties and rich behavior of diverse many-body systems ranging from inhomogeneous fluids, electrolytes and ionic liquids in micropores, colloidal dispersions, liquid crystals, polymer blends, lipid membranes, microemulsions, magnetic materials and high-temperature superconductors. All chapters are written by leading experts in the field and illustrated with tutorial examples for their practical applications to specific subjects. With emphasis placed on physical unders...

  11. Antigenic Variation in Bacterial Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Guy H; Bankhead, Troy; Seifert, H Steven

    2016-02-01

    Antigenic variation is a strategy used by a broad diversity of microbial pathogens to persist within the mammalian host. Whereas viruses make use of a minimal proofreading capacity combined with large amounts of progeny to use random mutation for variant generation, antigenically variant bacteria have evolved mechanisms which use a stable genome, which aids in protecting the fitness of the progeny. Here, three well-characterized and highly antigenically variant bacterial pathogens are discussed: Anaplasma, Borrelia, and Neisseria. These three pathogens display a variety of mechanisms used to create the structural and antigenic variation needed for immune escape and long-term persistence. Intrahost antigenic variation is the focus; however, the role of these immune escape mechanisms at the population level is also presented.

  12. Variational Methods for Biomolecular Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Structure, function and dynamics of many biomolecular systems can be characterized by the energetic variational principle and the corresponding systems of partial differential equations (PDEs). This principle allows us to focus on the identification of essential energetic components, the optimal parametrization of energies, and the efficient computational implementation of energy variation or minimization. Given the fact that complex biomolecular systems are structurally non-uniform and their interactions occur through contact interfaces, their free energies are associated with various interfaces as well, such as solute-solvent interface, molecular binding interface, lipid domain interface, and membrane surfaces. This fact motivates the inclusion of interface geometry, particular its curvatures, to the parametrization of free energies. Applications of such interface geometry based energetic variational principles are illustrated through three concrete topics: the multiscale modeling of biomolecular electrosta...

  13. Solid mechanics a variational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive L

    2013-01-01

    Solid Mechanics: A Variational Approach, Augmented Edition presents a lucid and thoroughly developed approach to solid mechanics for students engaged in the study of elastic structures not seen in other texts currently on the market. This work offers a clear and carefully prepared exposition of variational techniques as they are applied to solid mechanics. Unlike other books in this field, Dym and Shames treat all the necessary theory needed for the study of solid mechanics and include extensive applications. Of particular note is the variational approach used in developing consistent structural theories and in obtaining exact and approximate solutions for many problems.  Based on both semester and year-long courses taught to undergraduate seniors and graduate students, this text is geared for programs in aeronautical, civil, and mechanical engineering, and in engineering science. The authors’ objective is two-fold: first, to introduce the student to the theory of structures (one- and two-dimensional) as ...

  14. Constrained variational calculus: the second variation (part I)

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, Enrico; Pagani, Enrico; Luria, Gianvittorio

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a direct continuation of arXiv:0705.2362 . The Hamiltonian aspects of the theory are further developed. Within the framework provided by the first paper, the problem of minimality for constrained calculus of variations is analyzed among the class of differentiable curves. A necessary and sufficient condition for minimality is proved.

  15. Pure variation and organic stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanvallon, Jérôme

    2012-09-01

    The fundamental problem posed by Darwin distinguishes his theory from any transformism of the past as well as any evolutionism to come: since variation is inherent to the living, it is a question of explaining, not at all why the living varies, but instead why the living does not vary in all directions to the point of constituting a continuum of forms varying ad infinitum. What limits and stabilizes this intrinsically unlimited variation, allowing certain forms to subsist and multiply to the detriment of others, is natural selection. This double principle of intrinsic variation/extrinsic selection constitutes a vector for the unification of reality that underlies Jean-Jacques Kupiec's ontophylogenesis as well as Deleuze and Guattari's global philosophy of Nature. Therefore, everything would potentially tend to incessantly vary. The work of Kupiec and others identifies an intrinsic random variation within ontogenesis itself. For Deleuze and Guattari, it is nothing but the figure, already selected by the organic stratum, of a more fundamental or pure variation. But, in fact, nothing really varies incessantly: everything undergoes a selective pressure according to which nothing subsists as such except what manages to endure through invariance (physical stratum) or reproduction (organic stratum). Thus, organic stratification only retains from variation what ensures and augments this reproduction. In this sense, every organism stratifies, i.e. submits to its imperative of subsistence and reproduction, a body without organs that varies in itself and always tends to escape the organism, for better (intensifications of life) or worse (cancerous pathologies). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Storm surge variational assimilation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-li HUANG

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To eliminate errors caused by uncertainty of parameters and further improve capability of storm surge forecasting, the variational data assimilation method is applied to the storm surge model based on unstructured grid with high spatial resolution. The method can effectively improve the forecasting accuracy of storm surge induced by typhoon through controlling wind drag force coefficient parameter. The model is first theoretically validated with synthetic data. Then, the real storm surge process induced by the TC 0515 typhoon is forecasted by the variational data assimilation model, and results show the feasibility of practical application.

  17. A compiler for variational forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, Robert C; 10.1145/1163641.1163644

    2011-01-01

    As a key step towards a complete automation of the finite element method, we present a new algorithm for automatic and efficient evaluation of multilinear variational forms. The algorithm has been implemented in the form of a compiler, the FEniCS Form Compiler FFC. We present benchmark results for a series of standard variational forms, including the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and linear elasticity. The speedup compared to the standard quadrature-based approach is impressive; in some cases the speedup is as large as a factor 1000.

  18. Homotopy Method for Variational Inequalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Solving a finite-dimensional variational inequality is to find a vector x* ∈ X Rn such that where X is a nonempty, closed and convex subset of Rn and F is a mapping from Rn to itself,denoted by VI(X, F). The variational inequality problem (VIP) has had many successful practical applications in the last three decades. It has been used to formulate and investigate equilibrium models arising in economics, transportation, regional science and operations research. So far, a large number of existence conditions have been developed in the literature. Harker and Pang[1] gave excellent surveys of theories, methods and applications of VIPs.

  19. 957例新生儿听力和聋病易感基因联合筛查结果分析%Study of universal newborn hearing screening and deafness predisposing gene screening in 957 newborns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原晶晶; 张帆; 张淼; 鲍诗平

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨新生儿听力和聋病易感基因联合筛查的临床意义。方法选择2014年1~l2月出生后42 d进行听力复查的957例新生儿,听力复筛采用畸变产物耳声发射(DPOAE)结合自动判别听性脑干反应(AABR)。新生儿在出生后3 d内均已采集足跟血检测9个常见耳聋基因突变位点,包括GJB2基因(35 del G、176 del 16、235 del C、299 delAT)、GJB3基因(538 C>T)、SLC26A4基因(IVS7-2A>G、2168 A>G)、线粒体DNA 12S rRNA基因(1555 A>G、1494 C>T)。结果听力复筛通过904例,未通过53例,复筛通过率为94.46%。突变携带者50例,携带率为5.22%。听力复筛通过人群中检测出突变携带者45例,携带率为4.98%;听力复筛未通过人群中检测出突变携带者5例,携带率为9.43%。结论新生儿听力和聋病易感基因联合筛查,可发现部分听力筛查不能发现的高危耳聋新生儿和迟发性耳聋新生儿,并可进行婚育及用药指导。%Objective To investigate the clinic significance of universal newborn screening with deafness pre-disposing genes in newborns. Methods A total of 957 newborns underwent hearing screening at 42 d after birth in our hospital from January 2014 to December 2014. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) combined with auto-auditory brainstem response (AABR) was used in hearing screening. These newborns had been taken blood sample at heel at 3 d after birth for detecting 9 common deafness genes mutation, including GJB2 (35 del G, 176 del 16, 235 del C, 299 delAT), GJB3 (538 C>T), SLC26A4 (IVS7-2A>G, 2 168 A>G) and mitochondria DNA 12S rRNA (1 555 A>G, 1 494 C>T). Results In 957 newborns of hearing screening, 904 newborns showed“pass”, while 53 showed“refer”. The rate of showing“pass”was 94.46%. Mutation of deafness predisposing genes were detected in 50 cases, and the pos-itive detection rate was 5.22%. Forty-five cases of mutations were detected in the newborns who passed

  20. 普胸外科手术患者医院感染易感因素的临床分析%Clinical analysis of predisposing factors of hospital infection in thoracic surgery patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彬; 袁顺达; 崔健

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To discuss the predisposing factors of hospital infection in thoracic surgery patients.METHODS The retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 726 thoracic surgery patients from Jan 2008 to Aug 2010. RESULTS Totally 172 cases of hospital infection occurred in 726 thoracic surgery patients (the infection rate 23.7%), among which the most common site was lower respiratory tract. The chisquare test on possible factors related to hospital infection showed that operation time≥3 h,age≥60 years and the length of stay > 14 d, were the predisposing factors of hospital infection. CONCLUSION Operation time,age and length of stay are the risk factors for hospital infection in thoracic surgery patients. Great importance should be attached to in clinics through shortening operation time, strengthening respiratory care, cutting down length of stay and other comprehensive measures to improve the efficacy and prognosis of patients.%目的 探讨普胸外科手术患者医院感染的易感因素.方法 对医院2008年1月-2010年8月收治的726例普胸外科手术患者的临床资料进行回顾性调查分析.结果 726例普胸外科手术患者中发生医院感染172例,感染率为23.7%,其中又以下呼吸道感染最为常见,手术时间≥3 h、年龄≥60岁、住院时间>14 d是医院感染发生的易感因素.结论 手术时间、年龄、住院时间是普胸外科手术患者发生医院感染的易感因素,临床中应予以重视,通过缩短手术时间、加强呼吸道护理、缩短住院时间等综合措施预防感染,以改善患者的疗效和预后.

  1. Análise de fatores extrínsecos e intrínsecos que predispõem a quedas em idosos Analysis of extrinsic and intrinsic factors that predispose elderly individuals to fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sionara Tamanini de Almeida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar, em uma amostra de idosos de Porto Alegre, RS, os fatores intrínsecos e extrínsecos que predispõem ao risco de queda e fraturas. MÉTODOS: O estudo contou com uma amostra aleatória de 267 idosos, aos quais foram aplicados dois testes de equilíbrio: o Teste do Alcance Funcional (TAF e o Timed Up and Go Test (TUG. Os idosos também responderam a um questionário (13 questões divididas em quatro categorias sobre fatores sociodemográficos e sobre a saúde. RESULTADOS: Participaram idosos de ambos os sexos (76,8% mulheres com idades entre 60 e 90 anos (média = 70,22 anos; DP = ± 7,30 anos. Foram encontradas relações estatisticamente significativas (p OBJECTIVE: In a sample of elderly individuals from Porto Alegre - RS, Brazil, to analyze the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that predispose them to the risk of falls and fractures. METHODS: The study included a random sample of 267 elderly individuals, to whom two balance tests were applied: the Functional Reach Test (FRT and the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG. The elderly also answered a questionnaire (13 questions divided into four categories on sociodemographic and health factors. RESULTS: Elderly individuals from both genders (76.8% women, aged between 60 and 90 years (mean = 70.22 years, SD = ± 7.30 years participated in the study. A statistically significant association (p < 0.05 was found between age, self-perception of eyesight, type of dwelling, last monthly income, and the FRT; the same was found between age range, self-rated health (p < 0.001 and the TUG. CONCLUSION: It was identified that, in the sample of elderly individuals living in Porto Alegre - RS, Brazil, the intrinsic factors that predispose to the risk of falls and fractures are older age, poor self-perception of eyesight, and poor selfrated health; the extrinsic factors are type of dwelling (living in a house and a monthly income < one minimum wage.

  2. Genetic variation in the zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guryev, V.; Koudijs, M.J.; Berezikov, E.; Johnson, S.L.; Plasterk, R.; van Eeden, F.; Cuppen, E.

    2006-01-01

    Although zebrafish was introduced as a laboratory model organism several decades ago and now serves as a primary model for developmental biology, there is only limited data on its genetic variation. An establishment of a dense polymorphism map becomes a requirement for effective linkage analysis and

  3. Creativity, depression, and circannual variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitton, S C; Hughes, R B

    1995-12-01

    Verbal creativity has been linked to personal and family histories of bipolar depression. The present studies investigated the relationship between creativity and atypical symptoms of bipolar depression such as seasonal mood variations. Although more creative individuals, as measured by scores on the Remote Associates Test and a writing sample, perceived seasonal fluctuations in their creativity, no significant differences in performance were found.

  4. Genetisk variation og langt liv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    andre ikke gør. I dette ph.d.-projekt undersøgte vi sammenhængen mellem levetid og variation i tre biologiske skadesprocesser. De tre er: antioxidanter, væksthormon/insulin-signalering og DNA-reparation. Vi fandt nye genvariationer, hvoraf nogle har positiv indflydelse på chancen for at blive meget...

  5. Sea level and climate variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1985-01-01

    Review paper, ESA Symposium on Application of Satellite Data to Climate Modelling. Alpbach (Austria) Sea level is an essential component of the climate system, on which many human activities in the coastal zone depend. Climate variations leading to changes in relative sea level are

  6. The Dimensionality of Grammatical Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankoff, David; Cedergren, Henrietta J.

    1976-01-01

    Computer-based multidimensional scaling techniques are used to determine the dimensionality of grammatical variation in three large sets of data: Ross' (1973) Noun Phrase and fake Noun Phrase data; Sankoff's (1974) complementizer "que"-deletion (Montreal French) data; and Cedergren's (1973) syllable-final S-reduction (Panamanian Spanish) data. (DB)

  7. Symmetries and variation of spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Rajendra; Elsner, Ludwig

    1992-01-01

    An interesting class of matrices is shown to have the property that the spectrum of each of its elements is invariant under multiplication by p-th roots of unity. For this class and tor a class of Hamiltonian matrices improved spectral variation bounds are obtained.

  8. Quadratic Variation by Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Horel, Guillaume

    We introduce a novel estimator of the quadratic variation that is based on the the- ory of Markov chains. The estimator is motivated by some general results concerning filtering contaminated semimartingales. Specifically, we show that filtering can in prin- ciple remove the effects of market...

  9. Orbital variations, climate and paleoecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlein, P J; Prentice, I C

    1989-07-01

    One of the most exciting discoveries in the earth sciences in recent decades has been the proof that ice ages are governed by deterministic variations in the earth's orbit. These variations modify the latitudinal and seasonal distribution of solar radiation at periods ranging from 103 to 10(5) years, and alternately produce conditions for building and melting continental ice. The same solar radiation variations also govern other aspects of world climate, including the temperatures of the midlatitude continental interiors, the intensity of upwelling in the tropical oceans, and the strength and extent of the monsoons. The interplay of solar radiation, seasonality and ice-sheet changes is responsible for the complex ecological history documented in the fossil record of the past 20 000 years. But the orbital variations have occurred throughout earth's history, and have caused periodic environmental changes in both terrestrial and marine environments even during times when there was no ice. Species have responded to these changes by range migration, an evolved ability that may maintain their genetic coherence in the face of a continually changing environment.

  10. Variational integrators in plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Michael

    2013-07-01

    To a large extent, research in plasma physics is concerned with the description and analysis of energy and momentum transfer between different scales and different kinds of waves. In the numerical modelling of such phenomena it appears to be crucial to describe the transfer processes preserving the underlying conservation laws in order to prevent physically spurious solutions. In this work, special numerical methods, so called variational integrators, are developed for several models of plasma physics. Special attention is given to conservation properties like conservation of energy and momentum. By design, variational integrators are applicable to all systems that have a Lagrangian formulation. Usually, equations of motion are derived by Hamilton's action principle and then discretised. In the application of the variational integrator theory, the order of these steps is reversed. At first, the Lagrangian and the accompanying variational principle are discretised, such that discrete equations of motion can be obtained directly by applying the discrete variational principle to the discrete Lagrangian. The advantage of this approach is that the resulting discretisation automatically retains the conservation properties of the continuous system. Following an overview of the geometric formulation of classical mechanics and field theory, which forms the basis of the variational integrator theory, variational integrators are introduced in a framework adapted to problems from plasma physics. The applicability of variational integrators is explored for several important models of plasma physics: particle dynamics (guiding centre dynamics), kinetic theory (the Vlasov-Poisson system) and fluid theory (magnetohydrodynamics). These systems, with the exception of guiding centre dynamics, do not possess a Lagrangian formulation to which the variational integrator methodology is directly applicable. Therefore the theory is extended by linking it to Ibragimov's theory of

  11. Geometric constrained variational calculus. III: The second variation (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Enrico; Luria, Gianvittorio; Pagani, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    The problem of minimality for constrained variational calculus is analyzed within the class of piecewise differentiable extremaloids. A fully covariant representation of the second variation of the action functional based on a family of local gauge transformations of the original Lagrangian is proposed. The necessity of pursuing a local adaptation process, rather than the global one described in [1] is seen to depend on the value of certain scalar attributes of the extremaloid, here called the corners’ strengths. On this basis, both the necessary and the sufficient conditions for minimality are worked out. In the discussion, a crucial role is played by an analysis of the prolongability of the Jacobi fields across the corners. Eventually, in the appendix, an alternative approach to the concept of strength of a corner, more closely related to Pontryagin’s maximum principle, is presented.

  12. General inverse problems for regular variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damek, Ewa; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Rosinski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Regular variation of distributional tails is known to be preserved by various linear transformations of some random structures. An inverse problem for regular variation aims at understanding whether the regular variation of a transformed random object is caused by regular variation of components ...

  13. Predisposing, enabling and need factors of heroin addicts’ using prescribed methadone or buprenorphine for a year or longer: An exploratory study of drug treatment for heroin addicts in the Swedish welfare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Marcus Blom

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM - This exploratory study draws on national register data for 2,638 opioid users from 2004- 2008 to examine whether or not certain predisposing, enabling and need factors are associated with taking methadone or buprenorphine continuously on doctor’s orders for one year or more. DESIGN - Chi-square analysis, one-way Anova and logistic regression methods were used to explore the association between self-reported demographic characteristics, alcohol/drug use severity, substance use disorder treatment history, criminal justice history, level of mental health symptomatology, mental health treatment history, and whether or not adult opioid users had taken methadone or buprenorphine continuously on doctor’s orders for one year or longer. RESULTS - Having a job and having had more voluntary treatment episodes were significantly associated with using methadone or buprenorphine. Those opioid users who had a job were 19 times more likely to be on methadone or buprenorphine than opiate users who did not have a job. CONCLUSIONS - In our study, individuals who were working were significantly more likely to medicate against their opioid abuse. This suggests that they may be more socially integrated than their non-medicating counterparts

  14. Evaluation of a demonstration primary health care project in rural Guatemala: the influence of predisposing, enabling and need factors on immunization coverage, equitable use of health care services and application of treatment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Meredith P; Grembowski, David; Heagerty, Patrick; Lim, Stephen S; Mercer, Mary Anne

    2012-09-01

    In high- and low-resource settings, care is often provided inequitably, with more and higher-quality services being offered to those who need them less. We evaluated the influence of predisposing, enabling and need characteristics on immunization coverage and use of health services in a population-based primary health care model called the Inclusive Health Model in rural Guatemala. We also analyzed providers' application of treatment guidelines for children with pneumonia. A longitudinal cohort design was used from 2006 to 2009 to analyze data from the model's two demonstration sites. We found a significant positive association between families' health risk level and their use of health care services, with the model providing more services to those with greater need. Services are not provided differentially for those families with a higher or lower wealth level or selected sociodemographic characteristics. Distance from a clinic is significantly associated with lower service use, but this constraint decreases with time. Implementation of treatment guidelines does not vary with different provider characteristics. The Inclusive Health Care model's aim of offering care equitably to families living in its catchment area is reflected in these findings. This study offers an approach and conceptual model for tracking equity in service delivery that may be applicable in other settings.

  15. PROGNOSIS FOR PREDISPOSAL TO DEVELOPMENT OF VIRAL HEPATITIS C BASED ON G-308A TNFА, T-330G IL-2, С-590Т IL-4, С-703Т IL-5, AND C-592A IL-10 GENE POLYMORPHISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Avdoshina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The main objective of this work was to identify allelic variants of cytokine genes at the polymorphic positions of G-308A TNFА, T-330G IL-2, С-590Т IL-4, С-703Т IL-5, and C-592A IL-10, and to assess their contribution to predisposition and resistance of human patients to progression of viral hepatitis C infection. We observed significant increase in frequency of T/G T-330G IL-2 genotype in HCV-infected patients, as compared to healthy individuals. Distribution analysis of C-590T promoter alleles of the IL-4 gene displayed a wide overrepresentation of C/T genotype among HCV-infected patients. Likewise, we have shown the G/A genotype of G-308A TNFA to be highly frequent in the group of HCV-infected patients, whereas this genotype was rare in the sample of healthy persons. When analysing allelic frequencies of cytokine genes at these polymorphic positions, we get an opportunity to predict predisposal for the chronic variant of viral hepatitis C in HCV-infected persons.

  16. Bernoulli Variational Problem and Beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Lorz, Alexander

    2013-12-17

    The question of \\'cutting the tail\\' of the solution of an elliptic equation arises naturally in several contexts and leads to a singular perturbation problem under the form of a strong cut-off. We consider both the PDE with a drift and the symmetric case where a variational problem can be stated. It is known that, in both cases, the same critical scale arises for the size of the singular perturbation. More interesting is that in both cases another critical parameter (of order one) arises that decides when the limiting behaviour is non-degenerate. We study both theoretically and numerically the values of this critical parameter and, in the symmetric case, ask if the variational solution leads to the same value as for the maximal solution of the PDE. Finally we propose a weak formulation of the limiting Bernoulli problem which incorporates both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary condition. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. Variational principles for dissipative waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodin, I. Y.; Ruiz, D. E.

    2016-10-01

    Variational methods are a powerful tool in plasma theory. However, their applications are typically restricted to conservative systems or require doubling of variables, which often contradicts the purpose of the variational approach altogether. We show that these restrictions can be relaxed for some classes of dynamical systems that are of practical interest in plasma physics, particularly including dissipative plasma waves. Applications will be discussed to calculating dispersion relations and modulational dynamics of individual plasma waves and wave ensembles. The work was supported by the NNSA SSAA Program through DOE Research Grant No. DE-NA0002948, by the U.S. DOE through Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466, and by the U.S. DOD NDSEG Fellowship through Contract No. 32-CFR-168a.

  18. Decadal variations in groundwater quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Søren; Postma, Dieke; Thorling, Lærke

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-five years of groundwater quality monitoring in a sandy aquifer beneath agricultural fields showed large temporal and spatial variations in major ion groundwater chemistry, which were linked closely to the nitrate (NO3) content of agricultural recharge. Between 1988 and 2013, the NO3 content...... loading. Agriculture thus is an important determinant of major ion groundwater chemistry. Temporal and spatial variations in the groundwater quality were simulated using a 2D reactive transport model, which combined effects of the historical NO3 leaching and denitrification, with dispersive mixing...... into the pristine groundwater residing deeper in the aquifer. Reactant-to-product ratios across reaction fronts are altered by dispersive mixing and transience in reactant input functions. Modelling therefore allowed a direct comparison of observed and simulated ratios of concentrations of NO3 (reactant...

  19. Clinical Interpretation of Genomic Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayitoğlu, Müge

    2016-09-05

    Novel high-throughput sequencing technologies generate large-scale genomic data and are used extensively for disease mapping of monogenic and/or complex disorders, personalized treatment, and pharmacogenomics. Next-generation sequencing is rapidly becoming routine tool for diagnosis and molecular monitoring of patients to evaluate therapeutic efficiency. The next-generation sequencing platforms generate huge amounts of genetic variation data and it remains a challenge to interpret the variations that are identified. Such data interpretation needs close collaboration among bioinformaticians, clinicians, and geneticists. There are several problems that must be addressed, such as the generation of new algorithms for mapping and annotation, harmonization of the terminology, correct use of nomenclature, reference genomes for different populations, rare disease variant databases, and clinical reports.

  20. Variational Principle for Planetary Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    2016-09-01

    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. The variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory, which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying the variational principle to the planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From this principle, a universal mass-radius relation, an estimate of the error propagation from the equation of state to the mass-radius relation, and a form of the virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  1. Variational Integrators for Reduced Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Michael; Grasso, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws are described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify...

  2. LGBTI Variations in Crime Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Miles-Johnson, Toby

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that people vary in their willingness to report crime to police depending on the type of crime experienced, their gender, age, and their race or ethnicity. Whether or not lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) and heterosexual people vary in their willingness to report crime to the police is not well understood in the extant literature. In this article, I examine variations in LGBTI re...

  3. Edge adaptive directional total variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The directional total variation (DTV model has been proposed very recently for image denoising. However, the DTV model works well when there is just one dominant direction in the image. In this Letter, the authors propose to make the DTV model adaptive to image edge direction so that the proposed model can handle images with several dominant directions. Experiment and comparison show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Longitudinal Variations in Jupiter's Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Gierasch, P. J.; Tierney, G.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term studies of Jupiter's zonal wind field revealed temporal variations on the order of 20 to 40 m/s at many latitudes, greater than the typical data uncertainties of 1 to 10 m/s. No definitive periodicities were evident, however, though some latitudinally-confined signals did appear at periods relevant to the Quasi- Quadrennial Oscillation (Simon-Miller & Gierasch, Icarus, in press). As the QQO appears, from vertical temperature profiles, to propagate downward, it is unclear why a signal is not more obvious, unless other processes dominate over possibly weaker forcing from the QQO. An additional complication is that zonal wind profiles represent an average over some particular set of longitudes for an image pair and most data sets do not offer global wind coverage. Lien avoiding known features, such as the large anticyclonic vortices especially prevalent in the south, there can be distinct variations in longitude. We present results on the full wind field from Voyager and Cassini data, showing apparent longitudinal variations of up to 60 m/s or more. These are particularly obvious near disruptions such as the South Equatorial Disturbance, even when the feature itself is not clearly visible. These two dates represent very different states of the planet for comparison: Voyagers 1 & 2 flew by Jupiter shortly after a global upheaval, while many regions were in a disturbed state, while the Cassini view is typical of a more quiescent period present during much of the 1990s and early 2000s.

  5. Variational integrators for reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Michael, E-mail: michael.kraus@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Technische Universität München, Zentrum Mathematik, Boltzmannstraße 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tassi, Emanuele, E-mail: tassi@cpt.univ-mrs.fr [Aix-Marseille Université, Université de Toulon, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, 163 avenue de Luminy, case 907, 13288 cedex 9 Marseille (France); Grasso, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.grasso@infm.polito.it [ISC-CNR and Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento Energia, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws is described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify the favourable properties of the variational integrator in particular with respect to the preservation of the invariants of the models under consideration and compare with results from the literature and those of a pseudo-spectral code.

  6. Variational integrators for reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael; Tassi, Emanuele; Grasso, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws is described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify the favourable properties of the variational integrator in particular with respect to the preservation of the invariants of the models under consideration and compare with results from the literature and those of a pseudo-spectral code.

  7. Can antioxidants predispose to cancer recurrence?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krishnananda Prabhu; Gummadi Maheshwar Reddy; Anjali Rao

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To measure and compare pre-and post-treatment levels of serum total glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in stage IV cervical cancer patients and erythrocytic glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and plasma ceruloplasmin (CP) and total GST in stage IV oral cancer patients and to correlate with the response to treatment during a two year follow-up period in respective cancer groups. Methods:Thirty-four biopsy-proven stage IV oral cancer and cervical cancer patients (n=17 in each group) who underwent same mode of treatment were chosen for this study. Erythrocytic MDA and GSH, CP and serum total GST were measured in all patients before the onset of treatment, and the GST level was only measured in cervical cancer patients after radiotherapy. The levels were compared with their respective prognosis in 2 years. Results:Oral cancer patients with higher pretreatment levels of GSH, CP and GST came with cancer recurrence within 2 years after the onset of treatment. Cervical cancer patients with higher post radiotherapy levels of serum total GST had higher recurrence tate. Conclusions:This study indicates there may be a role for these antioxidant parameters namely GST, GSH, CP in assessment of long term survival and prognosis of cancer patients.

  8. Pregnancy predisposes to rhabdomyolysis due to hypokalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukrishnan Jayaraman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased predilection for hypokalemia-induced rhabdomyolysis has been noted in pregnant women. We managed a woman with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA with persistent hypokalemia who presented with recurrent rhabdomyolysis in her consecutive pregnancies despite adequate potassium citrate therapy.

  9. predisposing factors towards examination malpractice among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, ... One research ... examination malpractice; also, gender and age are no indices for examination ... schools and it is expected that they instil a positive approach to .... interaction in.

  10. 65 PREVALENCE, PREDISPOSING FACTORS AND ANTIBIOGRAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southwestern Nigeria and to determine the antibiogram of isolated pyogenic bacteria in order to recommend a ... Swine skin abscess was observed to be a widespread condition as 22.5% of the farms sampled ... (35.7%) and Streptococcus sp.

  11. Recessively inherited deficiencies predisposing to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H

    1990-01-01

    The genetic factors involved in the multistep process of carcinogenesis can be divided at least into two major categories: 1. Mutated or lost genes, which may directly represent one step in the sequential process (tumour suppressor genes); inheritance of one tumour suppressor gene causes dominant expression of the carcinogenic phenotype (the dominant inheritance is described in the accompanying paper); 2. Other genes, which lead to conditions that favour the development of cancer and generally are inherited in a recessive fashion; they are the subject of this paper. Autosomal recessively inherited diseases, such as xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia-telangiectasia, Bloom's syndrome and Fanconi's anaemia display increased genome instability (chromosomal fragility and/or DNA-repair deficiencies) and are associated in the homozygote and probably also in the heterozygote state with defined malignancies. Neoplasms particularly of the lymphoreticular system frequently occur in patients with genetically determined immunodeficiencies (e.g. severe combined immune deficiency or Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome). People differ due to their individual genetic constitution in their responses to various classes of carcinogens such as physical and chemical agents, to dietary habits, as well as to viruses. Furthermore, tumours are often found in patients displaying premature aging (e.g. Werner's syndrome). In addition, several metabolic abnormalities such as genetic syndromes featuring chronic liver disease, but also many other inherited metabolic conditions have cancer as a regular or frequent complication.

  12. Osteoradionecrosis: predisposing factors and outcomes of therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beumer, J.; Harrison, R.; Sanders, B.; Kurrasch, M.

    Eighty-three episodes of osteoradionecrosis are reported. Of those episodes affecting the mandible (78), 23 (29.5%) required radical resection. The most common precipitating factors were postradiation extractions (22/83), periodontal disease (19/83), and preradiation extractions (17/83). Those episodes initially located within the zone of attached mucosa fared well with conservative measures while those initially located beyond the zone of attached mucosa fared poorly. In bone necroses where the external radiation dose to the affected bone exceeded 7,000 rad, the mandibular resection rate was high (44%). The most effective way of resolving advanced bone necroses was achieved with a course of hyperbaric oxygen therapy combined with a surgical sequestrectomy.

  13. Time course of cytokine upregulation in the lacrimal gland and presence of autoantibodies in a predisposed mouse model of Sjögren's Syndrome: the influence of sex hormones and genetic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Stefanie; Mostafa, Safinaz; Rowan, Vanessa Seamon; Azzarolo, Ana Maria

    2014-11-01

    Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) is a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by lacrimal gland lymphocytic infiltration and epithelial cell death, as well as by the presence of serum autoantibodies. Although the symptoms of this syndrome are well characterized, patients are not diagnosed until 5-10 years into disease progression; furthermore, the early series of events leading to the initiation of SS are not well understood. In order to better understand the early events of the disease, we have been using ovariectomized (OVX) NOD.B10.H2(b) mice as a genetically predisposed model of SS. Previously, we have shown that removal of ovarian hormones through ovariectomy accelerated the symptoms of this disease, and in early events of SS in the lacrimal glands, lymphocytic infiltration preceded acinar cell apoptosis. To further elucidate the earlier events of this disease in the SS animal model, we investigated the expression and concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lacrimal glands as well as the presence of autoantibodies in both lacrimal glands and serum. Six weeks old NOD.B10.H2(b) and C57BL/10 control mice were either sham-operated, OVX, OVX and treated with 17β-estradiol (E2), or OVX and treated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Lacrimal glands were collected at 3, 7, 21, and 30 days after surgery and analyzed for cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-4 gene expression by using quantitative RT-PCR and for cytokine levels using ELISA. Furthermore, anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB autoantibodies were measured in the serum and lacrimal glands supernatants using ELISA. The results of this study showed that OVX caused a significant increase in the expression and levels of the cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-4 in the lacrimal glands of the NOD.B10.H2(b) mice starting at 3 days after OVX, while a significant increase of IL-10 gene expression and levels was observed only at later experimental time points. A small but significant increase in the

  14. Variational collocation on finite intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Cervantes, Mayra [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Diag. 113 y 64 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2007-10-26

    In this paper, we study a set of functions, defined on an interval of finite width, which are orthogonal and which reduce to the sinc functions when the appropriate limit is taken. We show that these functions can be used within a variational approach to obtain accurate results for a variety of problems. We have applied them to the interpolation of functions on finite domains and to the solution of the Schroedinger equation, and we have compared the performance of the present approach with others.

  15. Genetic variation in dieback resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, Albin; Hansen, Jon Kehlet; McKinney, Lea Vig

    2014-01-01

    -eastern Zealand, Denmark, and confirmed the presence of substantial genetic variation in ash dieback susceptibility. The average crown damage increased in the trial from 61% in 2009 to 66% in 2012 and 72% in 2014, while the estimated heritability was 0.42 in both 2009 and 2012 but increased to 0.53 in 2014....... Genetic correlation between assessments was 0.88 between 2009 and 2012 and 0.91 between 2009 and 2014, suggesting fairly good possibilities for early selection of superior genotypes in the presence of high infection levels in the trial. The level of crown damage had strong negative effect on growth...

  16. Systematic variations in divergence angle

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Practical methods for quantitative analysis of radial and angular coordinates of leafy organs of vascular plants are presented and applied to published phyllotactic patterns of various real systems from young leaves on a shoot tip to florets on a flower head. The constancy of divergence angle is borne out with accuracy of less than a degree. It is shown that apparent fluctuations in divergence angle are in large part systematic variations caused by the invalid assumption of a fixed center and/or by secondary deformations, while random fluctuations are of minor importance.

  17. Genetic variation and human longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerensen, Mette

    2012-05-01

    The overall aim of the PhD project was to elucidate the association of human longevity with genetic variation in major candidate genes and pathways of longevity. Based on a thorough literature and database search we chose to apply a pathway approach; to explore variation in genes composing the DNA damage signaling, DNA repair, GH/IGF-1/insulin signaling and pro-/antioxidant pathways. In addition, 16 genes which did not belong to the core of either pathway, however recurrently regarded as candidate genes of longevity (e.g. APOE), were included. In this way a total of 168 genes were selected for investigation. We decided to explore the genetic variation in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a highly investigated type of genetic variation. SNPs having potential functional impact (e.g. affecting binding of transcription factors) were identified, so were specific SNPs in the candidate genes previously published to be associated with human longevity. To cover the majority of the common genetic variation in the 168 gene regions (encoding regions plus 5,000 bp upstream and 1,000 downstream) we applied the tagging SNP approach via the HapMap Consortium. Consequently 1,536 SNPs were selected. The majority of the previous publications on genetic variation and human longevity had employed a case-control study design, e.g. comparing centenarians to middle-aged controls. This type of study design is somehow prone to bias introduced by for instance cohort effects, i.e. differences in characteristics of cases and controls, a kind of bias which is avoided when a prospective cohort is under study. Therefore, we chose to investigate 1,200 individuals of the Danish 1905 birth cohort, which have been followed since 1998 when the members were 92-93 years old. The genetic contribution to human longevity has been estimated to be most profound during the late part of life, thus these oldest-old individuals are excellent for investigating such effect. The follow-up survival

  18. Inherited Variation in Vitamin D Genes and Type 1 Diabetes Predisposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna-Martinez, Marissa; Badenhoop, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    The etiology and pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes remain largely elusive with no established concepts for a causal therapy. Efforts to clarify genetic susceptibility and screening for environmental factors have identified the vitamin D system as a contributory pathway that is potentially correctable. This review aims at compiling all genetic studies addressing the vitamin D system in type 1 diabetes. Herein, association studies with case control cohorts are presented as well as family investigations with transmission tests, meta-analyses and intervention trials. Additionally, rare examples of inborn errors of vitamin D metabolism manifesting with type 1 diabetes and their immune status are discussed. We find a majority of association studies confirming a predisposing role for vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and those of the vitamin D metabolism, particularly the CYP27B1 gene encoding the main enzyme for vitamin D activation. Associations, however, are tenuous in relation to the ethnic background of the studied populations. Intervention trials identify the specific requirements of adequate vitamin D doses to achieve vitamin D sufficiency. Preliminary evidence suggests that doses may need to be individualized in order to achieve target effects due to pharmacogenomic variation. PMID:28425954

  19. Multilocus mutation scanning for the analysis of genetic variation within Malassezia (Basidiomycota: Malasseziales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Otranto, Domenico; Campbell, Bronwyn E; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Guillot, Jacques; Gasser, Robin B

    2007-04-01

    Members of the genus Malassezia are budding yeasts, characterized by a thick cell wall. Recently, these yeasts have received attention as emerging pathogens. They are common commensals on the skin of animals and can become pathogenic under the influence of various predisposing factors. Central to studying their taxonomy, systematics, and ecology and to diagnosis is the accurate identification of species or operational taxonomic units. To overcome the limitations of current phenotypic and biochemical methods of identification, a PCR-coupled SSCP approach, utilizing sequence variation (0.4-33.5%) in short regions (approximately 250-270 bp) of the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the chitin synthase-2 gene (chs-2), was assessed for the identification and differentiation of different species/genotypes of Malassezia, characterized previously by DNA sequencing. Genomic DNA samples (n = 30) from Malassezia isolates cultured from canine skin scrapings were assessed by SSCP analysis of the two different genetic loci, and unequivocal delineation between genotypes and species was achieved. This SSCP approach is considered to provide a practical tool for the rapid and reliable genetic characterization of Malassezia genotypes/species from dogs and for investigating their population genetics and ecology. It will also provide a powerful tool for studies of Malassezia isolates from other animal species.

  20. Endogenous Estradiol and Testosterone may Predispose toward Atherogenic Lipid Profile, but Higher Blood Level of Testosterone is Associated with Lower Number of Stenoses in the Coronary Arteries of Men with Coronary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wranicz, Jerzy Krzysztof; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Kula, Piotr; Walczak-Jedrzejowska, Renata; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Kula, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the correlations between blood levels of sex steroid hormones and blood lipid profile or the degree of coronary artery stenosis in men with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: 111 men with stable CAD, aged 36-73 yrs, unselected for the coexisting clinical coronary risk factors were prospectively studied. Degree of coronary stenosis was assessed angiographically using different indices. Total cholesterol (T-Ch), high density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-Ch), low density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-Ch), triglicerydes (TG), testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in the blood. Free testosterone index (FTI) was calculated. Results: A positive, significant correlations were found between blood concentrations of estradiol and T-Ch (r=0.29, p<0.01) or LDL-Ch (r=0.34, p<0.005) as well as between FTI and blood LDL-Ch (r=0.23, p<0.05). Blood level of estradiol negatively correlated with HDL-Ch/T-Ch ratio (r=-0.21, p<0.05). While blood levels of T-Ch correlated positively with 3 out of 5 applied here indices of coronary stenosis, blood LDL-Ch with two of them. In turn, blood level of testosterone negatively correlated with one index of coronary stenosis (r=-0.26, p<0.05). Conclusion: In men with CAD, plasma estradiol concentrations are predictive for T-Ch, LDL-Ch and HDL-Ch/TCh ratio, and FTI for LDL-Ch. Regression analyses indicated that while sex steroid hormones may predispose toward atherogenic lipid profile and are predictive for the number and degree of coronary artery stenosis, higher blood level of total testosterone was associated with the lower number of stenosis in the coronary arteries. Hence, endogenous testosterone may have beneficial effect on coronary arteries. PMID:23674975

  1. HIV-1 predisposed to acquiring resistance to maraviroc (MVC and other CCR5 antagonists in vitro has an inherent, low-level ability to utilize MVC-bound CCR5 for entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westby Mike

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maraviroc (MVC and other CCR5 antagonists are HIV-1 entry inhibitors that bind to- and alter the conformation of CCR5, such that CCR5 is no longer recognized by the viral gp120 envelope (Env glycoproteins. Resistance to CCR5 antagonists results from HIV-1 Env acquiring the ability to utilize the drug-bound conformation of CCR5. Selecting for HIV-1 resistance to CCR5-antagonists in vitro is relatively difficult. However, the CCR5-using CC1/85 strain appears to be uniquely predisposed to acquiring resistance to several CCR5 antagonists in vitro including MVC, vicriviroc and AD101. Findings Here, we show that Env derived from the parental CC1/85 strain is inherently capable of a low affinity interaction with MVC-bound CCR5. However, this phenotype was only revealed in 293-Affinofile cells and NP2-CD4/CCR5 cells that express very high levels of CCR5, and was masked in TZM-bl, JC53 and U87-CD4/CCR5 cells as well as PBMC, which express comparatively lower levels of CCR5 and which are more commonly used to detect resistance to CCR5 antagonists. Conclusions Env derived from the CC1/85 strain of HIV-1 is inherently capable of a low-affinity interaction with MVC-bound CCR5, which helps explain the relative ease in which CC1/85 can acquire resistance to CCR5 antagonists in vitro. The detection of similar phenotypes in patients may identify those who could be at higher risk of virological failure on MVC.

  2. Inherited complement regulatory protein deficiency predisposes to human disease in acute injury and chronic inflammatory statesthe examples of vascular damage in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and debris accumulation in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Anna; Kavanagh, David; Atkinson, John P

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter, we examine the role of complement regulatory activity in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). These diseases are representative of two distinct types of complement-mediated injury, one being acute and self-limited, the other reflecting accumulation of chronic damage. Neither condition was previously thought to have a pathologic relationship to the immune system. However, alterations in complement regulatory protein genes have now been identified as major predisposing factors for the development of both diseases. In aHUS, heterozygous mutations leading to haploinsufficiency and function-altering polymorphisms in complement regulators have been identified, while in AMD, polymorphic haplotypes in complement genes are associated with development of disease. The basic premise is that a loss of function in a plasma or membrane inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway allows for excessive activation of complement on the endothelium of the kidney in aHUS and on retinal debris in AMD. These associations have much to teach us about the host's innate immune response to acute injury and to chronic debris deposition. We all experience cellular injury and, if we live long enough, will deposit debris in blood vessel walls (atherosclerosis leading to heart attacks and strokes), the brain (amyloid proteins leading to Alzheimer's disease), and retina (lipofuscin pigments leading to AMD). These are three common causes of morbidity and mortality in the developed world. The clinical, genetic, and immunopathologic understandings derived from the two examples of aHUS and AMD may illustrate what to anticipate in related conditions. They highlight how a powerful recognition and effector system, the alternative complement pathway, reacts to altered self. A response to acute injury or chronic debris accumulation must be appropriately balanced. In either case, too much activation or too little regulation promotes

  3. 胎盘早剥的发病诱因及超声诊断临床价值%Predisposing factors of placental abruption and clinical value of ultrasonic diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金英; 张旗; 同俊仪

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨胎盘早剥的发病诱因变化及超声对胎盘早剥的临床诊断价值。方法回顾性分析在西安市第四医院临床确诊为胎盘早剥且产前均进行过超声检查的病例88例,分析胎盘早剥的诱因,并确定其类型。将孕妇分成轻型胎盘早剥组和重型胎盘早剥组,并按分娩时间分为:24小时内受检组和24小时前受检组,对组间的胎盘早剥检出情况进行分析。结果在88例胎盘早剥中,胎膜早破32例(36.36%),高血压病24例(27.27%),甲状腺功能减退22例(25.00%)。产前超声诊断胎盘早剥26例,诊断符合率为29.55%,其中重型超声检出率(85.71%)明显高于轻型超声检出率(18.92%),χ2=20.54,P<0.05,分娩24小时内超声检出率(40.00%)明显高于24小时前超声检出率(7.14%),χ2=8.38,P<0.05。结论胎盘早剥发病诱因中胎膜早破比例最高,甲状腺功能减退比例也较高;超声检查对重型胎盘早剥可进行准确诊断,对轻型胎盘早剥具有无创、可重复检查等优点。%Objective To explore the predisposing factors of placental abruption and the value of ultrasound in the diagnosis of placental abruption .Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out on 88 cases of patients who were diagnosed with placental abruption .All these patients received prenatal ultrasonic examination .Predisposing factors of placental abruption were analyzed and their types were identified . All these pregnant women were divided into mild group and severe group .According to the timing of delivery , they were also divided into group examined within 24 hours and group examined 24 hours ago .Intergroup comparison results of the detection of placental abruption were analyzed.Results Among 88 cases of placental abruption , there were 32 cases (36.36%) of premature rupture of membranes , 24 cases (27.27%) of hypertension, and 22

  4. SYSTEM OF GENERALIZED VECTOR VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Yaping; Huang Nanjing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce and study system of generalized vector variational inequalities. Under suitable conditions, the existence of solutions for system of generalized vector variational inequalities is presented by Kakutani-Fan-Glicksberg fixed point theorem.

  5. Biological variation of cystatin C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Mark; Erlandsen, Erland; Randers, Else

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Cystatin C has been investigated as a marker of the glomerular filtration rate. However, previous studies have reported conflicting results concerning the biological variation of cystatin C. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological variation of cystatin C...... available for analysis. Serum cystatin C was measured using Dade Behring N Latex Cystatin C assay and serum creatinine by an enzymatic method (Roche). Results: The mean serum concentration of cystatin C was 0.70 mg/l (range 0.44-1.09) and the mean serum creatinine was 77 µmol/l (range 54......-100). The analytical variance (CVA) was 2.0% for cystatin C and 1.6% for creatinine. The intra-individual variance (CVI) was greater for cystatin C than for creatinine (8.6% vs. 4.7%). The inter-individual variance (CVG) was similar for both analytes (cystatin C 15.1% vs. creatinine 14.4%). Accordingly, the index...

  6. On polar daily geomagnetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Michelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the nature of the daily magnetic field perturbations produced by ionospheric and magnetospheric currents at high latitudes. We analyse the hourly means of the X and Y geomagnetic field components recorded by a meridian chain of permanent geomagnetic observatories in the polar region of the Northern Hemisphere during a period of four years (1995-1998 around the solar minimum. We apply a mathematical method, known as natural orthogonal component (NOC, which is capable of characterizing the dominant modes of the geomagnetic field daily variability through a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. Using the first two modes we reconstruct a two-dimensional equivalent current representation of the ionospheric electric currents, which contribute substantially to the geomagnetic daily variations. The obtained current structures resemble the equivalent current patterns of DP2 and DP1. We characterize these currents by studying their evolution with the geomagnetic activity level and by analysing their dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. The obtained results support the idea of a coexistence of two main processes during all analysed period although one of them, the directly driven process, represents the dominant component of the geomagnetic daily variation.

  7. Seasonal variation in pediatric dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Sabyasachi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The under-five population is a unique and vulnerable component of our society that always demands special attention. Aims: Our present work aimed to study the seasonal variation, age-wise variation and distribution of lesions of common dermatoses of this age group. Materials and Methods: We clinically studied all fresh cases attending the skin OPD of our hospital for one month each from summer, rainy season and winter. Total number of patients was 879. Results: The top six skin diseases in our study were impetigo, miliaria, scabies, furunculosis, seborrheic dermatitis and papular urticaria. On statistical analysis, scabies and seborrheic dermatitis were more prevalent during winter while impetigo, furunculosis and miliaria were more during summer and rainy season. Papular urticaria was more frequent in the rainy season. Seborrheic dermatitis predominantly affected the infants while impetigo, furunculosis, miliaria and popular urticaria were commoner in older age groups. Conclusion: Distribution of lesions of common dermatoses will help diagnose difficult cases and extensive evaluation of the body parts which, by virtue of being commonly affected, are must-examine sites in under-five children.

  8. The Two Ignored Components of Random Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Shore, Haim

    2015-01-01

    A random phenomenon may have two sources of random variation: an unstable identity and a set of external variation-generating factors. When only a single source is active, two mutually exclusive extreme scenarios may ensue that result in the exponential or the normal, the only truly univariate distributions. All other supposedly univariate random variation observed in nature is truly bivariate. In this article, we elaborate on this new paradigm for random variation and develop a general bivar...

  9. Importance of Local Structural Variations on Recrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte; Lin, Fengxiang; Zhang, Yubin

    2013-01-01

    Effects of local variations in the deformation microstructure on subsequent recrystallization are discussed and illustrated by three examples. The three examples consider local variations on different length scales and are: 1. Effects of local variations in the deformation microstructure on the f...... on the formation of protrusions on migrating boundaries. 2. Effects of an inhomogeneous spatial distribution of second phase particles on growth. 3. Effects of stored energy and orientation variations on recrystallization kinetics. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland....

  10. Non-differentiable variational principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresson, Jacky

    2005-07-01

    We develop a calculus of variations for functionals which are defined on a set of non-differentiable curves. We first extend the classical differential calculus in a quantum calculus, which allows us to define a complex operator, called the scale derivative, which is the non-differentiable analogue of the classical derivative. We then define the notion of extremals for our functionals and obtain a characterization in term of a generalized Euler-Lagrange equation. We finally prove that solutions of the Schrödinger equation can be obtained as extremals of a non-differentiable variational principle, leading to an extended Hamilton's principle of least action for quantum mechanics. We compare this approach with the scale relativity theory of Nottale, which assumes a fractal structure of space-time.Résumé (Principes variationnels non différentiable). Nous développons un calcul des variations pour des fonctionnelles définies sur un ensemble de courbes non différentiables. Pour cela, nous étendons le calcul différentiel classique, en calcul appelé calcul quantique, qui nous permet de définir un opérateur à valeur complexes, appelé dérivée d'échelle, qui est l'analogue non différentiable de la dérivée usuelle. On définit alors la notion d'extremale pour ces fonctionnelles pour lesquelles nous obtenons une caractérisation via une équation d'Euler-Lagrange généralisée. On prouve enfin que les solutions de l'équation de Schrödinger peuvent s'obtenir comme solution d'un problème variationnel non différentiable, étendant ainsi le principe de moindre action de Hamilton au cadre de la mécanique quantique. On discute enfin la connexion entre ce travail et la théorie de la relativité d'échelle développée par Nottale, et qui suppose une structure fractale de l'espace-temps.

  11. The God Allusion : Individual Variation in Agency Detection, Mentalizing and Schizotypy and Their Association with Religious Beliefs and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Pearce, Eiluned

    2016-06-01

    It has previously been suggested that the historically and geographically widespread persistence of religious beliefs occurs because it is a by-product of normal cognitive processes, ones which first evolved to confer survival advantages in the social domain. If this theory holds, then it is likely that inter-individual variation in the same biases may predict corresponding variation in religious thoughts and behaviors. Using an online questionnaire, 298 participants answered questions regarding their tendency to detect agency, the degree to which they displayed schizotypal traits, their ability to understand the emotions and motivations of others ("mentalizing"), and their religious beliefs and behaviors. Path analysis suggests that mentalizing, agency detection, and schizotypal thinking were each independently related to religiosity. Furthermore, schizotypal thinking and agency detection were highly interrelated with one another, whereas mentalizing was not. Although the degree to which an individual engages with religious or spiritual beliefs will be influenced by their cultural and historical context, this paper helps to elucidate the interplay between various cognitive processes that might predispose some individuals but not others toward holding such beliefs in the first place.

  12. Hermite variational implicit surface reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN RongJiang; MENG XiangXu; WHANGBO TaegKeun

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new technique for reconstructing surfaces from a large set of unorganized 3D data points and their associated normal vectors. The surface is represented as the zero level set of an implicit vol-ume model which fits the data points and normal constraints. Compared with variational implicit sur-faces, we make use of surface normal vectors at data points directly in the implicit model and avoid of introducing manufactured off-surface points. Given n surface point/normal pairs, the proposed method only needs to solve an n×n positive definite linear system. It allows fitting large datasets effectively and robustly. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed method with both globally supported and compactly supported radial basis functions on several datasets.

  13. Detecting variation in chaotic attractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, T L

    2011-06-01

    If the output of an experiment is a chaotic signal, it may be useful to detect small changes in the signal, but there are a limited number of ways to compare signals from chaotic systems, and most known methods are not robust in the presence of noise. One may calculate dimension or Lyapunov exponents from the signal, or construct a synchronizing model, but all of these are only useful in low noise situations. I introduce a method for detecting small variations in a chaotic attractor based on directly calculating the difference between vector fields in phase space. The differences are found by comparing close strands in phase space, rather than close neighbors. The use of strands makes the method more robust to noise and more sensitive to small attractor differences.

  14. Variational principles in instanton problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' yakonov, D.I.; Petrov, V.Yu. (AN SSSR, Leningrad. Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1984-01-01

    The authors suggest a simple approximate method of evaluating path integrals for problems in which subbarrier transitions (instantons) play an important role. This method, based on Feyman's variational principle, is a generalization of the semi-classical approximation. When there is a quasiclassical parameter in a problem, the method is reduced to approximate calculations of Gauss' functional integrals (i.e. functional determinants). The authors derive general formulas for such integrals, which prove to be valid for a broad class of potentials, and verify the accuracy of the approximation using the examples of double-well and periodic potentials. In both cases the accuracy in determining the level splitting proves to be within several percent.

  15. Equilibrium models and variational inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Konnov, Igor

    2007-01-01

    The concept of equilibrium plays a central role in various applied sciences, such as physics (especially, mechanics), economics, engineering, transportation, sociology, chemistry, biology and other fields. If one can formulate the equilibrium problem in the form of a mathematical model, solutions of the corresponding problem can be used for forecasting the future behavior of very complex systems and, also, for correcting the the current state of the system under control. This book presents a unifying look on different equilibrium concepts in economics, including several models from related sciences.- Presents a unifying look on different equilibrium concepts and also the present state of investigations in this field- Describes static and dynamic input-output models, Walras, Cassel-Wald, spatial price, auction market, oligopolistic equilibrium models, transportation and migration equilibrium models- Covers the basics of theory and solution methods both for the complementarity and variational inequality probl...

  16. Variational Principle for Planetary Interiors

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Li

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. Variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying this principle to planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From it, a universal mass-radius relation, an estimate of error propagation from equation of state to mass-radius relation, and a form of virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  17. Circadian Variation Of Stroke Onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamath vasantha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal variations in various physiological and biochemical functions and certain pathological events like myocardial infarction and stroke have been documented. We studied prospectively one hundred and seven patients of acute onset stroke confirmed by computed tomography for the exact time of onset, risk factors and type of stroke. Patients who were unclear of time of onset and with a diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis or sub-arachnoid hemorrhage were excluded. Infarction was detected in 71 patients and hemorrhage in 33 patients. Men out numbered women (1:6:1. Hypertension was more frequent in hemorrhage in the morning time (5 AM-12 noon and more infarction between 12-6 pm. However there was no relation between the time of onset of stroke and various risk-factors of stroke.

  18. Variational approach and deformed derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weberszpil, J.; Helayël-Neto, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved ​Noether current is worked out.

  19. Variational Approach and Deformed Derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Weberszpil, José

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved Nether current, are worked out.

  20. Detecting density variations and nanovoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M K; Longstreth-Spoor, L; Kelton, K F

    2011-05-01

    A combination of simulated and experimental data has been used to investigate the size range of nanovoids that can be detected in atom probe tomography data. Simulated atom probe tomography data have revealed that nanovoids as small as 1 nm in diameter can be detected in atom probe tomography data with the use of iso-density surfaces. Iso-density surfaces may be used to quantify the size, morphology and number density of nanovoids and other variations in density in atom probe tomography data. Experimental data from an aluminum-yttrium-iron metallic glass ribbon have revealed the effectiveness of this approach. Combining iso-density surfaces with atom maps also permits the segregation of solute to the nanovoids to be investigated. Field ion microscopy and thin section atom maps have also been used to detect pores and larger voids. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Variation of the latissimus dorsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani P Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A typical muscle variation of latissimus dorsi - the axillary arch is represented by the muscular or fibromuscular slip detached from the anteroinferior border of the musculus latissimus dorsi passing over the axilla under the axillary fascia crossing the medial side of the brachial plexus to continue as a septum intermusculare mediale brachii distally to the medial epicondyle of humerus. The full extent of the muscle is rarely present. Slips of muscle extend from the latissimus dorsi at the inferior angle of scapula to insert into pectoralis major (Langer, coracobrachilis, biceps or coracoid process forming what is described as a common variant - the muscular axillary arch. We report three cases of variants of latissimus dorsi, one of which has not been reported in the literature before.

  2. ICU下呼吸道多重耐药菌感染的病原菌及易感因素分析%Analysis of the distribution of pathogens and predisposing factors for lower respiratory tract infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria in intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠; 孙昀; 曹利军; 尹路; 鹿中华; 华天凤; 郑瑶

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathogens and predisposing factors of patients in ICU, who were infected by multidrug resistance bacterias ( MDRB ) in lower respiratory tract. Methods Retrospective survey of 78 cases infected in lower respiratory tract from January 2011 to March 2012 was performed, and the distribution and predisposing factors of MDRB were analyzed. Results A total of 98 pathogens were detected, 77 strains were multidrug resistant bacterial, the top three isolated pathogenic bacteria were acinetobacter bauman-nii/haemol ( 41. 56% ), Klebsiella pneumoniae ( 22. 08% ) and pseudomonas aeruginosa ( 15. 08% ). Multi - factor logistic analysis revealed that the length of stay in ICU, more than 48 hours of mechanical ventilation, multiple injuries and sedatives were independent predisposing factors for multidrug resistant bacterial infection( P 48 h、多发伤、镇静药物使用为多重耐药菌感染的独立易感因素(P<0.05).结论 ICU 中下呼吸道多重耐药菌感染的病原菌以革兰阴性菌占优势,ICU住院时间、有创机械通气>48 h、多发伤、镇静药应用与患者多重耐药菌感染关系密切.

  3. Variational methods for field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Menahem, S.

    1986-09-01

    Four field theory models are studied: Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics (PQED) in (2 + 1) dimensions, free scalar field theory in (1 + 1) dimensions, the Quantum XY model in (1 + 1) dimensions, and the (1 + 1) dimensional Ising model in a transverse magnetic field. The last three parts deal exclusively with variational methods; the PQED part involves mainly the path-integral approach. The PQED calculation results in a better understanding of the connection between electric confinement through monopole screening, and confinement through tunneling between degenerate vacua. This includes a better quantitative agreement for the string tensions in the two approaches. Free field theory is used as a laboratory for a new variational blocking-truncation approximation, in which the high-frequency modes in a block are truncated to wave functions that depend on the slower background modes (Boron-Oppenheimer approximation). This ''adiabatic truncation'' method gives very accurate results for ground-state energy density and correlation functions. Various adiabatic schemes, with one variable kept per site and then two variables per site, are used. For the XY model, several trial wave functions for the ground state are explored, with an emphasis on the periodic Gaussian. A connection is established with the vortex Coulomb gas of the Euclidean path integral approach. The approximations used are taken from the realms of statistical mechanics (mean field approximation, transfer-matrix methods) and of quantum mechanics (iterative blocking schemes). In developing blocking schemes based on continuous variables, problems due to the periodicity of the model were solved. Our results exhibit an order-disorder phase transition. The transfer-matrix method is used to find a good (non-blocking) trial ground state for the Ising model in a transverse magnetic field in (1 + 1) dimensions.

  4. Secular obliquity variations for Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Bruce; Scott, Bryan R.; Nimmo, Francis

    2016-10-01

    We have constructed secular variation models for the orbit and spin poles of the asteroid (1) Ceres, and used them to examine how the obliquity, or angular separation between spin and orbit poles, varies over a time span of several million years. The current obliquity is 4.3 degrees, which means that there are some regions near the poles which do not receive any direct Sunlight. The Dawn mission has provided an improved estimate of the spin pole orientation, and of the low degree gravity field. That allows us to estimate the rate at which the spin pole precesses about the instantaneous orbit pole.The orbit of Ceres is secularly perturbed by the planets, with Jupiter's influence dominating. The current inclination of the orbit plane, relative to the ecliptic, is 10.6 degrees. However, it varies between 7.27 and 11.78 degrees, with dominant periods of 22.1 and 39.6 kyr. The spin pole precession rate parameter has a period of 205 kyr, with current uncertainty of 3%, dominated by uncertainty in the mean moment of inertia of Ceres.The obliquity varies, with a dominant period of 24.5 kyr, with maximum values near 26 degrees, and minimum values somewhat less than the present value. Ceres is currently near to a minimum of its secular obliquity variations.The near-surface thermal environment thus has at least 3 important time scales: diurnal (9.07 hours), annual (4.60 years), and obliquity cycle (24.5 kyr). The annual thermal wave likely only penetrates a few meters, but the much long thermal wave associated with the obliquity cycle has a skin depth larger by a factor of 70 or so, depending upon thermal properties in the subsurface.

  5. Anatomic variations of the pancreatic duct and their relevance with the Cambridge classification system: MRCP findings of 1158 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibelli, Zehra Hilal; Adatepe, Mustafa; Imamoglu, Cetin; Esen, Ozgur Sipahi; Erkan, Nazif; Yildirim, Mehmet

    2016-12-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the frequencies of the anatomic variations and the gender distributions of these variations of the pancreatic duct and their relevance with the Cambridge classification system as morphological sign of chronic pancreatitis using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). We retrospectively reviewed 1312 consecutive patients who referred to our department for MRCP between January 2013 and August 2015. We excluded 154 patients from the study because of less than optimal results due to imaging limitations or a history of surgery on pancreas. Finally a total of 1158 patients were included in the study. Among the 1158 patients included in the study, 54 (4.6%) patients showed pancreas divisum, 13 patients (1.2%) were defined as ansa pancreatica. When we evaluated the course of the pancreatic duct, we found the prevalence 62.5% for descending, 30% for sigmoid, 5.5% for vertical and 2% for loop. The most commonly observed pancreatic duct configuration was Type 3 in 528 patients (45.6%) where 521 patients (45%) had Type 1 configuration. Vertical course (p = 0.004) and Type 2 (p = 0.03) configuration of pancreatic duct were more frequent in females than males. There were no statistically significant differences between the gender for the other pancreatic duct variations such as pancreas divisium, ansa pancreatica and course types other than vertical course (p > 0.05 for all). Variants of pancreas divisum and normal pancreatic duct variants were not associated with morphologic findings of chronic pancreatitis by using the Cambridge classification system. The ansa pancreatica is a rare type of anatomical variation of the pancreatic duct, which might be considered as a predisposing factor to the onset of idiopathic pancreatitis.

  6. Accommodating variation: dialects, idiolects, and speech processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraljic, Tanya; Brennan, Susan E; Samuel, Arthur G

    2008-04-01

    Listeners are faced with enormous variation in pronunciation, yet they rarely have difficulty understanding speech. Although much research has been devoted to figuring out how listeners deal with variability, virtually none (outside of sociolinguistics) has focused on the source of the variation itself. The current experiments explore whether different kinds of variation lead to different cognitive and behavioral adjustments. Specifically, we compare adjustments to the same acoustic consequence when it is due to context-independent variation (resulting from articulatory properties unique to a speaker) versus context-conditioned variation (resulting from common articulatory properties of speakers who share a dialect). The contrasting results for these two cases show that the source of a particular acoustic-phonetic variation affects how that variation is handled by the perceptual system. We also show that changes in perceptual representations do not necessarily lead to changes in production.

  7. Predisposing Factors and Treatment of Obstetric Patients With Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Inquiry%产科弥散性血管内凝血患者的诱发因素和治疗效果探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明媛; 袁玉华; 方雯

    2016-01-01

    Objective To probe the predisposing factors and treatment effect of obstetric disseminated intravascular coagulation.MethodsSelected 25 patients who were suffer from obstetric disseminated intravascular coagulation and treated in our hospital from the date of June 2014 to the date of June 2015 as the experimental group, selected 20 patients who had the same situation with the patients who we were refer to as above from the date of January 2012 to the date of January 2013 as an collate group to compare and analyze with the other group which were treated with comprehensive methods of treatment. The experimental group adopted comprehensive treatment, but the other group adopted conventional treatment.Results The survival rate of experimental group was 95.8%, it was 80% signiifcantly higher than the other group (P<0.05).ConclusionIt is better to adopt comprehensive treatment for the patients who are obstetric disseminated intravascular coagulation.%目的:探讨引发产科弥散性血管内凝血的诱发因素和临床治疗效果。方法选取2014年6月~2015年6月于我院治疗的的25例产科弥散性血管内凝血患者作为实验组,选取2012年1月~2013年1月在我院治疗的20例产科弥散性血管内凝血患者资料为对照组进行分析,实验组给予综合性治疗方法,对照组给予常规治疗方法。结果实验组抢救成功率为95.8%,高于对照组的80%(P<0.05)。结论对产科弥散性血管内凝血患者采用综合性方法进行治疗效果良好。

  8. Dimension variation prediction and control for composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chensong

    This dissertation presents a systematic study on the dimension variation prediction and control for polymer matrix fiber reinforced composites. A dimension variation model was developed for process simulation based on thermal stress analysis and finite element analysis (FEA). This model was validated against the experimental data, the analytical solutions and the data from literature. Using the FEA-based dimension variation model, the deformations of typical composite structures were studied and the regression-based dimension variation model was developed. The regression-based dimension variation model can significantly reduce computation time and provide a quick design guide for composite products with reduced dimension variations. By introducing the material modification coefficient, this comprehensive model can handle various fiber/resin types and stacking sequences. It eliminates the complicated, time-consuming finite element meshing and material parameter defining process. The deformation compensation through tooling design was investigated using the FEA-based and the regression-based dimension variation models. The structural tree method (STM) was developed to compute the assembly deformation from the deformations of individual components, as well as the deformation of general shape composite components. The STM enables rapid dimension variation analysis/synthesis for complex composite assemblies with the regression-based dimension variation model. Using the STM and the regression-based dimension variation model, design optimization and tolerance analysis/synthesis were conducted. The exploring work presented in this research provides a foundation to develop practical and proactive dimension control techniques for composite products.

  9. How variation between individuals affects species coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Simon P; Schreiber, Sebastian J; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-08-01

    Although the effects of variation between individuals within species are traditionally ignored in studies of species coexistence, the magnitude of intraspecific variation in nature is forcing ecologists to reconsider. Compelling intuitive arguments suggest that individual variation may provide a previously unrecognised route to diversity maintenance by blurring species-level competitive differences or substituting for species-level niche differences. These arguments, which are motivating a large body of empirical work, have rarely been evaluated with quantitative theory. Here we incorporate intraspecific variation into a common model of competition and identify three pathways by which this variation affects coexistence: (1) changes in competitive dynamics because of nonlinear averaging, (2) changes in species' mean interaction strengths because of variation in underlying traits (also via nonlinear averaging) and (3) effects on stochastic demography. As a consequence of the first two mechanisms, we find that intraspecific variation in competitive ability increases the dominance of superior competitors, and intraspecific niche variation reduces species-level niche differentiation, both of which make coexistence more difficult. In addition, individual variation can exacerbate the effects of demographic stochasticity, and this further destabilises coexistence. Our work provides a theoretical foundation for emerging empirical interests in the effects of intraspecific variation on species diversity.

  10. Variational data assimilation with superparameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Grooms

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Superparameterization (SP is a multiscale computational approach wherein a large scale atmosphere or ocean model is coupled to an array of simulations of small scale dynamics on periodic domains embedded into the computational grid of the large scale model. SP has been successfully developed in global atmosphere and climate models, and is a promising approach for new applications. The authors develop a 3D-Var variational data assimilation framework for use with SP; the relatively low cost and simplicity of 3D-Var in comparison with ensemble approaches makes it a natural fit for relatively expensive multiscale SP models. To demonstrate the assimilation framework in a simple model, the authors develop a new system of ordinary differential equations similar to the two-scale Lorenz-'96 model. The system has one set of variables denoted {Yi}, with large and small scale parts, and the SP approximation to the system is straightforward. With the new assimilation framework the SP model approximates the large scale dynamics of the true system accurately.

  11. Temporal Variations in Jupiter's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Chanover, N. J.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Hammel, H. B.; dePater, I.; Noll, K.; Wong, M.; Clarke, J.; Sanchez-Levega, A.; Orton, G. S.; Gonzaga, S.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, Jupiter has undergone many atmospheric changes from storms turning red to global. cloud upheavals, and most recently, a cornet or asteroid impact. Yet, on top of these seemingly random changes events there are also periodic phenomena, analogous to observed Earth and Saturn atmospheric oscillations. We will present 15 years of Hubble data, from 1994 to 2009, to show how the equatorial tropospheric cloud deck and winds have varied over that time, focusing on the F953N, F41 ON and F255W filters. These filters give leverage on wind speeds plus cloud opacity, cloud height and tropospheric haze thickness, and stratospheric haze, respectively. The wind data consistently show a periodic oscillation near 7-8 S latitude. We will discuss the potential for variations with longitude and cloud height, within the calibration limits of those filters. Finally, we will discuss the role that large atmospheric events, such as the impacts in 1994 and 2009, and the global upheaval of 2007, have on temporal studies, This work was supported by a grant from the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program. HST observational support was provided by NASA through grants from Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under contract NAS5-26555.

  12. PLURILINGUAL COMPETENCE, STYLES AND VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Kalliokoski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores plurilingual competence in respect to language proficiency, language education and pluri- and multilingualism. The notion of communicative competence was introduced by Hymes (1972 as a reaction to chomskyan view of language as an autonomous system. Hymes’ notion of communicative competence originally included plurilingualism. The concept of communicative competence was quickly adopted to applied linguistics but the idea of a linguistic repertoire consisting of the competencies of linguistic varieties was not imported to SLA or language testing. The Hymesian perspective to plurilingualism as an essential dimension of communicative competence was revived in the Common European Framework (CEFR. However,the practice of applying the CEFR has mostly neglected the dimension on plurilingualism and plurilingual competence. The focus in the use of the CEFR has been on the different areas of language skills within one single language at a time, while the application of plurilingual practices has gained very little attention. The Hymesian notion of communicative competence has lived on in the sociolinguistic research tradition, especially within interactional sociolinguistics. The present paper relates the notion of plurilingual competence to its hymesian origin, to recent trends in plurilingual and pluricultural education, and to the sociolinguistic study of style and linguistic variation in multilingual communities. The article uses Finnish L2 data to show how plurilingual competence is used as an interactional resource.From the perspective of language learning, plurilingual competence enables speakers with different linguistic backgrounds to use their shared linguistic repertoire in order to ensure smooth interaction and achieve mutual understanding.

  13. LGBTI Variations in Crime Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Miles-Johnson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that people vary in their willingness to report crime to police depending on the type of crime experienced, their gender, age, and their race or ethnicity. Whether or not lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI and heterosexual people vary in their willingness to report crime to the police is not well understood in the extant literature. In this article, I examine variations in LGBTI respondents’ attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control on their intentions to report crimes to the police. Drawing on a survey of LGBTI individuals sampled from a Gay Pride community event and online LGBTI community forums (N = 329, I use quantitative statistical methods to examine whether LGBTI people’s beliefs in police homophobia are also directly associated with the behavioral intention to report crime. Overall, the results indicate that LGBTI and heterosexual people differ significantly in their intention to report crime to the police, and that a belief in police homophobia strongly influences LGBTI people’s intention to underreport crime to the police.

  14. Genetic background of phenotypic variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A noteworthy feature of the living world is its bewildering variability. A key issue in several biological disciplines is the achievement of an understanding of the hereditary basis of this variability. Two opposing, but not necessarily irreconcilable conceptions attempt to explain the underlying mechanism. The gene function paradigm postulates that phenotypic variance is generated by the polymorphism in the coding sequences of genes. However, comparisons of a great number of homologous gene and protein sequences have revealed that they predominantly remained functionally conserved even across distantly related phylogenic taxa. Alternatively, the gene regulation paradigm assumes that differences in the cis-regulatory region of genes do account for phenotype variation within species. An extension of this latter concept is that phenotypic variability is generated by the polyrnorphism in the overall gene expression profiles of gene networks.In other words, the activity of a particular gene is a system property determined both by the cis-regulatory sequences of the given genes and by the other genes of a gene network, whose expressions vary among individuals, too. Novel proponents of gene function paradigm claim that functional genetic variance within the coding sequences of regulatory genes is critical for the generation of morphological polymorphism. Note, however, that these developmental genes play direct regulatory roles in the control of gene expression.

  15. Variations in weight stigma concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Cornick

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 40 years, obesity rates in the United States have grown significantly; these rates have not grown uniformly across the United States (18 of the 20 counties with the highest obesity rates are located in the South. Obesity increases cardiovascular disease risk factors and new research has highlighted the negative psychological effects of obesity, known as weight stigma, including decreased selfcontrol resources, over eating, and exercise avoidance. The primary objective of this study was to determine if weight stigma concerns varied regionally and if social behaviors influenced this variation. In two studies, we collected cross-sectional data from participants in the United States including height and weight, weight stigma concerns, and perception of friends’ preoccupation with weight and dieting. We also collected each participant’s home zip code which was used to locate local obesity rate. We established differences in the relationship between body mass index and weight stigma concerns by local county obesity rate and showed that perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting mediated this relationship for individuals in low and medium obesity rate counties. For individuals living in United States counties with lower levels of obesity, increases in personal body mass index leads to increased weight stigma concerns due to an increase in perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting. These results indicate that relationships between body mass index, weight stigma concerns, and social networks vary significantly for subpopulations throughout the United States.

  16. ON THE SINGULAR VARIATIONAL PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭经刚; 杨健夫

    2004-01-01

    The authors deal with the singular variational problem S(a,b,λ0):=infu∈E,u(≡/)0 ∫RN(||X|-a(△)u|m+∫|x|-(a+1)m|u|m)dx/(∫RN||X|-bU|P dx)m/p as well as (S)=(S)(a,b,λ1,λ2):=u,ν,E∈,u(u,ν)(≡/)(1,1) ∫RN J(u,ν)dx/(∫RN|x|-bp|u|α|ν|βdx)m/p, whereJ(u, v) = ||x|- au|m + λ1|x|- (a+1)m|u|m + ||x|- av|m + λ2|x|- (a+1)m|v|m,N ≥ m+ 1 > 2, 0 ≤ a < N-m/m, a ≤ b < a+ 1 and p = p(a,b) = α+β =Nm/N-m+m(b-a), α, β≥ 1, E = D1,mα(RN). The aim of this paper is to show the existence of minimizer for S(a, b, A0) and S(a, b, λ1, λ2).

  17. Genome size variation in Begonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Angelo; Leus, Leen; Eeckhaut, Tom; Vanstechelman, Ives; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; Van Bockstaele, Erik

    2009-10-01

    The genome sizes of a Begonia collection comprising 37 species and 23 hybrids of African, Asiatic, Middle American, and South American origin were screened using flow cytometry. Within the collection, 1C values varied between 0.23 and 1.46 pg DNA. Genome sizes were, in most cases, not positively correlated with chromosome number, but with pollen size. A 12-fold difference in mean chromosome size was found between the genotypes with the largest and smallest chromosomes. In general, chromosomes from South American genotypes were smaller than chromosomes of African, Asian, or Middle American genotypes, except for B. boliviensis and B. pearcei. Cytological chromosome studies in different genotypes showed variable chromosome numbers, length, width, and total chromosome volume, which confirmed the diversity in genome size. Large secondary constrictions were present in several investigated genotypes. These data show that chromosome number and structure exhibit a great deal of variation within the genus Begonia, and likely help to explain the large number of taxa found within the genus.

  18. Variations in Weight Stigma Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, Cambridge; K.Thaw, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, obesity rates in the United States have grown significantly; these rates have not grown uniformly across the United States (18 of the 20 counties with the highest obesity rates are located in the South). Obesity increases cardiovascular disease risk factors and new research has highlighted the negative psychological effects of obesity, known as weight stigma, including decreased selfcontrol resources, over eating, and exercise avoidance. The primary objective of this study was to determine if weight stigma concerns varied regionally and if social behaviors influenced this variation. In two studies, we collected cross-sectional data from participants in the United States including height and weight, weight stigma concerns, and perception of friends’ preoccupation with weight and dieting. We also collected each participant’s home zip code which was used to locate local obesity rate. We established differences in the relationship between body mass index and weight stigma concerns by local county obesity rate and showed that perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting mediated this relationship for individuals in low and medium obesity rate counties. For individuals living in United States counties with lower levels of obesity, increases in personal body mass index leads to increased weight stigma concerns due to an increase in perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting. These results indicate that relationships between body mass index, weight stigma concerns, and social networks vary significantly for subpopulations throughout the United States. PMID:28058288

  19. Dose variation during solar minimum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G.; Brautigam, D.H. (Phillips Lab., Geophysics Directorate, Hanscom Air Force Base, MA (US)); Holeman, E. (Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-12-01

    In this paper, the authors use direct measurement of dose to show the variation in inner and outer radiation belt populations at low altitude from 1984 to 1987. This period includes the recent solar minimum that occurred in September 1986. The dose is measured behind four thicknesses of aluminum shielding and for two thresholds of energy deposition, designated HILET and LOLET. The authors calculate an average dose per day for each month of satellite operation. The authors find that the average proton (HILET) dose per day (obtained primarily in the inner belt) increased systematically from 1984 to 1987, and has a high anticorrelation with sunspot number when offset by 13 months. The average LOLET dose per day behind the thinnest shielding is produced almost entirely by outer zone electrons and varies greatly over the period of interest. If any trend can be discerned over the 4 year period it is a decreasing one. For shielding of 1.55 gm/cm{sup 2} (227 mil) Al or more, the LOLET dose is complicated by contributions from {gt} 100 MeV protons and bremsstrahlung.

  20. On Quadratic Variation of Martingales

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajeeva L Karandikar; B V Rao

    2014-08-01

    We give a construction of an explicit mapping $$\\Psi: D([0,∞),\\mathbb{R})→ D([0,∞),\\mathbb{R}),$$ where $D([0,∞), \\mathbb{R})$ denotes the class of real valued r.c.l.l. functions on $[0,∞)$ such that for a locally square integrable martingale $(M_t)$ with r.c.l.l. paths, $$\\Psi(M.())=A.()$$ gives the quadratic variation process (written usually as $[M,M]_t$) of $(M_t)$. We also show that this process $(A_t)$ is the unique increasing process $(B_t)$ such that $M_t^2-B_t$ is a local martingale, $B_0=0$ and $$\\mathbb{P}(( B)_t=[( M)_t]^2, 0 < ∞)=1.$$ Apart from elementary properties of martingales, the only result used is the Doob’s maximal inequality. This result can be the starting point of the development of the stochastic integral with respect to r.c.l.l. martingales.

  1. Synchronous Lagrangian variational principles in General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Cremaschini, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The problem of formulating synchronous variational principles in the context of General Relativity is discussed. Based on the analogy with classical relativistic particle dynamics, the existence of variational principles is pointed out in relativistic classical field theory which are either asynchronous or synchronous. The historical Einstein-Hilbert and Palatini variational formulations are found to belong to the first category. Nevertheless, it is shown that an alternative route exists which permits one to cast these principles in terms of equivalent synchronous Lagrangian variational formulations. The advantage is twofold. First, synchronous approaches allow one to overcome the lack of gauge symmetry of the asynchronous principles. Second, the property of manifest covariance of the theory is also restored at all levels, including the symbolic Euler-Lagrange equations, with the variational Lagrangian density being now identified with a $4-$scalar. As an application, a joint synchronous variational principle...

  2. Procedural facade variations from a single layout

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Fan

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a framework to generate many variations of a facade design that look similar to a given facade layout. Starting from an input image, the facade is hierarchically segmented and labeled with a collection of manual and automatic tools. The user can then model constraints that should be maintained in any variation of the input facade design. Subsequently, facade variations are generated for different facade sizes, where multiple variations can be produced for a certain size. Computing such new facade variations has many unique challenges, and we propose a new algorithm based on interleaving heuristic search and quadratic programming. In contrast to most previous work, we focus on the generation of new design variations and not on the automatic analysis of the input\\'s structure. Adding a modeling step with the user in the loop ensures that our results routinely are of high quality. © 2013 ACM.

  3. Hidden Regular Variation: Detection and Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Abhimanyu

    2010-01-01

    Hidden regular variation defines a subfamily of distributions satisfying multivariate regular variation on $\\mathbb{E} = [0, \\infty]^d \\backslash \\{(0,0, ..., 0) \\} $ and models another regular variation on the sub-cone $\\mathbb{E}^{(2)} = \\mathbb{E} \\backslash \\cup_{i=1}^d \\mathbb{L}_i$, where $\\mathbb{L}_i$ is the $i$-th axis. We extend the concept of hidden regular variation to sub-cones of $\\mathbb{E}^{(2)}$ as well. We suggest a procedure of detecting the presence of hidden regular variation, and if it exists, propose a method of estimating the limit measure exploiting its semi-parametric structure. We exhibit examples where hidden regular variation yields better estimates of probabilities of risk sets.

  4. Models of Solar Irradiance Variations: Current Status

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Natalie A. Krivova; Sami K. Solanki

    2008-03-01

    Regular monitoring of solar irradiance has been carried out since 1978 to show that solar total and spectral irradiance varies at different time scales. Whereas variations on time scales of minutes to hours are due to solar oscillations and granulation, variations on longer time scales are driven by the evolution of the solar surface magnetic field. Here the most recent advances in modelling of solar irradiance variations on time scales longer than a day are briefly reviewed.

  5. Influence of Design Variations on Systems Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Irem Y.; Stone, Robert B.; Huff, Edward M.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    High-risk aerospace components have to meet very stringent quality, performance, and safety requirements. Any source of variation is a concern, as it may result in scrap or rework. poor performance, and potentially unsafe flying conditions. The sources of variation during product development, including design, manufacturing, and assembly, and during operation are shown. Sources of static and dynamic variation during development need to be detected accurately in order to prevent failure when the components are placed in operation. The Systems' Health and Safety (SHAS) research at the NASA Ames Research Center addresses the problem of detecting and evaluating the statistical variation in helicopter transmissions. In this work, we focus on the variations caused by design, manufacturing, and assembly of these components, prior to being placed in operation (DMV). In particular, we aim to understand and represent the failure and variation information, and their correlation to performance and safety and feed this information back into the development cycle at an early stage. The feedback of such critical information will assure the development of more reliable components with less rework and scrap. Variations during design and manufacturing are a common source of concern in the development and production of such components. Accounting for these variations, especially those that have the potential to affect performance, is accomplished in a variety ways, including Taguchi methods, FMEA, quality control, statistical process control, and variation risk management. In this work, we start with the assumption that any of these variations can be represented mathematically, and accounted for by using analytical tools incorporating these mathematical representations. In this paper, we concentrate on variations that are introduced during design. Variations introduced during manufacturing are investigated in parallel work.

  6. Spectrum characteristics of geoelectric field variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qing; DU Xue-bin; ZHOU Ke-chang; LI Ning; MA Zhan-hu

    2007-01-01

    The spectrum characteristics of geoelectric diurnal variation and geoelectric storm have been identified by maximum entropy method, based on geoelectric data from seven stations in the Chinese mainland, including Jiayuguan, Changli and Chongming. The study shows that, in geoelectric diurnal variation, the amplitude of the 12 h semidiurnal wave is the largest, followed in turn by the 24~25 h diurnal wave and the 8 h periodic wave; Geoelectric storm usually occurs in a large-scale space, whose spectrum values are higher than those of geoelectric diurnal variation by 2~3 orders of magnitude. A preliminary interpretation is presented for the generative mechanism of predominant waves in geoelectric field variation.

  7. The circadian variation of premature atrial contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjørn Strøier; Kumarathurai, Preman; Nielsen, Olav W

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess a possible circadian variation of premature atrial contractions (PACs) in a community-based population and to determine if the daily variation could be used to assess a more vulnerable period of PACs in predicting later incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF...... variation in heart rate. After adjusting for relevant risk factors, the risk of AF was equal in all time intervals throughout the day. CONCLUSION: Premature atrial contractions showed a circadian variation in subjects with frequent PACs. No specific time interval of the day was more predictive of AF than...

  8. Antimicrobial price variation: Conundrum of medical profession!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rataboli P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacoeconomics plays a pivotal role in clinical practice. High medicine prices can adversely affect a patient′s finances and compliance. The Indian pharmaceutical industry has become a cornucopia of medicines with wide variation in prices for the same medicine marketed under different brand names. Price list of available antimicrobial brands was procured from a commercial drug directory. Average price of widely prescribed oral antimicrobials was found and price variation between different brands was calculated. The variation in medicine prices was found to be from 95% lower to more than 350% higher than the average price. Implications of price variation in clinical practice are discussed and remedial measures suggested.

  9. Extensive Variation in Chromatin States Across Humans

    KAUST Repository

    Kasowski, M.

    2013-10-17

    The majority of disease-associated variants lie outside protein-coding regions, suggesting a link between variation in regulatory regions and disease predisposition. We studied differences in chromatin states using five histone modifications, cohesin, and CTCF in lymphoblastoid lines from 19 individuals of diverse ancestry. We found extensive signal variation in regulatory regions, which often switch between active and repressed states across individuals. Enhancer activity is particularly diverse among individuals, whereas gene expression remains relatively stable. Chromatin variability shows genetic inheritance in trios, correlates with genetic variation and population divergence, and is associated with disruptions of transcription factor binding motifs. Overall, our results provide insights into chromatin variation among humans.

  10. Equations of motion for variational electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Jayme

    2016-04-01

    We extend the variational problem of Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics by generalizing the electromagnetic functional to a local space of absolutely continuous trajectories possessing a derivative (velocities) of bounded variation. We show here that the Gateaux derivative of the generalized functional defines two partial Lagrangians for variations in our generalized local space, one for each particle. We prove that the critical-point conditions of the generalized variational problem are: (i) the Euler-Lagrange equations must hold Lebesgue-almost-everywhere and (ii) the momentum of each partial Lagrangian and the Legendre transform of each partial Lagrangian must be absolutely continuous functions, generalizing the Weierstrass-Erdmann conditions.

  11. Non-contemporaneous variations and Holder's principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Lifu(梁立孚); HU; Haichang; (胡海昌); LIU; Shiquan; (刘石泉)

    2003-01-01

    In the process of deducing the Holder principle, a key step is to use the concept of non-contemporaneous variations. In this paper, whether starting from analytic method or from graphic solution method, the authors prove that the expression formula of non-contemporaneous variations is incorrect when the variable functions have zero-order nearness degree, and obtain a new expression. From the view of calculus of variations and differential calculus, the non-contemporaneous variations are studied. The study result shows that the concept of non-contemporaneous variations is a combination of the concept of variations and the concept of differentiation. The authors prove that the new expression is correct and obtain an equivalent expression of it. By means of this equivalent expression, this paper proves that the above expression formula of non-contemporaneous variations is correct when the variable functions have one-order nearness degree. Further study shows that, in the process of deducing Holder's principle, there is an implicit expression. Whether starting from analytic method or from graphic solution method, the authors discovered that the implicit expression of non-contemporaneous variations is incorrect when the variable functions have zero-order nearness degree and have one-order nearness degree. This paper proves that the implicit expression of non-contemporaneous variations is correct when the variable functions have two-order nearness degree. Further study shows that Holder's principle is tenable when the variable functions have two-order nearness degree.

  12. Study on Somaclonal Variation of Spring Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Shu-mei; HU Shang-lian; LI Wen-xiong

    2004-01-01

    Somaclonal variation of calli and regenerated plants of spring wheat ware detected by using technique RAPD in the study. Calli at different culture stages and regenerated plants derived from young spikes and immature embryos were used as materials. Molecular variation could be reflected from electrophoresis patternof RAPD fragments at different culture stage in calli, and in regenerated plants derived from different explants, even no phenotype variations were found. Somaclonal variation in calli and in regenerated plants appeared regularly: A higher frequency of variation in hybrids F2 was detected than that of the cultivar that is stable genetically. High variation frequency of RAPD fragments appeared in calli when cultured 75 days. The identical variations of RAPD fragments were observed in calli and in the regenerated plants induced from different genotype or explants. The variation frequency detected is higher in regenerated plants than that of in calli. RAPD could be applied easily and simply to determine variation in level of DNA at each stage cultured in vitro.

  13. Parkinson's disease and mitochondrial gene variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andalib, Sasan; Vafaee, Manouchehr Seyedi; Gjedde, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common disorder of the central nervous system in the elderly. The pathogenesis of PD is a complex process, with genetics as an important contributing factor. This factor may stem from mitochondrial gene variations and mutations as well as from nuclear gene variations...... and mutations. More recently, a particular role of mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested, arising from mitochondrial DNA variations or acquired mutations in PD pathogenesis. The present review summarizes and weighs the evidence in support of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations as important contributors...

  14. The Needs of Students with Intersex Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    To date, people with intersex variations have been mainly studied via small-scale clinical research, with only a small amount of reflective commentary contributed by sociocultural scholars. This paper reports on findings from a 2015 online Australian survey of 272 people with intersex variations, which aimed to redress the gap in research on this…

  15. Multipartition generalizations of the Schwinger variational principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldflam, R.; Thaler, R. M.; Tobocman, W.

    1981-04-01

    Generalizations of the Schwinger variational principle are proposed which include rearrangement scattering. Functionals are given for the transition amplitude. The requirement that a functional be stationary with respect to variation of the scattering wave function leads to a set of simultaneous equations for the scattering wave function rather than a single equation. This is consistent with recent formalisms for many-body scattering.

  16. Size variation of fossil rodent populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.; Cuenca Bescos, G.

    1984-01-01

    Pearson's coefficient of variation is in general not applicable in palaeontology, due to the heterogeneity of samples. The heterogeneity may be due to the mixing of two species, mixture of material from various biotopes, or from a relatively large time span. A new coefficient of variation is propose

  17. Stochastic variational approach to minimum uncertainty states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, F.; Viola, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Padova Univ. (Italy)

    1995-05-21

    We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schroedinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials. (author)

  18. Size variation of fossil rodent populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.; Cuenca Bescos, G.

    1984-01-01

    Pearson's coefficient of variation is in general not applicable in palaeontology, due to the heterogeneity of samples. The heterogeneity may be due to the mixing of two species, mixture of material from various biotopes, or from a relatively large time span. A new coefficient of variation is

  19. Note on Methodology: The Coefficient of Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheret, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Addresses applications of the coefficient of variation as a measure of educational inequality or as a means of measuring changes of inequality status. Suggests the Gini coefficient has many advantages over the coefficient of variation since it can be used with the Lorenz curve (Lorenz provides detail Gini omits). (BRR)

  20. A RARE VARIATION OF GREAT SAPHENOUS VEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakhate Manisha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The venous system is more complex and variable than arterial system due to its frequent anatomical variations. This paper discusses the anatomy of the great saphenous vein and its variation observed in a male cadaver of around 60 years old.

  1. Circadian variation in the pharmacokinetics of verapamil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, C M; Frederiksen, M; Hansen, J F;

    1989-01-01

    Circadian variation in the metabolism of verapamil was investigated in 10 patients with stable angina pectoris during treatment with sustained-release verapamil 360 mg at 08.00 h or 22.0 h. No major difference in exercise parameters was found. During the evening dosage schedule a significantly gr...... or to circadian variation in hepatic microsomal metabolism....

  2. Stochastic variational approach to minimum uncertainty states

    CERN Document Server

    Illuminati, F; Illuminati, F; Viola, L

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schr\\"{o}dinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials.

  3. Variational approaches to water wave simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gagarina, Elena Vitalyevna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis starts with the study the theoretical aspects of water wave modelling using a variational framework, which is directly associated with phase space and energy conservation laws. In particular, we focus on a new variational model based on the work of Cotter and Bokhove. The new model inclu

  4. Groupoids, Discrete Mechanics, and Discrete Variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jia-Feng; JIA Xiao-Yu; WU Ke; ZHAO Wei-Zhong

    2008-01-01

    After introducing some of the basic definitions and results from the theory of groupoid and Lie algebroid,we investigate the discrete Lagrangian mechanics from the viewpoint of groupoid theory and give the connection between groupoids variation and the methods of the first and second discrete variational principles.

  5. Geometric variations of the Boltzmann entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Kalogeropoulos, Nikos

    2008-01-01

    We perform a calculation of the first and second order infinitesimal variations, with respect to energy, of the Boltzmann entropy of constant energy hypersurfaces of a system with a finite number of degrees of freedom. We comment on the stability interpretation of the second variation in this framework.

  6. Variational bayesian method of estimating variance components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Aisaku; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Hayashi, Takeshi; Mikawa, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    We developed a Bayesian analysis approach by using a variational inference method, a so-called variational Bayesian method, to determine the posterior distributions of variance components. This variational Bayesian method and an alternative Bayesian method using Gibbs sampling were compared in estimating genetic and residual variance components from both simulated data and publically available real pig data. In the simulated data set, we observed strong bias toward overestimation of genetic variance for the variational Bayesian method in the case of low heritability and low population size, and less bias was detected with larger population sizes in both methods examined. The differences in the estimates of variance components between the variational Bayesian and the Gibbs sampling were not found in the real pig data. However, the posterior distributions of the variance components obtained with the variational Bayesian method had shorter tails than those obtained with the Gibbs sampling. Consequently, the posterior standard deviations of the genetic and residual variances of the variational Bayesian method were lower than those of the method using Gibbs sampling. The computing time required was much shorter with the variational Bayesian method than with the method using Gibbs sampling.

  7. Size variation in Middle Pleistocene humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, J L; Carretero, J M; Lorenzo, C; Gracia, A; Martínez, I; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Carbonell, E

    1997-08-22

    It has been suggested that European Middle Pleistocene humans, Neandertals, and prehistoric modern humans had a greater sexual dimorphism than modern humans. Analysis of body size variation and cranial capacity variation in the large sample from the Sima de los Huesos site in Spain showed instead that the sexual dimorphism is comparable in Middle Pleistocene and modern populations.

  8. Genetic variation in bovine milk fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In her thesis, Stoop shows that there is considerable genetic variation in milk fat composition, which opens opportunities to improve milk fat composition by selective breeding. Short and medium chain fatty acids had high heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd (mainly feed effects) was modera

  9. Regional variation in short distance homogamy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haandrikman, K.; van Wissen, L.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A third of all Dutch cohabiters choose a partner from the same municipality, so-called short distance homogamy. This article analyses the regional variation in this phenomenon, and it explains this variation in terms of geographical, socioeconomic, demographic and cultural determinants. Population

  10. Accommodating Variation: Dialects, Idiolects, and Speech Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraljic, Tanya; Brennan, Susan E.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2008-01-01

    Listeners are faced with enormous variation in pronunciation, yet they rarely have difficulty understanding speech. Although much research has been devoted to figuring out how listeners deal with variability, virtually none (outside of sociolinguistics) has focused on the source of the variation itself. The current experiments explore whether…

  11. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  12. Closed orbit response to quadrupole strength variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolski, Andrzej; Zimmermann, Frank

    2004-01-20

    We derive two formulae relating the variation in closed orbit in a storage ring to variations in quadrupole strength, neglecting nonlinear and dispersive effects. These formulae correct results previously reported [1,2,3]. We compare the results of the formulae applied to the ATF with simulations using MAD, and consider their application to beam-based alignment.

  13. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  14. Note on Methodology: The Coefficient of Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheret, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Addresses applications of the coefficient of variation as a measure of educational inequality or as a means of measuring changes of inequality status. Suggests the Gini coefficient has many advantages over the coefficient of variation since it can be used with the Lorenz curve (Lorenz provides detail Gini omits). (BRR)

  15. Cytoplasmic genetic variation and extensive cytonuclear interactions influence natural variation in the metabolome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joseph, Bindu; Corwin, Jason A.; Li, Baohua

    2013-01-01

    affects phenotypic variation. This showed that the cytoplasmic variation had effects similar to, if not larger than, the largest individual nuclear locus. Inclusion of cytoplasmic variation into the genetic model greatly increased the explained phenotypic variation. Cytoplasmic genetic variation...... was a central hub in the epistatic network controlling the plant metabolome. This epistatic influence manifested such that the cytoplasmic background could alter or hide pairwise epistasis between nuclear loci. Thus, cytoplasmic genetic variation plays a central role in controlling natural variation......Understanding genome to phenotype linkages has been greatly enabled by genomic sequencing. However, most genome analysis is typically confined to the nuclear genome. We conducted a metabolomic QTL analysis on a reciprocal RIL population structured to examine how variation in the organelle genomes...

  16. Variation Tolerant On-Chip Interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Nigussie, Ethiopia Enideg

    2012-01-01

    This book presents design techniques, analysis and implementation of high performance and power efficient, variation tolerant on-chip interconnects.  Given the design paradigm shift to multi-core, interconnect-centric designs and the increase in sources of variability and their impact in sub-100nm technologies, this book will be an invaluable reference for anyone concerned with the design of next generation, high-performance electronics systems. Provides comprehensive, circuit-level explanation of high-performance, energy-efficient, variation-tolerant on-chip interconnect; Describes design techniques to mitigate problems caused by variation; Includes techniques for design and implementation of self-timed on-chip interconnect, delay variation insensitive communication protocols, high speed signaling techniques and circuits, bit-width independent completion detection and process, voltage and temperature variation tolerance.                          

  17. Cosmic Time Variation of the Gravitational Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    2000-01-01

    A pre-relativistic cosmological approach to electromagnetism and gravitation is explored that leads to a cosmic time variation of the fundamental constants. Space itself is supposed to have physical substance, which manifests by its permeability. The scale factors of the permeability tensor induce a time variation of the fundamental constants. Atomic radii, periods, and energy levels scale in cosmic time, which results in dispersionless redshifts without invoking a space expansion. Hubble constant and deceleration parameter are reviewed in this context. The time variation of the gravitational constant at the present epoch can be expressed in terms of these quantities. This provides a completely new way to restrain the deceleration parameter from laboratory bounds on the time variation of the gravitational constant. This variation also affects the redshift dependence of angular diameters and the surface brightness, and we study in some detail the redshift scaling of the linear sizes of radio sources. The effec...

  18. Variation tolerant SoC design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhikkottu, Vivek J.

    The scaling of integrated circuits into the nanometer regime has led to variations emerging as a primary concern for designers of integrated circuits. Variations are an inevitable consequence of the semiconductor manufacturing process, and also arise due to the side-effects of operation of integrated circuits (voltage, temperature, and aging). Conventional design approaches, which are based on design corners or worst-case scenarios, leave designers with an undesirable choice between the considerable overheads associated with over-design and significantly reduced manufacturing yield. Techniques for variation-tolerant design at the logic, circuit and layout levels of the design process have been developed and are in commercial use. However, with the incessant increase in variations due to technology scaling and design trends such as near-threshold computing, these techniques are no longer sufficient to contain the effects of variations, and there is a need to address variations at all stages of design. This thesis addresses the problem of variation-tolerant design at the earliest stages of the design process, where the system-level design decisions that are made can have a very significant impact. There are two key aspects to making system-level design variation-aware. First, analysis techniques must be developed to project the impact of variations on system-level metrics such as application performance and energy. Second, variation-tolerant design techniques need to be developed to absorb the residual impact of variations (that cannot be contained through lower-level techniques). In this thesis, we address both these facets by developing robust and scalable variation-aware analysis and variation mitigation techniques at the system level. The first contribution of this thesis is a variation-aware system-level performance analysis framework. We address the key challenge of translating the per-component clock frequency distributions into a system-level application

  19. Novel Detection Features for SSVEP Based BCI: Coefficient of Variation and Variation Speed

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Talha Sözer; Can Bülent

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces novel detection features for the steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain computer interfaces. The coefficient of variation and variation speed features were developed using the stability of SSVEP response. The developed features were tested on 13 subjects. On this dataset, for which the chance level is 12.5%, about 70% detection accuracy was obtained. Based on these results, it is considered that the coefficient of variation and the variation speed can...

  20. Plant responses to climatic extremes: within-species variation equals among-species variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malyshev, Andrey; Arfin Kahn, Mohammed A.S.; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2016-01-01

    , root 15N uptake, and live and dead tissue mass. Using coefficients of variation (CVs) for each experiment and response parameter, a total of 156 within- vs. among-species comparisons were conducted, comparing within-species variation in each of four species with among- species variation for each seed......) and for practical applications (e.g., biodiversity conservation)....

  1. Variations in pectoral girdle muscles in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alić, I; Trbojević Vukičević, T; Đuras, M; Kužir, S; Fazarinc, G; Gjurčević Kantura, V

    2014-02-01

    Muscle variations take the form of additional muscle bundle or belly, unusual muscle origin or termination, as well as complete muscle absence. Knowledge of such variations not only has clinical importance for guiding surgery, but also can help reveal phylogenetic relationships. To improve our understanding of muscle variations in dogs, 57 medium-sized, cross-breed male and female adult animals were dissected as part of a gross anatomy course between 2005 and 2011. Variations in pectoral girdle muscles were observed in 7 (12.3%) dogs and took the form of an additional muscle bundle in the brachiocephalicus muscle (n = 2), in the omotransversarius muscle (n = 2), in the cervical part of the rhomboideus muscle (n = 2) and in the cervical part of the serratus ventralis muscle (n = 1). Muscle variation was bilateral in only one dog; it involved the omotransversarius muscle. The variations did not seem to be sex dependent. Such variations can appear regularly in dogs and should be taken into consideration during anatomical dissection. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Environmental Variation Generates Environmental Opportunist Pathogen Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Jani; Kaitala, Veijo; Laakso, Jouni; Ruokolainen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Many socio-economically important pathogens persist and grow in the outside host environment and opportunistically invade host individuals. The environmental growth and opportunistic nature of these pathogens has received only little attention in epidemiology. Environmental reservoirs are, however, an important source of novel diseases. Thus, attempts to control these diseases require different approaches than in traditional epidemiology focusing on obligatory parasites. Conditions in the outside-host environment are prone to fluctuate over time. This variation is a potentially important driver of epidemiological dynamics and affect the evolution of novel diseases. Using a modelling approach combining the traditional SIRS models to environmental opportunist pathogens and environmental variability, we show that epidemiological dynamics of opportunist diseases are profoundly driven by the quality of environmental variability, such as the long-term predictability and magnitude of fluctuations. When comparing periodic and stochastic environmental factors, for a given variance, stochastic variation is more likely to cause outbreaks than periodic variation. This is due to the extreme values being further away from the mean. Moreover, the effects of variability depend on the underlying biology of the epidemiological system, and which part of the system is being affected. Variation in host susceptibility leads to more severe pathogen outbreaks than variation in pathogen growth rate in the environment. Positive correlation in variation on both targets can cancel the effect of variation altogether. Moreover, the severity of outbreaks is significantly reduced by increase in the duration of immunity. Uncovering these issues helps in understanding and controlling diseases caused by environmental pathogens.

  3. Variation in mouse basolateral amygdala volume is associated with differences in stress reactivity and fear learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rebecca J; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Karlsson, Rose-Marie; Cameron, Heather A; Williams, Robert W; Holmes, Andrew

    2008-10-01

    A wealth of research identifies the amygdala as a key brain region mediating negative affect, and implicates amygdala dysfunction in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders. Although there is a strong genetic component to anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) there remains debate about whether abnormalities in amygdala function predispose to these disorders. In the present study, groups of C57BL/6 x DBA/2 (B x D) recombinant inbred strains of mice were selected for differences in volume of the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA). Strains with relatively small, medium, or large BLA volumes were compared for Pavlovian fear learning and memory, anxiety-related behaviors, depression-related behavior, and glucocorticoid responses to stress. Strains with relatively small BLA exhibited stronger conditioned fear responses to both auditory tone and contextual stimuli, as compared to groups with larger BLA. The small BLA group also showed significantly greater corticosterone responses to stress than the larger BLA groups. BLA volume did not predict clear differences in measures of anxiety-like behavior or depression-related behavior, other than greater locomotor inhibition to novelty in strains with smaller BLA. Neither striatal, hippocampal nor cerebellar volumes correlated significantly with any behavioral measure. The present data demonstrate a phenotype of enhanced fear conditioning and exaggerated glucocorticoid responses to stress associated with small BLA volume. This profile is reminiscent of the increased fear processing and stress reactivity that is associated with amygdala excitability and reduced amygdala volume in humans carrying loss of function polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter and monoamine oxidase A genes. Our study provides a unique example of how natural variation in amygdala volume associates with specific fear- and stress-related phenotypes in rodents, and further supports the role of amygdala dysfunction in anxiety

  4. Transcription factor ATF-3 regulates allele variation phenotypes of the human SLC11A1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taka, Styliani; Gazouli, Maria; Politis, Panagotis K; Pappa, Kalliopi I; Anagnou, Nicholas P

    2013-03-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in the human solute carrier family 11 member 1 (SLC11A1) gene predispose to susceptibility to infectious/inflammatory diseases and cancer. Human susceptibility to these diseases exhibits allelic association with a polymorphic regulatory Z-DNA-forming microsatellite of a (GT/AC)n repeat. The carriage of different alleles may influence chromatin remodeling and accessibility by transcription factors. Of particular importance is the binding site for the Activating Protein 1 (AP-1) elements, (ATF-3 and c-Jun), adjacent to the 5' sequence of the Z-DNA-forming polymorphism. The aim of the study was to characterize the transcriptional mechanisms controlling different alleles of SLC11A1 expression by ATF-3 and c-Jun. Allele 2, [T(GT)5AC(GT)5AC(GT)10GGCAGA(G)6], and Allele 3, [T(GT)5AC(GT)5AC(GT)9GGCAGA(G)6], were subcloned into the PGL2Basic vector. Transient transfections of THP-1 cells with the constructs, in the presence or absence of pATF-3 were preformed. Luciferase expression was determined. To document the recruitment of ATF-3 and c-Jun, to the polymorphic promoter alleles in vivo, we performed ChIP assays with transient transfected THP-1 cells treated with or without lipopolyssacharides. Our data documented that ATF-3 suppresses the transcriptional activation of Allele-3, and this suppression is enhanced in the presence of lipopolyssacharides. Our findings suggest that ATF-3 and c-Jun may influence heritable variation in SLC11A1-dependent innate resistance to infection and inflammation both within and between populations.

  5. Variation and Evolution of the Meiotic Requirement for Crossing Over in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Beth L

    2017-01-01

    The segregation of homologous chromosomes at the first meiotic division is dependent on the presence of at least one well-positioned crossover per chromosome. In some mammalian species, however, the genomic distribution of crossovers is consistent with a more stringent baseline requirement of one crossover per chromosome arm. Given that the meiotic requirement for crossing over defines the minimum frequency of recombination necessary for the production of viable gametes, determining the chromosomal scale of this constraint is essential for defining crossover profiles predisposed to aneuploidy and understanding the parameters that shape patterns of recombination rate evolution across species. Here, I use cytogenetic methods for in situ imaging of crossovers in karyotypically diverse house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) and voles (genus Microtus) to test how chromosome number and configuration constrain the distribution of crossovers in a genome. I show that the global distribution of crossovers in house mice is thresholded by a minimum of one crossover per chromosome arm, whereas the crossover landscape in voles is defined by a more relaxed requirement of one crossover per chromosome. I extend these findings in an evolutionary metaanalysis of published recombination and karyotype data for 112 mammalian species and demonstrate that the physical scale of the genomic crossover distribution has undergone multiple independent shifts from one crossover per chromosome arm to one per chromosome during mammalian evolution. Together, these results indicate that the chromosomal scale constraint on crossover rates is itself a trait that evolves among species, a finding that casts light on an important source of crossover rate variation in mammals. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. copy number variation analysis in familial BRCA1/2-negative Finnish breast and ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi M Kuusisto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inherited factors predisposing individuals to breast and ovarian cancer are largely unidentified in a majority of families with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC. We aimed to identify germline copy number variations (CNVs contributing to HBOC susceptibility in the Finnish population. METHODS: A cohort of 84 HBOC individuals (negative for BRCA1/2-founder mutations and pre-screened for the most common breast cancer genes and 36 healthy controls were analysed with a genome-wide SNP array. CNV-affecting genes were further studied by Gene Ontology term enrichment, pathway analyses, and database searches to reveal genes with potential for breast and ovarian cancer predisposition. CNVs that were considered to be important were validated and genotyped in 20 additional HBOC individuals (6 CNVs and in additional healthy controls (5 CNVs by qPCR. RESULTS: An intronic deletion in the EPHA3 receptor tyrosine kinase was enriched in HBOC individuals (12 of 101, 11.9% compared with controls (27 of 432, 6.3% (OR = 1.96; P = 0.055. EPHA3 was identified in several enriched molecular functions including receptor activity. Both a novel intronic deletion in the CSMD1 tumor suppressor gene and a homozygous intergenic deletion at 5q15 were identified in 1 of 101 (1.0% HBOC individuals but were very rare (1 of 436, 0.2% and 1 of 899, 0.1%, respectively in healthy controls suggesting that these variants confer disease susceptibility. CONCLUSION: This study reveals new information regarding the germline CNVs that likely contribute to HBOC susceptibility in Finland. This information may be used to facilitate the genetic counselling of HBOC individuals but the preliminary results warrant additional studies of a larger study group.

  7. Variations of fundamental constants and multidimensional gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronnikova, K. A.; Skvortsova, M. V.

    We try to explain the recently reported large-scale spatial variations of the fine structure constant α, in agreement with other cosmological observations, in the framework of curvature-nonlinear multidimensional gravity. The original theory is reduced to a scalar-tensor theory in four dimensions, and the corresponding isotropic cosmologies are considered in both Einstein and Jordan conformal frames. In the Jordan frame one obtains simultaneous variations of α and the gravitational constant G, equal in magnitude. Long-wave small inhomogeneous perturbations of isotropic models allow for explaining spatial variations of α.

  8. NO TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS IN WASP-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrucci, R.; Schwartz, M.; Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Jofré, E.; Cúneo, V.; Gómez, M. [CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Martínez, C. [Observatorio Astronómico de Córdoba, Córdoba (Argentina)

    2013-12-20

    We present six new transits of the system WASP-4. Together with 28 light curves published in the literature, we perform a homogeneous study of its parameters and search for variations in the transits' central times. The final values agree with those previously reported, except for a slightly lower inclination. We find no significant long-term variations in i or R{sub P} /R {sub *}. The O-C mid-transit times do not show signs of transit timing variations greater than 54 s.

  9. Inferences on the common coefficient of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili

    2005-07-30

    The coefficient of variation is often used as a measure of precision and reproducibility of data in medical and biological science. This paper considers the problem of making inference about the common population coefficient of variation when it is a priori suspected that several independent samples are from populations with a common coefficient of variation. The procedures for confidence interval estimation and hypothesis testing are developed based on the concepts of generalized variables. The coverage properties of the proposed confidence intervals and type-I errors of the proposed tests are evaluated by simulation. The proposed methods are illustrated by a real life example.

  10. Simultaneous Detection of Both Single Nucleotide Variations and Copy Number Alterations by Next-Generation Sequencing in Gorlin Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kei-ichi; Naruto, Takuya; Tanimoto, Kousuke; Yasukawa, Chisato; Oikawa, Yu; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Imoto, Issei; Inazawa, Johji; Omura, Ken; Harada, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Gorlin syndrome (GS) is an autosomal dominant disorder that predisposes affected individuals to developmental defects and tumorigenesis, and caused mainly by heterozygous germline PTCH1 mutations. Despite exhaustive analysis, PTCH1 mutations are often unidentifiable in some patients; the failure to detect mutations is presumably because of mutations occurred in other causative genes or outside of analyzed regions of PTCH1, or copy number alterations (CNAs). In this study, we subjected a cohort of GS-affected individuals from six unrelated families to next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis for the combined screening of causative alterations in Hedgehog signaling pathway-related genes. Specific single nucleotide variations (SNVs) of PTCH1 causing inferred amino acid changes were identified in four families (seven affected individuals), whereas CNAs within or around PTCH1 were found in two families in whom possible causative SNVs were not detected. Through a targeted resequencing of all coding exons, as well as simultaneous evaluation of copy number status using the alignment map files obtained via NGS, we found that GS phenotypes could be explained by PTCH1 mutations or deletions in all affected patients. Because it is advisable to evaluate CNAs of candidate causative genes in point mutation-negative cases, NGS methodology appears to be useful for improving molecular diagnosis through the simultaneous detection of both SNVs and CNAs in the targeted genes/regions.

  11. Simultaneous Detection of Both Single Nucleotide Variations and Copy Number Alterations by Next-Generation Sequencing in Gorlin Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei-ichi Morita

    Full Text Available Gorlin syndrome (GS is an autosomal dominant disorder that predisposes affected individuals to developmental defects and tumorigenesis, and caused mainly by heterozygous germline PTCH1 mutations. Despite exhaustive analysis, PTCH1 mutations are often unidentifiable in some patients; the failure to detect mutations is presumably because of mutations occurred in other causative genes or outside of analyzed regions of PTCH1, or copy number alterations (CNAs. In this study, we subjected a cohort of GS-affected individuals from six unrelated families to next-generation sequencing (NGS analysis for the combined screening of causative alterations in Hedgehog signaling pathway-related genes. Specific single nucleotide variations (SNVs of PTCH1 causing inferred amino acid changes were identified in four families (seven affected individuals, whereas CNAs within or around PTCH1 were found in two families in whom possible causative SNVs were not detected. Through a targeted resequencing of all coding exons, as well as simultaneous evaluation of copy number status using the alignment map files obtained via NGS, we found that GS phenotypes could be explained by PTCH1 mutations or deletions in all affected patients. Because it is advisable to evaluate CNAs of candidate causative genes in point mutation-negative cases, NGS methodology appears to be useful for improving molecular diagnosis through the simultaneous detection of both SNVs and CNAs in the targeted genes/regions.

  12. The relative analysis of body mass index and predisposing genes of knee osteoarthritis in Han population%体质指数与汉族人群膝骨关节炎易感基因的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祖玉; 姚晨; 史冬泉; 蒋青

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨体质指数( body mass index,BMI )与汉族人群膝骨关节炎( osteoarthritis,OA )易感基因之间的关系,以研究 BMI 在膝 OA 发病中的作用,进而为了解膝 OA 的病因及其临床预防、治疗提供帮助。方法从本研究中心收集的病例中选取影像学( kellgren/lawrence,K/L )评分在 II 级以上的184例膝 OA 患者为膝 OA 组,年龄匹配的400例非膝 OA 患者为对照组,测量各自的 BMI。采用 SPSS15.0软件统计分析,分析 BMI 在对照组和膝 OA 组的分布,并计算在转化生长因子-5( growth differentiation factor 5,GDF5)基因5’非翻译区域+104T/C 位点携带 C 等位基因或在 asporin 基因上有14个天冬氨酸重复序列( D14)的肥胖者( BMI ≥25 kg/m2)在对照组及膝 OA 组中的比例及优势比( odds ratio,OR )。结果正常对照组、膝 OA 组男性 BMI 分别为(22.4±6.19) kg/m2、(25.2±3.27) kg/m2,女性则分别为(21.3±6.08) kg/m2、(25.0±4.12) kg/m2。对照组和膝 OA 组 BMI 比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.01),而男女患者间比较差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。在 GDF5基因5’非翻译区域+104T/C 位点携带 C 等位基因的肥胖者在对照组、膝 OA 组的比例分别为33%、42.3%, OR=0.51,P<0.01;在 asporin 基因上携带 D14的肥胖者则为27.5%、42.9%,OR=1.98,P=0.01。结论在与遗传因素的相互作用下,肥胖所致的机械因素在膝 OA 的发病中发挥重要作用。肥胖是膝 OA 的高危因素。%Objective To prove into the relative analysis of body mass index ( BMI ) and predisposing genes of knee osteoarthritis ( OA ) in Han population, so as to study the influences of BMI on the invasion of knee OA, thus conduce to understand the etiology of knee OA and the clinical prevention and treatment. Methods We chose 184 knee OA patients from our research center whose kellgren/lawrence ( K/L ) score were above II grade and 400 normal as age

  13. 肺癌患者肺部感染的易感因素与病原菌分析%Predisposing factors and pathogen analysis of pulmonary infection in patients with lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶建明; 方兴; 谭海栋

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过对收治的肺癌患者的病例调查研究,对其肺部感染的易感因素、病原菌及其耐药性进行研究分析,为肺癌患者肺部感染预防和治疗提供依据。方法对医院2011年7月-2013年6月收治的肺癌且发生肺部感染的患者共62例,在住院后第2天,采集患者的痰液送至实验室进行细菌、真菌的培养,采用K-B法分离的菌株进行耐药性分析,数据均由Excel软件以及SPSS13.0软件进行处理。结果对62例患者采取的151份符合标准的痰液进行微生物培养,共检测出74株病原菌,真菌占43.24%,革兰阳性菌占9.46%,革兰阴性菌占47.30%,革兰阴性菌中肺炎克雷伯菌比例最高,真菌中的白色假丝酵母菌比例最高,肺炎克雷伯菌对氨苄西林的耐药率为100.0%,对环丙沙星无耐药性;阴沟肠杆菌对头孢他啶、头孢曲松、头孢唑林的耐药率均为100.0%;鲍氏不动杆菌对头孢唑林的耐药率为100.0%,对头孢他啶无耐药性;铜绿假单胞菌对氨苄西林、头孢唑林的耐药率均为100.0%;金黄色葡萄球菌对青霉素的耐药率为100.0%。结论对肺癌患者肺部感染进行积极的预防和控制,加强对引起肺癌患者肺部感染病原菌的监测,为医护人员对患者进行治疗、使用抗菌药物时提供参考依据,降低肺癌患者肺部感染率,提高治疗效果。%OBJECTIVE To analyze predisposing factors ,pathogens and drug resistance for lung infection through case study of patients with lung cancer so as to provide reference for prevention and treatment of lung infection in patients with lung cancer .METHODS A total of 62 patients who had lung infection during hospitalization from Jul .2011 to Jun .2013 for lung cancer were selected .At two days after admission ,the sputum from the patients were delivered to the laboratory for bacteria and fungi culture .Analysis of drug resistance

  14. SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN GROUNDWATER QUALITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... Keys Words: Ground Water, Seasonal Variations, Valsad District, Gujarat. 1. ... that has to be conserved and preserved for sustenance of life in future [1]. .... evaporation of water and mixing of organic waste of animal origin [7].

  15. From genomic variation to personalized medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesolowska, Agata; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    Genomic variation is the basis of interindividual differences in observable traits and disease susceptibility. Genetic studies are the driving force of personalized medicine, as many of the differences in treatment efficacy can be attributed to our genomic background. The rapid development of nex...... alternative to data-driven genome-wide association studies. Finally, the findings of the presented studies set new directions for future pharmacognenetic investigations and provide a framework for future implementation of personalized medicine.......Genomic variation is the basis of interindividual differences in observable traits and disease susceptibility. Genetic studies are the driving force of personalized medicine, as many of the differences in treatment efficacy can be attributed to our genomic background. The rapid development...... the thesis and includes some final remarks on the perspectives of genomic variation research and personalized medicine. In summary, this thesis demonstrates the feasibility of integrative analyses of genomic variations and introduces large-scale hypothesis-driven SNP exploration studies as an emerging...

  16. Medicare Geographic Variation - Public Use File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Geographic Variation Public Use File provides the ability to view demographic, utilization and quality indicators at the state level (including...

  17. Modeling Per Capita State Health Expenditure Variat...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Modeling Per Capita State Health Expenditure Variation State-Level Characteristics Matter, published in Volume 3, Issue 4, of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  18. Stochastic Power Grid Analysis Considering Process Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Ghanta, Praveen; Panda, Rajendran; Wang, Janet

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of interconnect and device process variations on voltage fluctuations in power grids. We consider random variations in the power grid's electrical parameters as spatial stochastic processes and propose a new and efficient method to compute the stochastic voltage response of the power grid. Our approach provides an explicit analytical representation of the stochastic voltage response using orthogonal polynomials in a Hilbert space. The approach has been implemented in a prototype software called OPERA (Orthogonal Polynomial Expansions for Response Analysis). Use of OPERA on industrial power grids demonstrated speed-ups of up to two orders of magnitude. The results also show a significant variation of about $\\pm$ 35% in the nominal voltage drops at various nodes of the power grids and demonstrate the need for variation-aware power grid analysis.

  19. Secular obliquity variations of Ceres and Pallas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Bruce G.; Scott, Bryan R.

    2017-03-01

    We examine variations in the orientations of the orbit poles and spin poles of Ceres and Pallas, on time scales of a few million years. We consider these two bodies together because they have similar orbits, but very different present states of knowledge concerning internal mass distribution and spin pole orientation. For Ceres, the Dawn mission has recently provided accurate estimates of the current spin pole orientation, and the degree 2 spherical harmonics of the gravitational potential. The polar moment of inertia is not as well constrained, but plausible bounds are known. For Pallas, we have estimates of the shape of the body, and spin pole orientation and angular rate, all derived from optical light curves. Using those input parameters, and the readily computed secular variations in the orbit pole, we can compute long term variations in the spin pole orientation. This provides information concerning long term variations in insolation, which controls stability of surface volatiles.

  20. Solar cycle variations in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John W.; Lopez, Ramon E.

    1986-01-01

    The solar cycle variations of various solar wind parameters are reviewed. It is shown that there is a gradual decrease in the duration of high-speed streams from the declining phase of solar cycle 20 through the ascending phase of cycle 21 and a corresponding decrease in the annual average of the proton speed toward solar maximum. Beta, the ratio of the proton thermal pressure to magnetic pressure, undergoes a significant solar cycle variation, as expected from the variation in the IMF. Individual hourly averages of beta often exceed unity with 20 cases exceeding 10 and one case as high as 25. The Alfven Mach number shows a solar cycle variation similar to beta, lower aboard solar maximum. High-speed streams can be seen clearly in epsilon and the y component of the interplanetary magnetic field.