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Sample records for adh1a variation predisposes

  1. Variation in Telangiectasia Predisposing Genes Is Associated With Overall Radiation Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanteles, George A. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Murray, Robert J.S. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Mills, Jamie [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Barwell, Julian [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Chakraborti, Prabir [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom); Chan, Steve [Department of Clinical Oncology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Cheung, Kwok-Leung [Division of Breast Surgery, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Ennis, Dawn [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom); Khurshid, Nazish [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Lambert, Kelly [Department of Breast Surgery, University Hospitals of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester (United Kingdom); Machhar, Rohan; Meisuria, Mitul [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Osman, Ahmed; Peat, Irene [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Sahota, Harjinder [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Woodings, Pamela [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J., E-mail: cjt14@le.ac.uk [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: In patients receiving radiotherapy for breast cancer where the heart is within the radiation field, cutaneous telangiectasiae could be a marker of potential radiation-induced heart disease. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes known to cause heritable telangiectasia-associated disorders could predispose to such late, normal tissue vascular damage. Methods and Materials: The relationship between cutaneous telangiectasia as a late normal tissue radiation injury phenotype in 633 breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy was examined. Patients were clinically assessed for the presence of cutaneous telangiectasia and genotyped at nine SNPs in three candidate genes. Candidate SNPs were within the endoglin (ENG) and activin A receptor, type II-like 1 (ACVRL1) genes, mutations in which cause hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene associated with ataxia-telangiectasia. Results: A total of 121 (19.1%) patients exhibited a degree of cutaneous telangiectasiae on clinical examination. Regression was used to examine the associations between the presence of telangiectasiae in patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery, controlling for the effects of boost and known brassiere size (n=388), and individual geno- or haplotypes. Inheritance of ACVRL1 SNPs marginally contributed to the risk of cutaneous telangiectasiae. Haplotypic analysis revealed a stronger association between inheritance of a ATM haplotype and the presence of cutaneous telangiectasiae, fibrosis and overall toxicity. No significant association was observed between telangiectasiae and the coinheritance of the candidate ENG SNPs. Conclusions: Genetic variation in the ATM gene influences reaction to radiotherapy through both vascular damage and increased fibrosis. The predisposing variation in the ATM gene will need to be better defined to optimize it as a predictive marker for assessing radiotherapy late effects.

  2. Allelic variation in CRHR1 predisposes to panic disorder: evidence for biased fear processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, H; Richter, J; Straube, B; Lueken, U; Domschke, K; Schartner, C; Klauke, B; Baumann, C; Pané-Farré, C; Jacob, C P; Scholz, C-J; Zwanzger, P; Lang, T; Fehm, L; Jansen, A; Konrad, C; Fydrich, T; Wittmann, A; Pfleiderer, B; Ströhle, A; Gerlach, A L; Alpers, G W; Arolt, V; Pauli, P; Wittchen, H-U; Kent, L; Hamm, A; Kircher, T; Deckert, J; Reif, A

    2016-06-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a major regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Binding to its receptor CRHR1 triggers the downstream release of the stress response-regulating hormone cortisol. Biochemical, behavioral and genetic studies revealed CRHR1 as a possible candidate gene for mood and anxiety disorders. Here we aimed to evaluate CRHR1 as a risk factor for panic disorder (PD). Allelic variation of CRHR1 was captured by 9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which were genotyped in 531 matched case/control pairs. Four SNPs were found to be associated with PD, in at least one sub-sample. The minor allele of rs17689918 was found to significantly increase risk for PD in females after Bonferroni correction and furthermore decreased CRHR1 mRNA expression in human forebrains and amygdalae. When investigating neural correlates underlying this association in patients with PD using functional magnetic resonance imaging, risk allele carriers of rs17689918 showed aberrant differential conditioning predominantly in the bilateral prefrontal cortex and safety signal processing in the amygdalae, arguing for predominant generalization of fear and hence anxious apprehension. Additionally, the risk allele of rs17689918 led to less flight behavior during fear-provoking situations but rather increased anxious apprehension and went along with increased anxiety sensitivity. Thus reduced gene expression driven by CRHR1 risk allele leads to a phenotype characterized by fear sensitization and hence sustained fear. These results strengthen the role of CRHR1 in PD and clarify the mechanisms by which genetic variation in CRHR1 is linked to this disorder.

  3. Genome-wide survey reveals predisposing diabetes type 2-related DNA methylation variations in human peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toperoff, Gidon; Aran, Dvir; Kark, Jeremy D; Rosenberg, Michael; Dubnikov, Tatyana; Nissan, Batel; Wainstein, Julio; Friedlander, Yechiel; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Glaser, Benjamin; Hellman, Asaf

    2012-01-15

    Inter-individual DNA methylation variations were frequently hypothesized to alter individual susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Sequence-influenced methylations were described in T2DM-associated genomic regions, but evidence for direct, sequence-independent association with disease risk is missing. Here, we explore disease-contributing DNA methylation through a stepwise study design: first, a pool-based, genome-scale screen among 1169 case and control individuals revealed an excess of differentially methylated sites in genomic regions that were previously associated with T2DM through genetic studies. Next, in-depth analyses were performed at selected top-ranking regions. A CpG site in the first intron of the FTO gene showed small (3.35%) but significant (P = 0.000021) hypomethylation of cases relative to controls. The effect was independent of the sequence polymorphism in the region and persists among individuals carrying the sequence-risk alleles. The odds of belonging to the T2DM group increased by 6.1% for every 1% decrease in methylation (OR = 1.061, 95% CI: 1.032-1.090), the odds ratio for decrease of 1 standard deviation of methylation (adjusted to gender) was 1.5856 (95% CI: 1.2824-1.9606) and the sensitivity (area under the curve = 0.638, 95% CI: 0.586-0.690; males = 0.675, females = 0.609) was better than that of the strongest known sequence variant. Furthermore, a prospective study in an independent population cohort revealed significant hypomethylation of young individuals that later progressed to T2DM, relative to the individuals who stayed healthy. Further genomic analysis revealed co-localization with gene enhancers and with binding sites for methylation-sensitive transcriptional regulators. The data showed that low methylation level at the analyzed sites is an early marker of T2DM and suggests a novel mechanism by which early-onset, inter-individual methylation variation at isolated non-promoter genomic sites predisposes to T2DM.

  4. Genetic variation at MECOM, TERT, JAK2 and HBS1L-MYB predisposes to myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, William; Jones, Amy V.; Kralovics, Robert; Harutyunyan, Ashot S.; Zoi, Katerina; Leung, William; Godfrey, Anna L.; Guglielmelli, Paola; Callaway, Alison; Ward, Daniel; Aranaz, Paula; White, Helen E.; Waghorn, Katherine; Lin, Feng; Chase, Andrew; Joanna Baxter, E.; Maclean, Cathy; Nangalia, Jyoti; Chen, Edwin; Evans, Paul; Short, Michael; Jack, Andrew; Wallis, Louise; Oscier, David; Duncombe, Andrew S.; Schuh, Anna; Mead, Adam J.; Griffiths, Michael; Ewing, Joanne; Gale, Rosemary E.; Schnittger, Susanne; Haferlach, Torsten; Stegelmann, Frank; Döhner, Konstanze; Grallert, Harald; Strauch, Konstantin; Tanaka, Toshiko; Bandinelli, Stefania; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Pieri, Lisa; Mannarelli, Carmela; Gisslinger, Heinz; Barosi, Giovanni; Cazzola, Mario; Reiter, Andreas; Harrison, Claire; Campbell, Peter; Green, Anthony R.; Vannucchi, Alessandro; Cross, Nicholas C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Clonal proliferation in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) is driven by somatic mutations in JAK2, CALR or MPL, but the contribution of inherited factors is poorly characterized. Using a three-stage genome-wide association study of 3,437 MPN cases and 10,083 controls, we identify two SNPs with genome-wide significance in JAK2V617F-negative MPN: rs12339666 (JAK2; meta-analysis P=1.27 × 10−10) and rs2201862 (MECOM; meta-analysis P=1.96 × 10−9). Two additional SNPs, rs2736100 (TERT) and rs9376092 (HBS1L/MYB), achieve genome-wide significance when including JAK2V617F-positive cases. rs9376092 has a stronger effect in JAK2V617F-negative cases with CALR and/or MPL mutations (Breslow–Day P=4.5 × 10−7), whereas in JAK2V617F-positive cases rs9376092 associates with essential thrombocythemia (ET) rather than polycythemia vera (allelic χ2 P=7.3 × 10−7). Reduced MYB expression, previously linked to development of an ET-like disease in model systems, associates with rs9376092 in normal myeloid cells. These findings demonstrate that multiple germline variants predispose to MPN and link constitutional differences in MYB expression to disease phenotype. PMID:25849990

  5. Predisposal management of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this safety guide is to provide guidance on predisposal management of high-level radioactive waste to meet the safety requirements spelt out in the safety code on 'management of radioactive waste'. This safety guide provides recommendations to the waste generator/manager at various stages in the predisposal management of high level radioactive waste for ensuring safety of the occupational workers, public and the environment

  6. What aspects of autism predispose to talent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, Francesca; Vital, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the question, why are striking special skills so much more common in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) than in other groups? Current cognitive accounts of ASC are briefly reviewed in relation to special skills. Difficulties in ‘theory of mind’ may contribute to originality in ASC, since individuals who do not automatically ‘read other minds’ may be better able to think outside prevailing fashions and popular theories. However, originality alone does not confer talent. Executive dysfunction has been suggested as the ‘releasing’ mechanism for special skills in ASC, but other groups with executive difficulties do not show raised incidence of talents. Detail-focused processing bias (‘weak coherence’, ‘enhanced perceptual functioning’) appears to be the most promising predisposing characteristic, or ‘starting engine’, for talent development. In support of this notion, we summarize data from a population-based twin study in which parents reported on their 8-year-olds' talents and their ASC-like traits. Across the whole sample, ASC-like traits, and specifically ‘restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests’ related to detail focus, were more pronounced in children reported to have talents outstripping older children. We suggest that detail-focused cognitive style predisposes to talent in savant domains in, and beyond, autism spectrum disorders. PMID:19528019

  7. Recent developments in brain tumor predisposing syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Gunnar; Andersson, Ulrika; Melin, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    The etiologies of brain tumors are in the most cases unknown, but improvements in genetics and DNA screening have helped to identify a wide range of brain tumor predisposition disorders. In this review we are discussing some of the most common predisposition disorders, namely: neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2, schwannomatosis, rhabdoid tumor predisposition disorder, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin), tuberous sclerosis complex, von Hippel-Lindau, Li-Fraumeni and Turcot syndromes. Recent findings from the GLIOGENE collaboration and the newly identified glioma causing gene POT1, will also be discussed. Genetics. We will describe these disorders from a genetic and clinical standpoint, focusing on the difference in clinical symptoms depending on the underlying gene or germline mutation. Central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Most of these disorders predispose the carriers to a wide range of symptoms. Herein, we will focus particularly on tumors affecting the CNS and discuss improvements of targeted therapy for the particular disorders. PMID:26634384

  8. Detecting disease-predisposing variants: The haplotype method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes, A.M.; Thomson, G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    For many HLA-associated diseases, multiple alleles - and, in some cases, multiple loci - have been suggested as the causative agents. The haplotype method for identifying disease-predisposing amino acids in a genetic region is a stratification analysis. We show that, for each haplotype combination containing all the amino acid sites involved in the disease process, the relative frequencies of amino acid variants at sites not involved in disease but in linkage disequilibrium with the disease-predisposing sites are expected to be the same in patients and controls. The haplotype method is robust to mode of inheritance and penetrance of the disease and can be used to determine unequivocally whether all amino acid sites involved in the disease have not been identified. Using a resampling technique, we developed a statistical test that takes account of the nonindependence of the sites sampled. Further, when multiple sites in the genetic region are involved in disease, the test statistic gives a closer fit to the null expectation when some - compared with none - of the true predisposing factors are included in the haplotype analysis. Although the haplotype method cannot distinguish between very highly correlated sites in one population, ethnic comparisons may help identify the true predisposing factors. The haplotype method was applied to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) HLA class II DQA1-DQB1 data from Caucasian, African, and Japanese populations. Our results indicate that the combination DQA1 No. 52 (Arg predisposing) DQB1 No. 57 (Asp protective), which has been proposed as an important IDDM agent, does not include all the predisposing elements. With rheumatoid arthritis HLA class H DRB1 data, the results were consistent with the shared-epitope hypothesis. 35 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. The prevalence of predisposing deformity in osteoarthritic hip joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Jakob; Gosvig, Kasper; Jacobsen, Steffen;

    2011-01-01

    relationship in both sexes with the clinical presentation. The study cohort which fulfilled these inclusion criteria consisted of 322 females (149 right hips and 173 left hips) and 162 males (77 right hips and 85 left hips) with osteoarthritis. We found an overall prevalence of predisposing hip deformities...... in females of 62.4% and in males of 78.9%. Minor and major deformities showed the same prevalence. Both sexes had a comparable prevalence of minor and major hip joint deformity, except for pistol grip deformity, which was more prevalent in men. We concluded that 'idiopathic osteoarthritis' is uncommon......, and that even minor predisposing deformities are associated with hip osteoarthritis....

  10. Predisposing factors and prevention of Clostridium perfringens-associated enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaart, Janneke G; van Asten, Alphons J A M; Gröne, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Clostridium perfringens is one of the major causes of intestinal disease in humans and animals. Its pathogenicity is contributed to by the production of a variety of toxins. In addition, predisposing environmental factors are important for the induction of C. perfringens-associated enteritis as shown by infection models. Environmental contamination, gastric and intestinal pH, intestinal microflora, nutrition, concurrent infections, and medical interventions may influence the intestinal colonization, growth, and toxin production by C. perfringens. Prevention of C. perfringens-associated enteritis may be mediated by the use of feed additives like probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, essential oils, bacteriophages, lysozymes, bacteriocins, and antimicrobial peptides. Here we summarize and discuss published data on the influence of different environmental predisposing factors and preventive measures. Further research should focus on feed composition and feed additives in order to prevent C. perfringens-associated enteritis.

  11. Sleep Deprivation Predisposes Gujarati Indian Adolescents to Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh Wasim; Patel Minal; Singh S

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aim: Recent studies on various populations indicate that lack of sleep is one of the potential risk factors predisposing the youth to obesity. Since there is a significant rise in obesity among Indian youth and because research indicating the role of sleep in development of obesity among Indian population is scant, the current study was undertaken to assess the effect of sleep duration on adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A randomized cross-...

  12. Factors predisposing to a complicated initial febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, S J

    1975-01-01

    131 consecutive admissions to hospital for a first febrile convulsion were studied to find which factors predisposed to a complicated fit--defined as one lasting more than 30 minutes, unilateral, or repeated within the same illness. A significant excess of complicated attacks occurred where the age of onset was less than 16 months, where both family history of convulsive disorder and perinatal abnormality were present, and, in females only, where it was suspected that neurological disorder preceded the first fit. PMID:1220608

  13. Depressive behavior induced by social isolation of predisposed female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanier-Gomes, Patrícia Helena; de Abreu Silva, Tomaz Eugênio; Zanetti, Guilherme Cia; Benati, Évelyn Raquel; Pinheiro, Nanci Mendes; Murta, Beatriz Martins Tavares; Crema, Virgínia Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Depression is a mood disorder that is more prevalent in women and has been closely associated with chronic stress. Many models of depression have been suggested that consider different forms of stress. In fact, stress is present in the life of every human being, but only a few develop depression. Accordingly, it seems wrong to consider all stressed animals to be depressed, emphasizing the importance of predisposition for this mood disorder. Based on this finding, we evaluated a predisposition to depressive behavior of female rats on the forced swim test (FST), and the more immobile the animal was during the FST, the more predisposed to depression it was considered to be. Then, animals were subjected to the stress of social isolation for 21 days and were re-evaluated by the FST. The Predisposed/Isolated rats presented higher immobility times. Once all the rats had prior experience in the FST, we calculated an Index of Increase by Isolation, confirming the previous results. Based on this result, we considered the Predisposed/Isolated group as presenting depressive behavior ('Depressed') and the Nonpredisposed/Nonisolated group as the control group ('Nondepressed'). The animals were distributed into 4 new groups: Nondepressed/Vehicle, Nondepressed/Amitriptyline, Depressed/Vehicle, Depressed/Amitriptyline. After 21 days of treatment, only the Depressed/Vehicle group differed from the other 3 groups, demonstrating the efficacy of amitriptyline in treating the depressive behavior of the Depressed animals, validating the model. This study shows that conducting an FST prior to any manipulation can predict predisposition to depressive behavior in female rats and that the social isolation of predisposed animals for 21 days is effective in inducing depressive behavior. This behavior can be considered real depressive behavior because it takes into account predisposition, chronic mild stress, and the prevalent gender.

  14. Varus Gonarthrosis Predisposes to Varus Malalignment in TKA

    OpenAIRE

    Heyse, Thomas J.; Decking, Ralf; Davis, Jack; Boettner, Friedrich; Laskin, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Postoperative alignment is a predictor for long-term survival of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether or not preoperative deformities predispose to intraoperative malposition of TKA components. A retrospective radiographic analysis of 53 primary TKA cases was performed. Preoperative AP hip to ankle and lateral knee radiographs were compared with postoperative views to evaluate component positioning. The following angles were measured: the hip–knee–a...

  15. Ankle sprain: pathophysiology, predisposing factors, and management strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbard, Tricia J.; Wikstrom, Erik A.

    2010-01-01

    Tricia J Hubbard, Erik A WikstromUNC Charlotte, Department of Kinesiology, CharlotteAbstract: With the high percentage (up to 75%) of initial lateral ankle sprains (LAS) leading to repetitive sprains and chronic symptoms, it is imperative to better understand how best to treat and rehabilitate LAS events. The purpose of this paper is to review LAS pathophysiology, predisposing factors, and the current evidence regarding therapeutic modalities and exercises used in the treatment of LAS. Functi...

  16. Predisposing factors and surgical outcome of complicated liver hydatid cysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alper; Akcan; Erdogan; Sozuer; Hizir; Akyildiz; Zeki; Yilmaz; Ahmet; Ozturk; Altay; Atalay

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the predisposing factors for peritoneal perforation and intrabiliary rupture and the effects of these complications on surgical outcome in liver hydatid disease.METHODS: A total of 372 patients with liver hydatid cysts who had undergone surgical treatment were evaluated retrospectively. Twenty eight patients with peritoneal perforation, 93 patients with spontaneous intrabiliary perforation, and 251 patients with noncomplicated hydatid cysts were treated in our clinics.RESULTS: When the pred...

  17. Anatomic Factors that May Predispose Female Athletes to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Edward C; Boguszewski, Daniel V; Joshi, Nirav B; Wang, Dean; McAllister, David R

    2015-01-01

    Female athletes are 2 to 10 times more likely to injure their anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) than male athletes. There has been greater recognition of this gender discrepancy because female participation in competitive athletics has increased. Previous investigators have divided risk factors into hormonal, neuromuscular response, and anatomic subgroups. Gender variation within these groups may help explain the higher incidence of ACL injury in women. The purpose of this article is to review research examining female-specific anatomy that may predispose women to ACL injury. Specifically, we discuss how women may have increased tibial and meniscal slopes, narrower femoral notches, and smaller ACL, which may place the ACL at risk from injury. These anatomic factors, combined with other female-specific risk factors, may help physicians and researchers better understand why women appear to be more prone to ACL injury. PMID:26359837

  18. Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Animals: Incidence, Economics, and Predisposing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kr. Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the incidence and economics of subclinical form of bovine mastitis in Central Region of India. Daily milk records of 187 animals during three seasons were collected and subjected to analysis. The economic loss due to reduction in yield, clinical expenses, and additional resources used were quantified and aggregated. The losses due to mastitis in monetary terms were estimated to be INR1390 per lactation, among which around 49% was owing to loss of value from milk and 37% on account of veterinary expenses. Higher losses were observed in crossbred cows due to their high production potential that was affected during mastitis period. The cost of treating an animal was estimated to be INR509 which includes cost of medicine (31.10% and services (5.47%. Inadequate sanitation, hygiene, and veterinary services were the main predisposing factors for incidence and spread of mastitis as perceived by the respondents.

  19. A parametric model for analyzing anticipation in genetically predisposed families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus; Petersen, Janne; Bernstein, Inge;

    2009-01-01

    Anticipation, i.e. a decreasing age-at-onset in subsequent generations has been observed in a number of genetically triggered diseases. The impact of anticipation is generally studied in affected parent-child pairs. These analyses are restricted to pairs in which both individuals have been affect....... The suggested model corrects for incomplete observations and considers families rather than affected pairs and thereby allows for studies of large sample sets, facilitates subgroup analyses and provides generation effect estimates....... and are sensitive to right truncation of the data. We propose a normal random effects model that allows for right-censored observations and includes covariates, and draw statistical inference based on the likelihood function. We applied the model to the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC......)/Lynch syndrome family cohort from the national Danish HNPCC register. Age-at-onset was analyzed in 824 individuals from 2-4 generations in 125 families with proved disease-predisposing mutations. A significant effect from anticipation was identified with a mean of 3 years earlier age-at-onset per generation...

  20. A functional variant in ERAP1 predisposes to multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Rosa Guerini

    Full Text Available The ERAP1 gene encodes an aminopeptidase involved in antigen processing. A functional polymorphism in the gene (rs30187, Arg528Lys associates with susceptibility to ankylosying spondylitis (AS, whereas a SNP in the interacting ERAP2 gene increases susceptibility to another inflammatory autoimmune disorder, Crohn's disease (CD. We analysed rs30187 in 572 Italian patients with CD and in 517 subjects suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS; for each cohort, an independent sex- and age-matched control group was genotyped. The frequency of the 528Arg allele was significantly higher in both disease cohorts compared to the respective control population (for CD, OR = 1.20 95%CI: 1.01-1.43, p = 0.036; for RRMS, OR = 1.26; 95%CI: 1.04-1.51, p = 0.01. Meta-analysis with the Wellcome Trust Cases Control Consortium GWAS data confirmed the association with MS (p(meta = 0.005, but not with CD. In AS, the rs30187 variant has a predisposing effect only in an HLA-B27 allelic background. It remains to be evaluated whether interaction between ERAP1 and distinct HLA class I alleles also affects the predisposition to MS, and explains the failure to provide definitive evidence for a role of rs30187 in CD. Results herein support the emerging concept that a subset of master-regulatory genes underlay the pathogenesis of autoimmunity.

  1. Ankle sprain: pathophysiology, predisposing factors, and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia J Hubbard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Tricia J Hubbard, Erik A WikstromUNC Charlotte, Department of Kinesiology, CharlotteAbstract: With the high percentage (up to 75% of initial lateral ankle sprains (LAS leading to repetitive sprains and chronic symptoms, it is imperative to better understand how best to treat and rehabilitate LAS events. The purpose of this paper is to review LAS pathophysiology, predisposing factors, and the current evidence regarding therapeutic modalities and exercises used in the treatment of LAS. Functional rehabilitation, early mobilization with support, is the current standard of care for LAS. However, the high percentage of reinjury occurrence and development of chronic symptoms (up to 75% after a LAS, suggests the current standard of care may not be effective. Recent evidence has shown the need for more stringent immobilization to facilitate ligament healing and restoration of joint stability and function after a LAS. Additionally, the importance of adding adjunctive therapies, specifically joint mobilizations and balance training have been shown to improve function and decrease the incidence of reinjury after a LAS. Modifying current rehabilitation protocols to include protecting the ankle joint with stringent immobilization, and including joint mobilizations and balance training may be the first step to decreasing the incidence of short and long term ankle joint dysfunction.Keywords: rehabilitation, recurrent sprains, chronic ankle instability (CAI

  2. Sleep deprivation predisposes Gujarati Indian adolescents to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Wasim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recent studies on various populations indicate that lack of sleep is one of the potential risk factors predisposing the youth to obesity. Since there is a significant rise in obesity among Indian youth and because research indicating the role of sleep in development of obesity among Indian population is scant, the current study was undertaken to assess the effect of sleep duration on adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A randomized cross-sectional study was done on 489 voluntarily participating Indian adolescents in the age group of 16-19 years. Participants were grouped into two categories 1. Adequate Sleep Duration at Night (more than seven hours, ASDN and 2 Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night (less than seven hours, IASDN as reported by the participants. The participants were later assessed for adiposity in terms of BMI, BF % , FM, FMI and waist circumference, meal frequency per day and physical activity status. Results: In both boys as well as girls, the BMI, BF%, FM and FMI were significantly lower in the ASDN group than the IASDN group. However, there was an insignificant difference in the meal frequency and physical activity status between the ASDN and IASDN group. Conclusion : Inadequate sleep duration increases adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents but further studies are required to find out the mechanisms through which sleep affects adiposity in this population.

  3. Mineral deficiency predisposes occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Sheetal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to investigate the relationship between blood serum concentrations of macro and micro minerals and development of retention of placenta (ROP in crossbred cattle. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out at Instructional Livestock Farm, Bihar Veterinary College and local Khatals in and around Patna. A total of 20 crossbred cattle (n=10 with normal expulsion of the placenta as control and n=10 with ROP were selected in the present study. Blood samples were collected from these animals and serum was separated and stored in the deep freezer at −20°C till further analysis. The estimation of serum macro-minerals (Ca, P, Ca/P ratio was done by Span diagnostic Kits (Surat, India and trace minerals or micro-minerals (Zn, Cu, and Fe were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer AAS 220. Mean values were compared between both the groups at 0 h (at parturition and 12 h after parturition. Results: The mean values of serum calcium and zinc were found significantly lower in cattle having ROP than control at both 0 h and 12 h after parturition. The mean values of serum Ca and P ratio obtained at 0 hour were significantly lower in ROP groups as compared to control groups and non-significant at 12 h. The mean values of serum inorganic phosphorus, copper and iron was found non-significantly lower in ROP cases as compared to control. Conclusions: Macro and micro mineral deficiency such as calcium, iron, zinc and copper in blood serum may be predisposing factor for the occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred cattle.

  4. Host genetic factors predisposing to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallianpur, Asha R; Levine, Andrew J

    2014-09-01

    The success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in transforming the lives of HIV-infected individuals with access to these drugs is tempered by the increasing threat of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) to their overall health and quality of life. Intensive investigations over the past two decades have underscored the role of host immune responses, inflammation, and monocyte-derived macrophages in HAND, but the precise pathogenic mechanisms underlying HAND remain only partially delineated. Complicating research efforts and therapeutic drug development are the sheer complexity of HAND phenotypes, diagnostic imprecision, and the growing intersection of chronic immune activation with aging-related comorbidities. Yet, genetic studies still offer a powerful means of advancing individualized care for HIV-infected individuals at risk. There is an urgent need for 1) longitudinal studies using consistent phenotypic definitions of HAND in HIV-infected subpopulations at very high risk of being adversely impacted, such as children, 2) tissue studies that correlate neuropathological changes in multiple brain regions with genomic markers in affected individuals and with changes at the RNA, epigenomic, and/or protein levels, and 3) genetic association studies using more sensitive subphenotypes of HAND. The NIH Brain Initiative and Human Connectome Project, coupled with rapidly evolving systems biology and machine learning approaches for analyzing high-throughput genetic, transcriptomic and epigenetic data, hold promise for identifying actionable biological processes and gene networks that underlie HAND. This review summarizes the current state of understanding of host genetic factors predisposing to HAND in light of past challenges and suggests some priorities for future research to advance the understanding and clinical management of HAND in the cART era. PMID:24996618

  5. Use of mental health services among disaster survivors: predisposing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirkzwager Anja JE

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the high prevalence of mental health problems after disasters it is important to study health services utilization. This study examines predictors for mental health services (MHS utilization among survivors of a man-made disaster in the Netherlands (May 2000. Methods Electronic records of survivors (n = 339; over 18 years and older registered in a mental health service (MHS were linked with general practice based electronic medical records (EMRs of survivors and data obtained in surveys. EMR data were available from 16 months pre-disaster until 3 years post-disaster. Symptoms and diagnoses in the EMRs were coded according to the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC. Surveys were carried out 2–3 weeks and 18 months post-disaster, and included validated questionnaires on psychological distress, post-traumatic stress reactions and social functioning. Demographic and disaster-related variables were available. Predisposing factors for MHS utilization 0–18 months and 18–36 months post-disaster were examined using multiple logistic regression models. Results In multiple logistic models, adjusting for demographic and disaster related variables, MHS utilization was predicted by demographic variables (young age, immigrant, public health insurance, unemployment, disaster-related exposure (relocation and injuries, self-reported psychological problems and pre- and post-disaster physician diagnosed health problems (chronic diseases, musculoskeletal problems. After controlling for all health variables, disaster intrusions and avoidance reactions (OR:2.86; CI:1.48–5.53, hostility (OR:2.04; CI:1.28–3.25, pre-disaster chronic diseases (OR:1.82; CI:1.25–2.65, injuries as a result of the disaster (OR:1.80;CI:1.13–2.86, social functioning problems (OR:1.61;CI:1.05–2.44 and younger age (OR:0.98;CI:0.96–0.99 predicted MHS utilization within 18 months post-disaster. Furthermore, disaster intrusions and avoidance

  6. Urological complications after radical hysterectomy: Incidence rates and predisposing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likić-Lađević Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Radical hysterectomy is a surgical approach for stage Ib and IIa of cervical cancer. The incidence of intraoperative injuries of the bladder during radical hysterectomy ranges from 0.4-3.7%. The ureter can be crushed, caught in sutures, transsected, obstructed by angulation, or ischemic by the stippling or periureteric fascia. Vesicovaginal and ureterovaginal fistuls are reported to develop in 0.9-2% of patients after radical abdominal hysterectomy. Fistulas usually become manifested or visible at speculum examination within 14 days following the surgery. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence and predisposing factor of urological complications after radical hysterectomy. Methods. The study included a total of 536 patients with invasive stage Ib to IIb cancer of the cervix uteri who had underwent radical hysterectomy. The special elements considered were: the patient’s age; the International Federation of Ginecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stage after pathohistology; duration of operation; the result of preoperative laboratory tests for diabetes, anemia, hypoproteinemia, or disorders of liver or kidney function; ASA status; postoperative surgical infection. Results. The average age of the patients with complications was 48.68 years. All patients with intraoperative ureteric and bladder injuries had statisticaly significant higher stage of disease and operation lasted more than in others without injury. We noticed 1.3% ureteral injuries and 1.49% bladder injuries, more than 50% of the patients with a previously mentioned injuries were operated on more than 3 hours. We found 2.61% vesicovaginal and 2.43% ureterovaginal fistuls. A total of 50% of the patients with bladder injury and vesicovaginal fistuls and 70% of the patients with ureterovaginal fistuls had diabetes mellitus. Postoperative infection of surgical site is a very important factor for the development of fistule. Half of the patients with vesicovaginal

  7. 32 CFR 644.389 - Army military-modified predisposal procedures where E.O. 11954 surveys have been made.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army military-modified predisposal procedures... (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Predisposal Action § 644.389 Army military—modified predisposal procedures where E.O. 11954 surveys have been made. (a)...

  8. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD) IN GENETICALLY PREDISPOSED RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodent CVD models are increasingly used for understanding individual differences in susceptibility to environmental stressors such as air pollution. We characterized pathologies and a number of known human risk factors of CVD in genetically predisposed, male young adult Spontaneo...

  9. Predisposing factors in posterior circulation infarcts: a vascular morphological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coban, Goekcen; Cifci, Egemen; Yildirim, Erkan; Agildere, Ahmet Muhtesem [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Konya (Turkey)

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the effect of shape, diameter, elongation and deviation criteria of basilar artery (BA), convergence angle and diameter variations of vertebral arteries, and concurrent chronic diseases on posterior circulation infarcts. Between January 2010 and May 2013, 186 patients who underwent brain and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with suspected cerebrovascular accident and were diagnosed with posterior circulation infarct and 120 infarct negative control subjects were included in this case-control retrospective study. Vertebral artery (VA) and BA diameter, right (R) and left (L) VA angles at the level of bifurcation, and BA elongation-deviation, and shape of BA were assessed in a total of 306 subjects. Ischemic lesions in the posterior circulation were classified according to their anatomical location and vascular perfusion areas. No significant difference was noted between the control and patient groups with respect to BA diameter (p = 0.676). The most effective risk factors for posterior circulation infarcts were as follows: BA elongation of 2 or 3, BA transverse location of 2 or 3, increase in left VA angle, and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. Our results suggest that prominent elongation and deviation, C and J shape of BA, and increased L VA angle may be the predictors of at-risk patients in posterior circulation infarcts. Reporting marked morphological BA and VA variations detected at routine brain MRI will aid in selection of patients. Timely detection and treatment of at-risk patients may be life-saving. (orig.)

  10. Predisposing factors in posterior circulation infarcts: a vascular morphological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is to assess the effect of shape, diameter, elongation and deviation criteria of basilar artery (BA), convergence angle and diameter variations of vertebral arteries, and concurrent chronic diseases on posterior circulation infarcts. Between January 2010 and May 2013, 186 patients who underwent brain and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with suspected cerebrovascular accident and were diagnosed with posterior circulation infarct and 120 infarct negative control subjects were included in this case-control retrospective study. Vertebral artery (VA) and BA diameter, right (R) and left (L) VA angles at the level of bifurcation, and BA elongation-deviation, and shape of BA were assessed in a total of 306 subjects. Ischemic lesions in the posterior circulation were classified according to their anatomical location and vascular perfusion areas. No significant difference was noted between the control and patient groups with respect to BA diameter (p = 0.676). The most effective risk factors for posterior circulation infarcts were as follows: BA elongation of 2 or 3, BA transverse location of 2 or 3, increase in left VA angle, and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. Our results suggest that prominent elongation and deviation, C and J shape of BA, and increased L VA angle may be the predictors of at-risk patients in posterior circulation infarcts. Reporting marked morphological BA and VA variations detected at routine brain MRI will aid in selection of patients. Timely detection and treatment of at-risk patients may be life-saving. (orig.)

  11. Assessing predictive capacity and conditional independence of landslide predisposing factors for shallow landslides susceptibility models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S.; Zêzere, J. L.; Bateira, C.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the landslide predisposing factors combination, using a bivariate statistical model that best predict landslide susceptibility. The best predictive model should have a good performance in terms of suitability and predictive power, and should be based on landslide predisposing factors that are conditionally independent. The study area is the Santa Marta de Penaguião council (70 km2) located in the Northern Portugal. Several destructive landslides occurred in this area in the last decades promoting landscape degradation and other negative human and economic impacts. A landslide inventory was built in 2005-2009 using aerial photo-interpretation (1/5.000 scale) and field work validation. This inventory contains 767 shallow translational slides. The landslide density is 11 events/square kilometre, and each landslide has, on average, 136 m2 and the depth of the slip surface typically ranges from 1 to 1.5 m. The landslide layer was crossed individually with seven landslide predisposing factors (Aspect; Curvature; Slope Angle; Geomorphological Units; Land Use; Inverse Wetness Index; Lithology) and each class within each predisposing theme was weighted using the Information Value Method. In order to identify the best combination of landslide predisposing factors, all possible combinations were tested which resulted in 120 predictive models. The goodness of fit of each landslide susceptibility model was evaluated by constructing the Success Rate Curves and by computing the Area Under the Curve (AUC). The best landslide susceptibility model was selected according to the model degree of fitness and on the basis of a conditional independence criterion. Two tests were performed to the entire dataset to assess conditional independence: the Overall Conditional Independence (OCI) and the Agterberg & Cheng Conditional Independence Test (ACCIT) (Agterberg and Cheng, 2002). The best landslide susceptibility model was constructed with only three

  12. Identification of two lineages of host-associated eriophyoid mites predisposed to different levels of host diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao-Sen; Hoffmann, Ary A; Guo, Jing-Feng; Zuo, Yun; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Pang, Hong; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2016-12-01

    Herbivorous arthropods can diversify as a consequence of evolutionary changes in response to their plant hosts. Current patterns of host association of herbivores are likely to reflect a long evolutionary history of herbivore-plant co-evolution. Here, we used molecular phylogenetics to track the evolutionary history of host shifts and diversification of 66 eriophyoid mites (Acari, Eriophyoidea), and linked past patterns of evolutionary diversification to more recent patterns of divergence by tracking population genetic variation in 13 of the eriophyoid mite species feeding on different gymnosperm hosts. This allowed us to explore the relationship between a past history of diversification and the current potential of mites to undergo host range shifts. We found that population-level diversity across gymnosperm hosts as measured by 28S rRNA markers was greater in species from the mite clade that had radiated across evolutionary time to utilize a variety of hosts including angiosperms, compared to species from the clade that has remained restricted to ancestral gymnosperm hosts. Species from the radiated clade exhibited higher variation in host use. Lineages of mites that have in the past been able to radiate and adapt to diverse plants may therefore be predisposed to continue their expansion on new hosts, although additional clades need to be tested.

  13. Candidate colorectal cancer predisposing gene variants in Chinese early-onset and familial cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.X.; Fu, L.; Voer, R.M. de; Hahn, M.M.; Jin, P.; Lv, C.X.; Verwiel, E.T.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Kuiper, R.P.; Sheng, J.Q.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether whole-exome sequencing may serve as an efficient method to identify known or novel colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposing genes in early-onset or familial CRC cases. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing in 23 Chinese patients from 21 families with non-polyposis CRC

  14. Chromosome 21 Scan in Down Syndrome Reveals DSCAM as a Predisposing Locus in Hirschsprung Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A-S. Jannot (Anne-Sophie); A. Pelet (Anna); A. Henrion-Caude (Alexandra); A. Chaoui (Asma); M. Masse-Morel (Marine); S. Arnold (Stacey); D. Sanlaville (Damien); I. Ceccherini (Isabella); S. Borrego (Salud); R.M.W. Hofstra (Robert); A. Munnich (Arnold); N. Bondurand (Nadège); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); F. Clerget-Darpoux (Françoise); J. Amiel (Jeanne); S. Lyonnet (Stanislas)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractHirschsprung disease (HSCR) genetics is a paradigm for the study and understanding of multigenic disorders. Association between Down syndrome and HSCR suggests that genetic factors that predispose to HSCR map to chromosome 21. To identify these additional factors, we performed a dose-dep

  15. Diet- and colonization-dependent intestinal dysfunction predisposes to necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangild, Per T.; Siggers, Richard H.; Schmidt, Mette;

    2006-01-01

    Background & Aims: Preterm birth and formula feeding are key risk factors associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in infants, but little is known about intestinal conditions that predispose to disease. Thus, structural, functional, and microbiologic indices were used to investigate the et...

  16. Identifying Some Factors That Might Predispose Drug Abuse among Learners in a South African Township School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, R.; Khatite, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study inquires into some of the factors that might predispose the use and abuse of drugs among secondary school learners in a township school. The objective of this research is to identify these factors and to offer a few suggestions on how the abuse may be prevented. A quantitative research strategy is used and a document analysis technique…

  17. The Influence of Predisposing, Enabling and Need Factors on Condom Use in Ivory Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamini Ngui, Andre

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify key determinants of condom use in Ivory Coast. Data stem from Ivory Coast Demographic Health Survey (DHS) conducted by ORC Macro in 2005 among a representative sample of 9,686 persons aged 15 - 49. Following the behavioral model, we use logistic regression to assess the effect of predisposing,…

  18. Predisposing, Precipitating, Perpetuating, Professional Help, and Prevention Factors of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; Chanko, Cathy

    This report describes an eating disorder as a multi-dimensional physiological, psychological, social, and cultural illness. A chart describing the typical anorexic and bulimic is included which has on its horizontal axis the predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating, professional help, and prevention factors of anorexia nervosa and bulimia. On its…

  19. Astroglial c-Myc overexpression predisposes mice to primary malignant gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Aagaard; Pedersen, Karen-Marie; Lihme, Frederikke;

    2003-01-01

    Malignant astrocytomas are common human primary brain tumors that result from neoplastic transformation of astroglia or their progenitors. Here we show that deregulation of the c-Myc pathway in developing astroglia predisposes mice to malignant astrocytomas within 2-3 weeks of age. The geneticall...

  20. Extremely high frequency of autoimmune-predisposing alleles in medieval specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WITAS H.W.; J(E)DRYCHOWSKA-DA(N)SKA K.; ZAWICKI P.

    2007-01-01

    The precise etiology and reasons for the increase in incidence of autoimmune disorders still remain unclear, and although both genetic and environmental factors have been proven to shape individual predisposition, it is not known which of the factors, if not both, is responsible for the boom observed during the last decades. In order to establish whether a higher frequency of autoimmune-predisposing alleles may explain this increase we took advantage of ancient DNA methodology to establish the genetic predisposition, conferred by cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) +49A/G and human leukocyte antigens (HLA)DQB157, in population inhabiting Poland in the Middle Ages. After successful typing of 42 individuals from a 12th~14th's century archeological burial site, we found that frequencies of the predisposing alleles in the medieval population were higher than they are at present, suggesting thus that the recently observed incidence increase results most probably from factors of other than genetic nature.

  1. A causal model of post-traumatic stress disorder: disentangling predisposed from acquired neural abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admon, Roee; Milad, Mohammed R; Hendler, Talma

    2013-07-01

    Discriminating neural abnormalities into the causes versus consequences of psychopathology would enhance the translation of neuroimaging findings into clinical practice. By regarding the traumatic encounter as a reference point for disease onset, neuroimaging studies of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can potentially allocate PTSD neural abnormalities to either predisposing (pre-exposure) or acquired (post-exposure) factors. Based on novel research strategies in PTSD neuroimaging, including genetic, environmental, twin, and prospective studies, we provide a causal model that accounts for neural abnormalities in PTSD, and outline its clinical implications. Current data suggest that abnormalities within the amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex represent predisposing risk factors for developing PTSD, whereas dysfunctional hippocampal-ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) interactions may become evident only after having developed the disorder. PMID:23768722

  2. Predisposal Management of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide regulatory bodies and the operators that generate and manage radioactive waste with recommendations on how to meet the principles and requirements established for the predisposal management of low and intermediate level waste. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. Roles and responsibilities; 4. General safety considerations; 5. Safety features for the predisposal management of LILW; 6. Record keeping and reporting; 7. Safety assessment; 8. Quality assurance; Annex I: Nature and sources of LILW from nuclear facilities; Annex II: Development of specifications for waste packages; Annex III: Site conditions, processes and events for consideration in a safety assessment (external natural phenomena); Annex IV: Site conditions, processes and events for consideration in a safety assessment (external human induced phenomena); Annex V: Postulated initiating events for consideration in a safety assessment (internal phenomena).

  3. Predisposing factors to lateral ankle injury in male comrades marathon runners

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hiemstra; Naidoo, N

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: More than two million people experience ankle ligament traumaeach year in the United States. Half of these are severe ligament sprains, however verylittle is known about the factors that predispose individuals to these injuries. The purpose of this study, (which was conducted as an undergraduate research project),was to find a correlation between the characteristics of height, weight and limbdominance and lateral ankle ligament injuries. Method: A  retrospective study was conduc...

  4. Synergistic effect of multiple predisposing risk factors on the development of bezoars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Metin Kement; Nuraydin Ozlem; Elif Colak; Sadik Kesmer; Cem Gezen; Selahattin Vural

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To describe the clinical characteristics of patients with gastric or intestinal bezoars recently treated in our hospital.METHODS:In this study,a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients with gastrointestinal bezoars,who were treated at the Samsun Education and Research Hospital between January 2006 and March 2011,was conducted.Data on demographic characteristics,clinical presentation,history of risk factors,diagnostic procedures,localization of bezoars,treatment interventions,and postoperative morbidity and mortality rates were collected and evaluated.RESULTS:Forty-two patients [26 (61.9%) males and 16 (31.1%) females] with a mean ± SD (range) age of 55.8 ± 10.5 (37-74) years were enrolled in this study,.Thirty-six patients (85.7%) had one or more predisposing risk factors for gastrointestinal bezoars.The most common predisposing risk factor was a history of previous gastric surgery which was identified in 18 patients (42.8%).Twenty three patients (54.8%) had multiple predisposing risk factors.Phytobezoars were identified in all patients except one who had a trichobezoar in the stomach.Non-operative endoscopic fragmentation was performed either initially or after unsuccessful medical treatment in 14 patients with gastric bezoars and was completely successful in 10 patients (71.5%).Surgery was the most frequent treatment method in our study,which was required in 28 patients (66.7%).Intestinal obstruction secondary to bezoars was the most common complication (n =18,42.8%) in our study.CONCLUSION:The presence of multiple predisposing factors may create a synergistic effect in the development of bezoars.

  5. Predisposing factors of Family Conflict and Elements for a Comfortable and Sustainable Family Life in Finland.

    OpenAIRE

    Poudel, Komal

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Komal Poudel, Predisposing factors of Family Conflict and Elements for a Comfortable and Sustainable Family Life in Finland. Spring 2010, Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South, Jarvenpaa Unit, Degree program in Social Services. In the modern world, the family relationship seems to be vulnerable and it is the human factor that can make a change. It is a huge social problem in developed countries and has been increasing in developing countries as well. Unst...

  6. Exploring genetic variants predisposing to diabetes mellitus and their association with indicators of socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Börge; Dragano, Nico; Scherag, André; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hoffmann, Per; Nöthen, Markus M; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Background The relevance of disease-related genetic variants for the explanation of social inequalities in complex diseases is unclear and empirical analyses are largely missing. The aim of our study was to examine whether genetic variants predisposing to diabetes mellitus are associated with socioeconomic status in a population-based cohort. Methods We genotyped 11 selected diabetes-related single nucleotide polymorphisms in 4655 participants (age 45-75 years) of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall stu...

  7. Exacerbated Mechanical Hyperalgesia in Rats with Genetically Predisposed Depressive Behavior: Role of Melatonin and NMDA Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shuxing; Tian, Yinghong; Song, Li; Lim, Grewo; Tan, Yonghui; You, Zerong; Chen, Lucy; Mao, Jianren

    2012-01-01

    A connection between pain and depression has long been recognized in the clinical setting; however, its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we showed that mechanical hyperalgesia induced by unilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation was exacerbated in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats with genetically predisposed depressive behavior. Reciprocally, TMJ inflammation enhanced depressive behavior such that a lower nociceptive threshold correlated with a higher score of depressive behavior ...

  8. An exploratory study of predisposing factors for eating disorders in adolescent girls

    OpenAIRE

    Mokbel, Carine

    1988-01-01

    Research efforts in the area of eating disorders have been numerous and varied. However, few studies have investigated the existence of specific predisposing factors that could render a young female adolescent more susceptible to developing an eating disorder. The present study was attempted in an effort to fill this knowledge gap. One hundred and fifty nine, 12 to 14 year old female students not known as having an eating disorder, were surveyed at a public school in Roanoke County, Virginia....

  9. Predisposing factors of urinary tract infection in children aged 1 month to 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Alemzadeh Ansari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is considered as one of the common diseases in children andin some cases is associated with high morbidity and long term complications. Identification ofpredisposing factors timely is effective in reducing the incidence of UTI.Aim & Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the predisposing factors in children withsymptomatic urinary tract infection according to gender.Methods: In a randomized prospective study, 130 children with symptomatic UTI that were admitted toemergency department or referred to nephrology clinic of Abuzar Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran between October2008 and August 2010 were reviewed. The inclusion criteria were all children more than one month thathad clinical symptoms of UTI and positive urine culture. Complete blood cell, blood biochemical tests,urine analysis, and renal ultrasonogram were done in all patients. Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG wasperformed in all patients younger than 5 years with a UTI, any child with a febrile UTI, school-aged girlswho have had two or more UTIs, and any boy with a UTI. Predisposing factors as a case sheet were askedfrom parents by the physician. They were included back-to-front wiping, washing with soap, usingbathtub, constipation, infrequent voiding, urinary reflux, uncircumcision in boy, labia adhesion, tightunderwear, pinworm infestation, history of urinary stones, and history of sondage. The exclusion criterionwas included children that their case sheet had not been filled completely. The SPSS version 15.0software was used for data analysis and differences in predisposing factors between boy and girl wereanalyzed using the chi-square test. The significant differences between groups were determined at level<0.05. This study was approved by ethics committee of Ahvaz Joundishapur University of MedicalScience.Results: UTI was found in a significantly higher proportion of girls (106 girls vs. 24 boys, P <0.001. Themean age of patients was 23.91±27

  10. Maternal air pollution exposure induces fetal neuroinflammation and predisposes offspring to obesity in aduthood in a sex-specific manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence suggests environmental chemical exposures during critical windows of development may contribute to the escalating prevalence of obesity. We tested the hypothesis that prenatal air pollution exposure would predispose the offspring to weight gain in adulthood. Pre...

  11. Technical Note: Assessing predictive capacity and conditional independence of landslide predisposing factors for shallow landslide susceptibility models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pereira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the landslide predisposing factors' combination using a bivariate statistical model that best predicts landslide susceptibility. The best model is one that has simultaneously good performance in terms of suitability and predictive power and has been developed using variables that are conditionally independent. The study area is the Santa Marta de Penaguião council (70 km2 located in the Northern Portugal.

    In order to identify the best combination of landslide predisposing factors, all possible combinations using up to seven predisposing factors were performed, which resulted in 120 predictions that were assessed with a landside inventory containing 767 shallow translational slides. The best landslide susceptibility model was selected according to the model degree of fitness and on the basis of a conditional independence criterion. The best model was developed with only three landslide predisposing factors (slope angle, inverse wetness index, and land use and was compared with a model developed using all seven landslide predisposing factors.

    Results showed that it is possible to produce a reliable landslide susceptibility model using fewer landslide predisposing factors, which contributes towards higher conditional independence.

  12. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae can predispose bighorn sheep to fatal Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Herndon, Caroline N; Subramaniam, Renuka; Lawrence, Paulraj K; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Cassirer, E Frances; Haldorson, Gary J; Foreyt, William J; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Knowles, Donald P; Besser, Thomas E; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-10-26

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae has been isolated from the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS). However experimental reproduction of fatal pneumonia in BHS with M. ovipneumoniae was not successful. Therefore the specific role, if any, of M. ovipneumoniae in BHS pneumonia is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether M. ovipneumoniae alone causes fatal pneumonia in BHS, or predisposes them to infection by Mannheimia haemolytica. We chose M. haemolytica for this study because of its isolation from pneumonic BHS, and its consistent ability to cause fatal pneumonia under experimental conditions. Since in vitro culture could attenuate virulence of M. ovipneumoniae, we used ceftiofur-treated lung homogenates from pneumonic BHS lambs or nasopharyngeal washings from M. ovipneumoniae-positive domestic sheep (DS) as the source of M. ovipneumoniae. Two adult BHS were inoculated intranasally with lung homogenates while two others received nasopharyngeal washings from DS. All BHS developed clinical signs of respiratory infection, but only one BHS died. The dead BHS had carried leukotoxin-positive M. haemolytica in the nasopharynx before the onset of this study. It is likely that M. ovipneumoniae colonization predisposed this BHS to fatal infection with the M. haemolytica already present in this animal. The remaining three BHS developed pneumonia and died 1-5 days following intranasal inoculation with M. haemolytica. On necropsy, lungs of all four BHS showed lesions characteristic of bronchopneumonia. M. haemolytica and M. ovipneumoniae were isolated from the lungs. These results suggest that M. ovipneumoniae alone may not cause fatal pneumonia in BHS, but can predispose them to fatal pneumonia due to M. haemolytica infection.

  13. The Predisposing Factors between Dental Caries and Deviations from Normal Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Amandeep Chopra; Nanak Chand Rao; Nidhi Gupta; Shelja Vashisth; Manav Lakhanpal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors. So it′s important to understand any relationship between dental state and body weight if either is to be managed appropriately. Aims: The study was done to find out the correlation between body mass index (BMI), diet, and dental caries among 12-15-year-old schoolgoing children in Panchkula District. Materials and Methods: A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school...

  14. A case of native valve endocarditis caused by Burkholderia cepacia without predisposing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infective endocarditis is rarely caused by Burkholderia cepacia. This infection is known to occur particularly in immunocompromised hosts, intravenous heroin users, and in patients with prosthetic valve replacement. Most patients with Burkholderia cepacia endocarditis usually need surgical treatment in addition to antimicrobial treatment. Case Presentation Here, we report the case of a patient who developed Burkholderia cepacia-induced native valve endocarditis with consequent cerebral involvement without any predisposing factors; she was successfully treated by antimicrobial agents only. Conclusion In this report, we also present literature review of relevant cases.

  15. Androgen excess produces systemic oxidative stress and predisposes to beta-cell failure in female mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhuan Liu

    Full Text Available In women, excess production of the male hormone, testosterone (T, is accompanied by insulin resistance. However, hyperandrogenemia is also associated with beta-cell dysfunction and type 2 diabetes raising the possibility that androgen receptor (AR activation predisposes to beta-cell failure. Here, we tested the hypothesis that excess AR activation produces systemic oxidative stress thereby contributing to beta-cell failure. We used normal female mice (CF and mice with androgen resistance by testicular feminization (Tfm. These mice were exposed to androgen excess and a beta-cell stress induced by streptozotocin (STZ. We find that following exposure to T, or the selective AR-agonist dehydrotestosterone (DHT, CF mice challenged with STZ, which are normally protected, are prone to beta-cell failure and insulin-deficient diabetes. Conversely, T-induced predisposition to beta-cell failure is abolished in Tfm mice. We do not observe any proapoptotic effect of DHT alone or in the presence of H(2O(2 in cultured mouse and human islets. However, we observe that exposure of CF mice to T or DHT provokes systemic oxidative stress, which is eliminated in Tfm mice. This work has significance for hyperandrogenic women; excess activation of AR by testosterone may provoke systemic oxidative stress. In the presence of a prior beta-cell stress, this may predispose to beta-cell failure.

  16. Primary Otomycosis in the Indian Subcontinent: Predisposing Factors, Microbiology, and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Chandra Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To define otomycosis and determine the predisposing factors and microbiology in primary otomycosis. Study Design. Prospective study of two years and review of the literature. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology in a coastal city in India. Patients. 150 immunocompetent individuals of whom 100 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of otomycosis are considered as the study group and 50 consecutive patients with no otomycosis are considered as the control group. Results and Observations. Instillation of coconut oil (42%, use of topical antibiotic eardrops (20%, and compulsive cleaning of external ear with hard objects (32% appeared to be the main predisposing factors in otomycosis. Aspergilli were the most common isolates (80% followed by Penicillium (8%, Candida albicans (4%, Rhizopus (1%, and Chrysosporium (1%, the last being reported for the first time in otomycosis. Among aspergilli, A. niger complex (38% was the most common followed by A. fumigatus complex (27% and A. flavus complex (15%. Bacterial isolates associated with fungi in otomycosis were S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and Proteus spp. In 42% of healthy external ears fungi were isolated. Conclusion. Aspergillus spp. were the most common fungi isolated, followed by Penicillium. Otomycotic ears are often associated with bacterial isolates when compared to normal ears. Fungi are also present in a significant number of healthy external auditory canals and their profiles match those in cases of otomycosis. The use of terms “primary” and “secondary” otomycosis is important to standardize reporting.

  17. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: do predisposing risk factors make a difference in MRI appearance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-neuroradiological entity, characterized by typical neurological deficits, distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, and a usually benign clinical course. Although frequently seen in association with hypertensive conditions, many other predisposing factors, notably cytotoxic and immunosuppressant drugs have been associated with PRES. The aim of this study was to determine differences in the MR appearance of PRES according to various risk factors. Thirty consecutive patients with clinical and MRI findings consistent with PRES were included. We identified 24 patients with hypertension-related conditions, including 14 patients with preeclampsia-eclampsia, and six patients without hypertension, in whom PRES was associated with exposition to neurotoxic substances. Lesion distribution, extent of disease, and number of affected brain regions were compared between patients with PRES with and without hypertension, and patients with PRES with and without preeclampsia-eclampsia, respectively. No statistically significant differences in distribution of lesions and extent of disease were observed between patients with PRES with or without hypertension, and patients with or without preeclampsia-eclampsia, respectively. The number of affected brain regions was significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia-eclampsia (p = 0.046), and the basal ganglia region was more frequently involved in these patients (p = 0.066). Apart from a significant higher number of involved brain regions and a tendency for basal ganglia involvement in patients with PRES associated with preeclampsia-eclampsia, the MRI appearance of patients with PRES does not seem to be influenced by predisposing risk factors. (orig.)

  18. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: do predisposing risk factors make a difference in MRI appearance?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Mang, Christina; Mang, Thomas; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Pirker, Agnes [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Klein, Katharina [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vienna (Austria); Prchla, Christine [SMZ-Ost Danube Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-06-15

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-neuroradiological entity, characterized by typical neurological deficits, distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, and a usually benign clinical course. Although frequently seen in association with hypertensive conditions, many other predisposing factors, notably cytotoxic and immunosuppressant drugs have been associated with PRES. The aim of this study was to determine differences in the MR appearance of PRES according to various risk factors. Thirty consecutive patients with clinical and MRI findings consistent with PRES were included. We identified 24 patients with hypertension-related conditions, including 14 patients with preeclampsia-eclampsia, and six patients without hypertension, in whom PRES was associated with exposition to neurotoxic substances. Lesion distribution, extent of disease, and number of affected brain regions were compared between patients with PRES with and without hypertension, and patients with PRES with and without preeclampsia-eclampsia, respectively. No statistically significant differences in distribution of lesions and extent of disease were observed between patients with PRES with or without hypertension, and patients with or without preeclampsia-eclampsia, respectively. The number of affected brain regions was significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia-eclampsia (p = 0.046), and the basal ganglia region was more frequently involved in these patients (p = 0.066). Apart from a significant higher number of involved brain regions and a tendency for basal ganglia involvement in patients with PRES associated with preeclampsia-eclampsia, the MRI appearance of patients with PRES does not seem to be influenced by predisposing risk factors. (orig.)

  19. Trematode infections in pregnant ewes can predispose to mastitis during the subsequent lactation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogianni, V S; Papadopoulos, E; Spanos, S A; Mitsoura, A; Ptochos, S; Gougoulis, D A; Barbagianni, M S; Kyriazakis, I; Fthenakis, G C

    2014-02-01

    Objective was to investigate if trematode infections predispose ewes to mastitis and/or metritis. We used 80 trematode-infected ewes: primigravidae in group P-A and multigravidae in M-A remained untreated, primigravidae in P-B and multigravidae in M-B were drenched with netobimin and multigravidae in M-C were given rafoxanide. We collected faecal samples for parasitological examination, blood samples for β-hydroxybutyrate concentration measurement and uterine content, teat duct material and milk samples for bacteriological examination. We found significant differences in blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations between M-A, M-B and M-C during pregnancy (P ⩽ 0.002). We did not observe significant differences between groups regarding development of metritis (P>0.83). We found that for M-A, M-B and M-C ewes, respectively, median time to first case of mastitis was 5.75, 21 and 6.75 days after lambing (P = 0.003) and incidence risk of mastitis was 0.308, 0.069 and 0.222 (P = 0.047). We postulate that trematode infections predispose ewes to mastitis; perhaps, increased β-hydroxybutyrate blood concentrations adversely affect mammary cellular defences. This is the first report associating parasitic infections with mastitis in sheep.

  20. Factors predisposing to wound infection in cardiac surgery. A prospective study of 517 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A P; Livesey, S A; Treasure, T; Grüneberg, R N; Sturridge, M F

    1987-01-01

    Postoperative wound infection can greatly prolong hospital stay after cardiac surgery, so the identification of predisposing factors may help in prevention or early institution of treatment. Transfer of organisms from the leg to the sternum during coronary artery surgery has been proposed as a major additional cause of sepsis. The definition of wound infection is not standardised and therefore makes comparison between centres difficult. In a prospective study of 517 patients, a wound scoring method (ASEPSIS) has been used to register all abnormal wounds to maximise the chances of identifying factors predisposing to infection. Abnormal healing was noted in 99 (19%) sternal wounds and 29 (8%) leg wounds. Obesity was the principal risk factor (P less than 0.005). Diabetes, reoperation, length of preoperative hospital stay, age, sex, or previous cardiac surgery had little effect on wound healing. The range of bacteria isolated from chest wounds after coronary artery surgery was similar to that after valvular surgery, but the rate of isolation was significantly greater. With careful attention to technique, leg wound infection rarely presented a clinical problem and did not appear to be a source of bacteria infecting the chest wound.

  1. Bayesian analysis of uncertainty in predisposing and triggering factors for landslides hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandric, I.; Petropoulos, Y.; Chitu, Z.; Mihai, B.

    2012-04-01

    The landslide hazard analysis models takes into consideration both predisposing and triggering factors combined into a Bayesian temporal network with uncertainty propagation. The model uses as predisposing factors the first and second derivatives from DEM, the effective precipitations, runoff, lithology and land use. The latter is expressed not as land use classes, as for example CORINE, but as leaf area index. The LAI offers the advantage of modelling not just the changes from different time periods expressed in years, but also the seasonal changes in land use throughout a year. The LAI index was derived from Landsat time series images, starting from 1984 and up to 2011. All the images available for the Panatau administrative unit in Buzau County, Romania, have been downloaded from http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov, including the images with cloud cover. The model is run in a monthly time step and for each time step all the parameters values, a-priory, conditional and posterior probability are obtained and stored in a log file. The validation process uses landslides that have occurred during the period up to the active time step and checks the records of the probabilities and parameters values for those times steps with the values of the active time step. Each time a landslide has been positive identified new a-priory probabilities are recorded for each parameter. A complete log for the entire model is saved and used for statistical analysis and a NETCDF file is created

  2. Trematode infections in pregnant ewes can predispose to mastitis during the subsequent lactation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogianni, V S; Papadopoulos, E; Spanos, S A; Mitsoura, A; Ptochos, S; Gougoulis, D A; Barbagianni, M S; Kyriazakis, I; Fthenakis, G C

    2014-02-01

    Objective was to investigate if trematode infections predispose ewes to mastitis and/or metritis. We used 80 trematode-infected ewes: primigravidae in group P-A and multigravidae in M-A remained untreated, primigravidae in P-B and multigravidae in M-B were drenched with netobimin and multigravidae in M-C were given rafoxanide. We collected faecal samples for parasitological examination, blood samples for β-hydroxybutyrate concentration measurement and uterine content, teat duct material and milk samples for bacteriological examination. We found significant differences in blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations between M-A, M-B and M-C during pregnancy (P ⩽ 0.002). We did not observe significant differences between groups regarding development of metritis (P>0.83). We found that for M-A, M-B and M-C ewes, respectively, median time to first case of mastitis was 5.75, 21 and 6.75 days after lambing (P = 0.003) and incidence risk of mastitis was 0.308, 0.069 and 0.222 (P = 0.047). We postulate that trematode infections predispose ewes to mastitis; perhaps, increased β-hydroxybutyrate blood concentrations adversely affect mammary cellular defences. This is the first report associating parasitic infections with mastitis in sheep. PMID:24331730

  3. Anatomic variation and orgasm: Could variations in anatomy explain differences in orgasmic success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emhardt, E; Siegel, J; Hoffman, L

    2016-07-01

    Though the public consciousness is typically focused on factors such as psychology, penis size, and the presence of the "G-spot," there are other anatomical and neuro-anatomic differences that could play an equal, or more important, role in the frequency and intensity of orgasms. Discovering these variations could direct further medical or procedural management to improve sexual satisfaction. The aim of this study is to review the available literature of anatomical sexual variation and to explain why this variation may predispose some patients toward a particular sexual experience. In this review, we explored the available literature on sexual anatomy and neuro-anatomy. We used PubMed and OVID Medline for search terms, including orgasm, penile size variation, clitoral variation, Grafenberg spot, and benefits of orgasm. First we review the basic anatomy and innervation of the reproductive organs. Then we describe several anatomical variations that likely play a superior role to popular known variation (penis size, presence of g-spot, etc). For males, the delicate play between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems is vital to achieve orgasm. For females, the autonomic component is more complex. The clitoris is the primary anatomical feature for female orgasm, including its migration toward the anterior vaginal wall. In conclusions, orgasms are complex phenomena involving psychological, physiological, and anatomic variation. While these variations predispose people to certain sexual function, future research should explore how to surgically or medically alter these. Clin. Anat. 29:665-672, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26916103

  4. Factors predisposing to postoperative complications related to wisdom tooth surgery among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhonen, A; Ventä, I; Ylipaavalniemi, P

    1997-07-01

    In a retrospective study among 550 Helsinki University students 20 to 30 years old, factors predisposing to postoperative complications from removal of lower jaw wisdom teeth were evaluated. Patient records and panoramic tomograms covering the period from 1990 to 1993 were examined; 50 patients (9.1%) had postoperative complications after removal of a wisdom tooth. The most common complications were alveolar osteitis (2.9%), postoperative infection (2.6%), postoperative bleeding (1.5%), and dysesthesia of the lower lip or tongue (1.1%). Factors associated with increased postoperative complications were mesiohorizontal position of the tooth, deep impaction of the tooth, and use of oral contraceptives. Before patients undergo surgery for removal of wisdom teeth, those who use oral contraceptives or have difficult tooth impactions should be informed about the increased possibility of postoperative complications. PMID:9248241

  5. Metastatic Colon Cancer in an 18-Year-Old without Predisposing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Mirchandani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While colorectal carcinoma is a common gastrointestinal cancer in adults, it is rare in pediatrics with an incidence of 1 : 1,000,000 and represents a fraction of neoplasms encountered in children. Malignant neoplasms represent a major cause of mortality in the pediatric age group. While presenting with weight loss, iron deficiency, rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, and change in bowel habits, or symptoms similar to acute appendicitis, the working diagnosis may be considered to be anorexia. This case illustrates the importance of considering colon cancer among other disease entities as a cause of unintentional weight loss in adolescents. While this is a rare occurrence in the pediatric population, significant unintentional weight loss with altered bowel habits should prompt a search for underlying malignancy—even in the absence of a positive family history or predisposing cancer syndromes.

  6. Metastatic Colon Cancer in an 18-Year-Old without Predisposing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchandani, Divya; Kulpa, Jolanta; Khawar, Nayaab; Kochin, Israel; Narula, Pramod; Sundaram, Revathy

    2016-01-01

    While colorectal carcinoma is a common gastrointestinal cancer in adults, it is rare in pediatrics with an incidence of 1 : 1,000,000 and represents a fraction of neoplasms encountered in children. Malignant neoplasms represent a major cause of mortality in the pediatric age group. While presenting with weight loss, iron deficiency, rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, and change in bowel habits, or symptoms similar to acute appendicitis, the working diagnosis may be considered to be anorexia. This case illustrates the importance of considering colon cancer among other disease entities as a cause of unintentional weight loss in adolescents. While this is a rare occurrence in the pediatric population, significant unintentional weight loss with altered bowel habits should prompt a search for underlying malignancy-even in the absence of a positive family history or predisposing cancer syndromes.

  7. Predisposing factors on the surface of the skin in persons with pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloor, M; Kümpel, D; Friederich, H C

    1975-12-31

    This is a report on biochemical and physiological examinations carried out on 20 test persons who in the last 2 years had contacted and completely recovered from pityriasis versicolor and on 25 control persons of corresponding age and sex. The tests on the skin surface of the patients with pityriasis versicolor show, when compared with the corresponding control group, the following significant results: 1. Significantly more amino acids could be extracted from the skin of the pityriasis versicolor patients than from the skin of the control persons. 2. A significantly shorter alkali neutralisation time was to be found in the pityriasis versicolor patients than in the control persons. 3. The degree of water spreading on the skin was found to be significantly reduced in the pityriasis versicolor patients when compared with the control persons. It is probable that these results point to important predisposing factors for pityriasis versicolor.

  8. A BAP1 Mutation in a Danish Family Predisposes to Uveal Melanoma and Other Cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Wadt, Karin; Bojesen, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    Truncating germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP1) have been reported in families predisposed to developing a wide range of different cancer types including uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma. There has also been an association between amelanotic tumor...... development and germline BAP1 mutation suggesting a possible phenotypic characteristic of BAP1 mutation carriers. Though there have been many types of cancer associated with germline BAP1 mutation, the full spectrum of disease association is yet to be ascertained. Here we describe a Danish family...... with predominantly uveal melanoma but also a range of other tumor types including lung, neuroendocrine, stomach, and breast cancer; as well as pigmented skin lesions. Whole-exome sequencing identified a BAP1 splice mutation located at c.581-2A>G, which leads to a premature truncation of BAP1 in an individual...

  9. Predisposing effects of cigarette advertising on children's intentions to smoke when older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, P P; Eadie, D R; Hastings, G B; Haywood, A J

    1991-04-01

    Six hundred and forty Glasgow children, initially aged between 11 and 14 years, were interviewed twice, with approximately one year between interviews. Children whose intentions to smoke when older became more positive between the two interviews tended to be more aware of cigarette advertising at the time of the first interview (compared with children whose intentions to smoke were negative at both interviews). Children whose intentions to smoke became more negative between the interviews tended to be less appreciative of cigarette advertisements at the time of the first interview (compared with children whose intentions to smoke were positive at both interviews). Since both groups differed from their respective contrast groups before their declared intentions changed, these findings support the view that cigarette advertising has predisposing as well as reinforcing effects on children's attitudes and behaviour with respect to smoking.

  10. Predisposing factors to lateral ankle injury in male comrades marathon runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hiemstra

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: More than two million people experience ankle ligament traumaeach year in the United States. Half of these are severe ligament sprains, however verylittle is known about the factors that predispose individuals to these injuries. The purpose of this study, (which was conducted as an undergraduate research project,was to find a correlation between the characteristics of height, weight and limbdominance and lateral ankle ligament injuries. Method: A  retrospective study was conducted on 114 ultra distance runners whoparticipated in the 2006 Comrades Marathon. During race registration, the runners’ height and weight were measuredafter answering a questionnaire regarding their training. Results: 114 runners responded to the questionnaire. From this cohort, 38 (33.3% had sustained previous lateral ankle injuries. Of these 38 injuries, 47.4% of the injuries occurred on the runner’s dominant limb and 36.8% occurred on thenon-dominant side. 15.8% of the runners sustained previous ankle injuries to both ankles. There was a low negative correlation coefficient of 0.24 with regards to weight as a risk factor. This indicated that the power of the correlationwas 5.93%. The study demonstrates that there is no correlation between an increase in weight and an increase in theincidence of ankle injury. The correlation coefficient indicated a low correlation between an increase in height and the incidence of ankle injury. However, the power of the correlation at 18.37% makes inaccurate any attempt to predict the height at which a runner would be at most risk for lateral ankle injury. Conclusion: Height and weight are not risk factors predisposing subjects to lateral ankle injury. In addition, the studyillustrated that there was no effect of limb dominance on the incidence of lateral ankle injury.

  11. SIMPLIFYING CELIAC DISEASE PREDISPOSING HLA-DQ ALLELES DETERMINATION BY THE REAL TIME PCR METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole SELLESKI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Genetic susceptibility is associated with two sets of alleles, DQA1*05 - DQB1*02 and DQA1*03 - DQB1*03:02, which code for class II MHC DQ2 and DQ8 molecules, respectively. Approximately 90%-95% of celiac patients are HLA-DQ2 positive, and half of the remaining patients are HLA-DQ8 positive. In fact, during a celiac disease diagnostic workup, the absence of these specific DQA and DQB alleles has a near perfect negative predictive value. Objective Improve the detection of celiac disease predisposing alleles by combining the simplicity and sensitivity of real-time PCR (qPCR and melting curve analysis with the specificity of sequence-specific primers (SSP. Methods Amplifications of sequence-specific primers for DQA1*05 (DQ2, DQB1*02 (DQ2, and DQA1*03 (DQ8 were performed by the real time PCR method to determine the presence of each allele in independent reactions. Primers for Human Growth Hormone were used as an internal control. A parallel PCR-SSP protocol was used as a reference method to validate our results. Results Both techniques yielded equal results. From a total of 329 samples the presence of HLA predisposing alleles was determined in 187 (56.8%. One hundred fourteen samples (61% were positive for a single allele, 68 (36.3% for two alleles, and only 5 (2.7% for three alleles. Conclusion Results obtained by qPCR technique were highly reliable with no discordant results when compared with those obtained using PCR-SSP.

  12. Studies on the Predisposing Factors of Protein Energy Malnutrition Among Pregnant Women in a Nigerian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okwu GN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries and affects mostly infants, young children, pregnant and lactating mothers. This study was carried on some of the factors that predispose pregnant women to PEM and hence identify groups at greater risk. A total of 1387 pregnant women (910 in the urban area and 477 in the rural areas were recruited for the study. Anthropometric indices of weight, height and Body Mass Index (BMI of the pregnant women were measured and semi structured questionnaires were used to elicit information on possible predisposing factors such as age, level of education, parity, child spacing etc. Results obtained showed that the mean weight and height of the rural pregnant women, were significantly (p<0.0001 lower than those of the urban pregnant women. The mean BMI of the rural subjects, was also significantly (p< 0.0027 lower than that of the urban subjects. Analysis of the effect of age showed that the younger age category (24 years and below had significantly (p<0.0001 lower mean BMI and higher prevalence of PEM while the effect of level of education showed significantly (p<0006 lower mean BMI and higher PEM prevalence among the less educated (no formal and primary education. Those with parity of two, one and primipara showed significantly (p<0.0175 lower mean BMI while child spacing did not have any significant effect on both mean BMI and prevalence of PEM. The implications of these findings are discussed and recommendations made on how to tackle the problem.

  13. Congenital anomaly of the inferior vena cava and factor V Leiden mutation predisposing to deep vein thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparello, Brooke M; Erickson, Cameron R; Kulthia, Arun; Virparia, Vasudev; Thet, Zeyar

    2014-01-01

    A previously healthy 21-year-old man presented with back pain, bilateral extremity pain, and right lower extremity weakness, paresthesias, and swelling. Sonographic examination revealed diffuse deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the femoral and popliteal venous system. CT imaging revealed hypoplasia of the hepatic inferior vena cava (IVC) segment with formation of multiple varices and collateral veins around the kidneys. Hematologic workup also discovered a factor V Leiden mutation, further predisposing the patient to DVT. The rare, often overlooked occurrence of attenuated IVC, especially in the setting of hypercoagulable state, can predispose patients to significant thrombosis. PMID:25395858

  14. Common variants at the MHC locus and at chromosome 16q24.1 predispose to Barrett's esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Zhan; Gay, Laura J.; Strange, Amy; Palles, Claire; Band, Gavin; Whiteman, David C.; Lescai, Francesco; Langford, Cordelia; Nanji, Manoj; Edkins, Sarah; van der Winkel, Anouk; Levine, David; Sasieni, Peter; Bellenguez, Celine; Howarth, Kimberley; Freeman, Colin; Trudgill, Nigel; Tucker, Art T.; Pirinen, Matti; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; van der Laan, Luc J. W.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Drenth, Joost P. H.; Peters, Wilbert H.; Reynolds, John V.; Kelleher, Dermot P.; McManus, Ross; Grabsch, Heike; Prenen, Hans; Bisschops, Raf; Krishnadath, Kausila; Siersema, Peter D.; van Baal, Jantine W. P. M.; Middleton, Mark; Petty, Russell; Gillies, Richard; Burch, Nicola; Bhandari, Pradeep; Paterson, Stuart; Edwards, Cathryn; Penman, Ian; Vaidya, Kishor; Ang, Yeng; Murray, Iain; Patel, Praful; Ye, Weimin; Mullins, Paul; Wu, Anna H.; Bird, Nigel C.; Dallal, Helen; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Murray, Liam J.; Koss, Konrad; Bernstein, Leslie; Romero, Yvonne; Hardie, Laura J.; Zhang, Rui; Winter, Helen; Corley, Douglas A.; Panter, Simon; Risch, Harvey A.; Reid, Brian J.; Sargeant, Ian; Gammon, Marilie D.; Smart, Howard; Dhar, Anjan; McMurtry, Hugh; Ali, Haythem; Liu, Geoffrey; Casson, Alan G.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rutter, Matt; Tawil, Ashref; Morris, Danielle; Nwokolo, Chuka; Isaacs, Peter; Rodgers, Colin; Ragunath, Krish; MacDonald, Chris; Haigh, Chris; Monk, David; Davies, Gareth; Wajed, Saj; Johnston, David; Gibbons, Michael; Cullen, Sue; Church, Nicholas; Langley, Ruth; Griffin, Michael; Alderson, Derek; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah E.; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Potter, Simon C.; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Anderson, Mark; Brooks, Claire; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A.; Casas, Juan P.; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Markus, Hugh S.; Mathew, Christopher G.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Plomin, Robert; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Trembath, Richard C.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Wood, Nicholas; Trynka, Gosia; Wijmenga, Cisca; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Atherfold, Paul; Nicholson, Anna M.; Gellatly, Nichola L.; Glancy, Deborah; Cooper, Sheldon C.; Cunningham, David; Lind, Tore; Hapeshi, Julie; Ferry, David; Rathbone, Barrie; Brown, Julia; Love, Sharon; Attwood, Stephen; MacGregor, Stuart; Watson, Peter; Sanders, Scott; Ek, Weronica; Harrison, Rebecca F.; Moayyedi, Paul; de Caestecker, John; Barr, Hugh; Stupka, Elia; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Peltonen, Leena; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Tomlinson, Ian; Donnelly, Peter; Jankowski, Janusz A. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus is an increasingly common disease that is strongly associated with reflux of stomach acid and usually a hiatus hernia, and it strongly predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a tumor with a very poor prognosis. We report the first genome-wide association study on Barrett'

  15. The predisposing factors between dental caries and deviations from normal weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Chopra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors. So it′s important to understand any relationship between dental state and body weight if either is to be managed appropriately. Aims: The study was done to find out the correlation between body mass index (BMI, diet, and dental caries among 12-15-year-old schoolgoing children in Panchkula District. Materials and Methods: A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school children (n = 810 in Panchkula district, Haryana was considered. Child demographic details and diet history for 5 days was recorded. Data regarding dental caries status was collected using World Health Organization (1997 format. BMI was calculated and categorized according to the World Health Organization classification system for BMI. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square test and binomial regression developed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0. Results: The mean Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT score was found to be 1.72 with decayed, missing, and filled teeth to be 1.22, 0.04, and 0.44, respectively. When the sample was assessed based on type of diet, it was found that vegetarians had higher mean DMFT (1.72 as compared to children having mixed diet. Overweight children had highest DMFT (3.21 which was followed by underweight (2.31 and obese children (2.23. Binomial regression revealed that females were 1.293 times at risk of developing caries as compared to males. Fair and poor Simplified-Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S showed 3.920 and 4.297 times risk of developing caries as compared to good oral hygiene, respectively. Upper high socioeconomic status (SES is at most risk of developing caries. Underweight, overweight, and obese are at 2.7, 2.5, and 3 times risk of developing caries as compared to children with normal BMI, respectively. Conclusion: Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two

  16. Predictive genetic testing in children: constitutional mismatch repair deficiency cancer predisposing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwer, Zandrè; Algar, Ursula; Vorster, Alvera; Fieggen, Karen; Davidson, Alan; Goldberg, Paul; Wainwright, Helen; Ramesar, Rajkumar

    2014-04-01

    Biallelic germline mutations in mismatch repair genes predispose to constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome (CMMR-D). The condition is characterized by a broad spectrum of early-onset tumors, including hematological, brain and bowel and is frequently associated with features of Neurofibromatosis type 1. Few definitive screening recommendations have been suggested and no published reports have described predictive testing. We report on the first case of predictive testing for CMMR-D following the identification of two non-consanguineous parents, with the same heterozygous mutation in MLH1: c.1528C > T. The genetic counseling offered to the family, for their two at-risk daughters, is discussed with a focus on the ethical considerations of testing children for known cancer-causing variants. The challenges that are encountered when reporting on heterozygosity in a child younger than 18 years (disclosure of carrier status and risk for Lynch syndrome), when discovered during testing for homozygosity, are addressed. In addition, the identification of CMMR-D in a three year old, and the recommended clinical surveillance that was proposed for this individual is discussed. Despite predictive testing and presymptomatic screening, the sudden death of the child with CMMR-D syndrome occurred 6 months after her last surveillance MRI. This report further highlights the difficulty of developing guidelines, as a result of the rarity of cases and diversity of presentation.

  17. Induced resistance in tomato by SAR activators during predisposing salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Francis Pye

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant activators are chemicals that induce disease resistance. The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA is a crucial signal for systemic acquired resistance (SAR, and SA-mediated resistance is a target of several commercial plant activators, including Actigard (1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-thiocarboxylic acid-s-methyl-ester, BTH and Tiadinil (N-(3-chloro-4-methylphenyl-4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazole-5-carboxamide, TDL. BTH and TDL were examined for their impact on abscisic acid (ABA-mediated, salt-induced disease predisposition in tomato seedlings. A brief episode of salt stress to roots significantly increased the severity of disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst and Phytophthora capsici relative to non-stressed plants. Root treatment with TDL induced resistance to Pst in leaves and provided protection in both non-stressed and salt-stressed seedlings in WT and highly susceptible NahG plants. Non-stressed and salt-stressed ABA-deficient sitiens mutants were highly resistant to Pst. Neither TDL nor BTH induced resistance to root infection by P. capsici, nor did they moderate the salt-induced increment in disease severity. Root treatment with these plant activators increased the levels of ABA in roots and shoots similar to levels observed in salt-stressed plants. The results indicate that SAR activators can protect tomato plants from bacterial speck disease under predisposing salt stress, and suggest that some SA-mediated defense responses function sufficiently in plants with elevated levels of ABA.

  18. Licence applications for low and intermediate level waste predisposal facilities: A manual for operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication covers all predisposal waste management facilities and practices for receipt, pretreatment (sorting, segregation, characterization), treatment, conditioning, internal relocation and storage of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, including disused sealed radioactive sources. The publication contains an Annex presenting the example of a safety assessment for a small radioactive waste storage facility. Facilities dealing with both short lived and long lived low and intermediate level waste generated from nuclear applications and from operation of small nuclear research reactors are included in the scope. Processing and storage facilities for high activity disused sealed sources and sealed sources containing long lived radionuclides are also covered. The publication does not cover facilities processing or storing radioactive waste from nuclear power plants or any other industrial scale nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Disposal facilities are excluded from the scope of this publication. Authorization process can be implemented in several stages, which may start at the site planning and the feasibility study stage and will continue through preliminary design, final design, commissioning, operation and decommissioning stages. This publication covers primarily the authorization needed to take the facility into operation

  19. A cancer-predisposing "hot spot" mutation of the fumarase gene creates a dominant negative protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzato, Annalisa; Olivero, Martina; Perro, Mario; Brière, Jean Jacques; Rustin, Pierre; Di Renzo, Maria Flavia

    2008-02-15

    The Fumarase (Fumarate Hydratase, FH) is a tumor suppressor gene whose germline heterozygous mutations predispose to hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC). The FH gene encodes an enzyme of the Krebs cycle, functioning as a homotetramer and catalyzing the hydration of fumarate to malate. Among the numerous FH mutations reported so far, the R190H missense mutation is the most frequent in HLRCC patients. Here we show the functional analyses of the R190H, in comparison to the better characterized E319Q mutation. We first expressed wild-type and mutated proteins in FH deficient human skin fibroblasts, using lentiviral vectors. The wild-type transgene was able to restore the FH enzymatic activity in cells, while the R190H- and E319Q-FH were not. More interestingly, when the same transgenes were expressed in normal, FH-proficient cells, only the R190H-FH reduced the endogenous FH enzymatic activity. By enforcing the expression of equal amount of wild-type and R190H-FH in the same cell, we showed that the mutated FH protein directly inhibited enzymatic activity by nearly abrogating the FH homotetramer formation. These data demonstrate the dominant negative effect of the R190H missense mutation in the FH gene and suggest that the FH tumor-suppressing activity might be impaired in cells carrying a heterozygous mutation. PMID:17960613

  20. Predisposing factors for renal scarring in children with urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Beiraghdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the predisposing factors for renal scarring in children with urinary tract infection. In this prospective cohort study, 176 children with documented urinary tract infection were categorized into four groups: ≤1 year old, 1-2 years old, 2-7 years and 7-14 years old. Ultrasonography and Technetium-99 m-DMSA scan were used to detect the possible abnormalities. Infants under 12 months old presented as the most common group for renal scarring (27 cases, 52.9%, and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR was diagnosed in 29 cases (56.8%. Fifteen (41.67% children between the ages of one and two years had renal scar, and VUR was detected in half of the patients. In the third group, 36.3%, and in fourth group, 41.6% of the patients had renal scar. Also, 38.6% in group three and 50% in the final group had VUR. A co-incidental finding that was observed in this study was the high incidence of pseudohypoaldesteronism (PHA in our patients: in 39.2% of the children in group one, 22.2% in group two and 4% in group three. In group four however, none of the patients had PHA. Risk of scar formation with urinary tract infection (UTI was higher in the younger age group and in those with recurrent UTIs.

  1. Haploinsufficiency of the ESCRT Component HD-PTP Predisposes to Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Manteghi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT drive cell surface receptor degradation resulting in attenuation of oncogenic signaling and pointing to a tumor suppressor function. Here, we show that loss of function of an ESCRT protein (HD-PTP encoded by the PTPN23 gene, located on the tumor suppressor gene cluster 3p21.3 drives tumorigenesis in vivo. Indeed, Ptpn23+/− loss predisposes mice to sporadic lung adenoma, B cell lymphoma, and promotes Myc-driven lymphoma onset, dissemination, and aggressiveness. Ptpn23+/−-derived tumors exhibit an unaltered remaining allele and maintain 50% of HD-PTP expression. Consistent with the role of HD-PTP in attenuation of integrin recycling, cell migration, and invasion, hemizygous Ptpn23+/− loss increases integrin β1-dependent B cell lymphoma survival and dissemination. Finally, we reveal frequent PTPN23 deletion and downregulation in human tumors that correlates with poor survival. Altogether, we establish HD-PTP/PTPN23 as a prominent haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene preventing tumor progression through control of integrin trafficking.

  2. Dietary zinc deficiency predisposes mice to the development of preneoplastic lesions in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romualdo, Guilherme Ribeiro; Goto, Renata Leme; Henrique Fernandes, Ana Angélica; Cogliati, Bruno; Barbisan, Luis Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Although there is a concomitance of zinc deficiency and high incidence/mortality for hepatocellular carcinoma in certain human populations, there are no experimental studies investigating the modifying effects of zinc on hepatocarcinogenesis. Thus, we evaluated whether dietary zinc deficiency or supplementation alter the development of hepatocellular preneoplastic lesions (PNL). Therefore, neonatal male Balb/C mice were submitted to a diethylnitrosamine/2-acetylaminefluorene-induced hepatocarcinogenesis model. Moreover, mice were fed adequate (35 mg/kg diet), deficient (3 mg/kg) or supplemented (180 mg/kg) zinc diets. Mice were euthanized at 12 (early time-point) or 24 weeks (late time-point) after introducing the diets. At the early time-point, zinc deficiency decreased Nrf2 protein expression and GSH levels while increased p65 and p53 protein expression and the number of PNL/area. At the late time-point, zinc deficiency also decreased GSH levels while increased liver genotoxicity, cell proliferation into PNL and PNL size. In contrast, zinc supplementation increased antioxidant defense at both time-points but not altered PNL development. Our findings are the first to suggest that zinc deficiency predisposes mice to the PNL development in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. The decrease of Nrf2/GSH pathway and increase of liver genotoxicity, as well as the increase of p65/cell proliferation, are potential mechanisms to this zinc deficiency-mediated effect.

  3. Evaluation of White Striping prevalence and predisposing factors in broilers at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Elisa; Drigo, Michele; Longoni, Corrado; Pezzotti, Raffaele; Fasoli, Paolo; Recordati, Camilla

    2015-08-01

    White striping ( WS: ) is an alteration of breast and thigh muscles of broiler chickens characterized by the presence of white striations parallel to the direction of muscle fibers. This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence and the predisposing factors to WS in commercial broilers of different weight reared in northern Italy. Fifty seven broiler flocks, including animals of medium- and heavy-weight, were grossly evaluated at slaughter for the presence of WS. For each flock, breeding data (mean BW at slaughter, ADG, sex, color of skin and fat, genetic line, age, antibiotic treatment, and prevalence of deep pectoral myopathy) were collected and statistically analyzed to assess their correlation with WS. Histology of breast fillets affected by different grades of WS was performed to evaluate potential differences between medium- and heavy-weight broilers. The overall prevalence of WS in medium- and heavy-weight broilers (mean BW 2.59 ± 0.13 kg and 3.64 ± 0.34 kg, respectively) was 70.2 ± 7.9% and 82.51 ± 8.5%, respectively, while the percentage of severe WS was 13.3 ± 7.1% and 25.7 ± 12.8%, respectively. A strong correlation was found between presence of WS, BW at slaughter, and ADG (Pearson correlation = 0.69, P animals. PMID:26112037

  4. Dietary zinc deficiency predisposes mice to the development of preneoplastic lesions in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romualdo, Guilherme Ribeiro; Goto, Renata Leme; Henrique Fernandes, Ana Angélica; Cogliati, Bruno; Barbisan, Luis Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Although there is a concomitance of zinc deficiency and high incidence/mortality for hepatocellular carcinoma in certain human populations, there are no experimental studies investigating the modifying effects of zinc on hepatocarcinogenesis. Thus, we evaluated whether dietary zinc deficiency or supplementation alter the development of hepatocellular preneoplastic lesions (PNL). Therefore, neonatal male Balb/C mice were submitted to a diethylnitrosamine/2-acetylaminefluorene-induced hepatocarcinogenesis model. Moreover, mice were fed adequate (35 mg/kg diet), deficient (3 mg/kg) or supplemented (180 mg/kg) zinc diets. Mice were euthanized at 12 (early time-point) or 24 weeks (late time-point) after introducing the diets. At the early time-point, zinc deficiency decreased Nrf2 protein expression and GSH levels while increased p65 and p53 protein expression and the number of PNL/area. At the late time-point, zinc deficiency also decreased GSH levels while increased liver genotoxicity, cell proliferation into PNL and PNL size. In contrast, zinc supplementation increased antioxidant defense at both time-points but not altered PNL development. Our findings are the first to suggest that zinc deficiency predisposes mice to the PNL development in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. The decrease of Nrf2/GSH pathway and increase of liver genotoxicity, as well as the increase of p65/cell proliferation, are potential mechanisms to this zinc deficiency-mediated effect. PMID:27544374

  5. CDKN2A and BAP1 germline mutations predispose to melanoma and mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, M; Aspesi, A; Biasi, A; Casalone, E; Ferrante, D; Ogliara, P; Gironi, L C; Giorgione, R; Farinelli, P; Grosso, F; Libener, R; Rosato, S; Turchetti, D; Maffè, A; Casadio, C; Ascoli, V; Dianzani, C; Colombo, E; Piccolini, E; Pavesi, M; Miccoli, S; Mirabelli, D; Bracco, C; Righi, L; Boldorini, R; Papotti, M; Matullo, G; Magnani, C; Pasini, B; Dianzani, I

    2016-08-10

    BAP1 germline mutations predispose to a cancer predisposition syndrome that includes mesothelioma, cutaneous melanoma, uveal melanoma and other cancers. This co-occurrence suggests that these tumors share a common carcinogenic pathway. To evaluate this hypothesis, we studied 40 Italian families with mesothelioma and/or melanoma. The probands were sequenced for BAP1 and for the most common melanoma predisposition genes (i.e. CDKN2A, CDK4, TERT, MITF and POT1) to investigate if these genes may also confer susceptibility to mesothelioma. In two out of six families with both mesothelioma and melanoma we identified either a germline nonsense mutation (c.1153C > T, p.Arg385*) in BAP1 or a recurrent pathogenic germline mutation (c.301G > T, p.Gly101Trp) in CDKN2A. Our study suggests that CDKN2A, in addition to BAP1, could be involved in the melanoma and mesothelioma susceptibility, leading to the rare familial cancer syndromes. It also suggests that these tumors share key steps that drive carcinogenesis and that other genes may be involved in inherited predisposition to malignant mesothelioma and melanoma. PMID:27181379

  6. Perceptions of predisposing and protective factors for perinatal depression in same-sex parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lori E; Steele, Leah; Sapiro, Beth

    2005-01-01

    Increasing numbers of women are choosing to have children in the context of same-sex relationships or as "out" lesbian or bisexual individuals. This study used qualitative methods to assess perceived predisposing and protective factors for perinatal depression in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) women. Two focus groups with LGBQ women were conducted: 1) biological parents of young children and 2) nonbiological parents of young children or whose partners were currently pregnant. Three major themes emerged. Issues related to social support were primary, particularly related to disappointment with the lack of support provided by members of the family of origin. Participants also described issues related to the couple relationship, such as challenges in negotiating parenting roles. Finally, legal and policy barriers (e.g., second parent adoption) were identified as a significant source of stress during the transition to parenthood. Both lack of social support and relationship problems have previously been identified as risk factors for perinatal depression in heterosexual women, and legal and policy barriers may represent a unique risk factor for this population. Therefore, additional study of perinatal mental health among LGBQ women is warranted. PMID:16260356

  7. A BAP1 mutation in a Danish family predisposes to uveal melanoma and other cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren G Aoude

    Full Text Available Truncating germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP1 have been reported in families predisposed to developing a wide range of different cancer types including uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma. There has also been an association between amelanotic tumor development and germline BAP1 mutation suggesting a possible phenotypic characteristic of BAP1 mutation carriers. Though there have been many types of cancer associated with germline BAP1 mutation, the full spectrum of disease association is yet to be ascertained. Here we describe a Danish family with predominantly uveal melanoma but also a range of other tumor types including lung, neuroendocrine, stomach, and breast cancer; as well as pigmented skin lesions. Whole-exome sequencing identified a BAP1 splice mutation located at c.581-2A>G, which leads to a premature truncation of BAP1 in an individual with uveal melanoma. This mutation was carried by several other family members with melanoma or various cancers. The finding expands on the growing profile of BAP1 as an important uveal and cutaneous melanoma tumor suppressor gene and implicates its involvement in the development of lung, and stomach cancer.

  8. Urine Stasis Predisposes to Urinary Tract Infection by an Opportunistic Uropathogen in the Megabladder (Mgb Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Becknell

    Full Text Available Urinary stasis is a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI. Homozygous mutant Megabladder (Mgb-/- mice exhibit incomplete bladder emptying as a consequence of congenital detrusor aplasia. We hypothesize that this predisposes Mgb-/- mice to spontaneous and experimental UTI.Mgb-/-, Mgb+/-, and wild-type female mice underwent serial ultrasound and urine cultures at 4, 6, and 8 weeks to detect spontaneous UTI. Urine bacterial isolates were analyzed by Gram stain and speciated. Bladder stones were analyzed by x-ray diffractometry. Bladders and kidneys were subject to histologic analysis. The pathogenicity of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS isolated from Mgb-/- urine was tested by transurethral administration to culture-negative Mgb-/- or wild-type animals. The contribution of urinary stasis to CONS susceptibility was evaluated by cutaneous vesicostomy in Mgb-/- mice.Mgb-/- mice develop spontaneous bacteriuria (42% and struvite bladder stones (31% by 8 weeks, findings absent in Mgb+/- and wild-type controls. CONS was cultured as a solitary isolate from Mgb-/- bladder stones. Bladders and kidneys from mice with struvite stones exhibit mucosal injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These pathologic features of cystitis and pyelonephritis are replicated by transurethral inoculation of CONS in culture-negative Mgb-/- females, whereas wild-type animals are less susceptible to CONS colonization and organ injury. Cutaneous vesicostomy prior to CONS inoculation significantly reduces the quantity of CONS recovered from Mgb-/- urine, bladders, and kidneys.CONS is an opportunistic uropathogen in the setting of urinary stasis, leading to enhanced UTI incidence and severity in Mgb-/- mice.

  9. Urine Stasis Predisposes to Urinary Tract Infection by an Opportunistic Uropathogen in the Megabladder (Mgb) Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Mohamed, Ahmad Z.; Li, Birong; Wilhide, Michael E.; Ingraham, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Urinary stasis is a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Homozygous mutant Megabladder (Mgb-/-) mice exhibit incomplete bladder emptying as a consequence of congenital detrusor aplasia. We hypothesize that this predisposes Mgb-/- mice to spontaneous and experimental UTI. Methods Mgb-/-, Mgb+/-, and wild-type female mice underwent serial ultrasound and urine cultures at 4, 6, and 8 weeks to detect spontaneous UTI. Urine bacterial isolates were analyzed by Gram stain and speciated. Bladder stones were analyzed by x-ray diffractometry. Bladders and kidneys were subject to histologic analysis. The pathogenicity of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS) isolated from Mgb-/- urine was tested by transurethral administration to culture-negative Mgb-/- or wild-type animals. The contribution of urinary stasis to CONS susceptibility was evaluated by cutaneous vesicostomy in Mgb-/- mice. Results Mgb-/- mice develop spontaneous bacteriuria (42%) and struvite bladder stones (31%) by 8 weeks, findings absent in Mgb+/- and wild-type controls. CONS was cultured as a solitary isolate from Mgb-/- bladder stones. Bladders and kidneys from mice with struvite stones exhibit mucosal injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These pathologic features of cystitis and pyelonephritis are replicated by transurethral inoculation of CONS in culture-negative Mgb-/- females, whereas wild-type animals are less susceptible to CONS colonization and organ injury. Cutaneous vesicostomy prior to CONS inoculation significantly reduces the quantity of CONS recovered from Mgb-/- urine, bladders, and kidneys. Conclusions CONS is an opportunistic uropathogen in the setting of urinary stasis, leading to enhanced UTI incidence and severity in Mgb-/- mice. PMID:26401845

  10. Low Plasma Volume in Normotensive Formerly Preeclamptic Women Predisposes to Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Ralph R; Lotgering, Fred K; Hopman, Maria T; Van Dijk, Arie; Van de Vlugt, Maureen; Janssen, Mirian C H; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2015-11-01

    Formerly preeclamptic women are at risk for cardiovascular disease. Low plasma volume may reflect latent hypertension and potentially links preeclampsia with chronic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that low plasma volume in normotensive formerly preeclamptic women predisposes to hypertension. We longitudinally studied n=104 formerly preeclamptic women in whom plasma volume was measured 3 to 30 months after the preeclamptic pregnancy. Cardiovascular variables were assessed at 2 points in time (3-30 months postpartum and 2-5 years thereafter). Study population was divided into low plasma volume (≤1373 mL/m(2)) and normal plasma volume (>1373 mL/m(2)). Primary end point was hypertension at the second visit: defined as ≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic. Secondary outcome of this study was change in traditional cardiovascular risk profile between visits. Variables correlating univariately with change in blood pressure between visits were introduced in regression analysis. Eighteen of 104 (17%) formerly preeclamptic women who were normotensive at first visit had hypertension at second evaluation 2 to 5 years later. Hypertension developed more often in women with low plasma volume (10/35 [29%]) than in women with normal plasma volume (8/69 [12%]; odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-8.6). After adjustments, relationship between plasma volume status and subsequent hypertension persisted (adjusted odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-8.5). Mean arterial pressure at second visit correlated inverse linearly with plasma volume (r=-0.49; Phypertension within 5 years. Women with low plasma volume have higher chance to develop hypertension than women with normal plasma volume. Clinically, follow-up of blood pressure seems warranted in women with history of preeclampsia, even when initially normotensive.

  11. [Predisposing factors, clinical picture and mortality in volvulus of the small intestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Plasencia, J; Huaynalaya, E; Rodríguez, F; Rebaza, H

    1992-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated predisposing factors, clinical picture and the methods of treatment related to morbidity and mortality of 19 small bowel volvulus (SBV) who underwent operation at Belen Hospital (Trujillo-Peru) during the last 26 years (1966-1992). The SBV was 1.6% of all cases of intestinal obstruction in this period and 10.8% of all intestinal volvulus. The median age was of 43 +/- 20.5 years (range, 6 to 78 years) and the majority of them were between 41 and 60 years. Sixteen cases (84.2%) were men from Indian and Spanish extraction and most of them were farmers and came from the Sierra of the Department of La Libertad. Two cases (10.5%) had non-related antecedents previous surgery. In six patients (31.6%) the volvulus was less than seven day's duration and in thirty (68.4%) it was more eight day's duration with previous attacks of obstruction (median: 19.3 days, range: 17 hours to 94 days). Pain, vomiting and distention were present in almost all of these cases. The most frequent abdominal finding was distention. The location of the volvulus was: ileum, 12 cases (63.2%), root of mesentery, 4 cases (21%) and jejunum, 3 cases (15.8%). Gangrenous bowel was present in six patients (31.5) and gangrenous intestine with perforation in two cases (10.5%) who underwent resection of the involved segment with primary anastomosis. In this group one patient (5.2%) died of sepsis and the wound infection rate was of 37.5%. There was no statistically significant correlation with the duration of illness and the presence of gangrenous loops or the mortality rate (p > 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Why do young women smoke? III. Attention and impulsivity as neurocognitive predisposing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakir, Avi; Rigbi, Amihai; Kanyas, Kyra; Pollak, Yehudah; Kahana, Gazit; Karni, Osnat; Eitan, Renana; Kertzman, Semion; Lerer, Bernard

    2007-04-01

    Since nicotine has been shown to facilitate sustained attention and control of impulsivity, impairment in these domains may influence individuals who initiate smoking for various reasons to continue to smoke cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether young women who smoke regularly but are not abstinent at the time of testing, differ in their cognitive functioning from non-smokers and whether they resemble women who smoked in the past but quit. Female undergraduate students aged 20-30 years were recruited by advertisement from institutes of higher education in the Jerusalem area. The study sample consisted of 91 current smokers (CS), 40 past smokers (PS) and 151 non-smokers (NS). 46 occasional smokers (OS) were also tested. Confounding by withdrawal state was neutralized by including only CS and OS who smoked their last cigarette less than 90 min before testing. Subjects performed a computerized neurocognitive battery, which tests the domains of attention, memory, impulsivity, planning, information processing and motor performance. Analyses were controlled for age. The results showed that CS made significantly more errors than NS on the Continuous Performance Task (CPT), Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) and Tower of London (TOL) test. PS were significantly worse than NS on the MFFT and TOL test. PS did not differ significantly from CS on any test. No association was found between duration of smoking and performance. These findings suggest that a neurocognitive profile characterized by impairments in sustained attention and control of impulsivity may be one of the factors that predispose young women who initiate cigarette smoking to maintain the habit.

  13. CARDIAC RUPTURE IN MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: INCIDENCE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS (15 YEAR FOLLOW-UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Shulman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the incidence of cardiac rupture (CR in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI as well as predisposing factors during 15-year follow-up.Material and methods. 1453 patients with acute MI who were admitted to Krasnoyarsk cardiological center during 1989, 1993 and 2003 years were studied. All patients were divided into three groups: group I - 447 patients, who were on treatment in 1989, group II - 475 patients of 1993, and group III – 531 patients of 2003. There were no differences in groups on patient sex, location and depth of MI, previous MI, arrhythmias, heart failure and diabetes mellitus.Results. CR was found in 18 of 447 patients (4% of group I (1989, in 16 of 475 patients (3,4% of group II (1993 and in 10 of 531 patients (1,9% of group 3 (2003, (p1,3 <0,05. Incidence of CR significantly decreased from 1989 to 2003 in female patients (7,2%; 5,7% and 1,6% in 1989, 1993 and 2003, respectively; p1,3 < 0,01, p2,3 < 0,05. Incidence of CR in male patients didn’t changed (2,5%, 1,8% and 2,1%, respectively. The average blood pressure (BP during the first day of MI in female patients was higher than this in male ones in 1989 and 1993. There were no significant differences in BP between women and men in 2003. Heart rate (HR during the first day of MI in female patients was higher than this in male patients in 1989. However in 1993 and 2003 there were no differences in HR between women and men. MI therapy more often included betablockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, intravenous nitrates, statins, thrombolythics and anticoagulants in 2003 than in 1989 and 1993.Conclusion. Effective BP and HR control is the most effective way to prevent CR in patients with MI.

  14. CARDIAC RUPTURE IN MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: INCIDENCE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS (15 YEAR FOLLOW-UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Shulman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the incidence of cardiac rupture (CR in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI as well as predisposing factors during 15-year follow-up.Material and methods. 1453 patients with acute MI who were admitted to Krasnoyarsk cardiological center during 1989, 1993 and 2003 years were studied. All patients were divided into three groups: group I - 447 patients, who were on treatment in 1989, group II - 475 patients of 1993, and group III – 531 patients of 2003. There were no differences in groups on patient sex, location and depth of MI, previous MI, arrhythmias, heart failure and diabetes mellitus.Results. CR was found in 18 of 447 patients (4% of group I (1989, in 16 of 475 patients (3,4% of group II (1993 and in 10 of 531 patients (1,9% of group 3 (2003, (p1,3 <0,05. Incidence of CR significantly decreased from 1989 to 2003 in female patients (7,2%; 5,7% and 1,6% in 1989, 1993 and 2003, respectively; p1,3 < 0,01, p2,3 < 0,05. Incidence of CR in male patients didn’t changed (2,5%, 1,8% and 2,1%, respectively. The average blood pressure (BP during the first day of MI in female patients was higher than this in male ones in 1989 and 1993. There were no significant differences in BP between women and men in 2003. Heart rate (HR during the first day of MI in female patients was higher than this in male patients in 1989. However in 1993 and 2003 there were no differences in HR between women and men. MI therapy more often included betablockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, intravenous nitrates, statins, thrombolythics and anticoagulants in 2003 than in 1989 and 1993.Conclusion. Effective BP and HR control is the most effective way to prevent CR in patients with MI.

  15. Disruption of Vitamin D and Calcium Signaling in Keratinocytes Predisposes to Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Jiang, Yan; Nguyen, Thai; Oda, Yuko; Tu, Chia-ling

    2016-01-01

    1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), the active metabolite of vitamin D, and calcium regulate epidermal differentiation. 1,25(OH)2D exerts its effects through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a transcription factor in the nuclear hormone receptor family, whereas calcium acts through the calcium sensing receptor (Casr), a membrane bound member of the G protein coupled receptor family. We have developed mouse models in which the Vdr and Casr have been deleted in the epidermis (epidVdr−∕− and epidCasr−∕−). Both genotypes show abnormalities in calcium induced epidermal differentiation in vivo and in vitro, associated with altered hedgehog (HH) and β–catenin signaling that when abnormally expressed lead to basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and trichofolliculomas, respectively. The Vdr−∕− mice are susceptible to tumor formation following UVB or chemical carcinogen exposure. More recently we found that the keratinocytes from these mice over express long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) oncogenes such as H19 and under express lncRNA tumor suppressors such as lincRNA-21. Spontaneous tumors have not been observed in either the epidVdr−∕− or epidCasr−∕−. But in mice with epidermal specific deletion of both Vdr and Casr (epidVdr−∕−/epidCasr−∕− [DKO]) tumor formation occurs spontaneously when the DKO mice are placed on a low calcium diet. These results demonstrate important interactions between vitamin D and calcium signaling through their respective receptors that lead to cancer when these signals are disrupted. The roles of the β–catenin, hedgehog, and lncRNA pathways in predisposing the epidermis to tumor formation when vitamin D and calcium signaling are disrupted will be discussed. PMID:27462278

  16. Fumonisins affect the intestinal microbial homeostasis in broiler chickens, predisposing to necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, Gunther; Croubels, Siska; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Devreese, Mathias; Verlinden, Marc; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Eeckhout, Mia; De Saeger, Sarah; Antlinger, Birgit; Novak, Barbara; Martel, An; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2015-09-23

    Fumonisins (FBs) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi. This study aimed to investigate the effect of these feed contaminants on the intestinal morphology and microbiota composition, and to evaluate whether FBs predispose broilers to necrotic enteritis. One-day-old broiler chicks were divided into a group fed a control diet, and a group fed a FBs contaminated diet (18.6 mg FB1+FB2/kg feed). A significant increase in the plasma sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in the FBs-treated group (0.21 ± 0.016) compared to the control (0.14 ± 0.014) indicated disturbance of the sphingolipid biosynthesis. Furthermore, villus height and crypt depth of the ileum was significantly reduced by FBs. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed a shift in the microbiota composition in the ileum in the FBs group compared to the control. A reduced presence of low-GC containing operational taxonomic units in ileal digesta of birds exposed to FBs was demonstrated, and identified as a reduced abundance of Candidatus Savagella and Lactobaccilus spp. Quantification of total Clostridium perfringens in these ileal samples, previous to experimental infection, using cpa gene (alpha toxin) quantification by qPCR showed an increase in C. perfringens in chickens fed a FBs contaminated diet compared to control (7.5 ± 0.30 versus 6.3 ± 0.24 log10 copies/g intestinal content). After C. perfringens challenge, a higher percentage of birds developed subclinical necrotic enteritis in the group fed a FBs contaminated diet as compared to the control (44.9 ± 2.22% versus 29.8 ± 5.46%).

  17. Pre-Exposure to Ozone Predisposes Oak Leaves to Attacks by Diplodia corticola and Biscogniauxia mediterranea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Paoletti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One-year-old cork oak (Quercus suber and turkey oak (Q. cerris seedlings were exposed to ozone (110 ppb, 5 h day˗1, for 30 days and were inoculated with Diplodia corticola and Biscogniauxia mediterranea, respectively, by spraying a suspension of spores on the leaves. Both fungi are endophytic and may act as weak parasites, contributing to oak decline. Ozone exposure stimulated leaf attacks after inoculation, although the physiological, visible, and structural responses of both oaks to O3 exposure were weak. In fact, steady-state gas exchange, leaf waxes, and wettability were not significantly affected by O3. In Q. cerris, O3 altered the structure of stomata, as observed by scanning microscopy, and reduced the leaf relative water content. No hyphal entry through stomata or growth towards stomata was, however, observed. Inoculations were performed in a humid chamber at low light; stomata were likely to be closed. When Q. cerris was inoculated in natural conditions, i.e., in a forest infected by B. mediterranea, seedlings pre-exposed to the enhanced O3 regime had a higher number of B. mediterranea isolates than the controls. This suggests that pre-exposure to O3 predisposed Q. cerris leaves to attacks by B. mediterranea independent of stomata. The hyphae of both fungi were able to enter the leaf through the cuticle, either by gradual in-growth into the cuticle or erosion of a hollow in the cuticle at the point of contact. The primary cause of increased leaf injury in O3-exposed seedlings appeared to be higher germination of spores than on control leaves.

  18. Pre-exposure to ozone predisposes oak leaves to attacks by Diplodia corticola and Biscogniauxia mediterranea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Elena; Anselmi, Naldo; Franceschini, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    One-year-old cork oak (Quercus suber) and turkey oak (Q. cerris) seedlings were exposed to ozone (110 ppb, 5 h day(-1), for 30 days) and were inoculated with Diplodia corticola and Biscogniauxia mediterranea, respectively, by spraying a suspension of spores on the leaves. Both fungi are endophytic and may act as weak parasites, contributing to oak decline. Ozone exposure stimulated leaf attacks after inoculation, although the physiological, visible, and structural responses of both oaks to O3 exposure were weak. In fact, steady-state gas exchange, leaf waxes, and wettability were not significantly affected by O3. In Q. cerris, O3 altered the structure of stomata, as observed by scanning microscopy, and reduced the leaf relative water content. No hyphal entry through stomata or growth towards stomata was, however, observed. Inoculations were performed in a humid chamber at low light; stomata were likely to be closed. When Q. cerris was inoculated in natural conditions, i.e., in a forest infected by B. mediterranea, seedlings pre-exposed to the enhanced O3 regime had a higher number of B. mediterranea isolates than the controls. This suggests that pre-exposure to O3 predisposed Q. cerris leaves to attacks by B. mediterranea independent of stomata. The hyphae of both fungi were able to enter the leaf through the cuticle, either by gradual in-growth into the cuticle or erosion of a hollow in the cuticle at the point of contact. The primary cause of increased leaf injury in O3-exposed seedlings appeared to be higher germination of spores than on control leaves.

  19. Early severe inflammatory responses to uropathogenic E. coli predispose to chronic and recurrent urinary tract infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Hannan

    Full Text Available Chronic infections are an increasing problem due to the aging population and the increase in antibiotic resistant organisms. Therefore, understanding the host-pathogen interactions that result in chronic infection is of great importance. Here, we investigate the molecular basis of chronic bacterial cystitis. We establish that introduction of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC into the bladders of C3H mice results in two distinct disease outcomes: resolution of acute infection or development of chronic cystitis lasting months. The incidence of chronic cystitis is both host strain and infectious dose-dependent. Further, development of chronic cystitis is preceded by biomarkers of local and systemic acute inflammation at 24 hours post-infection, including severe pyuria and bladder inflammation with mucosal injury, and a distinct serum cytokine signature consisting of elevated IL-5, IL-6, G-CSF, and the IL-8 analog KC. Mice deficient in TLR4 signaling or lymphocytes lack these innate responses and are resistant, to varying degrees, to developing chronic cystitis. Treatment of C3H mice with the glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone prior to UPEC infection also suppresses the development of chronic cystitis. Finally, individuals with a history of chronic cystitis, lasting at least 14 days, are significantly more susceptible to redeveloping severe, chronic cystitis upon bacterial challenge. Thus, we have discovered that the development of chronic cystitis in C3H mice by UPEC is facilitated by severe acute inflammatory responses early in infection, which subsequently are predisposing to recurrent cystitis, an insidious problem in women. Overall, these results have significant implications for our understanding of how early host-pathogen interactions at the mucosal surface determines the fate of disease.

  20. Mechanisms Predisposing Penile Fracture and Long-Term Outcomes on Erectile and Voiding Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo O. Reis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the mechanisms predisposing penile fracture as well as the rate of long-term penile deformity and erectile and voiding functions. Methods. All fractures were repaired on an emergency basis via subcoronal incision and absorbable suture with simultaneous repair of eventual urethral lesion. Patients’ status before fracture and voiding and erectile functions at long term were assessed by periodic follow-up and phone call. Detailed history included cause, symptoms, and single-question self-report of erectile and voiding functions. Results. Among the 44 suspicious cases, 42 (95.4% were confirmed, mean age was 34.5 years (range: 18–60, mean follow-up 59.3 months (range 9–155. Half presented the classical triad of audible crack, detumescence, and pain. Heterosexual intercourse was the most common cause (28 patients, 66.7%, followed by penile manipulation (6 patients, 14.3%, and homosexual intercourse (4 patients, 9.5%. “Woman on top” was the most common heterosexual position (n=14, 50%, followed by “doggy style” (n=8, 28.6%. Four patients (9.5% maintained the cause unclear. Six (14.3% patients had urethral injury and two (4.8% had erectile dysfunction, treated by penile prosthesis and PDE-5i. No patient showed urethral fistula, voiding deterioration, penile nodule/curve or pain. Conclusions. “Woman on top” was the potentially riskiest sexual position (50%. Immediate surgical treatment warrants long-term very low morbidity.

  1. 痤疮易感基因的研究进展%Predisposing genes in acne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小燕; 何黎

    2011-01-01

    痤疮是发生于毛囊皮脂腺的一种慢性炎症性疾病,发病机制尚不完全清楚.目前认为,主要与雄激素、皮脂分泌增多、毛囊导管的异常角化、痤疮丙酸杆菌感染、外界因素、机体的免疫反应和遗传有关.近年来研究表明,痤疮是一种多基因遗传病,尤其是重型痤疮与遗传密切相关.CYP11α、CYP17、CYP1A1、雄激素受体基因、CYP21等基因被认为是痤疮易感基因.因此,探讨痤疮的易感基因,对痤疮尤其是重型痤疮的早期诊断、治疗和预防具有重要意义.%Acne is a common chronic inflammatory disease affecting hair follicles and sebaceous glands with unclear pathogenesis. It is a multifactorial disease and several pathogenetic factors have been identified, including the increase of androgen and sebum excretion, follicular hyperkeratinization, infection with Propionibacterium acnes, external factors, innate immunity, genetics, etc. Latest studies have indicated that acne is a polygenic disease and there is a particularly close correlation between severe acne and heredity. Many predisposing genes have been discovered for acne, including human CYP11α gene, CYP17 gene, CYP1A1gene, androgen receptor gene, CYP21 gene, etc. Therefore, the investigation into susceptible genes for acne may be beneficial to the early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of severe acne.

  2. Mutations in complement regulatory proteins predispose to preeclampsia: a genetic analysis of the PROMISSE cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E Salmon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnancy in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or antiphospholipid antibodies (APL Ab--autoimmune conditions characterized by complement-mediated injury--is associated with increased risk of preeclampsia and miscarriage. Our previous studies in mice indicate that complement activation targeted to the placenta drives angiogenic imbalance and placental insufficiency. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use PROMISSE, a prospective study of 250 pregnant patients with SLE and/or APL Ab, to test the hypothesis in humans that impaired capacity to limit complement activation predisposes to preeclampsia. We sequenced genes encoding three complement regulatory proteins--membrane cofactor protein (MCP, complement factor I (CFI, and complement factor H (CFH--in 40 patients who had preeclampsia and found heterozygous mutations in seven (18%. Five of these patients had risk variants in MCP or CFI that were previously identified in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, a disease characterized by endothelial damage. One had a novel mutation in MCP that impairs regulation of C4b. These findings constitute, to our knowledge, the first genetic defects associated with preeclampsia in SLE and/or APL Ab. We confirmed the association of hypomorphic variants of MCP and CFI in a cohort of non-autoimmune preeclampsia patients in which five of 59 were heterozygous for mutations. CONCLUSION: The presence of risk variants in complement regulatory proteins in patients with SLE and/or APL Ab who develop preeclampsia, as well as in preeclampsia patients lacking autoimmune disease, links complement activation to disease pathogenesis and suggests new targets for treatment of this important public health problem. STUDY REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00198068.

  3. Adipocyte Hypertrophy, Inflammation and Fibrosis Characterize Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Healthy, Non-Obese Subjects Predisposed to Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    A M Josefin Henninger; Björn Eliasson; Jenndahl, Lachmi E.; Ann Hammarstedt

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The adipose tissue is important for development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and adipose tissue dysfunction has been proposed as an underlying cause. In the present study we investigated presence of adipocyte hypertrophy, and gene expression pattern of adipose tissue dysfunction in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy, non-obese subjects predisposed to type 2 diabetes compared to matched control subjects with no known genetic predisposition for type 2 diabetes. ...

  4. Perinatal iron deficiency predisposes the developing rat hippocampus to greater injury from mild to moderate hypoxia-ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Raghavendra; Tkac, Ivan; Townsend, Elise L.; Ennis, Kathleen; Gruetter, Rolf; Georgieff, Michael K.

    2007-01-01

    The hippocampus is injured in both hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and perinatal iron deficiency that are co-morbidities in infants of diabetic mothers and intrauterine growth restricted infants. We hypothesized that preexisting perinatal iron deficiency predisposes the hippocampus to greater injury when exposed to a relatively mild HI injury. Iron-sufficient and iron-deficient rats (hematocrit 40% lower and brain iron concentration 55% lower) were subjected to unilateral HI injury of 15, 30, or 45 min...

  5. Does a facultative precocious life cycle predispose the marine trematode Proctoeces cf. lintoni to inbreeding and genetic differentiation among host species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, I M; Criscione, C D; Cárdenas, L; Durán, C P; Oliva, M E

    2014-03-01

    Intraspecific variability in parasite life cycle complexity (number of hosts and species of hosts in the life cycle) may have an impact how parasite genetic variation is partitioned among individual parasites, host individuals or host species within a given area. Among digenean trematodes, a three-host life cycle is common. However, a few species are precocious and may reach sexual maturity in what is typically regarded as the second intermediate host. The objective of this study was to determine whether a precocious life cycle predisposes digeneans to possible inbreeding or genetic subdivision among host species. As a study system, we used the digenean Proctoeces cf. lintoni whose metacercariae precociously mature (facultative) without a cyst wall in the gonads of multiple sympatric species of keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.), typically regarded as the second intermediate hosts. Genotyped parasites were collected from four species of limpets and the clingfish Sicyases sanguineus, the third and final host where sexual maturity occurs. We found very high microsatellite diversity, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium over all genotyped individuals, and little to no genetic structuring among parasites collected from the different host species. The fact that metacercariae do not encyst in the keyhole limpets, coupled with the high mixing potential of an aquatic environment, likely promote panmixia in local populations of P. cf. lintoni.

  6. Do founder mutations characteristic of some cancer sites also predispose to pancreatic cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lener, Marcin R; Scott, Rodney J; Kluźniak, Wojciech; Baszuk, Piotr; Cybulski, Cezary; Wiechowska-Kozłowska, Anna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Kładny, Józef; Pietrzak, Sandra; Soluch, Agnieszka; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Understanding of the etiology and risk of pancreatic cancer (PaCa) is still poorly understood. This study evaluated the prevalence of 10 Polish founder mutations in four genes among PaCa patients and assessed their possible association with the risk of disease in Poland. In the study 383 PaCa patients and 4,000 control subjects were genotyped for founder mutations in: BRCA1 (5382insC, 4153delA, C61G), CHEK2 (1100delC, IVS2 + 1G > A, del5395, I157T), NBS1 (657del5) and PALB2 (509_510delGA, 172_175delTTGT). A statistically significant association between the 657del5 mutation and an increased risk of pancreatic cancer was observed for NBS1 gene. The Slavic NBS1 gene mutation (657delACAAA) was detected in 8 of 383 (2.09%) unselected cases compared with 22 of 4,000 (0.55%) controls (OR: 3.80, p = 0.002). The PALB2 509_510delGA and 172_175delTTGT mutations combined were seen in 2 (0.52%) unselected cases of PaCa and in 8 (0.20%) of 4,000 controls (OR: 2.61, p = 0.49). For BRCA1, the three mutations combined were detected in 4 of 383 (1.04%) PaCa patients and in 17 of 4,000 (0.42%) controls (OR: 2.46, p = 0.20). CHEK2 mutations were not associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer (OR: 1.11, p = 0.72). The founder mutation in NBS1 (657del5) was associated with an increased risk of PaCa in heterozygous carriers, indicating that this mutation appears to predispose to cancer of the pancreas. By identifying pancreatic cancer risk groups, founder mutation testing in Poland should be considered for people at risk for PaCa. PMID:27038244

  7. Predisposing factors to severe external root resorption associated to orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracemia Vasconcelos Picanço

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate predisposing factors among patients who developed moderate or severe external root resorption (Malmgren's grades 3 and 4, on the maxillary incisors, during fixed orthodontic treatment in the permanent dentition. METHODS: Ninety-nine patients who underwent orthodontic treatment with fixed edgewise appliances were selected. Patients were divided into two groups: G1 - 50 patients with no root resorption or presenting only apical irregularities (Malmgren's grades 0 and 1 at the end of the treatment, with mean initial age of 16.79 years and mean treatment time of 3.21 years; G2 - 49 patients presenting moderate or severe root resorption (Malmgren's grades 3 and 4 at the end of treatment on the maxillary incisors, with mean initial age of 19.92 years and mean treatment time of 3.98 years. Periapical radiographs and lateral cephalograms were evaluated. Factors that could influence the occurrence of severe root resorption were also recorded. Statistical analysis included chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and independent t tests. RESULTS: The results demonstrated significant difference between the groups for the variables: Extractions, initial degree of root resorption, root length and crown/root ratio at the beginning, and cortical thickness of the alveolar bone. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that: Presence of root resorption before the beginning of treatment, extractions, reduced root length, decreased crown/root ratio and thin alveolar bone represent risk factors for severe root resorption in maxillary incisors during orthodontic treatment.OBJETIVO: avaliar os fatores comuns aos pacientes que desenvolveram reabsorção radicular externa moderada ou severa (graus 3 e 4 de Malmgren nos incisivos superiores, durante o tratamento ortodôntico fixo na dentição permanente. MÉTODOS: foram selecionados 99 pacientes que iniciaram o tratamento ortodôntico fixo com a técnica Edgewise. Os pacientes foram

  8. Absence of the predisposing factors and signs and symptoms usually associated with overreaching and overtraining in physical fitness centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ackel-D'Elia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of the well-known predisposing factors and signs and symptoms usually associated with either overreaching or overtraining syndrome in physical fitness centers in São Paulo City, Brazil. METHOD: A questionnaire consisting of 13 question groups pertaining to either predisposing factors (1-7 or signs and symptoms (8-13 was given to 413 subjects. The general training schedule of the volunteers was characterized by workout sessions of 2.18 ± 0.04 h for a total of 11.0 ± 0.3 h/week for 33 ± 2 months independent of the type of exercise performed (walking, running, spinning, bodybuilding and stretching. A mean score was calculated ranging from 1 (completely absent to 5 (severe for each question group. A low occurrence was considered to be a question group score lower than 4, which was observed in all 13 question groups. RESULTS: The psychological evaluation by POMS Mood State Questionnaire indicated a normal non-inverted iceberg. The hematological parameters, creatine kinase activity, cortisol, total testosterone and free testosterone concentrations were within the normal ranges for the majority of the volunteers selected for this analysis (n = 60. CONCLUSION: According to the questionnaire score analysis, no predisposing factors or signs and symptoms usually associated with either overreaching or overtraining were detected among the members of physical fitness centers in São Paulo City, Brazil. This observation was corroborated by the absence of any significant hematological or stress hormone level alterations in blood analyses of the majority of the selected volunteers (n = 60.

  9. Two necrotic enteritis predisposing factors, dietary fishmeal and Eimeria infection, induce large changes in the caecal microbiota of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Biao; Stanley, Dragana; Rodgers, Nicholas; Swick, Robert A; Moore, Robert J

    2014-03-14

    It is widely established that a high-protein fishmeal supplemented starter diet and Eimeria infection can predispose birds to the development of clinical necrotic enteritis symptoms following Clostridium perfringens infection. However, it has not been clearly established what changes these treatments cause to predispose birds to succumb to necrotic enteritis. We analysed caecal microbiota of 4 groups of broilers (n=12) using deep pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons: (1) control chicks fed a control diet, (2) Eimeria infected chicks fed control diet, (3) chicks fed fishmeal supplemented diet and lastly (4) both fishmeal fed and Eimeria infected chicks. We found that the high-protein fishmeal diet had a strong effect on the intestinal microbiota similar to the previously reported effect of C. perfringens infection. We noted major changes in the prevalence of various lactobacilli while the total culturable Lactobacillus counts remained stable. The Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, unknown Clostridiales and Lactobacillaceae families were most affected by fishmeal with increases in a number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that had previously been linked to Crohn's disease and reductions in OTUs known to be butyrate producers. Eimeria induced very different changes in microbiota; Ruminococcaceae groups were reduced in number and three unknown Clostridium species were increased in abundance. Additionally, Eimeria did not significantly influence changes in pH, formic, propionic or isobutyric acid while fishmeal induced dramatic changes in all these measures. Both fishmeal feeding and Eimeria infection induced significant changes in the gut microbiota; these changes may play an important role in predisposing birds to necrotic enteritis.

  10. CvADH1, a member of short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family, is inducible by gibberellin and sucrose in developing watermelon seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonyul; Kang, Hong-Gyu; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Jinwon; Yim, Jieun; An, Gynheung

    2003-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that control seed formation, we selected a seed-preferential gene (CvADH1) from the ESTs of developing watermelon seeds. RNA blot analysis and in situ localization showed that CvADH1 was preferentially expressed in the nucellar tissue. The CvADH1 protein shared about 50% homology with short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase including ABA2 in Arabidopsis thaliana, stem secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase in Forsythia intermedia, and 3beta-hydroxysterol dehydrogenase in Digitalis lanata. We investigated gene-expression levels in seeds from both normally pollinated fruits and those made parthenocarpic via N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea treatment, the latter of which lack zygotic tissues. Whereas the transcripts of CvADH1 rapidly started to accumulate from about the pre-heart stage in normal seeds, they were not detectable in the parthenocarpic seeds. Treating the parthenogenic fruit with GA(3) strongly induced gene expression, up to the level accumulated in pollinated seeds. These results suggest that the CvADH1 gene is induced in maternal tissues by signals made in the zygotic tissues, and that gibberellin might be one of those signals. We also observed that CvADH1 expression was induced by sucrose in the parthenocarpic seeds. Therefore, we propose that the CvADH1 gene is inducible by gibberellin, and that sucrose plays an important role in the maternal tissues of watermelon during early seed development. PMID:12552151

  11. Congenital anomaly of the inferior vena cava and factor V Leiden mutation predisposing to deep vein thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamparello BM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Brooke M Lamparello,1,* Cameron R Erickson,2,* Arun Kulthia,3 Vasudev Virparia,3 Zeyar Thet3 1St George’s University, Grenada, West Indies; 2Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH, USA; 3Department of Medicine, Coney Island Hospital, Brooklyn, NY, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A previously healthy 21-year-old man presented with back pain, bilateral extremity pain, and right lower extremity weakness, paresthesias, and swelling. Sonographic examination revealed diffuse deep vein thrombosis (DVT in the femoral and popliteal venous system. CT imaging revealed hypoplasia of the hepatic inferior vena cava (IVC segment with formation of multiple varices and collateral veins around the kidneys. Hematologic workup also discovered a factor V Leiden mutation, further predisposing the patient to DVT. The rare, often overlooked occurrence of attenuated IVC, especially in the setting of hypercoagulable state, can predispose patients to significant thrombosis. Keywords: inferior vena cava (IVC, deep vein thrombosis (DVT, lower extremities, thrombophilic, venography

  12. [Candida carriage in the oral mucosa of a student population: adhesiveness of the strains and predisposing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, M; González, M I; Levin, B; Cuesta, A; Iovanniti, C

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish oral carriage of Candida and possible factors associated to their virulence in young adults and their relation with local and general situations considered as predisposing factors. Samples were obtained from dorsum tongue in 70 students attending the Faculty of Dentistry (University of Buenos Aires) average age: 23, all in healthy oral conditions. Of these, 21.42% were Candida positive. These samples were seeded in CHROMagar. Candida identification was completed in milk agar and Fungichrom 1. The following species were identified: 11 Candida albicans (C.a), 2 Candida parapsilosis (C.p) and 1 Candida glabrata (C.g). In one case, 2 species (C.a and C.g) were isolated in the same sample. Virulence was determined as adherence capacity by biofilm or in vitro plaque formation and hydrophobicity. Different host factors were analyzed statistically to establish their importance as predisposing factors to allow Candida colonization. Adherence of C.a. was found to be similar in all C.a. strains, whereas significant differences were found between C.a. and C.p. and between C.a. and C.g. Only the antiseptic mouthrinse and the diet were significant among the considered factors.

  13. Neonatal Bacterial Colonization Predispose to Lower Respiratory Infections in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa

    2014-01-01

    Lower respiratory infections (LRI) in childhood are common and account for considerable morbidity and health care utilization. The frequency of LRI varies significantly between otherwise healthy children, but extrinsic and intrinsic triggers of such variation are poorly understood. Traditionally...... neonatal airway colonization and risk of the LRI in a validated study cohort, and whether a possible association could be reflected in the early immune response to airway pathogens. In study I we aimed to ascertain the quality of information on child’s health, including asthma, allergy, eczema, respiratory...... of concurrent or later asthma. This suggests a role of pathogenic bacterial colonization of the airways in neonates for subsequent susceptibly to LRI. In Study III we studied a possible association with the immune response to pathogenic bacteria and incidence of LRI during the first 3 years of life. We assessed...

  14. Need, Enabling, Predisposing, and Behavioral Determinants of Access to Preventative Care in Argentina: Analysis of the National Survey of Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangir, Eiman; Irazola, Vilma; Rubinstein, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Health care utilization is an important step to disease management, providing opportunities for prevention and treatment. Anderson’s Health Behavior Model has defined utilization by need, predisposing, and enabling determinants. We hypothesize that need, predisposing, and enabling, highlighting behavioral factors are associated with utilization in Argentina. Methods We performed a logistic regression analysis of the 2005 and 2009 Argentinean Survey of Risk Factors, a cohort of 41,392 and 34,732 individuals, to explore the association between need, enabling, predisposing, and behavioral factors to blood pressure measurement in the last year. Results In the 2005 cohort, blood pressure measurement was associated with perception of health, insurance coverage, basic needs met, and income. Additionally, female sex, civil state, household type, older age groups, education, and alcohol use were associated with utilization. The 2009 cohort showed similar associations with only minor differences between the models. Conclusions We explored the association between utilization of clinical preventive services with need, enabling, predisposing, and behavioral factors. While predisposing and need determinants are associated with utilization, enabling factors such as insurance coverage provides an area for public intervention. These are important findings where policies should be focused to improve utilization of preventive services in Argentina. PMID:22984608

  15. Ansa Pancreatica: A Case Report of a Type of Ductal Variation in a Patient with Idiopathic Acute Recurrent Pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Mi; Park, Jung Yup; Kim, Myeong Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Ansa pancreatica is a rare type of pancreatic ductal variation. Recently, ansa pancreatic has been considered as a predisposing factor in patients with idiopathic acute pancreatitis. To the best of our knowledge, no previously published report in Korea has described ansa pancreatica. We report a case of acute recurrent pancreatitis with ansa pancreatica, which was revealed on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)

  16. Isolated Streptococcus agalactiae tricuspid endocarditis in elderly patient without known predisposing factors: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Leila; Charfeddine, Salma; Kammoun, Samir

    2016-04-01

    Group B streptococcal (GBS) tricuspid infective endocarditis is a very rare clinical entity. It affects intravenous drug users, pregnant, postpartum women, and the elderly. We report the case of a 68-year-old patient without known predisposing factors who presented a GBS tricuspid endocarditis treated by penicillin and aminoglycosides with no response. The patient was operated with a good evolution. Our case is the 25th reported in the literature. GBS disease is increasing in the elderly and is mainly associated to comorbid conditions. Tricuspid infective endocarditis with Group B streptococcus predominantly presents as a persistent fever with respiratory symptoms due to pulmonary embolism. Therefore, it requires a medicosurgical treatment and close follow-up. PMID:27053903

  17. Who is predisposed to insomnia: a review of familial aggregation, stress-reactivity, personality and coping style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Christopher-James; Gehrman, Phil; Espie, Colin A

    2014-06-01

    Insomnia is a common health complaint world-wide. Insomnia is a risk factor in the development of other psychological and physiological disorders. Therefore understanding the mechanisms which predispose an individual to developing insomnia has great transdiagnostic value. However, whilst it is largely accepted that a vulnerable phenotype exists there is a lack of research which aims to systematically assess the make-up of this phenotype. This review outlines the research to-date, considering familial aggregation and the genetics and psychology of stress-reactivity. A model will be presented in which negative affect (neuroticism) and genetics (5HTTLPR) are argued to lead to disrupted sleep via an increase in stress-reactivity, and further that the interaction of these variables leads to an increase in learned negative associations, which further increase the likelihood of poor sleep and the development of insomnia. PMID:24480386

  18. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol predisposes for the development of Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, Gunther; Van Immerseel, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Timbermont, Leen; Verlinden, Marc; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Eeckhout, Mia; De Saeger, Sarah; Hessenberger, Sabine; Martel, An; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-01

    Both mycotoxin contamination of feed and Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis have an increasing global economic impact on poultry production. Especially the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common feed contaminant. This study aimed at examining the predisposing effect of DON on the development of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. An experimental Clostridium perfringens infection study revealed that DON, at a contamination level of 3,000 to 4,000 µg/kg feed, increased the percentage of birds with subclinical necrotic enteritis from 20±2.6% to 47±3.0% (Penteritis in broilers. These results are associated with a negative effect of DON on the intestinal barrier function and increased intestinal protein availability, which may stimulate growth and toxin production of Clostridium perfringens.

  19. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  20. Klebsiella pneumoniae outbreak in a cancer unit of a general hospital: predisposing factors and evaluation of the impact of intervention measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pavanello Rodrigues Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We made a retrospective cohort study of a primary bloodstream infection outbreak in patients of a cancer unit in a general hospital, evaluated the impact of intervention measures and investigated the predisposing factors. The targeted predisposing factors were selected based on the medical literature. The data were treated with univariate analysis to calculate the relative risk, and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. The presence of a long-term totally-implanted central venous catheter appears to be a predisposing factor, while a peripheral venous catheter appears to have offered protection from infection. This is reinforced by fact that intervention measures controlled the outbreak, suggesting cross-contamination from a common source. These findings corroborate the fundamental role of the hospital infection control service in early intervention and reinforce the need for continued training of health professionals that perform this type of care.

  1. Are adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and ankylosing spondylitis counter-opposing conditions? A hypothesis on biomechanical contributions predisposing to these spinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, A T; Dorsch, J L; Cholewicki, J

    2003-01-01

    Human spinal biomechanics are profoundly complex and not well understood, especially in terms of the dynamic spine function. Translation of biomechanics to disease is difficult, particularly since cause must be separated from effect. Primary dynamics predisposing to the onset of chronic spinal disorders, e.g., adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) or ankylosing spondylitis (AS), must clearly be differentiated from secondary alterations. This commentary addresses primary biomechanics that may predispose to these idiopathic diseases. A novel hypothesis is proposed, based upon inferences regarding their contrasting muscular dynamics. The hypothesis postulates opposing inherent muscle tonicity in AIS versus AS. Converse degrees of spinal stability may predispose to the respective curvature deformities of AIS and the enthesopathy lesions of AS. One condition is suspected to counter-oppose the other, within a polymorphic spectrum of spinal stability.

  2. Lung infarction following pulmonary embolism. A comparative study on clinical conditions and CT findings to identify predisposing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, J.; Obermann, A.; Stueckradt, S.; Tueshaus, C. [General Hospital Hagen (Germany). Radiology; Goltz, J.; Kickuth, R. [University Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany). Radiology; Liermann, D. [University Hospital Marienhospital Herne (Germany). Radiology

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this study was to identify factors predisposing to lung infarction in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). We performed a retrospective analysis on 154 patients with the final diagnosis of PE being examined between January 2009 and December 2012 by means of a Toshiba Aquilion 64 CT scanner. The severity of clinical symptoms was defined by means of a clinical index with 4 classes. The pulmonary clot load was quantified using a modified severity index of PE as proposed by Miller. We correlated several potential predictors of pulmonary infarction such as demographic data, pulmonary clot burden, distance of total vascular obstruction and pleura, the presence of cardiac congestion, signs of chronic bronchitis or emphysema with the occurrence of pulmonary infarction. Computed tomography revealed 78 areas of pulmonary infarction in 45/154 (29.2%) patients. The presence of infarction was significantly higher in the right lung than in the left lung (p < 0.001). We found no correlation between pulmonary infarction and the presence of accompanying malignant diseases (r=-0.069), signs of chronic bronchitis (r=-0.109), cardiac congestion (r=-0.076), the quantified clot burden score (r=0.176), and the severity of symptoms (r=-0.024). Only a very weak negative correlation between the presence of infarction and age (r=-0.199) was seen. However, we could demonstrate a moderate negative correlation between the distance of total vascular occlusion and the occurrence of infarction (r=-0.504). Neither cardiac congestion nor the degree of pulmonary vascular obstruction are main factors predisposing to pulmonary infarction in patients with PE. It seems that a peripheral total vascular obstruction more often results in infarction than even massive central clot burden.

  3. Oral exposure to culture material extract containing fumonisins predisposes swine to the development of pneumonitis caused by Pasteurella multocida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum that commonly occurs in maize. In swine, consumption of contaminated feed induces liver damage and pulmonary edema. Pasteurella multocida is a secondary pathogen, which can generate a respiratory disorder in predisposed pigs. In this study, we examined the effect of oral exposure to fumonisin-containing culture material on lung inflammation caused by P. multocida. Piglets received by gavage a crude extract of fumonisin, 0.5 mg FB1/kg body weight/day, for 7 days. One day later, the animals were instilled intratracheally with a non toxin producing type A strain of P. multocida and followed up for 13 additional days. Pig weight and cough frequency were measured throughout the experiment. Lung lesions, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell composition and the expression of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated at the autopsy. Ingestion of fumonisin culture material or infection with P. multocida did not affect weight gain, induced no clinical sign or lung lesion, and only had minimal effect on BALF cell composition. Ingestion of mycotoxin extract increased the expression of IL-8, IL-18 and IFN-γ mRNA compared with P. multocida infection that increased the expression of TNF-α. The combined treatment with fumonisin culture material and P. multocida delayed growth, induced cough, and increased BALF total cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. Lung lesions were significantly enhanced in these animals and consisted of subacute interstitial pneumonia. TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-18 mRNA expression was also increased. Taken together, our data showed that fumonisin culture material is a predisposing factor to lung inflammation. These results may have implications for humans and animals consuming FB1 contaminated food or feed

  4. Replacing sugary drinks with milk is inversely associated with weight gain among young obesity-predisposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-11-14

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of sugary drink consumption and its substitution with alternative beverages with body weight gain among young children predisposed to future weight gain. Secondary analysis of the Healthy Start Study, a 1·5-year randomised controlled trial designed to prevent overweight among Danish children aged 2-6 years (n 366), was carried out. Multivariate linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of beverage consumption with change in body weight (Δweight) or BMI(ΔBMI) z-score. Substitution models were used to extrapolate the influence of replacing sugary drinks with alternative beverages (water, milk and diet drinks) on Δweight or ΔBMI z-score. Sugary drink intake at baseline and substitution of sugary drinks with milk were associated with both Δweight and ΔBMI z-score. Every 100 g/d increase in sugary drink intake was associated with 0·10 kg and 0·06 unit increases in body weight (P=0·048) and BMI z-score (P=0·04), respectively. Substitution of 100 g/d sugary drinks with 100 g/d milk was inversely associated with Δweight (β=-0·16 kg; P=0·045) and ΔBMI z-score (β=-0·07 units; P=0·04). The results of this study suggest that sugary drink consumption was associated with body weight gain among young children with high predisposition for future overweight. In line with the current recommendations, sugary drinks, whether high in added or natural sugar, should be discouraged to help prevent childhood obesity. Milk may be a good alternative to sugary drinks with regard to weight management among young obesity-predisposed children.

  5. Predisposing factors, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of cerebral venous thrombosis during pregnancy and postpartum: a case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hui; YANG Bao-jun; JIN Li-ping; JIA Xiao-fang

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous investigations have demonstrated a relatively low incidence of stroke among young women,though both pregnancy and delivery can substantially increase the risk.Cerebral venous thrombosis may manifest different characteristics during pregnancy and postpartum as a result of their specific physiological statuses.This study aimed to identify the clinical manifestations,diagnosis,treatment,and prognosis of cerebral venous thrombosis during pregnancy and postpartum.Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of 22 patients with cerebral venous thrombosis who were assigned to either group A (during pregnancy) or group B (during postpartum).The relevant risk factors,initiation and development of the disease,clinical presentations,diagnosis,treatment,and prognosis were compared between the two stages.Results Cerebral venous thrombosis occurred during both pregnancy and postpartum,but was more common postpartum.Patients in group A had a longer hospitalization period than those in group B.Confirmed predisposing factors in 85.7% of patients of group A were dehydration,infection,and underlying cerebrovascular disorders.No obvious predisposing factors were identified in group B.The most frequent symptom was headache,with epileptic seizures,hemiparalysis and aphasia being less frequent symptoms.Focal neurological symptoms (P=0.022) and cerebral infarction (P=0.014) occurred more frequently in group A than in group B.Anticoagulation therapy proved to be safe for cerebral venous thrombosis patients during puerperium,regardless of parenchymal hemorrhage.However,more attention should be paid to spontaneous in-site placental hemorrhage in pregnant patients.Both groups had similar prognoses (P=1.000),with 36.3% patients suffering from consequential dysfunction or recurrent intracranial hypertension.Delayed diagnosis was associated with a poorer prognosis.Conclusions Cerebral venous thrombosis manifests different clinical characteristics during pregnancy and

  6. Lung infarction following pulmonary embolism. A comparative study on clinical conditions and CT findings to identify predisposing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to identify factors predisposing to lung infarction in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). We performed a retrospective analysis on 154 patients with the final diagnosis of PE being examined between January 2009 and December 2012 by means of a Toshiba Aquilion 64 CT scanner. The severity of clinical symptoms was defined by means of a clinical index with 4 classes. The pulmonary clot load was quantified using a modified severity index of PE as proposed by Miller. We correlated several potential predictors of pulmonary infarction such as demographic data, pulmonary clot burden, distance of total vascular obstruction and pleura, the presence of cardiac congestion, signs of chronic bronchitis or emphysema with the occurrence of pulmonary infarction. Computed tomography revealed 78 areas of pulmonary infarction in 45/154 (29.2%) patients. The presence of infarction was significantly higher in the right lung than in the left lung (p < 0.001). We found no correlation between pulmonary infarction and the presence of accompanying malignant diseases (r=-0.069), signs of chronic bronchitis (r=-0.109), cardiac congestion (r=-0.076), the quantified clot burden score (r=0.176), and the severity of symptoms (r=-0.024). Only a very weak negative correlation between the presence of infarction and age (r=-0.199) was seen. However, we could demonstrate a moderate negative correlation between the distance of total vascular occlusion and the occurrence of infarction (r=-0.504). Neither cardiac congestion nor the degree of pulmonary vascular obstruction are main factors predisposing to pulmonary infarction in patients with PE. It seems that a peripheral total vascular obstruction more often results in infarction than even massive central clot burden.

  7. Replacing sugary drinks with milk is inversely associated with weight gain among young obesity-predisposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-11-14

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of sugary drink consumption and its substitution with alternative beverages with body weight gain among young children predisposed to future weight gain. Secondary analysis of the Healthy Start Study, a 1·5-year randomised controlled trial designed to prevent overweight among Danish children aged 2-6 years (n 366), was carried out. Multivariate linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of beverage consumption with change in body weight (Δweight) or BMI(ΔBMI) z-score. Substitution models were used to extrapolate the influence of replacing sugary drinks with alternative beverages (water, milk and diet drinks) on Δweight or ΔBMI z-score. Sugary drink intake at baseline and substitution of sugary drinks with milk were associated with both Δweight and ΔBMI z-score. Every 100 g/d increase in sugary drink intake was associated with 0·10 kg and 0·06 unit increases in body weight (P=0·048) and BMI z-score (P=0·04), respectively. Substitution of 100 g/d sugary drinks with 100 g/d milk was inversely associated with Δweight (β=-0·16 kg; P=0·045) and ΔBMI z-score (β=-0·07 units; P=0·04). The results of this study suggest that sugary drink consumption was associated with body weight gain among young children with high predisposition for future overweight. In line with the current recommendations, sugary drinks, whether high in added or natural sugar, should be discouraged to help prevent childhood obesity. Milk may be a good alternative to sugary drinks with regard to weight management among young obesity-predisposed children. PMID:26328600

  8. Genome-wide association and fine mapping of genetic loci predisposing to colon carcinogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengyuan; Lu, Yan; Liu, Hongbo; Wen, Weidong; Jia, Dongmei; Wang, Yian; You, Ming

    2012-01-01

    To identify the genetic determinants of colon tumorigenesis, 268 male mice from 33 inbred strains derived from different genealogies were treated with azoxymethane (AOM; 10 mg/kg) once a week for six weeks to induce colon tumors. Tumors were localized exclusively within the distal colon in each of the strains examined. Inbred mouse strains exhibit a large variability in genetic susceptibility to AOM-induced colon tumorigenesis. The mean colon tumor multiplicity ranged from 0 to 38.6 (mean = 6.5 ± 8.6) and tumor volume ranged from 0 to 706.5 mm(3) (mean = 87.4 ± 181.9) at 24 weeks after the first dose of AOM. AOM-induced colon tumor phenotypes are highly heritable in inbred mice, and 68.8% and 71.3% of total phenotypic variation in colon tumor multiplicity and tumor volume, respectively, are attributable to strain-dependent genetic background. Using 97,854 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of AOM-induced colon tumorigenesis and identified a novel susceptibility locus on chromosome 15 (rs32359607, P = 6.31 × 10(-6)). Subsequent fine mapping confirmed five (Scc3, Scc2, Scc12, Scc8, and Ccs1) of 16 linkage regions previously found to be associated with colon tumor susceptibility. These five loci were refined to less than 1 Mb genomic regions of interest. Major candidates in these loci are Sema5a, Fmn2, Grem2, Fap, Gsg1l, Xpo6, Rabep2, Eif3c, Unc5d, and Gpr65. In particular, the refined Scc3 locus shows high concordance with the human GWAS locus that underlies hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. These findings increase our understanding of the complex genetics of colon tumorigenesis, and provide important insights into the pathways of colorectal cancer development and might ultimately lead to more effective individually targeted cancer prevention strategies. PMID:22127497

  9. Genetic variations of bile salt transporters as predisposing factors for drug-induced cholestasis, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and therapeutic response of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Stieger, B; Geier, A.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Drug-induced cholestasis, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and viral hepatitis are acquired forms of liver disease. Cholestasis is a pathophysiologic state with impaired bile formation and subsequent accumulation of bile salts in hepatocytes. The bile salt export pump (BSEP) (ABCB11) is the key export system for bile salts from hepatocytes. AREAS COVERED: This article provides an introduction into the physiology of bile formation followed by a summary of the current knowled...

  10. Anatomical Variations of Anterior Osteomeatal Complex in Patients With Chronic Sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarafraz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Identifying predisposing factors for chronic sinusitis is very important. Objectives Anatomical variation of the lateral nasal wall has been investigated in several studies and it has been suggested as a predisposing factor for sinusitis. Patients and Methods In this case-control study, 74 patients who were diagnosed with chronic sinusitis (the case group based on clinical criteria and CT scan were entered into the study and 74 patients without chronic sinusitis were considered as the control group. CT scans of all patients were reviewed by a radiologist to interpret and evaluate anatomic variations of anterior osteomeatal complex including nasal deviation, concha bullosa, agger nasi, lateralized uncinate, Haller’s cells, paradoxical middle turbinate, and maxillary hypoplasia. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact test with SPSS software version 18. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Results showed that the most common sinus involved was maxillary sinus. Among anatomic variations, septal deviation and concha bullosa were associated with chronic sinusitis (P < 0.01 and P < 0.032, respectively. Conclusions Among anatomic variations, septal deviation and concha bullosa are predisposing factors for chronic sinusitis and we recommend that patients with chronic sinusitis be treated by surgical procedures.

  11. Examining the Diet of Post-Migrant Hispanic Males Using the Precede-Proceed Model: Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Dietary Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Diana Cuy; Downey, Laura; Graham-Kresge, Susan; Yadrick, Kathleen; Zoellner, Jamie; Connell, Carol L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine socio-environmental, behavioral, and predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling (PRE) factors contributing to post-migration dietary behavior change among a sample of traditional Hispanic males. Design: In this descriptive study, semistructured interviews, a group interview, and photovoice, followed by group interviews, were…

  12. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in patients with and without predisposing habits in glossal and extra-glossal site: An institutional experience in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ranganathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We report our cohort of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC patients with or without predisposing habits in glossal and extraglossal sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of OSCC cases over a period of 13.75 years from the archives of Ragas Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India. Demographic details, site, details of habits, and grade of OSCC were retrieved. Social Package for Social Service version 17.0 was used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and comparison of mean were employed appropriately. RESULTS: There were 151 OSCC cases, of which 60.9% (92/151 were males, 21.2% (32/151 were aged ≤40 years and 27.82% (42/151 occurred in the tongue. The glossal to extraglossal site ratio was 1:2.6. Predisposing habits were present in 52.4% of glossal OSCC and 82.6% with extra-glossal sites (P = 0.000. Besides tobacco, exclusive areca nut chewing was observed in 15.23% (23/151 patients. Thirty-nine (25.8% belonged to non-tobacco, non-areca nut, non-alcohol (NTND group with male to female ratio was1:3. DISCUSSION: In our cohort, 112 of 151 OSCC (74.8% had at least one predisposing habit. Chewing of areca nut alone was a predisposing habit by itself. In addition, there was a small, subset of cases that were not associated with history of any habits. This study brings to focus the subsets of OSCC predisposed by areca nut and NTND, that needs to be studied further.

  13. Detection of a Tumor Suppressor Gene Variant Predisposing to Colorectal Cancer in an 18th Century Hungarian Mummy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Feldman

    Full Text Available Mutations of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene are common and strongly associated with the development of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. While extensively studied in modern populations, reports on visceral tumors in ancient populations are scarce. To the best of our knowledge, genetic characterization of mutations associated with colorectal cancer in ancient specimens has not yet been described. In this study we have sequenced hotspots for mutations in the APC gene isolated from 18th century naturally preserved human Hungarian mummies. While wild type APC sequences were found in two mummies, we discovered the E1317Q missense mutation, known to be a colorectal cancer predisposing mutation, in a large intestine tissue of an 18th century mummy. Our data suggests that this genetic predisposition to cancer already existed in the pre-industrialization era. This study calls for similar investigations of ancient specimens from different periods and geographical locations to be conducted and shared for the purpose of obtaining a larger scale analysis that will shed light on past cancer epidemiology and on cancer evolution.

  14. Fournier’s Gangrene after Open Hemorrhoidectomy without a Predisposing Factor: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guldeniz Karadeniz Cakmak

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Fournier’s gangrene (FG is a fatal synergistic infectious disease with necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and abdominal wall along with the scrotum and penis in men and vulva in women. An unpredictable case of FG two weeks after open hemorrhoidectomy in a previously healthy 55-year-old male is described. Full-thickness patchy skin necrosis of the perianal, perineal and scrotal region associated with rectal perforation was detected on admission. Prompt radical debridement together with aggressive fluid resuscitation and broad-spectrum antibiotic administration was initiated. Because of rectal involvement, diverting sigmoid colostomy was fashioned. The patient survived after two additional local debridements. Nevertheless, loss of sphincter function due to massive muscle destruction led to permanent colostomy. Our case together with others reported in the literature illustrates that, although rare, FG after open hemorrhoidectomy represents a life-threatening complication to otherwise healthy patients. The development of fever and urinary retention should draw the attention of the surgeon, even if the presentation is delayed. The current literature only briefly mentions the potential risk of FG after such a common surgical procedure. However, devastating complications occur more often than anticipated. This disastrous complication without predisposing factor is discussed along with a literature review.

  15. Replacing sugary drinks with milk is inversely associated with weight gain among young obesity-predisposed children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of sugary drink consumption and its substitution with alternative beverages with body weight gain among young children predisposed to future weight gain. Secondary analysis of the Healthy Start Study, a 1·5-year randomised controlled...... to extrapolate the influence of replacing sugary drinks with alternative beverages (water, milk and diet drinks) on Δweight or ΔBMI z-score. Sugary drink intake at baseline and substitution of sugary drinks with milk were associated with both Δweight and ΔBMI z-score. Every 100 g/d increase in sugary drink...... intake was associated with 0·10 kg and 0·06 unit increases in body weight (P=0·048) and BMI z-score (P=0·04), respectively. Substitution of 100 g/d sugary drinks with 100 g/d milk was inversely associated with Δweight (β=-0·16 kg; P=0·045) and ΔBMI z-score (β=-0·07 units; P=0·04). The results...

  16. Cigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Disease Predisposes to More Severe Infection with Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: Protective Effects of Andrographolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W S Daniel; Peh, Hong Yong; Liao, Wupeng; Pang, Chu Hui; Chan, Tze Khee; Lau, Suk Hiang; Chow, Vincent T; Wong, W S Fred

    2016-05-27

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is associated with many maladies, one of which is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As the disease progresses, patients are more prone to develop COPD exacerbation episodes by bacterial infection, particularly to nontypeable Haemophilus influenza (NTHi) infection. The present study aimed to develop a CS-exposed mouse model that increases inflammation induced by NTHi challenge and investigate the protective effects of andrographolide, a bioactive molecule with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties isolated from the plant Andrographis paniculata. Female BALB/c mice exposed to 2 weeks of CS followed by a single intratracheal instillation of NTHi developed increased macrophage and neutrophil pulmonary infiltration, augmented cytokine levels, and heightened oxidative damage. Andrographolide effectively reduced lung cellular infiltrates and decreased lung levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, CXCL1/KC, 8-OHdG, matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), and MMP-9. The protective actions of andrographolide on CS-predisposed NTHi inflammation might be attributable to increased nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation and decreased Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) repressor function, resulting in enhanced gene expression of antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPx-2), glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier (GCLM), and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Taken together, these findings strongly support a therapeutic potential for andrographolide in preventing lung inflammation caused by NTHi in cigarette smokers. PMID:27104764

  17. Germline loss-of-function mutations in LZTR1 predispose to an inherited disorder of multiple schwannomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Xie, Jing; Liu, Ying F; Poplawski, Andrzej B; Gomes, Alicia R; Madanecki, Piotr; Fu, Chuanhua; Crowley, Michael R; Crossman, David K; Armstrong, Linlea; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Bergner, Amanda; Blakeley, Jaishri O; Blumenthal, Andrea L; Daniels, Molly S; Feit, Howard; Gardner, Kathy; Hurst, Stephanie; Kobelka, Christine; Lee, Chung; Nagy, Rebecca; Rauen, Katherine A; Slopis, John M; Suwannarat, Pim; Westman, Judith A; Zanko, Andrea; Korf, Bruce R; Messiaen, Ludwine M

    2014-02-01

    Constitutional SMARCB1 mutations at 22q11.23 have been found in ∼50% of familial and schwannomatosis cases. We sequenced highly conserved regions along 22q from eight individuals with schwannomatosis whose schwannomas involved somatic loss of one copy of 22q, encompassing SMARCB1 and NF2, with a different somatic mutation of the other NF2 allele in every schwannoma but no mutation of the remaining SMARCB1 allele in blood and tumor samples. LZTR1 germline mutations were identified in seven of the eight cases. LZTR1 sequencing in 12 further cases with the same molecular signature identified 9 additional germline mutations. Loss of heterozygosity with retention of an LZTR1 mutation was present in all 25 schwannomas studied. Mutations segregated with disease in all available affected first-degree relatives, although four asymptomatic parents also carried an LZTR1 mutation. Our findings identify LZTR1 as a gene predisposing to an autosomal dominant inherited disorder of multiple schwannomas in ∼80% of 22q-related schwannomatosis cases lacking mutation in SMARCB1. PMID:24362817

  18. Aspergillus citrinoterreus, a new species of section Terrei isolated from samples of patients with nonhematological predisposing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinea, Jesús; Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Escribano, Pilar; Peláez, Teresa; Guarro, Josep; Bouza, Emilio

    2015-02-01

    The use of molecular identification techniques has revealed an increasing number of new species within Aspergillus section Terrei. We phenotyped a set of 26 clinical isolates that showed genetic differences from Aspergillus terreus sensu stricto by analyzing sequences from PCR-amplified β-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the internal transcribed spacer region. Since the isolates were phylogenetically and morphologically different from all of the members of Aspergillus section Terrei, they are described here as a new species, Aspergillus citrinoterreus, so named because it produces a diffusible yellowish pigment in agar. A. citrinoterreus isolates were significantly more susceptible to itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole than A. terreus sensu stricto isolates were; in contrast, the amphotericin B MICs for both species were high. A. citrinoterreus was found in clinical samples from patients with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis and colonized patients, none of whom had hematological malignancies as predisposing conditions. However, they did have other underlying conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cirrhosis, and cancer or had received a solid organ transplants and presented not only with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis but also with mediastinitis. A. citrinoterreus isolates were detected for the first time in 2002. In all cases of invasive aspergillosis, A. citrinoterreus was found to be a copathogen, mostly with A. fumigatus.

  19. Developmental androgen excess programs sympathetic tone and adipose tissue dysfunction and predisposes to a cardiometabolic syndrome in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Kazunari; Waraich, Rizwana S; Liu, Suhuan; Ferron, Mathieu; Waget, Aurélie; Meyers, Matthew S; Karsenty, Gérard; Burcelin, Rémy; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck

    2013-06-15

    Among women, the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is considered a form of metabolic syndrome with reproductive abnormalities. Women with PCOS show increased sympathetic tone, visceral adiposity with enlarged adipocytes, hypoadiponectinemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, increased inactive osteocalcin, and hypertension. Excess fetal exposure to androgens has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Previously, we showed that neonatal exposure to the androgen testosterone (NT) programs leptin resistance in adult female mice. Here, we studied the impact of NT on lean and adipose tissues, sympathetic tone in cardiometabolic tissues, and the development of metabolic dysfunction in mice. Neonatally androgenized adult female mice (NTF) displayed masculinization of lean tissues with increased cardiac and skeletal muscle as well as kidney masses. NTF mice showed increased and dysfunctional white adipose tissue with increased sympathetic tone in both visceral and subcutaneous fat as well as increased number of enlarged and insulin-resistant adipocytes that displayed altered expression of developmental genes and hypoadiponectinemia. NTF exhibited dysfunctional brown adipose tissue with increased mass and decreased energy expenditure. They also displayed decreased undercarboxylated and active osteocalcin and were predisposed to obesity during chronic androgen excess. NTF showed increased renal sympathetic tone associated with increased blood pressure, and they developed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Thus, developmental exposure to testosterone in female mice programs features of cardiometabolic dysfunction, as can be observed in women with PCOS, including increased sympathetic tone, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, prediabetes, and hypertension.

  20. Knockout of the TauT gene predisposes C57BL/6 mice to streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Han

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end stage renal disease in the world. Although tremendous efforts have been made, scientists have yet to identify an ideal animal model that can reproduce the characteristics of human diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we hypothesize that taurine insufficiency is a critical risk factor for development of diabetic nephropathy associated with diabetes mellitus. This hypothesis was tested in vivo in TauT heterozygous (TauT+/- and homozygous (TauT-/- knockout in C57BL/6 background mice. We have shown that alteration of the TauT gene (also known as SLC6A6 has a substantial effect on the susceptibility to development of extensive diabetic kidney disease in both TauT+/- and TauT-/-mouse models of diabetes. These animals developed histological changes characteristic of human diabetic nephropathy that included glomerulosclerosis, nodular lesions, arteriosclerosis, arteriolar dilation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Immunohistochemical staining of molecular markers of smooth muscle actin, CD34, Ki67 and collagen IV further confirmed these observations. Our results demonstrated that both homozygous and heterozygous TauT gene deletion predispose C57BL/6 mice to develop end-stage diabetic kidney disease, which closely replicates the pathological features of diabetic nephropathy in human diabetic patients.

  1. Cigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Disease Predisposes to More Severe Infection with Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: Protective Effects of Andrographolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W S Daniel; Peh, Hong Yong; Liao, Wupeng; Pang, Chu Hui; Chan, Tze Khee; Lau, Suk Hiang; Chow, Vincent T; Wong, W S Fred

    2016-05-27

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is associated with many maladies, one of which is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As the disease progresses, patients are more prone to develop COPD exacerbation episodes by bacterial infection, particularly to nontypeable Haemophilus influenza (NTHi) infection. The present study aimed to develop a CS-exposed mouse model that increases inflammation induced by NTHi challenge and investigate the protective effects of andrographolide, a bioactive molecule with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties isolated from the plant Andrographis paniculata. Female BALB/c mice exposed to 2 weeks of CS followed by a single intratracheal instillation of NTHi developed increased macrophage and neutrophil pulmonary infiltration, augmented cytokine levels, and heightened oxidative damage. Andrographolide effectively reduced lung cellular infiltrates and decreased lung levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, CXCL1/KC, 8-OHdG, matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), and MMP-9. The protective actions of andrographolide on CS-predisposed NTHi inflammation might be attributable to increased nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation and decreased Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) repressor function, resulting in enhanced gene expression of antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPx-2), glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier (GCLM), and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Taken together, these findings strongly support a therapeutic potential for andrographolide in preventing lung inflammation caused by NTHi in cigarette smokers.

  2. Prevalence of Geographic tongue and Related Predisposing Factors in 7-18 Year-Old Students in Kermanshah, Iran 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Safarzadeh, Mina; Mozafari, Hamidreza; Tavakoli, Payam

    2015-01-01

    Geographic tongue is a benign lesion at the dorsum and margins of the tongue that sometimes causes pain and burning sensation. This lesion is characterized by an erythematous area with white or yellow folded edges. The predisposing factors of this lesion include heredity, allergies, psoriasis, stress, fissured tongue and consumption of some foods. The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of geographic tongue and its related factors among the 7-18 year-old students in Kermanshah, Iran. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in three schools in Kermanshah using multi-stage random cluster sampling method. A total number of 3600 students were examined (1800 girls and 1800 boys). Demographic data and the results of examinations were recorded in a questionnaire. The factors affecting the incidence of geographic tongue were analyzed by the SPSS-20 software and the Chi-square test.The prevalence of geographic tongue was 7.86% (283 individuals). The incidence of this lesion was significantly higher in males than in females (pstudents was higher than in female students.

  3. Predisposal Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognition of the importance of the safe management of radioactive waste means that, over the years, many well-established and effective techniques have been developed, and the nuclear industry and governments have gained considerable experience in this field. Minimization of waste is a fundamental principle underpinning the design and operation of all nuclear operations, together with waste reuse and recycling. For the remaining radioactive waste that will be produced, it is essential that there is a well defined plan (called a waste treatment path) to ensure the safe management and ultimately the safe disposal of radioactive waste so as to guarantee the sustainable long term deployment of nuclear technologies

  4. Adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammation and fibrosis characterize subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy, non-obese subjects predisposed to type 2 diabetes.

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    A M Josefin Henninger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adipose tissue is important for development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and adipose tissue dysfunction has been proposed as an underlying cause. In the present study we investigated presence of adipocyte hypertrophy, and gene expression pattern of adipose tissue dysfunction in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy, non-obese subjects predisposed to type 2 diabetes compared to matched control subjects with no known genetic predisposition for type 2 diabetes. METHOD: Seventeen healthy and non-obese subjects with known genetic predisposition for type 2 diabetes (first-degree relatives, FDRs and 17 control subjects were recruited. The groups were matched for gender and BMI and had similar age. Glucose tolerance was determined by an oral glucose tolerance test and insulin sensitivity was calculated using HOMA-index. Blood samples were collected and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies obtained for gene expression analysis and adipocyte cell size measurement. RESULTS: Our findings show that, in spite of similar age, BMI and percent body fat, FDRs displayed adipocyte hypertrophy, as well as higher waist/hip ratio, fasting insulin levels, HOMA-IR and serum triglycerides. Adipocyte hypertrophy in the FDR group, but not among controls, was associated with measures of impaired insulin sensitivity. The adipocyte hypertrophy was accompanied by increased inflammation and Wnt-signal activation. In addition, signs of tissue remodeling and fibrosis were observed indicating presence of early alterations associated with adipose tissue dysfunction in the FDRs. CONCLUSION: Genetic predisposition for type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity, adipocyte hypertrophy and other markers of adipose tissue dysfunction. A dysregulated subcutaneous adipose tissue may be a major susceptibility factor for later development of type 2 diabetes.

  5. Polymorphism of alcohol metabolizing gene ADH3 predisposes to development of alcoholic pancreatitis in North Indian population

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    Divya eSingh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim- Genetic factors regulating alcohol metabolism could predispose in developing alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP. Studies revealed that alcohol could be metabolized by both ways, oxidative and non-oxidative. The main oxidative pathway includes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH and cytochrome P450 enzyme. We investigated whether polymorphism in these alcohol metabolizing enzyme genes could be associated with alcoholic pancreatitis and is the purpose of our study. Method- Patients with alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP (n=72, tropical calcific pancreatitis (TCP (n=75, alcoholic controls (AC (n=40 and healthy controls (HC (n=100 were included in the study. Blood samples were collected from the subjects in EDTA coated vials. DNA was extracted and genotyping for ADH3, ALDH2 and CYP2E1 was done by PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism. The products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis. Result- The frequency distribution of ADH3*1/*1 genotype was significantly higher in ACP group (59.7% compared with TCP (38.7%, HC (42% and AC (37.5% and was found to be associated with increased risk of alcoholic pancreatitis. There was no statistically significant difference between the frequency distribution of ADH3*1/*1, ADH3*1/*2 and ADH3*2/*2 genotype between TCP and HC and healthy alcoholics. ALDH2 gene was monomorphic in our population, and the frequencies for CYP2E1 intron 6 Dra I polymorphism were comparable in all four groups. Conclusion- This study shows that carriers of ADH3*1/*1 individuals consuming alcohol are at higher risk for alcoholic pancreatitis than those with other genotypes such as ADH3*1/*2 and ADH3*2/*2.

  6. Macrophages and dendritic cells emerge in the liver during intestinal inflammation and predispose the liver to inflammation.

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    Yohei Mikami

    Full Text Available The liver is a physiological site of immune tolerance, the breakdown of which induces immunity. Liver antigen-presenting cells may be involved in both immune tolerance and activation. Although inflammatory diseases of the liver are frequently associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, the underlying immunological mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we report two murine models of inflammatory bowel disease: RAG-2(-/- mice adoptively transferred with CD4(+CD45RB(high T cells; and IL-10(-/- mice, accompanied by the infiltration of mononuclear cells in the liver. Notably, CD11b(-CD11c(lowPDCA-1(+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs abundantly residing in the liver of normal wild-type mice disappeared in colitic CD4(+CD45RB(high T cell-transferred RAG-2(-/- mice and IL-10(-/- mice in parallel with the emergence of macrophages (Mφs and conventional DCs (cDCs. Furthermore, liver Mφ/cDCs emerging during intestinal inflammation not only promote the proliferation of naïve CD4(+ T cells, but also instruct them to differentiate into IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells in vitro. The emergence of pathological Mφ/cDCs in the liver also occurred in a model of acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis under specific pathogen-free conditions, but was canceled in germ-free conditions. Last, the Mφ/cDCs that emerged in acute DSS colitis significantly exacerbated Fas-mediated hepatitis. Collectively, intestinal inflammation skews the composition of antigen-presenting cells in the liver through signaling from commensal bacteria and predisposes the liver to inflammation.

  7. Predisposing genes for vitiligo%白癜风易感基因的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭吕娇; 康晓静

    2014-01-01

    白癜风是一种获得性色素脱失性皮肤疾病,其发病机制复杂.近年来研究表明,白癜风是一种多基因遗传病,尤其是泛发性白癜风与遗传密切相关.在近年研究中,认为谷胱甘肽巯基转移酶基因、过氧化氢酶基因、Toll样受体家族基因、酪氨酸酶基因、盘状结构域受体基因、人类白细胞抗原等位基因和超氧化物歧化酶基因等是白癜风易感基因.探讨白癜风的易感基因为进一步阐明其发病机制提供依据,对白癜风尤其是泛发性白癜风的早期诊断、治疗、预防具有重要作用.%Vitiligo is an acquired dermatosis characterized principally by skin depigmentation with complex pathogenesis.Recent studies have indicated that vitiligo is a polygenic disease,and generalized vitiligo is particularly closely related to heredity.Many predisposing genes have been discovered for vitiligo,including the glutathione S-transferase gene,Catalase gene,Toll-like receptor gene family,tyrosinase gene,discoidin domain receptor 1 gene,human leukocyte antigen alleles,superoxide dismutase gene,etc.To study the susceptible genes for vitiligo may provide a basis for the elucidation of vitiligo pathogenesis,and greatly benefit the early diagnosis,treatment and prevention of vitiligo,especially generalized vitiligo.

  8. Clinical profile, predisposing factors, and associated co-morbidities of children with cerebral palsy in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vykuntaraju K Gowda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebral palsy (CP is the most common physical disorder of children. Causes like jaundice and birth injury though are decreasing; complications resulting from the survival of low birth weight babies are replacing some of the older etiologies. Hence, this study was planned. Objectives: The objective was to study the clinical patterns, predisposing factors, and co-morbidities in children with CP. Materials and Methods: The present study is a hospital based prospective study conducted from January 2012 to January 2013 in children presenting to neurodevelopmental clinic at a tertiary care teaching hospital in India. Hundred cases with clinical features suggestive of CP were included in the study. Cases were evaluated by history, clinical examination, and necessary investigations. Results: Results of the study showed 81% of spastic, 12% of hypotonic, 5% of dystonic, and 2% of mixed CP cases. The mean age of presentation was 2 year, 2 month, and male to female ratio of 1:2. Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH was the most common antenatal complication observed in 6%. Four percent had neonatal sepsis and 19% were born premature. Associated co-morbidities were mental retardation (55%, seizure disorder (46%, visual problems (26%, hearing problems (19%, and failure to thrive (47%. Discussion: Sex distribution observed in our study was male to female ratio of 1.2, which was comparable with a multicenter study in Europe. PIH was observed in 6% of cases, which was comparable with prior studies. Birth asphyxia was observed in 43% of cases. Eighty-one percent of the cases constituted a spastic variety of CP which was comparable to other studies. Conclusion: Perinatal asphyxia was the important etiological factor. We found preventable intranatal causes (60% and antenatal causes (20% forming a significant proportion. Co-morbidities were significantly observed in our study.

  9. Analysis of adverse events and predisposing factors in voluntary and replacement whole blood donors: A study from north India

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    Naveen Agnihotri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of awareness and community motivation, compounded with fragmented blood transfusion services in our country, Often leads to shortage of blood. Donor recruitment and retention are essential for ensuring adequate blood supply. However, adverse events (AEs in donors have a negative impact on donor return. Aims and Objectives: The present study was aimed to assess the frequency of AEs in whole blood donors and analyze the predisposing factors for AEs. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on allogeneic whole blood donors over a period of 14 months, i.e., from January 2002 to February 2003. A total of 37,896 donors were monitored for any AEs: 22587 (59.6% were voluntary donors (VD and 15,309 (40.4% were replacement donors (RD. Results: Overall reaction rate was 2.5% with vasovagal reactions constituting 63.5% and hematomas 35.0% of all reactions. Vasovagal reactions showed a significant association with young age, lower weight, first time donation status, female gender, and nature of blood donation camps. Amongst male donors, RDs had more reactions (P=0.03 than VDs. Majority of donors (85% with vasovagal reactions admitted to some fear or anxiety prior to donation. Hematoma formation occurred significantly more when less trained staff performed phlebotomy. Conclusion: Donor safety is an essential prerequisite to increase voluntary blood donation. AE analysis helps in identifying the blood donors at risk of donor reactions and adopting appropriate donor motivational strategies, pre-donation counseling, and care during and after donation.

  10. Can Certain Genotypes Predispose to Poor Asthma Control in Children? A Pharmacogenetic Study of 9 Candidate Genes in Children with Difficult Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Basima Almomani; Hawwa, Ahmed F; Millership, Jeffrey S; Liam Heaney; Isabella Douglas; McElnay, James C.; Shields, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We tested the hypothesis that patients with difficult asthma have an increased frequency of certain genotypes that predispose them to asthma exacerbations and poor asthma control. Methods: A total of 180 Caucasian children with confirmed asthma diagnosis were selected from two phenotypic groups; difficult (n = 112) versus mild/moderate asthma (n = 68) groups. All patients were screened for 19 polymorphisms in 9 candidate genes to evaluate their association with difficult asthma. Ke...

  11. Incidence, predisposing factors, management and survival following cardiac arrest due to subarachnoid haemorrhage: a review of the literature

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    Skrifvars Markus B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The prevalence of cardiac arrest among patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage [SAH], and the prevalence of SAH as the cause following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest [OHCA] or in-hospital cardiac arrest [IHCA] is unknown. In addition it is unclear whether cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR] and post-resuscitation care management differs, and to what extent this will lead to meaningful survival following cardiac arrest [CA] due to SAH. Aim We reviewed the literature in order to describe; 1.The prevalence and predisposing factors of CA among patients with SAH 2.The prevalence of SAH as the cause of OHCA or IHCA and factors characterising CPR 3.The survival and management of SAH patients with CA. Material and methods The following sources, PubMed, CinAHL and The Cochrane DataBase were searched using the following Medical Subheadings [MeSH]; 1. OHCA, IHCA, heart arrest and 2. subarachnoid haemorrhage. Articles containing relevant data based on the abstract were reviewed in order to find results relevant to the proposed research questions. Manuscripts in other languages than English, animal studies, reviews and case reports were excluded. Results A total of 119 publications were screened for relevance and 13 papers were included. The prevalence of cardiac or respiratory arrest among all patients with SAH is between 3-11%, these patients commonly have a severe SAH with coma, large bleeds and evidence of raised intracerebral pressure on computed tomography scans compared to those who did not experience a CA. The prevalence of patients with SAH as the cause of the arrest among OHCA cases vary between 4 to 8% among those who die before hospital admission, and between 4 to 18% among those who are admitted. The prevalence of SAH as the cause following IHCA is low, around 0.5% according to one recent study. In patients with OHCA survival to hospital discharge is poor with 0 to 2% surviving. The initial rhythm is commonly asystole or

  12. Predisposing factors of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy: comparison between CT emphysema score and pulmonary function test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Park, Kyung Joo; Park, Dong Won; Jung, Kyung Il; Suh, Jung Ho [Ajou Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-11-01

    To compare the CT emphysema score with various factors of pulmonary function test by simple spirometry and to use the result as a predictor of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy. The CT scans of 106 patients who had undergone percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions within the previous 18 months were retrospectively reviewed. In 75 of these 106 cases, the results of the pulmonary function test were also reviewed. On plain chest radiography, pneumothorax was noted in 20 cases (19%). Emphysema was blindly evaluated. We divided each lung into four segments and determined the severity and involved volume of emphysema, as seen on CT. Severity was classified as one of four grades, as follow : absence of emphysema=0 ; low attenuation area of less than 5mm=1 ; low attenuation area of more than 5mm, and vascular pruning with normal lung intervening=2 ; and diffuse low attenuation without intervening normal lung, and larger confluent low attenuation with vascular pruning and distortion of branching pattern occupying all or almost all the involved parenchyma=3. The involved area was also classified as one of four grades : less than 25%=1 ; 25 - 49%=2 ; 51 - 74%=3 ; and more than 75%=4. The CT emphysema score was defined as the average of the grade of severity multiplied by the grade of involved area. Pulmonary function tests, consisting of simple spirometry and a pulmonologist's interpretation, were evaluated. We also evaluated depth and size of lesion as known predisposing factors in postbioptic pneumothorax. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, Wilcoxon ranks sum W test and the student t test. A comparison between the two groups of occurrence(with or without pneumothorax) showed the emphysema scores to be 1.69{+-}2.0 and 1.11{+-}2.9, respectively ; there was thus no significant difference between the two groups (z= - 0.048, p>0.10). Nor were differences revealed by the

  13. Predisposing factors of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy: comparison between CT emphysema score and pulmonary function test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the CT emphysema score with various factors of pulmonary function test by simple spirometry and to use the result as a predictor of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy. The CT scans of 106 patients who had undergone percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions within the previous 18 months were retrospectively reviewed. In 75 of these 106 cases, the results of the pulmonary function test were also reviewed. On plain chest radiography, pneumothorax was noted in 20 cases (19%). Emphysema was blindly evaluated. We divided each lung into four segments and determined the severity and involved volume of emphysema, as seen on CT. Severity was classified as one of four grades, as follow : absence of emphysema=0 ; low attenuation area of less than 5mm=1 ; low attenuation area of more than 5mm, and vascular pruning with normal lung intervening=2 ; and diffuse low attenuation without intervening normal lung, and larger confluent low attenuation with vascular pruning and distortion of branching pattern occupying all or almost all the involved parenchyma=3. The involved area was also classified as one of four grades : less than 25%=1 ; 25 - 49%=2 ; 51 - 74%=3 ; and more than 75%=4. The CT emphysema score was defined as the average of the grade of severity multiplied by the grade of involved area. Pulmonary function tests, consisting of simple spirometry and a pulmonologist's interpretation, were evaluated. We also evaluated depth and size of lesion as known predisposing factors in postbioptic pneumothorax. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, Wilcoxon ranks sum W test and the student t test. A comparison between the two groups of occurrence(with or without pneumothorax) showed the emphysema scores to be 1.69±2.0 and 1.11±2.9, respectively ; there was thus no significant difference between the two groups (z= - 0.048, p>0.10). Nor were differences revealed by the pulmonary

  14. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria: Predisposing conditions and clinical characteristics of six cases and a review of 63 cases in the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung-Jong; Kim, Uh-Jin; Kim, Hong Bin; Park, Sang Won; Oh, Myoung-Don; Park, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Nam Joong

    2016-07-01

    Background Several case series have reported on clinical and radiographic characteristics of patients with vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). However, only a few patients were included, and systematic reviews are still lacking. The aim of this study was to update and summarise the pre-disposing conditions, clinical and radiographic characteristics of such cases due to NTM. Methods In this study, a systematic review was conducted of the English-language literature from 1961-2014 to investigate the pre-disposing conditions and characteristics of cases of VO due to NTM. Also, six additional cases diagnosed in the study hospitals were described; these cases are included in an analysis of a total of 69 cases of NTM VO. Results The most common species, regardless of the presence of HIV co-infection, was M. avium Complex followed by M. xenopi. Ten cases with HIV infection had a median CD4 lymphocyte count of 320/mm(3) (range = 41-465/mm(3)) at the time of diagnosis of NTM VO. The VO in the cases with HIV infections occurred at an earlier age and more often involved the thoracic spine than in the cases without HIV infection. Pre-disposing trauma or surgery was reported in 14.5% (10/69) of the cases. A variety of immunosuppressive diseases were observed in 49.3% of the patients, including the 10 with HIV infections and corticosteroids were used in 27.5% of the cases. Surgery was performed in 67.6% and improvement was reported in 80.6%. Conclusion NTM should be considered in immunocompromised patients with indolent VO without confirmation of tuberculosis.

  15. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria: Predisposing conditions and clinical characteristics of six cases and a review of 63 cases in the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung-Jong; Kim, Uh-Jin; Kim, Hong Bin; Park, Sang Won; Oh, Myoung-Don; Park, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Nam Joong

    2016-07-01

    Background Several case series have reported on clinical and radiographic characteristics of patients with vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). However, only a few patients were included, and systematic reviews are still lacking. The aim of this study was to update and summarise the pre-disposing conditions, clinical and radiographic characteristics of such cases due to NTM. Methods In this study, a systematic review was conducted of the English-language literature from 1961-2014 to investigate the pre-disposing conditions and characteristics of cases of VO due to NTM. Also, six additional cases diagnosed in the study hospitals were described; these cases are included in an analysis of a total of 69 cases of NTM VO. Results The most common species, regardless of the presence of HIV co-infection, was M. avium Complex followed by M. xenopi. Ten cases with HIV infection had a median CD4 lymphocyte count of 320/mm(3) (range = 41-465/mm(3)) at the time of diagnosis of NTM VO. The VO in the cases with HIV infections occurred at an earlier age and more often involved the thoracic spine than in the cases without HIV infection. Pre-disposing trauma or surgery was reported in 14.5% (10/69) of the cases. A variety of immunosuppressive diseases were observed in 49.3% of the patients, including the 10 with HIV infections and corticosteroids were used in 27.5% of the cases. Surgery was performed in 67.6% and improvement was reported in 80.6%. Conclusion NTM should be considered in immunocompromised patients with indolent VO without confirmation of tuberculosis. PMID:27002256

  16. Frequency of different types of precocious puberty, determining the predisposing factor and need to treatment in children - Emam Hospital (1993-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayeri H

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was performed in order to detect the frequency of different types of precocious puberty, predisposing factors and to show which group of patients need to treatment. Materials and Methods: In this study, 74 patients who referred to pediatric endocrine clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital and private office from 1993-2000 were assessed. A complete history was taken and physical examination was done in all patients by pediatrics endocrinologist. Bone age was done in all patients and specific hormonal tests were measured in some of them. Results: Among 74 patients, 50 cases (67.6 percent were female and 24 cases (32.4 percent were male. The age of the patients was between 0.8-10 years old with mean 5.37 year. 75 percent of male patients had central (complete precocious puberty and 25 percent had peripheral (incomplete precocious puberty. 40 percent of female patients had central precocious puberty, 46 percent had premature telarche, 8 percent had premature pubarche, 2 percent had premature menarche and 4 percent had other kinds of precocious puberty (one case with hypothyroidism and one case with Mccune-Albright syndrome. 10 percent of female patients with central precocious puberty had predisposing factor and 90 percent of them were idiopathic. 38.8 percent of male patients with central precocious puberty had predisposing factor and 61.2 percent of them were idiopathic. 100 percent of male patients with peripheral precocious puberty had congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. 38 percent of female patients and 100 percent of male patients needed to treatment. Conclusion: According to this study and references, precocious puberty in female usually benign but in male patients it should be evaluated thoroughly because they usually have a serious disorder which needs treatment.

  17. Tumor-mimicking large vegetation attached to the tricuspid valve without predisposing factors: A case report on CT and echocardiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jung Min; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Hwang, Hye Won; Kim, Jung Sun; Kim, Wook Sung; Peck, Kyong Ran; Park, Sung Ji [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We report the CT and echocardiographic findings of a tumor-mimicking large vegetation attached to the tricuspid valve (TV) of a 45-year-old man without predisposing factors. Echocardiography revealed a mobile homogeneous echogenic mass attached to the TV. Cardiac CT showed a 4.5 × 2.3 cm irregular low-density mass with scant enhancement in the right ventricle. Based on clinical findings of fever, positive blood culture results for Streptococcus viridans, and pathologic confirmation of the lesion, a diagnosis of infective endocarditis and vegetation was made.

  18. The effects of joint legal custody on mothers, fathers, and children controlling for factors that predispose a sole maternal versus joint legal award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnoe, M L; Braver, S L

    2001-02-01

    Findings from comparisons of joint and sole custody families that do not control for predivorce differences in demographic and family process variables (factors that may predispose families to choose or be awarded joint custody) are of limited generalizability, since obtained group differences may be attributable to predisposing (self-selection) factors, custody, or both. This study compared a random sample of 254 recently separated, not-yet-divorced families on 71 predivorce variables that might plausibly differentiate between families awarded joint legal versus sole maternal custody. Twenty such factors were identified and controlled for in subsequent comparisons of 52 sole maternal and 26 joint legal custody families 2 years postdivorce. Families with joint custody had more frequent father-child visitation, lower maternal satisfaction with custody arrangements, more rapid maternal repartnering, and fewer child adjustment problems (net of predivorce selection factors). Moreover, these effects did not appear to be moderated by level of predecree parental conflict. No association between custody and fathers' compliance with child support orders was obtained.

  19. Calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Elsgolc, L E; Stark, M

    1961-01-01

    Calculus of Variations aims to provide an understanding of the basic notions and standard methods of the calculus of variations, including the direct methods of solution of the variational problems. The wide variety of applications of variational methods to different fields of mechanics and technology has made it essential for engineers to learn the fundamentals of the calculus of variations. The book begins with a discussion of the method of variation in problems with fixed boundaries. Subsequent chapters cover variational problems with movable boundaries and some other problems; sufficiency

  20. Subtle variations in Pten dose determine cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimonti, Andrea; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Clohessy, John G; Trotman, Lloyd C; Nardella, Caterina; Egia, Ainara; Salmena, Leonardo; Sampieri, Katia; Haveman, William J; Brogi, Edi; Richardson, Andrea L; Zhang, Jiangwen; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2010-05-01

    Cancer susceptibility has been attributed to at least one heterozygous genetic alteration in a tumor suppressor gene (TSG). It has been hypothesized that subtle variations in TSG expression can promote cancer development. However, this hypothesis has not yet been definitively supported in vivo. Pten is a TSG frequently lost in human cancer and mutated in inherited cancer-predisposition syndromes. Here we analyze Pten hypermorphic mice (Pten(hy/+)), expressing 80% normal levels of Pten. Pten(hy/+) mice develop a spectrum of tumors, with breast tumors occurring at the highest penetrance. All breast tumors analyzed here retained two intact copies of Pten and maintained Pten levels above heterozygosity. Notably, subtle downregulation of Pten altered the steady-state biology of the mammary tissues and the expression profiles of genes involved in cancer cell proliferation. We present an alterative working model for cancer development in which subtle reductions in the dose of TSGs predispose to tumorigenesis in a tissue-specific manner.

  1. The fate of (13)C-labelled and non-labelled inulin predisposed to large bowel fermentation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Christine A; Paturi, Gunaranjan; Tavendale, Michael H; Hedderley, Duncan; Stoklosinski, Halina M; Herath, Thanuja D; Rosendale, Douglas; Roy, Nicole C; Monro, John A; Ansell, Juliet

    2016-04-01

    The fate of stable-isotope (13)C labelled and non-labelled inulin catabolism by the gut microbiota was assessed in a healthy rat model. Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly assigned to diets containing either cellulose or inulin, and were fed these diets for 3 days. On day (d) 4, rats allocated to the inulin diet received (13)C-labelled inulin. The rats were then fed the respective non-labelled diets (cellulose or inulin) until sampling (d4, d5, d6, d7, d10 and d11). Post feeding of (13)C-labelled substrate, breath analysis showed that (13)C-inulin cleared from the host within a period of 36 hours. Faecal (13)C demonstrated the clearance of inulin from gut with a (13)C excess reaching maximum at 24 hours (d5) and then declining gradually. There were greater variations in caecal organic acid concentrations from d4 to d6, with higher concentrations of acetic, butyric and propionic acids observed in the rats fed inulin compared to those fed cellulose. Inulin influenced caecal microbial glycosidase activity, increased colon crypt depth, and decreased the faecal output and polysaccharide content compared to the cellulose diet. In summary, the presence of inulin in the diet positively influenced large bowel microbial fermentation.

  2. The absence of VGLUT3 predisposes to cocaine abuse by increasing dopamine and glutamate signaling in the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakae, D Y; Marti, F; Lecca, S; Vorspan, F; Martín-García, E; Morel, L J; Henrion, A; Gutiérrez-Cuesta, J; Besnard, A; Heck, N; Herzog, E; Bolte, S; Prado, V F; Prado, M A M; Bellivier, F; Eap, C B; Crettol, S; Vanhoutte, P; Caboche, J; Gratton, A; Moquin, L; Giros, B; Maldonado, R; Daumas, S; Mameli, M; Jamain, S; El Mestikawy, S

    2015-11-01

    Tonically active cholinergic interneurons (TANs) from the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are centrally involved in reward behavior. TANs express a vesicular glutamate transporter referred to as VGLUT3 and thus use both acetylcholine and glutamate as neurotransmitters. The respective roles of each transmitter in the regulation of reward and addiction are still unknown. In this study, we showed that disruption of the gene that encodes VGLUT3 (Slc17a8) markedly increased cocaine self-administration in mice. Concomitantly, the amount of dopamine (DA) release was strongly augmented in the NAc of VGLUT3(-/-) mice because of a lack of signaling by metabotropic glutamate receptors. Furthermore, dendritic spines and glutamatergic synaptic transmission on medium spiny neurons were increased in the NAc of VGLUT3(-/-) mice. Increased DA and glutamate signaling in the NAc are hallmarks of addiction. Our study shows that TANs use glutamate to reduce DA release and decrease reinforcing properties of cocaine in mice. Interestingly, we also observed an increased frequency of rare variations in SLC17A8 in a cohort of severe drug abusers compared with controls. Our findings identify VGLUT3 as an unexpected regulator of drug abuse. PMID:26239290

  3. Cytomegalovirus retinitis after central retinal vein occlusion in a patient on systemic immunosuppression: does venooclusive disease predispose to cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients already at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welling JD

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available John D Welling, Ahmad B Tarabishy, John ChristoforidisDepartment of Ophthalmology, Havener Eye Institute, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis remains the most common opportunistic ocular infection in immunocompromised patients. Patients with immunocompromising diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, inherited immunodeficiency states, malignancies, and those on systemic immunosuppressive therapy, are known to be at risk. Recently, it has been suggested that patients undergoing intravitreal injection of immunosuppressive agents may also be predisposed. One previous case report speculated that there may be an additional risk for CMV retinitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with venoocclusive disease. This case study presents a case of CMV retinitis following central retinal vein occlusion in a patient on systemic immunosuppressants.Keywords: cytomegalovirus retinitis, central retinal vein occlusion, immunosuppression, solid organ transplant, venous stasis, risk factor

  4. The major predisposing factors to human papilloma virus (HPV infection among patients with cancer of the cervix and their knowledge of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Lipke

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the main predisposing factors to human papilloma virus (HPV infection among patients with cancer of the cervix as well as establish their knowledge and awareness of the disease, so as to design educational programmes to minimise the future occurrence of the disease.

    Opsomming
    Doel: Die doel van hierdie studie was om die vernaamste predisposionele faktore tot Menslike Papilloma Virus (HPV infeksie te identifiseer by pasiente met kanker van die serviks, insluitende hulle kennis en bewustheid van die siekte, ten einde opvoedkundige programme tot stand te bring en te ontwerp wat die hoe voorkoms van die siekte kan minimiseer. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Soldiers 2.5 Years after Military Deployment in Afghanistan: The Role of Personality Traits as Predisposing Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Hellerup Nielsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD implicates research regarding factors besides the preceding traumatic event. This study investigated the influence of predisposing personality traits on development of PTSD in a group of Danish Soldiers deployed to Afghanistan (N = 445. Using a prospective design data was collected using questionnaires including the NEO Five Factor Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. The results showed a PTSD-prevalence of 9.2% in the total sample 2.5 years after homecoming. Using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Spearman¡'s rho significant relationships were identified between pre-existing personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness with development of PTSD symptoms 2.5 years after homecoming, however, a number of additional cofounders were identified.

  6. Child behavioural problems and body size among 2-6 year old children predisposed to overweight. results from the "healthy start" study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Pedersen, Jeanett; Händel, Mina N;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychological adversities among young children may be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. We examined if an increased level of child behavioural problems was associated with body size among a selected group of 2-6 year old children, who were all predisposed to develop......-score (β = 0.021, p = 0.11). Having an SDQ-TD score above the 90(th) percentile was associated with BMI z-score (β = 0.36, p = 0.05). PSB score was not associated with BMI z-score. Analyses were adjusted for parental socioeconomic status, parental BMI, family structure, dietary factors, physical activity......, and family stress level. CONCLUSION: The results suggested a threshold effect between SDQ-TD score and BMI z-score, where BMI z-score was associated with childhood behavioural problems only for those with the highest scores of SDQ-TD. No significant association between PSB score and BMI z-score was found....

  7. N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene polymorphism as a predisposing factor for phenytoin intoxication in tuberculous meningitis or tuberculoma patients having seizures - A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adole, Prashant S.; Kharbanda, Parampreet S.; Sharma, Sadhna

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Simultaneous administration of phenytoin and isoniazid (INH) in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) or tuberculoma patients with seizures results in higher plasma phenytoin level and thus phenytoin intoxication. N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) enzyme catalyses two acetylation reactions in INH metabolism and NAT2 gene polymorphism leads to slow and rapid acetylators. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of allelic variants of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene as a predisposing factor for phenytoin toxicity in patients with TBM or tuberculoma having seizures, and taking INH and phenytoin simultaneously. Methods: Sixty patients with TBM or tuberculoma with seizures and taking INH and phenytoin simultaneously for a minimum period of seven days were included in study. Plasma phenytoin was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. NAT2 gene polymorphism was studied using restriction fragment length polymorphism and allele specific PCR. Results: The patients were grouped into those having phenytoin intoxication and those with normal phenytoin level, and also classified as rapid or slow acetylators by NAT2 genotyping. Genotypic analysis showed that of the seven SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) of NAT2 gene studied, six mutations were found to be associated with phenytoin intoxication. For rs1041983 (C282T), rs1799929 (C481T), rs1799931 (G857A), rs1799930 (G590A), rs1208 (A803G) and rs1801280 (T341C) allelic variants, the proportion of homozygous mutant was higher in phenytoin intoxicated group than in phenytoin non-intoxicated group. Interpretation & conclusions: Homozygous mutant allele of NAT2 gene at 481site may act as a predisposing factor for phenytoin intoxication among TBM or tuberculoma patients having seizures. PMID:27488001

  8. Studying Variation in Tunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B.; van Kranenburg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in music can be caused by different phenomena: conscious, creative manipulation of musical ideas; but also unconscious variation during music recall. It is the latter phenomenon that we wish to study: variation which occurs in oral transmission, in which a melody is taught without the help

  9. Variation of fundamental constants

    CERN Document Server

    Flambaum, V V

    2006-01-01

    We present a review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant alpha, strong interaction and fundamental masses. There are some hints for the variation in quasar absorption spectra, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. A very promising method to search for the variation of the fundamental constants consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transition between accidentally degenerate atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a ``nuclear'' clock based on the ultraviolet transition between very low excited state and ground state in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude! Huge enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feschbach resonance.

  10. Asynchronous Variational Integrators

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, A.; Marsden, J. E.; Ortiz, M.; West, M

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new class of asynchronous variational integrators (AVI) for nonlinear elastodynamics. The AVIs are distinguished by the following attributes: (i) The algorithms permit the selection of independent time steps in each element, and the local time steps need not bear an integral relation to each other; (ii) the algorithms derive from a spacetime form of a discrete version of Hamilton’s variational principle. As a consequence of this variational structure, the algorith...

  11. Calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, I M

    2000-01-01

    Based on a series of lectures given by I. M. Gelfand at Moscow State University, this book actually goes considerably beyond the material presented in the lectures. The aim is to give a treatment of the elements of the calculus of variations in a form both easily understandable and sufficiently modern. Considerable attention is devoted to physical applications of variational methods, e.g., canonical equations, variational principles of mechanics, and conservation laws.The reader who merely wishes to become familiar with the most basic concepts and methods of the calculus of variations need on

  12. Variations of the perforin gene in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttini, S; Cappellano, G; Ripellino, P; Briani, C; Cocito, D; Osio, M; Cantello, R; Dianzani, U; Comi, C

    2015-01-01

    Perforin (PRF) has a key role in the function of cytotoxic T and natural killer cells. Rare variations of PRF1 predispose to autoimmunity. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system, involving defective lymphocyte apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PRF1 in CIDP. The entire coding region of PRF1 was sequenced in 94 patients and 158 controls. We found three missense variations leading to amino acid substitutions and one nonsense variation resulting in a premature stop codon. All variations would decrease PRF activity. Their overall frequency was significantly higher in patients than in controls (odds ratio (OR)=4.47). The most frequent variation was p.Ala91Val (OR=3.92) previously associated with other autoimmune diseases. Clinical analysis showed that PRF1 variations were more frequent in relapsing patients and in patients displaying axonal damage. These data suggest that PRF1 variations may influence CIDP development and course.

  13. The Variational Fair Autoencoder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Louizos; K. Swersky; Y. Li; M. Welling; R. Zemel

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the problem of learning representations that are invariant to certain nuisance or sensitive factors of variation in the data while retaining as much of the remaining information as possible. Our model is based on a variational autoencoding architecture with priors that encourage indep

  14. Variation of Fundamental Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flambaum, V. V.

    2006-11-01

    Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest temporal and spatial variation of the fundamental ``constants'' in expanding Universe. The spatial variation can explain a fine tuning of the fundamental constants which allows humans (and any life) to appear. We appeared in the area of the Universe where the values of the fundamental constants are consistent with our existence. We present a review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant α, strong interaction and fundamental masses. There are some hints for the variation in quasar absorption spectra. Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. A very promising method to search for the variation of the fundamental constants consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transition between accidentally degenerate atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a ``nuclear'' clock based on the ultraviolet transition between very low excited state and ground state in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude! Huge enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feshbach resonance.

  15. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses for 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 genes predisposing to chronic glomerular diseases and IgA nephropathy in Han Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN is a complex trait regulated by the inter-action among multiple physiologic regulatory systems and probably involving numerous genes, which leads to inconsistent findings in genetic studies. One possibility of failure to replicate some single-locus results is that the underlying genetics of IgAN nephropathy is based on multiple genes with minor effects. To learn the association between 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 14 genes predisposing to chronic glomerular diseases and IgAN in Han males, the 23 SNPs genotypes of 21 Han males were detected and analyzed with a BaiO gene chip, and their asso-ciations were analyzed with univariate analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. Analysis showed that CTLA4 rs231726 and CR2 rs1048971 revealed a significant association with IgAN. These findings support the multi-gene nature of the etiology of IgAN and propose a potential gene-gene interactive model for future studies.

  16. Loss of PKBβ/Akt2 predisposes mice to ovarian cyst formation and increases the severity of polycystic ovary formation in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Restuccia

    2012-05-01

    Ovarian cysts affect women of all ages and decrease fertility. In particular, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, in which multiple follicular cysts develop, affects 5–10% of women of reproductive age and can result in infertility. Current non-invasive treatments for PCOS can resolve cysts and restore fertility, but unresponsive patients must undergo severe ovarian wedge resection and resort to in vitro fertilization. PCOS is related to the deregulation of leutinizing hormone (LH signaling at various levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and resultant hyperproduction of androgens. Because insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia are observed in 50–70% of individuals with PCOS, deregulated insulin signaling in the ovary is considered an important factor in the disease. Here we report that aged mice specifically lacking the PKBβ (also known as Akt2 isoform that is crucial for insulin signaling develop increased testosterone levels and ovarian cysts, both of which are also observed in insulin-resistant PCOS patients. Young PKBβ knockout mice were used to model PCOS by treatment with LH and exhibited a cyst area that was threefold greater than in controls, but without hyperinsulinemia. Thus, loss of PKBβ might predispose mice to ovarian cysts independently of hyperactive insulin signaling. Targeted therapeutic augmentation of specific PKBβ signaling could therefore provide a new avenue for the treatment and management of ovarian cysts.

  17. Ensembl variation resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin-Garcia Pablo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maturing field of genomics is rapidly increasing the number of sequenced genomes and producing more information from those previously sequenced. Much of this additional information is variation data derived from sampling multiple individuals of a given species with the goal of discovering new variants and characterising the population frequencies of the variants that are already known. These data have immense value for many studies, including those designed to understand evolution and connect genotype to phenotype. Maximising the utility of the data requires that it be stored in an accessible manner that facilitates the integration of variation data with other genome resources such as gene annotation and comparative genomics. Description The Ensembl project provides comprehensive and integrated variation resources for a wide variety of chordate genomes. This paper provides a detailed description of the sources of data and the methods for creating the Ensembl variation databases. It also explores the utility of the information by explaining the range of query options available, from using interactive web displays, to online data mining tools and connecting directly to the data servers programmatically. It gives a good overview of the variation resources and future plans for expanding the variation data within Ensembl. Conclusions Variation data is an important key to understanding the functional and phenotypic differences between individuals. The development of new sequencing and genotyping technologies is greatly increasing the amount of variation data known for almost all genomes. The Ensembl variation resources are integrated into the Ensembl genome browser and provide a comprehensive way to access this data in the context of a widely used genome bioinformatics system. All Ensembl data is freely available at http://www.ensembl.org and from the public MySQL database server at ensembldb.ensembl.org.

  18. Variational Transition State Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, Donald G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This is the final report on a project involving the development and applications of variational transition state theory. This project involved the development of variational transition state theory for gas-phase reactions, including optimized multidimensional tunneling contributions and the application of this theory to gas-phase reactions with a special emphasis on developing reaction rate theory in directions that are important for applications to combustion. The development of variational transition state theory with optimized multidimensional tunneling as a useful computational tool for combustion kinetics involved eight objectives.

  19. Quantum variational calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Malinowska, Agnieszka B

    2014-01-01

    This Brief puts together two subjects, quantum and variational calculi by considering variational problems involving Hahn quantum operators. The main advantage of its results is that they are able to deal with nondifferentiable (even discontinuous) functions, which are important in applications. Possible applications in economics are discussed. Economists model time as continuous or discrete. Although individual economic decisions are generally made at discrete time intervals, they may well be less than perfectly synchronized in ways discrete models postulate. On the other hand, the usual assumption that economic activity takes place continuously, is nothing else than a convenient abstraction that in many applications is far from reality. The Hahn quantum calculus helps to bridge the gap between the two families of models: continuous and discrete. Quantum Variational Calculus is self-contained and unified in presentation. It provides an opportunity for an introduction to the quantum calculus of variations fo...

  20. Variational Inequalities with Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sofonea, Mircea

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by stimulating problems in contact mechanics, emphasizing antiplane frictional contact with linearly elastic and viscoelastic materials, this book focuses on the essentials with respect to the qualitative aspects of several classes of variational inequalities (VIs)

  1. Evaluation of molecular genetic variation associated with deep venous thrombosis in lower limb fractures in traumatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tabrizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetic variation in multiple genes associated with hemostasis and thrombosis is well documented to impact the rates of future venous thromboembolism; in addition, trauma and orthopedic surgery in lower limb and immobilization are important factors in increasing the incidence of thrombosis. Gene mutation can be predisposing factor for thrombosis in traumatic patients under anti-coagulant agent prophylaxis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the different gene mutations in these patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, the sample consisted of 53 patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT and 32 traumatic patients without thrombosis as the control group. Two groups matched together according to sex, age, weight, and medications. DNA analysis for mutation of multivariate of genes in thrombosis was studied. Results: Regarding gene variations, there was statistically significant difference only in Prothrombin (Factor II, G20210A between the patients with thrombosis and control group (P = 0.01. But, there was no difference between two groups considering other gene mutations. Mutation of Prothrombin gene (G20210A was a predictive factor for thrombosis with odds ratio of 1.1 (CI 0.3-1.9. Conclusion: According to the outcomes resulted from this study, genetic mutation in Prothrombin (Factor II [G20210A] is one of the most important genetic variations involved in traumatic patients with DVT despite prophylaxis. Genetic mutation in Prothrombin appears to be predisposing factor for thrombosis associated with trauma.

  2. Generalized quasi variational inequalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor, M.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.

  3. Variational time integrators

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, A.; Marsden, J. E.; Ortiz, M.; West, M

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review and further develop the subject of variational integration algorithms as it applies to mechanical systems of engineering interest. In particular, the conservation properties of both synchronous and asynchronous variational integrators (AVIs) are discussed in detail. We present selected numerical examples which demonstrate the excellent accuracy, conservation and convergence characteristics of AVIs. In these tests, AVIs are found to result in substantial ...

  4. A novel quantitative hemolytic assay coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphisms analysis enabled early diagnosis of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and identified unique predisposing mutations in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Yoshida

    Full Text Available For thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs, the diagnosis of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS is made by ruling out Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC-associated HUS and ADAMTS13 activity-deficient thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP, often using the exclusion criteria for secondary TMAs. Nowadays, assays for ADAMTS13 activity and evaluation for STEC infection can be performed within a few hours. However, a confident diagnosis of aHUS often requires comprehensive gene analysis of the alternative complement activation pathway, which usually takes at least several weeks. However, predisposing genetic abnormalities are only identified in approximately 70% of aHUS. To facilitate the diagnosis of complement-mediated aHUS, we describe a quantitative hemolytic assay using sheep red blood cells (RBCs and human citrated plasma, spiked with or without a novel inhibitory anti-complement factor H (CFH monoclonal antibody. Among 45 aHUS patients in Japan, 24% (11/45 had moderate-to-severe (≥50% hemolysis, whereas the remaining 76% (34/45 patients had mild or no hemolysis (<50%. The former group is largely attributed to CFH-related abnormalities, and the latter group has C3-p.I1157T mutations (16/34, which were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis. Thus, a quantitative hemolytic assay coupled with RFLP analysis enabled the early diagnosis of complement-mediated aHUS in 60% (27/45 of patients in Japan within a week of presentation. We hypothesize that this novel quantitative hemolytic assay would be more useful in a Caucasian population, who may have a higher proportion of CFH mutations than Japanese patients.

  5. 胎盘早剥与围产儿预后的临床研究%Explore the Early Diagnosis of Placental Abruption, Predisposing Factors and Clinical Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索胎盘早剥的早期诊断,发病诱因和临床特点,分娩方式,胎盘剥离面积等,从而改善妊娠结局与围产儿预后. 方法:回顾性分析本院收治的18例胎盘早剥患者的临床资料,分析和病情观察及对母婴预后的影响. 结果:引发胎盘早剥的病因是妊娠高血压疾病,前次妊娠胎盘早剥史,脐带过短,外伤,横位等重要因素,胎盘早剥导致产后出血,围产儿死亡高. 结论:及早诊断、及时采取有效的预防及治疗措施,可有效降低母婴围产期的死亡率.%Objective:To explore the early diagnosis of placental abruption, predisposing factors and clinical characteristics, mode of delivery, placental abruption area, so as to improve the outcome of pregnancy and perinatal prognosis.Methods:Retrospective analysis of the clinical data of 18 cases of placental abruption in patients admitted to our hospital, analysis and observation of disease and the effects on maternal and neonatal outcomes.Results:The etiology of placental abruption is caused by pregnancy induced hypertension, previous pregnancy history of placental abruption, umbilical cord is too short, trauma, an important factor in transverse position, placental abrup-tion, postpartum hemorrhage due to high, perinatal death.Conclusion:early diagnosis, timely take effective measures of prevention and treatment, which can effectively reduce the maternal perinatal mortality.

  6. Effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on behavior and key members of the brain serotonin system in mouse strains genetically predisposed to behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, Vladimir S; Bazovkina, Daria V; Semenova, Alina A; Tsybko, Anton S; Il'chibaeva, Tatyana V; Kondaurova, Elena M; Popova, Nina K

    2013-12-01

    The effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on behavior and on the serotonin (5-HT) system of a mouse strain predisposed to depressive-like behavior, ASC/Icg (Antidepressant Sensitive Cataleptics), in comparison with the parental "nondepressive" CBA/Lac mice was studied. Within 7 days after acute administration, GDNF (800 ng, i.c.v.) decreased cataleptic immobility but increased depressive-like behavioral traits in both investigated mouse strains and produced anxiolytic effects in ASC mice. The expression of the gene encoding the key enzyme for 5-HT biosynthesis in the brain, tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph-2), and 5-HT1A receptor gene in the midbrain as well as 5-HT2A receptor gene in the frontal cortex were increased in GDNF-treated ASC mice. At the same time, GDNF decreased 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in the hippocampus of ASC mice. GDNF failed to change Tph2, 5-HT1A , or 5-HT2A receptor mRNA levels in CBA mice as well as 5-HT transporter gene expression and 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor functional activity in both investigated mouse strains. The results show 1) a GDNF-induced increase in the expression of key genes of the brain 5-HT system, Tph2, 5-HT1A , and 5-HT2A receptors, and 2) significant genotype-dependent differences in the 5-HT system response to GDNF treatment. The data suggest that genetically defined cross-talk between neurotrophic factors and the brain 5-HT system underlies the variability in behavioral response to GDNF.

  7. Effect of GDNF on depressive-like behavior, spatial learning and key genes of the brain dopamine system in genetically predisposed to behavioral disorders mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, Vladimir S; Kondaurova, Elena M; Bazovkina, Daria V; Tsybko, Anton S; Ilchibaeva, Tatyana V; Khotskin, Nikita V; Semenova, Alina A; Popova, Nina K

    2014-11-01

    The effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on behavior and brain dopamine system in predisposed to depressive-like behavior ASC (Antidepressant Sensitive Cataleptics) mice in comparison with the parental "nondepressive" CBA mice was studied. In 7days after administration (800ng, i.c.v.) GDNF decreased escape latency time and the path traveled to reach hidden platform in Morris water maze in ASC mice. GDNF enhanced depressive-like behavioral traits in both "nondepressive" CBA and "depressive" ASC mice. In CBA mice, GDNF decreased functional response to agonists of D1 (chloro-APB hydrobromide) and D2 (sumanirole maleate) receptors in tail suspension test, reduced D2 receptor gene expression in the substantia nigra and increased monoamine oxydase A (MAO A) gene expression in the striatum. GDNF increased D1 and D2 receptor genes expression in the nucleus accumbens of ASC mice but failed to alter expression of catechol-O-methyltransferase, dopamine transporter, MAO B and tyrosine hydroxylase genes in both investigated mouse strains. Thus, GDNF produced long-term genotype-dependent effect on behavior and the brain dopamine system. GDNF pretreatment (1) reduced D1 and D2 receptors functional responses and D2 receptor gene expression in s. nigra of CBA mice; (2) increased D1 and D2 receptor genes expression in n. accumbens of ASC mice and (3) improved spatial learning in ASC mice. GDNF enhanced depressive-like behavior both in CBA and ASC mice. The data suggest that genetically defined variance in the cross-talk between GDNF and brain dopamine system contributes to the variability of GDNF-induced responses and might be responsible for controversial GDNF effects.

  8. Analysis of predisposing factors of idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane%特发性黄斑视网膜前膜的易感因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖媛媛; 刘铁城

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the predisposing factors of idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane, and provide clinical guidance for prevention and early diagnosis of idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane.Methods Clinical data about 80 patients (80 eyes) with idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane admitted to our hospital from April 2013 to April 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The 80 eyes with idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane were served as the observation group and the normal eyes (n=80) of the 80 patients were served as the function control group. Another 80 patients (160 eyes) without idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane who admitted to our hospital were served as the control group.Results The best corrected visual acuity of the observation group was below 1.0, 14 eyes in the function control group showed best corrected visual acuity below 1.0, and 9 eyes in the control group showed best corrected visual acuity below 1.0. The best corrected visual acuity of observation group was worse than that of function control group and control group with statistically significant differences (P0.05). There were 51 cases with diabetes and 59 cases with hyperlipidaemia in the observation group, which was more than control group with statistically significant differences (P0.05).观察组与对照组的年龄及性别组成差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).观察组患有糖尿病51例,高脂血症59例,较对照组患病人数多,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 糖尿病和高脂血症是特发性黄斑前膜的易感因素.

  9. Strain and cocaine-induced differential opioid gene expression may predispose Lewis but not Fischer rats to escalate cocaine self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Marta; Picetti, Roberto; Yuferov, Vadim; Butelman, Eduardo R; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations in gene expression of opioid system components induced by extended access (18 h) cocaine self-administration and to determine the impact of genetic background in the vulnerability to escalate cocaine intake. Comparing two inbred rat strains, we previously reported that Lewis rats progressively escalated cocaine consumption compared to Fischer rats, in a new translational model of intravenous cocaine self-administration, which included 14 sessions of 18-h operant sessions in which rats were allowed to select the cocaine unit dose to self-administer. We compare here Fischer and Lewis rats in the gene expression of endogenous opioid peptides (Pomc, Penk, Pdyn) and cognate receptors (Oprm, Oprk and Oprd) in reward-related brain regions, after exposure to either cocaine self-administration or yoked-saline, in the aforementioned translational paradigm. We performed a correlation analysis between the mRNA level, found in the Dorsal Striatum (DS), Nucleus accumbens (NAcc) shell and core respectively, and individual cocaine intake. Our findings show that the gene expression of all the aforementioned opioid genes exhibit strain-dependent differences in the DS, in absence of cocaine exposure. Also, different strain-specific cocaine-induced mRNA expression of Oprm and Oprk was found in DS. Only few differences were found in the ventral parts of the striatum. Moreover, gene expression level of Pdyn, Penk, Oprk, and Oprm in the DS was significantly correlated with cocaine intake only in Fischer rats. Overall, these data shed light on potential genetic differences which may predispose of subjects to initiate and escalate cocaine consumption. PMID:26777278

  10. Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder Predispose Youth to Accelerated Atherosclerosis and Early Cardiovascular Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Matthews, Karen A; McIntyre, Roger S; Miller, Gregory E; Raghuveer, Geetha; Stoney, Catherine M; Wasiak, Hank; McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-09-01

    In the 2011 "Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents," several medical conditions among youth were identified that predispose to accelerated atherosclerosis and early cardiovascular disease (CVD), and risk stratification and management strategies for youth with these conditions were elaborated. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) among youth satisfy the criteria set for, and therefore merit inclusion among, Expert Panel tier II moderate-risk conditions. The combined prevalence of MDD and BD among adolescents in the United States is ≈10%, at least 10 times greater than the prevalence of the existing moderate-risk conditions combined. The high prevalence of MDD and BD underscores the importance of positioning these diseases alongside other pediatric diseases previously identified as moderate risk for CVD. The overall objective of this statement is to increase awareness and recognition of MDD and BD among youth as moderate-risk conditions for early CVD. To achieve this objective, the primary specific aims of this statement are to (1) summarize evidence that MDD and BD are tier II moderate-risk conditions associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and early CVD and (2) position MDD and BD as tier II moderate-risk conditions that require the application of risk stratification and management strategies in accordance with Expert Panel recommendations. In this scientific statement, there is an integration of the various factors that putatively underlie the association of MDD and BD with CVD, including pathophysiological mechanisms, traditional CVD risk factors, behavioral and environmental factors, and psychiatric medications.

  11. A novel unstable duplication upstream of HAS2 predisposes to a breed-defining skin phenotype and a periodic fever syndrome in Chinese Shar-Pei dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Olsson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation with no known pathogenic or autoimmune cause. In humans, several genes have been implicated in this group of diseases, but the majority of cases remain unexplained. A similar periodic fever syndrome is relatively frequent in the Chinese Shar-Pei breed of dogs. In the western world, Shar-Pei have been strongly selected for a distinctive thick and heavily folded skin. In this study, a mutation affecting both these traits was identified. Using genome-wide SNP analysis of Shar-Pei and other breeds, the strongest signal of a breed-specific selective sweep was located on chromosome 13. The same region also harbored the strongest genome-wide association (GWA signal for susceptibility to the periodic fever syndrome (p(raw = 2.3 × 10⁻⁶, p(genome = 0.01. Dense targeted resequencing revealed two partially overlapping duplications, 14.3 Kb and 16.1 Kb in size, unique to Shar-Pei and upstream of the Hyaluronic Acid Synthase 2 (HAS2 gene. HAS2 encodes the rate-limiting enzyme synthesizing hyaluronan (HA, a major component of the skin. HA is up-regulated and accumulates in the thickened skin of Shar-Pei. A high copy number of the 16.1 Kb duplication was associated with an increased expression of HAS2 as well as the periodic fever syndrome (p < 0.0001. When fragmented, HA can act as a trigger of the innate immune system and stimulate sterile fever and inflammation. The strong selection for the skin phenotype therefore appears to enrich for a pleiotropic mutation predisposing these dogs to a periodic fever syndrome. The identification of HA as a major risk factor for this canine disease raises the potential of this glycosaminoglycan as a risk factor for human periodic fevers and as an important driver of chronic inflammation.

  12. Schistosomiasis: predisposing cause for the formation of hepatic abscesses? Case report Esquistossomose: causa predisponente para a formação de abscessos hepáticos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Carvalho Pedroso de Lima

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available An adult patient with chronic schistosomiasis from an endemic area, complained about a seven day fever, along with jaundice and lumbar backache on the right side. Image exams showed multiple pyogenic liver abscesses. All the classic etiologies were discarded through clinical, radiological and laboratorial criteria. Schistosomiasis can cause pylephlebitis as a complication, along with immunesuppression, granulomatous reaction with central lobular liver necrosis and a greater risk of infection. The authors suggest that schistosomiasis in its chronic form may be the predisposing cause of multiple pyogenic liver abscesses, especially in endemic areas.Paciente adulto, natural de região endêmica para esquistossomose e portador crônico da doença, apresentava queixa de febre há sete dias, associada à ictericia e dor lombar em região direita. Os exames radiológicos mostraram abscessos hepáticos piogênicos múltiplos, cuja causa predisponente é conhecida, segundo trabalhos da literatura, em 100% dos casos. Através de parâmetros clínicos, laboratoriais e radiológicos todas as etiologias clássicas foram afastadas. Sabe-se que a esquistossomose pode provocar, como complicação, a pileflebite, além de depressão imunológica e reação granulomatosa com necrose lobular central e maior risco de infecção. Os autores deste relato de caso sugerem ser a esquistossomose, na sua forma crônica, causa predisponente para formação de abscessos hepáticos piogênicos múltiplos, principalmente em regiões endêmicas.

  13. Can certain genotypes predispose to poor asthma control in children? A pharmacogenetic study of 9 candidate genes in children with difficult asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basima Almomani

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that patients with difficult asthma have an increased frequency of certain genotypes that predispose them to asthma exacerbations and poor asthma control. METHODS: A total of 180 Caucasian children with confirmed asthma diagnosis were selected from two phenotypic groups; difficult (n = 112 versus mild/moderate asthma (n = 68 groups. All patients were screened for 19 polymorphisms in 9 candidate genes to evaluate their association with difficult asthma. KEY RESULTS: The results indicated that LTA4H A-9188>G, TNFα G-308>A and IL-4Rα A1727>G polymorphisms were significantly associated with the development of difficult asthma in paediatric patients (pC, IL-4Rα T1570>C and IL-4Rα A1727>G and CA haplotype of TNFα C-863>A and TNFα G-308>A polymorphisms which were significantly associated with difficult asthma in children (p = 0.04 and p = 0.018, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The study revealed multiple SNPs and haplotypes in LTA4H, TNFα and IL4-Rα genes which constitute risk factors for the development of difficult asthma in children. Of particular interest is the LTA4H A-9188>G polymorphism which has been reported, for the first time, to have strong association with severe asthma in children. Our results suggest that screening for patients with this genetic marker could help characterise the heterogeneity of responses to leukotriene-modifying medications and, hence, facilitate targeting these therapies to the subset of patients who are most likely to gain benefit.

  14. Investigation of the Association Between Bone Mineral Density and Predisposing Factors in Osteoporotic Postmenopausal Women in a Sample of Patients From Gaziantep and Trabzon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Madenci

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate the association between the bone mineral density and risk factors predisposing to osteoporosis as well as impact of regional factors on bone mineral density by comparing the data obtained from patients who lived in Gaziantep (a province in the south east of this country and Trabzon (a province in the north east of this country. Included in the study were 318 patients, of whom 162 were from Gaziantep and 156 from Trabzon. Bone mineral density of the patients was measured with DEXA, and those who had a t score below (-2.0 SD on bone mineral density measurement in the back and hip regions were included in the study. An osteoporosis follow up questionnaire that was modified from MEDOS study questionnaire was filled. The patients who lived in Gaziantep were fatter than those who lived in Trabzon (p0.05. The bone mineral density (L2-4 femur (total and Wards triangle of the patients who lived in Trabzon was significantly lower than in Gaziantep (p0.05. White skin color and high tea consumption were more common in the second group (p<0.001. Some parameters like dark or wheat skin and black eye color, birth and abortion rate, and sun bathing habis were more common in the first group (p<0.001. In conclusion, fist and cost effective option to estimate whether the patient carries a high risk is to evaluate the place where the patient lives as well the habits and traditions. The proceeding bone mineral density measurement will help to diagnose the disease. We believe that this approach will help not only for early diagnosis of osteoporosis but also useful economically.

  15. Chromatic variations suppress suprathreshold brightness variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdom, Frederick A A; Bell, Jason; Gheorghiu, Elena; Malkoc, Gokhan

    2010-01-01

    Most objects in natural scenes are suprathreshold in both color (chromatic) and luminance contrast. How salient is each dimension? We have developed a novel method employing a stimulus similar to that used by B. C. Regan and J. D. Mollon (1997) who studied the relative saliencies of the two chromatic cardinal directions. Our stimuli consist of left- and right-oblique modulations of color and/or luminance defined within a lattice of circles. In the "separated" condition, the two modulations were presented separately as forced-choice pairs, and the task was to indicate which was more salient. In the "combined" condition, the two orthogonal-in-orientation modulations were added, and the task was to indicate the more salient orientation. The ratio of color to luminance contrast at the PSE was calculated for both conditions. Across color directions, 48% more luminance contrast relative to color contrast was required to achieve a PSE in the "combined" compared to the "separated" condition. A second experiment showed that the PSE difference was due to the luminance being masked by the color, rather than due to superior color grouping. We conclude that suprathreshold brightness variations are masked by suprathreshold color variations. PMID:20884478

  16. Methodology for Safety Assessment Applied to Predisposal Waste Management. Report of the Results of the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) 2004–2010). Companion CD-ROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report of the Results of the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) (2004–2010) The IAEA’s progamme on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) focused on approaches and mechanisms for application of safety assessment methodologies for the predisposal management of radioactive waste. The initial outcome of the SADRWMS Project was achieved through the development of flowcharts, which have since been incorporated into IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSG-3, Safety Case and Safety Assessment for Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste. In 2005, an initial specification was developed for the Safety Assessment Framework (SAFRAN) software tool to apply the SADRWMS flowcharts. In 2008, an in-depth application of the SAFRAN tool and the SADRWMS methodology was carried out on the predisposal management facilities of the Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology Radioactive Waste Management Centre (TINT Facility). This publication summarizes the content and outcomes of the SADRWMS programme. The Chairman’s Report of the SADRWMS Project and the Report of the TINT test case are provided on this CD-ROM which accompanies the report

  17. Methodology for Safety Assessment Applied to Predisposal Waste Management. Report of the Results of the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) 2004–2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report of the Results of the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) (2004–2010) The IAEA’s progamme on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) focused on approaches and mechanisms for application of safety assessment methodologies for the predisposal management of radioactive waste. The initial outcome of the SADRWMS Project was achieved through the development of flowcharts, which have since been incorporated into IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSG-3, Safety Case and Safety Assessment for Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste. In 2005, an initial specification was developed for the Safety Assessment Framework (SAFRAN) software tool to apply the SADRWMS flowcharts. In 2008, an in-depth application of the SAFRAN tool and the SADRWMS methodology was carried out on the predisposal management facilities of the Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology Radioactive Waste Management Centre (TINT Facility). This publication summarizes the content and outcomes of the SADRWMS programme. The Chairman’s Report of the SADRWMS Project and the Report of the TINT test case are provided on the CD-ROM which accompanies this report

  18. Discrete Variational Optimal Control

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Fernando; de Diego, David Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops numerical methods for optimal control of mechanical systems in the Lagrangian setting. It extends the theory of discrete mechanics to enable the solutions of optimal control problems through the discretization of variational principles. The key point is to solve the optimal control problem as a variational integrator of a specially constructed higher-dimensional system. The developed framework applies to systems on tangent bundles, Lie groups, underactuated and nonholonomic systems with symmetries, and can approximate either smooth or discontinuous control inputs. The resulting methods inherit the preservation properties of variational integrators and result in numerically robust and easily implementable algorithms. Several theoretical and a practical examples, e.g. the control of an underwater vehicle, will illustrate the application of the proposed approach.

  19. Prior antimicrobial therapy in the hospital and other predisposing factors influencing the usage of antibiotics in a pediatric critical care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsorva Athina

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine whether prior antimicrobial therapy is an important risk factor for extended antimicrobial therapy among critically ill children. To evaluate other predisposing factors influencing the usage of antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU setting. To examine the relationship between the extent of antimicrobial treatment and the incidence of nosocomial infections and outcome. Methods This prospective observational cohort study was conducted at a university-affiliated teaching hospital (760 beds in Athens. Clinical data were collected upon admission and on each consecutive PICU day. The primary reason for PICU admission was recorded using a modified classification for mutually exclusive disease categories. All administered antibiotics to the PICU patients were recorded during a six-month period. Microbiological and pharmacological data were also collected over this period. The cumulative per patient and the maximum per day numbers of administered antibiotics, as well as the duration of administration were related to the following factors: Number of antibiotics which the patients were already receiving the day before admission, age groups, place of origin, the severity of illness, the primary disease and its complications during the course of hospitalization, the development of nosocomial infections with positive cultures, the presence of chronic disease or immunodeficiency, various interventional techniques (mechanical ventilation, central catheters, and PICU outcome. Results During a six-month period 174 patients were admitted to the PICU and received antibiotics for a total of 950 days (62.3% of the length of stay days. While in PICU, 34 patients did not receive antimicrobial treatment (19.5%, 69 received one antibiotic (39.7%, 42 two (24.1%, 17 three (9.8%, and 12 more than three (6.9%. The number of antibiotics prescribed in PICU or at discharge did not differ from that at

  20. CT characterization of developmental variations of the paranasal sinuses in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe variations of paranasal sinus development in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and in non-CF patients examined for inflammatory sinonasal disease. We focused on anatomic variants that predispose to orbital and cerebral penetration during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS), e.g. hypoplasia of the maxillary sinus and low ethmoid roof. Material and Methods: One hundred and sixteen CF patients (3-54 years, median 18) and 136 control patients (7-51 years, median 31) were examined with coronal CT of the paranasal sinuses. CF patients were grouped according to number of confirmed mutations: CF-2 (n=70), CF-1 (n=32), CF-0 (n=14). CT images were evaluated with respect to paranasal sinus development, pneumatization variants and bony variants. Results: Frontal sinus aplasia and maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoid sinus hypoplasia were markedly more frequent in CF-2 than in control patients. No CF-2 patient had pneumatization variants such as Haller cells or concha bullosa. Low ethmoid roof was seen in 30% of CF-2 children, but in no control children. CF-1 and CF-0 groups had prevalences of aplasia and hypoplasia intermediate to that of CF-2 and control patients. Conclusion: Genetically verified CF patients had less developed sinuses, lacked pneumatization variants, and more often had anatomic variants that predispose to complications during FESS. Normally developed sinuses and pneumatization variants in some genetically unverified CF patients (CF-1, CF-0) suggest that these patients may be erroneously diagnosed

  1. Seasonal Variation in Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Seasonality analyses are important in medical research. If the incidence of a disease shows a seasonal pattern, then an environmental factor must be considered in its etiology. We discuss a method for the simultaneous analysis of seasonal variation in multiple groups. The nuts and bolts are explained using simple trigonometry, an elementary…

  2. Variational transition state theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, D.G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research program involves the development of variational transition state theory (VTST) and semiclassical tunneling methods for the calculation of gas-phase reaction rates and selected applications. The applications are selected for their fundamental interest and/or their relevance to combustion.

  3. Sexual "Variation" without "Deviation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnage, John R.; Logan, Daniel L.

    1975-01-01

    Non-heterosexual behavior continues to be labeled "deviant" or "maladaptive" by those propounding a learning formulation of sexual behavior. It is suggested that the term "variation" replace, in part, the term "deviation" when describing non-heterosexual behavior, especially homosexuality. (Author)

  4. Variation in decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dall, Sasha R. X.; Gosling, Samuel; Gordon D.A., Brown,; Dingemanse, Niels; Ido, Erev,; Martin, Kocher,; Laura, Schulz,; Todd, Peter M; Weissing, Franz; Wolf, Max; Hammerstein, Peter; Stevens, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Variation in how organisms allocate their behavior over their lifetimes is key to determining Darwinian fitness., and thus the evolution of human and nonhuman decision making. This chapter explores how decision making varies across biologically and societally significant scales and what role such va

  5. Fluency Variation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim; Martins, Vanessa De Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    The Speech Fluency Profile of fluent adolescent speakers of Brazilian Portuguese, were examined with respect to gender and neurolinguistic variations. Speech samples of 130 male and female adolescents, aged between 12;0 and 17;11 years were gathered. They were analysed according to type of speech disruption; speech rate; and frequency of speech…

  6. Diurnal variations of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1,000 and 1,400 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from 8 close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Though there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ~700 cm-3 below ~1,300 km. Such a plateau is associated with the combination of distinct diurnal variations of light and heavy ions. Light ions (e.g. CH5+, HCNH+, C2H5+) show strong diurnal variation, with clear bite-outs in their nightside distributions. In contrast, heavy ions (e.g. c-C3H3+, C2H3CNH+, C6H7+) present modest diurnal variation, with significant densities observed on the nightside. We propose that the distinctions between light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through "fast" ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through "slow" electron dissociative recombination. The INMS data suggest day-to-night transport as an important source of ions on Titan's nightside, to be distinguished from the conventional scenario of auroral ionization by magnetospheric particles as the only ionizing source on the nightside. This is supported by the strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effects of day-to-night transport on the ionospheric structures of Titan. The predicted diurnal variation has similar general characteristics to those observed, with some apparent discrepancies which could be reconciled by imposing fast horizontal thermal winds in Titan's upper atmosphere.

  7. Genetic analysis of environmental variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, W.G.; Mulder, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental variation (VE) in a quantitative trait – variation in phenotype that cannot be explained by genetic variation or identifiable genetic differences – can be regarded as being under some degree of genetic control. Such variation may be either between repeated expressions of the same trait

  8. Census variation staffing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, D A; Mayewski, J

    1996-02-01

    A Census Variation Staffing (CVS) model has been used successfully on all nursing units for 4 years. Historical data and nursing hours per patient day (NHPPD) are used to determine the staffing needs of each unit on a daily, shift-by-shift basis. CVS has been heralded as the single largest factor in the hospital's consistent profitability--averaging annual savings of $485,100. PMID:8632867

  9. Automatic Differentiation Variational Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Kucukelbir, Alp; Tran, Dustin; Ranganath, Rajesh; Gelman, Andrew; Blei, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic modeling is iterative. A scientist posits a simple model, fits it to her data, refines it according to her analysis, and repeats. However, fitting complex models to large data is a bottleneck in this process. Deriving algorithms for new models can be both mathematically and computationally challenging, which makes it difficult to efficiently cycle through the steps. To this end, we develop automatic differentiation variational inference (ADVI). Using our method, the scientist on...

  10. Planar theory made variational

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, A.D.; Lande, A.; Smith, R.A.

    1985-04-08

    Within the framework of boson parquet-diagram summations in perturbation theory, we show analytically that several simple approximations lead inevitably to the radial distribution function g(r) which would be obtained with the Jastrow hypernetted-chain variational method. This is the first derivation of the Jastrow result from perturbation theory. Without mentioning pair correlation functions, we have a clear interpretation of g(r) and the structure function, S(k), in terms of diagram sums.

  11. Planar theory made variational

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of boson parquet-diagram summations in perturbation theory, we show analytically that several simple approximations lead inevitably to the radial distribution function g(r) which would be obtained with the Jastrow hypernetted-chain variational method. This is the first derivation of the Jastrow result from perturbation theory. Without mentioning pair correlation functions, we have a clear interpretation of g(r) and the structure function, S(k), in terms of diagram sums

  12. 老年人趾甲真菌病易感因素分析%A clinical analysis of the predisposing factors for toenail onychomycosis in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏; 鲍迎秋; 常建民

    2009-01-01

    mellitus are predisposing factors for toenail onychomycosis in the elderly.

  13. Subtle variations in Pten dose determine cancer susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimonti, Andrea; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Clohessy, John G; Trotman, Lloyd C; Nardella, Caterina; Egia, Ainara; Salmena, Leonardo; Sampieri, Katia; Haveman, William J; Brogi, Edi; Richardson, Andrea L; Zhang, Jiangwen; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Cancer susceptibility has been attributed to at least one heterozygous genetic alteration in a tumor suppressor gene (TSG)1. It has been hypothesized that subtle variations in TSG expression can promote cancer development2,3. However, this hypothesis has not yet been definitively supported in vivo. PTEN is a TSG frequently lost in human cancer and mutated in inherited cancer-predisposition syndromes4. Here, we analyze Pten hypermorphic mice (Ptenhy/+), expressing 80% normal levels of Pten. Ptenhy/+ mice develop a spectrum of tumors, with breast tumors occurring at the highest penetrance. All breast tumors analyzed here retained two intact copies of Pten and maintained Pten levels above heterozygosis. Notably, subtle downregulation of Pten altered the steady-state biology of the mammary tissues and the expression profiles of genes involved in cancer cell proliferation. We present an alterative working model for cancer development in which subtle reductions in the dose of TSGs predispose to tumorigenesis in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:20400965

  14. Introduction to global variational geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Krupka, Demeter

    2015-01-01

    The book is devoted to recent research in the global variational theory on smooth manifolds. Its main objective is an extension of the classical variational calculus on Euclidean spaces to (topologically nontrivial) finite-dimensional smooth manifolds; to this purpose the methods of global analysis of differential forms are used. Emphasis is placed on the foundations of the theory of variational functionals on fibered manifolds - relevant geometric structures for variational principles in geometry, physical field theory and higher-order fibered mechanics. The book chapters include: - foundations of jet bundles and analysis of differential forms and vector fields on jet bundles, - the theory of higher-order integral variational functionals for sections of a fibred space, the (global) first variational formula in infinitesimal and integral forms- extremal conditions and the discussion of Noether symmetries and generalizations,- the inverse problems of the calculus of variations of Helmholtz type- variational se...

  15. Lexical Variation in Akokoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fádorò Jacob Oludare

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Language contact among Akokoid, Yoruboid and Edoid has resulted in extensive borrowing from Yoruboid and Edoid to Akokoid. Thus, the speech forms subsumed under Akokoid exhibit lexical items which are similar to Yoruboid and Edoid. To the best of our knowledge, no other scholarly work has addressed the concept ‘lexical variation in these speech forms, hence, the need for this present effort. Twenty lexical items were carefully selected for analysis in this paper. Data were elicited from 34 informants who are competent speakers of Akokoid. Apart from the linguistic data, these informants, including  traditional rulers, supplied us with historical facts about the migration patterns of the progenitors of Akokoid. The historical facts coupled with the linguistic data helped us to arrive at the conclusion that some of the words used in contemporary Akokoid found their way into Akokoid as a result of the contact between Akokoid and their neighbours, Yoruboid and Edoid.Keywords: Akokoid, Language Contact, Lexical Variation, Yoruboid, Edoid

  16. Harmonically excited orbital variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs

  17. Copy number variations in alternative splicing gene networks impact lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T Glessner

    Full Text Available Longevity has a strong genetic component evidenced by family-based studies. Lipoprotein metabolism, FOXO proteins, and insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathways in model systems have shown polygenic variations predisposing to shorter lifespan. To test the hypothesis that rare variants could influence lifespan, we compared the rates of CNVs in healthy children (0-18 years of age with individuals 67 years or older. CNVs at a significantly higher frequency in the pediatric cohort were considered risk variants impacting lifespan, while those enriched in the geriatric cohort were considered longevity protective variants. We performed a whole-genome CNV analysis on 7,313 children and 2,701 adults of European ancestry genotyped with 302,108 SNP probes. Positive findings were evaluated in an independent cohort of 2,079 pediatric and 4,692 geriatric subjects. We detected 8 deletions and 10 duplications that were enriched in the pediatric group (P=3.33×10(-8-1.6×10(-2 unadjusted, while only one duplication was enriched in the geriatric cohort (P=6.3×10(-4. Population stratification correction resulted in 5 deletions and 3 duplications remaining significant (P=5.16×10(-5-4.26×10(-2 in the replication cohort. Three deletions and four duplications were significant combined (combined P=3.7×10(-4-3.9×10(-2. All associated loci were experimentally validated using qPCR. Evaluation of these genes for pathway enrichment demonstrated ~50% are involved in alternative splicing (P=0.0077 Benjamini and Hochberg corrected. We conclude that genetic variations disrupting RNA splicing could have long-term biological effects impacting lifespan.

  18. Variational Theory for Chandrasekharaiah Thermopizoelectricity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiHuanHE

    1999-01-01

    Via the semi-inverse method of establishing generalized variational principle for physical problems,a classical variational model(non Gurtin-type and not involving convolutions) for Chandrasekharaiah thermopiezoelectricity is established directly from the governing equations.The present theory aims at providing a more complete theoretical basis for the variational-based finite element applications and variational-based meshless method(element-free method).

  19. Analysis of predisposing factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy%胰十二指肠切除术后胰漏的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈友谊; 孙备; 姜洪池

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the predisposing factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy.Methods The clinical data of 323 patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy from January 2007 to March 2012 were analyzed retrospectively.There were 185 male and 138 female patients,aging from 27 to 82 years.All the patients were devided into pancreatic fistula group (n = 52) and non-pancreatic fistula group (n = 271).Twenty variables,such as age,sex,primary disease,alcohol abuse,cholangitis,bilirubin,albumin,hemoglobin,operating time,blood loss,transfusion,texture of the remnant pancreas,diameter of wirsung,drainages of pancreatic duct,specialized group which potentially affect the incidence,were analyzed by t test for continuous variables and x2 test for discrete variables.The variables with significance (P < 0.05) were then analyzed with Logistic regression model.Results Of all the 323 patients,the overall morbidity rate was 30.3% (98/323),and the mortality was 3.7% (12/323).Pancreatic fistula rate was 16.1% (52/323),7 patients died for pancreatic fistula PF.In univariate analysis,primary disease,preoperative high bilirubin level,intraoperative blood loss and transfusion,texture of the remnant pancreas,diameter of wirsung,drainages of pancreatic duct,specialized group had significant difference between two groups (x2 = 4.072 to 9.008,P < 0.05).Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that primary disease (OR = 2.091,P = 0.001),texture of the remnant pancreas (OR =7.715,P = 0.040),diameter of wirsung (OR = 5.405,P = 0.006),pancreatic duct stent (OR = 4.313,P =0.001) and specialized group (OR = 6.404,P = 0.006) were independent risk factors in pancreatic fistula.Conclusions Primary disease,texture of the remnant pancreas,diameter of wirsung,pancreatic duct stent and specialized group are independent risk factors in pancreatic fistula.With the purpose of decreasing pancreatic fistula rate after PD,it is necessary to operate meticulously and

  20. Dynamics of nonholonomic systems from variational principles embedded variation identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Yongxin, E-mail: yxguo@lnu.edu.c [College of Physics, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Liu Shixing [College of Physics, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Liu Chang; Chang Peng [Department of Applied Mechanics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2009-10-19

    Nondeterminacy of dynamics, i.e., the nonholonomic or the vakonomic, fundamental variational principles, e.g., the Lagrange-d'Alembert or Hamiltonian, and variational operators, etc., of nonholonomic mechanical systems can be attributed to the non-uniqueness of ways how to realize nonholonomic constraints. Making use of a variation identity of nonholonomic constraints embedded into the Hamilton's principle with the method of Lagrange undetermined multipliers, three kinds of dynamics for the nonholonomic systems including the vakonomic and nonholonomic ones and a new one are obtained if the variation is respectively reduced to three conditional variations: vakonomic variation, Hoelder's variation and Suslov's variation, defined by the identity. Therefore, different dynamics of nonholonomic systems can be derived from an integral variational principle, utilizing one way of embedding constraints into the principle, with different variations. It is verified that the similar embedding of the identity into the Lagrange-d'Alembert principle gives rise to the nonholonomic dynamics but fails to give the vakonomic one unless the constraints are integrable.

  1. Geometric constrained variational calculus. II: The second variation (Part I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Enrico; Bruno, Danilo; Luria, Gianvittorio; Pagani, Enrico

    2016-10-01

    Within the geometrical framework developed in [Geometric constrained variational calculus. I: Piecewise smooth extremals, Int. J. Geom. Methods Mod. Phys. 12 (2015) 1550061], the problem of minimality for constrained calculus of variations is analyzed among the class of differentiable curves. A fully covariant representation of the second variation of the action functional, based on a suitable gauge transformation of the Lagrangian, is explicitly worked out. Both necessary and sufficient conditions for minimality are proved, and reinterpreted in terms of Jacobi fields.

  2. Do Copy Number Changes in CACNA2D2, CACNA2D3, and CACNA1D Constitute a Predisposing Risk Factor for Alzheimer’s Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela, Darine; Suemoto, Claudia K.; Pasqualucci, Carlos A.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Rosenberg, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis is now being recognized to be a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Data from the literature, in particular the association between AD and polymorphism that interfere with Ca2+ homeostasis indicates the presence of genetic factors in this process; further, presenilins mutations, which are known to cause the familial form of AD, are involved in the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ stores. Here, we wish to draw attention to rare DNA copy number variations identified in two subjects with late-onset AD that led to partial or full duplication of genes that encode different subunits of the same type of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels; these duplications of voltage-gated Ca2+ channel genes is consistent with the critical role of calcium signaling in molecular processes underlying memory as has been demonstrated by several studies. PMID:27379157

  3. FROG - Fingerprinting Genomic Variation Ontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Abinaya

    Full Text Available Genetic variations play a crucial role in differential phenotypic outcomes. Given the complexity in establishing this correlation and the enormous data available today, it is imperative to design machine-readable, efficient methods to store, label, search and analyze this data. A semantic approach, FROG: "FingeRprinting Ontology of Genomic variations" is implemented to label variation data, based on its location, function and interactions. FROG has six levels to describe the variation annotation, namely, chromosome, DNA, RNA, protein, variations and interactions. Each level is a conceptual aggregation of logically connected attributes each of which comprises of various properties for the variant. For example, in chromosome level, one of the attributes is location of variation and which has two properties, allosomes or autosomes. Another attribute is variation kind which has four properties, namely, indel, deletion, insertion, substitution. Likewise, there are 48 attributes and 278 properties to capture the variation annotation across six levels. Each property is then assigned a bit score which in turn leads to generation of a binary fingerprint based on the combination of these properties (mostly taken from existing variation ontologies. FROG is a novel and unique method designed for the purpose of labeling the entire variation data generated till date for efficient storage, search and analysis. A web-based platform is designed as a test case for users to navigate sample datasets and generate fingerprints. The platform is available at http://ab-openlab.csir.res.in/frog.

  4. FROG - Fingerprinting Genomic Variation Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abinaya, E; Narang, Pankaj; Bhardwaj, Anshu

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variations play a crucial role in differential phenotypic outcomes. Given the complexity in establishing this correlation and the enormous data available today, it is imperative to design machine-readable, efficient methods to store, label, search and analyze this data. A semantic approach, FROG: "FingeRprinting Ontology of Genomic variations" is implemented to label variation data, based on its location, function and interactions. FROG has six levels to describe the variation annotation, namely, chromosome, DNA, RNA, protein, variations and interactions. Each level is a conceptual aggregation of logically connected attributes each of which comprises of various properties for the variant. For example, in chromosome level, one of the attributes is location of variation and which has two properties, allosomes or autosomes. Another attribute is variation kind which has four properties, namely, indel, deletion, insertion, substitution. Likewise, there are 48 attributes and 278 properties to capture the variation annotation across six levels. Each property is then assigned a bit score which in turn leads to generation of a binary fingerprint based on the combination of these properties (mostly taken from existing variation ontologies). FROG is a novel and unique method designed for the purpose of labeling the entire variation data generated till date for efficient storage, search and analysis. A web-based platform is designed as a test case for users to navigate sample datasets and generate fingerprints. The platform is available at http://ab-openlab.csir.res.in/frog.

  5. Single-Nucleotide Variations in Cardiac Arrhythmias: Prospects for Genomics and Proteomics Based Biomarker Discovery and Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Abunimer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are a large contributor to causes of early death in developed countries. Some of these conditions, such as sudden cardiac death and atrial fibrillation, stem from arrhythmias—a spectrum of conditions with abnormal electrical activity in the heart. Genome-wide association studies can identify single nucleotide variations (SNVs that may predispose individuals to developing acquired forms of arrhythmias. Through manual curation of published genome-wide association studies, we have collected a comprehensive list of 75 SNVs associated with cardiac arrhythmias. Ten of the SNVs result in amino acid changes and can be used in proteomic-based detection methods. In an effort to identify additional non-synonymous mutations that affect the proteome, we analyzed the post-translational modification S-nitrosylation, which is known to affect cardiac arrhythmias. We identified loss of seven known S-nitrosylation sites due to non-synonymous single nucleotide variations (nsSNVs. For predicted nitrosylation sites we found 1429 proteins where the sites are modified due to nsSNV. Analysis of the predicted S-nitrosylation dataset for over- or under-representation (compared to the complete human proteome of pathways and functional elements shows significant statistical over-representation of the blood coagulation pathway. Gene Ontology (GO analysis displays statistically over-represented terms related to muscle contraction, receptor activity, motor activity, cystoskeleton components, and microtubule activity. Through the genomic and proteomic context of SNVs and S-nitrosylation sites presented in this study, researchers can look for variation that can predispose individuals to cardiac arrhythmias. Such attempts to elucidate mechanisms of arrhythmia thereby add yet another useful parameter in predicting susceptibility for cardiac diseases.

  6. 产科弥散性血管内凝血患者的诱发因素和治疗效果探讨%Discussion on the predisposing factors and clinical efficacy of obstetric patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy and predisposing factors of obstetric patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation.Methods:100 patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation were selected.They were randomly divided into two equal groups according to the order of admission.Patients in the control group were given routine treatment. Patients in the experimental group received supportive treatment on the basis of the control group.We observed the predisposing factors of obstetric patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation,and observed the clinical therapeutic effect of the two groups after treatment and the amount of bleeding.Results:Predisposing factors included amniotic fluid embolism,placental abruption,fetal death,postpartum hemorrhage and pregnancy induced hypertension.The amount of bleeding within 24 hours after treatment of the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group,the rescue efficiency was higher than the control group,the differences between the groups were statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:Strengthen support for treatment on the basis of conventional therapy had significant effect on the treatment of obstetric disseminated intravascular coagulation and reduce the bleeding.%目的:探讨产科弥散性血管内凝血患者的诱发因素和临床疗效。方法:收治弥散性血管内凝血患者100例,按照入院顺序随机均分为两组,对照组予以常规治疗,试验组在对照组的基础上予以支持治疗,观察产科弥散性血管内凝血患者的诱发因素,治疗后观察两组的临床治疗效果与出血量。结果:诱发因素包括羊水栓塞、胎盘早剥、死胎、产后出血及妊娠期高血压。试验组患者治疗的24 h 内出血量明显少于对照组,抢救有效率也明显高于对照组,组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:常规治疗基础上加强支持治疗对治疗产科弥散性血管内凝

  7. Diurnal variation of mountain waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountain waves could be modified as the boundary layer varies between stable and convective. However case studies show mountain waves day and night, and above e.g. convective rolls with precipitation lines over mountains. VHF radar measurements of vertical wind (1990–2006 confirm a seasonal variation of mountain-wave amplitude, yet there is little diurnal variation of amplitude. Mountain-wave azimuth shows possible diurnal variation compared to wind rotation across the boundary layer.

  8. The Split Variational Inequality Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Censor, Yair; Reich, Simeon

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new variational problem which we call the Split Variational Inequality Problem (SVIP). It entails finding a solution of one Variational Inequality Problem (VIP), the image of which under a given bounded linear transformation is a solution of another VIP. We construct iterative algorithms that solve such problems, under reasonable conditions, in Hilbert space and then discuss special cases, some of which are new even in Euclidean space.

  9. Comparing variation across European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau C; Baixauli-Pérez, Cristobal; Librero-López, Julián;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In geographical studies, population distribution is a key issue. An unequal distribution across units of analysis might entail extra-variation and produce misleading conclusions on healthcare performance variations. This article aims at assessing the impact of building more homogeneous...... units of analysis in the estimation of systematic variation in three countries. METHODS: Hospital discharges for six conditions (congestive heart failure, short-term complications of diabetes, hip fracture, knee replacement, prostatectomy in prostate cancer and percutaneous coronary intervention...

  10. Explorations in Regional Variation: A Variational Pragmatic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The present article introduces the Special Issue entitled "A Variational Pragmatic Approach to Regional Variation in Language," a collection of papers which celebrates the work of Klaus P. Schneider (Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany) on the occasion of his 60th birthday.

  11. Genotype–phenotype relationship of F7 R353Q polymorphism and plasma factor VII coagulant activity in Asian Indian families predisposed to coronary artery disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jayashree Shanker; Ganapathy Perumal; Arindam Maitra; Veena S. Rao; B. K. Natesha; Shibu John; Sridhar Hebbagodi; Vijay V. Kakkar

    2009-12-01

    Elevated factor VII (FVII) level is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the role of R353Q polymorphism in the F7 gene in 139 Indian families with CAD, comprising of 222 affected subjects, 105 unaffected subjects and 126 affected sibling pairs. Plasma per cent FVIIc activity (FVII.c activity) differed significantly across R353Q genotype ($P \\lt 0.0001$). Frequency of subjects with RR and QQ genotypes were higher in 4th quartile and 1st quartile of FVII.c activity, respectively ($P \\lt 0.0001$). F7 R353Q SNP was able to explain up to 7% of variation in FVII.c activity by regression analysis and an additive genetic component of variance of 28.04% by heritability analysis. Quantitative trait loci analysis showed suggestive linkage evidence of F7 SNP with per cent FVII.c activity (LOD score $-1.82$; $P = 0.002$). Individuals with RR and RQ genotypes carried an OR of 2.071 (95% c.i. = 1.506–2.850) and 2.472 (95% c.i. = 1.679–3.641), respectively, towards CAD risk. There was significant correlation of FVII.c activity with lipid markers, particularly among those with RR and RQ genotype after covariate adjustment. In conclusion, the F7 R353Q SNP appears to moderately influence plasma FVII.c activity and risk of CAD in Indians.

  12. Late gestation over- and undernutrition predispose for visceral adiposity in response to a post-natal obesogenic diet, but with differential impacts on glucose-insulin adaptations during fasting in lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanal, Prabhat; Husted, Sanne Vinter; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen;

    2014-01-01

    of subcutaneous adipose tissue and induced differential physiological adaptations to fasting. This study does not suggest that exposure to gestational overnutrition will provide a protective effect against development of hyperglycaemia later in life. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society.......Aim: To investigate if late gestation under- or overnutrition has similar adverse impacts on visceral adiposity, metabolic and endocrine function in sheep, and if subsequent exposure to a high-fat diet in early post-natal life exaggerates the prenatal programming outcomes later in life. Methods......, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids, triglyceride and lactate combined with abdominal obesity. Peri-renal fat appeared to be a particular target of a high-fat diet post-natally. Conclusion: Both prenatal under- and overnutrition predisposed for abdominal adiposity, apparently by reducing the expandability...

  13. ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS IN SINONASAL REGION IN CASES OF SINUS HEADACHE - CT SCAN - PNS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sinus headache secondary to Chronic Rhinosinusitis refers to episode of pain over the sinus area of the face and is often associated with nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, facial pressure, lacrimation, nausea and sensory sensitivity. Any small lesions or anatomical variations over lateral wall of nose may giv e rise to sinus headache. CT scan play a vital role in accurate assessment of osteomeatal complex area and anatomical variations at this site. AIM: To study anatomical variations of osteomeatal complex area and deviated septum in cases of chronic sinus hea dache secondary to Chronic Rhinosinusitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This study was conducted in Jhalawar Medical College, ENT Department between Sept. 2012 to Dec. 2014. In this study 75 patients withchronic sinus headache was selected who had chronic headac he for more than 3 months duration not responding to medical line of treatment and who were willing to undergo function endoscopic sinus surgery. All patients underwent for CT scan para nasal sinus. RESULT: In this study deviated nasal septum was found in 77.33% patients, apart from that it was observed that 54.66% of the sinus headache cases had two or more anatomical variations and 28% had single anatomical variations, out of them commonest finding is concha bullosa followed by enlarge bulla ethmoid, para doxical middle turbinate, medialiseduncinate process, lateraliseduncinate process, prominent aggar nasi cells, haller cells and onodi cells in decreasing order . CONCLUSION: The study of CT scan PNS conclude that Deviated Nasal Septum and anatomical variati ons at lateral wall of nose causes narrowing of osteomeatal complex area which predisposed patients to sino nasal disease and sinus headache

  14. Exploiting Natural Variation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, J.A.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Natural variation for many traits is present within the species Arabidopsis thaliana . This chapter describes the use of natural variation to elucidate genes underlying the regulation of quantitative traits. It deals with the development and use of mapping populations, the detection and handling of

  15. Exploiting natural variation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Molenaar; J.J.B. Keurentjes

    2014-01-01

    Natural variation for many traits is present within the species Arabidopsis thaliana. This chapter describes the use of natural variation to elucidate genes underlying the regulation of quantitative traits. It deals with the development and use of mapping populations, the detection and handling of g

  16. Exploring language variation across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk; Johannsen, Anders Trærup

    2016-01-01

    training in both variational linguistics and computational methods, a combination that is still not common. We take a first step here to alleviate the problem by providing an interface to explore large-scale language variation along several socio-demographic factors without programming knowledge. It makes...

  17. Polymorphisms in the pituitary growth hormone gene and its receptor associated with coronary artery disease in a predisposed cohort from India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arindam Maitra; Jayashree Shanker; Debabrata Dash; Prathima R. Sannappa; Shibu John; Pratibha Siwach; Veena S. Rao; H. Sridhara; Vijay V. Kakkar

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the promoter polymorphisms of the pituitary growth hormone gene (GH1) and exon 3 deletion polymorphism (GHRd3) in its receptor gene (GHR) in 299 angiographically proven patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 231 asymptomatic controls enrolled in the ongoing Indian Atherosclerosis Research Study. Real time PCR based analysis of the GHR variant showed significant association of the GHRd3 deletion allele with CAD (OR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.30–0.76, $P = 0.0014$) and a dominant model of inheritance (Akaike information criterion = 482). The deletion allele showed significant association with high plasma HDL-c levels ($P = 0.001$). Sequencing of the proximal promoter region of GH1 revealed 12 novel polymorphisms and a TAGA haplotype constituted by the functional SNPs rs2005171, rs11568828, rs2005172 and rs6171, that showed significant association with CAD alone (adjusted OR of 3.31 (95% CI = 1.33–8.29, $P = 0.011$) and in CAD patients with diabetes ($P = 0.019$). Mean standardized height was associated with three of the four haplotype-tagging SNPs in the cohort ($P \\leq 0.03$). Eleven of the 12 polymorphic promoter SNPs contributed to 14.7% of variation in height in females in the whole dataset ($P = 0.029$). CAD patients with history of stroke exhibited marginally significantly lower mean height as compared to rest of the cohort ($P \\lt 0.006$). In conclusion, genetic polymorphisms in the GHR gene and its ligand, GH1, may modulate the risk of CAD in the Asian Indian population.

  18. Variational integrators for electric circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ober-Blöbaum, Sina; Cheng, Mulin; Owhadi, Houman; Marsden, Jerrold E

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution, we develop a variational integrator for the simulation of (stochastic and multiscale) electric circuits. When considering the dynamics of an electrical circuit, one is faced with three special situations: 1. The system involves external (control) forcing through external (controlled) voltage sources and resistors. 2. The system is constrained via the Kirchhoff current (KCL) and voltage laws (KVL). 3. The Lagrangian is degenerate. Based on a geometric setting, an appropriate variational formulation is presented to model the circuit from which the equations of motion are derived. A time-discrete variational formulation provides an iteration scheme for the simulation of the electric circuit. Dependent on the discretization, the intrinsic degeneracy of the system can be canceled for the discrete variational scheme. In this way, a variational integrator is constructed that gains several advantages compared to standard integration tools for circuits; in particular, a comparison to BDF methods ...

  19. Variational and quasi-variational inequalities in mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kravchuk, Alexander S

    2007-01-01

    The essential aim of the present book is to consider a wide set of problems arising in the mathematical modelling of mechanical systems under unilateral constraints. In these investigations elastic and non-elastic deformations, friction and adhesion phenomena are taken into account. All the necessary mathematical tools are given: local boundary value problem formulations, construction of variational equations and inequalities, and the transition to minimization problems, existence and uniqueness theorems, and variational transformations (Friedrichs and Young-Fenchel-Moreau) to dual and saddle-point search problems. Important new results concern contact problems with friction. The Coulomb friction law and some others are considered, in which relative sliding velocities appear. The corresponding quasi-variational inequality is constructed, as well as the appropriate iterative method for its solution. Outlines of the variational approach to non-stationary and dissipative systems and to the construction of the go...

  20. Variational formulation of high performance finite elements: Parametrized variational principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippa, Carlos A.; Militello, Carmello

    1991-01-01

    High performance elements are simple finite elements constructed to deliver engineering accuracy with coarse arbitrary grids. This is part of a series on the variational basis of high-performance elements, with emphasis on those constructed with the free formulation (FF) and assumed natural strain (ANS) methods. Parametrized variational principles that provide a foundation for the FF and ANS methods, as well as for a combination of both are presented.

  1. Statistics, Uncertainty, and Transmitted Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Joanne Roth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-05

    The field of Statistics provides methods for modeling and understanding data and making decisions in the presence of uncertainty. When examining response functions, variation present in the input variables will be transmitted via the response function to the output variables. This phenomenon can potentially have significant impacts on the uncertainty associated with results from subsequent analysis. This presentation will examine the concept of transmitted variation, its impact on designed experiments, and a method for identifying and estimating sources of transmitted variation in certain settings.

  2. Representing Term Variation in lemon

    OpenAIRE

    Montiel-Ponsoda, Elena; Aguado de Cea, G.; McCrae, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution our objective is to define term variation, analyze the state of the art, and propose a new classification of term variants according to our representation purposes in lemon, a lexiconontology model to enrich ontologies with linguistic descriptions.

  3. Explaining variation in nascent entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship r

  4. The UMD-APC database, a model of nation-wide knowledge base: update with data from 3,581 variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandval, Philippe; Blayau, Martine; Buisine, Marie-Pierre; Coulet, Florence; Maugard, Christine; Pinson, Stéphane; Remenieras, Audrey; Tinat, Julie; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Béroud, Christophe; Olschwang, Sylviane

    2014-05-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a rare autosomal-inherited disease that highly predisposes to colorectal cancer, characterized by a diffuse duodenal and colorectal polyposis associated with various extradigestive tumors and linked to germline mutations within the APC gene. A French consortium of laboratories involved in APC mutation screening has progressively improved the description of the variation spectrum, inferred functional significance of nontruncating variations, and delineated phenotypic characteristics of the disease. The current version of the UMD-APC database is described here. The total number of variations has risen to 5,453 representing 1,473 distinct variations. The published records initially registered into the database were extended with 3,581 germline variations found through genetic testing performed by the eight licensed laboratories belonging to the French APC network. Sixty six of 149 variations of previously unknown significance have now been classified as (likely) causal or neutral. The database is available on the Internet (http://www.umd.be/APC/) and updated twice per year according to the consensus rules of the network. The UMD-APC database is thus expected to facilitate functional classification of rare synonymous, nonsynonymous, and intronic mutations and consequently improve genetic counseling and medical care in FAP families.

  5. Stochastic Annealing for Variational Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Gultekin, San; Zhang, Aonan; Paisley, John

    2015-01-01

    We empirically evaluate a stochastic annealing strategy for Bayesian posterior optimization with variational inference. Variational inference is a deterministic approach to approximate posterior inference in Bayesian models in which a typically non-convex objective function is locally optimized over the parameters of the approximating distribution. We investigate an annealing method for optimizing this objective with the aim of finding a better local optimal solution and compare with determin...

  6. Variational Gaussian Process Dynamical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Damianou, Andreas C.; Titsias, Michalis K.; Lawrence, Neil D.

    2011-01-01

    High dimensional time series are endemic in applications of machine learning such as robotics (sensor data), computational biology (gene expression data), vision (video sequences) and graphics (motion capture data). Practical nonlinear probabilistic approaches to this data are required. In this paper we introduce the variational Gaussian process dynamical system. Our work builds on recent variational approximations for Gaussian process latent variable models to allow for nonlinear dimensional...

  7. An Overview of Variational Integrators

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Adrian; Marsden, Jerrold E.; Ortiz, Michael; West, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey some recent advances in variational integrators for both finite dimensional mechanical systems as well as continuum mechanics. These advances include the general development of discrete mechanics, applications to dissipative systems, collisions, spacetime integration algorithms, AVI’s (Asynchronous Variational Integrators), as well as reduction for discrete mechanical systems. To keep the article within the set limits, we will only trea...

  8. Variation of fundamental constants: theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flambaum, Victor

    2008-05-01

    Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest temporal and spatial variation of the fundamental ``constants'' in expanding Universe. There are some hints for the variation of different fundamental constants in quasar absorption spectra and Big Bang nucleosynthesis data. A large number of publications (including atomic clocks) report limits on the variations. We want to study the variation of the main dimensionless parameters of the Standard Model: 1. Fine structure constant alpha (combination of speed of light, electron charge and Plank constant). 2. Ratio of the strong interaction scale (LambdaQCD) to a fundamental mass like electron mass or quark mass which are proportional to Higgs vacuum expectation value. The proton mass is propotional to LambdaQCD, therefore, the proton-to-electron mass ratio comes into this second category. We performed necessary atomic, nuclear and QCD calculations needed to study variation of the fundamental constants using the Big Bang Nucleosynthsis, quasar spectra, Oklo natural nuclear reactor and atomic clock data. The relative effects of the variation may be enhanced in transitions between narrow close levels in atoms, molecules and nuclei. If one will study an enhanced effect, the relative value of systematic effects (which are not enhanced) may be much smaller. Note also that the absolute magnitude of the variation effects in nuclei (e.g. in very narrow 7 eV transition in 229Th) may be 5 orders of magnitude larger than in atoms. A different possibility of enhancement comes from the inversion transitions in molecules where splitting between the levels is due to the quantum tunneling amplitude which has strong, exponential dependence on the electron to proton mass ratio. Our study of NH3 quasar spectra has already given the best limit on the variation of electron to proton mass ratio.

  9. Influence of anatomic variations of the middle nasal meathus on sinonasal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buljčik-Čupić Maja M.

    2008-01-01

    50% patients. 4. Variations of the form of ethomoidal bulla in 50% patients. Eives's correlation coefficient i.e. the degree of correlation between sinonasal disorders and the presence of anatomic variation statistically significantly correlate at r >/= ft 05 of anatomic variation of the middle nasal chonha (r =0.23 and the presence of deviation/deformation of nasal septum (r = 0.6 with sinonasal disorders. Discussion and conclusion Anatomic variations of the structures of the middle nasal meatus can additionally complicate the anatomy of the lateral nasal wall and the conditions of the ostiomeatal unit. Therefore we must view these variations as factors predisposing to more rapid and frequent appearance and persistence of chronic inflammations. Also, familiary with the variations in sinonasal anatomy is a prerequisite to safe and effective surgical treatment of sinonasal disease. Recognition of this anatomic variation should minimize catastrophic violation of vital structures such as orbit or skull base.

  10. Investigation of the initial symptom, onset time and predisposing factors of acute cerebral haemorrhage%急性出血性脑血管疾病相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹非; 骆芳; 胡波; 魏桂荣; 许辉; 菜敬杰

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the initial symptoms, onset time and predisposing factors of acute cerebral haemorrhage in order to more effectively prevent cerebral haemorrhage. Methods 728 cases with acute cerebral haemorrhage were collected in recent 8 years. The initial symptoms,onset time and predisposing factors of all the patients were investigated. Results Acute cerebral haemorrhage in 582 caces (79.9%) occurred at time between 6am and 18pm and 146 cases (20%) at night. The main predisposing causes of acute cerebral haemorrhage were the playing of chess, cards and mahjong (16.1%), quarrels (12.8%), overwork (11.7%), alcoholism (7.2%) and so on. The most common initial symptom was hemianesthesia, accounting for 16.2%, others were vertigo (13.0%), headache ( 11.4%), amaurosis fugax ( 9.3%), speech ambiguity ( 8.6%) and transitory visual disturbance (7.9%). Conclusions The preventive measures of cerebral haemorrhage should be focused on daytime, especially in the morning. Sixteen locations where the cerebral haemorrhage is prone to happen should be paid more attention to by the patients with hypertension and the medical staff. Thirteen symptoms,such as hemianesthesia and vertigo,are the aurae of cerebral haemorrhage.%目的 调查急性脑出血患者首发症状、发病时间和诱因,旨在更有效预防脑出血发病.方法 搜集调查近8年728例脑出血患者临床资料,分析其首发症状、发病时问和诱因. 结果 6:00~18:00发病582例占79.9%.18:00~6:00发病146例,占20.0%.脑出血发病第1位诱因是麻将棋牌,达117例,占16.1%,其次分别为争吵93例(12.8%),过劳85例(11.7%),酗酒53例(7.2%)等.首发症状最多见的足偏身麻木,118例,占16.2%;其次为突发眩晕,其他排列顺序依次为:头痛、一过性黑朦、言语含糊、短暂性视力障碍. 结论 脑出血发病预防重点应放在白天,尤其是上午;16种脑出血好发诱因应引起高血压患者和医务人员的重视,偏身麻木、眩晕等13

  11. 957例新生儿听力和聋病易感基因联合筛查结果分析%Study of universal newborn hearing screening and deafness predisposing gene screening in 957 newborns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原晶晶; 张帆; 张淼; 鲍诗平

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨新生儿听力和聋病易感基因联合筛查的临床意义。方法选择2014年1~l2月出生后42 d进行听力复查的957例新生儿,听力复筛采用畸变产物耳声发射(DPOAE)结合自动判别听性脑干反应(AABR)。新生儿在出生后3 d内均已采集足跟血检测9个常见耳聋基因突变位点,包括GJB2基因(35 del G、176 del 16、235 del C、299 delAT)、GJB3基因(538 C>T)、SLC26A4基因(IVS7-2A>G、2168 A>G)、线粒体DNA 12S rRNA基因(1555 A>G、1494 C>T)。结果听力复筛通过904例,未通过53例,复筛通过率为94.46%。突变携带者50例,携带率为5.22%。听力复筛通过人群中检测出突变携带者45例,携带率为4.98%;听力复筛未通过人群中检测出突变携带者5例,携带率为9.43%。结论新生儿听力和聋病易感基因联合筛查,可发现部分听力筛查不能发现的高危耳聋新生儿和迟发性耳聋新生儿,并可进行婚育及用药指导。%Objective To investigate the clinic significance of universal newborn screening with deafness pre-disposing genes in newborns. Methods A total of 957 newborns underwent hearing screening at 42 d after birth in our hospital from January 2014 to December 2014. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) combined with auto-auditory brainstem response (AABR) was used in hearing screening. These newborns had been taken blood sample at heel at 3 d after birth for detecting 9 common deafness genes mutation, including GJB2 (35 del G, 176 del 16, 235 del C, 299 delAT), GJB3 (538 C>T), SLC26A4 (IVS7-2A>G, 2 168 A>G) and mitochondria DNA 12S rRNA (1 555 A>G, 1 494 C>T). Results In 957 newborns of hearing screening, 904 newborns showed“pass”, while 53 showed“refer”. The rate of showing“pass”was 94.46%. Mutation of deafness predisposing genes were detected in 50 cases, and the pos-itive detection rate was 5.22%. Forty-five cases of mutations were detected in the newborns who passed

  12. Is there much variation in variation? Revisiting statistics of small area variation in health services research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibáñez Berta

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of Small Area Variation Analysis for policy-making contrasts with the scarcity of work on the validity of the statistics used in these studies. Our study aims at 1 determining whether variation in utilization rates between health areas is higher than would be expected by chance, 2 estimating the statistical power of the variation statistics; and 3 evaluating the ability of different statistics to compare the variability among different procedures regardless of their rates. Methods Parametric bootstrap techniques were used to derive the empirical distribution for each statistic under the hypothesis of homogeneity across areas. Non-parametric procedures were used to analyze the empirical distribution for the observed statistics and compare the results in six situations (low/medium/high utilization rates and low/high variability. A small scale simulation study was conducted to assess the capacity of each statistic to discriminate between different scenarios with different degrees of variation. Results Bootstrap techniques proved to be good at quantifying the difference between the null hypothesis and the variation observed in each situation, and to construct reliable tests and confidence intervals for each of the variation statistics analyzed. Although the good performance of Systematic Component of Variation (SCV, Empirical Bayes (EB statistic shows better behaviour under the null hypothesis, it is able to detect variability if present, it is not influenced by the procedure rate and it is best able to discriminate between different degrees of heterogeneity. Conclusion The EB statistics seems to be a good alternative to more conventional statistics used in small-area variation analysis in health service research because of its robustness.

  13. The Role of Variation in Lexicography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Ceil

    2003-01-01

    Explores the relationship between lexicography and variation in both spoken languages and sign languages. Examines the function of dictionaries and discusses the nature of linguistic variation, using an example of lexical variation in American Sign Language. (Author/VWL)

  14. Variational Methods for Biomolecular Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Structure, function and dynamics of many biomolecular systems can be characterized by the energetic variational principle and the corresponding systems of partial differential equations (PDEs). This principle allows us to focus on the identification of essential energetic components, the optimal parametrization of energies, and the efficient computational implementation of energy variation or minimization. Given the fact that complex biomolecular systems are structurally non-uniform and their interactions occur through contact interfaces, their free energies are associated with various interfaces as well, such as solute-solvent interface, molecular binding interface, lipid domain interface, and membrane surfaces. This fact motivates the inclusion of interface geometry, particular its curvatures, to the parametrization of free energies. Applications of such interface geometry based energetic variational principles are illustrated through three concrete topics: the multiscale modeling of biomolecular electrosta...

  15. Solid mechanics a variational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive L

    2013-01-01

    Solid Mechanics: A Variational Approach, Augmented Edition presents a lucid and thoroughly developed approach to solid mechanics for students engaged in the study of elastic structures not seen in other texts currently on the market. This work offers a clear and carefully prepared exposition of variational techniques as they are applied to solid mechanics. Unlike other books in this field, Dym and Shames treat all the necessary theory needed for the study of solid mechanics and include extensive applications. Of particular note is the variational approach used in developing consistent structural theories and in obtaining exact and approximate solutions for many problems.  Based on both semester and year-long courses taught to undergraduate seniors and graduate students, this text is geared for programs in aeronautical, civil, and mechanical engineering, and in engineering science. The authors’ objective is two-fold: first, to introduce the student to the theory of structures (one- and two-dimensional) as ...

  16. Constrained variational calculus: the second variation (part I)

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, Enrico; Pagani, Enrico; Luria, Gianvittorio

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a direct continuation of arXiv:0705.2362 . The Hamiltonian aspects of the theory are further developed. Within the framework provided by the first paper, the problem of minimality for constrained calculus of variations is analyzed among the class of differentiable curves. A necessary and sufficient condition for minimality is proved.

  17. Evaluation of a demonstration primary health care project in rural Guatemala: the influence of predisposing, enabling and need factors on immunization coverage, equitable use of health care services and application of treatment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Meredith P; Grembowski, David; Heagerty, Patrick; Lim, Stephen S; Mercer, Mary Anne

    2012-09-01

    In high- and low-resource settings, care is often provided inequitably, with more and higher-quality services being offered to those who need them less. We evaluated the influence of predisposing, enabling and need characteristics on immunization coverage and use of health services in a population-based primary health care model called the Inclusive Health Model in rural Guatemala. We also analyzed providers' application of treatment guidelines for children with pneumonia. A longitudinal cohort design was used from 2006 to 2009 to analyze data from the model's two demonstration sites. We found a significant positive association between families' health risk level and their use of health care services, with the model providing more services to those with greater need. Services are not provided differentially for those families with a higher or lower wealth level or selected sociodemographic characteristics. Distance from a clinic is significantly associated with lower service use, but this constraint decreases with time. Implementation of treatment guidelines does not vary with different provider characteristics. The Inclusive Health Care model's aim of offering care equitably to families living in its catchment area is reflected in these findings. This study offers an approach and conceptual model for tracking equity in service delivery that may be applicable in other settings.

  18. The P9 pocket of HLA-DQ2 (non-Aspbeta57) has no particular preference for negatively charged anchor residues found in other type 1 diabetes-predisposing non-Aspbeta57 MHC class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quarsten, H; Paulsen, G; Johansen, B H;

    1998-01-01

    -predisposing class II molecules. The molecular explanation for such a phenomenon could be that class II beta chains with Aspbeta57 form a salt bridge between Aspbeta57 and a conserved Arg of the a chain, whereas in non-Aspbeta57 molecules the Arg is unopposed and free to interact with negatively charged P9 peptide...... anchor residues. We have investigated the specificity of the P9 pocket of the type 1 diabetes-associated DQ2 molecule and in particular examined for charge effects at this anchor position. Different approaches were undertaken. We analyzed binding of a high-affinity binding ligand and P9-substituted...... variants of this peptide, and we analyzed the binding of a set of synthetic random peptide libraries. The binding analyses were performed with wild-type DQ2 and a mutated DQ2 with Ala at beta57 substituted with Asp. Our results indicate that the wild-type DQ2 (non-Aspbeta57) prefers large hydrophobic...

  19. Predisposing, enabling and need factors of heroin addicts’ using prescribed methadone or buprenorphine for a year or longer: An exploratory study of drug treatment for heroin addicts in the Swedish welfare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Marcus Blom

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM - This exploratory study draws on national register data for 2,638 opioid users from 2004- 2008 to examine whether or not certain predisposing, enabling and need factors are associated with taking methadone or buprenorphine continuously on doctor’s orders for one year or more. DESIGN - Chi-square analysis, one-way Anova and logistic regression methods were used to explore the association between self-reported demographic characteristics, alcohol/drug use severity, substance use disorder treatment history, criminal justice history, level of mental health symptomatology, mental health treatment history, and whether or not adult opioid users had taken methadone or buprenorphine continuously on doctor’s orders for one year or longer. RESULTS - Having a job and having had more voluntary treatment episodes were significantly associated with using methadone or buprenorphine. Those opioid users who had a job were 19 times more likely to be on methadone or buprenorphine than opiate users who did not have a job. CONCLUSIONS - In our study, individuals who were working were significantly more likely to medicate against their opioid abuse. This suggests that they may be more socially integrated than their non-medicating counterparts

  20. Homotopy Method for Variational Inequalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Solving a finite-dimensional variational inequality is to find a vector x* ∈ X Rn such that where X is a nonempty, closed and convex subset of Rn and F is a mapping from Rn to itself,denoted by VI(X, F). The variational inequality problem (VIP) has had many successful practical applications in the last three decades. It has been used to formulate and investigate equilibrium models arising in economics, transportation, regional science and operations research. So far, a large number of existence conditions have been developed in the literature. Harker and Pang[1] gave excellent surveys of theories, methods and applications of VIPs.

  1. A compiler for variational forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, Robert C; 10.1145/1163641.1163644

    2011-01-01

    As a key step towards a complete automation of the finite element method, we present a new algorithm for automatic and efficient evaluation of multilinear variational forms. The algorithm has been implemented in the form of a compiler, the FEniCS Form Compiler FFC. We present benchmark results for a series of standard variational forms, including the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and linear elasticity. The speedup compared to the standard quadrature-based approach is impressive; in some cases the speedup is as large as a factor 1000.

  2. A variational formulation of electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    De Nicola, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    We present a variational formulation of electrodynamics using de Rham even and odd differential forms. Our formulation relies on a variational principle more complete than the Hamilton principle and thus leads to field equations with external sources and permits the derivation of the constitutive relations. We interpret a domain in space-time as an odd de Rham 4-current. This permits a treatment of different types of boundary problems in an unified way. In particular we obtain a smooth transition to the infinitesimal version by using a current with a one point support.

  3. Storm surge variational assimilation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-li HUANG

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To eliminate errors caused by uncertainty of parameters and further improve capability of storm surge forecasting, the variational data assimilation method is applied to the storm surge model based on unstructured grid with high spatial resolution. The method can effectively improve the forecasting accuracy of storm surge induced by typhoon through controlling wind drag force coefficient parameter. The model is first theoretically validated with synthetic data. Then, the real storm surge process induced by the TC 0515 typhoon is forecasted by the variational data assimilation model, and results show the feasibility of practical application.

  4. Genetisk variation og langt liv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    andre ikke gør. I dette ph.d.-projekt undersøgte vi sammenhængen mellem levetid og variation i tre biologiske skadesprocesser. De tre er: antioxidanter, væksthormon/insulin-signalering og DNA-reparation. Vi fandt nye genvariationer, hvoraf nogle har positiv indflydelse på chancen for at blive meget...

  5. Variational approach for quarkonium potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variational method based on Coulomb and harmonic oscillator trial functions has been investigated in the context of single and superposition of power potentials which are commonly used for quarkonium systems. Ground state energies being upper bounds are calculated and emerge surprisingly close to their exact values considering the simplicity of the method

  6. Function variational principles and coercivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turinici, Mihai

    2005-04-01

    The function type extension of Ekeland's variational principle [J. Math. Anal. Appl. 47 (1974) 324-353] due to Zhong [Nonlinear Anal. 29 (1997) 1421-1431] is deductible in a simplified manner and in a larger functional context. This is also true for his (normed) coercivity result, based on Palais-Smale techniques.

  7. Sea level and climate variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1985-01-01

    Review paper, ESA Symposium on Application of Satellite Data to Climate Modelling. Alpbach (Austria) Sea level is an essential component of the climate system, on which many human activities in the coastal zone depend. Climate variations leading to changes in relative sea level are discussed, with

  8. Variational integrators in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To a large extent, research in plasma physics is concerned with the description and analysis of energy and momentum transfer between different scales and different kinds of waves. In the numerical modelling of such phenomena it appears to be crucial to describe the transfer processes preserving the underlying conservation laws in order to prevent physically spurious solutions. In this work, special numerical methods, so called variational integrators, are developed for several models of plasma physics. Special attention is given to conservation properties like conservation of energy and momentum. By design, variational integrators are applicable to all systems that have a Lagrangian formulation. Usually, equations of motion are derived by Hamilton's action principle and then discretised. In the application of the variational integrator theory, the order of these steps is reversed. At first, the Lagrangian and the accompanying variational principle are discretised, such that discrete equations of motion can be obtained directly by applying the discrete variational principle to the discrete Lagrangian. The advantage of this approach is that the resulting discretisation automatically retains the conservation properties of the continuous system. Following an overview of the geometric formulation of classical mechanics and field theory, which forms the basis of the variational integrator theory, variational integrators are introduced in a framework adapted to problems from plasma physics. The applicability of variational integrators is explored for several important models of plasma physics: particle dynamics (guiding centre dynamics), kinetic theory (the Vlasov-Poisson system) and fluid theory (magnetohydrodynamics). These systems, with the exception of guiding centre dynamics, do not possess a Lagrangian formulation to which the variational integrator methodology is directly applicable. Therefore the theory is extended by linking it to Ibragimov's theory of

  9. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. Methods: A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Results: Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Conclusions: Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD. PMID:21976868

  10. Molecular pathology of colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puijenbroek, Marjo van

    2008-01-01

    Each year, approximately eleven thousand new colorectal cancer (CRC) patients are registered in the Netherlands. Half of these patients will eventually die of this disease. Consequently, it is of great importance to identify individuals with an increased risk for CRC. In this thesis, we evaluate the

  11. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD

  12. Factors identifying pigs predisposed to tail biting

    OpenAIRE

    Beattie, V. E.; Breuer, K.; O Connell, N. E.; Sneddon, I. A.; Mercer, J. T.; Rance, K. A.; Sutcliffe, M. E. M.; Edwards, S A

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 5% of pigs slaughtered in the UK have been tail-bitten, leading to welfare and production issues. Tail biting is sporadic and not all pigs tail bite. The aim of this study was to identify factors that are common in pigs that perform tail-biting behaviour, and that might be used in a predictive way to identify such animals. The behaviour of 159 pigs was observed in the post-weaning period. Pigs were weaned at 4 weeks of age. In the week prior to weaning and at 6 weeks of age each...

  13. Can antioxidants predispose to cancer recurrence?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krishnananda Prabhu; Gummadi Maheshwar Reddy; Anjali Rao

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To measure and compare pre-and post-treatment levels of serum total glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in stage IV cervical cancer patients and erythrocytic glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and plasma ceruloplasmin (CP) and total GST in stage IV oral cancer patients and to correlate with the response to treatment during a two year follow-up period in respective cancer groups. Methods:Thirty-four biopsy-proven stage IV oral cancer and cervical cancer patients (n=17 in each group) who underwent same mode of treatment were chosen for this study. Erythrocytic MDA and GSH, CP and serum total GST were measured in all patients before the onset of treatment, and the GST level was only measured in cervical cancer patients after radiotherapy. The levels were compared with their respective prognosis in 2 years. Results:Oral cancer patients with higher pretreatment levels of GSH, CP and GST came with cancer recurrence within 2 years after the onset of treatment. Cervical cancer patients with higher post radiotherapy levels of serum total GST had higher recurrence tate. Conclusions:This study indicates there may be a role for these antioxidant parameters namely GST, GSH, CP in assessment of long term survival and prognosis of cancer patients.

  14. Geometric constrained variational calculus. III: The second variation (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Enrico; Luria, Gianvittorio; Pagani, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    The problem of minimality for constrained variational calculus is analyzed within the class of piecewise differentiable extremaloids. A fully covariant representation of the second variation of the action functional based on a family of local gauge transformations of the original Lagrangian is proposed. The necessity of pursuing a local adaptation process, rather than the global one described in [1] is seen to depend on the value of certain scalar attributes of the extremaloid, here called the corners’ strengths. On this basis, both the necessary and the sufficient conditions for minimality are worked out. In the discussion, a crucial role is played by an analysis of the prolongability of the Jacobi fields across the corners. Eventually, in the appendix, an alternative approach to the concept of strength of a corner, more closely related to Pontryagin’s maximum principle, is presented.

  15. Variation of Parameters in Differential Equations (A Variation in Making Sense of Variation of Parameters)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Terry; Rai, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    The method of variation of parameters can be found in most undergraduate textbooks on differential equations. The method leads to solutions of the non-homogeneous equation of the form y = u[subscript 1]y[subscript 1] + u[subscript 2]y[subscript 2], a sum of function products using solutions to the homogeneous equation y[subscript 1] and…

  16. Time course of cytokine upregulation in the lacrimal gland and presence of autoantibodies in a predisposed mouse model of Sjögren's Syndrome: the influence of sex hormones and genetic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Stefanie; Mostafa, Safinaz; Rowan, Vanessa Seamon; Azzarolo, Ana Maria

    2014-11-01

    Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) is a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by lacrimal gland lymphocytic infiltration and epithelial cell death, as well as by the presence of serum autoantibodies. Although the symptoms of this syndrome are well characterized, patients are not diagnosed until 5-10 years into disease progression; furthermore, the early series of events leading to the initiation of SS are not well understood. In order to better understand the early events of the disease, we have been using ovariectomized (OVX) NOD.B10.H2(b) mice as a genetically predisposed model of SS. Previously, we have shown that removal of ovarian hormones through ovariectomy accelerated the symptoms of this disease, and in early events of SS in the lacrimal glands, lymphocytic infiltration preceded acinar cell apoptosis. To further elucidate the earlier events of this disease in the SS animal model, we investigated the expression and concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lacrimal glands as well as the presence of autoantibodies in both lacrimal glands and serum. Six weeks old NOD.B10.H2(b) and C57BL/10 control mice were either sham-operated, OVX, OVX and treated with 17β-estradiol (E2), or OVX and treated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Lacrimal glands were collected at 3, 7, 21, and 30 days after surgery and analyzed for cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-4 gene expression by using quantitative RT-PCR and for cytokine levels using ELISA. Furthermore, anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB autoantibodies were measured in the serum and lacrimal glands supernatants using ELISA. The results of this study showed that OVX caused a significant increase in the expression and levels of the cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-4 in the lacrimal glands of the NOD.B10.H2(b) mice starting at 3 days after OVX, while a significant increase of IL-10 gene expression and levels was observed only at later experimental time points. A small but significant increase in the

  17. Discussion on Predisposing Factors of Patients with Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes and Pregnancy Outcome%未足月胎膜早破患者易发因素分析及妊娠结局探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珊珊

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the main predisposing factors of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), and observe the outcomes of mother and infant, so as to provide evidence for clinical prevention and treatment. Methods 117 cases of PPROM patients hospitalized from January 2013 to March 2015 were selected as observation group, 112 cases of normal puerpera at the same period were selected as control group, to observe and compare the related predisposing factors of PPROM and pregnancy outcomes. Results The percentage of vaginitis/cervicitis history, abortion history, uterine scar, fetal abnormalities, diabetes/pregnancy-induced hypertension and sexual life of the observation group was 27.35% (32/117), 23.93% (28/117), 11.11% (13/117), 15.38% (18/117), 12.82% (15/117) and 10.26%(12/117) respectively, significantly higher than that of the control group, respectively (P0.05). 观察组阴道顺产率、 阴道助产率和剖宫产率分别为19.66% (23/117)、 39.32% (46/117) 和41.03%(48/117), 与对照组比较, 差异具有统计学意义 (P<0.05). 观察组新生儿窒息、 新生儿肺炎、 产后出血、 产褥感染、 绒毛膜羊膜炎、 呼吸窘迫综合征 (NRDS)、 早产和围生儿死亡的发生率分别为17.95% (21/117)、 7.69% (9/117)、 12.82% (15/117)、22.22% (26/117)、 8.55% (10/117)、 15.38% (18/117)、 94.87% (111/117) 和5.13% (6/117), 均高于对照组, 差异均具有统计学意义 (P<0.05). 观察组新生儿体重和Apgar评分分别为 (1 788.20±276.54) g和 (7.39±0.60) 分, 均低于对照组, 差异具有统计学意义 (P<0.05). 观察组产妇分娩后住院天数为 (9.62±0.63) d, 显著长于对照组, 差异具有统计学意义 (P <0.05).结论 未足月胎膜早破 (PPROM) 患者的易感因素复杂, 阴道炎宫颈炎史、 引产流产史、 瘢痕子宫、 胎位异常、 糖尿病/妊高征和性生活等均可引发, PPROM新生儿并发症较多, 临床上应重视PPROM妊娠前检查和保健,

  18. The prevalence of traumatic dental injuries to permanent anterior teeth and its relation with predisposing risk factors among 8-13 years school children of Vadodara city: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M C Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: dental trauma is an irreversible pathology that after occurrence is characterized by life-long debilitating effects. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence of anterior teeth fracture and their association with predisposing factors such as lip coverage, molar relationship, overjet, and variables such as age, sex, cause, and place of trauma. Materials and Methods: an epidemiological cross-sectional study was carried out among 3708 school children aged 8-13 years in the Vadodara city. All children completed a questionnaire related to history of trauma to their anterior teeth after which they were examined for lip competence, Angle′s molar relationship amount of overjet and nature of trauma sustained. The results were statistically analyzed using the prevalence test, Chi-square test, and Mantel-Haenszel Common Odds Ratio. Results: the prevalence of traumatic injuries was 8.79% and the ratio of boys: girl′s was 1.28:1. Inadequate lip coverage group sustained about five times more injuries than the adequate lip coverage group (P = 0.000, OR= 5.407. The maximum traumatic injuries were seen in children having Angle Class II Div 1 molar relationship and/or overjet greater than 5.5 mm and was statistically significant (P<0.05. Maximum number of injuries occurred at 9 years of age. The most predominant injuries were enamel fractures, the most common place for occurrence was home and fall against object, the most frequent cause. Conclusion: the prevalence of dental injuries in the Vadodara city is high and it has a great potential to be considered as an emerging public health problem.

  19. HIV-1 predisposed to acquiring resistance to maraviroc (MVC and other CCR5 antagonists in vitro has an inherent, low-level ability to utilize MVC-bound CCR5 for entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westby Mike

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maraviroc (MVC and other CCR5 antagonists are HIV-1 entry inhibitors that bind to- and alter the conformation of CCR5, such that CCR5 is no longer recognized by the viral gp120 envelope (Env glycoproteins. Resistance to CCR5 antagonists results from HIV-1 Env acquiring the ability to utilize the drug-bound conformation of CCR5. Selecting for HIV-1 resistance to CCR5-antagonists in vitro is relatively difficult. However, the CCR5-using CC1/85 strain appears to be uniquely predisposed to acquiring resistance to several CCR5 antagonists in vitro including MVC, vicriviroc and AD101. Findings Here, we show that Env derived from the parental CC1/85 strain is inherently capable of a low affinity interaction with MVC-bound CCR5. However, this phenotype was only revealed in 293-Affinofile cells and NP2-CD4/CCR5 cells that express very high levels of CCR5, and was masked in TZM-bl, JC53 and U87-CD4/CCR5 cells as well as PBMC, which express comparatively lower levels of CCR5 and which are more commonly used to detect resistance to CCR5 antagonists. Conclusions Env derived from the CC1/85 strain of HIV-1 is inherently capable of a low-affinity interaction with MVC-bound CCR5, which helps explain the relative ease in which CC1/85 can acquire resistance to CCR5 antagonists in vitro. The detection of similar phenotypes in patients may identify those who could be at higher risk of virological failure on MVC.

  20. Variational Integrators for Reduced Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Michael; Grasso, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws are described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify...

  1. Variational Principle for Planetary Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    2016-09-01

    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. The variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory, which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying the variational principle to the planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From this principle, a universal mass-radius relation, an estimate of the error propagation from the equation of state to the mass-radius relation, and a form of the virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  2. Bernoulli Variational Problem and Beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Lorz, Alexander

    2013-12-17

    The question of \\'cutting the tail\\' of the solution of an elliptic equation arises naturally in several contexts and leads to a singular perturbation problem under the form of a strong cut-off. We consider both the PDE with a drift and the symmetric case where a variational problem can be stated. It is known that, in both cases, the same critical scale arises for the size of the singular perturbation. More interesting is that in both cases another critical parameter (of order one) arises that decides when the limiting behaviour is non-degenerate. We study both theoretically and numerically the values of this critical parameter and, in the symmetric case, ask if the variational solution leads to the same value as for the maximal solution of the PDE. Finally we propose a weak formulation of the limiting Bernoulli problem which incorporates both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary condition. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  3. Diurnal variation of depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Wirz-Justice, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal variation of depressive symptoms appears to be part of the core of depression. Yet longitudinal investigation of an individual's pattern regularity, relation to clinical state, and clinical improvement reveals little homogeneity. Morning lows, afternoon slump, evening worsening - all can occur during a single depressive episode. Mood variability, or the propensity to produce mood swings, appears to be the characteristic that most predicts capacity to respond to treatment. Laboratory s...

  4. Regular Variation and Smile Asymptotics

    OpenAIRE

    Benaim, Shalom; Friz, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We consider risk-neutral returns and show how their tail asymptotics translate directly to asymptotics of the implied volatility smile, thereby sharpening Roger Lee's celebrated moment formula. The theory of regular variation provides the ideal mathematical framework to formulate and prove such results. The practical value of our formulae comes from the vast literature on tail asymptotics and our conditions are often seen to be true by simple inspection of known results.

  5. Global Stress Variation over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, H.; Lu, Z.; Wen, L.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how stress changes over time is important as it is related to studies of earthquake triggering and mantle rheology. We calculate stress variation at the Earth's surface on the global scale from 2003 to 2014, resultant from several major physical forces acting on the Earth. The physical forces we considered include the surface loading due to terrestrial water storage (TWS), force associated with post-glacial rebound (PGR) and tidal loading (including solid tide and ocean tide). The stress change associated with TWS is calculated in this way: we infer TWS from monthly gravity field of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), in which gravity variation associated with PGR has been removed; we then estimate stress change at the Earth's surface as the elastic response of the GRACE-inferred TWS change. The stress change associated with PGR is calculated as the rate of viscoelastic stress change responding to ice loading from ICE-5G model. And, tidal stress is calculated as the elastic response of the Earth to the traction forces of the Sun and the Moon (solid tide) and to the loading of ocean tide. The total stress change is the sum of the stress changes associated with these three types of forces. As first result, in the study period from 2003 to 2014, the radial normal stress variation exhibits a prominent decreasing trend in southern Africa and Queen Maud Land of Antarctica, an increasing trend in Alaska of the US (United States), Greenland and Marie Byrd Land of Antarctica, and strong annual cycles in southern Africa and Alaska of the US. We will present the geographical distribution of global stress variation from 2003 to 2014 and discuss its possible implications.

  6. 胎盘早剥的发病诱因及超声诊断临床价值%Predisposing factors of placental abruption and clinical value of ultrasonic diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金英; 张旗; 同俊仪

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨胎盘早剥的发病诱因变化及超声对胎盘早剥的临床诊断价值。方法回顾性分析在西安市第四医院临床确诊为胎盘早剥且产前均进行过超声检查的病例88例,分析胎盘早剥的诱因,并确定其类型。将孕妇分成轻型胎盘早剥组和重型胎盘早剥组,并按分娩时间分为:24小时内受检组和24小时前受检组,对组间的胎盘早剥检出情况进行分析。结果在88例胎盘早剥中,胎膜早破32例(36.36%),高血压病24例(27.27%),甲状腺功能减退22例(25.00%)。产前超声诊断胎盘早剥26例,诊断符合率为29.55%,其中重型超声检出率(85.71%)明显高于轻型超声检出率(18.92%),χ2=20.54,P<0.05,分娩24小时内超声检出率(40.00%)明显高于24小时前超声检出率(7.14%),χ2=8.38,P<0.05。结论胎盘早剥发病诱因中胎膜早破比例最高,甲状腺功能减退比例也较高;超声检查对重型胎盘早剥可进行准确诊断,对轻型胎盘早剥具有无创、可重复检查等优点。%Objective To explore the predisposing factors of placental abruption and the value of ultrasound in the diagnosis of placental abruption .Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out on 88 cases of patients who were diagnosed with placental abruption .All these patients received prenatal ultrasonic examination .Predisposing factors of placental abruption were analyzed and their types were identified . All these pregnant women were divided into mild group and severe group .According to the timing of delivery , they were also divided into group examined within 24 hours and group examined 24 hours ago .Intergroup comparison results of the detection of placental abruption were analyzed.Results Among 88 cases of placental abruption , there were 32 cases (36.36%) of premature rupture of membranes , 24 cases (27.27%) of hypertension, and 22

  7. Variational integrators for reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael; Tassi, Emanuele; Grasso, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws is described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify the favourable properties of the variational integrator in particular with respect to the preservation of the invariants of the models under consideration and compare with results from the literature and those of a pseudo-spectral code.

  8. Longitudinal Variations in Jupiter's Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Gierasch, P. J.; Tierney, G.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term studies of Jupiter's zonal wind field revealed temporal variations on the order of 20 to 40 m/s at many latitudes, greater than the typical data uncertainties of 1 to 10 m/s. No definitive periodicities were evident, however, though some latitudinally-confined signals did appear at periods relevant to the Quasi- Quadrennial Oscillation (Simon-Miller & Gierasch, Icarus, in press). As the QQO appears, from vertical temperature profiles, to propagate downward, it is unclear why a signal is not more obvious, unless other processes dominate over possibly weaker forcing from the QQO. An additional complication is that zonal wind profiles represent an average over some particular set of longitudes for an image pair and most data sets do not offer global wind coverage. Lien avoiding known features, such as the large anticyclonic vortices especially prevalent in the south, there can be distinct variations in longitude. We present results on the full wind field from Voyager and Cassini data, showing apparent longitudinal variations of up to 60 m/s or more. These are particularly obvious near disruptions such as the South Equatorial Disturbance, even when the feature itself is not clearly visible. These two dates represent very different states of the planet for comparison: Voyagers 1 & 2 flew by Jupiter shortly after a global upheaval, while many regions were in a disturbed state, while the Cassini view is typical of a more quiescent period present during much of the 1990s and early 2000s.

  9. Variation of Vitamin D in Cow’s Milk and Interaction with β-Lactoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gigliotti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is the collective name for a group of closely related lipids, whose main biological function is to maintain serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations within the normal range by enhancing the efficiency of the small intestine to absorb these minerals from the diet. We used a commercially available ELISA method for the determination of vitamin D in bovine milk. Individual milk samples from two different Italian Friesian herds were analysed. The enzyme immunoassay method used was confirmed as a useful tool to measure the vitamin D in the milk as it greatly reduces the time required to perform the conventional HPLC analysis. An interesting variation was found among individual animals that may be associated with management factors and specific genetic effects. A relationship was highlighted between vitamin D and the genetic polymorphism of β-lactoglobulin, the main bovine whey protein which is involved in the transport of small hydrophobic molecules such as retinol and vitamin D. The relatively high content of vitamin D in most milk samples suggests an opportunity to improve the natural content of vitamin D in milk either by acting on the herd management or selecting individuals genetically predisposed to produce milk with a higher vitamin D content.

  10. ICU下呼吸道多重耐药菌感染的病原菌及易感因素分析%Analysis of the distribution of pathogens and predisposing factors for lower respiratory tract infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria in intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠; 孙昀; 曹利军; 尹路; 鹿中华; 华天凤; 郑瑶

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathogens and predisposing factors of patients in ICU, who were infected by multidrug resistance bacterias ( MDRB ) in lower respiratory tract. Methods Retrospective survey of 78 cases infected in lower respiratory tract from January 2011 to March 2012 was performed, and the distribution and predisposing factors of MDRB were analyzed. Results A total of 98 pathogens were detected, 77 strains were multidrug resistant bacterial, the top three isolated pathogenic bacteria were acinetobacter bauman-nii/haemol ( 41. 56% ), Klebsiella pneumoniae ( 22. 08% ) and pseudomonas aeruginosa ( 15. 08% ). Multi - factor logistic analysis revealed that the length of stay in ICU, more than 48 hours of mechanical ventilation, multiple injuries and sedatives were independent predisposing factors for multidrug resistant bacterial infection( P 48 h、多发伤、镇静药物使用为多重耐药菌感染的独立易感因素(P<0.05).结论 ICU 中下呼吸道多重耐药菌感染的病原菌以革兰阴性菌占优势,ICU住院时间、有创机械通气>48 h、多发伤、镇静药应用与患者多重耐药菌感染关系密切.

  11. Diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Müller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Cravens, T. E.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-06-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1000 and 1300 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from eight close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Although there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ˜700 cm-3 below ˜1300 km. Such a plateau is a combined result of significant depletion of light ions and modest depletion of heavy ones on Titan's nightside. We propose that the distinctions between the diurnal variations of light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through “fast” ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through “slow” electron dissociative recombination. The strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes suggests a scenario in which the ions created on Titan's dayside may survive well to the nightside. The observed asymmetry between the dawn and dusk ion density profiles also supports such an interpretation. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effect of ion survival associated with solid body rotation alone as well as superrotating horizontal winds. For long-lived ions, the predicted diurnal variations have similar general characteristics to those observed. However, for short-lived ions, the model densities on the nightside are significantly lower than the observed values. This implies that electron precipitation from Saturn's magnetosphere may be an additional and important contributor to the densities of the short-lived ions observed on Titan's nightside.

  12. Systematic variations in divergence angle

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Practical methods for quantitative analysis of radial and angular coordinates of leafy organs of vascular plants are presented and applied to published phyllotactic patterns of various real systems from young leaves on a shoot tip to florets on a flower head. The constancy of divergence angle is borne out with accuracy of less than a degree. It is shown that apparent fluctuations in divergence angle are in large part systematic variations caused by the invalid assumption of a fixed center and/or by secondary deformations, while random fluctuations are of minor importance.

  13. Variational Recurrent Auto-Encoders

    OpenAIRE

    Fabius, Otto; van Amersfoort, Joost R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model that combines the strengths of RNNs and SGVB: the Variational Recurrent Auto-Encoder (VRAE). Such a model can be used for efficient, large scale unsupervised learning on time series data, mapping the time series data to a latent vector representation. The model is generative, such that data can be generated from samples of the latent space. An important contribution of this work is that the model can make use of unlabeled data in order to facilitate supervised...

  14. Genetic variation in dieback resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, Albin; Hansen, Jon Kehlet; McKinney, Lea Vig;

    2014-01-01

    -eastern Zealand, Denmark, and confirmed the presence of substantial genetic variation in ash dieback susceptibility. The average crown damage increased in the trial from 61% in 2009 to 66% in 2012 and 72% in 2014, while the estimated heritability was 0.42 in both 2009 and 2012 but increased to 0.53 in 2014....... Genetic correlation between assessments was 0.88 between 2009 and 2012 and 0.91 between 2009 and 2014, suggesting fairly good possibilities for early selection of superior genotypes in the presence of high infection levels in the trial. The level of crown damage had strong negative effect on growth...

  15. Variational collocation on finite intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Cervantes, Mayra [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Diag. 113 y 64 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2007-10-26

    In this paper, we study a set of functions, defined on an interval of finite width, which are orthogonal and which reduce to the sinc functions when the appropriate limit is taken. We show that these functions can be used within a variational approach to obtain accurate results for a variety of problems. We have applied them to the interpolation of functions on finite domains and to the solution of the Schroedinger equation, and we have compared the performance of the present approach with others.

  16. The God Allusion : Individual Variation in Agency Detection, Mentalizing and Schizotypy and Their Association with Religious Beliefs and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Pearce, Eiluned

    2016-06-01

    It has previously been suggested that the historically and geographically widespread persistence of religious beliefs occurs because it is a by-product of normal cognitive processes, ones which first evolved to confer survival advantages in the social domain. If this theory holds, then it is likely that inter-individual variation in the same biases may predict corresponding variation in religious thoughts and behaviors. Using an online questionnaire, 298 participants answered questions regarding their tendency to detect agency, the degree to which they displayed schizotypal traits, their ability to understand the emotions and motivations of others ("mentalizing"), and their religious beliefs and behaviors. Path analysis suggests that mentalizing, agency detection, and schizotypal thinking were each independently related to religiosity. Furthermore, schizotypal thinking and agency detection were highly interrelated with one another, whereas mentalizing was not. Although the degree to which an individual engages with religious or spiritual beliefs will be influenced by their cultural and historical context, this paper helps to elucidate the interplay between various cognitive processes that might predispose some individuals but not others toward holding such beliefs in the first place. PMID:27023357

  17. The God Allusion : Individual Variation in Agency Detection, Mentalizing and Schizotypy and Their Association with Religious Beliefs and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Pearce, Eiluned

    2016-06-01

    It has previously been suggested that the historically and geographically widespread persistence of religious beliefs occurs because it is a by-product of normal cognitive processes, ones which first evolved to confer survival advantages in the social domain. If this theory holds, then it is likely that inter-individual variation in the same biases may predict corresponding variation in religious thoughts and behaviors. Using an online questionnaire, 298 participants answered questions regarding their tendency to detect agency, the degree to which they displayed schizotypal traits, their ability to understand the emotions and motivations of others ("mentalizing"), and their religious beliefs and behaviors. Path analysis suggests that mentalizing, agency detection, and schizotypal thinking were each independently related to religiosity. Furthermore, schizotypal thinking and agency detection were highly interrelated with one another, whereas mentalizing was not. Although the degree to which an individual engages with religious or spiritual beliefs will be influenced by their cultural and historical context, this paper helps to elucidate the interplay between various cognitive processes that might predispose some individuals but not others toward holding such beliefs in the first place.

  18. SYSTEM OF GENERALIZED VECTOR VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Yaping; Huang Nanjing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce and study system of generalized vector variational inequalities. Under suitable conditions, the existence of solutions for system of generalized vector variational inequalities is presented by Kakutani-Fan-Glicksberg fixed point theorem.

  19. Origins of variation in conducted vasomotor responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Bjørn Olav; Welsh, Donald G.; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    variation. Using a computational approach that allows for introduction of structural and electrophysiological heterogeneity, we systematically tested variations in both arteriolar electrophysiology and modes of stimuli. Within the same vessel, our simulations show that conduction efficacy is influenced by...

  20. Cytoplasmic genetic variation and extensive cytonuclear interactions influence natural variation in the metabolome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joseph, Bindu; Corwin, Jason A.; Li, Baohua;

    2013-01-01

    affects phenotypic variation. This showed that the cytoplasmic variation had effects similar to, if not larger than, the largest individual nuclear locus. Inclusion of cytoplasmic variation into the genetic model greatly increased the explained phenotypic variation. Cytoplasmic genetic variation was a...... central hub in the epistatic network controlling the plant metabolome. This epistatic influence manifested such that the cytoplasmic background could alter or hide pairwise epistasis between nuclear loci. Thus, cytoplasmic genetic variation plays a central role in controlling natural variation in...... metabolomic networks. This suggests that cytoplasmic genomes must be included in any future analysis of natural variation....

  1. On polar daily geomagnetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Michelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the nature of the daily magnetic field perturbations produced by ionospheric and magnetospheric currents at high latitudes. We analyse the hourly means of the X and Y geomagnetic field components recorded by a meridian chain of permanent geomagnetic observatories in the polar region of the Northern Hemisphere during a period of four years (1995-1998 around the solar minimum. We apply a mathematical method, known as natural orthogonal component (NOC, which is capable of characterizing the dominant modes of the geomagnetic field daily variability through a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. Using the first two modes we reconstruct a two-dimensional equivalent current representation of the ionospheric electric currents, which contribute substantially to the geomagnetic daily variations. The obtained current structures resemble the equivalent current patterns of DP2 and DP1. We characterize these currents by studying their evolution with the geomagnetic activity level and by analysing their dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. The obtained results support the idea of a coexistence of two main processes during all analysed period although one of them, the directly driven process, represents the dominant component of the geomagnetic daily variation.

  2. Bilateral variations in renal vasculature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Routine dissection of a 67-year-old male cadaver, revealed a complex anatomical variation of the renal vasculature.Right kidney was multilobulated measuring 11 x 5 x 3 cm, with the hilum containing three renal arteries and two renal veins. The upper renal artery arose from aorta just below origin of superior mesenteric artery, middle renal artery arose from 1 cm below the upper artery and the lower renal artery arose just below the origin of inferior mesenteric artery, respectively. Two veins drained the right kidney into inferior vena cava.Left kidney measured 10 x 6.5 x 4 cm. The hilum contained two renal arteries. The upper renal artery arose from the aorta just below the origin of superior mesenteric artery, the lower renal artery arose from aorta just below the origin of inferior mesenteric artery. There was a single vein draining the left kidney.Knowledge of the variations of renal vascular anatomy has importance in exploration and treatment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm and conservative or radical renal surgery.

  3. Racial variations in obstetric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchi, M N

    1986-05-01

    This study involves a retrospective analysis of 453 pregnant persons, with the aim of comparing certain disorders of pregnancy as well as infant and placental parameters in various racial groups within the same community. Significant variations were seen in the mean age of the patients, age at first pregnancy, frequency distribution of first pregnancy, infant weight as well as gravida: parity ratio. There was a 3-fold increase in incidence of preeclampsia in the Australian-born population compared to other racial groups. Mild anaemias (haemoglobin less than 11.5 g/dl) were found in up to 61% of the Australian-born population compared to 32% of the other racial groups; however, more significant degrees of anaemia were more commonly found in certain ethnic groups (e.g. Greek 16%, Italian 15%, Australian-born 6%). These studies emphasize that overall incidence studies in a polyglot population can have very limited meaning, and that greater attention must be paid to the actual racial variations within a population. PMID:3464247

  4. Biological variation of cystatin C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Mark; Erlandsen, Erland; Randers, Else

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Cystatin C has been investigated as a marker of the glomerular filtration rate. However, previous studies have reported conflicting results concerning the biological variation of cystatin C. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological variation of cystatin C...... available for analysis. Serum cystatin C was measured using Dade Behring N Latex Cystatin C assay and serum creatinine by an enzymatic method (Roche). Results: The mean serum concentration of cystatin C was 0.70 mg/l (range 0.44-1.09) and the mean serum creatinine was 77 µmol/l (range 54......-100). The analytical variance (CVA) was 2.0% for cystatin C and 1.6% for creatinine. The intra-individual variance (CVI) was greater for cystatin C than for creatinine (8.6% vs. 4.7%). The inter-individual variance (CVG) was similar for both analytes (cystatin C 15.1% vs. creatinine 14.4%). Accordingly, the index...

  5. Predisposing Factors and Treatment of Obstetric Patients With Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Inquiry%产科弥散性血管内凝血患者的诱发因素和治疗效果探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明媛; 袁玉华; 方雯

    2016-01-01

    Objective To probe the predisposing factors and treatment effect of obstetric disseminated intravascular coagulation.MethodsSelected 25 patients who were suffer from obstetric disseminated intravascular coagulation and treated in our hospital from the date of June 2014 to the date of June 2015 as the experimental group, selected 20 patients who had the same situation with the patients who we were refer to as above from the date of January 2012 to the date of January 2013 as an collate group to compare and analyze with the other group which were treated with comprehensive methods of treatment. The experimental group adopted comprehensive treatment, but the other group adopted conventional treatment.Results The survival rate of experimental group was 95.8%, it was 80% signiifcantly higher than the other group (P<0.05).ConclusionIt is better to adopt comprehensive treatment for the patients who are obstetric disseminated intravascular coagulation.%目的:探讨引发产科弥散性血管内凝血的诱发因素和临床治疗效果。方法选取2014年6月~2015年6月于我院治疗的的25例产科弥散性血管内凝血患者作为实验组,选取2012年1月~2013年1月在我院治疗的20例产科弥散性血管内凝血患者资料为对照组进行分析,实验组给予综合性治疗方法,对照组给予常规治疗方法。结果实验组抢救成功率为95.8%,高于对照组的80%(P<0.05)。结论对产科弥散性血管内凝血患者采用综合性方法进行治疗效果良好。

  6. Variations of images to increase their visibility

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The calculus of variations applied to the image processing requires some numerical models able to perform the variations of images and the extremization of appropriate actions. To produce the variations of images, there are several possibilities based on the brightness maps. Before a numerical model, I propose an experimental approach, based on a tool of Gimp, GNU Image Manipulation Program, in order to visualize how the image variations can be. After the discussion of this tool, which is abl...

  7. Quantum Annealing for Variational Bayes Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Issei; Kurihara, Kenichi; Tanaka, Shu; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents studies on a deterministic annealing algorithm based on quantum annealing for variational Bayes (QAVB) inference, which can be seen as an extension of the simulated annealing for variational Bayes (SAVB) inference. QAVB is as easy as SAVB to implement. Experiments revealed QAVB finds a better local optimum than SAVB in terms of the variational free energy in latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA).

  8. Importance of Local Structural Variations on Recrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte; Lin, Fengxiang; Zhang, Yubin;

    2013-01-01

    Effects of local variations in the deformation microstructure on subsequent recrystallization are discussed and illustrated by three examples. The three examples consider local variations on different length scales and are: 1. Effects of local variations in the deformation microstructure on the f...

  9. Non-differentiable variational principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresson, Jacky

    2005-07-01

    We develop a calculus of variations for functionals which are defined on a set of non-differentiable curves. We first extend the classical differential calculus in a quantum calculus, which allows us to define a complex operator, called the scale derivative, which is the non-differentiable analogue of the classical derivative. We then define the notion of extremals for our functionals and obtain a characterization in term of a generalized Euler-Lagrange equation. We finally prove that solutions of the Schrödinger equation can be obtained as extremals of a non-differentiable variational principle, leading to an extended Hamilton's principle of least action for quantum mechanics. We compare this approach with the scale relativity theory of Nottale, which assumes a fractal structure of space-time.Résumé (Principes variationnels non différentiable). Nous développons un calcul des variations pour des fonctionnelles définies sur un ensemble de courbes non différentiables. Pour cela, nous étendons le calcul différentiel classique, en calcul appelé calcul quantique, qui nous permet de définir un opérateur à valeur complexes, appelé dérivée d'échelle, qui est l'analogue non différentiable de la dérivée usuelle. On définit alors la notion d'extremale pour ces fonctionnelles pour lesquelles nous obtenons une caractérisation via une équation d'Euler-Lagrange généralisée. On prouve enfin que les solutions de l'équation de Schrödinger peuvent s'obtenir comme solution d'un problème variationnel non différentiable, étendant ainsi le principe de moindre action de Hamilton au cadre de la mécanique quantique. On discute enfin la connexion entre ce travail et la théorie de la relativité d'échelle développée par Nottale, et qui suppose une structure fractale de l'espace-temps.

  10. Hermite variational implicit surface reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN RongJiang; MENG XiangXu; WHANGBO TaegKeun

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new technique for reconstructing surfaces from a large set of unorganized 3D data points and their associated normal vectors. The surface is represented as the zero level set of an implicit vol-ume model which fits the data points and normal constraints. Compared with variational implicit sur-faces, we make use of surface normal vectors at data points directly in the implicit model and avoid of introducing manufactured off-surface points. Given n surface point/normal pairs, the proposed method only needs to solve an n×n positive definite linear system. It allows fitting large datasets effectively and robustly. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed method with both globally supported and compactly supported radial basis functions on several datasets.

  11. TVD: Total Variation Diminishing code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, Ue-Li; Arras, Phil; Wong, ShingKwong

    2013-04-01

    TVD solves the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations by updating the fluid variables along each direction using the flux-conservative, second-order, total variation diminishing (TVD), upwind scheme of Jin & Xin. The magnetic field is updated separately in two-dimensional advection-constraint steps. The electromotive force (EMF) is computed in the advection step using the TVD scheme, and this same EMF is used immediately in the constraint step in order to preserve \\Downtriangle B=0 without the need to store intermediate fluxes. The code is extended to three dimensions using operator splitting, and Runge-Kutta is used to get second-order accuracy in time. TVD offers high-resolution per grid cell, second-order accuracy in space and time, and enforcement of the \\Downtriangle B=0 constraint to machine precision. Written in Fortran, It has no memory overhead and is fast. It is also available in a fully scalable message-passing parallel MPI implementation.

  12. Reasoning about Variation: Student Voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Reid

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports one recent study that was part of a project investigating tertiary students’ understanding of variation. These students completed a questionnaire prior to, and at the end of, an introductory statistics course and this paper focuses on interviews of selected students designed to determine whether more information could have been gathered about the students’ reasoning. Clarification during interviews reinforced researcher interpretation of responses. Prompting assisted students to develop better quality responses but probing was mostly useful for assisting students to re-express reasoning already presented. Cognitive conflict situations proved challenging. The diversity of activities identified by students as assisting the development of their understanding provides a challenge for educators in planning teaching sequences. Both educators and researchers need to listen to students to better understand the development of reasoning.

  13. Equilibrium models and variational inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Konnov, Igor

    2007-01-01

    The concept of equilibrium plays a central role in various applied sciences, such as physics (especially, mechanics), economics, engineering, transportation, sociology, chemistry, biology and other fields. If one can formulate the equilibrium problem in the form of a mathematical model, solutions of the corresponding problem can be used for forecasting the future behavior of very complex systems and, also, for correcting the the current state of the system under control. This book presents a unifying look on different equilibrium concepts in economics, including several models from related sciences.- Presents a unifying look on different equilibrium concepts and also the present state of investigations in this field- Describes static and dynamic input-output models, Walras, Cassel-Wald, spatial price, auction market, oligopolistic equilibrium models, transportation and migration equilibrium models- Covers the basics of theory and solution methods both for the complementarity and variational inequality probl...

  14. Variational Approach and Deformed Derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Weberszpil, José

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved Nether current, are worked out.

  15. Antigenic Variation in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petter, Michaela; Duffy, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is the protozoan parasite that causes most malaria-associated morbidity and mortality in humans with over 500,000 deaths annually. The disease symptoms are associated with repeated cycles of invasion and asexual multiplication inside red blood cells of the parasite. Partial, non-sterile immunity to P. falciparum malaria develops only after repeated infections and continuous exposure. The successful evasion of the human immune system relies on the large repertoire of antigenically diverse parasite proteins displayed on the red blood cell surface and on the merozoite membrane where they are exposed to the human immune system. Expression switching of these polymorphic proteins between asexual parasite generations provides an efficient mechanism to adapt to the changing environment in the host and to maintain chronic infection. This chapter discusses antigenic diversity and variation in the malaria parasite and our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that direct the expression of these proteins. PMID:26537377

  16. Circadian Variation Of Stroke Onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamath vasantha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal variations in various physiological and biochemical functions and certain pathological events like myocardial infarction and stroke have been documented. We studied prospectively one hundred and seven patients of acute onset stroke confirmed by computed tomography for the exact time of onset, risk factors and type of stroke. Patients who were unclear of time of onset and with a diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis or sub-arachnoid hemorrhage were excluded. Infarction was detected in 71 patients and hemorrhage in 33 patients. Men out numbered women (1:6:1. Hypertension was more frequent in hemorrhage in the morning time (5 AM-12 noon and more infarction between 12-6 pm. However there was no relation between the time of onset of stroke and various risk-factors of stroke.

  17. Language Specific Speech Feature Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Dewan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Speech is basically used to impart message from one person to another. There are various properties of speech that may vary from person to person or from language to language. The power of human language is found to be effected by variations in language. However, not much work has been done to analyse similarities and dissimilarities between speech features between English and Hindi language. The prosodic statistics for instance like stress and rhythm which are basically coded into intensity, pitch and formants. We have further examined the utilization of pitch and formants to study the linguistic difference of speech properties in English and Hindi Language. We clustered the speech samples into two categories and concentrated basically on pitch and formant values of speech signals. From our study we observed a significant change in the values of pitch and formants in English and Hindi language.

  18. Variational Principle for Planetary Interiors

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Li

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. Variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying this principle to planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From it, a universal mass-radius relation, an estimate of error propagation from equation of state to mass-radius relation, and a form of virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  19. Flux Variation of Cosmic Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Ramesh, Nepal; Martin, Clayton; Bachri, Abdel

    2012-01-01

    In the current paper, we analyzed the variation of cosmic radiation flux with elevation, time of the year and ambient temperature with the help of a portable cosmic muon detector, the construction of which was completed by a team from Southern Arkansas University (SAU) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Cosmic muons and gamma rays traverse two synchronized scintillators connected to two photomultiplier tubes (PMT) via light guides, and generate electronic pulses which we counted using a Data Acquisition Board (DAQ). Because muons are the product of collisions between high-energy cosmic rays and atmospheric nuclei, and therefore shower onto earth, the scintillators were arranged horizontally for detection. The elevation measurements were recorded at different locations, starting from 60 feet below sea-level at the Underground Radiation Counting Laboratory at Johnson Space Center, TX, to 4200 feet at Mt. Hamilton, CA. Intermediate locations included sea-level Galveston Bay, TX, and Mt. Magazine, A...

  20. Some Variations on Maxwell's Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ascoli, G A; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Goldin, Gerald A.

    2006-01-01

    In the first sections of this article, we discuss two variations on Maxwell's equations that have been introduced in earlier work---a class of nonlinear Maxwell theories with well-defined Galilean limits (and correspondingly generalized Yang-Mills equations), and a linear modification motivated by the coupling of the electromagnetic potential with a certain nonlinear Schroedinger equation. In the final section, revisiting an old idea of Lorentz, we write Maxwell's equations for a theory in which the electrostatic force of repulsion between like charges differs fundamentally in magnitude from the electrostatic force of attraction between unlike charges. We elaborate on Lorentz' description by means of electric and magnetic field strengths, whose governing equations separate into two fully relativistic Maxwell systems---one describing ordinary electromagnetism, and the other describing a universally attractive or repulsive long-range force. If such a force cannot be ruled out {\\it a priori\\/} by known physical ...

  1. Variational approach and deformed derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weberszpil, J.; Helayël-Neto, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved ​Noether current is worked out.

  2. Variation of the latissimus dorsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani P Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A typical muscle variation of latissimus dorsi - the axillary arch is represented by the muscular or fibromuscular slip detached from the anteroinferior border of the musculus latissimus dorsi passing over the axilla under the axillary fascia crossing the medial side of the brachial plexus to continue as a septum intermusculare mediale brachii distally to the medial epicondyle of humerus. The full extent of the muscle is rarely present. Slips of muscle extend from the latissimus dorsi at the inferior angle of scapula to insert into pectoralis major (Langer, coracobrachilis, biceps or coracoid process forming what is described as a common variant - the muscular axillary arch. We report three cases of variants of latissimus dorsi, one of which has not been reported in the literature before.

  3. Turbidity variations at Hanford since July 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectral turbidity coefficients derived from multiwavelength sunphotometer measurements obtained from July 1974 to December 1976 have been analyzed for seasonal and weekly variations. Weak biannual variations in turbidity are apparent in the data. Day-to-day variations, however, can be much larger than the coefficients for the fitted biannual terms. Consequently, it now appears that observed variations in turbidity at Hanford are related to the synoptic meteorology with a smaller, superimposed seasonality of dust and smoke sources. Turbidity variations are also independent of the day of the week

  4. Environmental variation, stochastic extinction, and competitive coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Peter B; Drake, John M

    2008-11-01

    Understanding how environmental fluctuations affect population persistence is essential for predicting the ecological impacts of expected future increases in climate variability. However, two bodies of theory make opposite predictions about the effect of environmental variation on persistence. Single-species theory, common in conservation biology and population viability analyses, suggests that environmental variation increases the risk of stochastic extinction. By contrast, coexistence theory has shown that environmental variation can buffer inferior competitors against competitive exclusion through a storage effect. We reconcile these two perspectives by showing that in the presence of demographic stochasticity, environmental variation can increase the chance of extinction while simultaneously stabilizing coexistence. Our stochastic simulations of a two-species storage effect model reveal a unimodal relationship between environmental variation and coexistence time, implying maximum coexistence at intermediate levels of environmental variation. The unimodal pattern reflects the fact that the stabilizing influence of the storage effect accumulates rapidly at low levels of environmental variation, whereas the risk of extinction due to the combined effects of environmental variation and demographic stochasticity increases most rapidly at higher levels of variation. Future increases in environmental variation could either increase or decrease an inferior competitor's expected persistence time, depending on the distance between the present level of environmental variation and the optimal level anticipated by this theory. PMID:18817458

  5. How variation between individuals affects species coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Simon P; Schreiber, Sebastian J; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-08-01

    Although the effects of variation between individuals within species are traditionally ignored in studies of species coexistence, the magnitude of intraspecific variation in nature is forcing ecologists to reconsider. Compelling intuitive arguments suggest that individual variation may provide a previously unrecognised route to diversity maintenance by blurring species-level competitive differences or substituting for species-level niche differences. These arguments, which are motivating a large body of empirical work, have rarely been evaluated with quantitative theory. Here we incorporate intraspecific variation into a common model of competition and identify three pathways by which this variation affects coexistence: (1) changes in competitive dynamics because of nonlinear averaging, (2) changes in species' mean interaction strengths because of variation in underlying traits (also via nonlinear averaging) and (3) effects on stochastic demography. As a consequence of the first two mechanisms, we find that intraspecific variation in competitive ability increases the dominance of superior competitors, and intraspecific niche variation reduces species-level niche differentiation, both of which make coexistence more difficult. In addition, individual variation can exacerbate the effects of demographic stochasticity, and this further destabilises coexistence. Our work provides a theoretical foundation for emerging empirical interests in the effects of intraspecific variation on species diversity. PMID:27250037

  6. Copy number variation in patients with cervical artery dissection

    OpenAIRE

    Grond-Ginsbach, Caspar; Chen, Bowang; Pjontek, Rastislav; Wiest, Tina; Jiang, Yanxiang; Burwinkel, Barbara; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Krawczak, Michael; Schreiber, Stefan; Brandt, Tobias; Kloss, Manja; Arnold, Marie-Luise; Hemminki, Kari; Lichy, Christoph; Lyrer, Philippe A.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical artery dissection (CeAD) occurs in healthy young individuals and often entails ischemic stroke. Skin biopsies from most CeAD-patients show minor connective tissue alterations. We search for rare genetic deletions and duplication that may predispose to CeAD. Forty-nine non-traumatic CeAD-patients with electron microscopic (EM) alterations of their dermal connective tissue (EM+ patients) and 21 patients with normal connective tissue in skin biopsies (EM− patients) were analyzed. Affyme...

  7. Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Predisposing Factors:Etiological Investigation and Analysis in 72 Inpatients%原发性肝癌患者72例病因相关因素的调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰心; 郭凤英; 王建文; 龚利军

    2001-01-01

    The results of an etiological analysis on predisposing factors of primary hepatocellular carcinoma in 72 in-patients with regard to age, service, educational stratification, personality, distribution of work and leisure ,life style ,diseased condition and treatment before onset showed that prevalence of primary hepatocellular carcinoma was negatively correlated with increasing age, and that incidences were higher in males than in females;in office workers with higher educational background than in farmers;in persons who preferred hot, salty or pungent foods;in those who abused cigarettes and alcohol ; had more social appointments and lacked sufficient sleep;in persons who failed to seek timely medical help, and in introverts and bigots after they had contracted hepatitis. Therefore, how to enhance awareness of the disease, intensify prevention and raise individual health care ability in hepatitis patients has become problems of great concern. We suggest that patients with liver diseases should undergo regular physical check-up, distribute work and leisure,adopt good life styles,have a correct attitude toward disease,and maintain a good psychotic status ,all of which are beneficial to enhancing immunity of the body, thus speeding recovery and helping achieve psychosomatic well being.%通过对72例住院原发性肝癌病例与病因相关因素的调查分析,从年龄、职业、文化层次、性格、劳逸、生活习惯以及发病前病程、治疗等综合资料表明:肝癌流行程度与发病年龄呈反比,发病趋于年轻;男性发病率高于女性;具有一定学历干部的发病率大于农民;喜食咸热或带刺激性食品对本病恢复不利;患肝炎后,吸烟喝酒多、应酬多、得不到充分休息睡眠、未及时治疗和性格内向偏执的病人其肝癌的发病率也偏高。因此,如何提高肝癌的防病意识和手段,提高肝炎病人自我保健能力,是我们值得关心的课题。本文提

  8. Genetic background of phenotypic variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A noteworthy feature of the living world is its bewildering variability. A key issue in several biological disciplines is the achievement of an understanding of the hereditary basis of this variability. Two opposing, but not necessarily irreconcilable conceptions attempt to explain the underlying mechanism. The gene function paradigm postulates that phenotypic variance is generated by the polymorphism in the coding sequences of genes. However, comparisons of a great number of homologous gene and protein sequences have revealed that they predominantly remained functionally conserved even across distantly related phylogenic taxa. Alternatively, the gene regulation paradigm assumes that differences in the cis-regulatory region of genes do account for phenotype variation within species. An extension of this latter concept is that phenotypic variability is generated by the polyrnorphism in the overall gene expression profiles of gene networks.In other words, the activity of a particular gene is a system property determined both by the cis-regulatory sequences of the given genes and by the other genes of a gene network, whose expressions vary among individuals, too. Novel proponents of gene function paradigm claim that functional genetic variance within the coding sequences of regulatory genes is critical for the generation of morphological polymorphism. Note, however, that these developmental genes play direct regulatory roles in the control of gene expression.

  9. On Quadratic Variation of Martingales

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajeeva L Karandikar; B V Rao

    2014-08-01

    We give a construction of an explicit mapping $$\\Psi: D([0,∞),\\mathbb{R})→ D([0,∞),\\mathbb{R}),$$ where $D([0,∞), \\mathbb{R})$ denotes the class of real valued r.c.l.l. functions on $[0,∞)$ such that for a locally square integrable martingale $(M_t)$ with r.c.l.l. paths, $$\\Psi(M.())=A.()$$ gives the quadratic variation process (written usually as $[M,M]_t$) of $(M_t)$. We also show that this process $(A_t)$ is the unique increasing process $(B_t)$ such that $M_t^2-B_t$ is a local martingale, $B_0=0$ and $$\\mathbb{P}(( B)_t=[( M)_t]^2, 0 < ∞)=1.$$ Apart from elementary properties of martingales, the only result used is the Doob’s maximal inequality. This result can be the starting point of the development of the stochastic integral with respect to r.c.l.l. martingales.

  10. LGBTI Variations in Crime Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Miles-Johnson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that people vary in their willingness to report crime to police depending on the type of crime experienced, their gender, age, and their race or ethnicity. Whether or not lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI and heterosexual people vary in their willingness to report crime to the police is not well understood in the extant literature. In this article, I examine variations in LGBTI respondents’ attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control on their intentions to report crimes to the police. Drawing on a survey of LGBTI individuals sampled from a Gay Pride community event and online LGBTI community forums (N = 329, I use quantitative statistical methods to examine whether LGBTI people’s beliefs in police homophobia are also directly associated with the behavioral intention to report crime. Overall, the results indicate that LGBTI and heterosexual people differ significantly in their intention to report crime to the police, and that a belief in police homophobia strongly influences LGBTI people’s intention to underreport crime to the police.

  11. Temporal Variations in Jupiter's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Chanover, N. J.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Hammel, H. B.; dePater, I.; Noll, K.; Wong, M.; Clarke, J.; Sanchez-Levega, A.; Orton, G. S.; Gonzaga, S.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, Jupiter has undergone many atmospheric changes from storms turning red to global. cloud upheavals, and most recently, a cornet or asteroid impact. Yet, on top of these seemingly random changes events there are also periodic phenomena, analogous to observed Earth and Saturn atmospheric oscillations. We will present 15 years of Hubble data, from 1994 to 2009, to show how the equatorial tropospheric cloud deck and winds have varied over that time, focusing on the F953N, F41 ON and F255W filters. These filters give leverage on wind speeds plus cloud opacity, cloud height and tropospheric haze thickness, and stratospheric haze, respectively. The wind data consistently show a periodic oscillation near 7-8 S latitude. We will discuss the potential for variations with longitude and cloud height, within the calibration limits of those filters. Finally, we will discuss the role that large atmospheric events, such as the impacts in 1994 and 2009, and the global upheaval of 2007, have on temporal studies, This work was supported by a grant from the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program. HST observational support was provided by NASA through grants from Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under contract NAS5-26555.

  12. PLURILINGUAL COMPETENCE, STYLES AND VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Kalliokoski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores plurilingual competence in respect to language proficiency, language education and pluri- and multilingualism. The notion of communicative competence was introduced by Hymes (1972 as a reaction to chomskyan view of language as an autonomous system. Hymes’ notion of communicative competence originally included plurilingualism. The concept of communicative competence was quickly adopted to applied linguistics but the idea of a linguistic repertoire consisting of the competencies of linguistic varieties was not imported to SLA or language testing. The Hymesian perspective to plurilingualism as an essential dimension of communicative competence was revived in the Common European Framework (CEFR. However,the practice of applying the CEFR has mostly neglected the dimension on plurilingualism and plurilingual competence. The focus in the use of the CEFR has been on the different areas of language skills within one single language at a time, while the application of plurilingual practices has gained very little attention. The Hymesian notion of communicative competence has lived on in the sociolinguistic research tradition, especially within interactional sociolinguistics. The present paper relates the notion of plurilingual competence to its hymesian origin, to recent trends in plurilingual and pluricultural education, and to the sociolinguistic study of style and linguistic variation in multilingual communities. The article uses Finnish L2 data to show how plurilingual competence is used as an interactional resource.From the perspective of language learning, plurilingual competence enables speakers with different linguistic backgrounds to use their shared linguistic repertoire in order to ensure smooth interaction and achieve mutual understanding.

  13. Dose variation during solar minimum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G.; Brautigam, D.H. (Phillips Lab., Geophysics Directorate, Hanscom Air Force Base, MA (US)); Holeman, E. (Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-12-01

    In this paper, the authors use direct measurement of dose to show the variation in inner and outer radiation belt populations at low altitude from 1984 to 1987. This period includes the recent solar minimum that occurred in September 1986. The dose is measured behind four thicknesses of aluminum shielding and for two thresholds of energy deposition, designated HILET and LOLET. The authors calculate an average dose per day for each month of satellite operation. The authors find that the average proton (HILET) dose per day (obtained primarily in the inner belt) increased systematically from 1984 to 1987, and has a high anticorrelation with sunspot number when offset by 13 months. The average LOLET dose per day behind the thinnest shielding is produced almost entirely by outer zone electrons and varies greatly over the period of interest. If any trend can be discerned over the 4 year period it is a decreasing one. For shielding of 1.55 gm/cm{sup 2} (227 mil) Al or more, the LOLET dose is complicated by contributions from {gt} 100 MeV protons and bremsstrahlung.

  14. Synchronous Lagrangian variational principles in General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Cremaschini, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The problem of formulating synchronous variational principles in the context of General Relativity is discussed. Based on the analogy with classical relativistic particle dynamics, the existence of variational principles is pointed out in relativistic classical field theory which are either asynchronous or synchronous. The historical Einstein-Hilbert and Palatini variational formulations are found to belong to the first category. Nevertheless, it is shown that an alternative route exists which permits one to cast these principles in terms of equivalent synchronous Lagrangian variational formulations. The advantage is twofold. First, synchronous approaches allow one to overcome the lack of gauge symmetry of the asynchronous principles. Second, the property of manifest covariance of the theory is also restored at all levels, including the symbolic Euler-Lagrange equations, with the variational Lagrangian density being now identified with a $4-$scalar. As an application, a joint synchronous variational principle...

  15. Hidden Regular Variation: Detection and Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Abhimanyu

    2010-01-01

    Hidden regular variation defines a subfamily of distributions satisfying multivariate regular variation on $\\mathbb{E} = [0, \\infty]^d \\backslash \\{(0,0, ..., 0) \\} $ and models another regular variation on the sub-cone $\\mathbb{E}^{(2)} = \\mathbb{E} \\backslash \\cup_{i=1}^d \\mathbb{L}_i$, where $\\mathbb{L}_i$ is the $i$-th axis. We extend the concept of hidden regular variation to sub-cones of $\\mathbb{E}^{(2)}$ as well. We suggest a procedure of detecting the presence of hidden regular variation, and if it exists, propose a method of estimating the limit measure exploiting its semi-parametric structure. We exhibit examples where hidden regular variation yields better estimates of probabilities of risk sets.

  16. Procedural facade variations from a single layout

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Fan

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a framework to generate many variations of a facade design that look similar to a given facade layout. Starting from an input image, the facade is hierarchically segmented and labeled with a collection of manual and automatic tools. The user can then model constraints that should be maintained in any variation of the input facade design. Subsequently, facade variations are generated for different facade sizes, where multiple variations can be produced for a certain size. Computing such new facade variations has many unique challenges, and we propose a new algorithm based on interleaving heuristic search and quadratic programming. In contrast to most previous work, we focus on the generation of new design variations and not on the automatic analysis of the input\\'s structure. Adding a modeling step with the user in the loop ensures that our results routinely are of high quality. © 2013 ACM.

  17. Genetic variation in bovine milk fat composition

    OpenAIRE

    Stoop, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In her thesis, Stoop shows that there is considerable genetic variation in milk fat composition, which opens opportunities to improve milk fat composition by selective breeding. Short and medium chain fatty acids had high heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd (mainly feed effects) was moderate. Long chain fatty acids had moderate heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd was high. Several genomic regions (QTL) with effect on short and medium chain, long chain, or both types of fat...

  18. Models of Solar Irradiance Variations: Current Status

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Natalie A. Krivova; Sami K. Solanki

    2008-03-01

    Regular monitoring of solar irradiance has been carried out since 1978 to show that solar total and spectral irradiance varies at different time scales. Whereas variations on time scales of minutes to hours are due to solar oscillations and granulation, variations on longer time scales are driven by the evolution of the solar surface magnetic field. Here the most recent advances in modelling of solar irradiance variations on time scales longer than a day are briefly reviewed.

  19. Diurnal Variations in Human Pulmonary Function

    OpenAIRE

    Medarov, Boris I.; Pavlov, Valentin A.; Rossoff, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary function has circadian modulations. Variations in human pulmonary function during the daytime hours (diurnal variations) remain to be well characterized. Discerning these variations will contribute to better understanding the relationship between biorhythms and lung physiology and to improving clinical management of pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of pulmonary function variability during the usual daytime hours in a population of patients ref...

  20. Measuring human salivary amylase copy number variation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Sugandha

    2010-01-01

    Copy number variations represent large scale genomic alterations varying from 1kb to 3Mb and are proposed as a driving force for genome evolution and variation. One such locus exhibiting copy number variation and genome evolution is salivary amylase, which is responsible for the digestion of starch in the human parotid glands. It was reported that since human salivary amylase gene (AMY1) copy numbers are correlated positively with protein levels, and also due to the correlation of high gene c...

  1. Varying Alpha: New Constraints from Seasonal Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the constraints obtained from new atomic clock data on the possible time variation of the fine structure `constant' and the electron-proton mass ratio and show how they are strengthened when the seasonal variation of Sun's gravitational field at the Earth's surface is taken into account. We compare these bounds with those obtainable from tests of the Weak Equivalence Principle and high-redshift observations of quasar absorption spectra consistent with time variations in the fine structure constant.

  2. Variational Inequalities in Critical-State Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Prigozhin, Leonid

    2004-01-01

    Similar evolutionary variational inequalities appear as convenient formulations for continuous quasistationary models for sandpile growth, formation of a network of lakes and rivers, magnetization of type-II superconductors, and elastoplastic deformations. We outline the main steps of such models derivation and try to clarify the origin of this similarity. New dual variational formulations, analogous to mixed variational inequalities in plasticity, are derived for sandpiles and superconductors.

  3. Size variation of fossil rodent populations

    OpenAIRE

    Freudenthal, M.; Cuenca Bescos, G.

    1984-01-01

    Pearson's coefficient of variation is in general not applicable in palaeontology, due to the heterogeneity of samples. The heterogeneity may be due to the mixing of two species, mixture of material from various biotopes, or from a relatively large time span. A new coefficient of variation is proposed, based on the range of the sample. This coefficient may be used to estimate the degree of variation of a sample, and to decide whether it is homogeneous. Its application is tested empirically on ...

  4. Simplified Variational Principles for Barotropic Magnetohydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Yahalom, Asher; Lynden-Bell, Donald

    2006-01-01

    Variational principles for magnetohydrodynamics were introduced by previous authors both in Lagrangian and Eulerian form. In this paper we introduce simpler Eulerian variational principles from which all the relevant equations of barotropic magnetohydrodynamics can be derived. The variational principle is given in terms of six independent functions for non-stationary barotropic flows and three independent functions for stationary barotropic flows. This is less then the seven variables which a...

  5. Spectrum characteristics of geoelectric field variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qing; DU Xue-bin; ZHOU Ke-chang; LI Ning; MA Zhan-hu

    2007-01-01

    The spectrum characteristics of geoelectric diurnal variation and geoelectric storm have been identified by maximum entropy method, based on geoelectric data from seven stations in the Chinese mainland, including Jiayuguan, Changli and Chongming. The study shows that, in geoelectric diurnal variation, the amplitude of the 12 h semidiurnal wave is the largest, followed in turn by the 24~25 h diurnal wave and the 8 h periodic wave; Geoelectric storm usually occurs in a large-scale space, whose spectrum values are higher than those of geoelectric diurnal variation by 2~3 orders of magnitude. A preliminary interpretation is presented for the generative mechanism of predominant waves in geoelectric field variation.

  6. Non-contemporaneous variations and Holder's principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Lifu(梁立孚); HU; Haichang; (胡海昌); LIU; Shiquan; (刘石泉)

    2003-01-01

    In the process of deducing the Holder principle, a key step is to use the concept of non-contemporaneous variations. In this paper, whether starting from analytic method or from graphic solution method, the authors prove that the expression formula of non-contemporaneous variations is incorrect when the variable functions have zero-order nearness degree, and obtain a new expression. From the view of calculus of variations and differential calculus, the non-contemporaneous variations are studied. The study result shows that the concept of non-contemporaneous variations is a combination of the concept of variations and the concept of differentiation. The authors prove that the new expression is correct and obtain an equivalent expression of it. By means of this equivalent expression, this paper proves that the above expression formula of non-contemporaneous variations is correct when the variable functions have one-order nearness degree. Further study shows that, in the process of deducing Holder's principle, there is an implicit expression. Whether starting from analytic method or from graphic solution method, the authors discovered that the implicit expression of non-contemporaneous variations is incorrect when the variable functions have zero-order nearness degree and have one-order nearness degree. This paper proves that the implicit expression of non-contemporaneous variations is correct when the variable functions have two-order nearness degree. Further study shows that Holder's principle is tenable when the variable functions have two-order nearness degree.

  7. Extensive Variation in Chromatin States Across Humans

    KAUST Repository

    Kasowski, M.

    2013-10-17

    The majority of disease-associated variants lie outside protein-coding regions, suggesting a link between variation in regulatory regions and disease predisposition. We studied differences in chromatin states using five histone modifications, cohesin, and CTCF in lymphoblastoid lines from 19 individuals of diverse ancestry. We found extensive signal variation in regulatory regions, which often switch between active and repressed states across individuals. Enhancer activity is particularly diverse among individuals, whereas gene expression remains relatively stable. Chromatin variability shows genetic inheritance in trios, correlates with genetic variation and population divergence, and is associated with disruptions of transcription factor binding motifs. Overall, our results provide insights into chromatin variation among humans.

  8. Factors influencing variation in dentist service rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1990-01-01

    In the previous article, we calculated dentist service rates for 200 general dentists based on a homogeneous, well-educated, upper-middle-class population of patients. Wide variations in the rates were detected. In this analysis, factors influencing variation in the rates were identified. Variation in rates for categories of dental services was explained by practice characteristics, patient exposure to fluoridated water supplies, and non-price competition in the dental market. Rates were greatest in large, busy practices in markets with high fees. Older practices consistently had lower rates across services. As a whole, these variables explained between 5 and 30 percent of the variation in the rates. PMID:2118182

  9. Study on Somaclonal Variation of Spring Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Shu-mei; HU Shang-lian; LI Wen-xiong

    2004-01-01

    Somaclonal variation of calli and regenerated plants of spring wheat ware detected by using technique RAPD in the study. Calli at different culture stages and regenerated plants derived from young spikes and immature embryos were used as materials. Molecular variation could be reflected from electrophoresis patternof RAPD fragments at different culture stage in calli, and in regenerated plants derived from different explants, even no phenotype variations were found. Somaclonal variation in calli and in regenerated plants appeared regularly: A higher frequency of variation in hybrids F2 was detected than that of the cultivar that is stable genetically. High variation frequency of RAPD fragments appeared in calli when cultured 75 days. The identical variations of RAPD fragments were observed in calli and in the regenerated plants induced from different genotype or explants. The variation frequency detected is higher in regenerated plants than that of in calli. RAPD could be applied easily and simply to determine variation in level of DNA at each stage cultured in vitro.

  10. Duality in optimization and variational inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Goh, Cj

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive volume covers a wide range of duality topics ranging from simple ideas in network flows to complex issues in non-convex optimization and multicriteria problems. In addition, it examines duality in the context of variational inequalities and vector variational inequalities, as generalizations to optimization. Duality in Optimization and Variational Inequalities is intended for researchers and practitioners of optimization with the aim of enhancing their understanding of duality. It provides a wider appreciation of optimality conditions in various scenarios and under different assumptions. It will enable the reader to use duality to devise more effective computational methods, and to aid more meaningful interpretation of optimization and variational inequality problems.

  11. Heritable epigenetic variation among maize inbreds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve R Eichten

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic variation describes heritable differences that are not attributable to changes in DNA sequence. There is the potential for pure epigenetic variation that occurs in the absence of any genetic change or for more complex situations that involve both genetic and epigenetic differences. Methylation of cytosine residues provides one mechanism for the inheritance of epigenetic information. A genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation in two different genotypes of Zea mays (ssp. mays, an organism with a complex genome of interspersed genes and repetitive elements, allowed the identification and characterization of examples of natural epigenetic variation. The distribution of DNA methylation was profiled using immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA followed by hybridization to a high-density tiling microarray. The comparison of the DNA methylation levels in the two genotypes, B73 and Mo17, allowed for the identification of approximately 700 differentially methylated regions (DMRs. Several of these DMRs occur in genomic regions that are apparently identical by descent in B73 and Mo17 suggesting that they may be examples of pure epigenetic variation. The methylation levels of the DMRs were further studied in a panel of near-isogenic lines to evaluate the stable inheritance of the methylation levels and to assess the contribution of cis- and trans- acting information to natural epigenetic variation. The majority of DMRs that occur in genomic regions without genetic variation are controlled by cis-acting differences and exhibit relatively stable inheritance. This study provides evidence for naturally occurring epigenetic variation in maize, including examples of pure epigenetic variation that is not conditioned by genetic differences. The epigenetic differences are variable within maize populations and exhibit relatively stable trans-generational inheritance. The detected examples of epigenetic variation, including some without tightly linked genetic

  12. Size variation of fossil rodent populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.; Cuenca Bescos, G.

    1984-01-01

    Pearson's coefficient of variation is in general not applicable in palaeontology, due to the heterogeneity of samples. The heterogeneity may be due to the mixing of two species, mixture of material from various biotopes, or from a relatively large time span. A new coefficient of variation is propose

  13. Variational approaches to water wave simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gagarina, Elena Vitalyevna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis starts with the study the theoretical aspects of water wave modelling using a variational framework, which is directly associated with phase space and energy conservation laws. In particular, we focus on a new variational model based on the work of Cotter and Bokhove. The new model inclu

  14. Parkinson's disease and mitochondrial gene variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andalib, Sasan; Vafaee, Manouchehr Seyedi; Gjedde, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common disorder of the central nervous system in the elderly. The pathogenesis of PD is a complex process, with genetics as an important contributing factor. This factor may stem from mitochondrial gene variations and mutations as well as from nuclear gene variations...

  15. Exploring Duopoly Markets with Conjectural Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Ludovic A.; Musy, Olivier; Saïdi, Aurélien W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate competitive firm behaviors in a two-firm environment assuming linear cost and demand functions. By introducing conjectural variations, they capture the different market structures as specific configurations of a more general model. Conjectural variations are based on the assumption that each firm believes…

  16. Regional variation in short distance homogamy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haandrikman, K.; van Wissen, L.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A third of all Dutch cohabiters choose a partner from the same municipality, so-called short distance homogamy. This article analyses the regional variation in this phenomenon, and it explains this variation in terms of geographical, socioeconomic, demographic and cultural determinants. Population r

  17. Varying Constants: Constraints from Seasonal Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Douglas J

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the constraints obtained from new atomic clock data on the possible time variation of the fine structure `constant' and the electron-proton mass ratio and show how they are strengthened when the seasonal variation of Sun's gravitational field at the Earth's surface is taken into account.

  18. Hamiltonian and Variational Linear Distributed Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapisarda, P.; Trentelman, H.L.

    2002-01-01

    We use the formalism of bilinear- and quadratic differential forms in order to study Hamiltonian and variational linear distributed systems. It was shown that a system described by ordinary linear constant-coefficient differential equations is Hamiltonian if and only if it is variational. In this pa

  19. Groupoids, Discrete Mechanics, and Discrete Variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jia-Feng; JIA Xiao-Yu; WU Ke; ZHAO Wei-Zhong

    2008-01-01

    After introducing some of the basic definitions and results from the theory of groupoid and Lie algebroid,we investigate the discrete Lagrangian mechanics from the viewpoint of groupoid theory and give the connection between groupoids variation and the methods of the first and second discrete variational principles.

  20. Stochastic variational approach to minimum uncertainty states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schroedinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials. (author)

  1. Item versus System Learning: Explaining Free Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    1999-01-01

    Provides an explanation for the existence of free variation in learner language. Argues that interlanguage is best conceptualized as sets of loose lexical networks that are gradually reorganized into a system or systems. Free variation arises when learners add items to those they have already acquired and before they analyze these items and…

  2. Size variation in Middle Pleistocene humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, J L; Carretero, J M; Lorenzo, C; Gracia, A; Martínez, I; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Carbonell, E

    1997-08-22

    It has been suggested that European Middle Pleistocene humans, Neandertals, and prehistoric modern humans had a greater sexual dimorphism than modern humans. Analysis of body size variation and cranial capacity variation in the large sample from the Sima de los Huesos site in Spain showed instead that the sexual dimorphism is comparable in Middle Pleistocene and modern populations. PMID:9262474

  3. Stochastic variational approach to minimum uncertainty states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, F.; Viola, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Padova Univ. (Italy)

    1995-05-21

    We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schroedinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials. (author)

  4. Stochastic variational approach to minimum uncertainty states

    CERN Document Server

    Illuminati, F; Illuminati, F; Viola, L

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schr\\"{o}dinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials.

  5. Variational bayesian method of estimating variance components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Aisaku; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Hayashi, Takeshi; Mikawa, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    We developed a Bayesian analysis approach by using a variational inference method, a so-called variational Bayesian method, to determine the posterior distributions of variance components. This variational Bayesian method and an alternative Bayesian method using Gibbs sampling were compared in estimating genetic and residual variance components from both simulated data and publically available real pig data. In the simulated data set, we observed strong bias toward overestimation of genetic variance for the variational Bayesian method in the case of low heritability and low population size, and less bias was detected with larger population sizes in both methods examined. The differences in the estimates of variance components between the variational Bayesian and the Gibbs sampling were not found in the real pig data. However, the posterior distributions of the variance components obtained with the variational Bayesian method had shorter tails than those obtained with the Gibbs sampling. Consequently, the posterior standard deviations of the genetic and residual variances of the variational Bayesian method were lower than those of the method using Gibbs sampling. The computing time required was much shorter with the variational Bayesian method than with the method using Gibbs sampling.

  6. Stochastic Variational Approach to Minimum Uncertainty States

    OpenAIRE

    Illuminati, F.; Viola, L.

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schr\\"{o}dinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials.

  7. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  8. Closed orbit response to quadrupole strength variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolski, Andrzej; Zimmermann, Frank

    2004-01-20

    We derive two formulae relating the variation in closed orbit in a storage ring to variations in quadrupole strength, neglecting nonlinear and dispersive effects. These formulae correct results previously reported [1,2,3]. We compare the results of the formulae applied to the ATF with simulations using MAD, and consider their application to beam-based alignment.

  9. Variation in animal response to different toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The variation in response of different lots of male Swiss albino mice to pyrolysis effluents from surgical cotton and from bisphenol A polycarbonate, and to pure carbon monoxide, is discussed. The variation appeared to be less with the pyrolysis gases from polycarbonate than with pure carbon monoxide.

  10. Caval variations in neurologically diseased patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The import of the cavum variation and its prevalence rate in healthy individuals is still not clear, likewise in neurologically diseased patients. To evaluate the frequency and pattern of caval variations in neurologically diseased patients. The presence or absence of the cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), cavum vergae (CV), or cavum velum interpositum (CVI) was reviewed from successive cranial computerized tomography (CT) images of patients who were aged 6 months and above. Two hundred and seventeen cranial CT images were reviewed. At least a cavum variation was noted in 130 (59.9%) of the CT scan images reviewed. The CV, CVI, and CSP were noted in 86 (39.6%), 53 (24.4%), and 50 images (23%), respectively. Caval multiplicity was noted in 102 patients (47%). There was no significant difference in the rate of occurrence of cavum variations in patients with congenital brain diseases and acquired brain conditions (P = 0.484), neither was there a significant difference in the frequency of cavum variation in children aged older than 6 months compared to adults (P = 0.101). Cava variations are relatively common in neurological brain diseases. Patients with congenital brain diseases did not have a higher frequency of cava variation when compared with those that had acquired lesions. The most common type of cavum variation noted in this study was the vergae variety, while the CSP is the rarest

  11. Note on Methodology: The Coefficient of Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheret, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Addresses applications of the coefficient of variation as a measure of educational inequality or as a means of measuring changes of inequality status. Suggests the Gini coefficient has many advantages over the coefficient of variation since it can be used with the Lorenz curve (Lorenz provides detail Gini omits). (BRR)

  12. Genetic variations in multiple myeloma I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, A.; Klausen, T.W.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Few risk factors have been established for the plasma cell disorder multiple myeloma, but some of these like African American ethnicity and a family history of B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases suggest a genetic component for the disease. Genetic variation represents the genetic basis of variab......Few risk factors have been established for the plasma cell disorder multiple myeloma, but some of these like African American ethnicity and a family history of B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases suggest a genetic component for the disease. Genetic variation represents the genetic basis...... of variability in a population. The complex interplay between environment and genes for the development of cancer may therefore be influenced by genetic variations. A genetic variation may change the function of the gene, and if the genetic variation is associated with the risk of disease, that particular gene...

  13. Variational inequalities and frictional contact problems

    CERN Document Server

    Capatina, Anca

    2014-01-01

    Variational Inequalities and Frictional Contact Problems contains a carefully selected collection of results on elliptic and evolutionary quasi-variational inequalities including existence, uniqueness, regularity, dual formulations, numerical approximations and error estimates ones. By using a wide range of methods and arguments, the results are presented in a constructive way, with clarity and well justified proofs. This approach makes the subjects accessible to mathematicians and applied mathematicians. Moreover, this part of the book can be used as an excellent background for the investigation of more general classes of variational inequalities. The abstract variational inequalities considered in this book cover the variational formulations of many static and quasi-static contact problems. Based on these abstract results, in the last part of the book, certain static and quasi-static frictional contact problems in elasticity are studied in an almost exhaustive way. The readers will find a systematic and uni...

  14. Variation Tolerant On-Chip Interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Nigussie, Ethiopia Enideg

    2012-01-01

    This book presents design techniques, analysis and implementation of high performance and power efficient, variation tolerant on-chip interconnects.  Given the design paradigm shift to multi-core, interconnect-centric designs and the increase in sources of variability and their impact in sub-100nm technologies, this book will be an invaluable reference for anyone concerned with the design of next generation, high-performance electronics systems. Provides comprehensive, circuit-level explanation of high-performance, energy-efficient, variation-tolerant on-chip interconnect; Describes design techniques to mitigate problems caused by variation; Includes techniques for design and implementation of self-timed on-chip interconnect, delay variation insensitive communication protocols, high speed signaling techniques and circuits, bit-width independent completion detection and process, voltage and temperature variation tolerance.                          

  15. Variations of images to increase their visibility

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The calculus of variations applied to the image processing requires some numerical models able to perform the variations of images and the extremization of appropriate actions. To produce the variations of images, there are several possibilities based on the brightness maps. Before a numerical model, I propose an experimental approach, based on a tool of Gimp, GNU Image Manipulation Program, in order to visualize how the image variations can be. After the discussion of this tool, which is able to strongly increase the visibility of images, the variations and a possible functional for the visibility are proposed in the framework of a numerical model. The visibility functional is analogous to the fringe visibility of the optical interference.

  16. 肺癌患者肺部感染的易感因素与病原菌分析%Predisposing factors and pathogen analysis of pulmonary infection in patients with lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶建明; 方兴; 谭海栋

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过对收治的肺癌患者的病例调查研究,对其肺部感染的易感因素、病原菌及其耐药性进行研究分析,为肺癌患者肺部感染预防和治疗提供依据。方法对医院2011年7月-2013年6月收治的肺癌且发生肺部感染的患者共62例,在住院后第2天,采集患者的痰液送至实验室进行细菌、真菌的培养,采用K-B法分离的菌株进行耐药性分析,数据均由Excel软件以及SPSS13.0软件进行处理。结果对62例患者采取的151份符合标准的痰液进行微生物培养,共检测出74株病原菌,真菌占43.24%,革兰阳性菌占9.46%,革兰阴性菌占47.30%,革兰阴性菌中肺炎克雷伯菌比例最高,真菌中的白色假丝酵母菌比例最高,肺炎克雷伯菌对氨苄西林的耐药率为100.0%,对环丙沙星无耐药性;阴沟肠杆菌对头孢他啶、头孢曲松、头孢唑林的耐药率均为100.0%;鲍氏不动杆菌对头孢唑林的耐药率为100.0%,对头孢他啶无耐药性;铜绿假单胞菌对氨苄西林、头孢唑林的耐药率均为100.0%;金黄色葡萄球菌对青霉素的耐药率为100.0%。结论对肺癌患者肺部感染进行积极的预防和控制,加强对引起肺癌患者肺部感染病原菌的监测,为医护人员对患者进行治疗、使用抗菌药物时提供参考依据,降低肺癌患者肺部感染率,提高治疗效果。%OBJECTIVE To analyze predisposing factors ,pathogens and drug resistance for lung infection through case study of patients with lung cancer so as to provide reference for prevention and treatment of lung infection in patients with lung cancer .METHODS A total of 62 patients who had lung infection during hospitalization from Jul .2011 to Jun .2013 for lung cancer were selected .At two days after admission ,the sputum from the patients were delivered to the laboratory for bacteria and fungi culture .Analysis of drug resistance

  17. Variation tolerant SoC design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhikkottu, Vivek J.

    The scaling of integrated circuits into the nanometer regime has led to variations emerging as a primary concern for designers of integrated circuits. Variations are an inevitable consequence of the semiconductor manufacturing process, and also arise due to the side-effects of operation of integrated circuits (voltage, temperature, and aging). Conventional design approaches, which are based on design corners or worst-case scenarios, leave designers with an undesirable choice between the considerable overheads associated with over-design and significantly reduced manufacturing yield. Techniques for variation-tolerant design at the logic, circuit and layout levels of the design process have been developed and are in commercial use. However, with the incessant increase in variations due to technology scaling and design trends such as near-threshold computing, these techniques are no longer sufficient to contain the effects of variations, and there is a need to address variations at all stages of design. This thesis addresses the problem of variation-tolerant design at the earliest stages of the design process, where the system-level design decisions that are made can have a very significant impact. There are two key aspects to making system-level design variation-aware. First, analysis techniques must be developed to project the impact of variations on system-level metrics such as application performance and energy. Second, variation-tolerant design techniques need to be developed to absorb the residual impact of variations (that cannot be contained through lower-level techniques). In this thesis, we address both these facets by developing robust and scalable variation-aware analysis and variation mitigation techniques at the system level. The first contribution of this thesis is a variation-aware system-level performance analysis framework. We address the key challenge of translating the per-component clock frequency distributions into a system-level application

  18. Environmental Variation Generates Environmental Opportunist Pathogen Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Jani; Kaitala, Veijo; Laakso, Jouni; Ruokolainen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Many socio-economically important pathogens persist and grow in the outside host environment and opportunistically invade host individuals. The environmental growth and opportunistic nature of these pathogens has received only little attention in epidemiology. Environmental reservoirs are, however, an important source of novel diseases. Thus, attempts to control these diseases require different approaches than in traditional epidemiology focusing on obligatory parasites. Conditions in the outside-host environment are prone to fluctuate over time. This variation is a potentially important driver of epidemiological dynamics and affect the evolution of novel diseases. Using a modelling approach combining the traditional SIRS models to environmental opportunist pathogens and environmental variability, we show that epidemiological dynamics of opportunist diseases are profoundly driven by the quality of environmental variability, such as the long-term predictability and magnitude of fluctuations. When comparing periodic and stochastic environmental factors, for a given variance, stochastic variation is more likely to cause outbreaks than periodic variation. This is due to the extreme values being further away from the mean. Moreover, the effects of variability depend on the underlying biology of the epidemiological system, and which part of the system is being affected. Variation in host susceptibility leads to more severe pathogen outbreaks than variation in pathogen growth rate in the environment. Positive correlation in variation on both targets can cancel the effect of variation altogether. Moreover, the severity of outbreaks is significantly reduced by increase in the duration of immunity. Uncovering these issues helps in understanding and controlling diseases caused by environmental pathogens.

  19. Developing variations: : An analytical and historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sirman, Berk

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Berk Sirman: Developing Variations – An Analytical and Historical Perspective. Uppsala Universitet: Institutionen för musikvetenskap, uppsats för 60 p., 2006. Developing variations is a term by Arnold Schönberg that is coined to describe constant modification of motives and ideas in a theme, or possibly throughout the whole work. This is thought to be superior to exact repetitions. Developing variations was used by Schönberg to analyze the music of Brahms, whose compositions represen...

  20. Variational calculus with constraints on general algebroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variational calculus on a vector bundle E equipped with a structure of a general algebroid is developed, together with the corresponding analogs of Euler-Lagrange equations. Constrained systems are introduced in the variational and geometrical settings. The constrained Euler-Lagrange equations are derived for analogs of holonomic, vakonomic and nonholonomic constraints. This general model covers the majority of first-order Lagrangian systems which are present in the literature and reduces to the standard variational calculus and the Euler-Lagrange equations in classical mechanics for E = TM

  1. Variations of biorhythm composition in healthy people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptikaeva, O. I.; Gamburtsev, A. G.; Stepanova, S. I.

    2010-12-01

    We have investigated variations in the spectral composition of some physiological characteristics (heart rate, sublingual temperature, potassium renal excretion, and respiratory rate). It has been shown that, in regular social and domestic conditions, the human responses to permanently changing external influences are different and depend on their individual adaptation ability. Some test subjects show a prevalence of the major circadian rhythm in the rhythmic composition of physiological characteristics, which stays almost unchanged under significant variations in external factors; other test subjects are characterized by a rapid change in the rhythmic composition following variations, for example, of solar activity; for a third type of test subject, this change occurs with a significant time delay.

  2. Accounting for population variation in targeted proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Grant M.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Rodriguez, Larissa M.; Wu, Chaochao; MacLean, Brendan; Smith, Richard D.; MacCoss, Michael; Payne, Samuel H.

    2014-01-03

    Individual proteomes typically differ from the reference human proteome at ~10,000 single amino acid variants. When viewed at the population scale, this individual variation results in a wide variety of protein sequences. In targeted proteomics experiments, such variability would confound accurate protein quantification. To facilitate researchers in identifying target peptides with high variability within the human population we have created the Population Variation plug-in for Skyline, which provides easy access to the polymorphisms stored in dbSNP. Given a set of peptides, the tool reports minor allele frequency for common polymorphisms. We highlight the importance of considering genetic variation by applying the tool to public datasets.

  3. Inferences on the common coefficient of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili

    2005-07-30

    The coefficient of variation is often used as a measure of precision and reproducibility of data in medical and biological science. This paper considers the problem of making inference about the common population coefficient of variation when it is a priori suspected that several independent samples are from populations with a common coefficient of variation. The procedures for confidence interval estimation and hypothesis testing are developed based on the concepts of generalized variables. The coverage properties of the proposed confidence intervals and type-I errors of the proposed tests are evaluated by simulation. The proposed methods are illustrated by a real life example.

  4. Epigenetic variation, phenotypic heritability, and evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furrow, Robert E.; Christiansen, Freddy Bugge; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2014-01-01

    families. The potential importance of this interaction, recognized in classical studies of the genetic epidemiology of complex diseases and other quantitative characters, has reemerged in studies of the effects of epigenetic modifications, their variation, and their transmission between generations....

  5. Contingent negative variation of mood disorder patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingzhi Lu; Wenbin Zong; Qingtao Ren; Jinyu Pu; Jun Chen; Juan Li; Xingshi Chen; Yong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Studies on brain-evoked potential and contingent negative variation (CNV) in mood disorder remain controversial. To date, no CNV difference between unipolar and bipolar depression has been reported. Brain-evoked potentials were measured in the present study to analyze CNV in three subtypes of mood disorder (mania, unipolar depression, and bipolar depression), and these results were compared with normal controls. In the mania group, CNV amplitude B was greater than in controls, and the depression group exhibited lower CNV amplitude B and smaller A-S'2 area, and prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency. The CNV comparison between unipolar and bipolar depression found that the prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency was only in unipolar depression. These results suggest that prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency is a characteristic of unipolar depression, and CNV amplitude change is a state characteristic of mood disorder patients.

  6. Variational Perturbation Theory for Markov Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinert, Hagen; Pelster, Axel; Mihai V. Putz

    2002-01-01

    We develop a convergent variational perturbation theory for conditional probability densities of Markov processes. The power of the theory is illustrated by applying it to the diffusion of a particle in an anharmonic potential.

  7. Medicare Geographic Variation - Public Use File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Geographic Variation Public Use File provides the ability to view demographic, utilization and quality indicators at the state level (including...

  8. From genomic variation to personalized medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesolowska, Agata; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    Genomic variation is the basis of interindividual differences in observable traits and disease susceptibility. Genetic studies are the driving force of personalized medicine, as many of the differences in treatment efficacy can be attributed to our genomic background. The rapid development of nex...... alternative to data-driven genome-wide association studies. Finally, the findings of the presented studies set new directions for future pharmacognenetic investigations and provide a framework for future implementation of personalized medicine.......Genomic variation is the basis of interindividual differences in observable traits and disease susceptibility. Genetic studies are the driving force of personalized medicine, as many of the differences in treatment efficacy can be attributed to our genomic background. The rapid development...... the thesis and includes some final remarks on the perspectives of genomic variation research and personalized medicine. In summary, this thesis demonstrates the feasibility of integrative analyses of genomic variations and introduces large-scale hypothesis-driven SNP exploration studies as an emerging...

  9. Concentration variation of radon in the room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out to determine the variation of radon concentration in the room. Radon detector used was solid nuclear tracks detector (SSNTD) LR-115. From this result, suitable points to make radon measurement was determined

  10. Variation in Regional and Global Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzworth, R. H., II; Brundell, J. B.; McCarthy, M.; Virts, K.; Hutchins, M. L.; Jacobson, A. R.; Heckman, S.

    2015-12-01

    Daily global lightning variation over oceans and orography, caused by major weather patterns such as typhoons and seasonal weather oscillations, are determined with high time resolution. Observations of strong variations in global lightning are used to study possible variations in magnetospheric particle densities. Strong lightning patterns associated with ocean currents are demonstrated with a study of the Gulf Stream. We located all major lightning producing storms, using a clustering algorithm on 10 years of World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) data to reduce the influence of rapidly increasing lightning network detection efficiency on temporal studies. The clustered storms are used to study the variations and patterns of global and regional lightning activity. WWLLN and Earth Networks lightning detection networks have been used to show the energy per flash of lightning over the oceans is higher than over land, and the sharp contrast at the coasts will be examined.

  11. Modeling Per Capita State Health Expenditure Variat...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Modeling Per Capita State Health Expenditure Variation State-Level Characteristics Matter, published in Volume 3, Issue 4, of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  12. Variational Principles in Fang Uniform Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Turinici, Mihai

    2010-01-01

    The variational principle in Fang uniform spaces due to Hamel [Nonlin. Anal., 62 (2005), 913-924] is deductible from the generalized metric version of Ekeland's [Bull. A.M.S. (N. S.), 1 (1979), 443-474].

  13. Geographic Variation in Medicare Spending Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Geographic Variation Dashboards present Medicare fee-for-service per-capita spending at the state and county level in an interactive format. We calculated the...

  14. A new class of variational equation problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Applying an analysis method to a group of multivariable equations, a new class of variational equations are proved. This method is more concise and more direct than the others. This result can be applied to some stochastic control models.

  15. Fixed point theory, variational analysis, and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Mezel, Saleh Abdullah R; Ansari, Qamrul Hasan

    2015-01-01

    ""There is a real need for this book. It is useful for people who work in areas of nonlinear analysis, optimization theory, variational inequalities, and mathematical economics.""-Nan-Jing Huang, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China

  16. OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEM FOR PARABOLIC VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪更生

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimal control problems of systems governed by a parabolic variational inequality coupled with a semilinear parabolic differential equations.The maximum principle and some kind of approximate controllability are studied.

  17. Temporal variation of coupling constants and nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Oberhummer, Heinz; Fairbairn, M; Schlattl, H; Sharma, M M

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the triple-alpha process and the Oklo phenomenon to obtain constraints on possible cosmological time variations of fundamental constants. Specifically we study cosmological temporal constraints for the fine structure constant and nucleon and meson masses.

  18. Temporal variation of coupling constants and nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhummer, H.; Csótó, A.; Fairbairn, M.; Schlattl, H.; Sharma, M. M.

    2003-05-01

    We investigate the triple-alpha process and the Oklo phenomenon to obtain constraints on possible cosmological time variations of fundamental constants. Specifically we study cosmological temporal constraints for the fine structure constant and nucleon and meson masses.

  19. Solar gravitational energy and luminosity variations

    CERN Document Server

    Fazel, Z; Lefebvre, S; Ajabshirizadeh, A; Pireaux, S; 10.1016/j.newst.2007.05.003

    2009-01-01

    Due to non-homogeneous mass distribution and non-uniform velocity rate inside the Sun, the solar outer shape is distorted in latitude. In this paper, we analyze the consequences of a temporal change in this figure on the luminosity. To do so, we use the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) as an indicator of luminosity. Considering that most of the authors have explained the largest part of the TSI modulation with magnetic network (spots and faculae) but not the whole, we could set constraints on radius and effective temperature variations (dR, dT). However computations show that the amplitude of solar irradiance modulation is very sensitive to photospheric temperature variations. In order to understand discrepancies between our best fit and recent observations of Livingston et al. (2005), showing no effective surface temperature variation during the solar cycle, we investigated small effective temperature variation in irradiance modeling. We emphasized a phase-shift (correlated or anticorrelated radius and irradianc...

  20. [Variation im heutigen Deutsch...] / Laura Tidrike

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tidrike, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Variation im heutigen Deutsch : Perspektiven für den Sprachunterricht / hrsg. v. Eva Neuland. Frankfurt am Main : Lang, 2006. (Sprache - Kommunikation - Kultur. Soziolinguistische Beiträge ; Vol. 4)

  1. Population effects of increased climate variation

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Global circulation models predict and numerous observations confirm that anthropogenic climate change has altered high-frequency climate variability. However, it is not yet well understood how changing patterns of environmental variation will affect wildlife population dynamics and other ecological processes. Theory predicts that a population's long-run growth rate is diminished and the chance of population extinction is increased as environmental variation increases. This results from the fa...

  2. Cloud variations and the Earth's energy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessler, A. E.

    2011-10-01

    The question of whether clouds are the cause of surface temperature changes, rather than acting as a feedback in response to those temperature changes, is explored using data obtained between 2000 and 2010. An energy budget calculation shows that the radiative impact of clouds accounts for little of the observed climate variations. It is also shown that observations of the lagged response of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) energy fluxes to surface temperature variations are not evidence that clouds are causing climate change.

  3. Variational Principle underlying Scale Invariant Social Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hernando, A.; A. Plastino

    2012-01-01

    MaxEnt's variational principle, in conjunction with Shannon's logarithmic information measure, yields only exponential functional forms in straightforward fashion. In this communication we show how to overcome this limitation via the incorporation, into the variational process, of suitable dynamical information. As a consequence, we are able to formulate a somewhat generalized Shannonian Maximum Entropy approach which provides a unifying "thermodynamic-like" explanation for the scale-invarian...

  4. Variations in government contract in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspal Singh Nachatar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of construction works means that it is hardly possible to complete a project without changes to the plans or the construction process itself. There can only be a minority of contracts of any size in which the subject matter when completed is identical in every respect with what was contemplated at the outset. As such, variations are inevitable in even the best-planned contracts. This study is attempted to examine the ways a variation was formed in law and project, in finding out whether the Standard Form of Contract used in Malaysia particularly the government Public Works Department (PWD form has been utilized to the best level in variation cases. Additionally, this study examined the benefits of variations to parties in contract and also provides suggestions and assumptions in an effort to contribute solutions to issues and problem detected. The research methodology used in this study was an extensive review of relevant literature, case study, empirical questionnaires and structured interviews and general observations based on experience and surroundings. The academic study approach incorporated stages such as initial understanding, data and information gathering, analysis of data, findings and conclusion and general suggestions in the study. The major findings of this study, among others, revealed that the existences of variations are common in projects. The main cause of variations was due to client request because of inadequate project objectives for the designer to develop comprehensive design. Besides, the analysis pointed out that the government form of contract the Public Works Department (PWD 203/203A can help in overcoming projects with variation because of the clear defined procedure. This study also found that proper planning and coordination at tender stage can minimize the risk of ‘unwanted’ variations. In conclusion, this study recommended that future research should be done in design and build based contract

  5. Multibody Dynamics Formulations Based on Variational Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙右烈

    2003-01-01

    The formulation of multibody dynamics was studied based on variational principle. The body coonection matrix was intro-duced to define the connection configuration. The expression for the system kinematics was obtained by using the body connection ma-trix. From variational principle the general dynamical equations for multibody system were derived and the dynamical equations were given for multibody system subjected to the constraints.

  6. Variational time discretization of geodesic calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Rumpf, Martin; Wirth, Benedikt

    2012-01-01

    We analyze a variational time discretization of geodesic calculus on finite- and certain classes of infinite-dimensional Riemannian manifolds. We investigate the fundamental properties of discrete geodesics, the associated discrete logarithm, discrete exponential maps, and discrete parallel transport, and we prove convergence to their continuous counterparts. The presented analysis is based on the direct methods in the calculus of variation, on $\\Gamma$-convergence, and on weighted finite ele...

  7. Complex anatomic variation in the brachial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupis, Th; Michalinos, A; Protogerou, V; Mazarakis, A; Skandalakis, P

    2015-01-01

    Authors describe a case of a complex anatomic variation discovered during dissection of the humeral region. On the right side, brachial artery followed a superficial course. Musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce coracobrachialis muscle but instead passed below the muscle before continuing in the forearm. On the left side, a communication between musculocutaneous and median nerve was dissected. Those variations are analytically presented with a brief review on their anatomic and clinical implications. Considerations on their embryological origin are attempted.

  8. Gaussian Copula Variational Autoencoders for Mixed Data

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Suwon; Choi, Seungjin

    2016-01-01

    The variational autoencoder (VAE) is a generative model with continuous latent variables where a pair of probabilistic encoder (bottom-up) and decoder (top-down) is jointly learned by stochastic gradient variational Bayes. We first elaborate Gaussian VAE, approximating the local covariance matrix of the decoder as an outer product of the principal direction at a position determined by a sample drawn from Gaussian distribution. We show that this model, referred to as VAE-ROC, better captures t...

  9. Emergent Gravity from an Augmented Variational Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Tuveri, Matteo; Ferraris, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A direct and non-trivial link between Padmanabhan's entropy used in emergent gravity and standard GR action is established. To do that, Augmented Variational Principles (AVP) will be used. We shall discuss how this link accounts for the details of the variation of Padmanabhan's action based on gravitational entropy. It will also clarify the role of the background metric and its non-dynamical role.

  10. Introduction to the calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Sagan, Hans

    1992-01-01

    Excellent text provides basis for thorough understanding of the problems, methods and techniques of the calculus of variations and prepares readers for the study of modern optimal control theory. Treatment limited to extensive coverage of single integral problems in one and more unknown functions. Carefully chosen variational problems and over 400 exercises. ""Should find wide acceptance as a text and reference.""-American Mathematical Monthly. 1969 edition. Bibliography.

  11. Variational calculus with constraints on general algebroids

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowska, Katarzyna; Grabowski, Janusz

    2007-01-01

    Variational calculus on a vector bundle E equipped with a structure of a general algebroid is developed, together with the corresponding analogs of Euler-Lagrange equations. Constrained systems are introduced in the variational and in the geometrical setting. The constrained Euler-Lagrange equations are derived for analogs of holonomic, vakonomic and nonholonomic constraints. This general model covers majority of first-order Lagrangian systems which are present in the literature and reduces t...

  12. Variations in national management accounting approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Amat, Oriol; Blake, John; Oliveras, Ester

    1999-01-01

    During the 1990's studies of management accounting practices in Europe and in Latin America have given us data on 23 countries. In this paper we use this data to identify five distinct aspects of national management accounting culture being: 1. The influence of regulations on official recommendations; 2. The source of management accountants; 3. Influence from one country to another; 4. Variations in use of specific techniques; 5. Variations in the objectives of the...

  13. Solar-Terrestrial Relations and Geomagnetic Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunade, S. O.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the solar environment and terrestrial magnetism is presented. The interactions of the solar environment and terrestrial magnetism are then discussed as they result in the creation of the magnetosphere and ionosphere with their corresponding current systems. Geomagnetic variations resulting from these current systems are discussed with regards to the observations made on the Earth's surface. Some useful and disruptive effects of the geomagnetic variations on navigation, shortwave radio communication, space satellite orbits and other technological systems are discussed.

  14. Variation of fundamental constants: theory and observations

    CERN Document Server

    Flambaum, V V

    2007-01-01

    Review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fundamental constants is presented including atomic clocks, quasar absorption spectra, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. Assuming linear variation with time we can compare different results. From the quasar absorption spectra: $\\dot{\\mu}/\\mu=(1 \\pm 3) \\times 10^{-16}$ yr$^{-1}$. A combination of this result and the atomic clock results gives the best limt on variation of $\\alpha$: $\\dot{\\alpha}/\\alpha=(-0.8 \\pm 0.8) \\times 10^{-16}$ yr$^{-1}$. The Oklo natural reactor gives the best limit on the variation of $m_s/\\Lambda_{QCD}$ where $m_s$ is the strange quark mass. Huge enhancement of the relative variation effects happens in transitions between close atomic, molecular and nuclear energy levels. We suggest several new cases where the levels are very narrow. Large enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feshbach resonance. Massive bodies (stars or galaxies) can also affect physical constants....

  15. Exploring subdomain variation in biomedical language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séaghdha Diarmuid Ó

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Applications of Natural Language Processing (NLP technology to biomedical texts have generated significant interest in recent years. In this paper we identify and investigate the phenomenon of linguistic subdomain variation within the biomedical domain, i.e., the extent to which different subject areas of biomedicine are characterised by different linguistic behaviour. While variation at a coarser domain level such as between newswire and biomedical text is well-studied and known to affect the portability of NLP systems, we are the first to conduct an extensive investigation into more fine-grained levels of variation. Results Using the large OpenPMC text corpus, which spans the many subdomains of biomedicine, we investigate variation across a number of lexical, syntactic, semantic and discourse-related dimensions. These dimensions are chosen for their relevance to the performance of NLP systems. We use clustering techniques to analyse commonalities and distinctions among the subdomains. Conclusions We find that while patterns of inter-subdomain variation differ somewhat from one feature set to another, robust clusters can be identified that correspond to intuitive distinctions such as that between clinical and laboratory subjects. In particular, subdomains relating to genetics and molecular biology, which are the most common sources of material for training and evaluating biomedical NLP tools, are not representative of all biomedical subdomains. We conclude that an awareness of subdomain variation is important when considering the practical use of language processing applications by biomedical researchers.

  16. Final Technical Report: Variational Transition State Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, Donald G. [University of Minnesota; Truhlar, Donald G. [University of Minnesota

    2016-09-15

    Complex molecules often have many structures (conformations) of the reactants and the transition states, and these structures may be connected by coupled-mode torsions and pseudorotations; some but not all structures may have hydrogen bonds in the transition state or reagents. A quantitative theory of the reaction rates of complex molecules must take account of these structures, their coupledmode nature, their qualitatively different character, and the possibility of merging reaction paths at high temperature. We have recently developed a coupled-mode theory called multi-structural variational transition state theory (MS-VTST) and an extension, called multi-path variational transition state theory (MP-VTST), that includes a treatment of the differences in the multidimensional tunneling paths and their contributions to the reaction rate. The MP-VTST method was presented for unimolecular reactions in the original paper and has now been extended to bimolecular reactions. The MS-VTST and MPVTST formulations of variational transition state theory include multi-faceted configuration-space dividing surfaces to define the variational transition state. They occupy an intermediate position between single-conformation variational transition state theory (VTST), which has been used successfully for small molecules, and ensemble-averaged variational transition state theory (EAVTST), which has been used successfully for enzyme kinetics. The theories are illustrated and compared here by application to three thermal rate constants for reactions of ethanol with hydroxyl radical—reactions with 4, 6, and 14 saddle points.

  17. Variational integrators for nonvariational partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael; Maj, Omar

    2015-08-01

    Variational integrators for Lagrangian dynamical systems provide a systematic way to derive geometric numerical methods. These methods preserve a discrete multisymplectic form as well as momenta associated to symmetries of the Lagrangian via Noether's theorem. An inevitable prerequisite for the derivation of variational integrators is the existence of a variational formulation for the considered problem. Even though for a large class of systems this requirement is fulfilled, there are many interesting examples which do not belong to this class, e.g., equations of advection-diffusion type frequently encountered in fluid dynamics or plasma physics. On the other hand, it is always possible to embed an arbitrary dynamical system into a larger Lagrangian system using the method of formal (or adjoint) Lagrangians. We investigate the application of the variational integrator method to formal Lagrangians, and thereby extend the application domain of variational integrators to include potentially all dynamical systems. The theory is supported by physically relevant examples, such as the advection equation and the vorticity equation, and numerically verified. Remarkably, the integrator for the vorticity equation combines Arakawa's discretisation of the Poisson brackets with a symplectic time stepping scheme in a fully covariant way such that the discrete energy is exactly preserved. In the presentation of the results, we try to make the geometric framework of variational integrators accessible to non specialists.

  18. Genomic pathology of SLE-associated copy-number variation at the FCGR2C/FCGR3B/FCGR2B locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael; Barros, Paula; Witherden, Abigail S; Roberts, Amy L; Zhang, Zhou; Schaschl, Helmut; Yu, Chack-Yung; Hurles, Matthew E; Schaffner, Catherine; Floto, R Andres; Game, Laurence; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz; Wilson, Richard K; Graves, Tina A; Eichler, Evan E; Cook, H Terence; Vyse, Timothy J; Aitman, Timothy J

    2013-01-10

    Reduced FCGR3B copy number is associated with increased risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The five FCGR2/FCGR3 genes are arranged across two highly paralogous genomic segments on chromosome 1q23. Previous studies have suggested mechanisms for structural rearrangements at the FCGR2/FCGR3 locus and have proposed mechanisms whereby altered FCGR3B copy number predisposes to autoimmunity, but the high degree of sequence similarity between paralogous segments has prevented precise definition of the molecular events and their functional consequences. To pursue the genomic pathology associated with FCGR3B copy-number variation, we integrated sequencing data from fosmid and bacterial artificial chromosome clones and sequence-captured DNA from FCGR3B-deleted genomes to establish a detailed map of allelic and paralogous sequence variation across the FCGR2/FCGR3 locus. This analysis identified two highly paralogous 24.5 kb blocks within the FCGR2C/FCGR3B/FCGR2B locus that are devoid of nonpolymorphic paralogous sequence variations and that define the limits of the genomic regions in which nonallelic homologous recombination leads to FCGR2C/FCGR3B copy-number variation. Further, the data showed evidence of swapping of haplotype blocks between these highly paralogous blocks that most likely arose from sequential ancestral recombination events across the region. Functionally, we found by flow cytometry, immunoblotting and cDNA sequencing that individuals with FCGR3B-deleted alleles show ectopic presence of FcγRIIb on natural killer (NK) cells. We conclude that FCGR3B deletion juxtaposes the 5'-regulatory sequences of FCGR2C with the coding sequence of FCGR2B, creating a chimeric gene that results in an ectopic accumulation of FcγRIIb on NK cells and provides an explanation for SLE risk associated with reduced FCGR3B gene copy number. PMID:23261299

  19. Fixture Variation Diagnosis of Compliant Assembly Using Sensitivity Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Kui-gang; JIN Sun; LAI Xin-min

    2009-01-01

    An automotive body is composed of compliant sheet metal parts. Fast and exactly diagnosing variation sources is very important when assembly variations happen. This paper proposes a diagnosis method of multi fixture variations based on the variation model of compliant sheet metal assembly. The assembly variation model is obtained by using the method of influence coefficients (MIC) and considering the manufacturing variations of compliant parts and multi fixture variations. The measurement point variations induced by part manufacturing variations are firstly removed from the measurement data. The variation patterns of multi fixture variations are constructed by column vectors of fixture variation sensitivity matrix. This method is proved to be feasible for exactly diagnosing the fixture variations and has higher diagnosis efficiency than designated component analysis (DCA).

  20. Environmental Variation Generates Environmental Opportunist Pathogen Outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Anttila

    Full Text Available Many socio-economically important pathogens persist and grow in the outside host environment and opportunistically invade host individuals. The environmental growth and opportunistic nature of these pathogens has received only little attention in epidemiology. Environmental reservoirs are, however, an important source of novel diseases. Thus, attempts to control these diseases require different approaches than in traditional epidemiology focusing on obligatory parasites. Conditions in the outside-host environment are prone to fluctuate over time. This variation is a potentially important driver of epidemiological dynamics and affect the evolution of novel diseases. Using a modelling approach combining the traditional SIRS models to environmental opportunist pathogens and environmental variability, we show that epidemiological dynamics of opportunist diseases are profoundly driven by the quality of environmental variability, such as the long-term predictability and magnitude of fluctuations. When comparing periodic and stochastic environmental factors, for a given variance, stochastic variation is more likely to cause outbreaks than periodic variation. This is due to the extreme values being further away from the mean. Moreover, the effects of variability depend on the underlying biology of the epidemiological system, and which part of the system is being affected. Variation in host susceptibility leads to more severe pathogen outbreaks than variation in pathogen growth rate in the environment. Positive correlation in variation on both targets can cancel the effect of variation altogether. Moreover, the severity of outbreaks is significantly reduced by increase in the duration of immunity. Uncovering these issues helps in understanding and controlling diseases caused by environmental pathogens.

  1. Genetic variation in retinal vascular patterning predicts variation in pial collateral extent and stroke severity

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar, Pranay; Zhang, Hua; Chen, De; Faber, James E.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a native collateral circulation in tissues lessens injury in occlusive vascular diseases. However, differences in genetic background cause wide variation in collateral number and diameter in mice, resulting in large variation in protection. Indirect estimates of collateral perfusion suggest wide variation also exists in humans. Unfortunately, methods used to obtain these estimates are invasive and not widely available. We sought to determine if differences in genetic backgroun...

  2. Intrapopulation genome size variation in D. melanogaster reflects life history variation and plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa L Ellis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We determined female genome sizes using flow cytometry for 211 Drosophila melanogaster sequenced inbred strains from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, and found significant conspecific and intrapopulation variation in genome size. We also compared several life history traits for 25 lines with large and 25 lines with small genomes in three thermal environments, and found that genome size as well as genome size by temperature interactions significantly correlated with survival to pupation and adulthood, time to pupation, female pupal mass, and female eclosion rates. Genome size accounted for up to 23% of the variation in developmental phenotypes, but the contribution of genome size to variation in life history traits was plastic and varied according to the thermal environment. Expression data implicate differences in metabolism that correspond to genome size variation. These results indicate that significant genome size variation exists within D. melanogaster and this variation may impact the evolutionary ecology of the species. Genome size variation accounts for a significant portion of life history variation in an environmentally dependent manner, suggesting that potential fitness effects associated with genome size variation also depend on environmental conditions.

  3. Biological variation of thyroid autoantibodies and thyroglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Esther; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Blaabjerg, Ole;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been shown that the level of serum thyroid antibodies affects serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations in men and women, and that these autoantibodies in combination with serum TSH are predictive of future thyroid disease. As the biological variation of these autoantibodies is un......: It is possible to measure TPOAb and TgAb in all samples with the AutoDELFIA. There is no systematic variation in autoantibodies during the menstrual cycle. The biological coefficient of variation for TPOAb and TgAb was 11.3% and 8.5%, respectively......BACKGROUND: It has been shown that the level of serum thyroid antibodies affects serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations in men and women, and that these autoantibodies in combination with serum TSH are predictive of future thyroid disease. As the biological variation of these autoantibodies...... the upper reference limit of the laboratory (6 had TPOAb >10 kIU/L, 6 had TgAb >20 kIU/L and 1 had TRAb >0.75 IU/L). Eight women had Tg below the lower reference limit, five of whom had elevated TgAb. Variations in the thyroid antibodies were random and not related to the menstrual cycle. For TPOAb (2...

  4. VARIATIONS OF SOLAR ROTATION AND SUNSPOT ACTIVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous wavelet transformation is used to study the temporal variations of the rotational cycle length of daily sunspot numbers from 1849 January 1 to 2010 February 28, from a global point of view. The rotational cycle length of the Sun is found to have a secular trend, which statistically shows a linear decrease by about 0.47 days during the time interval considered. The empirical mode decomposition analysis of the temporal variations of the rotational cycle length shows an acceleration trend for the surface rotation rate from cycles 11 to 19, but a deceleration trend from the beginning of cycle 20 onward. We cannot determine whether the rotation rate around the maximum times of the Schwable cycles should be faster or slower than that around the minimum times, implying no Schwable cycle in the long-term variations of rotation. The results obtained are compared to those from the literature. It is inferred that the variation of the rotational cycle length may be related to the variation of sunspot activity in the long run.

  5. Prostate Contouring Variation: Can It Be Fixed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess whether an education program on CT and MRI prostate anatomy would reduce inter- and intraobserver prostate contouring variation among experienced radiation oncologists. Methods and Materials: Three patient CT and MRI datasets were selected. Five radiation oncologists contoured the prostate for each patient on CT first, then MRI, and again between 2 and 4 weeks later. Three education sessions were then conducted. The same contouring process was then repeated with the same datasets and oncologists. The observer variation was assessed according to changes in the ratio of the encompassing volume to intersecting volume (volume ratio [VR]), across sets of target volumes. Results: For interobserver variation, there was a 15% reduction in mean VR with CT, from 2.74 to 2.33, and a 40% reduction in mean VR with MRI, from 2.38 to 1.41 after education. A similar trend was found for intraobserver variation, with a mean VR reduction for CT and MRI of 9% (from 1.51 to 1.38) and 16% (from 1.37 to 1.15), respectively. Conclusion: A well-structured education program has reduced both inter- and intraobserver prostate contouring variations. The impact was greater on MRI than on CT. With the ongoing incorporation of new technologies into routine practice, education programs for target contouring should be incorporated as part of the continuing medical education of radiation oncologists.

  6. Seasonal variation of febrile convulsion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, T; Okada, S

    1984-05-01

    The 6-year incidence rates of febrile convulsions in all 3-year-old children in Fuchu (covering 95% of children, number examined 17,044) was 8.2%. The incidence was higher in boys than in girls (9.0%: 7.5%, P less than 0.001). The incidence rates varied with the month and year of birth, but the variations observed were slight. Two peak appearances of seasonal variation of the first febrile convulsion were found in November-January and in June-August. The former could be interpreted as a tendency to winter virus infection of the upper respiratory tract in children. The other peak in summer could be explained as a tendency to gastrointestinal infection. Liability to febrile convulsion was influenced by the age of children and by the seasonal variations of febrile illness, but not by the season of birth. PMID:6464667

  7. Geomagnetic Core Field Secular Variation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillet, N.; Lesur, V.; Olsen, Nils

    2010-01-01

    highlight the difficulty of resolving the time variability of the high degree secular variation coefficients (i.e. the secular acceleration), arising for instance from the challenge to properly separate sources of internal and of external origin. In addition, the regularisation process may also result......We analyse models describing time changes of the Earth’s core magnetic field (secular variation) covering the historical period (several centuries) and the more recent satellite era (previous decade), and we illustrate how both the information contained in the data and the a priori information...... (regularisation) affect the result of the ill-posed geomagnetic inverse problem. We show how data quality, frequency and selection procedures govern part of the temporal changes in the secular variation norms and spectra, which are sometimes difficult to dissociate from true changes of the core state. We...

  8. Temporal Variation of the Hemispheric Solar Rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, J -L; Xu, J -C

    2011-01-01

    The daily sunspot numbers of the whole disk as well as the northern and southern hemispheres from January 1, 1945 to December 31, 2010 are used to investigate the temporal variation of the rotational cycle length through the continuous wavelet transformation analysis method. The auto-correlation function analysis of daily hemispheric sunspot numbers shows that the southern hemisphere rotates faster than the northern hemisphere. The results obtained from the wavelet transformation analysis are: there exists no direct relationship between the variation trend of the rotational cycle length and the variation trend of solar activity in the two hemispheres; the rotational cycle length of both hemispheres has no significant period appearing at the 11 years, but has significant period of about 7.6 years. Analysis concerning the solar cycle dependence of the rotational cycle length shows that in the whole disk and the northern hemisphere acceleration seems to appear before the minimum time of solar activity. Furthermo...

  9. Temporal variation of the IBEX Ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    We present a study of the time variation over half a solar cycle of the ENA flux composing the IBEX Ribbon, with the goal of determining how closely the Ribbon's temporal variation matches that of the adjacent globally distributed ENA flux (GDF). A high degree of similarity implies that the Ribbon flux originates in the same heliospheric regions as the GDF, presumably the inner heliosheath. If the Ribbon flux shows a separate time history, then it likely originates elsewhere, possibly in the outer heliosheath or beyond. Determining the source region places strong constraints on Ribbon formation theories. Prior Ribbon studies have either treated the Ribbon and the GDF as static over the mission, or have not attempted to separate the GDF from the Ribbon when looking at time variation.

  10. Urban building recognition during significant temporal variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phuong Giang; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    features (Multi-scale Oriented Patches) in [2], which extract features of patches around interest points. To speed up the searching process, we employ the vocabulary tree based search technique in [12]. Our final system shows high performance in recognizing buildings under significant temporal variations......In literature, existing researches on building recognition mainly concentrate on scales, rotations, and viewpoints variance. In urban environment, large temporal variations of weather and lighting conditions should also be considered as major challenges for robust recognition. For instances......, there are differences between images captured during daytime and nighttime, especially significant changes in building appearances between seasons because of the differences in light setting. To date, these large temporal variation issues have not been fully investigated. In this paper, we therefore focus...

  11. Process Variations and Probabilistic Integrated Circuit Design

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainty in key parameters within a chip and between different chips in the deep sub micron era plays a more and more important role. As a result, manufacturing process spreads need to be considered during the design process.  Quantitative methodology is needed to ensure faultless functionality, despite existing process variations within given bounds, during product development.   This book presents the technological, physical, and mathematical fundamentals for a design paradigm shift, from a deterministic process to a probability-orientated design process for microelectronic circuits.  Readers will learn to evaluate the different sources of variations in the design flow in order to establish different design variants, while applying appropriate methods and tools to evaluate and optimize their design.  Trains IC designers to recognize problems caused by parameter variations during manufacturing and to choose the best methods available to mitigate these issues during the design process; Offers both qual...

  12. Seasonal variation in leisure time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitenbroek, D G

    1993-06-01

    In this paper seasonal variation in leisure time physical activity for exercise is studied and quantified with regard to several popular exercise activities and taking the respondents gender, occupational status, and age into consideration. The analysis concerns data collected by telephone in Scotland between January 1989 and March 1992. Data from 7,202 male and 9,284 female respondents is used in the analysis; cosinor analysis using GLIM is applied. Considerable seasonal variation was found affecting both outdoor and indoor activities. During the peak phase in July, 32% of the respondents reported exercising for at least 20 min three or more times during the previous week, in the winter period this decreased to 23%. Older respondents were found to exercise more later in the year and also showed seasonal variation to a larger extent than younger respondents. This is particularly so for those respondents who exercise at a relatively high frequency. PMID:8321115

  13. Decomposing Firm-level Sales Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    , and that for the median product it drives 31% of the sales variation. When we remove first-time exports from our sample, the median value increases to 40%, implying that firm-destination-specific effects are most important the first year. We conclude that while firm-specific productivity can account for some......We measure the contribution of firm-specific effects to overall sales variation within a destination and find it remarkably low. Our empirical decomposition is structurally motivated by a heterogeneity model of exporting involving destination-specific, firm-specific, and firm......-destination-specific latent effects with incidental truncation. We use a highly detailed dataset with exports by products and destinations for all Danish manufacturing fi…rms. We fi…nd the contribution of firm-specific heterogeneity to within-destination sales variation varies greatly across HS6 products...

  14. Smart variations: Functional substructures for part compatibility

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi

    2013-05-01

    As collections of 3D models continue to grow, reusing model parts allows generation of novel model variations. Naïvely swapping parts across models, however, leads to implausible results, especially when mixing parts across different model families. Hence, the user has to manually ensure that the final model remains functionally valid. We claim that certain symmetric functional arrangements (sFarr-s), which are special arrangements among symmetrically related substructures, bear close relation to object functions. Hence, we propose a purely geometric approach based on such substructures to match, replace, and position triplets of parts to create non-trivial, yet functionally plausible, model variations. We demonstrate that starting even from a small set of models such a simple geometric approach can produce a diverse set of non-trivial and plausible model variations. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Nonaxisymmetric Variations Deep in the Convection Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Using a deep-focusing time-distance technique and the MDI medium-1 data, a preliminary study of nonaxisymmetric variability deep in the convection zone has been performed. The purpose of the present study is to see what signals might be present in raw travel times indicating variation. To this end, noise levels will be examined. Correlations with point separations in the range 40-50 deg. have been measured for the entire medium-1 dataset over a significant fraction of the solar disk. Both flows and mean-time variations have been examined. Separation of near-surface signals from deep signals will also be examined.

  16. Fast variation method for elastic strip calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukov, Sergey V

    2002-05-01

    A new, fast, variation method (FVM) for determining an elastic strip response to stresses arbitrarily distributed on the flat side of the strip is proposed. The remaining surface of the strip may have an arbitrary form, and it is free of stresses. The FVM, as well as the well-known finite element method (FEM), starts with the variational principle. However, it does not use the meshing of the strip. A comparison of FVM results with the exact analytical solution in the special case of shear stresses and a rectangular strip demonstrates an excellent agreement.

  17. A probabilistic Hu-Washizu variational principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Besterfield, G. H.

    1987-01-01

    A Probabilistic Hu-Washizu Variational Principle (PHWVP) for the Probabilistic Finite Element Method (PFEM) is presented. This formulation is developed for both linear and nonlinear elasticity. The PHWVP allows incorporation of the probabilistic distributions for the constitutive law, compatibility condition, equilibrium, domain and boundary conditions into the PFEM. Thus, a complete probabilistic analysis can be performed where all aspects of the problem are treated as random variables and/or fields. The Hu-Washizu variational formulation is available in many conventional finite element codes thereby enabling the straightforward inclusion of the probabilistic features into present codes.

  18. Geometric Total Variation for Texture Deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bespalov, Dmitriy; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Shokoufandeh, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In this work we propose a novel variational method that we intend to use for estimating non-rigid texture deformation. The method is able to capture variation in grayscale images with respect to the geometry of its features. Our experimental evaluations demonstrate that accounting for geometry...... of features in texture images leads to significant improvements in localization of these features, when textures undergo geometrical transformations. Accurate localization of features in the presense of unkown deformations is a crucial property for texture characterization methods, and we intend to expoit...

  19. Quadrature representation of finite element variational forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølgaard, Kristian Breum; Wells, Garth N.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter addresses the conventional run-time quadrature approach for the numerical integration of local element tensors associated with finite element variational forms, and in particular automated optimizations that can be performed to reduce the number of floating point operations. An alter......This chapter addresses the conventional run-time quadrature approach for the numerical integration of local element tensors associated with finite element variational forms, and in particular automated optimizations that can be performed to reduce the number of floating point operations...

  20. Delay Variation Model with Two Service Queues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Rezac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Delay in VoIP technology is very unpleasant issue and therefore a voice packets prioritization must be ensured. To maintain the high call quality a maximum information delivery time from the sender to the recipient is set to 150 ms. This paper focuses on the design of a mathematical model of end-to-end delay of a VoIP connection, in particular on a delay variation. It describes all partial delay components and mechanisms, their generation, facilities and mathematical formulations. A new approach to the delay variation model is presented and its validation has been done by experimention.

  1. Research on Variation of Bamboo Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Bamboo as an important biological resource has become an alternative to wood gradually,but the variation in mechanical properties leads to difficulty in its use to some extent.So deep understanding of the nature in bamboo is needed to satisfy the utilization effectively.As we have known,the density is one of mechanical properties of bamboo.Therefore,this paper studied the variation in bamboo density with the weighing method.The results showed that the density decreases gradually from the outer to the inn...

  2. Seasonal variations in hospital admissions for mania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medici, Clara Reece; Vestergaard, Claus Høstrup; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder is characterized by a seasonal pattern with emerging evidence that weather conditions may trigger symptoms. Thus, our aims were to investigate if year-to-year variations in admissions with mania correlated with year-to-year variations in key meteorological variables...... Central Research Register. The Danish Meteorological Institute provided the meteorological variables. The association between weather and admissions was tested using linear regression. RESULTS: Our database comprised 24,313 admissions with mania. There was a seasonal pattern with admission rates peaking...

  3. Thermal variational principle and gauge fields

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Y

    1996-01-01

    A Feynman--Jensen version of the thermal variational principle is applied to hot gauge fields, abelian as well as nonabelian\\,: scalar electrodynamics (without scalar self-coupling) and the gluon plasma. The perturbatively known self-energies are shown to derive by variation from a free quadratic (''gaussian'') trial Lagrangian. Independence of the covariant gauge fixing parameter is reached (within the order g^2 studied and for scalar ED) after a reformulation of the partition function such that it depends on only even powers of the gauge field. This way, however, the potential non-perturbative power of the calculus seems to be ruined.

  4. Managing Cultural Variation in Software Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Müller, Sune Dueholm; Mathiassen, Lars

    The scale and complexity of change in software process improvement (SPI) are considerable and managerial attention to organizational culture during SPI can therefore potentially contribute to successful outcomes. However, we know little about the impact of variations in organizational subculture...... CMMI level 2 as planned, ASY struggled to implement even modest improvements. To explain these differences, we analyzed the underlying organizational culture within ISY and ASY using two different methods for subculture assessment. The study demonstrates how variations in culture across software...... organizations can have important implications for SPI outcomes. Furthermore, it provides insights into how software managers can practically assess subcultures to inform decisions about and help prepare plans for SPI initiatives....

  5. The orbit and variations of δ Sagittae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, T.; Gray, David F.; Griffin, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    Radial-velocity observations spanning more than a century are used to produce a reliable orbit of the δ Sagittae system. We find an orbital period of 3703.7 ± 1.5 d and a semi-amplitude of 7.73 ± 0.05 km s-1. In addition, we find quasi-periodic variations with time-scales in the range of 550-750 d and a typical amplitude of 1 km s-1. The phase and amplitude are both irregular, sometimes changing very abruptly. We consider pulsation, rotational modulation and convection as possible causes of the variations, finally favouring convection.

  6. Variations in government contract in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspal Singh Nachatar; Abdul Aziz Hussin; Abdelnaser Omran

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of construction works means that it is hardly possible to complete a project without changes to the plans or the construction process itself. There can only be a minority of contracts of any size in which the subject matter when completed is identical in every respect with what was contemplated at the outset. As such, variations are inevitable in even the best-planned contracts. This study is attempted to examine the ways a variation was formed in law and project, in finding ou...

  7. Epigenetic variation in the Egfr gene generates quantitative variation in a complex trait in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Sebastian; Rajakumar, Rajendhran; Abouheif, Ehab; Szyf, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Complex quantitative traits, like size and behaviour, are a pervasive feature of natural populations. Quantitative trait variation is the product of both genetic and environmental factors, yet little is known about the mechanisms through which their interaction generates this variation. Epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation, can mediate gene-by-environment interactions during development to generate discrete phenotypic variation. We therefore investigated the developmental role of DNA methylation in generating continuous size variation of workers in an ant colony, a key trait associated with division of labour. Here we show that, in the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus, global (genome-wide) DNA methylation indirectly regulates quantitative methylation of the conserved cell-signalling gene Epidermal growth factor receptor to generate continuous size variation of workers. DNA methylation can therefore generate quantitative variation in a complex trait by quantitatively regulating the transcription of a gene. This mechanism, alongside genetic variation, may determine the phenotypic possibilities of loci for generating quantitative trait variation in natural populations. PMID:25758336

  8. Variation in day surgery among Dutch hospitals: the development of a theoretical model to explain variations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroneman, M.; Oort, M. van; Groenewegen, P.; Jong, D. de

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is providing a first step in explaining variations in day surgery rates among Dutch hospitals. A theoretical model was set up to explain variations based on diffusion theory and environmental characteristics. We tried to test our model by means of routinely collected data from

  9. IS THE SAMPLE COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION A GOOD ESTIMATOR FOR THE POPULATION COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION?

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudvand, Rahim; Hassani, Hossein; Wilson, Rob

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain bounds for the population coefficient of variation (CV) in Bernoulli, Discrete Uniform, Normal and Exponential distributions. We also show that the sample coefficient of variation (cv) is not an accurate estimator of the population CV in the above indicated distributions. Finally we provide some suggestions based on the Maximum Likelihood Estimation to improve the population CV estimate.

  10. Do key dimensions of seed and seedling functional trait variation capture variation in recruitment probability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Plant functional traits provide a mechanistic basis for understanding ecological variation among plant species and the implications of this variation for species distribution, community assembly and restoration. 2. The bulk of our functional trait understanding, however, is centered on traits rel...

  11. Epigenetic variation in the Egfr gene generates quantitative variation in a complex trait in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Sebastian; Rajakumar, Rajendhran; Abouheif, Ehab; Szyf, Moshe

    2015-03-11

    Complex quantitative traits, like size and behaviour, are a pervasive feature of natural populations. Quantitative trait variation is the product of both genetic and environmental factors, yet little is known about the mechanisms through which their interaction generates this variation. Epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation, can mediate gene-by-environment interactions during development to generate discrete phenotypic variation. We therefore investigated the developmental role of DNA methylation in generating continuous size variation of workers in an ant colony, a key trait associated with division of labour. Here we show that, in the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus, global (genome-wide) DNA methylation indirectly regulates quantitative methylation of the conserved cell-signalling gene Epidermal growth factor receptor to generate continuous size variation of workers. DNA methylation can therefore generate quantitative variation in a complex trait by quantitatively regulating the transcription of a gene. This mechanism, alongside genetic variation, may determine the phenotypic possibilities of loci for generating quantitative trait variation in natural populations.

  12. Range-based estimation of quadratic variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim; Podolskij, Mark

    This paper proposes using realized range-based estimators to draw inference about the quadratic variation of jump-diffusion processes. We also construct a range-based test of the hypothesis that an asset price has a continuous sample path. Simulated data shows that our approach is efficient, the...

  13. Range-based estimation of quadratic variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim; Podolskij, Mark

    In this paper, we propose using realized range-based estimation to draw inference about the quadratic variation of jump-diffusion processes. We also construct a new test of the hypothesis that an asset price has a continuous sample path. Simulated data shows that our approach is efficient, the test...

  14. Regional variation in electroconvulsive therapy use.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunne, R

    2011-03-01

    Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most powerful treatment for depression, substantial variability in use has been described in Ireland. The Mental Health Commission collects usage data from approved centres but does not include home addresses or independent sector patients. Therefore, estimates of regional variation cannot be accurate, e.g. 145 (35% of total) independent sector patients were omitted from their 2008 analysis. When public and independent sector patients are combined inter-regional variation for 2008 is more than halved (chi-squared decreased from 83 to 30), with Western region contributing most to variation (chi-squared = 43). Ratio of ECT programmes to depressed admissions correlated negatively with rate for depressed admissions (r = -0.53, p = 0.01), while depressed admission numbers correlated with acute beds per area (r = 0.68, p = 0.001). Regional variation in ECT is less than previously reported; service factors probably account for much of this with smaller centres admitting severely ill patients more likely to require ECT.

  15. Partial differential equations and calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Leis, Rolf

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains 18 invited papers by members and guests of the former Sonderforschungsbereich in Bonn (SFB 72) who, over the years, collaborated on the research group "Solution of PDE's and Calculus of Variations". The emphasis is on existence and regularity results, on special equations of mathematical physics and on scattering theory.

  16. Circadian Variation in Coronary Stent Thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, Karim D.; Lennon, Ryan J.; Ting, Henry H.; Rihal, Charanjit S.; Holmes, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We sought to determine the circadian, weekly, and seasonal variation of coronary stent thrombosis. Background Other adverse cardiovascular events such as acute myocardial infarction are known to have higher incidences during the early morning hours, Mondays, and winter months. Methods The

  17. Modeling of Craniofacial Anatomy, Variation, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Signe Strann

    and palate, unicoronal synostosis, and Crouzon syndrome. Using the proposed methods, highly detailed variation was assessed for cleft lip and palate, correspondence between images obtained before and after lip repair was established for cleft lip and palate, the intracranial volume was estimated for infants...... with unicoronal synostosis, and nally, craniofacial growth patterns were quantied for Crouzon syndrome in a mouse model....

  18. Numeral Variation in New Zealand Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, David; McKee, Rachel; Major, George

    2011-01-01

    Lexical variation abounds in New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) and is commonly associated with the introduction of the Australasian Signed English lexicon into Deaf education in 1979, before NZSL was acknowledged as a language. Evidence from dictionaries of NZSL collated between 1986 and 1997 reveal many coexisting variants for the numbers from one…

  19. A global reference for human genetic variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auton, Adam; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; M. Altshuler, David;

    2015-01-01

    The 1000 Genomes Project set out to provide a comprehensive description of common human genetic variation by applying whole-genome sequencing to a diverse set of individuals from multiple populations. Here we report completion of the project, having reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals ...

  20. Variational Principle for Optimal Accelerated Neutralized Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimizing the energy deposited in the electron current in neutralized flows, such as in the Hall thruster, is examined. Modifying the electron current along the channel by inserting emitting electrodes, can enhance the efficiency. By employing variational methods, an optimal electron current distribution is found. The efficiency enhancement due to this effect, however, is shown to be small

  1. Variation and Commonality in Phenomenographic Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlind, Gerlese S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the data analysis stage of phenomenographic research, elucidating what is involved in terms of both commonality and variation in accepted practice. The analysis stage of phenomenographic research is often not well understood. This paper helps to clarify the process, initially by collecting together in one location the more…

  2. Coastal zone simulations with variational Boussinesq modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adytia, Didit

    2012-01-01

    The main challenge in deriving a Boussinesq model for water wave is to model accurately the dispersion and nonlinearity of waves. The dispersion is a depth-dependent relation between the wave speed and the wavelength. A Boussinesq-type model can be derived from the so-called variational principle

  3. Minimum variation guidance laws for interceptor missiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Shima, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a new approach to guidance law design using linear quadratic optimal control theory, minimizing throughout the engagement the variation of the control input as well as the integral control effort. The guidance law is derived for arbitrary order missile dynamics and target maneu

  4. Variation of hadron masses in finite nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Saitô, K; Tsushima, K; Saito, Koichi; Thomas, Anthony W.; Tsushima, Kazuo

    1997-01-01

    Using a self-consistent, Hartree description for both infinite nuclear matter and finite nuclei based on a relativistic quark model (the quark-meson coupling model), we investigate the variation of the masses of the non-strange vector mesons, the hyperons and the nucleon in infinite nuclear matter and in finite nuclei.

  5. A Variational Characterization of the Catenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we use a result of Osserman and Schiffer \\cite{OS} to give a variational characterization of the catenoid. Namely, we show that subsets of the catenoid minimize area within a geometrically natural class of minimal annuli. To the best of our knowledge, this fact has gone unremarked upon in the literature.

  6. Dirichlet Form of Product of Variational Fractals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘源

    2003-01-01

    Much effort has gone into constructing Dirichlet forms to define Laplacians on self-similar sets. However, the results have only been successful on p.c.f. (post critical finite) fractals. We prove the existence of a Dirichlet form on a class of non-p.c.f. sets that are the product of variational fractals.

  7. Seasonal variation of heat consumption in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.F.; Amsen, M.G.; Strøm, J.S.

    The concept of dynamic variation is introduced as a method to visualize the dynamic fluctuations of heat consumption and thermal climate in greenhouses. The feasibility of the concept is illustrated by describing effects of different greenhouse designs. Engineering data on design heat consumption...

  8. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR PARAMETERIZED VARIATIONAL INEQUALITY PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fei

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents sensitivity analysis for parameterized variational inequality problems (VIP). Under appropriate assumption, it is shown that the perturbed solution to parameterized VIP is existent, unique, continuous and differentiable with respect to perturbation parameter. In the case of differentiability, we derive the equations forcalculating the derivative of solution variables with respect to the perturbation parameters.

  9. Functional characterization of variations on regulatory motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lapidot

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors (TFs regulate gene expression through specific interactions with short promoter elements. The same regulatory protein may recognize a variety of related sequences. Moreover, once they are detected it is hard to predict whether highly similar sequence motifs will be recognized by the same TF and regulate similar gene expression patterns, or serve as binding sites for distinct regulatory factors. We developed computational measures to assess the functional implications of variations on regulatory motifs and to compare the functions of related sites. We have developed computational means for estimating the functional outcome of substituting a single position within a binding site and applied them to a collection of putative regulatory motifs. We predict the effects of nucleotide variations within motifs on gene expression patterns. In cases where such predictions could be compared to suitable published experimental evidence, we found very good agreement. We further accumulated statistics from multiple substitutions across various binding sites in an attempt to deduce general properties that characterize nucleotide substitutions that are more likely to alter expression. We found that substitutions involving Adenine are more likely to retain the expression pattern and that substitutions involving Guanine are more likely to alter expression compared to the rest of the substitutions. Our results should facilitate the prediction of the expression outcomes of binding site variations. One typical important implication is expected to be the ability to predict the phenotypic effect of variation in regulatory motifs in promoters.

  10. Cultural variations in emotion: A review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Mesquita; N.H. Frijda

    1992-01-01

    The psychological and anthropological literature on cultural variations in emotions is reviewed. The literature has been interpreted within the framework of a cognitive-process model of emotions. Both cross-cultural differences and similarities were identified in each phase of the emotion process; s

  11. Climate variations and the enhanced greenhouse effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlen, W. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography

    1998-06-01

    Changes in the size of glaciers, in the altitude of the alpine tree-limit, and variation in the width of tree-rings during the Holocene clearly indicate that the average Scandinavian summer temperature has fluctuated. During warm periods it has been about 2 deg C warmer than at present; during cold periods it has been almost as cold as it was during the coldest decades of the previous centuries. Superimposed on these long-term variations, which have lasted from 100 to 200 years, are short fluctuations in temperature. The Scandinavian chronology, which is based on glacier and alpine tree-limit fluctuations as well as on dendrochronology, is well correlated with the changes in climate, which studies of ice cores from central Greenland have revealed. It is therefore believed that the Scandinavian climate chronology depicts conditions typical of a large area. The Scandinavian record is compared with data concerning solar irradiation variations estimated as {sup 14}C anomalies obtained from tree-rings. A correlation between major changes in climate and variations in solar irradiation points to a solar forcing of the climate. This means that there is no evidence of a human influence on climate so far Special issue. Research for mountain area development: Europe. 64 refs, 3 figs

  12. Copy number variation in the bovine genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendixen Christian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copy number variations (CNVs, which represent a significant source of genetic diversity in mammals, have been shown to be associated with phenotypes of clinical relevance and to be causative of disease. Notwithstanding, little is known about the extent to which CNV contributes to genetic variation in cattle. Results We designed and used a set of NimbleGen CGH arrays that tile across the assayable portion of the cattle genome with approximately 6.3 million probes, at a median probe spacing of 301 bp. This study reports the highest resolution map of copy number variation in the cattle genome, with 304 CNV regions (CNVRs being identified among the genomes of 20 bovine samples from 4 dairy and beef breeds. The CNVRs identified covered 0.68% (22 Mb of the genome, and ranged in size from 1.7 to 2,031 kb (median size 16.7 kb. About 20% of the CNVs co-localized with segmental duplications, while 30% encompass genes, of which the majority is involved in environmental response. About 10% of the human orthologous of these genes are associated with human disease susceptibility and, hence, may have important phenotypic consequences. Conclusions Together, this analysis provides a useful resource for assessment of the impact of CNVs regarding variation in bovine health and production traits.

  13. Modeling the variation trends of glacier systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic principles and methods for a functional glacier systems model are introduced and applied for glaciers of Northwest China. When running the model we assume that a glacier system is under steady state conditions in the initial year. The median size of a glacier system is used as representative for the system. The curve of glacier area distribution against elevation is used to compute the increase in equilibrium line altitude (ELA, and the annual glacier ablation is calculated using a global formula a = 1.33(9.66 + ts².⁸⁵ [4, p. 96]. The net mass balance near the ELA under steady state conditions represents the net mass balance of the whole glacier system, and the time required for glacier runoff to return to the initial year level is calculated according to the law of glacier runoff variation, and used to calculate the variation of glacier area. The variation of glacier runoff is modeled according to ablation at the ELA, and the variation of glacier volume is modeled according to the absolute value of the mass balance. The observed changes in surveyed glaciers in China over recent decades were broadly consistent with predictions of the glacier system model. The model therefore offers a reliable method for the prediction of changes in glacier systems in response to changing climate.

  14. Eigen elastic mechanics and its variation principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The fundamental equations and the corresponding boundary condition of elastic mechanics under mechanical representation are given by using the conception of eigen space and elastic variation principle. It is proved theoretically that the solution of anisotropic elastic mechanics consists of modal ones, which are obtained respectively from the modal equation of the different subspaces. A simple application is also given.

  15. Variational Algorithms for Test Particle Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, C. Leland; Finn, John M.; Qin, Hong; Tang, William M.

    2015-11-01

    The theory of variational integration provides a novel framework for constructing conservative numerical methods for magnetized test particle dynamics. The retention of conservation laws in the numerical time advance captures the correct qualitative behavior of the long time dynamics. For modeling the Lorentz force system, new variational integrators have been developed that are both symplectic and electromagnetically gauge invariant. For guiding center test particle dynamics, discretization of the phase-space action principle yields multistep variational algorithms, in general. Obtaining the desired long-term numerical fidelity requires mitigation of the multistep method's parasitic modes or applying a discretization scheme that possesses a discrete degeneracy to yield a one-step method. Dissipative effects may be modeled using Lagrange-D'Alembert variational principles. Numerical results will be presented using a new numerical platform that interfaces with popular equilibrium codes and utilizes parallel hardware to achieve reduced times to solution. This work was supported by DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  16. Coefficient of variation of underwater irradiance fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, V. L.

    2010-06-01

    We consider underwater sunlight fluctuations in the case of a one-dimensional irregular sea surface. Several rigorous and approximate models are proposed, which make it possible to analytically treat and physically explain the dependence of the coefficient of variation of the underwater irradiance on the depth, the wind velocity, and optical parameters of the sea water.

  17. REGION-WISE VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES AND GENERALIZED VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES ON LARGE STRAIN FOR CONSOLIDATION THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xiao-hui; LI Yong-le; LUO Xin

    2005-01-01

    The difference of constitutive character and large deformation as to soil mass are basic questions to analyze deformational feature. According to the description method of limited deformation, the large deformation consolidation equations of soil mass were created and its variational principles were rigorously testified. The regionwise variational principles of consolidation theory were deduced using sub-structure continuous condition of region-wise. Quoting the method of Lagrangian multiplier operator, generalized variational principles of region-wise of large deformation consolidation in the nonconstrained condition were created and approved.

  18. Detection of Variation Sources in a Serial Production System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Variation is the fundamental cause of poor quality. In order to reduce variation and seek quality improvement opportunities, it is important to understand how variation is added and transmitted across the processes of the manufacturing system. In this paper, we introduce a model for variation transmission and give the method of detecting variation sources in a series connection manufacturing processes. Finally, an example of the application of this method is given.

  19. EXACT SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.G.S.David Sam Jayakumar; A.Sulthan

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes the sampling distribution of sample coefficient of variation from the normal population. We have derived the relationship between the sample coefficient of variation, standard normal and chi-square variate. We have derived density function of the sample coefficient of variation in terms of the confluent hyper-geometric distribution. Moreover, the first two moments of the distribution are derived and we have proved that the sample coefficient of variation (cv...

  20. Hybrid Iterative Scheme for Triple Hierarchical Variational Inequalities with Mixed Equilibrium, Variational Inclusion, and Minimization Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Chuan Ceng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and analyze a hybrid iterative algorithm by combining Korpelevich's extragradient method, the hybrid steepest-descent method, and the averaged mapping approach to the gradient-projection algorithm. It is proven that, under appropriate assumptions, the proposed algorithm converges strongly to a common element of the fixed point set of finitely many nonexpansive mappings, the solution set of a generalized mixed equilibrium problem (GMEP, the solution set of finitely many variational inclusions, and the solution set of a convex minimization problem (CMP, which is also a unique solution of a triple hierarchical variational inequality (THVI in a real Hilbert space. In addition, we also consider the application of the proposed algorithm to solving a hierarchical variational inequality problem with constraints of the GMEP, the CMP, and finitely many variational inclusions.

  1. Explaining variation in Down's syndrome screening uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crombag, Neeltje M T H; Vellinga, Ynke E; Kluijfhout, Sandra A;

    2014-01-01

    rates across countries can be explained by variation in individual values alone.The aim of this study was to compare Down's syndrome screening policies and programmes in the Netherlands, where uptake is relatively low (uptake is higher (74 and > 90% respectively......BACKGROUND: The offer of prenatal Down's syndrome screening is part of routine antenatal care in most of Europe; however screening uptake varies significantly across countries. Although a decision to accept or reject screening is a personal choice, it is unlikely that the widely differing uptake......), in an attempt to explain the observed variation in national uptake rates. METHODS: We used a mixed methods approach with an embedded design: a) documentary analysis and b) expert stakeholder analysis. National central statistical offices and legal documents were studied first to gain insight in demographic...

  2. Geographical localisation of the geomagnetic secular variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubert, Julien; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Directly observed changes in Earth’s magnetic field occur most prominently at low latitudes beneath the Atlantic hemisphere, while the Pacific is comparatively quiet. This striking hemispheric asymmetry in geomagnetic secular variation is a consequence of the geographical localisation of intense...... thermochemical boundary control distorts this gyre (the strongest distortion being obtained with inner core heterogeneous control) and localises the field changes in a hemispherical longitudinal sector. The two effects combine to recreate the observed localisation of geomagnetic secular variation in both...... longitude and latitude as a reult of a westward, columnar, eccentric gyre that penetrates throughout the outer core in a manner reminiscent of recent flow inversions. We also characterise the azimuthal drift of magnetic field structures using a Radon transform method, and find overall agreement between...

  3. A variational theory of nuclear matter. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developments in a variational theory of nuclear matter for treating v6 homework potentials that include central, spin, isospin and tensor operators are reported. The central, spin, isospin and tensor correlations are parametrized by their range d, and the magnitudes of the non-central correlations. Integral equations are used to sum Fermi hypernetted chain, and single operator chain diagrams. All commutators required to evaluate the energy from the operator chain functions are treated exactly, and the energy is found to have a minimum with respect to variations in all parameters. Results of calculations with v6 models based on the Reid and Bethe-Johnson potentials are reported. A crude estimate of the effect of the spin-orbit potentials on nuclear matter binding energy indicates that it could be significant. (Auth.)

  4. Diurnal variations of tropical cyclone precipitationin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Using 15 years of satellite-measured precipitation data and tropical cyclone (TC) information, this study estimates the diurnal variations of TC precipitation in its inner core and outer rainbands. It is found that for both weak (tropical storms to category 1 TCs) and strong (categories 2-5 TCs) storms over all six TC basins, the TC precipitation reaches its daily maximum in the morning, but the mean rain rate and diurnal variations are larger in the inner core than in the outer rainbands. With increasing radial distance from the TC center, the diurnal amplitude of precipitation decreases, and the peak time appears progressively later. The outward propagation of diurnal signals from the TC center dominates as an internal structure of the TC convective systems. For all basins examined, the diurnal precipitation maximum within the inner core of a strong storm occurs earlier than the maximum observed in non-TC precipitation; the same result is not found for the outer rainbands.

  5. Epigenetic variation: origin and transgenerational inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Claude; Weigel, Detlef

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies have revealed that epigenetic variation in plant populations exceeds genetic diversity and that it is influenced by the environment. Nevertheless, epigenetic differences are not entirely independent of shared ancestry. Epigenetic modifications have gained increasing attention, because one can now study their patterns across the entire genome and in many different individuals. Not only do epigenetic phenomena modulate the activity of the genome in response to environmental stimuli, but they also constitute a potential source of natural variation. Understanding the emergence and heritability of epigenetic variants is critical for understanding how they might become subject to natural selection and thus affect genetic diversity. Here we review progress in characterizing natural epigenetic variants in model and nonmodel plant species and how this work is helping to delineate the role of epigenetic changes in evolution.

  6. Fine structure constant variation or spacetime anisotropy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent observations on the quasar absorption spectra supply evidence for the variation of the fine structure constant α. In this paper, we propose another interpretation of the observational data on the quasar absorption spectra: a scenario with spacetime inhomogeneity and anisotropy. Maybe the spacetime is characterized by the Finsler geometry instead of the Riemann one. The Finsler geometry admits fewer symmetries than the Riemann geometry does. We investigate the Finslerian geodesic equations in the Randers spacetime (a special Finsler spacetime). It is found that the cosmological redshift in this spacetime deviates from the one in general relativity. The modification term to the redshift could be generally revealed as a monopole plus dipole function of spacetime locations and directions. We suggest that this modification corresponds to the spatial monopole and dipole of α variation in the quasar absorption spectra. (orig.)

  7. Managing Cultural Variation in Software Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sune Dueholm; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars

    The scale and complexity of change in software process improvement (SPI) are considerable and managerial attention to organizational culture during SPI can therefore potentially contribute to successful outcomes. However, we know little about the impact of variations in organizational subculture...... on SPI initiatives. On this backdrop, we report from a large scale SPI project in a Danish high-tech company, Terma. Two of its business units - Integrated Systems (ISY) and Airborne Systems (ASY) - followed similar approaches over a two year period, but with quite different outcomes. While ISY reached...... CMMI level 2 as planned, ASY struggled to implement even modest improvements. To explain these differences, we analyzed the underlying organizational culture within ISY and ASY using two different methods for subculture assessment. The study demonstrates how variations in culture across software...

  8. Temporal variations in free core nutation period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianqiao Xu; Heping Sun

    2009-01-01

    Based on the nearly diurnal resonance in the tidal gravity observations, the temporal variations in period of the Earth's free core nutation (FCN) are investigated by using the tidal gravity observations of 18-year duration recorded continu-ously with a superconducting gravimeter (SG) at Brussels. The effects of the global oceanic tide loading and local barometric pressure on the SG observations have been removed by using eleven high-precision global digital models of oceanic tides and barometric pressure measurements recorded simultaneously at the same site. The results indicate that there exist decade-scale variations in the FCN period. The results should be further confirmed by the measurements using other space-based geodetic techniques (such as the very long baseline interferometry) and the SG observations from globally distributed stations.

  9. Climatic variations and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basil M.N. Saeed; Alyaa Farouk Omari

    2016-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is probably the most common diagnosis at vertigo clinics. Seasonal cycles of several human illnesses could be attributed variously to changes in atmospheric or weather conditions. In this retrospective study, patients with BPPV from January 2010 to December 2012 were studied, and their charts were reviewed. Statistical analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in patients' numbers among different months of the year. Also there is a significant statistical correlation between the numbers of patients with climatic variations especially the temperature. The present paper discusses the possible explanations for these results which confirms the seasonal variations in BPPV, together with a review of literature to view the possible associations with other disorders that causes such sea-sonality.

  10. Our Gods: Variation in Supernatural Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzycki, Benjamin G.; Sosis, Richard

    In this chapter we examine variation in the contents of supernatural minds across cultures and the social correlates of this variation. We first provide a sketch of how humans are capable of representing supernatural minds and emphasize the significance of the types of knowledge attributed to supernatural agents. We then argue that the contents of supernatural minds as represented cross-culturally will primarily rest on or between two poles: knowledge of people's moral behavior and knowledge of people's ritualized costly behavior. Communities which endorse omniscient supernatural agents that are highly concerned with moral behavior will emphasize the importance of shared beliefs (cultural consensus), whereas communities which possess supernatural agents with limited social knowledge who are concerned with ritual actions will emphasize shared behavioral patterns (social consensus).We conclude with a brief discussion about the contexts in which these patterns occur.

  11. Variational methods in relativistic quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Esteban, Maria J; séré, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This review is devoted to the study of stationary solutions of linear and nonlinear equations from relativistic quantum mechanics, involving the Dirac operator. The solutions are found as critical points of an energy functional. Contrary to the Laplacian appearing in the equations of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, the Dirac operator has a negative continuous spectrum which is not bounded from below. This has two main consequences. First, the energy functional is strongly indefinite. Second, the Euler-Lagrange equations are linear or nonlinear eigenvalue problems with eigenvalues lying in a spectral gap (between the negative and positive continuous spectra). Moreover, since we work in the space domain R^3, the Palais-Smale condition is not satisfied. For these reasons, the problems discussed in this review pose a challenge in the Calculus of Variations. The existence proofs involve sophisticated tools from nonlinear analysis and have required new variational methods which are now applied to other problems.

  12. Adjoint variational methods in nonconservative stability problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, S. N.; Herrmann, G.

    1972-01-01

    A general nonself-adjoint eigenvalue problem is examined and it is shown that the commonly employed approximate methods, such as the Galerkin procedure, the method of weighted residuals and the least square technique lack variational descriptions. When used in their previously known forms they do not yield stationary eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. With the help of an adjoint system, however, several analogous variational descriptions may be developed and it is shown in the present study that by properly restating the method of least squares, stationary eigenvalues may be obtained. Several properties of the adjoint eigenvalue problem, known only for a restricted group, are shown to exist for the more general class selected for study.

  13. On Variational Data Assimilation in Continuous Time

    CERN Document Server

    Bröcker, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Variational data assimilation in continuous time is revisited. The central techniques applied in this paper are in part adopted from the theory of optimal nonlinear control. Alternatively, the investigated approach can be considered as a continuous time generalisation of what is known as weakly constrained four dimensional variational assimilation (WC--4DVAR) in the geosciences. The technique allows to assimilate trajectories in the case of partial observations and in the presence of model error. Several mathematical aspects of the approach are studied. Computationally, it amounts to solving a two point boundary value problem. For imperfect models, the trade off between small dynamical error (i.e. the trajectory obeys the model dynamics) and small observational error (i.e. the trajectory closely follows the observations) is investigated. For (nearly) perfect models, this trade off turns out to be (nearly) trivial in some sense, yet allowing for some dynamical error is shown to have positive effects even in th...

  14. Solar Interior Rotation and its Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howe Rachel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article surveys the development of observational understanding of the interior rotation of the Sun and its temporal variation over approximately forty years, starting with the 1960s attempts to determine the solar core rotation from oblateness and proceeding through the development of helioseismology to the detailed modern picture of the internal rotation deduced from continuous helioseismic observations during solar cycle 23. After introducing some basic helioseismic concepts, it covers, in turn, the rotation of the core and radiative interior, the “tachocline” shear layer at the base of the convection zone, the differential rotation in the convection zone, the near-surface shear, the pattern of migrating zonal flows known as the torsional oscillation, and the possible temporal variations at the bottom of the convection zone. For each area, the article also briefly explores the relationship between observations and models.

  15. Long-term variations of solar activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram we analyzed two sunspot series: the one over the past 11000 years at the 10-year interval based upon the survey data of 14C concentration in tree-rings, reconstructed by Solanki et al.; and the sunspot number over the past 7000 years, derived from geomagnetic variations by Usoskin et al. We found the periods and quasi-periods in solar activity, such as about 225, 352, 441, 522 and 561 a, and near 1000 and 2000 a. An approach of wavelet transform was applied to check the two sunspot time series, with emphasis on investigating time-varying characteristics in the long-term fluctuations of solar activity. The results show that the lengths and amplitudes of the periods have changed with time, and large variations have taken place during some periods.

  16. Solar Wind Variation with the Cycle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I. S. Veselovsky; A. V. Dmitriev; A. V. Suvorova; M. V. Tarsina

    2000-09-01

    The cyclic evolution of the heliospheric plasma parameters is related to the time-dependent boundary conditions in the solar corona. "Minimal" coronal configurations correspond to the regular appearance of the tenuous, but hot and fast plasma streams from the large polar coronal holes. The denser, but cooler and slower solar wind is adjacent to coronal streamers. Irregular dynamic manifestations are present in the corona and the solar wind everywhere and always. They follow the solar activity cycle rather well. Because of this, the direct and indirect solar wind measurements demonstrate clear variations in space and time according to the minimal, intermediate and maximal conditions of the cycles. The average solar wind density, velocity and temperature measured at the Earth's orbit show specific decadal variations and trends, which are of the order of the first tens per cent during the last three solar cycles. Statistical, spectral and correlation characteristics of the solar wind are reviewed with the emphasis on the cycles.

  17. Latitudinal variation of the solar photospheric intensity

    CERN Document Server

    Rast, Mark P; Meisner, Randle W

    2007-01-01

    We have examined images from the Precision Solar Photometric Telescope (PSPT) at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) in search of latitudinal variation in the solar photospheric intensity. Along with the expected brightening of the solar activity belts, we have found a weak enhancement of the mean continuum intensity at polar latitudes (continuum intensity enhancement $\\sim0.1 - 0.2%$ corresponding to a brightness temperature enhancement of $\\sim2.5{\\rm K}$). This appears to be thermal in origin and not due to a polar accumulation of weak magnetic elements, with both the continuum and CaIIK intensity distributions shifted towards higher values with little change in shape from their mid-latitude distributions. Since the enhancement is of low spatial frequency and of very small amplitude it is difficult to separate from systematic instrumental and processing errors. We provide a thorough discussion of these and conclude that the measurement captures real solar latitudinal intensity variations.

  18. Variational Bayesian Inference of Line Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badiu, Mihai Alin; Hansen, Thomas Lundgaard; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address the fundamental problem of line spectral estimation in a Bayesian framework. We target model order and parameter estimation via variational inference in a probabilistic model in which the frequencies are continuous-valued, i.e., not restricted to a grid; and the coeffici......In this paper, we address the fundamental problem of line spectral estimation in a Bayesian framework. We target model order and parameter estimation via variational inference in a probabilistic model in which the frequencies are continuous-valued, i.e., not restricted to a grid......; and the coefficients are governed by a Bernoulli-Gaussian prior model turning model order selection into binary sequence detection. Unlike earlier works which retain only point estimates of the frequencies, we undertake a more complete Bayesian treatment by estimating the posterior probability density functions (pdfs...

  19. A Rare Variation of the Heterotaxy Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Dilli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotaxy syndrome is a rare, complex, and confusing type of the situs anomalies. It is not possible to estimate the degree of lateralization, isomerism, and rotational variation in these types of cases. Heart and abdominal organ anatomy is specific to the individual, and it should be defined specifically on the basis of each case due to possible cardiac and extracardiac surgical interventions in patients with heterotaxy syndrome. Here, we present our findings obtained from a 58-year-old female patient with heterotaxy syndrome. The main components of this rare variation consist of right-hand-sided aorta, aortic arc, cardiac apex, gall bladder and left-hand-sided inferior vena cava, stomach, and spleen (polysplenia, 3 foci according to the midline. Besides, the components include left-dominant liver, right-hand-sided large intestines, and left-hand-sided small intestines.

  20. Multiple integrals in the calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Morrey, Charles B

    1966-01-01

    From the reviews: "…the book contains a wealth of material essential to the researcher concerned with multiple integral variational problems and with elliptic partial differential equations. The book not only reports the researches of the author but also the contributions of his contemporaries in the same and related fields. The book undoubtedly will become a standard reference for researchers in these areas. …The book is addressed mainly to mature mathematical analysts. However, any student of analysis will be greatly rewarded by a careful study of this book." M. R. Hestenes in Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications "The work intertwines in masterly fashion results of classical analysis, topology, and the theory of manifolds and thus presents a comprehensive treatise of the theory of multiple integral variational problems." L. Schmetterer in Monatshefte für Mathematik "The book is very clearly exposed and contains the last modern theory in this domain. A comprehensive bibliography ends the book...