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Sample records for adequate selenocysteine trna

  1. Crystal structure analysis reveals functional flexibility in the selenocysteine-specific tRNA from mouse.

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    Oleg M Ganichkin

    Full Text Available Selenocysteine tRNAs (tRNA(Sec exhibit a number of unique identity elements that are recognized specifically by proteins of the selenocysteine biosynthetic pathways and decoding machineries. Presently, these identity elements and the mechanisms by which they are interpreted by tRNA(Sec-interacting factors are incompletely understood.We applied rational mutagenesis to obtain well diffracting crystals of murine tRNA(Sec. tRNA(Sec lacking the single-stranded 3'-acceptor end ((ΔGCCARNA(Sec yielded a crystal structure at 2.0 Å resolution. The global structure of (ΔGCCARNA(Sec resembles the structure of human tRNA(Sec determined at 3.1 Å resolution. Structural comparisons revealed flexible regions in tRNA(Sec used for induced fit binding to selenophosphate synthetase. Water molecules located in the present structure were involved in the stabilization of two alternative conformations of the anticodon stem-loop. Modeling of a 2'-O-methylated ribose at position U34 of the anticodon loop as found in a sub-population of tRNA(Secin vivo showed how this modification favors an anticodon loop conformation that is functional during decoding on the ribosome. Soaking of crystals in Mn(2+-containing buffer revealed eight potential divalent metal ion binding sites but the located metal ions did not significantly stabilize specific structural features of tRNA(Sec.We provide the most highly resolved structure of a tRNA(Sec molecule to date and assessed the influence of water molecules and metal ions on the molecule's conformation and dynamics. Our results suggest how conformational changes of tRNA(Sec support its interaction with proteins.

  2. The role of Sep (O-phosphoserine) tRNA: Sec (selenocysteine) synthase (SEPSECS) in proliferation, apoptosis and hormone secretion of trophoblast cells.

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    Zhao, H-D; Zhang, W-G; Sun, M-N; Duan, Q-F; Li, F-L; Li, H

    2013-11-01

    To investigate whether Sep (O-phosphoserine) tRNA: Sec (selenocysteine) synthase (SEPSECS), which plays an essential role in the synthesis of selenoprotein, affects proliferation, apoptosis and hormone secretion of human trophoblast cells. Human trophoblast JEG-3 cells were divided into four groups: control group, SEPSECS silenced-expression group, empty vector group and SEPSECS over-expression group. Over-expression and silenced-expression were achieved by transfection with plasmid DNA or RNA oligonucleotide, respectively. 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl] -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and colony formation assays were performed to investigate cell proliferation, while apoptosis was tested by annexin V-FITC, PI double staining and caspases-3 activation assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the level of progesterone (PG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). SEPSECS silenced-expression clearly inhibited proliferation of JEG-3 cells (p < 0.05), significantly induced cell apoptosis (p < 0.01) and reduced the production of PG and hCG (p < 0.05). On the contrary, SEPSECS over-expression significantly promoted both cell proliferation (p < 0.01) and secretion of PG and hCG (p < 0.05). SEPSECS significantly affects proliferation, apoptosis and hormone secretion of human trophoblast cells, suggesting that a potential relationship exists among SEPSECS, cell proliferation, apoptosis and hormone production of human placental trophoblast cells. Furthermore, this may provide a clue to uncover the relationship between selenium and human placental in association with an emphasis on the importance of selenium adequacy during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Osteo-chondroprogenitor-specific deletion of the selenocysteine tRNA gene, Trsp, leads to chondronecrosis and abnormal skeletal development: a putative model for Kashin-Beck disease.

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    Charlene M Downey

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Kashin-Beck disease, a syndrome characterized by short stature, skeletal deformities, and arthropathy of multiple joints, is highly prevalent in specific regions of Asia. The disease has been postulated to result from a combination of different environmental factors, including contamination of barley by mold mycotoxins, iodine deficiency, presence of humic substances in drinking water, and, importantly, deficiency of selenium. This multifunctional trace element, in the form of selenocysteine, is essential for normal selenoprotein function, including attenuation of excessive oxidative stress, and for the control of redox-sensitive molecules involved in cell growth and differentiation. To investigate the effects of skeletal selenoprotein deficiency, a Cre recombinase transgenic mouse line was used to trigger Trsp gene deletions in osteo-chondroprogenitors. Trsp encodes selenocysteine tRNA([Ser]Sec, required for the incorporation of selenocysteine residues into selenoproteins. The mutant mice exhibited growth retardation, epiphyseal growth plate abnormalities, and delayed skeletal ossification, as well as marked chondronecrosis of articular, auricular, and tracheal cartilages. Phenotypically, the mice thus replicated a number of the pathological features of Kashin-Beck disease, supporting the notion that selenium deficiency is important to the development of this syndrome.

  4. Disruption and complementation of the selenocysteine biosynthesis pathway reveals a hierarchy of selenoprotein gene expression in the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Tilmann; Selzer, Mirjam; Connery, Sarah; Seyhan, Deniz; Resch, Armin; Rother, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Proteins containing selenocysteine are found in members of all three domains of life, Bacteria, Eukarya and Archaea. A dedicated tRNA (tRNA(sec)) serves as a scaffold for selenocysteine synthesis. However, sequence and secondary structures differ in tRNA(sec) from the different domains. An Escherichia coli strain lacking the gene for tRNA(sec) could only be complemented with the homologue from Methanococcus maripaludis when a single base in the anticodon loop was exchanged demonstrating that this base is a crucial determinant for archaeal tRNA(sec) to function in E. coli. Complementation in trans of M. maripaludis JJ mutants lacking tRNA(sec) , O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(sec) kinase or O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(sec) :selenocysteine synthase with the corresponding genes from M. maripaludis S2 restored the mutant's ability to synthesize selenoproteins. However, only partial restoration of the wild-type selenoproteome was observed as only selenocysteine-containing formate dehydrogenase was synthesized. Quantification of transcripts showed that disrupting the pathway of selenocysteine synthesis leads to downregulation of selenoprotein gene expression, concomitant with upregulation of a selenium-independent backup system, which is not re-adjusted upon complementation. This transcriptional arrest was independent of selenophosphate but depended on the 'history' of the mutants and was inheritable, which suggests that a stable genetic switch may cause the resulting hierarchy of selenoproteins synthesized. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of Aquifex aeolicus SelA, a bacterial selenocysteine synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yuzuru; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial selenocysteine synthase SelA from Aquifex aeolicus was crystallized and the diffraction resolution was improved by lysine-residue methylation, truncation of N-terminal region (ΔN), and Lys-to-Ala point mutations. Phases were determined by using a selenomethionine-substituted crystal of the ΔN mutant. Selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid, is synthesized on its specific tRNA (tRNA Sec ) via a multi-step process. In bacteria, tRNA Sec is ligated first with serine by seryl-tRNA synthetase, which is followed by Ser-to-Sec conversion by Sec synthase (SelA). To elucidate its structure and catalytic mechanism, Aquifex aeolicus SelA was crystallized. Although wild-type SelA crystals diffracted X-rays poorly (to up to 8 Å resolution), the resolution was improved by introducing a quadruple point mutation targeting the loop regions and by methylating the lysine residues, which yielded 3.9 Å resolution diffraction data from a full-length SelA crystal. Truncation of the N-terminal region (ΔN) also improved the resolution. A 3.3 Å resolution data set for phase determination was obtained from a crystal of selenomethionine-substituted Lys-methylated SelA-ΔN

  6. Determination of Proteinaceous Selenocysteine in Selenized Yeast

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    Katarzyna Bierla

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A method for the quantitation of proteinaceous selenocysteine (SeCys in Se-rich yeast was developed. The method is based on the reduction of the Se-Se and S-Se bridges with dithiotretiol, derivatization with iodoacetamide (carbamidomethylation, followed by HPLC-ICP MS. The chromatographic conditions were optimized for the total recovery of the proteinaceous selenocysteine, the minimum number of peaks in the chromatogram (reduction of derivatization products of other Se-species present and the baseline separation. A typical chromatogram of a proteolytic digest of selenized yeast protein consisted of up to five peaks (including SeMet, carbamidomethylated (CAM-SeCys, and Se(CAM2 identified by retention time matching with available standards and electrospray MS. Inorganic selenium non-specifically attached to proteins and selenomethionine could be quantified (in the form of Se(CAM2 along with SeCys. Selenocysteine, selenomethionine, inorganic selenium, and the water soluble-metabolite fraction accounted for the totality of selenium species in Se-rich yeast.

  7. Compositions and methods for making selenocysteine containing polypeptides

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    Soll, Dieter; Aldag, Caroline; Hohn, Michael

    2016-10-11

    Non-naturally occurring tRNA.sup.Sec and methods of using them for recombinant expression of proteins engineered to include one or more selenocysteine residues are disclosed. The non-naturally occurring tRNA.sup.Sec can be used for recombinant manufacture of selenocysteine containing polypeptides encoded by mRNA without the requirement of an SECIS element. In some embodiments, selenocysteine containing polypeptides are manufactured by co-expressing a non-naturally occurring tRNA.sup.Sec a recombinant expression system, such as E. coli, with SerRS, EF-Tu, SelA, or PSTK and SepSecS, and an mRNA with at least one codon that recognizes the anticodon of the non-naturally occurring tRNA.sup.Sec.

  8. Sexual Dimorphism in the Selenocysteine Lyase Knockout Mouse

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    Ashley N. Ogawa-Wong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient known for its antioxidant properties and health benefits, attributed to its presence in selenoproteins as the amino acid, selenocysteine. Selenocysteine lyase (Scly catalyzes hydrolysis of selenocysteine to selenide and alanine, facilitating re-utilization of Se for de novo selenoprotein synthesis. Previously, it was reported that male Scly−/− mice develop increased body weight and body fat composition, and altered lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, compared to wild type mice. Strikingly, females appeared to present with a less severe phenotype, suggesting the relationship between Scly and energy metabolism may be regulated in a sex-specific manner. Here, we report that while body weight and body fat gain occur in both male and female Scly−/− mice, strikingly, males are susceptible to developing glucose intolerance, whereas female Scly−/− mice are protected. Because Se is critical for male reproduction, we hypothesized that castration would attenuate the metabolic dysfunction observed in male Scly−/− mice by eliminating sequestration of Se in testes. We report that fasting serum insulin levels were significantly reduced in castrated males compared to controls, but islet area was unchanged between groups. Finally, both male and female Scly−/− mice exhibit reduced hypothalamic expression of selenoproteins S, M, and glutathione peroxidase 1.

  9. Selenium utilization in thioredoxin and catalytic advantage provided by selenocysteine

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    Kim, Moon-Jung [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Cheon [Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Kwang Yeon [Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Gladyshev, Vadim N. [Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kim, Hwa-Young, E-mail: hykim@ynu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-12

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a major thiol-disulfide reductase that plays a role in many biological processes, including DNA replication and redox signaling. Although selenocysteine (Sec)-containing Trxs have been identified in certain bacteria, their enzymatic properties have not been characterized. In this study, we expressed a selenoprotein Trx from Treponema denticola, an oral spirochete, in Escherichia coli and characterized this selenoenzyme and its natural cysteine (Cys) homologue using E. coli Trx1 as a positive control. {sup 75}Se metabolic labeling and mutation analyses showed that the SECIS (Sec insertion sequence) of T. denticola selenoprotein Trx is functional in the E. coli Sec insertion system with specific selenium incorporation into the Sec residue. The selenoprotein Trx exhibited approximately 10-fold higher catalytic activity than the Sec-to-Cys version and natural Cys homologue and E. coli Trx1, suggesting that Sec confers higher catalytic activity on this thiol-disulfide reductase. Kinetic analysis also showed that the selenoprotein Trx had a 30-fold higher K{sub m} than Cys-containing homologues, suggesting that this selenoenzyme is adapted to work efficiently with high concentrations of substrate. Collectively, the results of this study support the hypothesis that selenium utilization in oxidoreductase systems is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by the rare amino acid, Sec. - Highlights: • The first characterization of a selenoprotein Trx is presented. • The selenoenzyme Trx exhibits 10-fold higher catalytic activity than Cys homologues. • Se utilization in Trx is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by Sec residue.

  10. Genetic analysis of selenocysteine biosynthesis in the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis.

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    Hohn, Michael J; Palioura, Sotiria; Su, Dan; Yuan, Jing; Söll, Dieter

    2011-07-01

    In Archaea selenocysteine (Sec) is synthesized in three steps. First seryl-tRNA synthetase acylates tRNA(Sec) with serine to generate Ser-tRNA(Sec). Then phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) kinase (PSTK) forms Sep-tRNA(Sec) , which is converted to Sec-tRNA(Sec) by Sep-tRNA:Sec-tRNA synthase (SepSecS) in the presence of selenophosphate produced by selenophosphate synthetase (SelD). A complete in vivo analysis of the archaeal Sec biosynthesis pathway is still unavailable, and the existence of a redundant pathway or of a rescue mechanism based on the conversion of Sep-tRNA(Sec) to Cys-tRNA(Sec) during selenium starvation, cannot be excluded. Here we present a mutational analysis of Sec biosynthesis in Methanococcus maripaludis strain Mm900. Sec formation is abolished upon individually deleting the genes encoding SelD, PSTK or SepSecS; the resulting mutant strains could no longer grow on formate while growth with H(2) + CO(2) remained unaffected. However, deletion of the PSTK and SepSecS genes was not possible unless the selenium-free [NiFe]-hydrogenases Frc and Vhc were expressed. This required the prior deletion of either the gene encoding SelD or that of HrsM, a LysR-type regulator suppressing transcription of the frc and vhc operons in the presence of selenium. These results show that M. maripaludis Mm900 is facultatively selenium-dependent with a single pathway of Sec-tRNA(Sec) formation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The crystal structure of tRNA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    of yeast alanine tRNA by Robert Holley's group at Cornell. University (lthaca, NY, USA) in 1965, earned Holley a ... 1964, to a staff position at the MRC LMB's Division of. Molecular Genetics, then co-headed by Francis ... purification methods for tRNAs, especially for the initiator. tRNA. We were becoming less interested in ...

  12. Overexpression of Selenocysteine Methyltransferase in Arabidopsis and Indian Mustard Increases Selenium Tolerance and Accumulation1

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    LeDuc, Danika L.; Tarun, Alice S.; Montes-Bayon, Maria; Meija, Juris; Malit, Michele F.; Wu, Carol P.; AbdelSamie, Manal; Chiang, Chih-Yuan; Tagmount, Abderrhamane; deSouza, Mark; Neuhierl, Bernhard; Böck, August; Caruso, Joseph; Terry, Norman

    2004-01-01

    A major goal of phytoremediation is to transform fast-growing plants with genes from plant species that hyperaccumulate toxic trace elements. We overexpressed the gene encoding selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) from the selenium (Se) hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus in Arabidopsis and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). SMT detoxifies selenocysteine by methylating it to methylselenocysteine, a nonprotein amino acid, thereby diminishing the toxic misincorporation of Se into protein. Our Indian mustard transgenic plants accumulated more Se in the form of methylselenocysteine than the wild type. SMT transgenic seedlings tolerated Se, particularly selenite, significantly better than the wild type, producing 3- to 7-fold greater biomass and 3-fold longer root lengths. Moreover, SMT plants had significantly increased Se accumulation and volatilization. This is the first study, to our knowledge, in which a fast-growing plant was genetically engineered to overexpress a gene from a hyperaccumulator in order to increase phytoremediation potential. PMID:14671009

  13. Overexpression of selenocysteine methyltransferase in Arabidopsis and Indian mustard increases selenium tolerance and accumulation.

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    LeDuc, Danika L; Tarun, Alice S; Montes-Bayon, Maria; Meija, Juris; Malit, Michele F; Wu, Carol P; AbdelSamie, Manal; Chiang, Chih-Yuan; Tagmount, Abderrhamane; deSouza, Mark; Neuhierl, Bernhard; Böck, August; Caruso, Joseph; Terry, Norman

    2004-05-01

    A major goal of phytoremediation is to transform fast-growing plants with genes from plant species that hyperaccumulate toxic trace elements. We overexpressed the gene encoding selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) from the selenium (Se) hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus in Arabidopsis and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). SMT detoxifies selenocysteine by methylating it to methylselenocysteine, a nonprotein amino acid, thereby diminishing the toxic misincorporation of Se into protein. Our Indian mustard transgenic plants accumulated more Se in the form of methylselenocysteine than the wild type. SMT transgenic seedlings tolerated Se, particularly selenite, significantly better than the wild type, producing 3- to 7-fold greater biomass and 3-fold longer root lengths. Moreover, SMT plants had significantly increased Se accumulation and volatilization. This is the first study, to our knowledge, in which a fast-growing plant was genetically engineered to overexpress a gene from a hyperaccumulator in order to increase phytoremediation potential.

  14. Purification and characterization of selenocysteine beta-lyase from Citrobacter freundii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocat, P.; Esaki, N.; Tanizawa, K.; Nakamura, K.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, K.

    1985-01-01

    The purification and characterization of bacterial selenocysteine beta-lyase, an enzyme which specifically catalyzes the cleavage of L-selenocysteine to L-alanine and Se0, are presented. The enzyme, purified to near homogeneity from Citrobacter freundii, is monomeric with a molecular weight of ca. 64,000 and contains 1 mol of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a cofactor per mol of enzyme. L-Selenocysteine is the sole substrate. L-Cysteine is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme. The enzyme also catalyzes the alpha, beta elimination of beta-chloro-L-alanine to form NH 3 , pyruvate, and Cl- and is irreversibly inactivated during the reaction. The physicochemical properties, e.g., amino acid composition and subunit structure, of the bacterial enzyme are fairly different from those of the pig liver enzyme. However, the catalytic properties of both enzymes, e.g., substrate specificity and inactivation by the substrate or a mechanism-based inactivator, beta-chloro-L-alanine, are very similar

  15. tRNA Biology in Mitochondria

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    Thalia Salinas-Giegé

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells. They are considered as semi-autonomous because they have retained genomes inherited from their prokaryotic ancestor and host fully functional gene expression machineries. These organelles have attracted considerable attention because they combine bacterial-like traits with novel features that evolved in the host cell. Among them, mitochondria use many specific pathways to obtain complete and functional sets of tRNAs as required for translation. In some instances, tRNA genes have been partially or entirely transferred to the nucleus and mitochondria require precise import systems to attain their pool of tRNAs. Still, tRNA genes have also often been maintained in mitochondria. Their genetic arrangement is more diverse than previously envisaged. The expression and maturation of mitochondrial tRNAs often use specific enzymes that evolved during eukaryote history. For instance many mitochondria use a eukaryote-specific RNase P enzyme devoid of RNA. The structure itself of mitochondrial encoded tRNAs is also very diverse, as e.g., in Metazoan, where tRNAs often show non canonical or truncated structures. As a result, the translational machinery in mitochondria evolved adapted strategies to accommodate the peculiarities of these tRNAs, in particular simplified identity rules for their aminoacylation. Here, we review the specific features of tRNA biology in mitochondria from model species representing the major eukaryotic groups, with an emphasis on recent research on tRNA import, maturation and aminoacylation.

  16. The crystal structure of tRNA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    determination of the 3D structure of the tRNA (in 1974) has not been recognized with such distinction. ... structure: these being led by Aaron Klug at the MRC. Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB), Cambridge, UK, ..... by-product of the tRNAPhe structure was the first detailed chemical picture of a G–U base pair in a double ...

  17. Overexpressing both ATP sulfurylase and selenocysteine methyltransferase enhances selenium phytoremediation traits in Indian mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeDuc, Danika L.; AbdelSamie, Manal; Montes-Bayon, Maria; Wu, Carol P.; Reisinger, Sarah J.; Terry, Norman

    2006-01-01

    A major goal of our selenium (Se) phytoremediation research is to use genetic engineering to develop fast-growing plants with an increased ability to tolerate, accumulate, and volatilize Se. To this end we incorporated a gene (encoding selenocysteine methyltransferase, SMT) from the Se hyperaccumulator, Astragalus bisulcatus, into Indian mustard (LeDuc, D.L., Tarun, A.S., Montes-Bayon, M., Meija, J., Malit, M.F., Wu, C.P., AbdelSamie, M., Chiang, C.-Y., Tagmount, A., deSouza, M., Neuhierl, B., Boeck, A., Caruso, J., Terry, N., 2004. Overexpression of selenocysteine methyltransferase in Arabidopsis and Indian mustard increases selenium tolerance and accumulation Plant Physiol. 135, 377-383.). The resulting transgenic plants successfully enhanced Se phytoremediation in that the plants tolerated and accumulated Se from selenite significantly better than wild type. However, the advantage conferred by the SMT enzyme was much less when Se was supplied as selenate. In order to enhance the phytoremediation of selenate, we developed double transgenic plants that overexpressed the gene encoding ATP sulfurylase (APS) in addition to SMT, i.e., APS x SMT. The results showed that there was a substantial improvement in Se accumulation from selenate (4 to 9 times increase) in transgenic plants overexpressing both APS and SMT. - Simultaneous overexpression of APS and SMT genes in Indian mustard greatly increases ability to accumulate selenate

  18. Overexpressing both ATP sulfurylase and selenocysteine methyltransferase enhances selenium phytoremediation traits in Indian mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDuc, Danika L; AbdelSamie, Manal; Móntes-Bayon, Maria; Wu, Carol P; Reisinger, Sarah J; Terry, Norman

    2006-11-01

    A major goal of our selenium (Se) phytoremediation research is to use genetic engineering to develop fast-growing plants with an increased ability to tolerate, accumulate, and volatilize Se. To this end we incorporated a gene (encoding selenocysteine methyltransferase, SMT) from the Se hyperaccumulator, Astragalus bisulcatus, into Indian mustard (LeDuc, D.L., Tarun, A.S., Montes-Bayón, M., Meija, J., Malit, M.F., Wu, C.P., AbdelSamie, M., Chiang, C.-Y., Tagmount, A., deSouza, M., Neuhierl, B., Böck, A., Caruso, J., Terry, N., 2004. Overexpression of selenocysteine methyltransferase in Arabidopsis and Indian mustard increases selenium tolerance and accumulation Plant Physiol. 135, 377-383.). The resulting transgenic plants successfully enhanced Se phytoremediation in that the plants tolerated and accumulated Se from selenite significantly better than wild type. However, the advantage conferred by the SMT enzyme was much less when Se was supplied as selenate. In order to enhance the phytoremediation of selenate, we developed double transgenic plants that overexpressed the gene encoding ATP sulfurylase (APS) in addition to SMT, i.e., APSxSMT. The results showed that there was a substantial improvement in Se accumulation from selenate (4 to 9 times increase) in transgenic plants overexpressing both APS and SMT.

  19. A Comprehensive tRNA Deletion Library Unravels the Genetic Architecture of the tRNA Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom-Ackermann, Zohar; Navon, Sivan; Gingold, Hila; Towers, Ruth; Pilpel, Yitzhak; Dahan, Orna

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering the architecture of the tRNA pool is a prime challenge in translation research, as tRNAs govern the efficiency and accuracy of the process. Towards this challenge, we created a systematic tRNA deletion library in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, aimed at dissecting the specific contribution of each tRNA gene to the tRNA pool and to the cell's fitness. By harnessing this resource, we observed that the majority of tRNA deletions show no appreciable phenotype in rich medium, yet under more challenging conditions, additional phenotypes were observed. Robustness to tRNA gene deletion was often facilitated through extensive backup compensation within and between tRNA families. Interestingly, we found that within tRNA families, genes carrying identical anti-codons can contribute differently to the cellular fitness, suggesting the importance of the genomic surrounding to tRNA expression. Characterization of the transcriptome response to deletions of tRNA genes exposed two disparate patterns: in single-copy families, deletions elicited a stress response; in deletions of genes from multi-copy families, expression of the translation machinery increased. Our results uncover the complex architecture of the tRNA pool and pave the way towards complete understanding of their role in cell physiology. PMID:24453985

  20. Compilation of tRNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinzl, M; Grueter, F; Spelzhaus, A; Gauss, D H

    1980-01-11

    This compilation presents in a small space the tRNA sequences so far published. The numbering of tRNAPhe from yeast is used following the rules proposed by the participants of the Cold Spring Harbor Meeting on tRNA 1978 (1,2;Fig. 1). This numbering allows comparisons with the three dimensional structure of tRNAPhe. The secondary structure of tRNAs is indicated by specific underlining. In the primary structure a nucleoside followed by a nucleoside in brackets or a modification in brackets denotes that both types of nucleosides can occupy this position. Part of a sequence in brackets designates a piece of sequence not unambiguosly analyzed. Rare nucleosides are named according to the IUPACIUB rules (for complicated rare nucleosides and their identification see Table 1); those with lengthy names are given with the prefix x and specified in the footnotes. Footnotes are numbered according to the coordinates of the corresponding nucleoside and are indicated in the sequence by an asterisk. The references are restricted to the citation of the latest publication in those cases where several papers deal with one sequence. For additional information the reader is referred either to the original literature or to other tRNA sequence compilations (3-7). Mutant tRNAs are dealt with in a compilation by J. Celis (8). The compilers would welcome any information by the readers regarding missing material or erroneous presentation. On the basis of this numbering system computer printed compilations of tRNA sequences in a linear form and in cloverleaf form are in preparation.

  1. Nucleotide sequence of a human tRNA gene heterocluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.N.; Pirtle, I.L.; Pirtle, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Leucine tRNA from bovine liver was used as a hybridization probe to screen a human gene library harbored in Charon-4A of bacteriophage lambda. The human DNA inserts from plaque-pure clones were characterized by restriction endonuclease mapping and Southern hybridization techniques, using both [3'- 32 P]-labeled bovine liver leucine tRNA and total tRNA as hybridization probes. An 8-kb Hind III fragment of one of these γ-clones was subcloned into the Hind III site of pBR322. Subsequent fine restriction mapping and DNA sequence analysis of this plasmid DNA indicated the presence of four tRNA genes within the 8-kb DNA fragment. A leucine tRNA gene with an anticodon of AAG and a proline tRNA gene with an anticodon of AGG are in a 1.6-kb subfragment. A threonine tRNA gene with an anticodon of UGU and an as yet unidentified tRNA gene are located in a 1.1-kb subfragment. These two different subfragments are separated by 2.8 kb. The coding regions of the three sequenced genes contain characteristic internal split promoter sequences and do not have intervening sequences. The 3'-flanking region of these three genes have typical RNA polymerase III termination sites of at least four consecutive T residues

  2. Adequate doctor - patient communication

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    Janković Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication process gives to physician necessary information for establishing diagnosis and prescribing therapy, and helps to a patient to gain confidence in his doctor and the prescribed treatment. The communication between doctor and his patient is enhanced by the following: openness and conscientiousness of the physician, serious approach to the patient, participation of the patient in decision-making, advanced age and higher education of the patient. On the other hand, communication is less efficient if the doctor has longer employment status, if he/her avoids disclosure of all relevant information to the patient, if he/her is emotionally separated from the patient, if the time for an encounter is limited, if the patient is passive and with unrealistic expectations, and if the doctor is expressing himself/herself unclearly. In order to improve communication with patients, doctors should follow these recommendations: keeping eye contact with a patient, releasing tension from his/her body language, taking detailed patient history with active listening and without interrupting of a patient, speaking clearly and slowly, using language understandable to a patient, treating patients with equality, disclosing all relevant information to the patient and sharing decisionmaking with the patient. Adequate communication between doctor and patient always brings better treatment outcomes.

  3. Transcriptional Response of Selenopolypeptide Genes and Selenocysteine Biosynthesis Machinery Genes in Escherichia coli during Selenite Reduction

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    Antonia Y. Tetteh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria can reduce toxic selenite into less toxic, elemental selenium (Se0, but the mechanism on how bacterial cells reduce selenite at molecular level is still not clear. We used Escherichia coli strain K12, a common bacterial strain, as a model to study its growth response to sodium selenite (Na2SeO3 treatment and then used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR to quantify transcript levels of three E. coli selenopolypeptide genes and a set of machinery genes for selenocysteine (SeCys biosynthesis and incorporation into polypeptides, whose involvements in the selenite reduction are largely unknown. We determined that 5 mM Na2SeO3 treatment inhibited growth by ∼50% while 0.001 to 0.01 mM treatments stimulated cell growth by ∼30%. Under 50% inhibitory or 30% stimulatory Na2SeO3 concentration, selenopolypeptide genes (fdnG, fdoG, and fdhF whose products require SeCys but not SeCys biosynthesis machinery genes were found to be induced ≥2-fold. In addition, one sulfur (S metabolic gene iscS and two previously reported selenite-responsive genes sodA and gutS were also induced ≥2-fold under 50% inhibitory concentration. Our findings provide insight about the detoxification of selenite in E. coli via induction of these genes involved in the selenite reduction process.

  4. tRNA - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us RMG tRNA... Data detail Data name tRNA DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00193-006 Description of data con...tents Data contents are as follows: Amino acid sequences of 23 tRNA from 17 species identified in the rice m...n Amino acids Amino acid binding to tRNA tRNA tRNA gene indicated by the cognate amino acid in one-letter code rice Rice +: tRNA... present -: tRNA absent y: pseudogene a: mitochondrial tRNA b: plastid-like tRNA Miyata

  5. Origins and Early Evolution of the tRNA Molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Tamura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern transfer RNAs (tRNAs are composed of ~76 nucleotides and play an important role as “adaptor” molecules that mediate the translation of information from messenger RNAs (mRNAs. Many studies suggest that the contemporary full-length tRNA was formed by the ligation of half-sized hairpin-like RNAs. A minihelix (a coaxial stack of the acceptor stem on the T-stem of tRNA can function both in aminoacylation by aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and in peptide bond formation on the ribosome, indicating that it may be a vestige of the ancestral tRNA. The universal CCA-3′ terminus of tRNA is also a typical characteristic of the molecule. “Why CCA?” is the fundamental unanswered question, but several findings give a comprehensive picture of its origin. Here, the origins and early evolution of tRNA are discussed in terms of various perspectives, including nucleotide ligation, chiral selectivity of amino acids, genetic code evolution, and the organization of the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center (PTC. The proto-tRNA molecules may have evolved not only as adaptors but also as contributors to the composition of the ribosome.

  6. Origins and Early Evolution of the tRNA Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Koji

    2015-12-03

    Modern transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are composed of ~76 nucleotides and play an important role as "adaptor" molecules that mediate the translation of information from messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Many studies suggest that the contemporary full-length tRNA was formed by the ligation of half-sized hairpin-like RNAs. A minihelix (a coaxial stack of the acceptor stem on the T-stem of tRNA) can function both in aminoacylation by aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and in peptide bond formation on the ribosome, indicating that it may be a vestige of the ancestral tRNA. The universal CCA-3' terminus of tRNA is also a typical characteristic of the molecule. "Why CCA?" is the fundamental unanswered question, but several findings give a comprehensive picture of its origin. Here, the origins and early evolution of tRNA are discussed in terms of various perspectives, including nucleotide ligation, chiral selectivity of amino acids, genetic code evolution, and the organization of the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center (PTC). The proto-tRNA molecules may have evolved not only as adaptors but also as contributors to the composition of the ribosome.

  7. Selenocysteine-independent suppression of UGA codons in the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyhan, Deniz; Jehmlich, Nico; von Bergen, Martin; Fersch, Julia; Rother, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Proteins containing selenocysteine (sec) are found in Bacteria, Eukarya, and Archaea. While selenium-dependence of methanogenesis from H(2)+CO(2) in the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis JJ is compensated by induction of a set of cysteine-containing homologs, growth on formate is abrogated in the absence of sec due to the dependence of formate dehydrogenase (Fdh) on selenium. Despite this dependence, formate-dependent growth occurs after prolonged incubation of M. maripaludis mutants lacking sec. To study this phenomenon, a M. maripaludis strain with only one Fdh isoform and an FdhA selenoprotein C-terminally tagged for affinity enrichment was constructed. Factors required for sec synthesis were deleted in this strain and translation of UGA in fdhA was analyzed physiologically, enzymatically, immunologically, and via mass spectrometry. M. maripaludis JJ mutants lacking sec synthesis grew at least five times more slowly than the wild type on formate due to a 20-35-fold reduction of Fdh activity. The enzyme in the mutant strains lacked sec but was still produced as a full-length protein. Peptide mass spectrometry revealed that both cysteine (cys) and tryptophan (trp) were inserted at the UGA encoding sec without apparent mutations in tRNA(cys) or tRNA(trp), respectively. We demonstrate that M. maripaludis has the inherent capacity to translate UGA with cys and trp; other mechanisms to replace sec with cys in the absence of selenium could thereby be ruled out. This study exemplifies how an organism uses the inherent flexibility in its canonical protein synthesis machinery to recover some activity of an essential selenium-dependent enzyme in the absence of sec. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cloning, intracellular localization, and expression of the mammalian selenocysteine-containing protein SELENOI (SelI) in tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamova, E G; Goltyaev, M V; Novoselov, V I; Fesenko, E E

    2017-09-01

    The intracellular localization of human selenoprotein SelI and the degree of expression of its gene in different human tumor cell lines were determined. It was found that the SelI protein is present in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and endoplasmic reticulum and is absent in the nucleolus. Since the oxidative stress caused by a sharp increase in the content of free radicals in the body is one of the causes of malignant transformation, the study of the role of the trace element selenium and selenocysteine-containing proteins as antioxidants in carcinogenesis is of great scientific interest.

  9. Deep Sequencing of Serum Small RNAs Identifies Patterns of 5′ tRNA Half and YRNA Fragment Expression Associated with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Dhahbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Small noncoding RNAs circulating in the blood may serve as signaling molecules because of their ability to carry out a variety of cellular functions. We have previously described tRNA- and YRNA-derived small RNAs circulating as components of larger complexes in the blood of humans and mice; the characteristics of these small RNAs imply specific processing, secretion, and physiological regulation. In this study, we have asked if changes in the serum abundance of these tRNA and YRNA fragments are associated with a diagnosis of cancer. We used deep sequencing and informatics analysis to catalog small RNAs in the sera of breast cancer cases and normal controls. 5′ tRNA halves and YRNA fragments are abundant in both groups, but we found that a breast cancer diagnosis is associated with changes in levels of specific subtypes. This prompted us to look at existing sequence datasets of serum small RNAs from 42 breast cancer cases, taken at the time of diagnosis. We find significant changes in the levels of specific 5′ tRNA halves and YRNA fragments associated with clinicopathologic characteristics of the cancer. Although these findings do not establish causality, they suggest that circulating 5′ tRNA halves and YRNA fragments with known cellular functions may participate in breast cancer syndromes and have potential as circulating biomarkers. Larger studies with multiple types of cancer are needed to adequately evaluate their potential use for the development of noninvasive cancer screening.

  10. Reverse translocation of tRNA in the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Shinichiro; Walker, Sarah E; Fredrick, Kurt

    2006-12-28

    A widely held view is that directional movement of tRNA in the ribosome is determined by an intrinsic mechanism and driven thermodynamically by transpeptidation. Here, we show that, in certain ribosomal complexes, the pretranslocation (PRE) state is thermodynamically favored over the posttranslocation (POST) state. Spontaneous and efficient conversion from the POST to PRE state is observed when EF-G is depleted from ribosomes in the POST state or when tRNA is added to the E site of ribosomes containing P-site tRNA. In the latter assay, the rate of tRNA movement is increased by streptomycin and neomycin, decreased by tetracycline, and not affected by the acylation state of the tRNA. In one case, we provide evidence that complex conversion occurs by reverse translocation (i.e., direct movement of the tRNAs from the E and P sites to the P and A sites, respectively). These findings have important implications for the energetics of translocation.

  11. Experimental Confirmation of a Whole Set of tRNA Molecules in Two Archaeal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoh-ichi Watanabe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the genomic sequences for most archaeal species, only one tRNA gene (isodecoder is predicted for each triplet codon. This observation promotes analysis of a whole set of tRNA molecules and actual splicing patterns of interrupted tRNA in one organism. The entire genomic sequences of two Creanarchaeota, Aeropyrum pernix and Sulfolobus tokodaii, were determined approximately 15 years ago. In these genome datasets, 47 and 46 tRNA genes were detected, respectively. Among them, 14 and 24 genes, respectively, were predicted to be interrupted tRNA genes. To confirm the actual transcription of these predicted tRNA genes and identify the actual splicing patterns of the predicted interrupted tRNA molecules, RNA samples were prepared from each archaeal species and used to synthesize cDNA molecules with tRNA sequence-specific primers. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of cDNA clones representing unspliced and spliced forms of interrupted tRNA molecules indicated that some introns were located at positions other than one base 3' from anticodon region and that bulge-helix-bulge structures were detected around the actual splicing sites in each interrupted tRNA molecule. Whole-set analyses of tRNA molecules revealed that the archaeal tRNA splicing mechanism may be essential for efficient splicing of all tRNAs produced from interrupted tRNA genes in these archaea.

  12. Substitution of cysteine for selenocysteine in the catalytic center of type III iodothyronine deiodinase reduces catalytic efficiency and alters substrate preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Klootwijk (Willem); T.J. Visser (Theo); G.G.J.M. Kuiper (George)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractHuman type III iodothyronine deiodinase (D3) catalyzes the conversion of T(4) to rT(3) and of T(3) to 3, 3'-diiodothyronine (T2) by inner-ring deiodination. Like types I and II iodothyronine deiodinases, D3 protein contains selenocysteine (SeC) in the highly conserved

  13. Mitochondrial tRNA gene translocations in highly eusocial bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silvestre

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial gene rearrangement events, especially involving tRNA genes, have been described more frequently as more complete mitochondrial genome sequences are becoming available. In the present work, we analyzed mitochondrial tRNA gene rearrangements between two bee species belonging to the tribes Apini and Meliponini within the "corbiculate Apidae". Eleven tRNA genes are in different genome positions or strands. The molecular events responsible for each translocation are explained. Considering the high number of rearrangements observed, the data presented here contradict the general rule of high gene order conservation among closely related organisms, and also represent a powerful molecular tool to help solve questions about phylogeny and evolution in bees.

  14. Lands adequation in Antioquia Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arango T, Julio Cesar; Bacanumenth

    1999-01-01

    The Colombian government programs concerning land management and adequation began since the fifties. When basic frameworks for irrigating, flood control and drainage were initially developed. Several entities have made huge investments in land adequation, that lead to the improvement of national agriculture in plain regions such as Tolima, Boyaca, Magdalena and Valle del Cauca. During the same period the region of Antioquia did not benefit from the projects, mainly due to the lack of government policies concerning land adequation. Finally, in 1983 the Himat launched the small irrigation national program, which gave solutions for water management in several countryside regions of Antioquia. Twenty-nine small water districts are now operating accounting for 3.759 ha which cover 1.510 households. Now days, thanks to the presence of more accurate policies, is the right time to improve irrigation, flood control and drainage towards to a substantial improvement in the Antioquia agricultural sector, that allows it to overcome the challenges of the next millennium. A project called Antioquia nos une 1998-2000 addresses the importance of promoting the right agricultural structure that ensures agricultural mechanization for sustainability and irrigation. On the other hand, it determines the main resources needed to promote the initiative and points out the importance of distributing them in the basis of the needs and problems of the communities

  15. Diversity of human tRNA genes from the 1000-genomes project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisien, Marc; Wang, Xiaoyun; Pan, Tao

    2013-12-01

    The sequence diversity of individual human genomes has been extensively analyzed for variations and phenotypic implications for mRNA, miRNA, and long non-coding RNA genes. TRNA (tRNA) also exhibits large sequence diversity in the human genome, but tRNA gene sequence variation and potential functional implications in individual human genomes have not been investigated. Here we capitalize on the sequencing data from the 1000-genomes project to examine the diversity of tRNA genes in the human population. Previous analysis of the reference human genome indicated an unexpected large number of diverse tRNA genes beyond the necessity of translation, suggesting that some tRNA transcripts may perform non-canonical functions. We found 24 new tRNA sequences in>1% and 76 new tRNA sequences in>0.2% of all individuals, indicating that tRNA genes are also subject to evolutionary changes in the human population. Unexpectedly, two abundant new tRNA genes contain base-pair mismatches in the anticodon stem. We experimentally determined that these two new tRNAs have altered structures in vitro; however, one new tRNA is not aminoacylated but extremely stable in HeLa cells, suggesting that this new tRNA can be used for non-canonical function. Our results show that at the scale of human population, tRNA genes are more diverse than conventionally understood, and some new tRNAs may perform non-canonical, extra-translational functions that may be linked to human health and disease.

  16. Biosynthesis and functions of sulfur modifications in tRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki eShigi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur is an essential element for a variety of cellular constituents in all living organisms. In tRNA molecules, there are many sulfur-containing nucleosides, such as the derivatives of 2‑thiouridine (s2U, 4-thiouridine (s4U, 2-thiocytidine (s2C, and 2-methylthioadenosine (ms2A. Earlier studies established the functions of these modifications for accurate and efficient translation, including proper recognition of the codons in mRNA or stabilization of tRNA structure. In many cases, the biosynthesis of these sulfur modifications starts with cysteine desulfurases, which catalyze the generation of persulfide (an activated form of sulfur from cysteine. Many sulfur-carrier proteins are responsible for delivering this activated sulfur to each biosynthesis pathway. Finally, specific modification enzymes activate target tRNAs and then incorporate sulfur atoms. Intriguingly, the biosynthesis of 2-thiouridine in all domains of life is functionally and evolutionarily related to the ubiquitin-like post-translational modification system of cellular proteins in eukaryotes. This review summarizes the recent characterization of the biosynthesis of sulfur modifications in tRNA and the novel roles of this modification in cellular functions in various model organisms, with a special emphasis on 2-thiouridine derivatives. Each biosynthesis pathway of sulfur-containing molecules is mutually modulated via sulfur trafficking, and 2-thiouridine and codon usage bias have been proposed to control the translation of specific genes.

  17. Thiolation Controls Cytoplasmic tRNA Stability and Acts as a Negative Determinant for tRNA Editing in Mitochondria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wohlgamuth-Benedum, J. M.; RUBIO, M. A. T.; Paris, Zdeněk; Long, Shaojun; Poliak, Pavel; Lukeš, Julius; Alfonzo, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 284, č. 36 (2009), s. 23947-23953 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/06/1558; GA MŠk LC07032; GA MŠk 2B06129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : T. brucei * tRNA * 2-thiolation * Fe-S cluster * editing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.328, year: 2009

  18. Identity Elements of tRNA as Derived from Information Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, Gabriel S.; José, Marco V.

    2018-03-01

    The decipherment of the tRNA's operational code, known as the identity problem, requires the location of the sites in the tRNA structure that are involved in their correct recognition by the corresponding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. In this work, we determine the identity elements of each tRNA isoacceptor by means of the variation of information measure from information theory. We show that all isoacceptors exhibit sites associated with some bases of the anticodon. These sites form clusters that are scattered along the tRNA structure. The clusters determine the identity elements of each tRNA. We derive a catalogue of clustered sites for each tRNA that expands previously reported elements.

  19. Capture, unfolding, and detection of individual tRNA molecules using a nanopore device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Smith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfer RNAs (tRNA are the most common RNA molecules in cells and have critical roles as both translators of the genetic code and regulators of protein synthesis. As such, numerous methods have focused on studying tRNA abundance and regulation, with the most widely used methods being RNA-seq and microarrays. Though revolutionary to transcriptomics, these assays are limited by an inability to encode tRNA modifications in the requisite cDNA. These modifications are abundant in tRNA and critical to their function. Here we describe proof-of-concept experiments where individual tRNA molecules are examined as linear strands using a biological nanopore. This method utilizes an enzymatically ligated synthetic DNA adapter to concentrate tRNA at the lipid bilayer of the nanopore device and efficiently denature individual tRNA molecules as they are pulled through the α-hemolysin (α-HL nanopore. Additionally, the DNA adapter provides a loading site for ϕ29 DNA polymerase (ϕ29 DNAP, which acts as a brake on the translocating tRNA. This increases the dwell time of adapted tRNA in the nanopore, allowing us to identify the region of the nanopore signal that is produced by the translocating tRNA itself. Using adapter-modified E. coli tRNAfMet and tRNALys, we show that the nanopore signal during controlled translocation is dependent on the identity of the tRNA. This confirms that adapter-modified tRNA can translocate end-to-end through nanopores and provides the foundation for future work in direct sequencing of individual transfer RNA with a nanopore-based device.

  20. Capture, Unfolding, and Detection of Individual tRNA Molecules Using a Nanopore Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew M.; Abu-Shumays, Robin; Akeson, Mark; Bernick, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNA) are the most common RNA molecules in cells and have critical roles as both translators of the genetic code and regulators of protein synthesis. As such, numerous methods have focused on studying tRNA abundance and regulation, with the most widely used methods being RNA-seq and microarrays. Though revolutionary to transcriptomics, these assays are limited by an inability to encode tRNA modifications in the requisite cDNA. These modifications are abundant in tRNA and critical to their function. Here, we describe proof-of-concept experiments where individual tRNA molecules are examined as linear strands using a biological nanopore. This method utilizes an enzymatically ligated synthetic DNA adapter to concentrate tRNA at the lipid bilayer of the nanopore device and efficiently denature individual tRNA molecules, as they are pulled through the α-hemolysin (α-HL) nanopore. Additionally, the DNA adapter provides a loading site for ϕ29 DNA polymerase (ϕ29 DNAP), which acts as a brake on the translocating tRNA. This increases the dwell time of adapted tRNA in the nanopore, allowing us to identify the region of the nanopore signal that is produced by the translocating tRNA itself. Using adapter-modified Escherichia coli tRNAfMet and tRNALys, we show that the nanopore signal during controlled translocation is dependent on the identity of the tRNA. This confirms that adapter-modified tRNA can translocate end-to-end through nanopores and provide the foundation for future work in direct sequencing of individual transfer RNA with a nanopore-based device. PMID:26157798

  1. Determination of selenomethionine, selenocysteine, and inorganic selenium in eggs by HPLC-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipiec, Elzbieta; Siara, Grzegorz [CNRS/UPPA, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Pau (France); Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Bierla, Katarzyna; Ouerdane, Laurent; Szpunar, Joanna [CNRS/UPPA, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Pau (France)

    2010-05-15

    A method for the simultaneous determination of selenomethionine (SeMet), selenocysteine (SeCys), and selenite [Se(IV)] in chicken eggs was developed. A sample preparation protocol including defatting, protein denaturation, and carbamidomethylation was optimized in order to achieve complete protein digestion and to avoid SeCys losses. Quantification was carried out by reversed-phase HPLC-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) after quantitative isolation of the selenium-containing fraction by size-exclusion liquid chromatography. The detection limits were 0.06, 0.003, and 0.01 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry weight) for SeCys, Se(IV) and SeMet, respectively, and the precision was 5-10%. The end products of carbamidomethylation of the different selenium species were identified for the first time by electrospray QTOF MS after custom-designed 2D HPLC purification. Differences in selenium speciation in egg yolk and white were highlighted, the yolk containing more SeCys and the white more SeMet. An insight into selenium bioaccessibility in eggs was obtained by digestion with simulated gastric and gastrointestinal juices and size-exclusion HPLC-ICP MS. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of the complement and molecular evolution of tRNA genes in cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barris Wesley C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detailed information regarding the number and organization of transfer RNA (tRNA genes at the genome level is becoming readily available with the increase of DNA sequencing of whole genomes. However the identification of functional tRNA genes is challenging for species that have large numbers of repetitive elements containing tRNA derived sequences, such as Bos taurus. Reliable identification and annotation of entire sets of tRNA genes allows the evolution of tRNA genes to be understood on a genomic scale. Results In this study, we explored the B. taurus genome using bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches to catalogue and analyze cow tRNA genes. The initial analysis of the cow genome using tRNAscan-SE identified 31,868 putative tRNA genes and 189,183 pseudogenes, where 28,830 of the 31,868 predicted tRNA genes were classified as repetitive elements by the RepeatMasker program. We then used comparative genomics to further discriminate between functional tRNA genes and tRNA-derived sequences for the remaining set of 3,038 putative tRNA genes. For our analysis, we used the human, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, horse, dog, chicken and fugu genomes to predict that the number of active tRNA genes in cow lies in the vicinity of 439. Of this set, 150 tRNA genes were 100% identical in their sequences across all nine vertebrate genomes studied. Using clustering analyses, we identified a new tRNA-GlyCCC subfamily present in all analyzed mammalian genomes. We suggest that this subfamily originated from an ancestral tRNA-GlyGCC gene via a point mutation prior to the radiation of the mammalian lineages. Lastly, in a separate analysis we created phylogenetic profiles for each putative cow tRNA gene using a representative set of genomes to gain an overview of common evolutionary histories of tRNA genes. Conclusion The use of a combination of bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches has allowed the confident identification of a

  3. Effect of Correlated tRNA Abundances on Translation Errors and Evolution of Codon Usage Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Premal; Gilchrist, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that tRNA abundances are thought to play a major role in determining translation error rates, their distribution across the genetic code and the resulting implications have received little attention. In general, studies of codon usage bias (CUB) assume that codons with higher tRNA abundance have lower missense error rates. Using a model of protein translation based on tRNA competition and intra-ribosomal kinetics, we show that this assumption can be violated when tRNA abundan...

  4. Viral tRNA Mimicry from a Biocommunicative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascensión Ariza-Mateos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available RNA viruses have very small genomes which limits the functions they can encode. One of the strategies employed by these viruses is to mimic key factors of the host cell so they can take advantage of the interactions and activities these factors typically participate in. The viral RNA genome itself was first observed to mimic cellular tRNA over 40 years ago. Since then researchers have confirmed that distinct families of RNA viruses are accessible to a battery of cellular factors involved in tRNA-related activities. Recently, potential tRNA-like structures have been detected within the sequences of a 100 mRNAs taken from human cells, one of these being the host defense interferon-alpha mRNA; these are then additional to the examples found in bacterial and yeast mRNAs. The mimetic relationship between tRNA, cellular mRNA, and viral RNA is the central focus of two considerations described below. These are subsequently used as a preface for a final hypothesis drawing on concepts relating to mimicry from the social sciences and humanities, such as power relations and creativity. Firstly, the presence of tRNA-like structures in mRNAs indicates that the viral tRNA-like signal could be mimicking tRNA-like elements that are contextualized by the specific carrier mRNAs, rather than, or in addition to, the tRNA itself, which would significantly increase the number of potential semiotic relations mediated by the viral signals. Secondly, and in particular, mimicking a host defense mRNA could be considered a potential new viral strategy for survival. Finally, we propose that mRNA’s mimicry of tRNA could be indicative of an ancestral intracellular conflict in which species of mRNAs invaded the cell, but from within. As the meaning of the mimetic signal depends on the context, in this case, the conflict that arises when the viral signal enters the cell can change the meaning of the mRNAs’ internal tRNA-like signals, from their current significance to that

  5. Infidelity of translation of encephalomyocarditis viral RNA with tRNA from human malignant trophoblastic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, O.K.; Kuchino, Y.

    1977-09-23

    We have investigated tRNA from the human malignant trophoblastic cells (BeWo cell) and human chorionic tissue for the translation of specific mRNAs, in a tRNA-dependent protein synthesizing system from Ehrlich ascites cells. BeWo cell tRNA and chorionic tRNA supported oviduct mRNA or encephalomyocarditis (EMC) viral RNA directed amino acid incorporation into polypeptides equally effectively. Polypeptides synthesized with oviduct mRNA and tRNA from both sources were identical upon sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. But the EMC RNA directed polypeptides synthesized with BeWo cell tRNA were different from those synthesized with chorionic tRNA. A polypeptide (molecular weight 58,000) was apparently not synthesized and the synthesis of a faster moving component (molecular weight, 14,000) was enhanced when BeWo cell tRNA was used. These results imply a functional difference in tRNA from human malignant cells compared to their normal counterpart.

  6. The structure and function of tRNA genes of higher eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubli, E

    1981-01-15

    The most recent findings concerning the structure and function of tRNA genes of higher eukaryotes are discussed in an exemplary way. The tRNA genes of higher organisms are either dispersed or clustered at different sites of the genome. Clusters contain tRNA genes oriented in both directions and on both strands of the DNA with spacers of various length inbetween. Some genes contain intervening sequences close to the 3' side of the anticodon. The primary transcription product possesses a 5' leader and a 3' trailer sequence which are removed by several maturation steps in a strict temporal and spacial order. Internal transcription control regions (promotors) are located at the 5' and 3' ends of the mature tRNA coding section of the tRNA gene. External sequences modulating the efficiency of the expression are present at the immediate 5' ends of the genes. Transfer RNA genes are located nonrandomly in the nucleosomes.

  7. The American cranberry mitochondrial genome reveals the presence of selenocysteine (tRNA-Sec and SECIS) insertion machinery in land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Diego; Schlautman, Brandon; Steffan, Shawn; Polashock, James; Vorsa, Nicholi; Zalapa, Juan

    2014-02-25

    This is the first de novo assembly and annotation of a complete mitochondrial genome in the Ericales order from the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.). Moreover, only four complete Asterid mitochondrial genomes have been made publicly available. The cranberry mitochondrial genome was assembled and reconstructed from whole genome 454 Roche GS-FLX and Illumina shotgun sequences. Compared with other Asterids, the reconstruction of the genome revealed an average size mitochondrion (459,678 nt) with relatively little repetitive sequences and DNA of plastid origin. The complete mitochondrial genome of cranberry was annotated obtaining a total of 34 genes classified based on their putative function, plus three ribosomal RNAs, and 17 transfer RNAs. Maternal organellar cranberry inheritance was inferred by analyzing gene variation in the cranberry mitochondria and plastid genomes. The annotation of cranberry mitochondrial genome revealed the presence of two copies of tRNA-Sec and a selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element which were lost in plants during evolution. This is the first report of a land plant possessing selenocysteine insertion machinery at the sequence level. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Interaction of tRNA with Eukaryotic Ribosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Graifer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of currently available data concerning interactions of tRNAs with the eukaryotic ribosome at various stages of translation. These data include the results obtained by means of cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography applied to various model ribosomal complexes, site-directed cross-linking with the use of tRNA derivatives bearing chemically or photochemically reactive groups in the CCA-terminal fragment and chemical probing of 28S rRNA in the region of the peptidyl transferase center. Similarities and differences in the interactions of tRNAs with prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes are discussed with concomitant consideration of the extent of resemblance between molecular mechanisms of translation in eukaryotes and bacteria.

  9. Effect of correlated tRNA abundances on translation errors and evolution of codon usage bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premal Shah

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that tRNA abundances are thought to play a major role in determining translation error rates, their distribution across the genetic code and the resulting implications have received little attention. In general, studies of codon usage bias (CUB assume that codons with higher tRNA abundance have lower missense error rates. Using a model of protein translation based on tRNA competition and intra-ribosomal kinetics, we show that this assumption can be violated when tRNA abundances are positively correlated across the genetic code. Examining the distribution of tRNA abundances across 73 bacterial genomes from 20 different genera, we find a consistent positive correlation between tRNA abundances across the genetic code. This work challenges one of the fundamental assumptions made in over 30 years of research on CUB that codons with higher tRNA abundances have lower missense error rates and that missense errors are the primary selective force responsible for CUB.

  10. tRNA conjugation with chitosan nanoparticles: An AFM imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, D; Kreplak, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2016-04-01

    The conjugation of tRNA with chitosan nanoparticles of different sizes 15,100 and 200 kDa was investigated in aqueous solution using multiple spectroscopic methods and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Structural analysis showed that chitosan binds tRNA via G-C and A-U base pairs as well as backbone PO2 group, through electrostatic, hydrophilic and H-bonding contacts with overall binding constants of KCh-15-tRNA=4.1 (±0.60)×10(3)M(-1), KCh-100-tRNA=5.7 (±0.8)×10(3)M(-1) and KCh-200-tRNA=1.2 (±0.3)×10(4)M(-1). As chitosan size increases more stable polymer-tRNA conjugate is formed. AFM images showed major tRNA aggregation and particle formation occurred as chitosan concentration increased. Even though chitosan induced major biopolymer structural changes, tRNA remains in A-family structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Intrinsic Properties of tRNA Molecules as Deciphered via Bayesian Network and Distribution Divergence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Branciamore

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The identity/recognition of tRNAs, in the context of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (and other molecules, is a complex phenomenon that has major implications ranging from the origins and evolution of translation machinery and genetic code to the evolution and speciation of tRNAs themselves to human mitochondrial diseases to artificial genetic code engineering. Deciphering it via laboratory experiments, however, is difficult and necessarily time- and resource-consuming. In this study, we propose a mathematically rigorous two-pronged in silico approach to identifying and classifying tRNA positions important for tRNA identity/recognition, rooted in machine learning and information-theoretic methodology. We apply Bayesian Network modeling to elucidate the structure of intra-tRNA-molecule relationships, and distribution divergence analysis to identify meaningful inter-molecule differences between various tRNA subclasses. We illustrate the complementary application of these two approaches using tRNA examples across the three domains of life, and identify and discuss important (informative positions therein. In summary, we deliver to the tRNA research community a novel, comprehensive methodology for identifying the specific elements of interest in various tRNA molecules, which can be followed up by the corresponding experimental work and/or high-resolution position-specific statistical analyses.

  12. Permuted tRNA genes of Cyanidioschyzon merolae, the origin of the tRNA molecule and the root of the Eukarya domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Massimo

    2008-08-07

    An evolutionary analysis is conducted on the permuted tRNA genes of Cyanidioschyzon merolae, in which the 5' half of the tRNA molecule is codified at the 3' end of the gene and its 3' half is codified at the 5' end. This analysis has shown that permuted genes cannot be considered as derived traits but seem to possess characteristics that suggest they are ancestral traits, i.e. they originated when tRNA molecule genes originated for the first time. In particular, if the hypothesis that permuted genes are a derived trait were true, then we should not have been able to observe that the most frequent class of permuted genes is that of the anticodon loop type, for the simple reason that this class would derive by random permutation from a class of non-permuted tRNA genes, which instead is the rarest. This would not explain the high frequency with which permuted tRNA genes with perfectly separate 5' and 3' halves were observed. Clearly the mechanism that produced this class of permuted genes would envisage the existence, in an advanced stage of evolution, of minigenes codifying for the 5' and 3' halves of tRNAs which were assembled in a permuted way at the origin of the tRNA molecule, thus producing a high frequency of permuted genes of the class here referred. Therefore, this evidence supports the hypothesis that the genes of the tRNA molecule were assembled by minigenes codifying for hairpin-like RNA molecules, as suggested by one model for the origin of tRNA [Di Giulio, M., 1992. On the origin of the transfer RNA molecule. J. Theor. Biol. 159, 199-214; Di Giulio, M., 1999. The non-monophyletic origin of tRNA molecule. J. Theor. Biol. 197, 403-414]. Moreover, the late assembly of the permuted genes of C. merolae, as well as their ancestrality, strengthens the hypothesis of the polyphyletic origins of these genes. Finally, on the basis of the uniqueness and the ancestrality of these permuted genes, I suggest that the root of the Eukarya domain is in the super

  13. Analyses of Genomic tRNA Reveal Presence of Novel tRNAs in Oryza sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Tapan K.; Bae, Hanhong

    2017-01-01

    Transfer rRNAs are important molecules responsible for the translation event during protein synthesis. tRNAs are widespread found in unicellular to multi-cellular organisms. Analysis of tRNA gene family members in Oryza sativa revealed the presence of 750 tRNA genes distributed unevenly in different chromosomes. The length of O. sativa tRNAs genes were ranged from 66 to 91 nucleotides encoding 52 isoacceptor in total. tRNASer found in chromosome 8 of O. sativa encoded only 66 nucleotides which is the smallest tRNA of O. sativa and to our knowledge, this is the smallest gene of eukaryotic lineage reported so far. Analyses revealed the presence of several novel/pseudo tRNA genes in O. sativa which are reported for the first time. Multiple sequence alignment of tRNAs revealed the presence of family specific conserved consensus sequences. Functional study of these novel tRNA and family specific conserved consensus sequences will be crucial to decipher their importance in biological events. The rate of transition of O. sativa tRNA was found to be higher than the rate of transversion. Evolutionary study revealed, O. sativa tRNAs were evolved from the lineages of multiple common ancestors. Duplication and loss study of tRNAs genes revealed, majority of the O. sativa tRNA were duplicated and 17 of them were found to be undergone loss during the evolution. Orthology and paralogy study showed, the majority of O. sativa tRNA were paralogous and only a few of tRNASer were found to contain orthologous tRNAs. PMID:28713421

  14. Base-pairing versatility determines wobble sites in tRNA anticodons of vertebrate mitogenomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel M Fonseca

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vertebrate mitochondrial genomes typically have one transfer RNA (tRNA for each synonymous codon family. This limited anticodon repertoire implies that each tRNA anticodon needs to wobble (establish a non-Watson-Crick base pairing between two nucleotides in RNA molecules to recognize one or more synonymous codons. Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the factors that determine the nucleotide composition of wobble sites in vertebrate mitochondrial tRNA anticodons. Until now, the two major postulates--the "codon-anticodon adaptation hypothesis" and the "wobble versatility hypothesis"--have not been formally tested in vertebrate mitochondria because both make the same predictions regarding the composition of anticodon wobble sites. The same is true for the more recent "wobble cost hypothesis". PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we have analyzed the occurrence of synonymous codons and tRNA anticodon wobble sites in 1553 complete vertebrate mitochondrial genomes, focusing on three fish species with mtDNA codon usage bias reversal (L-strand is GT-rich. These mitogenomes constitute an excellent opportunity to study the evolution of the wobble nucleotide composition of tRNA anticodons because due to the reversal the predictions for the anticodon wobble sites differ between the existing hypotheses. We observed that none of the wobble sites of tRNA anticodons in these unusual mitochondrial genomes coevolved to match the new overall codon usage bias, suggesting that nucleotides at the wobble sites of tRNA anticodons in vertebrate mitochondrial genomes are determined by wobble versatility. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that, at wobble sites of tRNA anticodons in vertebrate mitogenomes, selection favors the most versatile nucleotide in terms of wobble base-pairing stability and that wobble site composition is not influenced by codon usage. These results are in agreement with the "wobble versatility hypothesis".

  15. Essential nontranslational functions of tRNA synthetases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Min; Schimmel, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Nontranslational functions of vertebrate aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), which catalyze the production of aminoacyl-tRNAs for protein synthesis, have recently been discovered. Although these new functions were thought to be 'moonlighting activities', many are as critical for cellular homeostasis as their activity in translation. New roles have been associated with their cytoplasmic forms as well as with nuclear and secreted extracellular forms that affect pathways for cardiovascular development and the immune response and mTOR, IFN-γ and p53 signaling. The associations of aaRSs with autoimmune disorders, cancers and neurological disorders further highlight nontranslational functions of these proteins. New architecture elaborations of the aaRSs accompany their functional expansion in higher organisms and have been associated with the nontranslational functions for several aaRSs. Although a general understanding of how these functions developed is limited, the expropriation of aaRSs for essential nontranslational functions may have been initiated by co-opting the amino acid-binding site for another purpose.

  16. Essential Non-Translational Functions of tRNA Synthetases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Min; Schimmel, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Nontranslational functions of vertebrate aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), which catalyze the production of aminoacyl-tRNAs for protein synthesis, have recently been discovered. While these new functions were thought to be ‘moonlighting activities’, many are as critical for cellular homeostasis as the activity in translation. New roles have been associated with cytoplasmic forms as well as with nuclear and secreted extracellular forms that impact pathways for cardiovascular development, the immune response, and mTOR, IFN-γ and p53 signaling. The associations of aaRSs with autoimmune disorders, cancers and neurological disorders further highlight nontranslational functions of these proteins. Novel architecture elaborations of the aaRSs accompany their functional expansion in higher organisms and have been associated with the nontranslational functions for several aaRSs. While a general understanding of how these functions developed is limited, the expropriation of aaRSs for essential nontranslational functions may have been initiated by co-opting the amino acid binding site for another purpose. PMID:23416400

  17. [Differential display of messenger RNA and identification of selenocysteine lyase gene in hepatocellular carcinoma cells transiently expressing hepatitis C virus core protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Jesús Orlando; Luz Gunturiz, María; Henao, Luis Felipe; Navas, María Cristina; Balcázar, Norman; Gómez, Luis Alberto

    2006-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus is associated with diverse liver diseases including acute and chronic hepatitis, steatosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several studies have explored viral mechanisms involved in the establishment of persistent infection and oncogenic Hepatitis C virus. Expression assays of Hepatitis C virus core protein suggest that this protein has transforming and carcinogenic properties with multifunctional activities in host cells. Characterization of expressed genes in cells expressing Core protein is important in order to identify candidate genes responsible for these pathogenic alterations. To compare and identify gene expression profiles in the human hepatocarcinoma derived cell line, HepG2, with transient expression of Hepatitis C virus Core protein. We have used comparative PCR-mediated differential display of mRNA from HepG2 hepatocarcinoma with and without transient expression of HCV Core protein or green fluorescent protein, previously obtained using the Semliki Forest Virus-based expression, through transduction of recombinant particles, rSFV-Core and rSFV-GFP, respectively. We observed differences in band intensities of mRNA in HepG2 cells transduced with rSFV-Core compared with those detected in cells without transduction, and transduced with rSFV-GFP. Cloning and sequencing of a gene fragment (258 bp) that was expressed differentially in HepG2 cells transduced with rSFV-Core, was identified as selenocystein lyase. The results confirm that HCV Core protein expressed in HepG2 is associated with specific changes in mRNA expression, including the gene for selenocystein lyase. This gene may be involved in the pathophysiology of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. Monoisotopic mass determination algorithm for selenocysteine-containing polypeptides from mass spectrometric data based on theoretical modeling of isotopic peak intensity ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Wook; Lee, Sunho; Park, Kunsoo; Na, Seungjin; Paek, Eunok; Park, Hyung Seo; Park, Heejin; Lee, Kong-Joo; Jeong, Jaeho; Kim, Hwa-Young

    2012-09-07

    Selenoproteins, containing selenocysteine (Sec, U) as the 21st amino acid in the genetic code, are well conserved from bacteria to human, except yeast and higher plants that miss the Sec insertion machinery. Determination of Sec association is important to find substrates and to understand redox action of selenoproteins. While mass spectrometry (MS) has become a common and powerful tool to determine an amino acid sequence of a protein, identification of a protein sequence containing Sec was not easy using MS because of the limited stability of Sec in selenoproteins. Se has six naturally occurring isotopes, ⁷⁴Se, ⁷⁶Se, ⁷⁷Se, ⁷⁸Se, ⁸⁰Se, and ⁸²Se, and ⁸⁰Se is the most abundant isotope. These characteristics provide a good indicator for selenopeptides but make it difficult to detect selenopeptides using software analysis tools developed for common peptides. Thus, previous reports verified MS scans of selenopeptides by manual inspection. None of the fully automated algorithms have taken into account the isotopes of Se, leading to the wrong interpretation for selenopeptides. In this paper, we present an algorithm to determine monoisotopic masses of selenocysteine-containing polypeptides. Our algorithm is based on a theoretical model for an isotopic distribution of a selenopeptide, which regards peak intensities in an isotopic distribution as the natural abundances of C, H, N, O, S, and Se. Our algorithm uses two kinds of isotopic peak intensity ratios: one for two adjacent peaks and another for two distant peaks. It is shown that our algorithm for selenopeptides performs accurately, which was demonstrated with two LC-MS/MS data sets. Using this algorithm, we have successfully identified the Sec-Cys and Sec-Sec cross-linking of glutaredoxin 1 (GRX1) from mass spectra obtained by UPLC-ESI-q-TOF instrument.

  19. Alternative tRNA priming of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcription explains sequence variation in the primer-binding site that has been attributed to APOBEC3G activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Atze T.; Vink, Monique; Berkhout, Ben

    2005-01-01

    It is generally assumed that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) uses exclusively the cellular tRNA(3)(Lys) molecule as a primer for reverse transcription. We demonstrate that HIV-1 uses not only tRNA(3)(Lys) but also an alternative tRNA primer. This tRNA was termed tRNA(5)(Lys), and the

  20. Structural rearrangements of the RNA polymerase III machinery during tRNA transcription initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Ewan Phillip; Vannini, Alessandro

    2018-04-01

    RNA polymerase III catalyses the synthesis of tRNAs in eukaryotic organisms. Through combined biochemical and structural characterisation, multiple auxiliary factors have been identified alongside RNA Polymerase III as critical in both facilitating and regulating transcription. Together, this machinery forms dynamic multi-protein complexes at tRNA genes which are required for polymerase recruitment, DNA opening and initiation and elongation of the tRNA transcripts. Central to the function of these complexes is their ability to undergo multiple conformational changes and rearrangements that regulate each step. Here, we discuss the available biochemical and structural data on the structural plasticity of multi-protein complexes involved in RNA Polymerase III transcriptional initiation and facilitated re-initiation during tRNA synthesis. Increasingly, structural information is becoming available for RNA polymerase III and its functional complexes, allowing for a deeper understanding of tRNA transcriptional initiation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: SI: Regulation of tRNA synthesis and modification in physiological conditions and disease edited by Dr. Boguta Magdalena. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interactions between RNAP III transcription machinery and tRNA processing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimbasseri, G Aneeshkumar

    2018-04-01

    Eukaryotes have at least three nuclear RNA polymerases to carry out transcription. While RNA polymerases I and II are responsible for ribosomal RNA transcription and messenger RNA transcription, respectively, RNA Polymerase III transcribes approximately up to 300 nt long noncoding RNAs, including tRNA. For all three RNAPs, the nascent transcripts generated undergo extensive post-transcriptional processing. Transcription of mRNAs by RNAP II and their processing are coupled with the aid of the C-terminal domain of the RNAP II. RNAP I transcription and the processing of its transcripts are co-localized to the nucleolus and to some extent, rRNA processing occurs co-transcriptionally. Here, I review the current evidence for the interaction between tRNA processing factors and RNA polymerase III. These interactions include the moonlighting functions of tRNA processing factors in RNAP III transcription and the indirect effect of tRNA transcription levels on tRNA modification machinery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. tRNA modification profiles of the fast-proliferating cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Chao; Niu, Leilei; Song, Wei; Xiong, Xin; Zhang, Xianhua; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Yi; Yi, Fan; Zhan, Jun; Zhang, Hongquan; Yang, Zhenjun; Zhang, Li-He; Zhai, Suodi; Li, Hua; Ye, Min; Du, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent progress in RNA modification study, a comprehensive modification profile is still lacking for mammalian cells. Using a quantitative HPLC/MS/MS assay, we present here a study where RNA modifications are examined in term of the major RNA species. With paired slow- and fast-proliferating cell lines, distinct RNA modification profiles are first revealed for diverse RNA species. Compared to mRNAs, increased ribose and nucleobase modifications are shown for the highly-structured tRNAs and rRNAs, lending support to their contribution to the formation of high-order structures. This study also reveals a dynamic tRNA modification profile in the fast-proliferating cells. In addition to cultured cells, this unique tRNA profile has been further confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. Taken together, the results indicate that tRNA is a actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells, and suggest that they may play a more active role in biological process than expected. -- Highlights: •RNA modifications were first examined in term of the major RNA species. •A dynamic tRNA modifications was characterized for the fast-proliferating cells. •The unique tRNA profile was confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. •tRNA was predicted as an actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells.

  3. tRNA modification profiles of the fast-proliferating cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Chao; Niu, Leilei; Song, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Xiong, Xin; Zhang, Xianhua [Departmentof Pharmacy, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Yi; Yi, Fan [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhan, Jun; Zhang, Hongquan [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology and Tumor Biology, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Yang, Zhenjun; Zhang, Li-He [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhai, Suodi [Departmentof Pharmacy, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Hua, E-mail: huali88@sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ye, Min, E-mail: yemin@bjmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Du, Quan, E-mail: quan.du@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Despite the recent progress in RNA modification study, a comprehensive modification profile is still lacking for mammalian cells. Using a quantitative HPLC/MS/MS assay, we present here a study where RNA modifications are examined in term of the major RNA species. With paired slow- and fast-proliferating cell lines, distinct RNA modification profiles are first revealed for diverse RNA species. Compared to mRNAs, increased ribose and nucleobase modifications are shown for the highly-structured tRNAs and rRNAs, lending support to their contribution to the formation of high-order structures. This study also reveals a dynamic tRNA modification profile in the fast-proliferating cells. In addition to cultured cells, this unique tRNA profile has been further confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. Taken together, the results indicate that tRNA is a actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells, and suggest that they may play a more active role in biological process than expected. -- Highlights: •RNA modifications were first examined in term of the major RNA species. •A dynamic tRNA modifications was characterized for the fast-proliferating cells. •The unique tRNA profile was confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. •tRNA was predicted as an actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells.

  4. Saturation of recognition elements blocks evolution of new tRNA identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Léger, Adélaïde; Bello, Carla; Dans, Pablo D.; Torres, Adrian Gabriel; Novoa, Eva Maria; Camacho, Noelia; Orozco, Modesto; Kondrashov, Fyodor A.; Ribas de Pouplana, Lluís

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the principles that led to the current complexity of the genetic code is a central question in evolution. Expansion of the genetic code required the selection of new transfer RNAs (tRNAs) with specific recognition signals that allowed them to be matured, modified, aminoacylated, and processed by the ribosome without compromising the fidelity or efficiency of protein synthesis. We show that saturation of recognition signals blocks the emergence of new tRNA identities and that the rate of nucleotide substitutions in tRNAs is higher in species with fewer tRNA genes. We propose that the growth of the genetic code stalled because a limit was reached in the number of identity elements that can be effectively used in the tRNA structure. PMID:27386510

  5. tRNA's wobble decoding of the genome: 40 years of modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agris, Paul F; Vendeix, Franck A P; Graham, William D

    2007-02-09

    The genetic code is degenerate, in that 20 amino acids are encoded by 61 triplet codes. In 1966, Francis Crick hypothesized that the cell's limited number of tRNAs decoded the genome by recognizing more than one codon. The ambiguity of that recognition resided in the third base-pair, giving rise to the Wobble Hypothesis. Post-transcriptional modifications at tRNA's wobble position 34, especially modifications of uridine 34, enable wobble to occur. The Modified Wobble Hypothesis proposed in 1991 that specific modifications of a tRNA wobble nucleoside shape the anticodon architecture in such a manner that interactions were restricted to the complementary base plus a single wobble pairing for amino acids with twofold degenerate codons. However, chemically different modifications at position 34 would expand the ability of a tRNA to read three or even four of the fourfold degenerate codons. One foundation of Crick's Wobble Hypothesis was that a near-constant geometry of canonical base-pairing be maintained in forming all three base-pairs between the tRNA anticodon and mRNA codon on the ribosome. In accepting an aminoacyl-tRNA, the ribosome requires maintenance of a specific geometry for the anticodon-codon base-pairing. However, it is the post-transcriptional modifications at tRNA wobble position 34 and purine 37, 3'-adjacent to the anticodon, that pre-structure the anticodon domain to ensure the correct codon binding. The modifications create both the architecture and the stability needed for decoding through restraints on anticodon stereochemistry and conformational space, and through selective hydrogen bonding. A physicochemical understanding of modified nucleoside contributions to the tRNA anticodon domain architecture and its decoding of the genome has advanced RNA world evolutionary theory, the principles of RNA chemistry, and the application of this knowledge to the introduction of new amino acids to proteins.

  6. Catalytic mechanism and inhibition of tRNA (Uracil-5-)methyltransferase: evidence for covalent catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, D.V.; Hardy, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    tRNA (Ura-5-) methyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to the 5-carbon of a specific Urd residue in tRNA. This results in stoichiometric release of tritium from [5- 3 H] Urd-labeled substrate tRNA isolated from methyltransferase-deficient Escherichia coli. The enzyme also catalyzes an AdoMet-independent exchange reaction between [5- 3 H]-Urd-labeled substrate tRNA and protons of water at a rate that is about 1% that of the normal methylation reaction, but with identical stoichiometry. S-Adenosylhomocysteine inhibits the rate of the exchange reaction by 2-3-fold, whereas an analog having the sulfur of AdoMet replaced by nitrogen accelerates the exchange reaction 9-fold. In the presence (but not absence) of AdoMet, 5-fluorouracil-substituted tRNA (FUra-tRNA) leads to the first-order inactivation of the enzyme. This is accompanied by the formation of a stable covalent complex containing the enzyme, FUra-tRNA, and the methyl group AdoMet. A mechanism for catalysis is proposed that explains both the 5-H exchange reaction and the inhibition by FUra-tRNA: the enzyme forms a covalent Michael adduct with substrate or inhibitor tRNA by attack of a nucleophilic group of the enzyme at carbon 6 of the pyrimidine residue to be modified. As a result, an anion equivalent is generated at carbon 5 that is sufficiently reactive to be methylated by AdoMet. Preliminary experiments and precedents suggest that the nucleophilic catalyst of the enzyme is a thiol group of cysteine. The potent irreversible inhibition by FUra-tRNA suggest that a mechanism for the RNA effects of FUra may also involve irreversible inhibition of RNA-modifying enzymes

  7. Crosslinking of tRNA containing a long extra arm to elongation factor Tu by trans-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Nils-Jørgen; Wikman, Friedrik; Clark, Brian F. C.

    1990-01-01

    A tRNA containing a long extra arm, namely E. coli tRNA1Leu has been crosslinked to elongation factor Tu, with the crosslinking reagent trans-diamminedichloroplatinum(II). The nucleotide involved in the crosslinking was identified to be a guanosine in the variable region at position 47F or 47G....

  8. Movement of the 3'-end of tRNA through the peptidyl transferase centre and its inhibition by antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirillov, Stanislav; Porse, Bo Torben; Vester, Birthe

    1997-01-01

    experimental data and, especially, those relevant to substrate movements through the peptidyl transferase centre. With the exception of deacylated tRNA, which binds at the E-site, ribosomal interactions of the 3'-ends of the tRNA substrates generate only a small part of the total free energy of t...

  9. Adequate Social Science, Curriculum Investigations, and Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyon, Jean

    1982-01-01

    Two studies of curriculum are used as examples of trends in social science research. Criteria are developed for the "ideal" social science and then applied to the two studies. Curriculum theorizing is discussed as related to social science theory. Suggestions are made for the content of an adequate curriculum theory. (JN)

  10. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderst, James; Moffatt, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. By considering the likelihood of harm and the severity of the potential harm, caregivers may provide adequate supervision by minimizing risks to the child while still allowing the child to take "small" risks as needed for healthy development. Caregivers should initially focus on direct (visual, auditory, and proximity) supervision of the young child. Gradually, supervision needs to be adjusted as the child develops, emphasizing a safe environment and safe social interactions, with graduated independence. PCPs may foster adequate supervision by providing concrete guidance to caregivers. In addition to preventing injury, supervision includes fostering a safe, stable, and nurturing relationship with every child. PCPs should be familiar with age/developmentally based supervision risks, adequate supervision based on those risks, characteristics of neglectful supervision based on age/development, and ways to encourage appropriate supervision throughout childhood. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required to be included in the union's constitution and bylaws, but they must be observed. A labor... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT...

  12. Innovating for Sustainable, Reliable and Adequate Electricity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research sought to determine the most readily available modes of innovation in South Africa and Nigeria to exploit both conventional and renewable energy sources, in order to generate adequate and reliable electricity as part of meeting sustainable development objectives. The research analysed a variety of ...

  13. Structural requirements for the binding of tRNA Lys3 to reverse transcriptase of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, B. B.; Das, A. T.; Berkhout, B.

    1995-01-01

    Reverse transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA genome is primed by the cellular tRNA Lys3 molecule. Packaging of this tRNA primer during virion assembly is thought to be mediated by specific interactions with the reverse transcriptase (RT) protein. Portions of the tRNA

  14. Formation of tRNA granules in the nucleus of heat-induced human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Ryu; Mizuno, Rie; Watanabe, Kazunori; Ijiri, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► tRNAs are tranlocated into the nucleus in heat-induced HeLa cells. ► tRNAs form the unique granules in the nucleus. ► tRNA ganules overlap with nuclear stress granules. -- Abstract: The stress response, which can trigger various physiological phenomena, is important for living organisms. For instance, a number of stress-induced granules such as P-body and stress granule have been identified. These granules are formed in the cytoplasm under stress conditions and are associated with translational inhibition and mRNA decay. In the nucleus, there is a focus named nuclear stress body (nSB) that distinguishes these structures from cytoplasmic stress granules. Many splicing factors and long non-coding RNA species localize in nSBs as a result of stress. Indeed, tRNAs respond to several kinds of stress such as heat, oxidation or starvation. Although nuclear accumulation of tRNAs occurs in starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this phenomenon is not found in mammalian cells. We observed that initiator tRNA Met (Meti) is actively translocated into the nucleus of human cells under heat stress. During this study, we identified unique granules of Meti that overlapped with nSBs. Similarly, elongator tRNA Met was translocated into the nucleus and formed granules during heat stress. Formation of tRNA granules is closely related to the translocation ratio. Then, all tRNAs may form the specific granules.

  15. Protozoan ALKBH8 Oxygenases Display both DNA Repair and tRNA Modification Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zdżalik, Daria; Vågbø, Cathrine B; Kirpekar, Finn

    2014-01-01

    , interestingly, two protozoan ALKBH8s also catalyzed wobble uridine modification of tRNA, thus displaying a dual in vitro activity. Also, we found the modification status of tRNAGly(UCC) to be unaltered in an ALKBH8 deficient mutant of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, indicating that bacterial ALKBH8s have a function...

  16. The early history of tRNA recognition by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    2006-10-04

    Oct 4, 2006 ... of molecular biology were thinking on gene expression and genetic code. In a famous letter send in 1955 to the “RNA Tie. Club” Francis Crick predicted the existence of small adaptor. RNA molecules that would carry their own amino acids and. The early history of tRNA recognition by aminoacyl-tRNA.

  17. The early history of tRNA recognition by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    2006-10-04

    Oct 4, 2006 ... of these enzymes for correct genetic code expression as well as early structural data and related enzymology will be reviewed. Despite structural diversity, all synthetases follow a two-step mechanism for tRNA aminoacylation. Specificity, however, is not absolute since synthetases were shown to catalyze ...

  18. Real-time tRNA transit on single translating ribosomes at codon resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Sotaro; Aitken, Colin Echeverría; Korlach, Jonas; Flusberg, Benjamin A.; Turner, Stephen W.; Puglisi, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Translation by the ribosome occurs by a complex mechanism involving the coordinated interaction of multiple nucleic acid and protein ligands. Here we have used zero-mode waveguides (ZMWs) and sophisticated detection instrumentation to allow real-time observation of translation at physiologically-relevant (μM) ligand concentrations. Translation at each codon is monitored by stable binding of tRNAs – labeled with distinct fluorophores – to translating ribosomes, allowing direct detection of the identity of tRNA molecules bound to the ribosome, and therefore, the underlying mRNA sequence. We observe the transit of tRNAs on single translating ribosomes and have determined the number of tRNA molecules simultaneously bound to the ribosome, at each codon of an mRNA. Our results show that ribosomes are only briefly occupied by two tRNAs and that release of deacylated tRNA from the E site is uncoupled from binding of A-site tRNA and occurs rapidly after translocation. The methods outlined here have broad application to the study of mRNA sequences, and the mechanism and regulation of translation. PMID:20393556

  19. Selection of tRNA charging quality control mechanisms that increase mistranslation of the genetic code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yadavalli, Srujana S; Ibba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mistranslation can follow two events during protein synthesis: production of non-cognate amino acid:transfer RNA (tRNA) pairs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) and inaccurate selection of aminoacyl-tRNAs by the ribosome. Many aaRSs actively edit non-cognate amino acids, but editing mechanisms...

  20. Caveolin 3 gene and mitochondrial tRNA methionin gene in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... severe exercise intolerance, lactic acidosis and growth retardation. Since DMD is X-linked maternally inherited disease, mitochondrial mutation in tRNA (Met) gene can be suspected to be the cause for the inefficient splicing of dystrophin gene during its expression and can be implicated as the cause of dystrophin inactive ...

  1. Machine News and Volatility: The Dow Jones Industrial Average and the TRNA Sentiment Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); A.K. Singh (Abhay)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper features an analysis of the relationship between the volatility of the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) Index and a sentiment news series using daily data obtained from the Thomson Reuters News Analytics (TRNA) provided by SIRCA (The Securities Industry

  2. tRNA acceptor-stem and anticodon bases embed separate features of amino acid chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Charles W.; Wolfenden, Richard

    2016-01-01

    abstract The universal genetic code is a translation table by which nucleic acid sequences can be interpreted as polypeptides with a wide range of biological functions. That information is used by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases to translate the code. Moreover, amino acid properties dictate protein folding. We recently reported that digital correlation techniques could identify patterns in tRNA identity elements that govern recognition by synthetases. Our analysis, and the functionality of truncated synthetases that cannot recognize the tRNA anticodon, support the conclusion that the tRNA acceptor stem houses an independent code for the same 20 amino acids that likely functioned earlier in the emergence of genetics. The acceptor-stem code, related to amino acid size, is distinct from a code in the anticodon that is related to amino acid polarity. Details of the acceptor-stem code suggest that it was useful in preserving key properties of stereochemically-encoded peptides that had developed the capacity to interact catalytically with RNA. The quantitative embedding of the chemical properties of amino acids into tRNA bases has implications for the origins of molecular biology. PMID:26595350

  3. Recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid (NCp7) protein unwinds tRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, R; Giedroc, D P

    1992-04-05

    The nucleocapsid protein (NC) of all animal retroviruses, encoded by the gag gene, is the major structural protein of the core ribonucleoprotein complex, bound to genomic RNA in mature virions. NC is also thought to play one or more accessory roles in reverse transcription. Mature NC (p7NC) from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a 71-amino acid, basic protein which contains two Cys3His Zn(II) retroviral-type zinc finger domains. Herein, we describe the subcloning and expression of HIV-1 NC, denoted NC71, from an inducible phage T7 RNA polymerase promoter in Escherichia coli. Purified NC71 can be reversibly reconstituted with 2 g.at Zn(II) determined by atomic absorption. Ultraviolet circulation dichroism spectroscopy has been used to characterize the complexes between highly purified NC71 and the RNA homopolynucleotide poly(A) and E. coli tRNA(mixed). On poly(A), Zn2 NC71 is characterized by an apparent site size n = 15 +/- 3 nucleotides and high affinity (Kapp = 3 x 10(7) M-1) and moderately cooperative (omega approximately 170 +/- 25) binding. A mixture of E. coli tRNA species (tRNA(mixed) was used to probe the conformational changes induced in tRNA upon binding of HIV-1 NC71. Two structural forms of tRNA(mixed), which differ in their degree of tertiary structure, were assayed for their susceptibility to denaturation by NC71. Five molar monomer equivalents of NC71 are required to denature the "inactive" tRNA in the absence of Mg2+. A Zn(II)-free, oxidized form of NC71 was also shown to unwind inactive tRNA with the same efficiency and stoichiometry. The detailed spectral changes which occur on NC-induced denaturation closely mimic temperature-induced denaturation of inactive tRNA(mixed). The prototype helix-destabilizing protein, T4 gene 32 protein, is unable to unwind this form of tRNA under the same conditions. The stoichiometry of unwinding of inactive tRNA by NC71 is consistent with the site size determined with poly(A). An "active" form of t

  4. Steric complementarity in the decoding center is important for tRNA selection by the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khade, Prashant K; Shi, Xinying; Joseph, Simpson

    2013-10-23

    Accurate tRNA selection by the ribosome is essential for the synthesis of functional proteins. Previous structural studies indicated that the ribosome distinguishes between cognate and near-cognate tRNAs by monitoring the geometry of the codon-anticodon helix in the decoding center using the universally conserved 16S ribosomal RNA bases G530, A1492 and A1493. These bases form hydrogen bonds with the 2'-hydroxyl groups of the codon-anticodon helix, which are expected to be disrupted with a near-cognate codon-anticodon helix. However, a recent structural study showed that G530, A1492 and A1493 form hydrogen bonds in a manner identical with that of both cognate and near-cognate codon-anticodon helices. To understand how the ribosome discriminates between cognate and near-cognate tRNAs, we made 2'-deoxynucleotide and 2'-fluoro substituted mRNAs, which disrupt the hydrogen bonds between the A site codon and G530, A1492 and A1493. Our results show that multiple 2'-deoxynucleotide substitutions in the mRNA substantially inhibit tRNA selection, whereas multiple 2'-fluoro substitutions in the mRNA have only modest effects on tRNA selection. Furthermore, the miscoding antibiotics paromomycin and streptomycin rescue the defects in tRNA selection with the multiple 2'-deoxynucleotide substituted mRNA. These results suggest that steric complementarity in the decoding center is more important than the hydrogen bonds between the A site codon and G530, A1492 and A1493 for tRNA selection. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. tRNA sequence data, annotation data and curation data - tRNADB-CE | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us tRNA...DB-CE tRNA sequence data, annotation data and curation data Data detail Data name tRNA s...equence data, annotation data and curation data DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00720-001 Description of data contents Data of tRNA... search results and curation data. Three prediction programs (tRNAScan-SE, Aragorn and tRNA fi...nder) were used together to search tRNA genes. If the prediction results did not

  6. Structural similarities and functional differences clarify evolutionary relationships between tRNA healing enzymes and the myelin enzyme CNPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandam, Gopinath; Raasakka, Arne; Myllykoski, Matti; Kursula, Inari; Kursula, Petri

    2017-05-16

    Eukaryotic tRNA splicing is an essential process in the transformation of a primary tRNA transcript into a mature functional tRNA molecule. 5'-phosphate ligation involves two steps: a healing reaction catalyzed by polynucleotide kinase (PNK) in association with cyclic phosphodiesterase (CPDase), and a sealing reaction catalyzed by an RNA ligase. The enzymes that catalyze tRNA healing in yeast and higher eukaryotes are homologous to the members of the 2H phosphoesterase superfamily, in particular to the vertebrate myelin enzyme 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase). We employed different biophysical and biochemical methods to elucidate the overall structural and functional features of the tRNA healing enzymes yeast Trl1 PNK/CPDase and lancelet PNK/CPDase and compared them with vertebrate CNPase. The yeast and the lancelet enzymes have cyclic phosphodiesterase and polynucleotide kinase activity, while vertebrate CNPase lacks PNK activity. In addition, we also show that the healing enzymes are structurally similar to the vertebrate CNPase by applying synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. We provide a structural analysis of the tRNA healing enzyme PNK and CPDase domains together. Our results support evolution of vertebrate CNPase from tRNA healing enzymes with a loss of function at its N-terminal PNK-like domain.

  7. Mitochondrial tRNA cleavage by tRNA-targeting ribonuclease causes mitochondrial dysfunction observed in mitochondrial disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Tetsuhiro, E-mail: atetsu@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Shimizu, Ayano; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Hidaka, Makoto; Masaki, Haruhiko, E-mail: amasaki@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • MTS-tagged ribonuclease was translocated successfully to the mitochondrial matrix. • MTS-tagged ribonuclease cleaved mt tRNA and reduced COX activity. • Easy and reproducible method of inducing mt tRNA dysfunction. - Abstract: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a genome possessed by mitochondria. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated during aerobic respiration in mitochondria, mtDNA is commonly exposed to the risk of DNA damage. Mitochondrial disease is caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, and mutations or deletions on mitochondrial tRNA (mt tRNA) genes are often observed in mtDNA of patients with the disease. Hence, the correlation between mt tRNA activity and mitochondrial dysfunction has been assessed. Then, cybrid cells, which are constructed by the fusion of an enucleated cell harboring altered mtDNA with a ρ{sup 0} cell, have long been used for the analysis due to difficulty in mtDNA manipulation. Here, we propose a new method that involves mt tRNA cleavage by a bacterial tRNA-specific ribonuclease. The ribonuclease tagged with a mitochondrial-targeting sequence (MTS) was successfully translocated to the mitochondrial matrix. Additionally, mt tRNA cleavage, which resulted in the decrease of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity, was observed.

  8. Perception of Mothers on Adequate Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshini Valoo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition in children less than 5 years old persists around the world. In West Java and one of the districts of West Java (Sumedang, the prevalence of malnutrition is about 18.5% and 15.8% respectively. Numerous factors can lead to child malnutrition. Difficulties in availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of food can be contributing factors. A good perception of mother on adequate nutrition can improve children’s nutritional status. This study was conducted to study the perception of mothers with children 2 to 5 years old on adequate nutrition. Methods: Most of the respondents had good perception on the aspect of adequate nutrition. Results showed perception on availability was 83.8%, physical accessibility was 97.1%, economical accessibility was 98.6%, information accessibility was 84.8% and acceptability was 81.0%. However, perception of respondents on good quality nutrition for the main meal and additional food was still poor. Moreover, there are taboos for eating shrimp and watermelon. Additionally, children were given snacks in large amount. Results: There was a strong correlation between mid-upper arm muscle area/size and muscular strength (correlation cooefficient 0.746. Moreover, the higher the Body Mass Index, the stronger the muscle strength was to some point. If the BMI was more than 25 kg/m2, this findings did not occurred. Conclusions: This study reveals that the perception of mothers on good quality food is poor regardless the good results on availibility, accesibility and acceptability.

  9. Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 ± 1.26%, Central Visayas, 6.3 ± 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 ± 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P > .01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid did not give significant results. The overall bar x of 6.4 ± 1.20% may be used as the non-heme iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976

  10. Iron absorption from adequate Filipinos meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 +- 1.26%. Central Visayas, 6.3 +- 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 +- 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P>0.01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry; and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid, did not give significant results. The overall average of 6.4 +- 1.20% may be used as the iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976. (Auth.). 21 refs.; 3 tabs.; 3 annexes

  11. Enhanced Dynamics of Hydrated tRNA on Nanodiamond Surfaces: A Combined Neutron Scattering and MD Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Gurpreet K; Bhowmik, Debsindhu; Goswami, Monojoy; O'Neill, Hugh; Mamontov, Eugene; Sumpter, Bobby G; Hong, Liang; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Chu, Xiang-Qiang

    2016-09-14

    Nontoxic, biocompatible nanodiamonds (ND) have recently been implemented in rational, systematic design of optimal therapeutic use in nanomedicines. However, hydrophilicity of the ND surface strongly influences structure and dynamics of biomolecules that restrict in situ applications of ND. Therefore, fundamental understanding of the impact of hydrophilic ND surface on biomolecules at the molecular level is essential. For tRNA, we observe an enhancement of dynamical behavior in the presence of ND contrary to generally observed slow motion at strongly interacting interfaces. We took advantage of neutron scattering experiments and computer simulations to demonstrate this atypical faster dynamics of tRNA on ND surface. The strong attractive interactions between ND, tRNA, and water give rise to unlike dynamical behavior and structural changes of tRNA in front of ND compared to without ND. Our new findings may provide new design principles for safer, improved drug delivery platforms.

  12. Scyl1 Facilitates Nuclear tRNA Export in Mammalian Cells by Acting at the Nuclear Pore Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Shawn C.

    2010-01-01

    Scyl1 is an evolutionarily conserved N-terminal protein kinase-like domain protein that plays a role in COP1-mediated retrograde protein trafficking in mammalian cells. Furthermore, loss of Scyl1 function has been shown to result in neurodegenerative disorders in mice. Here, we report that Scyl1 is also a cytoplasmic component of the mammalian nuclear tRNA export machinery. Like exportin-t, overexpression of Scyl1 restored export of a nuclear export-defective serine amber suppressor tRNA mutant in COS-7 cells. Scyl1 binds tRNA saturably, and associates with the nuclear pore complex by interacting, in part, with Nup98. Scyl1 copurifies with the nuclear tRNA export receptors exportin-t and exportin-5, the RanGTPase, and the eukaryotic elongation factor eEF-1A, which transports aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosomes. Scyl1 interacts directly with exportin-t and RanGTP but not with eEF-1A or RanGDP in vitro. Moreover, exportin-t containing tRNA, Scyl1, and RanGTP form a quaternary complex in vitro. Biochemical characterization also suggests that the nuclear aminoacylation-dependent pathway is primarily responsible for tRNA export in mammalian cells. These findings together suggest that Scyl1 participates in the nuclear aminoacylation-dependent tRNA export pathway and may unload aminoacyl-tRNAs from the nuclear tRNA export receptor at the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex and channels them to eEF-1A. PMID:20505071

  13. Sharing the load: Mex67-Mtr2 cofunctions with Los1 in primary tRNA nuclear export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Kunal; Majumder, Shubhra; Wan, Yao; Shah, Vijay; Wu, Jingyan; Huang, Hsiao-Yun; Hopper, Anita K

    2017-11-01

    Eukaryotic transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are exported from the nucleus, their site of synthesis, to the cytoplasm, their site of function for protein synthesis. The evolutionarily conserved β-importin family member Los1 (Exportin-t) has been the only exporter known to execute nuclear export of newly transcribed intron-containing pre-tRNAs. Interestingly, LOS1 is unessential in all tested organisms. As tRNA nuclear export is essential, we previously interrogated the budding yeast proteome to identify candidates that function in tRNA nuclear export. Here, we provide molecular, genetic, cytological, and biochemical evidence that the Mex67-Mtr2 (TAP-p15) heterodimer, best characterized for its essential role in mRNA nuclear export, cofunctions with Los1 in tRNA nuclear export. Inactivation of Mex67 or Mtr2 leads to rapid accumulation of end-matured unspliced tRNAs in the nucleus. Remarkably, merely fivefold overexpression of Mex67-Mtr2 can substitute for Los1 in los1 Δ cells. Moreover, in vivo coimmunoprecipitation assays with tagged Mex67 document that the Mex67 binds tRNAs. Our data also show that tRNA exporters surprisingly exhibit differential tRNA substrate preferences. The existence of multiple tRNA exporters, each with different tRNA preferences, may indicate that the proteome can be regulated by tRNA nuclear export. Thus, our data show that Mex67-Mtr2 functions in primary nuclear export for a subset of yeast tRNAs. © 2017 Chatterjee et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. Binding of DNA-binding alkaloids berberine and palmatine to tRNA and comparison to ethidium: Spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Maidul; Pandya, Prateek; Chowdhury, Sebanti Roy; Kumar, Surat; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2008-11-01

    The interaction of two natural protoberberine plant alkaloids berberine and palmatine with tRNA phe was studied using various biophysical techniques and molecular modeling and the data were compared with the binding of the classical DNA intercalator, ethidium. Circular dichroic studies revealed that the tRNA conformation was moderately perturbed on binding of the alkaloids. The cooperative binding of both the alkaloids and ethidium to tRNA was revealed from absorbance and fluorescence studies. Fluorescence quenching studies advanced a conclusion that while berberine and palmatine are partially intercalated, ethidium is fully intercalated on the tRNA molecule. The binding of the alkaloids as well as ethidium stabilized the tRNA melting, and the binding constant evaluated from the averaged optical melting temperature data was in agreement with fluorescence spectral-binding data. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed that the tRNA melting showed three close transitions that were affected on binding of these small molecules. Molecular docking calculations performed showed the preferred regions of binding of these small molecules on the tRNA. Taken together, the results suggest that the binding of the alkaloids berberine and palmatine on the tRNA structure appears to be mostly by partial intercalation while ethidium intercalates fully on the tRNA. These results further advance our knowledge on the molecular aspects on the interaction of these alkaloids to tRNA.

  15. Tri-split tRNA is a transfer RNA made from 3 transcripts that provides insight into the evolution of fragmented tRNAs in archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishima, Kosuke; Sugahara, Junichi; Kikuta, Kaoru; Hirano, Reiko; Sato, Asako; Tomita, Masaru; Kanai, Akio

    2009-02-24

    Transfer RNA (tRNA) is essential for decoding the genome sequence into proteins. In Archaea, previous studies have revealed unique multiple intron-containing tRNAs and tRNAs that are encoded on 2 separate genes, so-called split tRNAs. Here, we discovered 10 fragmented tRNA genes in the complete genome of the hyperthermoacidophilic Archaeon Caldivirga maquilingensis that are individually transcribed and further trans-spliced to generate all of the missing tRNAs encoding glycine, alanine, and glutamate. Notably, the 3 mature tRNA(Gly)'s with synonymous codons are created from 1 constitutive 3' half transcript and 4 alternatively switching transcripts, representing tRNA made from a total of 3 transcripts named a "tri-split tRNA." Expression and nucleotide sequences of 10 split tRNA genes and their joined tRNA products were experimentally verified. The intervening sequences of split tRNA have high identity to tRNA intron sequences located at the same positions in intron-containing tRNAs in related Thermoproteales species. This suggests that an evolutionary relationship between intron-containing and split tRNAs exists. Our findings demonstrate the first example of split tRNA genes in a free-living organism and a unique tri-split tRNA gene that provides further insight into the evolution of fragmented tRNAs.

  16. Mitochondrial tRNA import in Trypanosoma brucei is independent of thiolation and the Rieske protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paris, Zdeněk; RUBIO, M. A. T.; Lukeš, Julius; Alfonzo, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 7 (2009), s. 1398-1406 ISSN 1355-8382 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/06/1558; GA MŠk LC07032; GA MŠk 2B06129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : T. brucei * tRNA import * 2-thiolation * RIC * Rieske * Fe-S cluster Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.198, year: 2009

  17. RNA Polymerase III Output Is Functionally Linked to tRNA Dimethyl-G26 Modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneeshkumar G Arimbasseri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Control of the differential abundance or activity of tRNAs can be important determinants of gene regulation. RNA polymerase (RNAP III synthesizes all tRNAs in eukaryotes and it derepression is associated with cancer. Maf1 is a conserved general repressor of RNAP III under the control of the target of rapamycin (TOR that acts to integrate transcriptional output and protein synthetic demand toward metabolic economy. Studies in budding yeast have indicated that the global tRNA gene activation that occurs with derepression of RNAP III via maf1-deletion is accompanied by a paradoxical loss of tRNA-mediated nonsense suppressor activity, manifested as an antisuppression phenotype, by an unknown mechanism. We show that maf1-antisuppression also occurs in the fission yeast S. pombe amidst general activation of RNAP III. We used tRNA-HydroSeq to document that little changes occurred in the relative levels of different tRNAs in maf1Δ cells. By contrast, the efficiency of N2,N2-dimethyl G26 (m(22G26 modification on certain tRNAs was decreased in response to maf1-deletion and associated with antisuppression, and was validated by other methods. Over-expression of Trm1, which produces m(22G26, reversed maf1-antisuppression. A model that emerges is that competition by increased tRNA levels in maf1Δ cells leads to m(22G26 hypomodification due to limiting Trm1, reducing the activity of suppressor-tRNASerUCA and accounting for antisuppression. Consistent with this, we show that RNAP III mutations associated with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy decrease tRNA transcription, increase m(22G26 efficiency and reverse antisuppression. Extending this more broadly, we show that a decrease in tRNA synthesis by treatment with rapamycin leads to increased m(22G26 modification and that this response is conserved among highly divergent yeasts and human cells.

  18. Plant-Specific Preprotein and Amino Acid Transporter Proteins Are Required for tRNA Import into Mitochondria1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiszewski-Jakubiak, Szymon; Teixeira, Pedro F.; Narsai, Reena; Ivanova, Aneta; Megel, Cyrille; Schock, Annette; Kraus, Sabrina; Glaser, Elzbieta; Philippar, Katrin; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Soll, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    A variety of eukaryotes, in particular plants, do not contain the required number of tRNAs to support the translation of mitochondria-encoded genes and thus need to import tRNAs from the cytosol. This study identified two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) proteins, Tric1 and Tric2 (for tRNA import component), which on simultaneous inactivation by T-DNA insertion lines displayed a severely delayed and chlorotic growth phenotype and significantly reduced tRNA import capacity into isolated mitochondria. The predicted tRNA-binding domain of Tric1 and Tric2, a sterile-α-motif at the C-terminal end of the protein, was required to restore tRNA uptake ability in mitochondria of complemented plants. The purified predicted tRNA-binding domain binds the T-arm of the tRNA for alanine with conserved lysine residues required for binding. T-DNA inactivation of both Tric proteins further resulted in an increase in the in vitro rate of in organello protein synthesis, which was mediated by a reorganization of the nuclear transcriptome, in particular of genes encoding a variety of proteins required for mitochondrial gene expression at both the transcriptional and translational levels. The characterization of Tric1/2 provides mechanistic insight into the process of tRNA import into mitochondria and supports the theory that the tRNA import pathway resulted from the repurposing of a preexisting protein import apparatus. PMID:27789739

  19. Translational infidelity-induced protein stress results from a deficiency in Trm9-catalyzed tRNA modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ashish; Chan, Clement T Y; Dyavaiah, Madhu; Rooney, John P; Dedon, Peter C; Begley, Thomas J

    2012-07-01

    Correct codon-anticodon pairing promotes translational fidelity, with these interactions greatly facilitated by modified nucleosides found in tRNA. We hypothesized that wobble uridine modifications catalyzed by tRNA methyltransferase 9 (Trm9) are essential for translational fidelity. In support, we have used phenotypic, reporter and protein-based assays to demonstrate increased translational infidelity in trm9Δ Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Codon reengineering studies suggest that Trm9-catalyzed tRNA modifications promote fidelity during the translation of specific genes, those rich in arginine and glutamic acid codons from mixed boxes. Using quantitative tRNA modification analysis, we determined that trm9Δ cells are only deficient in 2 of 23 tRNA modifications, with those 2, 5-methoxycarbonylmethyluridine (mcm ( 5) U) and 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm ( 5) s ( 2) U), classified as key determinants of translational fidelity. We also show that in the absence of mcm ( 5) U and mcm ( 5) s ( 2) U, the resulting translational infidelity promotes protein errors and activation of unfolded protein and heat shock responses. These data support a model in which Trm9-catalyzed tRNA modifications promote fidelity during the translation of specific transcripts, with decreased wobble base modification leading to translational infidelity, protein errors and activation of protein stress response pathways.

  20. tRNA modifying enzymes, NSUN2 and METTL1, determine sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil in HeLa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Okamoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nonessential tRNA modifications by methyltransferases are evolutionarily conserved and have been reported to stabilize mature tRNA molecules and prevent rapid tRNA decay (RTD. The tRNA modifying enzymes, NSUN2 and METTL1, are mammalian orthologs of yeast Trm4 and Trm8, which are required for protecting tRNA against RTD. A simultaneous overexpression of NSUN2 and METTL1 is widely observed among human cancers suggesting that targeting of both proteins provides a novel powerful strategy for cancer chemotherapy. Here, we show that combined knockdown of NSUN2 and METTL1 in HeLa cells drastically potentiate sensitivity of cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU whereas heat stress of cells revealed no effects. Since NSUN2 and METTL1 are phosphorylated by Aurora-B and Akt, respectively, and their tRNA modifying activities are suppressed by phosphorylation, overexpression of constitutively dephosphorylated forms of both methyltransferases is able to suppress 5-FU sensitivity. Thus, NSUN2 and METTL1 are implicated in 5-FU sensitivity in HeLa cells. Interfering with methylation of tRNAs might provide a promising rationale to improve 5-FU chemotherapy of cancer.

  1. Effects of Heterologous tRNA Modifications on the Production of Proteins Containing Noncanonical Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crnković, Ana; Vargas-Rodriguez, Oscar; Merkuryev, Anna; Söll, Dieter

    2018-02-02

    Synthesis of proteins with noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) enables the creation of protein-based biomaterials with diverse new chemical properties that may be attractive for material science. Current methods for large-scale production of ncAA-containing proteins, frequently carried out in Escherichia coli , involve the use of orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (o-aaRSs) and tRNAs (o-tRNAs). Although o-tRNAs are designed to be orthogonal to endogenous aaRSs, their orthogonality to the components of the E. coli metabolism remains largely unexplored. We systematically investigated how the E. coli tRNA modification machinery affects the efficiency and orthogonality of o-tRNA Sep used for production of proteins with the ncAA O- phosphoserine (Sep). The incorporation of Sep into a green fluorescent protein (GFP) in 42 E. coli strains carrying deletions of single tRNA modification genes identified several genes that affect the o-tRNA activity. Deletion of cysteine desulfurase ( iscS ) increased the yield of Sep-containing GFP more than eightfold, while overexpression of dimethylallyltransferase MiaA and pseudouridine synthase TruB improved the specificity of Sep incorporation. These results highlight the importance of tRNA modifications for the biosynthesis of proteins containing ncAAs, and provide a novel framework for optimization of o-tRNAs.

  2. Sequence-dependent base-stacking stabilities guide tRNA folding energy landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongzhong; Ge, Heming W; Cho, Samuel S

    2013-10-24

    The folding of bacterial tRNAs with disparate sequences has been observed to proceed in distinct folding mechanisms despite their structural similarity. To explore the folding landscapes of tRNA, we performed ion concentration-dependent coarse-grained TIS model MD simulations of several E. coli tRNAs to compare their thermodynamic melting profiles to the classical absorbance spectra of Crothers and co-workers. To independently validate our findings, we also performed atomistic empirical force field MD simulations of tRNAs, and we compared the base-to-base distances from coarse-grained and atomistic MD simulations to empirical base-stacking free energies. We then projected the free energies to the secondary structural elements of tRNA, and we observe distinct, parallel folding mechanisms whose differences can be inferred on the basis of their sequence-dependent base-stacking stabilities. In some cases, a premature, nonproductive folding intermediate corresponding to the Ψ hairpin loop must backtrack to the unfolded state before proceeding to the folded state. This observation suggests a possible explanation for the fast and slow phases observed in tRNA folding kinetics.

  3. Effects of Heterologous tRNA Modifications on the Production of Proteins Containing Noncanonical Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Crnković

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of proteins with noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs enables the creation of protein-based biomaterials with diverse new chemical properties that may be attractive for material science. Current methods for large-scale production of ncAA-containing proteins, frequently carried out in Escherichia coli, involve the use of orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (o-aaRSs and tRNAs (o-tRNAs. Although o-tRNAs are designed to be orthogonal to endogenous aaRSs, their orthogonality to the components of the E. coli metabolism remains largely unexplored. We systematically investigated how the E. coli tRNA modification machinery affects the efficiency and orthogonality of o-tRNASep used for production of proteins with the ncAA O-phosphoserine (Sep. The incorporation of Sep into a green fluorescent protein (GFP in 42 E. coli strains carrying deletions of single tRNA modification genes identified several genes that affect the o-tRNA activity. Deletion of cysteine desulfurase (iscS increased the yield of Sep-containing GFP more than eightfold, while overexpression of dimethylallyltransferase MiaA and pseudouridine synthase TruB improved the specificity of Sep incorporation. These results highlight the importance of tRNA modifications for the biosynthesis of proteins containing ncAAs, and provide a novel framework for optimization of o-tRNAs.

  4. MMB-GUI: a fast morphing method demonstrates a possible ribosomal tRNA translocation trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tek, Alex; Korostelev, Andrei A; Flores, Samuel Coulbourn

    2016-01-08

    Easy-to-use macromolecular viewers, such as UCSF Chimera, are a standard tool in structural biology. They allow rendering and performing geometric operations on large complexes, such as viruses and ribosomes. Dynamical simulation codes enable modeling of conformational changes, but may require considerable time and many CPUs. There is an unmet demand from structural and molecular biologists for software in the middle ground, which would allow visualization combined with quick and interactive modeling of conformational changes, even of large complexes. This motivates MMB-GUI. MMB uses an internal-coordinate, multiscale approach, yielding as much as a 2000-fold speedup over conventional simulation methods. We use Chimera as an interactive graphical interface to control MMB. We show how this can be used for morphing of macromolecules that can be heterogeneous in biopolymer type, sequence, and chain count, accurately recapitulating structural intermediates. We use MMB-GUI to create a possible trajectory of EF-G mediated gate-passing translocation in the ribosome, with all-atom structures. This shows that the GUI makes modeling of large macromolecules accessible to a wide audience. The morph highlights similarities in tRNA conformational changes as tRNA translocates from A to P and from P to E sites and suggests that tRNA flexibility is critical for translocation completion. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Growth-Rate Dependent Regulation of tRNA Level and Charging in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Iolanda; Liebeton, Klaus; Ignatova, Zoya

    2017-10-13

    Cellular growth crucially depends on protein synthesis and the abundance of translational components. Among them, aminoacyl-tRNAs play a central role in biosynthesis and shape the kinetics of mRNA translation, thus influencing protein production. Here, we used microarray-based approaches to determine the charging levels and tRNA abundance of Bacillus licheniformis. We observed an interesting cross-talk among tRNA expression, charging pattern, and growth rate. For a large subset of tRNAs, we found a co-regulated and augmented expression at high growth rate. Their tRNA aminoacylation level is kept relatively constant through riboswitch-regulated expression of the cognate aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase (AARS). We show that AARSs with putative riboswitch-controlled expression are those charging tRNAs with amino acids which disfavor cell growth when individually added to the nutrient medium. Our results suggest that the riboswitch-regulated AARS expression in B. licheniformis is a powerful mechanism not only to maintain a constant ratio of aminoacyl-tRNA independent of the growth rate but concomitantly to control the intracellular level of free amino acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Snapshots of Dynamics in Synthesizing N6-isopentenyladenosine at tRNA Anticodon†,‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimnaronk, Sarin; Forouhar, Farhad; Sakai, Junichi; Yao, Min; Tron, Cecile M.; Atta, Mohamed; Fontecave, Marc; Hunt, John F.; Tanaka, Isao

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial and eukaryotic transfer RNAs that decode codons starting with uridine have a hydrophobically-hypermodified adenosine at the position 37 (A37) adjacent to the 3′-end of the anticodon, which is essential for efficient and highly accurate protein translation by the ribosome. However, it remains unclear how the corresponding tRNAs are selected to be modified by alkylation at the correct position of the adenosine base. We have determined a series of the crystal structures of bacterial tRNA isopentenyltransferase (MiaA) in apo- and tRNA-bound forms, which completely render snapshots of substrate selections during modification of RNA. A compact evolutionary inserted domain (herein ‘swinging domain’) in MiaA that exhibits as a highly mobile entity moves around the catalytic domain as likely to reach and trap the tRNA substrate. Thereby, MiaA clamps the anticodon stem loop of tRNA substrate between the catalytic and swinging domains, where the two conserved elongated residues from the swinging domain pinch the two flanking A36 and A38 together to squeeze out A37 into the reaction tunnel. The site-specific isopentenylation of RNA is thus ensured by a characteristic pinch-and-flip mechanism and by a reaction tunnel to confine the substrate selection. Furthermore, combining information from soaking experiments with structural comparisons, we propose a mechanism for the ordered substrate-binding of MiaA. PMID:19435325

  7. Gain-Of-Function Mutational Activation of Human TRNA Synthetase Procytokine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.L.; Kapoor, M.; Otero, F.J.; Slike, B.M.; Tsuruta, H.; Frausto, R.; Bates, A.; Ewalt, K.L.; Cheresh, D.A.; Schimmel, P.; /Scripps Res. Inst. /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-04-30

    Disease-causing mutations occur in genes for aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. That some mutations are dominant suggests a gain of function. Native tRNA synthetases, such as tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, catalyze aminoacylation and are also procytokines that are activated by natural fragmentation. In principle, however, gain-of-function phenotypes could arise from mutational activation of synthetase procytokines. From crystal structure analysis, we hypothesized that a steric block of a critical Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR) motif in full-length TyrRS suppresses the cytokine activity of a natural fragment. To test this hypothesis, we attempted to uncover ELR in the procytokine by mutating a conserved tyrosine (Y341) that tethers ELR. Site-specific proteolytic cleavage and small-angle X-ray scattering established subtle opening of the structure by the mutation. Strikingly, four different assays demonstrated mutational activation of cytokine functions. The results prove the possibilities for constitutive gain-of-function mutations in tRNA synthetases.

  8. RNase MRP cleaves pre-tRNASer-Met in the tRNA maturation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yuichiro; Takeda, Jun; Adachi, Kousuke; Nobe, Yuko; Kobayashi, Junya; Hirota, Kouji; Oliveira, Douglas V; Taoka, Masato; Isobe, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Ribonuclease mitochondrial RNA processing (RNase MRP) is a multifunctional ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that is involved in the maturation of various types of RNA including ribosomal RNA. RNase MRP consists of a potential catalytic RNA and several protein components, all of which are required for cell viability. We show here that the temperature-sensitive mutant of rmp1, the gene for a unique protein component of RNase MRP, accumulates the dimeric tRNA precursor, pre-tRNA(Ser-Met). To examine whether RNase MRP mediates tRNA maturation, we purified the RNase MRP holoenzyme from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and found that the enzyme directly and selectively cleaves pre-tRNA(Ser-Met), suggesting that RNase MRP participates in the maturation of specific tRNA in vivo. In addition, mass spectrometry-based ribonucleoproteomic analysis demonstrated that this RNase MRP consists of one RNA molecule and 11 protein components, including a previously unknown component Rpl701. Notably, limited nucleolysis of RNase MRP generated an active catalytic core consisting of partial mrp1 RNA fragments, which constitute "Domain 1" in the secondary structure of RNase MRP, and 8 proteins. Thus, the present study provides new insight into the structure and function of RNase MRP.

  9. Alteration of protein function by a silent polymorphism linked to tRNA abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kirchner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (sSNPs are considered neutral for protein function, as by definition they exchange only codons, not amino acids. We identified an sSNP that modifies the local translation speed of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, leading to detrimental changes to protein stability and function. This sSNP introduces a codon pairing to a low-abundance tRNA that is particularly rare in human bronchial epithelia, but not in other human tissues, suggesting tissue-specific effects of this sSNP. Up-regulation of the tRNA cognate to the mutated codon counteracts the effects of the sSNP and rescues protein conformation and function. Our results highlight the wide-ranging impact of sSNPs, which invert the programmed local speed of mRNA translation and provide direct evidence for the central role of cellular tRNA levels in mediating the actions of sSNPs in a tissue-specific manner.

  10. Alteration of protein function by a silent polymorphism linked to tRNA abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Sebastian; Cai, Zhiwei; Rauscher, Robert; Kastelic, Nicolai; Anding, Melanie; Czech, Andreas; Kleizen, Bertrand; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Braakman, Ineke; Sheppard, David N; Ignatova, Zoya

    2017-05-01

    Synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (sSNPs) are considered neutral for protein function, as by definition they exchange only codons, not amino acids. We identified an sSNP that modifies the local translation speed of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), leading to detrimental changes to protein stability and function. This sSNP introduces a codon pairing to a low-abundance tRNA that is particularly rare in human bronchial epithelia, but not in other human tissues, suggesting tissue-specific effects of this sSNP. Up-regulation of the tRNA cognate to the mutated codon counteracts the effects of the sSNP and rescues protein conformation and function. Our results highlight the wide-ranging impact of sSNPs, which invert the programmed local speed of mRNA translation and provide direct evidence for the central role of cellular tRNA levels in mediating the actions of sSNPs in a tissue-specific manner.

  11. Maternal titers after adequate syphilotherapy during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rac, Martha W F; Bryant, Stefanie N; Cantey, Joseph B; McIntire, Donald D; Wendel, George D; Sheffield, Jeanne S

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to construct a timeline for nontreponemal titer decline specific to pregnancy and evaluate factors associated with inadequate decline by delivery. This was a retrospective medical records review from September 1984 to June 2011 of women diagnosed with syphilis after 18 weeks of gestation. Women were treated according to stage of syphilis per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Patients with both pretreatment and delivery titers were included for data analysis. Demographics, stage of syphilis, maternal titers, delivery, and infant outcomes were recorded. Standard statistical analyses were performed for categorical and continuous data. The titer decline was analyzed using mixed-effects regression modeling. A total of 166 patients met inclusion criteria. Mean gestational age at treatment was 29.1 ± 5 weeks, and 93 (56%) women were diagnosed with early-stage syphilis. For all stages of syphilis, maternal titers declined after syphilotherapy. Pretreatment titers were higher and declined more rapidly in primary and secondary disease than in latent-stage disease and syphilis of unknown duration. Sixty-three (38%) patients achieved a 4-fold decline by delivery. Patients without a 4-fold decline by delivery were older (24.6 vs 21.5 years; P syphilis or syphilis of unknown duration, and had less time from treatment to delivery (7.8 vs 11.1 weeks; P < .001). Maternal serologic response during pregnancy after adequate syphilotherapy varied by stage of disease. Failure to achieve a 4-fold decline in titers by delivery is more a reflection of treatment timing than of treatment failure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Regulation of tRNA biogenesis in plants and its link to plant growth and response to pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soprano, Adriana Santos; Smetana, Juliana Helena Costa; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo

    2017-12-06

    The field of tRNA biology, encompassing the functional and structural complexity of tRNAs, has fascinated scientists over the years and is continuously growing. Besides their fundamental role in protein translation, new evidence indicates that tRNA-derived molecules also regulate gene expression and protein synthesis in all domains of life. This review highlights some of the recent findings linking tRNA transcription and modification with plant cell growth and response to pathogens. In fact, mutations in proteins directly involved in tRNA synthesis and modification most often lead to pleiotropic effects on plant growth and immunity. As plants need to optimize and balance their energy and nutrient resources towards growth and defense, regulatory pathways that play a central role in integrating tRNA transcription and protein translation with cell growth control and organ development, such as the auxin-TOR signaling pathway, also influence the plant immune response against pathogens. As a consequence, distinct pathogens employ an array of effector molecules including tRNA fragments to target such regulatory pathways to exploit the plant's translational capacity, gain access to nutrients and evade defenses. An example includes the RNA polymerase III repressor MAF1, a conserved component of the TOR signaling pathway that controls ribosome biogenesis and tRNA synthesis required for plant growth and which is targeted by a pathogen effector molecule to promote disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: SI: Regulation of tRNA synthesis and modification in physiological conditions and disease edited by Dr. Boguta Magdalena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Conformation and functioning of tRNAs: cross-linked tRNAs as substrate for tRNA nucleotidyl-transferase and aminoacyl synthetases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, D.S.; Thomas, G.; Favre, A.

    1974-01-01

    The behavior of mixed E. coli tRNAs ''cross-linked'' by irradiation with near ultraviolet light (310-400 nm) has been compared to that of the intact molecules in two enzymatic processes. No change in the rate and extent of the repair of the pCpCpA 3' terminus of tRNA by purified E. coli tRNA nucleotidyltransferase can be detected. In contrast, complex data were obtained in the acylation reaction. They can be understood using other tRNA specific modifications as well as our present knowledge of E. coli tRNA sequences and rare base content [fr

  14. Exploring the interaction of Azure dyes with t-RNA by hybrid spectroscopic and computational approaches and its applications toward human lung cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Dhanya; Ilanchelian, Malaichamy

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, in depth characterization of binding aspects of Azure A (AZA) and Azure B (AZB) with transfer Ribonucleic acid (t-RNA) from Escherichia coli (E.coli) is investigated using spectroscopic techniques. The absorbance and fluorescence properties of these dyes have been remarkably changed upon binding with t-RNA. Significant changes in the absorption maxima of the dyes evidence the t-RNA induced metachromasy and the binding clearly revealed the high affinity of AZA and AZB to t-RNA. Strong emission polarization of the bound dyes and strong energy transfer from the guanine base pairs of t-RNA suggested intercalative binding interaction. The stoichiometry of AZA and AZB with t-RNA complexes are determined by the Benesi-Hildebrand plot from emission data. The negative values of free energy change indicated the involvement of hydrophobic forces and noncovalent interactions in the complexation of both the dyes with t-RNA. The 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay in A-549 human lung cancer cell lines reveals that binding of t-RNA reduces the toxicity of AZA and AZB. The utility of the present work explores the potential binding applicability of these dyes to t-RNA for their development as effective therapeutic agents and its target at molecular level for the treatment of diseases like cancer. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Limited diagnostic value of enzyme analysis in patients with mitochondrial tRNA mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibrand, Flemming; Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard; Frederiksen, Anja L

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic value of respiratory chain (RC) enzyme analysis of muscle in adult patients with mitochondrial myopathy (MM). RC enzyme activity was measured in muscle biopsies from 39 patients who carry either the 3243A>G mutation, other tRNA point mutations, or single, large......, respectively, in these three groups. The results indicate that RC enzyme analysis in muscle is not a sensitive test for MM in adults. In these patients, abnormal muscle histochemistry appears to be a better predictor ofMM....

  16. Alteration of protein function by a silent polymorphism linked to tRNA abundance

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchner, Sebastian; Cai, Zhiwei; Rauscher, Robert; Kastelic, Nicolai; Anding, Melanie; Czech, Andreas; Kleizen, Bertrand; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Braakman, Ineke; Sheppard, David N.; Ignatova, Zoya

    2017-01-01

    Synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (sSNPs) are considered neutral for protein function, as by definition they exchange only codons, not amino acids. We identified an sSNP that modifies the local translation speed of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conduc-tance regulator (CFTR), leading to detrimental changes to protein stability and function. This sSNP introduces a codon pairing to a low-abundance tRNA that is particularly rare in human bronchial epithelia, but not in other human ti...

  17. Structure and Activity of an Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase that Charges tRNA with Nitro-Tryptophan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddha,M.; Crane, B.

    2005-01-01

    The most divergent of two tryptophanyl tRNA synthetases (TrpRS II) found in Deinococcus radiodurans interacts with a nitric oxide synthase protein that produces 4-nitro-tryptophan (4-NRP). TrpRS II efficiently charges transfer RNATrp with 4-NRP and 5-hydroxy-tryptophan (5-HRP). The crystal structures of TrpRS II bound to tryptophan and 5-HRP reveal residue substitutions that accommodate modified indoles. A class of auxiliary bacterial TrpRSs conserve this capacity to charge tRNA with nonstandard amino acids.

  18. tRNA Derived smallRNAs: smallRNAs Repertoire Has Yet to Be Decoded in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sablok

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Among several smallRNAs classes, microRNAs play an important role in controlling the post-transcriptional events. Next generation sequencing has played a major role in extending the landscape of miRNAs and revealing their spatio-temporal roles in development and abiotic stress. Lateral evolution of these smallRNAs classes have widely been seen with the recently emerging knowledge on tRNA derived smallRNAs. In the present perspective, we discussed classification, identification and roles of tRNA derived smallRNAs across plants and their potential involvement in abiotic and biotic stresses.

  19. Orthogonal use of a human tRNA synthetase active site to achieve multi-functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quansheng; Kapoor, Mili; Guo, Min; Belani, Rajesh; Xu, Xiaoling; Kiosses, William B.; Hanan, Melanie; Park, Chulho; Armour, Eva; Do, Minh-Ha; Nangle, Leslie A.; Schimmel, Paul; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2011-01-01

    Protein multi-functionality is an emerging explanation for the complexity of higher organisms. In this regard, while aminoacyl tRNA synthetases catalyze amino acid activation for protein synthesis, some also act in pathways for inflammation, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. How multiple functions evolved and their relationship to the active site is not clear. Here structural modeling analysis, mutagenesis, and cell-based functional studies show that the potent angiostatic, natural fragment of human TrpRS associates via Trp side chains that protrude from the cognate cellular receptor VE-cadherin. Modeling indicates that (I prefer the way it was because the conclusion was reached not only by modeling, but more so by experimental studies.)VE-cadherin Trp side chains fit into the Trp-specific active site of the synthetase. Thus, specific side chains of the receptor mimic (?) amino acid substrates and expand the functionality of the active site of the synthetase. We propose that orthogonal use of the same active site may be a general way to develop multi-functionality of human tRNA synthetases and other proteins. PMID:20010843

  20. Immunopurification of the suppressor tRNA dependent rabbit β-globin readthrough protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, D.; Thorgeirsson, S.S.; Copeland, T.D.; Oroszlan, S.; Bustin, M.

    1988-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the rabbit β-globin readthrough protein is the only known example of a naturally occurring readthrough protein which does not involve a viral system. To provide an efficient means for its isolation, detection, and study, the authors elicited specific antibodies against this unique protein. The 22 amino acid peptide corresponding to the readthrough portion of this protein was synthesized, coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, and injected into sheep. Specific antibodies to the peptide were produced as demonstrated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique and by immunoblotting. The antibodies did not react with globin. The rabbit β-globin readthrough protein was separated from globin and other reticulocyte proteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and visualized by silver staining or by labeling with [ 35 S] methionine. Incorporation of [ 35 S] methionine into the readthrough protein was significantly enhanced upon addition of an opal suppressor tRNA to reticulocyte lysates. Immunoblotting revealed that the readthrough protein also occurs in lysates without added suppressor tRNA. The antibodies were purified on an affi-gel column which had been coupled with the peptide antigen. The readthrough protein was then purified from reticulocytes by immunoaffinity chromatography and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results provide conclusive evidence that the β-globin readthrough protein is naturally occurring in rabbit reticulocytes

  1. 2'-O-methylation in mRNA disrupts tRNA decoding during translation elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Junhong; Indrisiunaite, Gabriele; DeMirci, Hasan; Ieong, Ka-Weng; Wang, Jinfan; Petrov, Alexey; Prabhakar, Arjun; Rechavi, Gideon; Dominissini, Dan; He, Chuan; Ehrenberg, Måns; Puglisi, Joseph D

    2018-03-01

    Chemical modifications of mRNA may regulate many aspects of mRNA processing and protein synthesis. Recently, 2'-O-methylation of nucleotides was identified as a frequent modification in translated regions of human mRNA, showing enrichment in codons for certain amino acids. Here, using single-molecule, bulk kinetics and structural methods, we show that 2'-O-methylation within coding regions of mRNA disrupts key steps in codon reading during cognate tRNA selection. Our results suggest that 2'-O-methylation sterically perturbs interactions of ribosomal-monitoring bases (G530, A1492 and A1493) with cognate codon-anticodon helices, thereby inhibiting downstream GTP hydrolysis by elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and A-site tRNA accommodation, leading to excessive rejection of cognate aminoacylated tRNAs in initial selection and proofreading. Our current and prior findings highlight how chemical modifications of mRNA tune the dynamics of protein synthesis at different steps of translation elongation.

  2. Cross-Talk between Dnmt2-Dependent tRNA Methylation and Queuosine Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E. Ehrenhofer-Murray

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes of the Dnmt2 family of methyltransferases have yielded a number of unexpected discoveries. The first surprise came more than ten years ago when it was realized that, rather than being DNA methyltransferases, Dnmt2 enzymes actually are transfer RNA (tRNA methyltransferases for cytosine-5 methylation, foremost C38 (m5C38 of tRNAAsp. The second unanticipated finding was our recent discovery of a nutritional regulation of Dnmt2 in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Significantly, the presence of the nucleotide queuosine in tRNAAsp strongly stimulates Dnmt2 activity both in vivo and in vitro in S. pombe. Queuine, the respective base, is a hypermodified guanine analog that is synthesized from guanosine-5’-triphosphate (GTP by bacteria. Interestingly, most eukaryotes have queuosine in their tRNA. However, they cannot synthesize it themselves, but rather salvage it from food or from gut microbes. The queuine obtained from these sources comes from the breakdown of tRNAs, where the queuine ultimately was synthesized by bacteria. Queuine thus has been termed a micronutrient. This review summarizes the current knowledge of Dnmt2 methylation and queuosine modification with respect to translation as well as the organismal consequences of the absence of these modifications. Models for the functional cooperation between these modifications and its wider implications are discussed.

  3. Biogenesis and function of tRNA fragments during sperm maturation and fertilization in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Upasna; Conine, Colin C; Shea, Jeremy M; Boskovic, Ana; Derr, Alan G; Bing, Xin Y; Belleannee, Clemence; Kucukural, Alper; Serra, Ryan W; Sun, Fengyun; Song, Lina; Carone, Benjamin R; Ricci, Emiliano P; Li, Xin Z; Fauquier, Lucas; Moore, Melissa J; Sullivan, Robert; Mello, Craig C; Garber, Manuel; Rando, Oliver J

    2016-01-22

    Several recent studies link parental environments to phenotypes in subsequent generations. In this work, we investigate the mechanism by which paternal diet affects offspring metabolism. Protein restriction in mice affects small RNA (sRNA) levels in mature sperm, with decreased let-7 levels and increased amounts of 5' fragments of glycine transfer RNAs (tRNAs). In testicular sperm, tRNA fragments are scarce but increase in abundance as sperm mature in the epididymis. Epididymosomes (vesicles that fuse with sperm during epididymal transit) carry RNA payloads matching those of mature sperm and can deliver RNAs to immature sperm in vitro. Functionally, tRNA-glycine-GCC fragments repress genes associated with the endogenous retroelement MERVL, in both embryonic stem cells and embryos. Our results shed light on sRNA biogenesis and its dietary regulation during posttesticular sperm maturation, and they also link tRNA fragments to regulation of endogenous retroelements active in the preimplantation embryo. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Engineering CRISPR/Cpf1 with tRNA promotes genome editing capability in mammalian systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han; Liu, Qishuai; Shi, Hui; Xie, Jingke; Zhang, Quanjun; Ouyang, Zhen; Li, Nan; Yang, Yi; Liu, Zhaoming; Zhao, Yu; Lai, Chengdan; Ruan, Degong; Peng, Jiangyun; Ge, Weikai; Chen, Fangbing; Fan, Nana; Jin, Qin; Liang, Yanhui; Lan, Ting; Yang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xiaoshan; Lei, Zhiyong; Doevendans, Pieter A; Sluijter, Joost P G; Wang, Kepin; Li, Xiaoping; Lai, Liangxue

    2018-04-10

    CRISPR/Cpf1 features a number of properties that are distinct from CRISPR/Cas9 and provides an excellent alternative to Cas9 for genome editing. To date, genome engineering by CRISPR/Cpf1 has been reported only in human cells and mouse embryos of mammalian systems and its efficiency is ultimately lower than that of Cas9 proteins from Streptococcus pyogenes. The application of CRISPR/Cpf1 for targeted mutagenesis in other animal models has not been successfully verified. In this study, we designed and optimized a guide RNA (gRNA) transcription system by inserting a transfer RNA precursor (pre-tRNA) sequence downstream of the gRNA for Cpf1, protecting gRNA from immediate digestion by 3'-to-5' exonucleases. Using this new gRNA tRNA system, genome editing, including indels, large fragment deletion and precise point mutation, was induced in mammalian systems, showing significantly higher efficiency than the original Cpf1-gRNA system. With this system, gene-modified rabbits and pigs were generated by embryo injection or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with an efficiency comparable to that of the Cas9 gRNA system. These results demonstrated that this refined gRNA tRNA system can boost the targeting capability of CRISPR/Cpf1 toolkits.

  5. Examining tRNA 3'-ends inEscherichia coli: teamwork between CCA-adding enzyme, RNase T, and RNase R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellner, Karolin; Czech, Andreas; Ignatova, Zoya; Betat, Heike; Mörl, Mario

    2018-03-01

    tRNA maturation and quality control are crucial for proper functioning of these transcripts in translation. In several organisms, defective tRNAs were shown to be tagged by poly(A) or CCACCA tails and subsequently degraded by 3'-exonucleases. In a deep-sequencing analysis of tRNA 3'-ends, we detected the CCACCA tag also in Escherichia coli However, this tag closely resembles several 3'-trailers of tRNA precursors targeted for maturation and not for degradation. Here, we investigate the ability of two important exonucleases, RNase R and RNase T, to distinguish tRNA precursors with a native 3'-trailer from tRNAs with a CCACCA tag. Our results show that the degrading enzyme RNase R breaks down both tRNAs primed for degradation as well as precursor transcripts, indicating that it is a rather nonspecific RNase. RNase T, a main processing exonuclease involved in trimming of 3'-trailers, is very inefficient in converting the CCACCA-tagged tRNA into a mature transcript. Hence, while both RNases compete for trailer-containing tRNA precursors, the inability of RNase T to process CCACCA tails ensures that defective tRNAs cannot reenter the functional tRNA pool, representing a safeguard to avoid detrimental effects of tRNAs with erroneous integrity on protein synthesis. Furthermore, these data indicate that the RNase T-mediated end turnover of the CCA sequence represents a means to deliver a tRNA to a repeated quality control performed by the CCA-adding enzyme. Hence, originally described as a futile side reaction, the tRNA end turnover seems to fulfill an important function in the maintenance of the tRNA pool in the cell. © 2018 Wellner et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  6. Several RNase T2 enzymes function in induced tRNA and rRNA turnover in the ciliate Tetrahymena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Langebjerg; Collins, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    RNA fragments continued to accumulate, with only a minor change in fragment profile in one strain. We therefore generated strains lacking pairwise combinations of the top three candidates for Rnt2 tRNases. Each of these strains showed a distinct starvation-specific profile of tRNA and rRNA fragment accumulation...

  7. N(6)-methyladenosine in mRNA disrupts tRNA selection and translation-elongation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Junhong; Ieong, Ka-Weng; Demirci, Hasan; Chen, Jin; Petrov, Alexey; Prabhakar, Arjun; O'Leary, Seán E; Dominissini, Dan; Rechavi, Gideon; Soltis, S Michael; Ehrenberg, Måns; Puglisi, Joseph D

    2016-02-01

    N(6)-methylation of adenosine (forming m(6)A) is the most abundant post-transcriptional modification within the coding region of mRNA, but its role during translation remains unknown. Here, we used bulk kinetic and single-molecule methods to probe the effect of m(6)A in mRNA decoding. Although m(6)A base-pairs with uridine during decoding, as shown by X-ray crystallographic analyses of Thermus thermophilus ribosomal complexes, our measurements in an Escherichia coli translation system revealed that m(6)A modification of mRNA acts as a barrier to tRNA accommodation and translation elongation. The interaction between an m(6)A-modified codon and cognate tRNA echoes the interaction between a near-cognate codon and tRNA, because delay in tRNA accommodation depends on the position and context of m(6)A within codons and on the accuracy level of translation. Overall, our results demonstrate that chemical modification of mRNA can change translational dynamics.

  8. In vitro studies on tRNA annealing and reverse transcription with mutant HIV-1 RNA templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerens, N.; Berkhout, B.

    2000-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA genome encodes a semistable stem-loop structure, the U5-PBS hairpin, which occludes part of the tRNA primer binding site (PBS). In previous studies, we demonstrated that mutations that alter the stability of the U5-PBS hairpin inhibit virus

  9. An entropy based analysis of the relationship between the DOW JONES Index and the TRNA Sentiment series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); A.K. Singh (Abhay)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper features an analysis of the relationship between the DOW JONES Industrial Average Index (DJIA) and a sentiment news series using daily data obtained from the Thomson Reuters News Analytics (TRNA)1 provided by SIRCA (The Securities Industry Research Centre of the Asia Pacic).

  10. The nucleotide sequence of histidine tRNA gamma of Drosophila melanogaster.

    OpenAIRE

    Altwegg, M; Kubli, E

    1980-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of D. melanogaster histidine tRNA gamma was determined to be: pG-G-C-C-G-U-G-A-U-C-G-U-C-psi-A-G-D-G-G-D-D-A-G-G-A-C-C-C-C-A-C-G-psi-U-G-U-G- m1G-C-C-G-U-G-G-U-A-A-C-C-m5C-A-G-G-U-psi-C-G-m1A-A-U-C-C-U-G-G-U-C-A-C-G-G-m5C -A-C-C-AOH. An additional unpaired G is found at the 5' end, and the T in the TpsiC loop is replaced by a U.

  11. Simulating movement of tRNA through the ribosome during hybrid-state formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Paul C; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y

    2013-09-28

    Biomolecular simulations provide a means for exploring the relationship between flexibility, energetics, structure, and function. With the availability of atomic models from X-ray crystallography and cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM), and rapid increases in computing capacity, it is now possible to apply molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to large biomolecular machines, and systematically partition the factors that contribute to function. A large biomolecular complex for which atomic models are available is the ribosome. In the cell, the ribosome reads messenger RNA (mRNA) in order to synthesize proteins. During this essential process, the ribosome undergoes a wide range of conformational rearrangements. One of the most poorly understood transitions is translocation: the process by which transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules move between binding sites inside of the ribosome. The first step of translocation is the adoption of a "hybrid" configuration by the tRNAs, which is accompanied by large-scale rotations in the ribosomal subunits. To illuminate the relationship between these rearrangements, we apply MD simulations using a multi-basin structure-based (SMOG) model, together with targeted molecular dynamics protocols. From 120 simulated transitions, we demonstrate the viability of a particular route during P/E hybrid-state formation, where there is asynchronous movement along rotation and tRNA coordinates. These simulations not only suggest an ordering of events, but they highlight atomic interactions that may influence the kinetics of hybrid-state formation. From these simulations, we also identify steric features (H74 and surrounding residues) encountered during the hybrid transition, and observe that flexibility of the single-stranded 3'-CCA tail is essential for it to reach the endpoint. Together, these simulations provide a set of structural and energetic signatures that suggest strategies for modulating the physical-chemical properties of protein synthesis by the

  12. Loss of wobble uridine modification in tRNA anticodons interferes with TOR pathway signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, Viktor; Jüdes, André; Bär, Christian; Klassen, Roland; Schaffrath, Raffael

    2014-11-29

    Previous work in yeast has suggested that modification of tRNAs, in particular uridine bases in the anticodon wobble position (U34), is linked to TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling. Hence, U34 modification mutants were found to be hypersensitive to TOR inhibition by rapamycin. To study whether this involves inappropriate TOR signaling, we examined interaction between mutations in TOR pathway genes ( tip41 ∆, sap190 ∆, ppm1 ∆, rrd1 ∆) and U34 modification defects ( elp3 ∆, kti 12∆, urm1 ∆, ncs2 ∆) and found the rapamycin hypersensitivity in the latter is epistatic to drug resistance of the former. Epistasis, however, is abolished in tandem with a gln3 ∆ deletion, which inactivates transcription factor Gln3 required for TOR-sensitive activation of NCR (nitrogen catabolite repression) genes. In line with nuclear import of Gln3 being under control of TOR and dephosphorylation by the Sit4 phosphatase, we identify novel TOR-sensitive sit4 mutations that confer rapamycin resistance and importantly, mislocalise Gln3 when TOR is inhibited. This is similar to gln3 ∆ cells, which abolish the rapamycin hypersensitivity of U34 modification mutants, and suggests TOR deregulation due to tRNA undermodification operates through Gln3. In line with this, loss of U34 modifications ( elp3 ∆, urm1 ∆) enhances nuclear import of and NCR gene activation ( MEP2 , GAP1 ) by Gln3 when TOR activity is low. Strikingly, this stimulatory effect onto Gln3 is suppressed by overexpression of tRNAs that usually carry the U34 modifications. Collectively, our data suggest that proper TOR signaling requires intact tRNA modifications and that loss of U34 modifications impinges on the TOR-sensitive NCR branch via Gln3 misregulation.

  13. Formation of tRNA granules in the nucleus of heat-induced human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagawa, Ryu [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan); Mizuno, Rie [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Watanabe, Kazunori, E-mail: watanabe@ric.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Ijiri, Kenichi [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs are tranlocated into the nucleus in heat-induced HeLa cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs form the unique granules in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA ganules overlap with nuclear stress granules. -- Abstract: The stress response, which can trigger various physiological phenomena, is important for living organisms. For instance, a number of stress-induced granules such as P-body and stress granule have been identified. These granules are formed in the cytoplasm under stress conditions and are associated with translational inhibition and mRNA decay. In the nucleus, there is a focus named nuclear stress body (nSB) that distinguishes these structures from cytoplasmic stress granules. Many splicing factors and long non-coding RNA species localize in nSBs as a result of stress. Indeed, tRNAs respond to several kinds of stress such as heat, oxidation or starvation. Although nuclear accumulation of tRNAs occurs in starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this phenomenon is not found in mammalian cells. We observed that initiator tRNA{sup Met} (Meti) is actively translocated into the nucleus of human cells under heat stress. During this study, we identified unique granules of Meti that overlapped with nSBs. Similarly, elongator tRNA{sup Met} was translocated into the nucleus and formed granules during heat stress. Formation of tRNA granules is closely related to the translocation ratio. Then, all tRNAs may form the specific granules.

  14. A Drosophila model for mito-nuclear diseases generated by an incompatible interaction between tRNA and tRNA synthetase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa A. Holmbeck

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Communication between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes is vital for cellular function. The assembly of mitochondrial enzyme complexes, which produce the majority of cellular energy, requires the coordinated expression and translation of both mitochondrially and nuclear-encoded proteins. The joint genetic architecture of this system complicates the basis of mitochondrial diseases, and mutations both in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA- and nuclear-encoded genes have been implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction. Previously, in a set of mitochondrial-nuclear introgression strains, we characterized a dual genome epistasis in which a naturally occurring mutation in the Drosophila simulans simw501 mtDNA-encoded transfer RNA (tRNA for tyrosine (tRNATyr interacts with a mutation in the nuclear-encoded mitochondrially localized tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we show that the incompatible mitochondrial-nuclear combination results in locomotor defects, reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity, decreased oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS enzyme activity and severe alterations in mitochondrial morphology. Transgenic rescue strains containing nuclear variants of the tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase are sufficient to rescue many of the deleterious phenotypes identified when paired with the simw501 mtDNA. However, the severity of this defective mito-nuclear interaction varies across traits and genetic backgrounds, suggesting that the impact of mitochondrial dysfunction might be tissue specific. Because mutations in mitochondrial tRNATyr are associated with exercise intolerance in humans, this mitochondrial-nuclear introgression model in Drosophila provides a means to dissect the molecular basis of these, and other, mitochondrial diseases that are a consequence of the joint genetic architecture of mitochondrial function.

  15. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if an...

  16. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo Ndebele's…

  17. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the required...

  18. Army General Fund Adjustments Not Adequately Documented or Supported

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    audit of the FY 1991 Army financial statements.6 The Army indicated in its FY 2008 Statement of Assurance on Internal Controls7 that this material...Accounting Service Indianapolis (DFAS Indianapolis) did not adequately support $2.8 trillion in third quarter journal voucher (JV) adjustments and...statements were unreliable and lacked an adequate audit trail. Furthermore, DoD and Army managers could not rely on the data in their accounting

  19. Effect of anoxia and Polyscias filicifolia Bailey biomass tincture on the activity of tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in isolated pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasauskas, Artūras; Rodovicius, Hiliaras; Viezeliene, Dale; Lazauskas, Robertas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effect of anoxia and Polyscias filicifolia Bailey biomass tincture on the activities of different tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in isolated pig heart. The isolated pig heart was perfused according to the modified method of Langendorf, using an artificial blood circulation apparatus. Anoxia 20 min in duration was performed by perfusion of isolated heart with Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer saturated with gas mixture (95% N(2) and 5% CO(2)). Control heart was perfused with the same buffer saturated with gas mixture (95% O(2) and 5% CO(2)). Effect of Polyscias filicifolia Bailey biomass tincture was evaluated by perfusion of isolated heart with a buffer containing tincture. Total tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases were isolated from pig heart. Activities of tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases were measured by the aminoacylation reaction using C(14)-amino acids. Anoxia 20 min in duration has caused a decrease in the acceptor activity of tRNA and increase in the activities of aminacyl-tRNA synthetases. Polyscias filicifolia Bailey tincture did not affect the acceptor activity of tRNA and activities aminacyl-tRNA synthetases. After 20-min anoxic perfusion with the buffer containing Polyscias filicifolia Bailey biomass tincture, the acceptor activities of tRNA increased to the control value and activities of aminacyl-tRNA synthetases reached the control value. The acceptor activity of tRNA from isolated pig heart decreased and activities of aminacyl-tRNA synthetases increased under anoxia. Perfusion with buffer containing tincture of Polyscias filicifolia Bailey biomass restored acceptor activities of tRNA and activities of aminacyl-tRNA synthetases.

  20. The structure of the hypothetical protein smu.1377c from Streptococcus mutans suggests a role in tRNA modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Tian-Min; Liu, Xiang; Li, Lanfen; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of smu.1377c, a hypothetical protein from S. mutans, shows a similar fold to Sua5-YciO-YrdC-family proteins and indicates its functional role in tRNA modification. Members of the Sua5-YciO-YrdC protein family are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes and possess a conserved α/β twisted open-sheet fold. The Escherichia coli protein YrdC has been shown to be involved in modification of tRNA. The crystal structure of smu.1377c, a hypothetical protein from Streptococcus mutans, has been determined to 2.25 Å resolution. From structure analysis and comparison, it is shown that smu.1377c is a member of the Sua5-YciO-YrdC family and that it may play the same role as E. coli YrdC

  1. Initiation factor 2, tRNA, and 50S subunits cooperatively stabilize mRNAs on the ribosome during initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tomoaki; Petrov, Alexey N.; Iizuka, Ryo; Funatsu, Takashi; Puglisi, Joseph D.; Uemura, Sotaro

    2012-01-01

    Initiation factor 2 (IF2) is a key factor in initiation of bacterial protein synthesis. It recruits initiator tRNA to the small ribosomal subunit and facilitates joining of the large ribosomal subunit. Using reconstituted translation system of Escherichia coli and optical tweezers, we directly measure the rupture force between single ribosomal complexes and mRNAs for initiation complexes in the presence and the absence of IF2. We demonstrate that IF2 together with codon recognition by initiator tRNA increases the force required to dislocate mRNA from the ribosome complexes; mRNA stabilization by IF2 required the presence of a joined 50S subunit, and was independent of bound guanine nucleotide. IF2 thus helps lock the 70S ribosome over the start codon during initiation, thus maintaining reading frame. Our results show how mRNA is progressively stabilized on the ribosome through distinct steps of initiation. PMID:22411833

  2. Conservation of tRNA and rRNA 5-methylcytosine in the kingdom Plantae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Alice Louise; David, Rakesh; Searle, Iain Robert

    2015-08-14

    Post-transcriptional methylation of RNA cytosine residues to 5-methylcytosine (m(5)C) is an important modification that regulates RNA metabolism and occurs in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Yet, to date, no transcriptome-wide identification of m(5)C sites has been undertaken in plants. Plants provide a unique comparative system for investigating the origin and evolution of m(5)C as they contain three different genomes, the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplast. Here we use bisulfite conversion of RNA combined with high-throughput IIlumina sequencing (RBS-seq) to identify single-nucleotide resolution of m(5)C sites in non-coding ribosomal RNAs and transfer RNAs of all three sub-cellular transcriptomes across six diverse species that included, the single-celled algae Nannochloropsis oculata, the macro algae Caulerpa taxifolia and multi-cellular higher plants Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica rapa, Triticum durum and Ginkgo biloba. Using the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified a total of 39 highly methylated m(5)C sites in predicted structural positions of nuclear tRNAs and 7 m(5)C sites in rRNAs from nuclear, chloroplast and mitochondrial transcriptomes. Both the nucleotide position and percent methylation of tRNAs and rRNAs m(5)C sites were conserved across all species analysed, from single celled algae N. oculata to multicellular plants. Interestingly the mitochondrial and chloroplast encoded tRNAs were devoid of m(5)C in A. thaliana and this is generally conserved across Plantae. This suggests independent evolution of organelle methylation in animals and plants, as animal mitochondrial tRNAs have m(5)C sites. Here we characterize 5 members of the RNA 5-methylcytosine family in Arabidopsis and extend the functional characterization of TRDMT1 and NOP2A/OLI2. We demonstrate that nuclear tRNA methylation requires two evolutionarily conserved methyltransferases, TRDMT1 and TRM4B. trdmt1 trm4b double mutants are hypersensitive to the antibiotic hygromycin B

  3. Degradation of nucleic acids with ozone. II. Degradation of yeast RNA, yeast phenylalanine tRNA and tobacco mosaic virus RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinriki, N; Ishizaki, K; Ikehata, A; Yoshizaki, T; Nomura, A; Miura, K; Mizuno, Y

    1981-10-27

    The degradation of a mixture of four 5'-ribonucleotides (AMP, GMP, CMP and UMP), yeast RNA, yeast phenylalanine tRNA, and tobacco mosaic virus RNA (TMV-RNA) with ozone (concentration in inlet gas, 0.1-0.5 mg/l) was examined in a phosphate buffer (pH 6.9). In the case of the mixture, GMP alone was degraded in the initial stage. In the ozonization of yeast RNA, the guanine moiety was less vulnerable to attack by ozone than in the case of free GMP, but it again degraded most rapidly among the four nucleotides. In the treatment of tRNA with ozone, the guanine moiety degraded first. When the numbers of degraded nucleotides reached 4.8 (remaining amino acid acceptor activity was 3.6%), the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the ozonized tRNA gave a single band with the same mobility as that of the intact tRNA. It is evident that ozonolysis of tRNA proceeded without cleavage of the polynucleotide chain. In the case of TMV-RNA, the loss of the infectivity by ozone proceeded rapidly within 30 min and was followed by preferential degradation of the guanine moiety. The outstanding lability of the guanine moiety observed in each case is discussed in connection with the inactivation of tRNA and TMV-RNA.

  4. A subcomplex of human mitochondrial RNase P is a bifunctional methyltransferase--extensive moonlighting in mitochondrial tRNA biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardo, Elisa; Nachbagauer, Christa; Buzet, Aurélie; Taschner, Andreas; Holzmann, Johann; Rossmanith, Walter

    2012-12-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) reach their mature functional form through several steps of processing and modification. Some nucleotide modifications affect the proper folding of tRNAs, and they are crucial in case of the non-canonically structured animal mitochondrial tRNAs, as exemplified by the apparently ubiquitous methylation of purines at position 9. Here, we show that a subcomplex of human mitochondrial RNase P, the endonuclease removing tRNA 5' extensions, is the methyltransferase responsible for m(1)G9 and m(1)A9 formation. The ability of the mitochondrial tRNA:m(1)R9 methyltransferase to modify both purines is uncommon among nucleic acid modification enzymes. In contrast to all the related methyltransferases, the human mitochondrial enzyme, moreover, requires a short-chain dehydrogenase as a partner protein. Human mitochondrial RNase P, thus, constitutes a multifunctional complex, whose subunits moonlight in cascade: a fatty and amino acid degradation enzyme in tRNA methylation and the methyltransferase, in turn, in tRNA 5' end processing.

  5. Trying on tRNA for Size: RNase P and the T-box Riboswitch as Molecular Rulers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Length determination is a fundamental problem in biology and chemistry. Numerous proteins measure distances on linear biopolymers to exert effects with remarkable spatial precision. Recently, ruler-like devices made of noncoding RNAs have been structurally and biochemically characterized. Two prominent examples are the RNase P ribozyme and the T-box riboswitch. Both act as molecular calipers. The two RNAs clamp onto the elbow of tRNA (or pre-tRNA and make distance measurements orthogonal to each other. Here, we compare and contrast the molecular ruler characteristics of these RNAs. RNase P appears pre-configured to measure a fixed distance on pre-tRNA to ensure the fidelity of its maturation. RNase P is a multiple-turnover ribozyme, and its rigid structure efficiently selects pre-tRNAs, cleaves, and releases them. In contrast, the T-box is flexible and segmented, an architecture that adapts to the intrinsically flexible tRNA. The tripartite T-box inspects the overall shape, anticodon sequence, and aminoacylation status of an incoming tRNA while it folds co-transcriptionally, leading to a singular, conditional genetic switching event. The elucidation of the structures and mechanisms of action of these two RNA molecular rulers may augur the discovery of new RNA measuring devices in noncoding and viral transcriptomes, and inform the design of artificial RNA rulers.

  6. The initiator methionine tRNA drives cell migration and invasion leading to increased metastatic potential in melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Birch

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The cell's repertoire of transfer RNAs (tRNAs has been linked to cancer. Recently, the level of the initiator methionine tRNA (tRNAiMet in stromal fibroblasts has been shown to influence extracellular matrix (ECM secretion to drive tumour growth and angiogenesis. Here we show that increased tRNAiMet within cancer cells does not influence tumour growth, but drives cell migration and invasion via a mechanism that is independent from ECM synthesis and dependent on α5β1 integrin and levels of the translation initiation ternary complex. In vivo and ex vivo migration (but not proliferation of melanoblasts is significantly enhanced in transgenic mice which express additional copies of the tRNAiMet gene. We show that increased tRNAiMet in melanoma drives migratory, invasive behaviour and metastatic potential without affecting cell proliferation and primary tumour growth, and that expression of RNA polymerase III-associated genes (which drive tRNA expression are elevated in metastases by comparison with primary tumours. Thus, specific alterations to the cancer cell tRNA repertoire drive a migration/invasion programme that may lead to metastasis.

  7. tRNA Modification and Genetic Code Variations in Animal Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimitsuna Watanabe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In animal mitochondria, six codons have been known as nonuniversal genetic codes, which vary in the course of animal evolution. They are UGA (termination codon in the universal genetic code changes to Trp codon in all animal mitochondria, AUA (Ile to Met in most metazoan mitochondria, AAA (Lys to Asn in echinoderm and some platyhelminth mitochondria, AGA/AGG (Arg to Ser in most invertebrate, Arg to Gly in tunicate, and Arg to termination in vertebrate mitochondria, and UAA (termination to Tyr in a planaria and a nematode mitochondria, but conclusive evidence is lacking in this case. We have elucidated that the anticodons of tRNAs deciphering these nonuniversal codons (tRNATrp for UGA, tRNAMet for AUA, tRNAAsn for AAA, and tRNASer and tRNAGly for AGA/AGG are all modified; tRNATrp has 5-carboxymethylaminomethyluridine or 5-taurinomethyluridine, tRNAMet has 5-formylcytidine or 5-taurinomethyluridine, tRNASer has 7-methylguanosine and tRNAGly has 5-taurinomethyluridine in their anticodon wobble position, and tRNAAsn has pseudouridine in the anticodon second position. This review aims to clarify the structural relationship between these nonuniversal codons and the corresponding tRNA anticodons including modified nucleosides and to speculate on the possible mechanisms for explaining the evolutional changes of these nonuniversal codons in the course of animal evolution.

  8. Sequence organization and control of transcription in the bacteriophage T4 tRNA region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, J; Abelson, J

    1985-10-05

    Bacteriophage T4 contains genes for eight transfer RNAs and two stable RNAs of unknown function. These are found in two clusters at 70 X 10(3) base-pairs on the T4 genetic map. To understand the control of transcription in this region we have completed the sequencing of 5000 base-pairs in this region. The sequence contains a part of gene 3, gene 1, gene 57, internal protein I, the tRNA genes and five open reading frames which most likely code for heretofore unidentified proteins. We have used subclones of the region to investigate the kinetics of transcription in vivo. The results show that transcription in this region consists of overlapping early, middle and late transcripts. Transcription is directed from two early promoters, one or two middle promoters and perhaps two late promoters. This region contains all of the features that are seen in T4 transcription and as such is a good place to study the phenomenon in more detail.

  9. Metabolic and chemical regulation of tRNA modification associated with taurine deficiency and human disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kana; Suzuki, Takeo; Saito, Ayaka; Wei, Fan-Yan; Ikeuchi, Yoshiho; Numata, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Ryou; Yamane, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Goto, Takanobu; Kishita, Yoshihito; Murayama, Kei; Ohtake, Akira; Okazaki, Yasushi; Tomizawa, Kazuhito; Sakaguchi, Yuriko

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Modified uridine containing taurine, 5-taurinomethyluridine (τm5U), is found at the anticodon first position of mitochondrial (mt-)transfer RNAs (tRNAs). Previously, we reported that τm5U is absent in mt-tRNAs with pathogenic mutations associated with mitochondrial diseases. However, biogenesis and physiological role of τm5U remained elusive. Here, we elucidated τm5U biogenesis by confirming that 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate and taurine are metabolic substrates for τm5U formation catalyzed by MTO1 and GTPBP3. GTPBP3-knockout cells exhibited respiratory defects and reduced mitochondrial translation. Very little τm5U34 was detected in patient’s cells with the GTPBP3 mutation, demonstrating that lack of τm5U results in pathological consequences. Taurine starvation resulted in downregulation of τm5U frequency in cultured cells and animal tissues (cat liver and flatfish). Strikingly, 5-carboxymethylaminomethyluridine (cmnm5U), in which the taurine moiety of τm5U is replaced with glycine, was detected in mt-tRNAs from taurine-depleted cells. These results indicate that tRNA modifications are dynamically regulated via sensing of intracellular metabolites under physiological condition. PMID:29390138

  10. Loss of a conserved tRNA anticodon modification perturbs cellular signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Zinshteyn

    Full Text Available Transfer RNA (tRNA modifications enhance the efficiency, specificity and fidelity of translation in all organisms. The anticodon modification mcm(5s(2U(34 is required for normal growth and stress resistance in yeast; mutants lacking this modification have numerous phenotypes. Mutations in the homologous human genes are linked to neurological disease. The yeast phenotypes can be ameliorated by overexpression of specific tRNAs, suggesting that the modifications are necessary for efficient translation of specific codons. We determined the in vivo ribosome distributions at single codon resolution in yeast strains lacking mcm(5s(2U. We found accumulations at AAA, CAA, and GAA codons, suggesting that translation is slow when these codons are in the ribosomal A site, but these changes appeared too small to affect protein output. Instead, we observed activation of the GCN4-mediated stress response by a non-canonical pathway. Thus, loss of mcm(5s(2U causes global effects on gene expression due to perturbation of cellular signaling.

  11. Side effects of extra tRNA supplied in a typical bacterial protein production scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karina Marie; Nørholm, Morten H. H.

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant protein production is at the core of biotechnology and numerous molecular tools and bacterial strains have been developed to make the process more efficient. One commonly used generic solution is to supply extra copies of low-abundance tRNAs to compensate for the presence of complemen......Recombinant protein production is at the core of biotechnology and numerous molecular tools and bacterial strains have been developed to make the process more efficient. One commonly used generic solution is to supply extra copies of low-abundance tRNAs to compensate for the presence...... of complementary rare codons in genes-of-interest. Here we show that such extra tRNA, supplied by the commonly used pLysSRARE2 plasmid, can cause two side effects: (1) growth and gene expression can be impaired, and (2) apparent positive effects can be caused by differential expression of the lysozyme gene encoded...... on the same plasmid and not the tRNAs per se. These phenomena seem to have been largely overlooked despite the huge popularity of the T7/pET-based systems for bacterial protein production....

  12. Differentiating analogous tRNA methyltransferases by fragments of the methyl donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoud, Georges; Goto-Ito, Sakurako; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Ito, Takuhiro; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Hou, Ya-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial TrmD and eukaryotic-archaeal Trm5 form a pair of analogous tRNA methyltransferase that catalyze methyl transfer from S-adenosyl methionine (AdoMet) to N1 of G37, using catalytic motifs that share no sequence or structural homology. Here we show that natural and synthetic analogs of AdoMet are unable to distinguish TrmD from Trm5. Instead, fragments of AdoMet, adenosine and methionine, are selectively inhibitory of TrmD rather than Trm5. Detailed structural information of the two enzymes in complex with adenosine reveals how Trm5 escapes targeting by adopting an altered structure, whereas TrmD is trapped by targeting due to its rigid structure that stably accommodates the fragment. Free energy analysis exposes energetic disparities between the two enzymes in how they approach the binding of AdoMet versus fragments and provides insights into the design of inhibitors selective for TrmD. PMID:21602303

  13. Differentiating analogous tRNA methyltransferases by fragments of the methyl donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoud, Georges; Goto-Ito, Sakurako; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi; Ito, Takuhiro; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Hou, Ya-Ming

    2011-07-01

    Bacterial TrmD and eukaryotic-archaeal Trm5 form a pair of analogous tRNA methyltransferase that catalyze methyl transfer from S-adenosyl methionine (AdoMet) to N(1) of G37, using catalytic motifs that share no sequence or structural homology. Here we show that natural and synthetic analogs of AdoMet are unable to distinguish TrmD from Trm5. Instead, fragments of AdoMet, adenosine and methionine, are selectively inhibitory of TrmD rather than Trm5. Detailed structural information of the two enzymes in complex with adenosine reveals how Trm5 escapes targeting by adopting an altered structure, whereas TrmD is trapped by targeting due to its rigid structure that stably accommodates the fragment. Free energy analysis exposes energetic disparities between the two enzymes in how they approach the binding of AdoMet versus fragments and provides insights into the design of inhibitors selective for TrmD.

  14. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order to...

  15. need for adequate funding in the administration of secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    Funding is considered all over the world as the life wire that propels the educational sector towards achieving her objectives. The paper focuses on the need for adequate funding of secondary education in Nigeria. Emphases were laid on the alternative sources of funding for secondary schools as well as the consequences ...

  16. Provision of Adequate Water Supply in Benin Province: Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work examines the performance of the local governments in the provision of adequate sources of potable water in their different areas of jurisdiction in the Benin Province. The work covers the four Native Administration areas of Benin, Esan, Afemai and Asaba Divisions, which made up the Benin Province during ...

  17. Region 8: Colorado Springs Adequate Letter (8/17/2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This March 3, 2011 letter from EPA to Chistopher E. Urbina M.D., MPH, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment states that EPA has found that the Colorado Springs, CO second 10 year Limited Maintenance Plan (LMP) adequate for transportation

  18. Is the Department of State Accountability Review Board Process adequate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Is the Department of State Accountability Review Board Process Adequate? A Monograph by Kenneth W. Davis Department of State School of...REPORT TYPE SAMS Monograph 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Is the Department of State Accountability Review Board Process...

  19. 116 Appraisal as a Determinant for Adequate Compensation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... Abstract. In this paper, efforts were made to critically investigate and analyze appraisal as a determinant for adequate compensation in private sector organizations in Nigeria. Thus, the paper sets out by reviewing a body of existing literature on concept of management theories and how the subject of.

  20. Constraints to adequate provision of physical resources for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints to adequate provision of physical resources for the universal basic education programme in delta state, Nigeria. ... The researcher used a questionnaire to collect primary data from a sample of 376 primary schools and 141 junior secondary schools head teachers across the state. Data collected were analyzed ...

  1. The Effectiveness of Clinician Education on the Adequate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to insufficient, and/or illegible clinical information provided on laboratory request forms which may result in comments. The Effectiveness of Clinician Education on the. Adequate Completion of Laboratory Test Request. Forms at a Tertiary Hospital. Osegbe ID, Afolabi O1, Onyenekwu CP1. Department of Chemical Pathology, ...

  2. Need for Adequate Funding in the Administration of Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Funding is considered all over the world as the life wire that propels the educational sector towards achieving her objectives. The paper focuses on the need for adequate funding of secondary education in Nigeria. Emphases were laid on the alternative sources of funding for secondary schools as well as the consequences ...

  3. Do Online Bicycle Routing Portals Adequately Address Prevalent Safety Concerns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Loidl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Safety concerns are among the most prevalent deterrents for bicycling. The provision of adequate bicycling infrastructure is considered as one of the most efficient means to increase cycling safety. However, limited public funding does not always allow agencies to implement cycling infrastructure improvements at the desirable level. Thus, bicycle trip planners can at least partly alleviate the lack of adequate infrastructure by recommending optimal routes in terms of safety. The presented study provides a systematic review of 35 bicycle routing applications and analyses to which degree they promote safe bicycling. The results show that most trip planners lack corresponding routing options and therefore do not sufficiently address safety concerns of bicyclists. Based on these findings, we developed recommendations on how to better address bicycling safety in routing portals. We suggest employing current communication technology and analysis to consider safety concerns more explicitly.

  4. Physiological aspect walking and Nordic walking as adequate kinetic activities.

    OpenAIRE

    BENEŠ, Václav

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis on the topic of The Physiological Aspect of Walking and Nordic Walking as an adequate physical activity focuses on chosen physiological changes of an organism during a five-month training cycle. In the theoretical part I describe the physiological changes of organism during a regularly repeated strain, and also the technique of walking, Nordic walking and health benefits of these activities are defined here. The research part of the thesis describes the measurement method...

  5. Deletion analysis of the expression of rRNA genes and associated tRNA genes carried by a lambda transducing bacteriophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, E.A.; Nomura, M.

    1979-01-01

    Transducing phage lambda ilv5 carries genes for rRNA's, spacer tRNA's (tRNA 1 /sup Ile/ and tRNA/sub 1B//sup Ala/), and two other tRNA's (tRNA 1 /sup Asp/ and tRNA/sup Trp/). We have isolated a mutant of lambda ilv5, lambda ilv5su7, which carries an amber suppressor mutation in the tRNA/sup Trp/ gene. A series of deletion mutants were isolated from the lambda ilv5su7 phage. Genetic and biochemical analyses of these deletion mutants have confirmed our previous conclusion that the genes for tRNA 1 /sup Asp/ and tRNA/sup Trp/ located at the distal end of the rRNA operon (rrnC) are cotranscribed with other rRNA genes in that operon. In addition, these deletions were used to define roughly the physical location of the promoter(s) of the rRNA operon carried by the lambda ilv5su7 transducing phage

  6. Engineering and Validation of a Vector for Concomitant Expression of Rare Transfer RNA (tRNA) and HIV-1 nef Genes in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualif, Siti Aisyah; Teow, Sin-Yeang; Omar, Tasyriq Che; Chew, Yik Wei; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd; Ali, Syed A

    2015-01-01

    Relative ease in handling and manipulation of Escherichia coli strains make them primary candidate to express proteins heterologously. Overexpression of heterologous genes that contain codons infrequently used by E. coli is related with difficulties such as mRNA instability, early termination of transcription and/or translation, deletions and/or misincorporation, and cell growth inhibition. These codon bias -associated problems are addressed by co-expressing ColE1-compatible, rare tRNA expressing helper plasmids. However, this approach has inadequacies, which we have addressed by engineering an expression vector that concomitantly expresses the heterologous protein of interest, and rare tRNA genes in E. coli. The expression vector contains three (argU, ileY, leuW) rare tRNA genes and a useful multiple cloning site for easy in-frame cloning. To maintain the overall size of the parental plasmid vector, the rare tRNA genes replaced the non-essential DNA segments in the vector. The cloned gene is expressed under the control of T7 promoter and resulting recombinant protein has a C-terminal 6His tag for IMAC-mediated purification. We have evaluated the usefulness of this expression vector by expressing three HIV-1 genes namely HIV-1 p27 (nef), HIV-1 p24 (ca), and HIV-1 vif in NiCo21(DE3) E.coli and demonstrated the advantages of using expression vector that concomitantly expresses rare tRNA and heterologous genes.

  7. Affinity labeling of Escherichia coli phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase at the binding site for tRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hountondji, C.; Schmitter, J.M.; Beauvallet, C.; Blanquet, S.

    1987-01-01

    Periodate-oxidized tRNA/sup Phe/ (tRNA/sub ox//sup Phe/) behaves as a specific affinity label of tetrameric Escherichia coli phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS). Reaction of the α 2 β 2 enzyme with tRNA/sub ox//sup Phe/ results in the loss of tRNA/sup Phe/ aminoacylation activity with covalent attachment of 2 mol of tRNA dialdehyde/mol of enzyme, in agreement with the stoichiometry of tRNA binding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the PheRS-[ 14 C]tRNA/sub ox//sup Phe/ covalent complex indicates that the large (α, M/sub r/ 87K) subunit of the enzyme interacts with the 3'-adenosine of tRNA/sub ox//sup Phe/. The [ 14 C]tRNA-labeled chymotryptic peptides of PheRS were purified by both gel filtration and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The radioactivity was almost equally distributed among three peptides: Met-Lys[Ado]-Phe, Ala-Asp-Lys[Ado]-Leu, and Lys-Ile-Lys[Ado]-Ala. These sequences correspond to residues 1-3, 59-62, and 104-107, respectively, in the N-terminal region of the 795 amino acid sequence of the α subunit. It is noticeable that the labeled peptide Ala-Asp-Lys-Leu is adjacent to residues 63-66 (Arg-Val-Thr-Lys). The latter sequence was just predicted to resemble the proposed consensus tRNA CCA binding region Lys-Met-Ser-Lys-Ser, as deduced from previous affinity labeling studies on E. coli methionyl- and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases

  8. Differential Regulation of rRNA and tRNA Transcription from the rRNA-tRNA Composite Operon in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Takada, Hiraku; Shimada, Tomohiro; Dey, Debashish; Quyyum, M. Zuhaib; Nakano, Masahiro; Ishiguro, Akira; Yoshida, Hideji; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Sen, Ranjan; Ishihama, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli contains seven rRNA operons, each consisting of the genes for three rRNAs (16S, 23S and 5S rRNA in this order) and one or two tRNA genes in the spacer between 16S and 23S rRNA genes and one or two tRNA genes in the 3' proximal region. All of these rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from two promoters, P1 and P2, into single large precursors that are afterward processed to individual rRNAs and tRNAs by a set of RNases. In the course of Genomic SELEX screening of promoters rec...

  9. A student's perspective: are medical students adequately trained in BLS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewole T

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tobi Oyewole,1 Folashade Oyewole2 1University of Liverpool – The School of Medicine, Liverpool, 2Imperial College London, London, UK We read with great interest the article by Lami et al regarding improving basic life support (BLS training for medical students.1 We agree that BLS skills are vital for junior doctors. The days of trial by fire have long gone away, and junior doctors and medical students need to feel that they are adequately trained to handle emergency situations they may face in hospital.  Read the original article

  10. Why should cancer biologists care about tRNAs? tRNA synthesis, mRNA translation and the control of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Savraj S

    2015-07-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are essential for mRNA translation. They are transcribed in the nucleus by RNA polymerase III and undergo many modifications before contributing to cytoplasmic protein synthesis. In this review I highlight our understanding of how tRNA biology may be linked to the regulation of mRNA translation, growth and tumorigenesis. First, I review how oncogenes and tumour suppressor signalling pathways, such as the PI3 kinase/TORC1, Ras/ERK, Myc, p53 and Rb pathways, regulate Pol III and tRNA synthesis. In several cases, this regulation contributes to cell, tissue and body growth, and has implications for our understanding of tumorigenesis. Second, I highlight some recent work, particularly in model organisms such as yeast and Drosophila, that shows how alterations in tRNA synthesis may be not only necessary, but also sufficient to drive changes in mRNA translation and growth. These effects may arise due to both absolute increases in total tRNA levels, but also changes in the relative levels of tRNAs in the overall pool. Finally, I review some recent studies that have revealed how tRNA modifications (amino acid acylation, base modifications, subcellular shuttling, and cleavage) can be regulated by growth and stress cues to selectively influence mRNA translation. Together these studies emphasize the importance of the regulation of tRNA synthesis and modification as critical control points in protein synthesis and growth. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translation and Cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome-wide analysis of tRNA charging and activation of the eIF2 kinase Gcn2p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborske, John M; Narasimhan, Jana; Jiang, Li; Wek, Sheree A; Dittmar, Kimberly A; Freimoser, Florien; Pan, Tao; Wek, Ronald C

    2009-09-11

    When cells are subjected to nutritional stress, uncharged tRNAs accumulate and activate Gcn2p phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2) and the general amino acid control pathway. The Gcn2p regulatory domain homologous to histidyl-tRNA synthetases is proposed to bind to uncharged tRNA, directly contributing to activation of Gcn2p. Here we apply a microarray technology to analyze genome-wide changes in tRNA charging in yeast upon activation of Gcn2p in response to amino acid starvation and high salinity, a stress not directly linked to nutritional deficiency. This microarray technology is applicable for all eukaryotic cells. Strains were starved for histidine, leucine, or tryptophan and shown to rapidly induce Gcn2p phosphorylation of eIF2. The relative charging level of all tRNAs was measured before and after starvation, and Gcn2p activation and the intracellular levels of the starved amino acid correlate with the observed decrease in tRNA charging. Interestingly, in some cases, tRNAs not charged with the starved amino acid became deacylated more rapidly than tRNAs charged with the starved amino acid. This increase in uncharged tRNA levels occurred although the intracellular levels for these non-starved amino acids remained unchanged. Additionally, treatment of a wild-type strain with high salinity stress showed transient changes in the charging of several different tRNAs. These results suggest that Gcn2p can be activated by many different tRNA species in the cell. These results also depict a complex cellular relationship between tRNA charging, amino acid availability, and non-nutrient stress. These relationships are best revealed by simultaneous monitoring of the charging level of all tRNAs.

  12. Targeting ribonucleic acids by toxic small molecules: structural perturbation and energetics of interaction of phenothiazinium dyes thionine and toluidine blue O to tRNA phe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Puja; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2013-12-15

    This study was designed to examine the toxic interaction of two phenothiazinium dyes thionine (TO) and toluidine blue O (TBO) with tRNA(phe) by spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques. While phenothiazinium dye complexation with DNA is known, their bindings to RNA are not fully investigated. The non cooperative binding of both the dyes to tRNA was revealed from absorbance and fluorescence studies. From absorption, steady-state emission, the effect of ferrocyanide ion-induced steady-state fluorescence quenching, circular dichroism, the mode of binding of these dyes into the tRNA helix has been substantiated to be principally by intercalative in nature. Both dyes enhanced the thermal stability of tRNA. Circular dichroism studies provided evidence for the structural perturbations associated with the tRNA structure with induction of optical activity in the CD inactive dye molecules. Results from isothermal titration calorimetry experiments suggested that the binding of both dyes was predominantly entropy driven with a smaller but favorable enthalpy term that increased with temperature. The binding was dependent on the Na(+) concentration, but had a larger non-electrostatic contribution to the Gibbs energy. A small heat capacity value and the enthalpy-entropy compensation in the energetics of the interaction characterized the binding of the dyes to tRNA. This study confirms that the tRNA(phe) binding affinity is greater for TO compared to TBO. The utility of the present work lies in understanding the potential binding and consequent damage to tRNA by these toxic dyes in their development as therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Forced selection of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variant that uses a non-self tRNA primer for reverse transcription: Involvement of viral RNA sequences and the reverse transcriptase enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, Truus E. M.; Beerens, Nancy; Berkhout, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 uses the tRNA(3)(Lys) molecule as a selective primer for reverse transcription. This primer specificity is imposed by sequence complementarity between the tRNA primer and two motifs in the viral RNA genome: the primer-binding site (PBS) and the primer activation

  14. Mutations in Cytosine-5 tRNA Methyltransferases Impact Mobile Element Expression and Genome Stability at Specific DNA Repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Genenncher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of eukaryotic genome stability is ensured by the interplay of transcriptional as well as post-transcriptional mechanisms that control recombination of repeat regions and the expression and mobility of transposable elements. We report here that mutations in two (cytosine-5 RNA methyltransferases, Dnmt2 and NSun2, impact the accumulation of mobile element-derived sequences and DNA repeat integrity in Drosophila. Loss of Dnmt2 function caused moderate effects under standard conditions, while heat shock exacerbated these effects. In contrast, NSun2 function affected mobile element expression and genome integrity in a heat shock-independent fashion. Reduced tRNA stability in both RCMT mutants indicated that tRNA-dependent processes affected mobile element expression and DNA repeat stability. Importantly, further experiments indicated that complex formation with RNA could also contribute to the impact of RCMT function on gene expression control. These results thus uncover a link between tRNA modification enzymes, the expression of repeat DNA, and genomic integrity.

  15. Structure, Mechanism, and Specificity of a Eukaryal tRNA Restriction Enzyme Involved in Self-Nonself Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam K. Chakravarty

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available tRNA restriction by anticodon nucleases underlies cellular stress responses and self-nonself discrimination in a wide range of taxa. Anticodon breakage inhibits protein synthesis, which, in turn, results in growth arrest or cell death. The eukaryal ribotoxin PaT secreted by Pichia acaciae inhibits growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae via cleavage of tRNAGln(UUG. We find that recombinant PaT incises a synthetic tRNAGln(UUG stem-loop RNA by transesterification at a single site 3′ of the wobble uridine, yielding 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate and 5′-OH ends. Incision is suppressed by replacement of the wobble nucleobase with adenine or guanine. The crystal structure of PaT reveals a distinctive fold and active site, essential components of which are demonstrated by mutagenesis. Pichia acaciae evades self-toxicity via a distinctive intracellular immunity protein, ImmPaT, which binds PaT and blocks nuclease activity. Our results highlight the evolutionary diversity of tRNA restriction and immunity systems.

  16. Defects in tRNA modification associated with neurological and developmental dysfunctions in Caenorhabditis elegans elongator mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changchun Chen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Elongator is a six subunit protein complex, conserved from yeast to humans. Mutations in the human Elongator homologue, hELP1, are associated with the neurological disease familial dysautonomia. However, how Elongator functions in metazoans, and how the human mutations affect neural functions is incompletely understood. Here we show that in Caenorhabditis elegans, ELPC-1 and ELPC-3, components of the Elongator complex, are required for the formation of the 5-carbamoylmethyl and 5-methylcarboxymethyl side chains of wobble uridines in tRNA. The lack of these modifications leads to defects in translation in C. elegans. ELPC-1::GFP and ELPC-3::GFP reporters are strongly expressed in a subset of chemosensory neurons required for salt chemotaxis learning. elpc-1 or elpc-3 gene inactivation causes a defect in this process, associated with a posttranscriptional reduction of neuropeptide and a decreased accumulation of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft. elpc-1 and elpc-3 mutations are synthetic lethal together with those in tuc-1, which is required for thiolation of tRNAs having the 5'methylcarboxymethyl side chain. elpc-1; tuc-1 and elpc-3; tuc-1 double mutants display developmental defects. Our results suggest that, by its effect on tRNA modification, Elongator promotes both neural function and development.

  17. Three-Dimensional Algebraic Models of the tRNA Code and 12 Graphs for Representing the Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, Marco V; Morgado, Eberto R; Guimarães, Romeu Cardoso; Zamudio, Gabriel S; de Farías, Sávio Torres; Bobadilla, Juan R; Sosa, Daniela

    2014-08-11

    Three-dimensional algebraic models, also called Genetic Hotels, are developed to represent the Standard Genetic Code, the Standard tRNA Code (S-tRNA-C), and the Human tRNA code (H-tRNA-C). New algebraic concepts are introduced to be able to describe these models, to wit, the generalization of the 2n-Klein Group and the concept of a subgroup coset with a tail. We found that the H-tRNA-C displayed broken symmetries in regard to the S-tRNA-C, which is highly symmetric. We also show that there are only 12 ways to represent each of the corresponding phenotypic graphs of amino acids. The averages of statistical centrality measures of the 12 graphs for each of the three codes are carried out and they are statistically compared. The phenotypic graphs of the S-tRNA-C display a common triangular prism of amino acids in 10 out of the 12 graphs, whilst the corresponding graphs for the H-tRNA-C display only two triangular prisms. The graphs exhibit disjoint clusters of amino acids when their polar requirement values are used. We contend that the S-tRNA-C is in a frozen-like state, whereas the H-tRNA-C may be in an evolving state.

  18. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; Pprenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  19. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Pierce, Lori J., E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  20. [The human right to adequate food: an urban vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casemiro, Juliana Pereira; Valla, Victor Vincent; Guimarães, Maria Beatriz Lisboa

    2010-07-01

    The human right to adequate food is comprehended in two dimensions: being free of hunger and denutrition and having access to an adequate food. The urban context, in which the possession of food is done primarily through merchandising because of its strong consuming appealing, became a big challenge to debate this topic in poor districts today. Here we combine considerations of a qualitative study carried out in São João de Meriti, Rio de Janeiro State, joining leaders from Pastoral da Criança in focal group sessions. The unemployment, the sub-employment and the difficulty in reaching the public health system, the social assistance and basic sanitation were presented as the major obstacles to bring into effect the human right to food. It was possible to determine that, among the strategies to fight the poverty and hunger, a big highlight is the establishment of mutual help mechanisms. The social support, generosity and religiousness were presented as the most important categories among the thoughts of the leaders. Facing a reality in which poverty and hunger appear as something inherent or become a mechanism of change during elections, the issue of the clienteles appears as a huge concern and challenge for those leaders.

  1. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V 20 . Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage

  2. Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet J. Naudé

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article outlined key features of prophetic discourse and investigated whether this form of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. It is shown that the strength of prophetic discourse is its ability to denounce instances of injustice whilst at the same time announcing a God-willed alternative future. The ‘preferential option for the poor’ in Latin American liberation theologies is treated as a case study of the influence of prophetic discourse in contexts of perceived economic injustice. Also the core weaknesses of prophetic discourse are investigated, specifically its incomplete moral argument, weak moral analyses, silence on transition measures, and its inability to take a positive stance on reforms in the system from which itself benefits. In the final section it is concluded that prophetic discourse plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but – taken by itself – it is not an adequate form of moral discourse to address concrete matters of justice.

  3. Adequate sizing and motor exploitation: Motor energy management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miloje M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor energy management includes adequate sizing, control and improvement of electric energy quality, i.e. voltage quality (reducing voltage unbalance and harmonics distortion, and the proper maintenance. The specific motor price per kW is approximately constant for motors rated from 5 kW to 20 kW. By adequate sizing, or by proper replacement of the old motor with the new one, with rated output power reduced by 20% to 50% the smaller motor will be also cheaper by 20% to 50%. When the 22 kW motor is replaced with the new 15 kW that costs 64% of the price of a new 22 kW motor, the efficiency is increased by 3.6% (Example in paper. On the basis of our investigation results, it is confirmed that there are significant possibilities for energy savings by setting voltage values within the ±5% voltage band (Un±5%, since more than 80% induction motors are under loaded (£70%, especially small and medium rated power (1-30 kW motors.

  4. Standards for securing adequate indoor air quality across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Carrer, P.; de Oliveira Fernandes, E.

    2013-01-01

    effects of IAQ into different components: exposures to indoor and outdoor air pollutants, association with different morbidities and the way ventilation based approaches could minimise their impact. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs), a common metric to allow comparability of impacts on various types...... and is determined mainly considering the metabolic CO2 production. It is only applicable if all other pollutants meet WHO guidelines for ambient and indoor air quality. If they do not meet these guidelines after applying source control and when air used for ventilation is clean health-based ventilation rate should...... be a multiple of the minimum rate. Conclusions: Optimal strategy for ensuring adequate IAQ to ensure health conditions must include cleaning of ambient air (if necessary) and source control; only then health-based ventilation rate can be defined. Such approach is expected to half the BOD caused by indoor...

  5. Nuclear waste disposal: achieving adequate financing - special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasebarth, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) evaluates whether the current one mill fee now charged to nuclear-electricity consumers will adequately finance the waste disposal program. The CBO found that, if the fee is adjusted annually for inflation, it should provide enough revenues to cover all program costs under all nuclear growth forecasts. If the fee is unchanged, however, the fees will be inadequate if inflation exceeds 3% annually. The report suggests two alternatives for fee revision, but makes no recommendations. The alternatives are to increase the fee only at specific intervals or to automatically adjust the fee through indexation. The report examines the effect of delaying the program, cost overruns, and alternative inflation rate and interest rate assumptions. 3 figures, 12 tables

  6. A structured RNA motif is involved in correct placement of the tRNA(3)(Lys) primer onto the human immunodeficiency virus genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerens, N.; Klaver, B.; Berkhout, B.

    2000-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcription is primed by the cellular tRNA(3)(Lys) molecule that binds with its 3'-terminal 18 nucleotides to the fully complementary primer-binding site (PBS) on the viral RNA genome. Besides this complementarity, annealing of the primer may be

  7. Reduced replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mutants that use reverse transcription primers other than the natural tRNA(3Lys)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, A. T.; Klaver, B.; Berkhout, B.

    1995-01-01

    Replication of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other retroviruses involves reverse transcription of the viral RNA genome into a double-stranded DNA. This reaction is primed by the cellular tRNA(3Lys) molecule, which binds to a complementary sequence in the viral genome, referred

  8. The tRNA primer activation signal in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genome is important for initiation and processive elongation of reverse transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerens, Nancy; Berkhout, Ben

    2002-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcription is primed by the cellular tRNA(3)(Lys) molecule, which binds, with its 3'-terminal 18 nucleotides (nt), to a complementary sequence in the viral genome, the primer-binding site (PBS). Besides PBS-anti-PBS pairing, additional

  9. Use of a Yeast tRNase Killer Toxin to Diagnose Kti12 Motifs Required for tRNA Modification by Elongator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlgarten, Constance; Prochaska, Heike; Hammermeister, Alexander; Abdel-Fattah, Wael; Wagner, Melanie; Krutyhołowa, Rościsław; Jun, Sang Eun; Kim, Gyung-Tae; Glatt, Sebastian; Breunig, Karin D; Stark, Michael J R; Schaffrath, Raffael

    2017-09-05

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are killed by zymocin, a tRNase ribotoxin complex from Kluyveromyces lactis , which cleaves anticodons and inhibits protein synthesis. Zymocin's action requires specific chemical modification of uridine bases in the anticodon wobble position (U34) by the Elongator complex (Elp1-Elp6). Hence, loss of anticodon modification in mutants lacking Elongator or related KTI ( K. lactis Toxin Insensitive) genes protects against tRNA cleavage and confers resistance to the toxin. Here, we show that zymocin can be used as a tool to genetically analyse KTI12 , a gene previously shown to code for an Elongator partner protein. From a kti12 mutant pool of zymocin survivors, we identify motifs in Kti12 that are functionally directly coupled to Elongator activity. In addition, shared requirement of U34 modifications for nonsense and missense tRNA suppression ( SUP4 ; SOE1 ) strongly suggests that Kti12 and Elongator cooperate to assure proper tRNA functioning. We show that the Kti12 motifs are conserved in plant ortholog DRL1/ELO4 from Arabidopsis thaliana and seem to be involved in binding of cofactors (e.g., nucleotides, calmodulin). Elongator interaction defects triggered by mutations in these motifs correlate with phenotypes typical for loss of U34 modification. Thus, tRNA modification by Elongator appears to require physical contact with Kti12, and our preliminary data suggest that metabolic signals may affect proper communication between them.

  10. Are Vancomycin Trough Concentrations Adequate for Optimal Dosing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Gilmer; Jones, Brenda; Jelliffe, Roger W.; Drusano, George L.; Rodvold, Keith A.; Lodise, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The current vancomycin therapeutic guidelines recommend the use of only trough concentrations to manage the dosing of adults with Staphylococcus aureus infections. Both vancomycin efficacy and toxicity are likely to be related to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). We assembled richly sampled vancomycin pharmacokinetic data from three studies comprising 47 adults with various levels of renal function. With Pmetrics, the nonparametric population modeling package for R, we compared AUCs estimated from models derived from trough-only and peak-trough depleted versions of the full data set and characterized the relationship between the vancomycin trough concentration and AUC. The trough-only and peak-trough depleted data sets underestimated the true AUCs compared to the full model by a mean (95% confidence interval) of 23% (11 to 33%; P = 0.0001) and 14% (7 to 19%; P vancomycin MIC is 1 mg/liter, approximately 60% are expected to have a trough concentration below the suggested minimum target of 15 mg/liter for serious infections, which could result in needlessly increased doses and a risk of toxicity. Our data indicate that adjustment of vancomycin doses on the basis of trough concentrations without a Bayesian tool results in poor achievement of maximally safe and effective drug exposures in plasma and that many adults can have an adequate vancomycin AUC with a trough concentration of <15 mg/liter. PMID:24165176

  11. Deferasirox pharmacokinetics in patients with adequate versus inadequate response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirnomas, Deborah; Smith, Amber Lynn; Braunstein, Jennifer; Finkelstein, Yaron; Pereira, Luis; Bergmann, Anke K.; Grant, Frederick D.; Paley, Carole; Shannon, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tens of thousands of transfusion-dependent (eg, thalassemia) patients worldwide suffer from chronic iron overload and its potentially fatal complications. The oral iron chelator deferasirox has become commercially available in many countries since 2006. Although this alternative to parenteral deferoxamine has been a major advance for patients with transfusional hemosiderosis, a proportion of patients have suboptimal response to the maximum approved doses (30 mg/kg per day), and do not achieve negative iron balance. We performed a prospective study of oral deferasirox pharmacokinetics (PK), comparing 10 transfused patients with inadequate deferasirox response (rising ferritin trend or rising liver iron on deferasirox doses > 30 mg/kg per day) with control transfusion-dependent patients (n = 5) with adequate response. Subjects were admitted for 4 assessments: deferoxamine infusion and urinary iron measurement to assess readily chelatable iron; quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy to assess hepatic uptake and excretion of chelate; a 24-hour deferasirox PK study following a single 35-mg/kg dose of oral deferasirox; and pharmacogenomic analysis. Patients with inadequate response to deferasirox had significantly lower systemic drug exposure compared with control patients (P deferasirox must be determined. This trial has been registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov under identifier NCT00749515. PMID:19724055

  12. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  13. Assessing vitamin D nutritional status: Is capillary blood adequate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M E; Ducharme, F M; Théorêt, Y; Bélanger, A-S; Delvin, E

    2016-06-01

    Venous blood is the usual sample for measuring various biomarkers, including 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD). However, it can prove challenging in infants and young children. Hence the finger-prick capillary collection is an alternative, being a relatively simple procedure perceived to be less invasive. We elected to validate the use of capillary blood sampling for 25OHD quantification by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). Venous and capillary blood samples were simultaneously collected from 15 preschool-aged children with asthma 10days after receiving 100,000IU of vitamin-D3 or placebo and 20 apparently healthy adult volunteers. 25OHD was measured by an in-house LC/MS-MS method. The venous 25OHD values varied between 23 and 255nmol/l. The venous and capillary blood total 25OHD concentrations highly correlated (r(2)=0.9963). The mean difference (bias) of capillary blood 25OHD compared to venous blood was 2.0 (95% CI: -7.5, 11.5) nmol/l. Our study demonstrates excellent agreement with no evidence of a clinically important bias between venous and capillary serum 25OHD concentrations measured by LC/MS-MS over a wide range of values. Under those conditions, capillary blood is therefore adequate for the measurement of 25OHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Metatranscriptomic analysis of microbes in an Oceanfront deep-subsurface hot spring reveals novel small RNAs and type-specific tRNA degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shinnosuke; Fujishima, Kosuke; Tomita, Masaru; Kanai, Akio

    2012-02-01

    Studies of small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) have been conducted predominantly using culturable organisms, and the acquisition of further information about sRNAs from global environments containing uncultured organisms now is very important. In this study, hot spring water (57°C, pH 8.1) was collected directly from the underground environment at depths of 250 to 1,000 m in Yunohama, Japan, and small RNA sequences obtained from the environment were analyzed. A phylogenetic analysis of both archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences was conducted, and the results suggested the presence of unique species in the environment, corresponding to the Archaeal Richmond Mine Acidophilic Nanoorganisms (ARMAN) group and three new Betaproteobacteria. A metatranscriptomic analysis identified 64,194 (20,057 nonredundant) cDNA sequences. Of these cDNAs, 90% were either tRNAs, tRNA fragments, rRNAs, or rRNA fragments, whereas 2,181 reads (10%) were classified as previously uncharacterized putative candidate sRNAs. Among these, 15 were particularly abundant, 14 of which showed no sequence similarity to any known noncoding RNA, and at least six of which form very stable RNA secondary structures. The analysis of a large number of tRNA fragments suggested that unique relationships exist between the anticodons of the tRNAs and the sites of tRNA degradation. Previous bacterial tRNA degradation studies have been limited to specific organisms, such as Escherichia coli and Streptomyces coelicolor, and the current results suggest that specific tRNA decay occurs more frequently than previously expected.

  15. Engineering and Validation of a Vector for Concomitant Expression of Rare Transfer RNA (tRNA and HIV-1 nef Genes in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisyah Mualif

    Full Text Available Relative ease in handling and manipulation of Escherichia coli strains make them primary candidate to express proteins heterologously. Overexpression of heterologous genes that contain codons infrequently used by E. coli is related with difficulties such as mRNA instability, early termination of transcription and/or translation, deletions and/or misincorporation, and cell growth inhibition. These codon bias -associated problems are addressed by co-expressing ColE1-compatible, rare tRNA expressing helper plasmids. However, this approach has inadequacies, which we have addressed by engineering an expression vector that concomitantly expresses the heterologous protein of interest, and rare tRNA genes in E. coli. The expression vector contains three (argU, ileY, leuW rare tRNA genes and a useful multiple cloning site for easy in-frame cloning. To maintain the overall size of the parental plasmid vector, the rare tRNA genes replaced the non-essential DNA segments in the vector. The cloned gene is expressed under the control of T7 promoter and resulting recombinant protein has a C-terminal 6His tag for IMAC-mediated purification. We have evaluated the usefulness of this expression vector by expressing three HIV-1 genes namely HIV-1 p27 (nef, HIV-1 p24 (ca, and HIV-1 vif in NiCo21(DE3 E.coli and demonstrated the advantages of using expression vector that concomitantly expresses rare tRNA and heterologous genes.

  16. Evidence that the mitochondrial leucyl tRNA synthetase (LARS2) gene represents a novel type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hart, Leen M; Hansen, Torben; Rietveld, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA-encoded tRNA(Leu(UUR)) gene is associated with type 2 diabetes. One of the consequences of this mutation is a reduced aminoacylation of tRNA(Leu(UUR)). In this study, we have examined whether variants in the leucyl tRNA synthetase...... gene (LARS2), involved in aminoacylation of tRNA(Leu(UUR)), associate with type 2 diabetes. Direct sequencing of LARS2 cDNA from 25 type 2 diabetic subjects revealed eight single nucleotide polymorphisms. Two of the variants were examined in 7,836 subjects from four independent populations...... no significant differences in clinical variables between carriers and noncarriers. In this study, we provide evidence that the LARS2 gene may represent a novel type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene. The mechanism by which the H324Q variant enhances type 2 diabetes risk needs to be further established...

  17. Active Center Control of Termination by RNA Polymerase III and tRNA Gene Transcription Levels In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshab Rijal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability of RNA polymerase (RNAP III to efficiently recycle from termination to reinitiation is critical for abundant tRNA production during cellular proliferation, development and cancer. Yet understanding of the unique termination mechanisms used by RNAP III is incomplete, as is its link to high transcription output. We used two tRNA-mediated suppression systems to screen for Rpc1 mutants with gain- and loss- of termination phenotypes in S. pombe. 122 point mutation mutants were mapped to a recently solved 3.9 Å structure of yeast RNAP III elongation complex (EC; they cluster in the active center bridge helix and trigger loop, as well as the pore and funnel, the latter of which indicate involvement of the RNA cleavage domain of the C11 subunit in termination. Purified RNAP III from a readthrough (RT mutant exhibits increased elongation rate. The data strongly support a kinetic coupling model in which elongation rate is inversely related to termination efficiency. The mutants exhibit good correlations of terminator RT in vitro and in vivo, and surprisingly, amounts of transcription in vivo. Because assessing in vivo transcription can be confounded by various parameters, we used a tRNA reporter with a processing defect and a strong terminator. By ruling out differences in RNA decay rates, the data indicate that mutants with the RT phenotype synthesize more RNA than wild type cells, and than can be accounted for by their increased elongation rate. Finally, increased activity by the mutants appears unrelated to the RNAP III repressor, Maf1. The results show that the mobile elements of the RNAP III active center, including C11, are key determinants of termination, and that some of the mutations activate RNAP III for overall transcription. Similar mutations in spontaneous cancer suggest this as an unforeseen mechanism of RNAP III activation in disease.

  18. Global translational impacts of the loss of the tRNA modification t6A in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C. Thiaville

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The universal tRNA modification t6A is found at position 37 of nearly all tRNAs decoding ANN codons. The absence of t6A37 leads to severe growth defects in baker’s yeast, phenotypes similar to those caused by defects in mcm5s2U34 synthesis. Mutants in mcm5s2U34 can be suppressed by overexpression of tRNALysUUU, but we show t6A phenotypes could not be suppressed by expressing any individual ANN decoding tRNA, and t6A and mcm5s2U are not determinants for each other’s formation. Our results suggest that t6A deficiency, like mcm5s2U deficiency, leads to protein folding defects, and show that the absence of t6A led to stress sensitivities (heat, ethanol, salt and sensitivity to TOR pathway inhibitors. Additionally, L-homoserine suppressed the slow growth phenotype seen in t6A-deficient strains, and proteins aggregates and Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs were increased in the mutants. The global consequences on translation caused by t6A absence were examined by ribosome profiling. Interestingly, the absence of t6A did not lead to global translation defects, but did increase translation initiation at upstream non-AUG codons and increased frame-shifting in specific genes. Analysis of codon occupancy rates suggests that one of the major roles of t6A is to homogenize the process of elongation by slowing the elongation rate at codons decoded by high abundance tRNAs and I34:C3 pairs while increasing the elongation rate of rare tRNAs and G34:U3 pairs. This work reveals that the consequences of t6A absence are complex and multilayered and has set the stage to elucidate the molecular basis of the observed phenotypes.

  19. The MiaA tRNA modification enzyme is necessary for robust RpoS expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Karl M; Gottesman, Susan

    2014-02-01

    The stationary phase/general stress response sigma factor RpoS (σ(S)) is necessary for adaptation and restoration of homeostasis in stationary phase. As a physiological consequence, its levels are tightly regulated at least at two levels. Multiple small regulatory RNA molecules modulate its translation, in a manner that is dependent on the RNA chaperone Hfq and the rpoS 5' untranslated region. ClpXP and the RssB adaptor protein degrade RpoS, unless it is protected by an anti-adaptor. We here find that, in addition to these posttranscriptional levels of regulation, tRNA modification also affects the steady-state levels of RpoS. We screened mutants of several RNA modification enzymes for an effect on RpoS expression and identified the miaA gene, encoding a tRNA isopentenyltransferase, as necessary for full expression of both an rpoS750-lacZ translational fusion and the RpoS protein. This effect is independent of rpoS, the regulatory RNAs, and RpoS degradation. RpoD steady-state levels were not significantly different in the absence of MiaA, suggesting that this is an RpoS-specific effect. The rpoS coding sequence is significantly enriched for leu codons that use MiaA-modified tRNAs, compared to rpoD and many other genes. Dependence on MiaA may therefore provide yet another way for RpoS levels to respond to growth conditions.

  20. Are we telling the diabetic patients adequately about foot care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Din, M.J.U.; Jadoon, R.J.; Farooq, U.; Alam, M.A.; Qureshi, A.; Shah, S.U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus affects more than 285 million people worldwide. The prevalence is expected to rise to 439 million by the year 2030. Diabetic foot ulcers precede 84 percentage of non-traumatic amputations in diabetics. One lower limb is lost every 30 seconds around the world because of diabetic foot ulceration. Apart from being lengthy, the treatment of diabetic foot is also very expensive. There is very limited emphasis on foot care in diabetic patients. Even in developed countries patients feel that they do not have adequate knowledge about foot care. This study was conducted to find out how much information is imparted by doctors to diabetic patients about foot care. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in admitted patients of the Department of Medicine, DHQ Hospital, Abbottabad from May 2014 to June 2015. 139 diabetic patients more than 25 years of age were included by non-probability consecutive sampling. Results: The mean age was 57.17 ( percentage 11.1) years. 35.3 percentage of patients were male and 64.7 percentage were female. The mean duration of diabetes in patients was 8.3 (±6) years. Only 36.7 percentage of patients said that their doctor told them about foot care. Less than 40 percentage of patients knew that they should daily inspect their feet, wash them with gentle warm water, and dry them afterwards. Only 25.2 percentage of the participants knew how to manage corns or calluses on feet. 66.5 percentage of patients knew that they should not walk bare foot. Overall, 63 percentage of our patients had less than 50 percentage knowledge of the 11 points regarding foot care that the investigators asked them. Conclusion: Diabetic foot problems are the one of the costliest, most disabling and disheartening complication of diabetes mellitus. Doctors are not properly telling diabetic patients about foot care. There is a deficiency of knowledge among the diabetic patients regarding foot care. (author)

  1. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Are minidisc recorders adequate for the study of respiratory sounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraman, Steve S; Wodicka, George R; Kiyokawa, Hiroshi; Pasterkamp, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Digital audio tape (DAT) recorders have become the de facto gold standard recording devices for lung sounds. Sound recorded on DAT is compact-disk (CD) quality with adequate sensitivity from below 20 Hz to above 20 KHz. However, DAT recorders have drawbacks. Although small, they are relatively heavy, the recording mechanism is complex and delicate, and finding one desired track out of many is inconvenient. A more recent development in portable recording devices is the minidisc (MD) recorder. These recorders are widely available, inexpensive, small and light, rugged, mechanically simple, and record digital data in tracks that may be named and accessed directly. Minidiscs hold as much recorded sound as a compact disk but in about 1/5 of the recordable area. The data compression is achieved by use of a technique known as adaptive transform acoustic coding for minidisc (ATRAC). This coding technique makes decisions about what components of the sound would not be heard by a human listener and discards the digital information that represents these sounds. Most of this compression takes place on sounds above 5.5 KHz. As the intended use of these recorders is the storage and reproduction of music, it is unknown whether ATRAC will discard or distort significant portions of typical lung sound signals. We determined the suitability of MD recorders for respiratory sound research by comparing a variety of normal and pathologic lung sounds that were digitized directly into a computer and also after recording by a DAT recorder and 2 different MD recorders (Sharp and Sony). We found that the frequency spectra and waveforms of respiratory sounds were not distorted in any important way by recording on the two MD recorders tested.

  3. Adequately Addressing Pediatric Obesity: Challenges Faced by Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreve, Marilou; Scott, Allison; Vowell Johnson, Kelly

    2017-07-01

    To assess the challenges primary care providers encounter when providing counseling for pediatric patients identified as obese. A survey assessed the current challenges and barriers to the screening and treatment of pediatric obesity for providers in northwest Arkansas who provide care to families. The survey consisted of 15 Likert scale questions and 4 open-ended questions. Time, resources, comfort, and cultural issues were reported by providers as the biggest barriers in screening and the treatment of pediatric obesity. All providers reported lack of time as a barrier to providing the care needed for obese children. Cultural barriers of both the provider and client were identified as factors, which negatively affect the care and treatment of obese children. Primary care providers continue to experience challenges when addressing pediatric obesity. In this study, a lack of adequate time to address obesity was identified as the most significant current barrier and may likely be tied to physician resources. Although reimbursement for obesity is increasing, the level of reimbursement does not support the time or the resources needed to treat patients. Many providers reported their patients' cultural view of obesity influenced how they counsel their patients. Increasing providers' knowledge concerning differences in how weight is viewed or valued may assist them in the assessment and care of obese pediatric patients. The challenges identified in previous research continue to limit providers when addressing obesity. Although progress has been made regarding knowledge of guidelines, continuing effort is needed to tackle the remaining challenges. This will allow for earlier identification and intervention, resulting in improved outcomes in pediatric obesity.

  4. Identification and sequence analysis of metazoan tRNA 3'-end processing enzymes tRNase Zs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhikang Wang

    Full Text Available tRNase Z is the endonuclease responsible for removing the 3'-trailer sequences from precursor tRNAs, a prerequisite for the addition of the CCA sequence. It occurs in the short (tRNase Z(S and long (tRNase Z(L forms. Here we report the identification and sequence analysis of candidate tRNase Zs from 81 metazoan species. We found that the vast majority of deuterostomes, lophotrochozoans and lower metazoans have one tRNase Z(S and one tRNase Z(L genes, whereas ecdysozoans possess only a single tRNase Z(L gene. Sequence analysis revealed that in metazoans, a single nuclear tRNase Z(L gene is likely to encode both the nuclear and mitochondrial forms of tRNA 3'-end processing enzyme through mechanisms that include alternative translation initiation from two in-frame start codons and alternative splicing. Sequence conservation analysis revealed a variant PxKxRN motif, PxPxRG, which is located in the N-terminal region of tRNase Z(Ss. We also identified a previously unappreciated motif, AxDx, present in the C-terminal region of both tRNase Z(Ss and tRNase Z(Ls. The AxDx motif consisting mainly of a very short loop is potentially close enough to form hydrogen bonds with the loop containing the PxKxRN or PxPxRG motif. Through complementation analysis, we demonstrated the likely functional importance of the AxDx motif. In conclusion, our analysis supports the notion that in metazoans a single tRNase Z(L has evolved to participate in both nuclear and mitochondrial tRNA 3'-end processing, whereas tRNase Z(S may have evolved new functions. Our analysis also unveils new evolutionarily conserved motifs in tRNase Zs, including the C-terminal AxDx motif, which may have functional significance.

  5. Defective i6A37 modification of mitochondrial and cytosolic tRNAs results from pathogenic mutations in TRIT1 and its substrate tRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Yarham

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the genetic basis for mitochondrial diseases is technically challenging given the size of the mitochondrial proteome and the heterogeneity of disease presentations. Using next-generation exome sequencing, we identified in a patient with severe combined mitochondrial respiratory chain defects and corresponding perturbation in mitochondrial protein synthesis, a homozygous p.Arg323Gln mutation in TRIT1. This gene encodes human tRNA isopentenyltransferase, which is responsible for i6A37 modification of the anticodon loops of a small subset of cytosolic and mitochondrial tRNAs. Deficiency of i6A37 was previously shown in yeast to decrease translational efficiency and fidelity in a codon-specific manner. Modelling of the p.Arg323Gln mutation on the co-crystal structure of the homologous yeast isopentenyltransferase bound to a substrate tRNA, indicates that it is one of a series of adjacent basic side chains that interact with the tRNA backbone of the anticodon stem, somewhat removed from the catalytic center. We show that patient cells bearing the p.Arg323Gln TRIT1 mutation are severely deficient in i6A37 in both cytosolic and mitochondrial tRNAs. Complete complementation of the i6A37 deficiency of both cytosolic and mitochondrial tRNAs was achieved by transduction of patient fibroblasts with wild-type TRIT1. Moreover, we show that a previously-reported pathogenic m.7480A>G mt-tRNASer(UCN mutation in the anticodon loop sequence A36A37A38 recognised by TRIT1 causes a loss of i6A37 modification. These data demonstrate that deficiencies of i6A37 tRNA modification should be considered a potential mechanism of human disease caused by both nuclear gene and mitochondrial DNA mutations while providing insight into the structure and function of TRIT1 in the modification of cytosolic and mitochondrial tRNAs.

  6. Secondary structure and feature of mitochondrial tRNA genes of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kwang Bae; Park, Yung Chul

    2015-09-01

    The complete mitogenome (NC_021119) of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) was annotated and characterized in our recent publication (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_021119). Here we provide additional information on methods in detail for obtaining the complete sequence of M. ussuriensis mitogenome. In addition, we describe characteristics of 22 tRNA genes and secondary structure and feature of 22 tRNAs of M. ussuriensis mitogenome.

  7. Secondary structure and feature of mitochondrial tRNA genes of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Bae Yoon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The complete mitogenome (NC_021119 of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae was annotated and characterized in our recent publication (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_021119. Here we provide additional information on methods in detail for obtaining the complete sequence of M. ussuriensis mitogenome. In addition, we describe characteristics of 22 tRNA genes and secondary structure and feature of 22 tRNAs of M. ussuriensis mitogenome.

  8. Non-Conserved Residues in Clostridium acetobutylicum tRNA(Ala) Contribute to tRNA Tuning for Efficient Antitermination of the alaS T Box Riboswitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-Chun; Grundy, Frank J; Henkin, Tina M

    2015-09-28

    The T box riboswitch regulates expression of amino acid-related genes in Gram-positive bacteria by monitoring the aminoacylation status of a specific tRNA, the binding of which affects the folding of the riboswitch into mutually exclusive terminator or antiterminator structures. Two main pairing interactions between the tRNA and the leader RNA have been demonstrated to be necessary, but not sufficient, for efficient antitermination. In this study, we used the Clostridium acetobutylicum alaS gene, which encodes alanyl-tRNA synthetase, to investigate the specificity of the tRNA response. We show that the homologous C. acetobutylicum tRNA(Ala) directs antitermination of the C. acetobutylicum alaS gene in vitro, but the heterologous Bacillus subtilis tRNA(Ala) (with the same anticodon and acceptor end) does not. Base substitutions at positions that vary between these two tRNAs revealed synergistic and antagonistic effects. Variation occurs primarily at positions that are not conserved in tRNA(Ala) species, which indicates that these non-conserved residues contribute to optimal antitermination of the homologous alaS gene. This study suggests that elements in tRNA(Ala) may have coevolved with the homologous alaS T box leader RNA for efficient antitermination.

  9. Non-Conserved Residues in Clostridium acetobutylicum tRNAAla Contribute to tRNA Tuning for Efficient Antitermination of the alaS T Box Riboswitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-Chun; Grundy, Frank J.; Henkin, Tina M.

    2015-01-01

    The T box riboswitch regulates expression of amino acid-related genes in Gram-positive bacteria by monitoring the aminoacylation status of a specific tRNA, the binding of which affects the folding of the riboswitch into mutually exclusive terminator or antiterminator structures. Two main pairing interactions between the tRNA and the leader RNA have been demonstrated to be necessary, but not sufficient, for efficient antitermination. In this study, we used the Clostridium acetobutylicum alaS gene, which encodes alanyl-tRNA synthetase, to investigate the specificity of the tRNA response. We show that the homologous C. acetobutylicum tRNAAla directs antitermination of the C. acetobutylicum alaS gene in vitro, but the heterologous Bacillus subtilis tRNAAla (with the same anticodon and acceptor end) does not. Base substitutions at positions that vary between these two tRNAs revealed synergistic and antagonistic effects. Variation occurs primarily at positions that are not conserved in tRNAAla species, which indicates that these non-conserved residues contribute to optimal antitermination of the homologous alaS gene. This study suggests that elements in tRNAAla may have coevolved with the homologous alaS T box leader RNA for efficient antitermination. PMID:26426057

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of dihydrouridine synthase from Thermus thermophilus and its complex with tRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Futao; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Yamamoto, Shiho; Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Kita, Shunsuke; Hirano, Nagisa; Tanaka, Isao; Yao, Min

    2011-01-01

    Crystals of dihydrouridine synthase from Thermus thermophilus and its complex with tRNA were obtained and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.70 and 3.51 Å resolution, respectively. Dihydrouridine synthase (Dus) is responsible for catalyzing dihydrouridine formation in RNA by the reduction of uridine. To elucidate its RNA-recognition mechanism, Dus from Thermus thermophilus (TthDus) and its complex with tRNA were crystallized. Diffraction data sets were collected from crystals of native and selenomethionine-substituted TthDus to resolutions of 1.70 and 2.30 Å, respectively. These crystals belonged to space group P1. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis showed that two molecules of TthDus were contained in an asymmetric unit. In addition, diffraction data were collected to 3.51 Å resolution from a crystal of selenomethionine-substituted TthDus in complex with tRNA, which belonged to space group P4 1 2 1 2. Preliminary structural analysis showed that the asymmetric unit contained two TthDus–tRNA complexes

  11. Cardiac abnormalities in diabetic patients with mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA Leu(UUR)Gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Hiroshi; Shiotani, Hideyuki

    1999-01-01

    An A-to-G transition at position 3243 of the mitochondrial DNA is known to be a pathogenic factor for mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), diabetes and cardiomyopathy. This mutation causes dysfunction of the central nervous system in MELAS. Because the heart, as well as the brain and nervous system, is highly dependent on the energy produced by mitochondrial oxidation, these tissues are more vulnerable to mitochondrial defects. Cardiac abnormalities were assessed in 10 diabetic patients associated with this mutation using echocardiography and 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, and compared with 19 diabetic patients without the mutation. Duration of diabetes, therapy, control of blood glucose and diabetic complications, such as diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, were not different between the 2 groups. Diabetic patients with the mutation had a significantly thicker interventricular septum (16.8±3.7 vs 11.0±1.6 mm, p 0.05). In conclusion, left ventricular hypertrophy with or without abnormal wall motion and severely reduced MIBG uptake may be characteristic in diabetic patients with a mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA Leu(UUR) gene. (author)

  12. Proteomic interrogation of androgen action in prostate cancer cells reveals roles of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaikkalam Vellaichamy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer remains the most common malignancy among men in United States, and there is no remedy currently available for the advanced stage hormone-refractory cancer. This is partly due to the incomplete understanding of androgen-regulated proteins and their encoded functions. Whole-cell proteomes of androgen-starved and androgen-treated LNCaP cells were analyzed by semi-quantitative MudPIT ESI- ion trap MS/MS and quantitative iTRAQ MALDI- TOF MS/MS platforms, with identification of more than 1300 high-confidence proteins. An enrichment-based pathway mapping of the androgen-regulated proteomic data sets revealed a significant dysregulation of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, indicating an increase in protein biosynthesis- a hallmark during prostate cancer progression. This observation is supported by immunoblot and transcript data from LNCaP cells, and prostate cancer tissue. Thus, data derived from multiple proteomics platforms and transcript data coupled with informatics analysis provides a deeper insight into the functional consequences of androgen action in prostate cancer.

  13. Structure–function relations in the NTPase domain of the antiviral tRNA ribotoxin Escherichia coli PrrC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meineke, Birthe; Shuman, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Breakage of tRNA by Escherichia coli anticodon nuclease PrrC (EcoPrrC) underlies a host antiviral response to phage T4 infection. Expression of EcoPrrC is cytocidal in yeast, signifying that PrrC ribotoxicity crosses phylogenetic domain boundaries. EcoPrrC consists of an N-terminal NTPase module that resembles ABC transporters and a C-terminal nuclease module that is sui generis. PrrC homologs are prevalent in many other bacteria. Here we report that Haemophilus influenzae PrrC is toxic in E. coli and yeast. To illuminate structure–activity relations, we conducted a new round of mutational analysis of EcoPrrC guided by primary structure conservation among toxic PrrC homologs. We indentify 17 candidate active site residues in the NTPase module that are essential for toxicity in yeast when EcoPrrC is expressed at high gene dosage. Their functions could be educed by integrating mutational data with the atomic structure of the transition-state complex of a homologous ABC protein.

  14. Formylation of initiator tRNA methionine in procaryotic protein synthesis: in vivo polarity in lactose operon expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, H U; Joseph, E; Ullmann, A; Danchin, A

    1978-01-01

    Eucaryotic and procaryotic organisms differ in two aspects of their translation machinery: polycistronic messengers are expressed as a sequence of individual proteins only in procaryotes, and the initiation of protein synthesis proceeds with an initiator tRNA which is found to be modified (formylated) in procaryotes and not in eucaryotes. In the present study, we show that formylation is required in vivo for the coordinate expression of the Escherichia coli lactose operon. Our experiments are consistent with a translation mechanism using dissociated ribosomes at the 5' end of the mRNA in a reaction that is only weakly dependent on formylation at this initiation step; the ribosomes then travel along the messenger and can reinitiate after the intracistronic barrier without dissociation. This latter initiation step is strongly dependent on the level of formylation: a low level of the formyl group, obtained by the antifolic agent trimethoprim, induces a strong polarity in the expression of the lactose operon. There exist mutant strains in which this polarity is much less apparent than in the wild type. We show here that such is the case of rpsL mutants. Ribosomes mutated in the S12 protein (rpsL) are found to be much more easily dissociated than the wild type. This might explain why the expression of the lactose operon on rpsL strains remains coordinated when the intracellular level of formylation is decreased. PMID:98518

  15. Evolutionary Limitation and Opportunities for Developing tRNA Synthetase Inhibitors with 5-Binding-Mode Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Fang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of amino acids to their cognate tRNAs as building blocks for translation. Each of the aaRS families plays a pivotal role in protein biosynthesis and is indispensable for cell growth and survival. In addition, aaRSs in higher species have evolved important non-translational functions. These translational and non-translational functions of aaRS are attractive for developing antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic agents and for treating other human diseases. The interplay between amino acids, tRNA, ATP, EF-Tu and non-canonical binding partners, had shaped each family with distinct pattern of key sites for regulation, with characters varying among species across the path of evolution. These sporadic variations in the aaRSs offer great opportunity to target these essential enzymes for therapy. Up to this day, growing numbers of aaRS inhibitors have been discovered and developed. Here, we summarize the latest developments and structural studies of aaRS inhibitors, and classify them with distinct binding modes into five categories.

  16. Binding interactions between yeast tRNA ligase and a precursor transfer ribonucleic acid containing two photoreactive uridine analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, N.K.; Hanna, M.M.; Abelson, J.

    1988-01-01

    Yeast tRNA ligase, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is one of the protein components that is involved in the splicing reaction of intron-containing yeast precursor tRNAs. It is an unusual protein because it has three distinct catalytic activities. It functions as a polynucleotide kinase, as a cyclic phosphodiesterase, and as an RNA ligase. We have studied the binding interactions between ligase and precursor tRNAs containing two photoreactive uridine analogues, 4-thiouridine and 5-bromouridine. When irradiated with long ultraviolet light, RNA containing these analogues can form specific covalent bonds with associated proteins. In this paper, we show that 4-thiouridine triphosphate and 5-bromouridine triphosphate were readily incorporated into a precursor tRNA(Phe) that was synthesized, in vitro, with bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. The analogue-containing precursor tRNAs were authentic substrates for the two splicing enzymes that were tested (endonuclease and ligase), and they formed specific covalent bonds with ligase when they were irradiated with long-wavelength ultraviolet light. We have determined the position of three major cross-links and one minor cross-link on precursor tRNA(Phe) that were located within the intron and near the 3' splice site. On the basis of these data, we present a model for the in vivo splicing reaction of yeast precursor tRNAs

  17. Towards an Integrative Understanding of tRNA Aminoacylation-Diet-Host-Gut Microbiome Interactions in Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, Elena L; Perry, George

    2018-03-26

    Transgenic mice used for Alzheimer's disease (AD) preclinical experiments do not recapitulate the human disease. In our models, the dietary tryptophan metabolite tryptamine produced by human gut microbiome induces tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) deficiency with consequent neurodegeneration in cells and mice. Dietary supplements, antibiotics and certain drugs increase tryptamine content in vivo. TrpRS catalyzes tryptophan attachment to tRNA trp at initial step of protein biosynthesis. Tryptamine that easily crosses the blood-brain barrier induces vasculopathies, neurodegeneration and cell death via TrpRS competitive inhibition. TrpRS inhibitor tryptophanol produced by gut microbiome also induces neurodegeneration. TrpRS inhibition by tryptamine and its metabolites preventing tryptophan incorporation into proteins lead to protein biosynthesis impairment. Tryptophan, a least amino acid in food and proteins that cannot be synthesized by humans competes with frequent amino acids for the transport from blood to brain. Tryptophan is a vulnerable amino acid, which can be easily lost to protein biosynthesis. Some proteins marking neurodegenerative pathology, such as tau lack tryptophan. TrpRS exists in cytoplasmic (WARS) and mitochondrial (WARS2) forms. Pathogenic gene variants of both forms cause TrpRS deficiency with consequent intellectual and motor disabilities in humans. The diminished tryptophan-dependent protein biosynthesis in AD patients is a proof of our model-based disease concept.

  18. Polycistronic tRNA and CRISPR guide-RNA enables highly efficient multiplexed genome engineering in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fengping; Xie, Kabin; Chen, Yueying; Yang, Yinong; Mao, Yingwei

    2017-01-22

    CRISPR/Cas9 has been widely used for genomic editing in many organisms. Many human diseases are caused by multiple mutations. The CRISPR/Cas9 system provides a potential tool to introduce multiple mutations in a genome. To mimic complicated genomic variants in human diseases, such as multiple gene deletions or mutations, two or more small guide RNAs (sgRNAs) need to be introduced all together. This can be achieved by separate Pol III promoters in a construct. However, limited enzyme sites and increased insertion size lower the efficiency to make a construct. Here, we report a strategy to quickly assembly multiple sgRNAs in one construct using a polycistronic-tRNA-gRNA (PTG) strategy. Taking advantage of the endogenous tRNA processing system in mammalian cells, we efficiently express multiple sgRNAs driven using only one Pol III promoter. Using an all-in-one construct carrying PTG, we disrupt the deacetylase domain in multiple histone deacetylases (HDACs) in human cells simultaneously. We demonstrate that multiple HDAC deletions significantly affect the activation of the Wnt-signaling pathway. Thus, this method enables to efficiently target multiple genes and provide a useful tool to establish mutated cells mimicking human diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. CARACTERIZACIÓN DEL TALLO ACEPTOR DEL tRNA MEDIANTE DESCRIPTORES LOCALES BASADOS EN CARGAS PARCIALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Marín

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se caracteriza la distribución de carga del tallo aceptor del tRNA, considerando todas las posibles combinaciones de pares Watson-Crick. El estudio se realizó con 256 fragmentos moleculares de 10 nucleótidos que modelan los tres primeros pares del tallo aceptor, la base diferenciadora y el extremo CCA. Para caracterizar los nucleótidos se proponen dos descriptores locales basados en la distribución de carga de las base nitrogenada de cada nucleótido, los cuales se calculan a partir de las cargas parciales de Mulliken obtenidas de cálculos HF/6-31G. La caracterización y clasificación de los tallos según estos descriptores mostró como la base diferenciadora tiene un comportamiento particular respecto a los demás nucleótidos del tallo y una fuerte influencia sobre el extremo CCA. La clasificación de nueve variaciones del tallo aceptor del tRNAAla mostró una buena relación estructura-actividad que pone en evidencia la bondad de los descriptores propuestos para caracterizar de manera local la distribución de carga de estas biomoléculas. 

  20. An artificial intelligence approach fit for tRNA gene studies in the era of big sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yuki; Abe, Takashi; Wada, Kennosuke; Wada, Yoshiko; Ikemura, Toshimichi

    2017-09-12

    Unsupervised data mining capable of extracting a wide range of knowledge from big data without prior knowledge or particular models is a timely application in the era of big sequence data accumulation in genome research. By handling oligonucleotide compositions as high-dimensional data, we have previously modified the conventional self-organizing map (SOM) for genome informatics and established BLSOM, which can analyze more than ten million sequences simultaneously. Here, we develop BLSOM specialized for tRNA genes (tDNAs) that can cluster (self-organize) more than one million microbial tDNAs according to their cognate amino acid solely depending on tetra- and pentanucleotide compositions. This unsupervised clustering can reveal combinatorial oligonucleotide motifs that are responsible for the amino acid-dependent clustering, as well as other functionally and structurally important consensus motifs, which have been evolutionarily conserved. BLSOM is also useful for identifying tDNAs as phylogenetic markers for special phylotypes. When we constructed BLSOM with 'species-unknown' tDNAs from metagenomic sequences plus 'species-known' microbial tDNAs, a large portion of metagenomic tDNAs self-organized with species-known tDNAs, yielding information on microbial communities in environmental samples. BLSOM can also enhance accuracy in the tDNA database obtained from big sequence data. This unsupervised data mining should become important for studying numerous functionally unclear RNAs obtained from a wide range of organisms.

  1. Structure-function relations in the NTPase domain of the antiviral tRNA ribotoxin Escherichia coli PrrC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meineke, Birthe; Shuman, Stewart, E-mail: s-shuman@ski.mskcc.org

    2012-06-05

    Breakage of tRNA by Escherichia coli anticodon nuclease PrrC (EcoPrrC) underlies a host antiviral response to phage T4 infection. Expression of EcoPrrC is cytocidal in yeast, signifying that PrrC ribotoxicity crosses phylogenetic domain boundaries. EcoPrrC consists of an N-terminal NTPase module that resembles ABC transporters and a C-terminal nuclease module that is sui generis. PrrC homologs are prevalent in many other bacteria. Here we report that Haemophilus influenzae PrrC is toxic in E. coli and yeast. To illuminate structure-activity relations, we conducted a new round of mutational analysis of EcoPrrC guided by primary structure conservation among toxic PrrC homologs. We indentify 17 candidate active site residues in the NTPase module that are essential for toxicity in yeast when EcoPrrC is expressed at high gene dosage. Their functions could be educed by integrating mutational data with the atomic structure of the transition-state complex of a homologous ABC protein.

  2. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending Veterinarian and Adequate Veterinary Care § 2.40 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and...

  3. Differential Regulation of rRNA and tRNA Transcription from the rRNA-tRNA Composite Operon in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Takada

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli contains seven rRNA operons, each consisting of the genes for three rRNAs (16S, 23S and 5S rRNA in this order and one or two tRNA genes in the spacer between 16S and 23S rRNA genes and one or two tRNA genes in the 3' proximal region. All of these rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from two promoters, P1 and P2, into single large precursors that are afterward processed to individual rRNAs and tRNAs by a set of RNases. In the course of Genomic SELEX screening of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase (RNAP holoenzyme containing RpoD sigma, a strong binding site was identified within 16S rRNA gene in each of all seven rRNA operons. The binding in vitro of RNAP RpoD holoenzyme to an internal promoter, referred to the promoter of riRNA (an internal RNA of the rRNA operon, within each 16S rRNA gene was confirmed by gel shift assay and AFM observation. Using this riRNA promoter within the rrnD operon as a representative, transcription in vitro was detected with use of the purified RpoD holoenzyme, confirming the presence of a constitutive promoter in this region. LacZ reporter assay indicated that this riRNA promoter is functional in vivo. The location of riRNA promoter in vivo as identified using a set of reporter plasmids agrees well with that identified in vitro. Based on transcription profile in vitro and Northern blot analysis in vivo, the majority of transcript initiated from this riRNA promoter was estimated to terminate near the beginning of 23S rRNA gene, indicating that riRNA leads to produce the spacer-coded tRNA. Under starved conditions, transcription of the rRNA operon is markedly repressed to reduce the intracellular level of ribosomes, but the levels of both riRNA and its processed tRNAGlu stayed unaffected, implying that riRNA plays a role in the continued steady-state synthesis of tRNAs from the spacers of rRNA operons. We then propose that the tRNA genes organized within the spacers of rRNA-tRNA composite operons

  4. Differential Regulation of rRNA and tRNA Transcription from the rRNA-tRNA Composite Operon in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Hiraku; Shimada, Tomohiro; Dey, Debashish; Quyyum, M. Zuhaib; Nakano, Masahiro; Ishiguro, Akira; Yoshida, Hideji; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Sen, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli contains seven rRNA operons, each consisting of the genes for three rRNAs (16S, 23S and 5S rRNA in this order) and one or two tRNA genes in the spacer between 16S and 23S rRNA genes and one or two tRNA genes in the 3’ proximal region. All of these rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from two promoters, P1 and P2, into single large precursors that are afterward processed to individual rRNAs and tRNAs by a set of RNases. In the course of Genomic SELEX screening of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme containing RpoD sigma, a strong binding site was identified within 16S rRNA gene in each of all seven rRNA operons. The binding in vitro of RNAP RpoD holoenzyme to an internal promoter, referred to the promoter of riRNA (an internal RNA of the rRNA operon), within each 16S rRNA gene was confirmed by gel shift assay and AFM observation. Using this riRNA promoter within the rrnD operon as a representative, transcription in vitro was detected with use of the purified RpoD holoenzyme, confirming the presence of a constitutive promoter in this region. LacZ reporter assay indicated that this riRNA promoter is functional in vivo. The location of riRNA promoter in vivo as identified using a set of reporter plasmids agrees well with that identified in vitro. Based on transcription profile in vitro and Northern blot analysis in vivo, the majority of transcript initiated from this riRNA promoter was estimated to terminate near the beginning of 23S rRNA gene, indicating that riRNA leads to produce the spacer-coded tRNA. Under starved conditions, transcription of the rRNA operon is markedly repressed to reduce the intracellular level of ribosomes, but the levels of both riRNA and its processed tRNAGlu stayed unaffected, implying that riRNA plays a role in the continued steady-state synthesis of tRNAs from the spacers of rRNA operons. We then propose that the tRNA genes organized within the spacers of rRNA-tRNA composite operons are expressed

  5. Differential Regulation of rRNA and tRNA Transcription from the rRNA-tRNA Composite Operon in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Hiraku; Shimada, Tomohiro; Dey, Debashish; Quyyum, M Zuhaib; Nakano, Masahiro; Ishiguro, Akira; Yoshida, Hideji; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Sen, Ranjan; Ishihama, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli contains seven rRNA operons, each consisting of the genes for three rRNAs (16S, 23S and 5S rRNA in this order) and one or two tRNA genes in the spacer between 16S and 23S rRNA genes and one or two tRNA genes in the 3' proximal region. All of these rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from two promoters, P1 and P2, into single large precursors that are afterward processed to individual rRNAs and tRNAs by a set of RNases. In the course of Genomic SELEX screening of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme containing RpoD sigma, a strong binding site was identified within 16S rRNA gene in each of all seven rRNA operons. The binding in vitro of RNAP RpoD holoenzyme to an internal promoter, referred to the promoter of riRNA (an internal RNA of the rRNA operon), within each 16S rRNA gene was confirmed by gel shift assay and AFM observation. Using this riRNA promoter within the rrnD operon as a representative, transcription in vitro was detected with use of the purified RpoD holoenzyme, confirming the presence of a constitutive promoter in this region. LacZ reporter assay indicated that this riRNA promoter is functional in vivo. The location of riRNA promoter in vivo as identified using a set of reporter plasmids agrees well with that identified in vitro. Based on transcription profile in vitro and Northern blot analysis in vivo, the majority of transcript initiated from this riRNA promoter was estimated to terminate near the beginning of 23S rRNA gene, indicating that riRNA leads to produce the spacer-coded tRNA. Under starved conditions, transcription of the rRNA operon is markedly repressed to reduce the intracellular level of ribosomes, but the levels of both riRNA and its processed tRNAGlu stayed unaffected, implying that riRNA plays a role in the continued steady-state synthesis of tRNAs from the spacers of rRNA operons. We then propose that the tRNA genes organized within the spacers of rRNA-tRNA composite operons are expressed

  6. The frequency of translational misreading errors in E. coli is largely determined by tRNA competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Emily B.; Farabaugh, Philip J.

    2007-01-01

    Estimates of missense error rates (misreading) during protein synthesis vary from 10−3 to 10−4 per codon. The experiments reporting these rates have measured several distinct errors using several methods and reporter systems. Variation in reported rates may reflect real differences in rates among the errors tested or in sensitivity of the reporter systems. To develop a more accurate understanding of the range of error rates, we developed a system to quantify the frequency of every possible misreading error at a defined codon in Escherichia coli. This system uses an essential lysine in the active site of firefly luciferase. Mutations in Lys529 result in up to a 1600-fold reduction in activity, but the phenotype varies with amino acid. We hypothesized that residual activity of some of the mutant genes might result from misreading of the mutant codons by tRNALys UUUU, the cognate tRNA for the lysine codons, AAA and AAG. Our data validate this hypothesis and reveal details about relative missense error rates of near-cognate codons. The error rates in E. coli do, in fact, vary widely. One source of variation is the effect of competition by cognate tRNAs for the mutant codons; higher error frequencies result from lower competition from low-abundance tRNAs. We also used the system to study the effect of ribosomal protein mutations known to affect error rates and the effect of error-inducing antibiotics, finding that they affect misreading on only a subset of near-cognate codons and that their effect may be less general than previously thought. PMID:17095544

  7. Cardiac abnormalities in diabetic patients with mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA {sup Leu(UUR)}Gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Hiroshi [Hyogo Medical Center for Adults, Akashi (Japan); Shiotani, Hideyuki

    1999-11-01

    An A-to-G transition at position 3243 of the mitochondrial DNA is known to be a pathogenic factor for mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), diabetes and cardiomyopathy. This mutation causes dysfunction of the central nervous system in MELAS. Because the heart, as well as the brain and nervous system, is highly dependent on the energy produced by mitochondrial oxidation, these tissues are more vulnerable to mitochondrial defects. Cardiac abnormalities were assessed in 10 diabetic patients associated with this mutation using echocardiography and {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, and compared with 19 diabetic patients without the mutation. Duration of diabetes, therapy, control of blood glucose and diabetic complications, such as diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, were not different between the 2 groups. Diabetic patients with the mutation had a significantly thicker interventricular septum (16.8{+-}3.7 vs 11.0{+-}1.6 mm, p<0.001) than those without the mutation. Fractional shortening was lower in diabetic patients with the mutation than those without it (30.7{+-}7.0 vs 42.5{+-}6.6, p<0.001). MIBG uptake on the delayed MIBG image was significantly lower in diabetic patients with the mutation than in those without the mutation (mean value of the heart to mediastinum ratio: 1.6{+-}0.2 vs 2.0{+-}0.4, p>0.05). In conclusion, left ventricular hypertrophy with or without abnormal wall motion and severely reduced MIBG uptake may be characteristic in diabetic patients with a mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA {sup Leu(UUR)} gene. (author)

  8. The Human Right to Adequate Housing: A Tool for Promoting and Protecting Individual and Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Bret

    2002-01-01

    The human right to adequate housing is enshrined in international law. The right to adequate housing can be traced to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was unanimously adopted by the world community in 1948. Since that time, the right to adequate housing has been reaffirmed on numerous occasions and further defined and elaborated. A key component of this right is habitability of housing, which should comply with health and safety standards. Therefore, the right to adequate housing provides an additional tool for advocates and others interested in promoting healthful housing and living conditions and thereby protecting individual and community health. PMID:11988432

  9. The human right to adequate housing: a tool for promoting and protecting individual and community health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Bret

    2002-05-01

    The human right to adequate housing is enshrined in international law. The right to adequate housing can be traced to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was unanimously adopted by the world community in 1948. Since that time, the right to adequate housing has been reaffirmed on numerous occasions and further defined and elaborated. A key component of this right is habitability of housing, which should comply with health and safety standards. Therefore, the right to adequate housing provides an additional tool for advocates and others interested in promoting healthful housing and living conditions and thereby protecting individual and community health.

  10. Prevalence of the A1555G (12S rRNA and tRNA Ser(UCN mitochondrial mutations in hearing-impaired Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu-Silva R.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial mutations are responsible for at least 1% of the cases of hereditary deafness, but the contribution of each mutation has not yet been defined in African-derived or native American genetic backgrounds. A total of 203 unselected hearing-impaired patients were screened for the presence of the mitochondrial mutation A1555G in the 12S rRNA gene and mutations in the tRNA Ser(UCN gene in order to assess their frequency in the ethnically admixed Brazilian population. We found four individuals with A1555G mutation (2%, which is a frequency similar to those reported for European-derived populations in unselected samples. On the other hand, complete sequencing of the tRNA Ser(UCN did not reveal reported pathogenic substitutions, namely A7445G, 7472insC, T7510C, or T7511C. Instead, other rare substitutions were found such as T1291C, A7569G, and G7444A. To evaluate the significance of these findings, 110 "European-Brazilians" and 190 "African-Brazilians" unrelated hearing controls were screened. The T1291C, A7569G and G7444A substitutions were each found in about 1% (2/190 of individuals of African ancestry, suggesting that they are probably polymorphic. Our results indicate that screening for the A1555G mutation is recommended among all Brazilian deaf patients, while testing for mutations in the tRNA Ser(UCN gene should be considered only when other frequent deafness-causing mutations have been excluded or in the presence of a maternal transmission pattern.

  11. MD SIMULATION STUDIES TO INVESTIGATE ISO-ENERGETIC CONFORMATIONAL BEHAVIOUR OF MODIFIED NUCLEOSIDES M2G AND M22G PRESENT IN tRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit S Bavi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified nucleic acid bases are most commonly found in tRNA. These may contain modifications from simple methylation to addition of bulky groups. Methylation of the four canonical nucleotide bases at a wide variety of positions is particularly prominent among the known modification. Methylation of N2 group of guanine is a relatively common modification in tRNA and rRNA. N2-methylguanosine (m2G is the second most often encountered nucleoside in E. coli tRNAs. N2, N2-dimethylguanosine (m22G is found in the majority of eukaryotic tRNAs and involved in forming base pair interactions with adjacent bases. Hence, in order to understand the structural significance of these methylated nucleic acid bases we have carried out molecular dynamics simulation to see the salvation effect. The results obtained shows iso-energetic conformational behaviors for m2G and m22G. The simulation trajectory of m2G shows regular periodical fluctuations suggesting that m2G is equally stable as either s-cis or s-trans rotamers. The two rotamers of m2G may interact canonically or non-canonically with opposite base as s-trans m2G26:C/A/U44 and s-cis m2G26:A/U44. The free rotations around the C-N bond could be the possible reason for these iso-energetic conformations. Dimethylation of G has almost no influence on base pairing with either A or U. Thus, these results reveal that modified nucleosides m2G and m22G may play an important role to prevent tRNA from adopting the unusual mitochondrial like conformation.

  12. Unusual evolutionary history of the tRNA splicing endonuclease EndA: relationship to the LAGLIDADG and PD-(D/E)XK deoxyribonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujnicki, J M; Rychlewski, L

    2001-03-01

    The tRNA splicing endoribonuclease EndA from Methanococcus jannaschii is a homotetramer formed via heterologous interaction between the two pairs of homodimers. Each monomer consists of two alpha/beta domains, the N-terminal domain (NTD) and the C-terminal domain (CTD) containing the RNase A-like active site. Comparison of the EndA coordinates with the publicly available protein structure database revealed the similarity of both domains to site-specific deoxyribonucleases: the NTD to the LAGLIDADG family and the CTD to the PD-(D/E)XK family. Superposition of the NTD on the catalytic domain of LAGLIDADG homing endonucleases allowed a suggestion to be made about which amino acid residues of the tRNA splicing nuclease might participate in formation of a presumptive cryptic deoxyribonuclease active site. On the other hand, the CTD and PD-(D/E)XK endonucleases, represented by restriction enzymes and a phage lambda exonuclease, were shown to share extensive similarities of the structural framework, to which entirely different active sites might be attached in two alternative locations. These findings suggest that EndA evolved from a fusion protein with at least two distinct endonuclease activities: the ribonuclease, which made it an essential "antitoxin" for the cells whose RNA genes were interrupted by introns, and the deoxyribonuclease, which provided the means for homing-like mobility. The residues of the noncatalytic CTDs from the positions corresponding to the catalytic side chains in PD-(D/E)XK deoxyribonucleases map to the surface at the opposite side to the tRNA binding site, for which no function has been implicated. Many restriction enzymes from the PD-(D/E)XK superfamily might have the potential to maintain an additional active or binding site at the face opposite the deoxyribonuclease active site, a property that can be utilized in protein engineering.

  13. Affinity labelling in situ of the bL12 protein on E. coli 70S ribosomes by means of a tRNA dialdehyde derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hountondji, Codjo; Créchet, Jean-Bernard; Le Caër, Jean-Pierre; Lancelot, Véronique; Cognet, Jean A H; Baouz, Soria

    2017-12-01

    In this report, we have used periodate-oxidized tRNA (tRNAox) as an affinity laleling reagent to demonstrate that: (i) the bL12 protein contacts the CCA-arm of P-site bound tRNA on the Escherichia coli 70S ribosomes; (ii) the stoichiometry of labelling is one molecule of tRNAox bound to one polypeptide chain of endogenous bL12; (iii) cross-linking in situ of bL12 with tRNAox on the ribosomes provokes the loss of activity; (iv) intact tRNA protects bL12 in the 70S ribosomes against cross-linking with tRNAox; (v) both tRNAox and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) compete for the same or for proximal cross-linking site(s) on bL12 inside the ribosome; (vi) the stoichiometry of cross-linking of PLP to the recombinant E. coli bL12 protein is one molecule of PLP covalently bound per polypeptide chain; (vii) the amino acid residue of recombinant bL12 cross-linked with PLP is Lys-65; (viii) Lys-65 of E. coli bL12 corresponds to Lys-53 of eL42 which was previously shown to cross-link with P-site bound tRNAox on human 80S ribosomes in situ; (ix) finally, E. coli bL12 and human eL42 proteins display significant primary structure similarities, which argues for evolutionary conservation of these two proteins located at the tRNA-CCA binding site on eubacterial and eukaryal ribosomes. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Study Concerning Exercising an Adequate Professional Reasoning in Developing the Evaluation and Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vârteiu Daniel Petru

    2017-01-01

    Even though there are regulations which clearly specify the way in which an evaluation process, respectively an adequate audit process must take place, for a good management of encountered situations and difficulties, the evaluator, respectively the auditor must exercise an adequate professional reasoning.

  15. The enforceability of the human right to adequate food : a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    mr.dr. Bart F.W. Wernaart

    2013-01-01

    While the right to adequate food is often discussed in the context of developing countries, especially in situations where access to adequate food is a problem on a larger scale, this book focusses on the right to food in two Western countries in which theoretically the circumstances allow this

  16. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide...

  17. A Generalized Michaelis-Menten Equation in Protein Synthesis: Effects of Mis-Charged Cognate tRNA and Mis-Reading of Codon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Annwesha; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2017-05-01

    The sequence of amino acid monomers in the primary structure of a protein is decided by the corresponding sequence of codons (triplets of nucleic acid monomers) on the template messenger RNA (mRNA). The polymerization of a protein, by incorporation of the successive amino acid monomers, is carried out by a molecular machine called ribosome. We develop a stochastic kinetic model that captures the possibilities of mis-reading of mRNA codon and prior mis-charging of a tRNA. By a combination of analytical and numerical methods, we obtain the distribution of the times taken for incorporation of the successive amino acids in the growing protein in this mathematical model. The corresponding exact analytical expression for the average rate of elongation of a nascent protein is a 'biologically motivated' generalization of the Michaelis-Menten formula for the average rate of enzymatic reactions. This generalized Michaelis-Menten-like formula (and the exact analytical expressions for a few other quantities) that we report here display the interplay of four different branched pathways corresponding to selection of four different types of tRNA.

  18. A Platform for Discovery and Quantification of Modified Ribonucleosides in RNA: Application to Stress-Induced Reprogramming of tRNA Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiling Maggie; Chionh, Yok Hian; Hia, Fabian; Gu, Chen; Kellner, Stefanie; McBee, Megan E; Ng, Chee Sheng; Pang, Yan Ling Joy; Prestwich, Erin G; Lim, Kok Seong; Babu, I Ramesh; Begley, Thomas J; Dedon, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe an analytical platform for systems-level quantitative analysis of modified ribonucleosides in any RNA species, with a focus on stress-induced reprogramming of tRNA as part of a system of translational control of cell stress response. This chapter emphasizes strategies and caveats for each of the seven steps of the platform workflow: (1) RNA isolation, (2) RNA purification, (3) RNA hydrolysis to individual ribonucleosides, (4) chromatographic resolution of ribonucleosides, (5) identification of the full set of modified ribonucleosides, (6) mass spectrometric quantification of ribonucleosides, (6) interrogation of ribonucleoside datasets, and (7) mapping the location of stress-sensitive modifications in individual tRNA molecules. We have focused on the critical determinants of analytical sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy in an effort to ensure the most biologically meaningful data on mechanisms of translational control of cell stress response. The methods described here should find wide use in virtually any analysis involving RNA modifications. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. MTO1 mediates tissue specificity of OXPHOS defects via tRNA modification and translation optimization, which can be bypassed by dietary intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischner, Christin; Hofer, Annette; Wulff, Veronika; Stepek, Joanna; Dumitru, Iulia; Becker, Lore; Haack, Tobias; Kremer, Laura; Datta, Alexandre N.; Sperl, Wolfgang; Floss, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zofia; De Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Klopstock, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Wenz, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases often exhibit tissue-specific pathologies, but this phenomenon is poorly understood. Here we present regulation of mitochondrial translation by the Mitochondrial Translation Optimization Factor 1, MTO1, as a novel player in this scenario. We demonstrate that MTO1 mediates tRNA modification and controls mitochondrial translation rate in a highly tissue-specific manner associated with tissue-specific OXPHOS defects. Activation of mitochondrial proteases, aberrant translation products, as well as defects in OXPHOS complex assembly observed in MTO1 deficient mice further imply that MTO1 impacts translation fidelity. In our mouse model, MTO1-related OXPHOS deficiency can be bypassed by feeding a ketogenic diet. This therapeutic intervention is independent of the MTO1-mediated tRNA modification and involves balancing of mitochondrial and cellular secondary stress responses. Our results thereby establish mammalian MTO1 as a novel factor in the tissue-specific regulation of OXPHOS and fine tuning of mitochondrial translation accuracy. PMID:25552653

  20. tRNA splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Abelson, John; Trotta, Christopher R.; Li, Hong

    1998-01-01

    Introns interrupt the continuity of many eukaryal genes, and therefore their removal by splicing is a crucial step in gene expression. Interestingly, even within Eukarya there are at least four splicing mechanisms. mRNA splicing in the nucleus takes place in two phosphotransfer reactions on a complex and dynamic machine, the spliceosome. This reaction is related in mechanism to the two self-splicing mechanisms for Group 1 and Group 2 introns. In fact the Group 2 introns are spliced by an iden...

  1. Gulf War Illnesses: DOD's Conclusions about U.S. Troops' Exposure Cannot Be Adequately Supported

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhodes, Keith

    2004-01-01

    ... (MOD) conclusions about troops' exposure. The GAO found that DoD's and MOD's conclusions about troops' exposure to CW agents, based on DoD and CIA plume modeling, cannot be adequately supported...

  2. Region 8: Colorado Denver 2008 8-hour ozone Adequate Letter (4/2/2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA letter to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Metro-Denver/North Front Range ozone attainment plan and 2017 Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity and will be announced in Federal Register.

  3. Optimization Methods to Minimize Emergence Time While Maintaining Adequate Post-Operative Analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Tams, Carl; Syroid, Noah; Johnson, Ken B.; Egan, Talmage D.; Westenskow, Dwayne

    2011-01-01

    A rapid emergence from anesthesia combined with an extended duration of adequate analgesia is desired. Difficulties arise when trying to achieve a rapid emergence and provide adequate analgesia for procedures associated with moderate post operative pain. We propose to use pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) models with optimization techniques to determine anesthetic drugs ratios to improve post-anesthetic outcomes of emergence and analgesia. We hypothesize that optimized propofol, r...

  4. Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulation study of archaeal leucyl-tRNA synthetase in complex with different mischarged tRNA in editing conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayevsky, A V; Sharifi, M; Tukalo, M A

    2017-09-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) play important roles in maintaining the accuracy of protein synthesis. Some aaRSs accomplish this via editing mechanisms, among which leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) edits non-cognate amino acid norvaline mainly by post-transfer editing. However, the molecular basis for this pathway for eukaryotic and archaeal LeuRS remain unclear. In this study, a complex of archaeal P. horikoshii LeuRS (PhLeuRS) with misacylated tRNA Leu was modeled wherever tRNA's acceptor stem was oriented directly into the editing site. To understand the distinctive features of organization we reconstructed a complex of PhLeuRS with tRNA and visualize post-transfer editing interactions mode by performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies. To study molecular basis for substrate selectivity by PhLeuRS's editing site we utilized MD simulation of the entire LeuRS complexes using a diverse charged form of tRNAs, namely norvalyl-tRNA Leu and isoleucyl-tRNA Leu . In general, the editing site organization of LeuRS from P.horikoshii has much in common with bacterial LeuRS. The MD simulation results revealed that the post-transfer editing substrate norvalyl-A76, binds more strongly than isoleucyl-A76. Moreover, the branched side chain of isoleucine prevents water molecules from being closer and hence the hydrolysis reaction slows significantly. To investigate a possible mechanism of the post-transfer editing reaction, by PhLeuRS we have determined that two water molecules (the attacking and assisting water molecules) are localized near the carbonyl group of the amino acid to be cleaved off. These water molecules approach the substrate from the opposite side to that observed for Thermus thermophilus LeuRS (TtLeuRS). Based on the results obtained, it was suggested that the post-transfer editing mechanism of PhLeuRS differs from that of prokaryotic TtLeuRS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification and analysis of candidate fungal tRNA 3'-end processing endonucleases tRNase Zs, homologs of the putative prostate cancer susceptibility protein ELAC2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Wei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background tRNase Z is the endonuclease that is responsible for the 3'-end processing of tRNA precursors, a process essential for tRNA 3'-CCA addition and subsequent tRNA aminoacylation. Based on their sizes, tRNase Zs can be divided into the long (tRNase ZL and short (tRNase ZS forms. tRNase ZL is thought to have arisen from a tandem gene duplication of tRNase ZS with further sequence divergence. The species distribution of tRNase Z is complex. Fungi represent an evolutionarily diverse group of eukaryotes. The recent proliferation of fungal genome sequences provides an opportunity to explore the structural and functional diversity of eukaryotic tRNase Zs. Results We report a survey and analysis of candidate tRNase Zs in 84 completed fungal genomes, spanning a broad diversity of fungi. We find that tRNase ZL is present in all fungi we have examined, whereas tRNase ZS exists only in the fungal phyla Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota. Furthermore, we find that unlike the Pezizomycotina and Saccharomycotina, which contain a single tRNase ZL, Schizosaccharomyces fission yeasts (Taphrinomycotina contain two tRNase ZLs encoded by two different tRNase ZL genes. These two tRNase ZLs are most likely localized to the nucleus and mitochondria, respectively, suggesting partitioning of tRNase Z function between two different tRNase ZLs in fission yeasts. The fungal tRNase Z phylogeny suggests that tRNase ZSs are ancestral to tRNase ZLs. Additionally, the evolutionary relationship of fungal tRNase ZLs is generally consistent with known phylogenetic relationships among the fungal species and supports tRNase ZL gene duplication in certain fungal taxa, including Schizosaccharomyces fission yeasts. Analysis of tRNase Z protein sequences reveals putative atypical substrate binding domains in most fungal tRNase ZSs and in a subset of fungal tRNase ZLs. Finally, we demonstrate the presence of pseudo-substrate recognition and catalytic motifs at

  6. The enigmatic mitochondrial genome of Rhabdopleura compacta (Pterobranchia reveals insights into selection of an efficient tRNA system and supports monophyly of Ambulacraria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Peter F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hemichordata comprises solitary-living Enteropneusta and colonial-living Pterobranchia, sharing morphological features with both Chordata and Echinodermata. Despite their key role for understanding deuterostome evolution, hemichordate phylogeny is controversial and only few molecular data are available for phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, mitochondrial sequences are completely lacking for pterobranchs. Therefore, we determined and analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of the pterobranch Rhabdopleura compacta to elucidate deuterostome evolution. Thereby, we also gained important insights in mitochondrial tRNA evolution. Results The mitochondrial DNA of Rhabdopleura compacta corresponds in size and gene content to typical mitochondrial genomes of metazoans, but shows the strongest known strand-specific mutational bias in the nucleotide composition among deuterostomes with a very GT-rich main-coding strand. The order of the protein-coding genes in R. compacta is similar to that of the deuterostome ground pattern. However, the protein-coding genes have been highly affected by a strand-specific mutational pressure showing unusual codon frequency and amino acid composition. This composition caused extremely long branches in phylogenetic analyses. The unusual codon frequency points to a selection pressure on the tRNA translation system to codon-anticodon sequences of highest versatility instead of showing adaptations in anticodon sequences to the most frequent codons. Furthermore, an assignment of the codon AGG to Lysine has been detected in the mitochondrial genome of R. compacta, which is otherwise observed only in the mitogenomes of some arthropods. The genomes of these arthropods do not have such a strong strand-specific bias as found in R. compacta but possess an identical mutation in the anticodon sequence of the tRNALys. Conclusion A strong reversed asymmetrical mutational constraint in the mitochondrial genome of

  7. Improved tRNA prediction in the American house dust mite reveals widespread occurrence of extremely short minimal tRNAs in acariform mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, Pavel B; Oconnor, Barry M

    2009-12-11

    Atypical tRNAs are functional minimal tRNAs, lacking either the D- or T-arm. They are significantly shorter than typical cloverleaf tRNAs. Widespread occurrence of atypical tRNAs was first demonstrated for secernentean nematodes and later in various arachnids. Evidence started to accumulate that tRNAs of certain acariform mites are even shorter than the minimal tRNAs of nematodes, raising the possibility that tRNAs lacking both D- and T-arms might exist in these organisms. The presence of cloverleaf tRNAs in acariform mites, particularly in the house dust mite genus Dermatophagoides, is still disputed. Mitochondrial tRNAs of Dermatophagoides farinae are minimal, atypical tRNAs lacking either the T- or D-arm. The size (49-62, 54.4 +/- 2.86 nt) is significantly (p = 0.019) smaller than in Caenorhabditis elegans (53-63, 56.3 +/- 2.30 nt), a model minimal tRNA taxon. The shortest tRNA (49 nt) in Dermatophagoides is approaching the length of the shortest known tRNAs (45-49 nt) described in other acariform mites. The D-arm is absent in these tRNAs, and the inferred T-stem is small (2-3 bp) and thermodynamically unstable, suggesting that it may not exist in reality. The discriminator nucleotide is probably not encoded and is added postranscriptionally in many Dermatophagoides tRNAs. Mitochondrial tRNAs of acariform mites are largely atypical, non-cloverleaf tRNAs. Among them, the shortest known tRNAs with no D-arm and a short and unstable T-arm can be inferred. While our study confirmed seven tRNAs in Dermatophagoides by limited EST data, further experimental evidence is needed to demonstrate extremely small and unusual tRNAs in acariform mites.

  8. Free-Energy Landscape of Reverse tRNA Translocation through the Ribosome Analyzed by Electron Microscopy Density Maps and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hisashi; Matsumoto, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of reverse tRNA translocation in the ribosome, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the ribosome-tRNAs-mRNA-EFG complex were performed. The complex at the post-translocational state was directed towards the translocational and pre-translocational states by fitting the complex into cryo-EM density maps. Between a series of the fitting simulations, umbrella sampling simulations were performed to obtain the free-energy landscape. Multistep structural changes, such as a ratchet-like motion and rotation of the head of the small subunit were observed. The free-energy landscape showed that there were two main free-energy barriers: one between the post-translocational and intermediate states, and the other between the pre-translocational and intermediate states. The former corresponded to a clockwise rotation, which was coupled to the movement of P-tRNA over the P/E-gate made of G1338, A1339 and A790 in the small subunit. The latter corresponded to an anticlockwise rotation of the head, which was coupled to the location of the two tRNAs in the hybrid state. This indicates that the coupled motion of the head rotation and tRNA translocation plays an important role in opening and closing of the P/E-gate during the ratchet-like movement in the ribosome. Conformational change of EF-G was interpreted to be the result of the combination of the external motion by L12 around an axis passing near the sarcin-ricin loop, and internal hinge-bending motion. These motions contributed to the movement of domain IV of EF-G to maintain its interaction with A/P-tRNA. PMID:24999999

  9. Importance of adequate exercise in the detection of coronary heart disease by radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.H.; Lo, K.; Pitt, B.

    1980-01-01

    Rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained on 77 symptomatic patients without prior documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary artery disease was present by angiograms in 48. Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was abnormal in 41 patients (overall sensitivity 85%). In 29 patients with normal coronary arteries, RNV was normal in 24 (specificity 83%). To determine if the exercise level affects sensitivity, the studies were graded for adequacy of exercise. It was considered adequate if patients developed (a) chest pain, or (b) ST segment depression of at least 1 mm, or (c) if they achieved a pressure rate product greater than 250. Among the 48 patients with coronary artery disease, 35 achieved adequate exercise. Thirty-three had an abnormal RNV (sensitivity 94%). In 13 patients who failed to achieve adequate exercise, RNV was abnormal in eight (sensitivity of only 62%). Some patients with coronary artery disease may have a normal ventricular response at inadequate levels of stress

  10. Trends and determinants of adequate gastroprotection in patients chronically using NSAIDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsper, Charles W; Smeets, Hugo M; Numans, Mattijs E; Knol, Mirjam J; Hoes, Arno W; de Wit, Niek J

    2009-09-01

    To identify determinants and trends of gastroprotection in patients chronically using NSAIDs. retrospective cohort study. Agis Health Database (AHD) containing annual prescription records of approximately 1.5 million patients. All patients using more than 180 daily defined doses (DDD) annually, of any NSAID from 2001 to 2007. prevalence of NSAID use, adequate prescription of gastroprotective drugs (PPI, misoprostol or COX-2 inhibitor use), determinants of adequate gastroprotection. The percentage of patients chronically using NSAIDs rose from 7.3% of the total NSAIDs users in 2001 to 7.5% in 2007. The percentage of patients on NSAIDs receiving adequate gastroprotective medication in line with actual guidelines increased from 39.6% in 2001 to 69.9% in 2007. Age over 70, co-prescription of SSRI, coumarine and steroids and arthritis are the main clinical factors predicting adequate prescription. The prevalence of NSAID prescription and the risk of gastric complications is increasing steadily. Although the number of patients receiving gastroprotective medication is also increasing, over 30% of the patients at risk for GI complications were left unprotected in 2007. In order to improve protection rates in patients using NSAIDs and to decrease NSAID related hospital admissions in the future, the implementation of gastroprotection guidelines needs to be improved.

  11. Long-Term Recurrent Subarachnoid Hemorrhage After Adequate Coiling Versus Clipping of Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Joanna D.; Sprengers, Marieke E.; van Rooij, Willem Jan; Sluzewski, Menno; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Wermer, Marieke J. H.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.

    Background and Purpose-Coiling is increasingly used as treatment for intracranial aneurysms. Despite its favorable short-term outcome, concerns exist about long-term reopening and inherent risk of recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We hypothesized a higher risk for recurrent SAH after adequate

  12. The Unequal Effect of Adequate Yearly Progress: Evidence from School Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abigail B.; Clift, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report insights, based on annual site visits to elementary and middle schools in three states from 2004 to 2006, into the incentive effect of the No Child Left Behind Act's requirement that increasing percentages of students make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in every public school. They develop a framework, drawing on the physics…

  13. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... firefighters are adequate. (a) You are responsible for determining the adequacy of the resource providers you intend to include in your plan. (b) When determining adequacy of the resource provider, you must select a resource provider that meets the following selection criteria to the maximum extent possible: (1) Resource...

  14. Towards 31Mg-β-NMR resonance linewidths adequate for applications in magnesium chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stachura, M.; McFadden, R. M. L.; Chatzichristos, A.

    2017-01-01

    The span of most chemical shifts recorded in conventional 25Mg-NMR spectroscopy is ~ 100 ppm. Accordingly, linewidths of ~ 10 ppm or better are desirable to achieve adequate resolution for applications in chemistry. Here we present first high-field 31Mg- β-NMR measurements of 31Mg+ ions implanted...

  15. 12 CFR 702.303 - Prompt corrective action for “adequately capitalized” new credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... capitalizedâ new credit unions. 702.303 Section 702.303 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Alternative Prompt Corrective Action for New Credit Unions § 702.303 Prompt corrective action for “adequately capitalized” new credit unions...

  16. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The ...

  17. 42 CFR 413.24 - Adequate cost data and cost finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Reports § 413.24 Adequate cost data and cost finding. (a) Principle. Providers receiving payment on the... will be acceptable, subject to appropriate treatment of capital expenditures. (b) Definitions—(1) Cost... provider to ascertain costs of the various types of services furnished. It is the determination of these...

  18. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... microscopic element, including, but not limited to, viruses. (4) All living plants intended for use as...

  19. Adequate Education: Issues in Its Definition and Implementation. School Finance Project, Working Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tron, Esther, Ed.

    Section 1203 of the Education Amendments of 1978 mandated the undertaking of studies concerning the adequate financing of elementary and secondary education in the 1980s. Created to carry out this mandate, the School Finance Project established as one of its goals reporting to Congress on issues implicit in funding educational adequacy. Several…

  20. Protecting the Home and Adequate Housing - Living in a Caravan or Trailer as a Human Right

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Many Roma, gypsies and travellers live in caravans or trailers, sometimes in together trailer parks or camps. This article analyses how this specific lifestyle connected to their housing is protected under the various regimes and provisions of international human rights law. Home and adequate

  1. Does the new conceptual framework provide adequate concepts for reporting relevant information about performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.; Faramarzi, A; Hoogendoorn, M.

    2014-01-01

    The basic question we raise in this paper is whether the 2013 Discussion Paper (DP 2013) on the Conceptual Framework provides adequate principles for reporting an entity’s performance and what improvements could be made in light of both user needs and evidence from academic literature. DP 2013

  2. Soil Phosphorus Level Adequate for Growth of Ocala Sand Pine Seedlings, A Greenhouse Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Baker; R. H. Brendemuehl

    1972-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the level of soil P adequate for satisfactory growth of Ocala sand pine (Pinus clausa (Chapm.) Vasey) seedlings. Various quantities of Lakeland sand with low and high P contents were blended to provide soil mixtures with a range of available P. Ocala sand pine seedlings were grown in these mixtures for 10...

  3. Maintaining adequate nutrient supply - Principles, decision-support tools, and best management practices [Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Harrison; Douglas A. Maguire; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining adequate nutrient supply to maintain or enhance tree vigor and forest growth requires conservation of topsoil and soil organic matter. Sometimes nutrient amendments are also required to supplement inherent nutrient-pool limitations or replenish nutrients removed in harvested material. The goal is to maintain the productive potential of the soil and, when...

  4. Duty beares and their right to adequate food obligations: roles and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peter Milton Rukundo

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... Department of Health, Nutrition and Management, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus ... capacity of duty bearers in the realization of the right to adequate food in Uganda. Structured interviews were ... Secretariat in the year 2000 to fast-track agricultural transformation and food security through ...

  5. Alabama's Foundation Program: An Adequate and Equitable School Funding Mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Dennis Randal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the foundation program was an adequate and equitable funding mechanism for public schools in the state of Alabama. This study analyzed funding and academic data and evaluated adequacy and equity through the lenses of poverty, geographic location, local tax effort, and type of school…

  6. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Verstegen

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky’s State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional-“all of its parts and parcels”. The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including: (i “sufficient oral and written communication skills to enable students to function in a complex and rapidly changing civilization . . . .and (vii sufficient levels of academic or vocational skills to enable public school students to compete favorably with their counterparts in surrounding states, in academics or in the job market”. Now, over a decade later, key questions remain regarding whether these objectives have been fulfilled. This research is designed to calculate the cost of an adequate education by aligning resources to State standards, laws and objectives, using a professional judgment approach. Seven focus groups were convened for this purpose and the scholarly literature was reviewed to provide multiple inputs into study findings. The study produced a per pupil base cost for each of three prototype school districts and an total statewide cost, with the funding gap between existing revenue and the revenue needed for current operations of $1.097 billion per year (2001-02. Additional key resource requirements needed to achieve an adequate education, identified by professional judgment panels, include: (1 extending the school year for students and teachers, (2 adding voluntary half-day preschool for three and four year olds, and (3 raising teacher salaries. This increases the funding gap to $1.23 billion and suggests that significant new funding is required over time if the Commonwealth of Kentucky is to provide an adequate and equitable education of high quality for all children and youth as directed by the State Supreme Court.

  7. Are new registered nursing graduates adequately prepared to be competent practitioners? a Victorian study

    OpenAIRE

    Missen, Karen Lee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Each year, thousands of new nursing graduates join the health workforce in Australia. Evidence from the literature suggests that undergraduate nursing programs do not adequately prepare these graduates to be practice-ready and competent on graduation. Technological advances in healthcare, increased acuity of care, and increased numbers of hospital admissions due to an ageing population and higher prevalence of chronic disease means that the issue of nurse graduates...

  8. Evaluation of lymph node numbers for adequate staging of Stage II and III colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumpers Harvey L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evaluation of at least 12 lymph nodes (LNs is recommended as the minimum number of nodes required for accurate staging of colon cancer patients, there is disagreement on what constitutes an adequate identification of such LNs. Methods To evaluate the minimum number of LNs for adequate staging of Stage II and III colon cancer, 490 patients were categorized into groups based on 1-6, 7-11, 12-19, and ≥ 20 LNs collected. Results For patients with Stage II or III disease, examination of 12 LNs was not significantly associated with recurrence or mortality. For Stage II (HR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.12-0.91, but not for Stage III patients (HR = 1.59; 95% CI, 0.54-4.64, examination of ≥20 LNs was associated with a reduced risk of recurrence within 2 years. However, examination of ≥20 LNs had a 55% (Stage II, HR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23-0.87 and a 31% (Stage III, HR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.38-1.26 decreased risk of mortality, respectively. For each six additional LNs examined from Stage III patients, there was a 19% increased probability of finding a positive LN (parameter estimate = 0.18510, p Conclusions Thus, the 12 LN cut-off point cannot be supported as requisite in determining adequate staging of colon cancer based on current data. However, a minimum of 6 LNs should be examined for adequate staging of Stage II and III colon cancer patients.

  9. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L. Godrich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA. Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256 living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23. A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20 for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007, promotion (p = 0.017, location of food outlets (p = 0.027, and price (p = 0.043. Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing.

  10. Transthoracic echocardiography is adequate for intraprocedural guidance of transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Renuka; O'Hair, Daniel P; Bajwa, Tanvir K; Ignatowski, Denise; Harland, Daniel; Kirby, Amanda M; Hammonds, Tracy; Allaqaband, Suhail Q; Kay, Jonathan; Khandheria, Bijoy K

    2017-12-01

    While transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has traditionally been supported intraprocedurally by transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE), transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is increasingly being used. We evaluated echocardiographic imaging characteristics and clinical outcomes in patients who underwent TTE during TAVI (TTE-TAVI). A select team of dedicated sonographers and interventional echocardiographers performed TTE-TAVI in 278 patients, all of whom underwent TAVI through transfemoral access. We implanted the Medtronic EVOLUT R valve in 258 patients (92.8%). TTE images were acquired immediately pre-procedure by a dedicated sonographer in the cardiac catheterization laboratory with the patient in the supine position. TTE was then performed post deployment of TAVI. In the procedure, TTE image quality was fair or better in 249 (89.6%) cases. Color-flow Doppler was adequate or better in 275 (98.9%) cases. In 2 cases, paravalvular regurgitation (PVL) could not be assessed confidently by echocardiography due to poor image quality; in those cases, PVL was assessed by fluoroscopy, aortic root injection and invasive hemodynamics. Both TTE and invasive hemodynamics were used in the assessment of need for post-deployment stent ballooning ( n  = 23, 8.3%). TTE adequately recognized new pericardial effusion in 3 cases. No case required TOE conversion for image quality. There was only 1 case of intraprocedural TTE failing to recognize moderate PVL, without clinical implication. In 99% of patients, TTE-TAVI adequately assessed PVL compared with 24-h and 1-month follow-up TTE. With the current generation of TAVI, TTE-TAVI is adequate intraprocedurally when performed by specialized sonographers and dedicated cardiologists in a highly experienced TAVI center. © 2017 The authors.

  11. The Pai-associated leuX specific tRNA5(Leu) affects type 1fimbriation in pathogenic Escherichia coli by control of FimB recombinase expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, A.; Gally, D.; Olsen, Peter Bjarke

    1997-01-01

    ) and other virulence factors. Transcription of fimA, encoding the major type 1 fimbrialsubunit is controlled by an invertable DNA switch. The inversion is catalysed by two recombinases,FimB and FimE. FimB is able to turn the switch on, FimE only off. The fimB gene of strain 536contains five TTG codons...... recognized by tRNA5Leu, fimE contains only two. It was proposed thatturning on the fim switch requires efficient translation of FimB, in turn requiring tRNA5Leu. Strainsin which the TTG codons in fimB were replaced with CTG codons at the wild-type locus were ableto produce type 1 fimbriae in the absence...

  12. Self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction differences in women with adequate and inadequate prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P; Murray, M L; Williams, E M

    1994-03-01

    This descriptive, retrospective study examined levels of self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction with prenatal care in 193 low-risk postpartal women who obtained adequate and inadequate care. The participants were drawn from a regional medical center and university teaching hospital in New Mexico. A demographic questionnaire, the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory, the personal resource questionnaire part 2, and the prenatal care satisfaction inventory were used for data collection. Significant differences were found in the level of education, income, insurance, and ethnicity between women who received adequate prenatal care and those who received inadequate care. Women who were likely to seek either adequate or inadequate prenatal care were those whose total family income was $10,000 to $19,999 per year and high school graduates. Statistically significant differences were found in self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction between the two groups of women. Strategies to enhance self-esteem and social support have to be developed to reach women at risk for receiving inadequate prenatal care.

  13. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  14. A one-item question with a Likert or Visual Analog Scale adequately measured current anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Heather M; Barratt, Alexandra L; Butow, Phyllis N; Deeks, Jonathan J

    2007-04-01

    To determine whether a single question with a Likert Scale or a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) response adequately measures current anxiety. Consecutive English-speaking adult women attending a dedicated breast clinic in a major Australian city were invited to complete a demographic questionnaire, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and a single question with a five-point Likert Scale response and a VAS in random order. Only women who completed the STAI were included in analyses. Four hundred of 497 (80%) eligible women agreed to participate. Both measures were adequate predictors of the STAI score; correlation with STAI was 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.82) for the VAS and 0.75 (95% CI 0.70-0.79) for the Likert Scale. However, 11% of women incorrectly completed the VAS limiting its usefulness. A single question with either a Likert Scale or VAS response may be an adequate replacement for the STAI. Both measures quickly and easily assess anxiety and may be useful for research purposes when researchers have very limited time or questionnaire space or need to reduce the burden on participants of completing many measures.

  15. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-18

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery.

  16. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. PMID:25621216

  17. A survey of green plant tRNA 3'-end processing enzyme tRNase Zs, homologs of the candidate prostate cancer susceptibility protein ELAC2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhikang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background tRNase Z removes the 3'-trailer sequences from precursor tRNAs, which is an essential step preceding the addition of the CCA sequence. tRNase Z exists in the short (tRNase ZS and long (tRNase ZL forms. Based on the sequence characteristics, they can be divided into two major types: bacterial-type tRNase ZS and eukaryotic-type tRNase ZL, and one minor type, Thermotoga maritima (TM-type tRNase ZS. The number of tRNase Zs is highly variable, with the largest number being identified experimentally in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. It is unknown whether multiple tRNase Zs found in A. thaliana is common to the plant kingdom. Also unknown is the extent of sequence and structural conservation among tRNase Zs from the plant kingdom. Results We report the identification and analysis of candidate tRNase Zs in 27 fully sequenced genomes of green plants, the great majority of which are flowering plants. It appears that green plants contain multiple distinct tRNase Zs predicted to reside in different subcellular compartments. Furthermore, while the bacterial-type tRNase ZSs are present only in basal land plants and green algae, the TM-type tRNase ZSs are widespread in green plants. The protein sequences of the TM-type tRNase ZSs identified in green plants are similar to those of the bacterial-type tRNase ZSs but have distinct features, including the TM-type flexible arm, the variant catalytic HEAT and HST motifs, and a lack of the PxKxRN motif involved in CCA anti-determination (inhibition of tRNase Z activity by CCA, which prevents tRNase Z cleavage of mature tRNAs. Examination of flowering plant chloroplast tRNA genes reveals that many of these genes encode partial CCA sequences. Based on our results and previous studies, we predict that the plant TM-type tRNase ZSs may not recognize the CCA sequence as an anti-determinant. Conclusions Our findings substantially expand the current repertoire of the TM-type tRNase ZSs and hint

  18. New pleiotropic effects of eliminating a rare tRNA from Streptomyces coelicolor, revealed by combined proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of liquid cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotchkiss Graham

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Streptomyces coelicolor, bldA encodes the only tRNA for a rare leucine codon, UUA. This tRNA is unnecessary for growth, but is required for some aspects of secondary metabolism and morphological development. We describe a transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of the effects of deleting bldA on cellular processes during submerged culture: conditions relevant to the industrial production of antibiotics. Results At the end of rapid growth, a co-ordinated transient up-regulation of about 100 genes, including many for ribosomal proteins, was seen in the parent strain but not the ΔbldA mutant. Increased basal levels of the signal molecule ppGpp in the mutant strain may be responsible for this difference. Transcripts or proteins from a further 147 genes classified as bldA-influenced were mostly expressed late in culture in the wild-type, though others were significantly transcribed during exponential growth. Some were involved in the biosynthesis of seven secondary metabolites; and some have probable roles in reorganising metabolism after rapid growth. Many of the 147 genes were "function unknown", and may represent unknown aspects of Streptomyces biology. Only two of the 147 genes contain a TTA codon, but some effects of bldA could be traced to TTA codons in regulatory genes or polycistronic operons. Several proteins were affected post-translationally by the bldA deletion. There was a statistically significant but weak positive global correlation between transcript and corresponding protein levels. Different technical limitations of the two approaches were a major cause of discrepancies in the results obtained with them. Conclusion Although deletion of bldA has very conspicuous effects on the gross phenotype, the bldA molecular phenotype revealed by the "dualomic" approach has shown that only about 2% of the genome is affected; but this includes many previously unknown effects at a variety of different levels, including post

  19. Selective isolation and detailed analysis of intra-RNA cross-links induced in the large ribosomal subunit of E. coli: a model for the tertiary structure of the tRNA binding domain in 23S RNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, P; Osswald, M; Schueler, D; Brimacombe, R

    1990-01-01

    Intramolecular RNA cross-links were induced within the large ribosomal subunit of E. coli by mild ultraviolet irradiation. Regions of the 23S RNA previously implicated in interactions with ribosomal-bound tRNA were then specifically excised by addressed cleavage using ribonuclease H, in conjunction with synthetic complementary decadeoxyribonucleotides. Individual cross-linked fragments within these regions released by such 'directed digests' were isolated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresi...

  20. The archaeal COG1901/DUF358 SPOUT-methyltransferase members, together with pseudouridine synthase Pus10, catalyze the formation of 1-methylpseudouridine at position 54 of tRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Kunal; Blaby, Ian K.; Thiaville, Patrick C.; Majumder, Mrinmoyee; Grosjean, Henri; Yuan, Y. Adam; Gupta, Ramesh; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2012-01-01

    The methylation of pseudouridine (Ψ) at position 54 of tRNA, producing m1Ψ, is a hallmark of many archaeal species, but the specific methylase involved in the formation of this modification had yet to be characterized. A comparative genomics analysis had previously identified COG1901 (DUF358), part of the SPOUT superfamily, as a candidate for this missing methylase family. To test this prediction, the COG1901 encoding gene, HVO_1989, was deleted from the Haloferax volcanii genome. Analyses of modified base contents indicated that while m1Ψ was present in tRNA extracted from the wild-type strain, it was absent from tRNA extracted from the mutant strain. Expression of the gene encoding COG1901 from Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, VNG1980C, complemented the m1Ψ minus phenotype of the ΔHVO_1989 strain. This in vivo validation was extended with in vitro tests. Using the COG1901 recombinant enzyme from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (Mj1640), purified enzyme Pus10 from M. jannaschii and full-size tRNA transcripts or TΨ-arm (17-mer) fragments as substrates, the sequential pathway of m1Ψ54 formation in Archaea was reconstituted. The methylation reaction is AdoMet dependent. The efficiency of the methylase reaction depended on the identity of the residue at position 55 of the TΨ-loop. The presence of Ψ55 allowed the efficient conversion of Ψ54 to m1Ψ54, whereas in the presence of C55, the reaction was rather inefficient and no methylation reaction occurred if a purine was present at this position. These results led to renaming the Archaeal COG1901 members as TrmY proteins. PMID:22274953

  1. Peptidyl transferase antibiotics perturb the relative positioning of the 3'-terminal adenosine of P/P'-site-bound tRNA and 23S rRNA in the ribosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirillov, S V; Porse, B T; Garrett, R A

    1999-01-01

    A range of antibiotic inhibitors that act within the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome were examined for their capacity to perturb the relative positioning of the 3' end of P/P'-site-bound tRNA and the Escherichia coli ribosome. The 3'-terminal adenosines of deacylated tRNA and N...... decreases, at one or more rRNA sites but, with the exception of chloramphenicol, did not affect cross-linking to the ribosomal proteins. Moreover, the effects were closely similar for both deacylated and N-Ac-Phe-tRNAs, indicating that the drugs selectively perturb the 3' terminus of the tRNA. The strongest...... decreases in the rRNA cross-links were observed with pristinamycin IIA and chloramphenicol, which correlates with their both producing complex chemical footprints on 23S rRNA within E. coli ribosomes. Furthermore, gougerotin and pristinamycin IA strongly increased the yields of fragments F2' (U2506) and F4...

  2. Familial dysautonomia (FD) patients have reduced levels of the modified wobble nucleoside mcm(5)s(2)U in tRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsborn, Tony; Tükenmez, Hasan; Chen, Changchun; Byström, Anders S

    2014-11-21

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a recessive neurodegenerative genetic disease. FD is caused by a mutation in the IKBKAP gene resulting in a splicing defect and reduced levels of full length IKAP protein. IKAP homologues can be found in all eukaryotes and are part of a conserved six subunit protein complex, Elongator complex. Inactivation of any Elongator subunit gene in multicellular organisms cause a wide range of phenotypes, suggesting that Elongator has a pivotal role in several cellular processes. In yeast, there is convincing evidence that the main role of Elongator complex is in formation of modified wobble uridine nucleosides in tRNA and that their absence will influence translational efficiency. To date, no study has explored the possibility that FD patients display defects in formation of modified wobble uridine nucleosides as a consequence of reduced IKAP levels. In this study, we show that brain tissue and fibroblast cell lines from FD patients have reduced levels of the wobble uridine nucleoside 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm(5)s(2)U). Our findings indicate that FD could be caused by inefficient translation due to lower levels of wobble uridine nucleosides. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Archaeal Tuc1/Ncs6 homolog required for wobble uridine tRNA thiolation is associated with ubiquitin-proteasome, translation, and RNA processing system homologs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita E Chavarria

    Full Text Available While cytoplasmic tRNA 2-thiolation protein 1 (Tuc1/Ncs6 and ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (Urm1 are important in the 2-thiolation of 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm5s2U at wobble uridines of tRNAs in eukaryotes, the biocatalytic roles and properties of Ncs6/Tuc1 and its homologs are poorly understood. Here we present the first report of an Ncs6 homolog of archaea (NcsA of Haloferax volcanii that is essential for maintaining cellular pools of thiolated tRNA(LysUUU and for growth at high temperature. When purified from Hfx. volcanii, NcsA was found to be modified at Lys204 by isopeptide linkage to polymeric chains of the ubiquitin-fold protein SAMP2. The ubiquitin-activating E1 enzyme homolog of archaea (UbaA was required for this covalent modification. Non-covalent protein partners that specifically associated with NcsA were also identified including UbaA, SAMP2, proteasome activating nucleotidase (PAN-A/1, translation elongation factor aEF-1α and a β-CASP ribonuclease homolog of the archaeal cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 1 family (aCPSF1. Together, our study reveals that NcsA is essential for growth at high temperature, required for formation of thiolated tRNA(LysUUU and intimately linked to homologs of ubiquitin-proteasome, translation and RNA processing systems.

  4. Near-UV stress in salmonella typhimurium: 4-thiouridine in tRNA, ppGpp, and ApppGpp as components of an adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.F.; Baker, J.C.; Ames, B.N.

    1988-01-01

    We have examined the role of 4-thiouridine in the responses of Salmonella typhimurium to near-UV irradiation. Mutants lacking 4-thiouridine (nuv) and mutants defective in the synthesis of ppGpp (guanosine 5'-diphosphate-3'-diphosphate) (relA) were found to be sensitive to killing by near-UV. Near-UV induced the synthesis of a set of proteins that were not induced in the nuv mutant. Some of these proteins were identified as oxidative defense proteins, and others were identified as ppGpp-inducible proteins. Over 100-fold increases in ApppGpp (adenoisine 5', 5'''-triphosphoguanosine-3'''-diphosphate, the adenylylated form of ppGpp) were observed in wild-type cells after near-UV irradiation but not in the 4-thiouridine-deficient mutant. These data support a model in which ppGpp and ApppGpp, a dinucleotide proposed to be synthesized by tRNA-aminoacyl synthetases as a response to the cross-linking of 4-thiouridine in tRNA by near-UV, induce the synthesis of proteins necessary for resistance to near-UV irradiation

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a native human tRNA synthetase whose allelic variants are associated with Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wei; Schimmel, Paul; Yang, Xiang-Lei, E-mail: xlyang@scripps.edu [Departments of Molecular Biology and Chemistry, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, BCC-379, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a native human tRNA synthetase whose allelic variants are associated with Charcot–Marie–Tooth Disease. Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) is one of a group of enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of aminoacyl-tRNAs for translation. Mutations of human and mouse GlyRSs are causally associated with Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, the most common genetic disorder of the peripheral nervous system. As the first step towards a structure–function analysis of this disease, native human GlyRS was expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystal belonged to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 or its enantiomorphic space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 91.74, c = 247.18 Å, and diffracted X-rays to 3.0 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained one GlyRS molecule and had a solvent content of 69%.

  6. Long-Range Structural Effects of a Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease-Causing Mutation in Human Glycyl-TRNA Synthetase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, W.; Nangle, L.A.; Zhang, W.; Schimmel, P.; Yang, X.-L.

    2009-06-04

    Functional expansion of specific tRNA synthetases in higher organisms is well documented. These additional functions may explain why dominant mutations in glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, the most common heritable disease of the peripheral nervous system. At least 10 disease-causing mutant alleles of GlyRS have been annotated. These mutations scatter broadly across the primary sequence and have no apparent unifying connection. Here we report the structure of wild type and a CMT-causing mutant (G526R) of homodimeric human GlyRS. The mutation is at the site for synthesis of glycyl-adenylate, but the rest of the two structures are closely similar. Significantly, the mutant form diffracts to a higher resolution and has a greater dimer interface. The extra dimer interactions are located {approx}30 {angstrom} away from the G526R mutation. Direct experiments confirm the tighter dimer interaction of the G526R protein. The results suggest the possible importance of subtle, long-range structural effects of CMT-causing mutations at the dimer interface. From analysis of a third crystal, an appended motif, found in higher eukaryote GlyRSs, seems not to have a role in these long-range effects.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a native human tRNA synthetase whose allelic variants are associated with Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Wei; Schimmel, Paul; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2006-01-01

    Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a native human tRNA synthetase whose allelic variants are associated with Charcot–Marie–Tooth Disease. Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) is one of a group of enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of aminoacyl-tRNAs for translation. Mutations of human and mouse GlyRSs are causally associated with Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, the most common genetic disorder of the peripheral nervous system. As the first step towards a structure–function analysis of this disease, native human GlyRS was expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystal belonged to space group P4 3 2 1 2 or its enantiomorphic space group P4 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 91.74, c = 247.18 Å, and diffracted X-rays to 3.0 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained one GlyRS molecule and had a solvent content of 69%

  8. Establishing adequate conditions for mercury determination in environmental samples by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Caroline; Santos, Eliane C.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2017-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element released into the environment mainly by anthropic activities. Consequently, the improvement for Hg determination in environmental samples is of great interest. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is considered an adequate method to determine several elements. However, Hg determination by INAA is often hampered by its volatility, which causes losses. The aim of this study was to establish adequate irradiation conditions for Hg determination in environmental samples by INAA. The following parameters were evaluated: irradiation time, container for irradiation and spectral gamma ray interferences. For the study, aliquots of certified reference materials (CRMs) and tree bark samples were irradiated together with Hg synthetic standard at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. Gamma ray activities of 1 97 Hg and 203 Hg were measured in a spectrometer coupled to a HGe detector. Results obtained indicated that polyethylene capsules or envelopes can be used as container for sample irradiation and the Hg impurities in these containers were negligible. Irradiation time of one hour was adequate for Hg determination and in long irradiations of 8 h problems of spectral interference of 198 Au and 75 Se were observed. In addition, Hg loss during the irradiation of 1 h and after irradiation was not observed. Quality control of Hg results, obtained in the CRMs analyses using one hour of irradiation, indicated good precision and accuracy with |Z score| < 2. The experimental conditions established in this study were applied to tree bark samples. Detection limits for Hg of these analyses were between 0.14 and 1.9 μg g -1 . (author)

  9. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards {sup 31}Mg-β-NMR resonance linewidths adequate for applications in magnesium chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachura, M., E-mail: mstachura@triumf.ca [TRIUMF (Canada); McFadden, R. M. L. [University of British Columbia, Chemistry Department (Canada); Chatzichristos, A.; Dehn, M. H. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Gottberg, A. [TRIUMF (Canada); Hemmingsen, L. [Københavns Universitet Universitetsparken 5, Kemisk Institut (Denmark); Jancso, A. [University of Szeged, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry (Hungary); Karner, V. L. [University of British Columbia, Chemistry Department (Canada); Kiefl, R. F. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Larsen, F. H. [Københavns Universitet Rolighedsvej 26, Institut for Fødevarevidenskab (Denmark); Lassen, J.; Levy, C. D. P.; Li, R. [TRIUMF (Canada); MacFarlane, W. A. [University of British Columbia, Chemistry Department (Canada); Morris, G. D. [TRIUMF (Canada); Pallada, S. [CERN (Switzerland); Pearson, M. R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Szunyogh, D.; Thulstrup, P. W. [Københavns Universitet Universitetsparken 5, Kemisk Institut (Denmark); Voss, A. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics (Finland)

    2017-11-15

    The span of most chemical shifts recorded in conventional {sup 25}Mg-NMR spectroscopy is ~ 100 ppm. Accordingly, linewidths of ~ 10 ppm or better are desirable to achieve adequate resolution for applications in chemistry. Here we present first high-field {sup 31}Mg- β-NMR measurements of {sup 31}Mg{sup +} ions implanted into a MgO single crystal carried out at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF. The resonances recorded at 2.5 T and 3.5 T show strong linewidth dependency on the applied RF power, ranging from ~ 419 ppm for the highest RF power down to ~ 48 ppm for the lowest one.

  11. Prochaotic tourism development pressure on coastal habitats adequate evaluation case study in Sulina, Romnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOROFTEI Mihai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On the coastal areas, the pressure of touristic development upon natural areas is increasing and interfering with main purposes of Natura 2000 sites designation. Therefore the habitats tendency, adequate for species development, is in regression as far as areas size and homogeneity are concerned. In this respect, a case study is presented for the Black Sea’s north-western littoral, in Sulina locality, Romania. The present paper was elaborated in conformity with Ministry Order 19/2010 for the Methodological Guide with regard to the adequate evaluation (A.E. of the effect of potential plans or projects on protected natural areas of community importance. The case study is an investment project called lina eac arrangeen. Its objective was to develop a plot for the beach area’s tourist infrastructure in order to provide services to the public. The cumulative impact of the existing project may affect the coastal habitats (1210, 1310, 1410, 2110 and 2160 and Natura 2000 site integrity (ROSCI0065 Danube Delta. Regarding these habitats types, conservation value, criterion of representativeness and functions in concern with possibilities for restoration are analyzed. At present, the studied emplacement is mainly affected by the anthropic interventions, having the aspect of a degraded natural area. In addition, conservation measures are described, which were elaborated in accordance with both the national legislation and by consulting the management plans of certain protected natural areas from abroad, which contain habitats characteristic to the marine coast and sandpits within their perimeter.

  12. Incentives for an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss transmission grid. Final version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, P.; Neuhoff, K.; Newbery, D.

    2006-11-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses incentives necessary for the implementation of an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss electricity transmission grid. As Switzerland moves towards a more liberalised and competitive electricity market, an essential task of policy makers will be to ensure that incentives are in place for the construction, maintenance and operation of adequate, economic and reliable transmission infrastructure. As well as continuing to serve the domestic market, the location of Switzerland at the centre of Europe also means that policy should embrace opportunities in servicing the developing European Internal Market by providing transit and other services. Topics discussed include the economic evaluation of transmission investment proposals, regulated transmission investment, investments in transmission lines by power merchants, power auctions and congestion management as well as inter-TSO compensation mechanisms. European regulations and practice are discussed as are access questions and transmission charges. Developments in interconnection management and harmonisation are examined. The particular characteristics of the Swiss energy system, its prices and its legal frameworks are discussed. Cross-border trading and security of supply are also discussed

  13. Are we failing to document adequate smoking histories? A brief review 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Timothy H; Wallace, Jessica L; Gray, Lori Arnold; Usery, Justin B; Finch, Christopher K; Deaton, Paul R

    2010-07-01

    Documenting a detailed smoking history is of obvious importance. Failure to adequately document the smoking history may result in the misdiagnosis and management of asthma, and may be associated with a deficiency of care in patients with cardiovascular disease and several other common diseases. The purpose of this article is to review the evidence over the past decade that demonstrates inadequate documentation of smoking history. A literature search of English language journals from 1999 to 2009 was completed using several databases, including PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS. Fourteen studies demonstrated inadequate documentation of smoking histories by primary care clinicians, specialists, residents, and medical students. Failure to document smoking histories was observed in patients with conditions such as heart failure, coronary artery disease, and asthma. Electronic decision support systems and simple medical record reminders were effective in improving the documentation of smoking histories. Failure to adequately document the smoking history appears to be common. Strategies such as electronic decision support systems are needed to correct this problem in order for patients to receive optimal therapy for their appropriate diagnoses.

  14. Incentives for an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss transmission grid. Final version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twomey, P.; Neuhoff, K.; Newbery, D.

    2006-11-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses incentives necessary for the implementation of an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss electricity transmission grid. As Switzerland moves towards a more liberalised and competitive electricity market, an essential task of policy makers will be to ensure that incentives are in place for the construction, maintenance and operation of adequate, economic and reliable transmission infrastructure. As well as continuing to serve the domestic market, the location of Switzerland at the centre of Europe also means that policy should embrace opportunities in servicing the developing European Internal Market by providing transit and other services. Topics discussed include the economic evaluation of transmission investment proposals, regulated transmission investment, investments in transmission lines by power merchants, power auctions and congestion management as well as inter-TSO compensation mechanisms. European regulations and practice are discussed as are access questions and transmission charges. Developments in interconnection management and harmonisation are examined. The particular characteristics of the Swiss energy system, its prices and its legal frameworks are discussed. Cross-border trading and security of supply are also discussed

  15. Effects of Adequate Iodine Supply on the Incidence of Iodine-Induced Thyroid Disorders in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajuk, Vid; Zaletel, Katja; Pirnat, Edvard; Hojker, Sergej; Gaberšček, Simona

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to establish the changes in the incidence and characteristics of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism (II-Hyper) and iodine-induced hypothyroidism (II-Hypo) in the two-year period before and the 10-year period after the increase in mandatory salt iodization from the previous 10 mg/kg of potassium iodide to 25 mg/kg in 1999. Furthermore, the aim was to determine the duration of treatment in II-Hyper patients, since no data regarding severity and treatment of II-Hyper with respect to iodine supply are available. This retrospective study reviewed medical records of 885 Slovenian patients first diagnosed with II-Hyper or II-Hypo between 1998 and 2009 at the Thyroid Department of the University Medical Centre Ljubljana. II-Hyper and II-Hypo were diagnosed by one out of 10 senior internal medicine specialists. The diagnosis was based on an adequate patient history, and laboratory measurements of thyrotropin, thyroid hormones, and thyroid antibodies. In most cases, thyroid ultrasound and thyroid scintigraphy were performed. Demographic characteristics and the type and the duration of treatment were also reviewed. The incidence of II-Hypo was significantly higher after the increase in iodine supply than it was before (p hyperthyroidism decreased, predominantly due to the increased proportion of patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (p = 0.007 and p = 0.015, respectively). The duration of treatment with antithyroid drugs and perchlorate was significantly shorter after the increase in iodine supply than it was before (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). A significantly positive correlation between the year of the occurrence of excessive iodine intake (EII)-induced thyroid disease and the duration of treatment with amiodarone was found (R = 0.132; p = 0.048), suggesting that the longer the patients had an adequate iodine supply, the longer they could take amiodarone before EII-induced thyroid disorder developed. After the

  16. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, A.; Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods......Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent...... both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear...

  17. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, A.; Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent...... both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear...... programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods...

  18. The classification of explosion-proof protected induction motor into adequate temperature and efficiency class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinovar, Iztok; Srpčič, Gregor; Seme, Sebastijan; Štumberger, Bojan; Hadžiselimović, Miralem

    2017-07-01

    This article deals with the classification of explosion-proof protected induction motors, which are used in hazardous areas, into adequate temperature and efficiency class. Hazardous areas are defined as locations with a potentially explosive atmosphere where explosion may occur due to present of flammable gasses, liquids or combustible dusts (industrial plants, mines, etc.). Electric motors and electrical equipment used in such locations must be specially designed and tested to prevent electrical initiation of explosion due to high surface temperature and arcing contacts. This article presents the basic tests of three-phase explosion-proof protected induction motor with special emphasis on the measuring system and temperature rise test. All the measurements were performed with high-accuracy instrumentation and accessory equipment and carried out at the Institute of energy technology in the Electric machines and drives laboratory and Applied electrical engineering laboratory.

  19. Are individual transferable quotas an adequate solution to overfishing and overcapacity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, Eugenia; Nielsen, Rasmus; Hoff, Ayoe

    2018-01-01

    Individual Transferable Quotas stand in large parts of the fisheries economic literature as the panacea that solves all problems of overfishing and overcapacity of world´s fisheries. However, they are also criticized by a number of authors based on their negative social effects. Individual...... Transferable Quotas have been increasingly used during the past decades and are the main management system in a number of countries today. This paper provides evidence of the economic, social and environmental effects of one such system ten years after its introduction in Danish fisheries starting in 2003...... in local fishing communities compared to the national average was found. The Danish experience proves that Individual Transferable Quotas can be an adequate solution with regards to overfishing and overcapacity with also positive effects on the environment due to reduced fuel consumption and fishing...

  20. Overcome of Carbon Catabolite Repression of Bioinsecticides Production by Sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis through Adequate Fermentation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen Ben Khedher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overcoming of catabolite repression, in bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain S22 was investigated into fully controlled 3 L fermenter, using glucose based medium. When applying adequate oxygen profile throughout the fermentation period (75% oxygen saturation, it was possible to partially overcome the catabolite repression, normally occurring at high initial glucose concentrations (30 and 40 g/L glucose. Moreover, toxin production yield by sporeless strain S22 was markedly improved by the adoption of the fed-batch intermittent cultures technology. With 22.5 g/L glucose used into culture medium, toxin production was improved by about 36% when applying fed-batch culture compared to one batch. Consequently, the proposed fed-batch strategy was efficient for the overcome of the carbon catabolite repression. So, it was possible to overproduce insecticidal crystal proteins into highly concentrated medium.

  1. Precise femtosecond laser ablation of dental hard tissue: preliminary investigation on adequate laser parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikov, Todor; Pecheva, Emilia; Petrov, Todor; Montgomery, Paul; Antoni, Frederic; Leong-Hoi, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    This work aims at evaluating the possibility of introducing state-of-the-art commercial femtosecond laser system in restorative dentistry by maintaining well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also in overcoming disadvantages such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. Femtosecond ablation of dental hard tissue is investigated by changing the irradiation parameters (pulsed laser energy, scanning speed and pulse repetition rate), assessed for enamel and dentin. The femtosecond laser system used in this work may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, due to the expected effective ablation and low temperature increase when using ultra short laser pulses. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this system seems to be promising for promoting a laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach in restorative dentistry. (paper)

  2. Nebulized antibiotics. An adequate option for treating ventilator-associated respiratory infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Barcenilla, F

    2015-03-01

    Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is a frequent complication in critical patients. The 90% of those who develop it receive broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB) treatment, without any strong evidence of its favorable impact. The use of nebulized ATB could be a valid treatment option, to reduce the use of systemic ATB and the pressure of selection on the local flora. Several studies suggest that an adequate nebulization technique can ensure high levels of ATB even in areas of lung consolidation, and to obtain clinical and microbiological cure. New studies are needed to properly assess the impact of treatment with nebulized ATB on the emergence of resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  3. Precise femtosecond laser ablation of dental hard tissue: preliminary investigation on adequate laser parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikov, Todor; Pecheva, Emilia; Montgomery, Paul; Antoni, Frederic; Leong-Hoi, Audrey; Petrov, Todor

    2017-01-01

    This work aims at evaluating the possibility of introducing state-of-the-art commercial femtosecond laser system in restorative dentistry by maintaining well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also in overcoming disadvantages such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. Femtosecond ablation of dental hard tissue is investigated by changing the irradiation parameters (pulsed laser energy, scanning speed and pulse repetition rate), assessed for enamel and dentin. The femtosecond laser system used in this work may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, due to the expected effective ablation and low temperature increase when using ultra short laser pulses. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this system seems to be promising for promoting a laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach in restorative dentistry.

  4. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Parlesak

    Full Text Available Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost.Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA, or dietary guidelines (DG, or nutrient recommendations (N, or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN, or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN. The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods.The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6. The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8. The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN to 134 (DGN foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN. Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN tripled it.Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable.

  5. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen; Smed, Sinne; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca; Rayner, Mike; Darmon, Nicole; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable.

  6. Are oral and maxillofacial surgery residents being adequately trained to care for pediatric patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, Shelly; Kaban, Leonard B; Wurtzel, Andrew S; Roser, Steven M

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate whether current oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) residents are receiving adequate training and experience to perform specific surgical procedures and anesthesia for pediatric patients. A 17-question survey was sent electronically to fellows of the American Academy of Craniomaxillofacial Surgeons. Descriptive data for individual surgeons, their associated residency programs, and the quantity of specific pediatric procedures they performed were collected. Resident case load for inpatient and outpatient procedures and overall experience in medical, surgical, and anesthetic management of pediatric OMS patients were explored. Surveys were sent to 110 active fellows; 64 completed the questionnaire (58%). There were 59 male fellows and 5 female fellows, with a mean age of 50.4 years. Of those, 68.8% practice in an academic setting. Specifically, 93.8% take after-hours emergency calls covering adult and pediatric patients and 98.4% have admitting privileges at a children's hospital or a pediatric unit in an adult hospital. Their affiliated residency programs include required rotations in pediatrics or pediatric subspecialties. In their opinion, >90% of graduating OMS residents have the appropriate skill set to perform dentoalveolar procedures, outpatient anesthesia, orthognathic procedures, and alveolar bone grafts. However, residents have limited ability to reconstruct pediatric ramus-condyle unit with a costochondral graft. Results of this study indicate that, in the opinion of the respondents, graduates of OMS residency programs have adequate training to perform dentoalveolar procedures, outpatient anesthesia, orthognathic surgery, and alveolar bone grafts in pediatric procedures, but have limited experience with reconstruction of pediatric ramus-condyle unit via costochondral graft. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Are general surgery residents adequately prepared for hepatopancreatobiliary fellowships? A questionnaire-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Houssam; Parikh, Janak; Patel, Shirali; Jeyarajah, D Rohan

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study was conducted to assess the preparedness of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) fellows upon entering fellowship, identify challenges encountered by HPB fellows during the initial part of their HPB training, and identify potential solutions to these challenges that can be applied during residency training. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to all HPB fellows in accredited HPB fellowship programmes in two consecutive academic years (n = 42). Reponses were then analysed. Results A total of 19 (45%) fellows responded. Prior to their fellowship, 10 (53%) were in surgical residency and the rest were in other surgical fellowships or surgical practice. Thirteen (68%) were graduates of university-based residency programmes. All fellows felt comfortable in performing basic laparoscopic procedures independently at the completion of residency and less comfortable in performing advanced laparoscopy. Eight (42%) fellows cited a combination of inadequate case volume and lack of autonomy during residency as the reasons for this lack of comfort. Thirteen (68%) identified inadequate preoperative workup and management as their biggest fear upon entering practice after general surgery training. A total of 17 (89%) fellows felt they were adequately prepared to enter HPB fellowship. Extra rotations in transplant, vascular or minimally invasive surgery were believed to be most helpful in preparing general surgery residents pursing HPB fellowships. Conclusions Overall, HPB fellows felt themselves to be adequately prepared for fellowship. Advanced laparoscopic procedures and the perioperative management of complex patients are two of the challenges facing HPB fellows. General surgery residents who plan to pursue an HPB fellowship may benefit from spending extra rotations on certain subspecialties. Focus on perioperative workup and management should be an integral part of residency and fellowship training. PMID:25387852

  8. When one is not enough: prevalence and characteristics of homes not adequately protected by smoke alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek-Asa, C; Allareddy, V; Yang, J; Taylor, C; Lundell, J; Zwerling, C

    2005-12-01

    The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has specific recommendations about the number, location, and type of smoke alarms that are needed to provide maximum protection for a household. No previous studies have examined whether or not homes are completely protected according to these guidelines. The authors describe the prevalence and home characteristics associated with compliance to recommendations for smoke alarm installation by the NFPA. Data are from the baseline on-site survey of a randomized trial to measure smoke alarm effectiveness. The trial was housed in a longitudinal cohort study in a rural Iowa county. Of 1005 homes invited, 691 (68.8%) participated. Information about smoke alarm type, placement, and function, as well as home and occupant characteristics, was collected through an on-site household survey. Although 86.0% of homes had at least one smoke alarm, only 22.3% of homes (approximately one in five) were adequately protected according to NFPA guidelines. Fourteen percent of homes had no functioning smoke alarms. More than half of the homes with smoke alarms did not have enough of them or had installed them incorrectly, and 42.4% of homes with alarms had at least one alarm that did not operate. Homes with at least one high school graduate were nearly four times more likely to be fully protected. Homes that had multiple levels, a basement, or were cluttered or poorly cleaned were significantly less likely to be fully protected. These findings indicate that consumers may not be knowledgeable about the number of alarms they need or how to properly install them. Occupants are also not adequately maintaining the alarms that are installed.

  9. Structural comparison of tRNA m1A58 methyltransferases revealed different molecular strategies to maintain their oligomeric architecture under extreme conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guelorget Amandine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background tRNA m1A58 methyltransferases (TrmI catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to nitrogen 1 of adenine 58 in the T-loop of tRNAs from all three domains of life. The m1A58 modification has been shown to be essential for cell growth in yeast and for adaptation to high temperatures in thermophilic organisms. These enzymes were shown to be active as tetramers. The crystal structures of five TrmIs from hyperthermophilic archaea and thermophilic or mesophilic bacteria have previously been determined, the optimal growth temperature of these organisms ranging from 37°C to 100°C. All TrmIs are assembled as tetramers formed by dimers of tightly assembled dimers. Results In this study, we present a comparative structural analysis of these TrmIs, which highlights factors that allow them to function over a large range of temperature. The monomers of the five enzymes are structurally highly similar, but the inter-monomer contacts differ strongly. Our analysis shows that bacterial enzymes from thermophilic organisms display additional intermolecular ionic interactions across the dimer interfaces, whereas hyperthermophilic enzymes present additional hydrophobic contacts. Moreover, as an alternative to two bidentate ionic interactions that stabilize the tetrameric interface in all other TrmI proteins, the tetramer of the archaeal P. abyssi enzyme is strengthened by four intersubunit disulfide bridges. Conclusions The availability of crystal structures of TrmIs from mesophilic, thermophilic or hyperthermophilic organisms allows a detailed analysis of the architecture of this protein family. Our structural comparisons provide insight into the different molecular strategies used to achieve the tetrameric organization in order to maintain the enzyme activity under extreme conditions.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the hydrothermal vent galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: A novel arrangement and incomplete tRNA suite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jin-Shu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metazoan mitochondrial genomes usually consist of the same 37 genes. Such genes contain useful information for phylogenetic analyses and evolution modelling. Although complete mitochondrial genomes have been determined for over 1,000 animals to date, hydrothermal vent species have, thus far, remained excluded due to the scarcity of collected specimens. Results The mitochondrial genome of the hydrothermal vent galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri is 15,182 bp in length, and is composed of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and only 18 transfer RNA genes. The total AT content of the genome, as is typical for decapods, is 72.9%. We identified a non-coding control region of 327 bp according to its location and AT-richness. This is the smallest control region discovered in crustaceans so far. A mechanism of cytoplasmic tRNA import was addressed to compensate for the four missing tRNAs. The S. crosnieri mitogenome exhibits a novel arrangement of mitochondrial genes. We investigated the mitochondrial gene orders and found that at least six rearrangements from the ancestral pancrustacean (crustacean + hexapod pattern have happened successively. The codon usage, nucleotide composition and bias show no substantial difference with other decapods. Phylogenetic analyses using the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the 13 protein-coding genes prove consistent with the previous classification based upon their morphology. Conclusion The present study will supply considerable data of use for both genomic and evolutionary research on hydrothermal vent ecosystems. The mitochondrial genetic characteristics of decapods are sustained in this case of S. crosnieri despite the absence of several tRNAs and a number of dramatic rearrangements. Our results may provide evidence for the immigrating hypothesis about how vent species originate.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the hydrothermal vent galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura): a novel arrangement and incomplete tRNA suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Shu; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Tsuchida, Shinji; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2008-05-30

    Metazoan mitochondrial genomes usually consist of the same 37 genes. Such genes contain useful information for phylogenetic analyses and evolution modelling. Although complete mitochondrial genomes have been determined for over 1,000 animals to date, hydrothermal vent species have, thus far, remained excluded due to the scarcity of collected specimens. The mitochondrial genome of the hydrothermal vent galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri is 15,182 bp in length, and is composed of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and only 18 transfer RNA genes. The total AT content of the genome, as is typical for decapods, is 72.9%. We identified a non-coding control region of 327 bp according to its location and AT-richness. This is the smallest control region discovered in crustaceans so far. A mechanism of cytoplasmic tRNA import was addressed to compensate for the four missing tRNAs. The S. crosnieri mitogenome exhibits a novel arrangement of mitochondrial genes. We investigated the mitochondrial gene orders and found that at least six rearrangements from the ancestral pancrustacean (crustacean + hexapod) pattern have happened successively. The codon usage, nucleotide composition and bias show no substantial difference with other decapods. Phylogenetic analyses using the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the 13 protein-coding genes prove consistent with the previous classification based upon their morphology. The present study will supply considerable data of use for both genomic and evolutionary research on hydrothermal vent ecosystems. The mitochondrial genetic characteristics of decapods are sustained in this case of S. crosnieri despite the absence of several tRNAs and a number of dramatic rearrangements. Our results may provide evidence for the immigrating hypothesis about how vent species originate.

  12. Potential of Krebs von den Lungen-6 as a predictor of relapse in interstitial pneumonia with anti-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase antibodies-positive dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoda, Kentaro; Kotani, Takuya; Takeuchi, Tohru; Konma, Junichi; Ishida, Takaaki; Hata, Kenichiro; Otani, Kenichiro; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Shoda, Takeshi; Makino, Shigeki; Arawaka, Shigeki

    2018-04-06

    To identify a predictor of relapse in interstitial pneumonia (IP) in patients with anti-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase antibodies-positive dermatomyositis (ARS-DMIP). This retrospective cohort study comprised 27 ARS-DMIP patients. We compared clinical and laboratory findings between the relapse and non-relapse groups during 2 years after treatment initiation to find predictors of relapse in IP. Candidate predictors were further assessed by analysing the relationship with the relapse of IP. One patient with ARS-DMIP died. 7 (26.9%) of the remaining 26 patients with ARS-DMIP had a relapse of IP. We found that the levels of serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) in the relapse group were significantly higher than those in the non-relapse group at the time points before treatment (P = 0.046) and after treatments, including 6 (P = 0.004), 12 (P =0013), 18 (P =0.003) and 24 months (P <0.001). The KL-6 values that maximised the area under the ROC curve were 2347 U/mL before treatment, 622 U/mL after 6 months and 468 U/mL after 12 months. The relapse rates after 104 weeks were significantly higher in patients with KL-6 levels ≥2400 U/mL before treatment (P = 0.014), ≥600 ng/mL after 6 months (P < 0.005), and ≥470 U/mL after 12 months (P = 0.010). These findings suggest that the levels of KL-6 before and after treatment in ARS-DMIP may represent the disease activity of IP, and they may be useful as the predictor of relapse in IP in patients with ARS-DMIP. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been...

  14. Does current cefazolin dosing achieve adequate tissue and blood concentrations in obese women undergoing cesarean section?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kram, Jessica J F; Greer, Danielle M; Cabrera, Omar; Burlage, Robert; Forgie, Marie M; Siddiqui, Danish S

    2017-03-01

    Prophylactic administration of antibiotics preceding cesarean delivery is the most effective measure taken for preventing postpartum infection. While obese women are at greater risk for infection than non-obese women, evidence-based recommendations for modifying dosing in these women are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine whether obese women undergoing cesarean delivery similarly reach adequate cefazolin concentrations within tissue and blood when weighing tissue (following skin incision and before skin closure), myometrial tissue, fetal cord blood, and maternal blood were collected to assess whether cefazolin concentrations were adequate, i.e., at/above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Concentrations, based on inhibition zones for Streptococcus sanguinis, were calculated per gram of solid tissue and milliliter of blood. For all sample types, log-transformed concentrations were compared between dosage groups. Using a range of published MICs (1-8μg/mL or μg/g), odds ratios, describing differential odds of falling below the MIC between dosage groups, were also computed. Women who received 2g (n=65) versus 3g (n=19) of cefazolin did not significantly differ by maternal or gestational age, race/ethnicity, pre-operative hemoglobin, estimated blood loss, fluid administration, duration of surgery, or timing of sample collections relative to cefazolin administration (Ps>0.05). Dosage groups also did not differ in cefazolin concentration (median [interquartile range]) within adipose tissue following skin incision (5.30μg/g [3.00-9.60] vs. 6.35μg/g [3.90-8.40]; P=0.551), adipose tissue before skin closure (4.45μg/g [2.78-7.25] vs. 6.90μg/g [2.60-10.6]; P=0.342), myometrial tissue (13.1μg/g [8.60-19.6] vs. 15.7μg/g [10.8-21.7]; P=0.116), or maternal blood (41.6μg/mL [26.3-57.0] vs. 45.3μg/mL [36.7-68.3]; P=0.143). However, cord blood concentrations differed significantly (19.5μg/mL [13.7-28.5] vs. 27.9μg/mL [15.8-39.4]; P=0.032), and

  15. Adequate sleep among adolescents is positively associated with health status and health-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng Yi-Jong

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was to examine the relationship between AS during schooldays and excessive body weight, frequency of visiting doctors and health-related behaviors among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study design, categorical and multivariate data analyses were used. The hypotheses investigated were: high frequency of AS is positively associated with lack of obesity and less frequent visits to doctors; and high frequency AS is positively associated with health-related behavior. Results A total of 656 boys (53.2% and girls (46.8%, ranging in age from 13–18 years were studied between January and June 2004. Three hundred and fifty seven subjects (54% reported that they slept less than the suggested 6–8 hours on schooldays. A significant negative association was found between low sleep and of the following health-related behaviors: (1 life appreciation; (2 taking responsibility for health; (3 adopting healthy diet; (4 effective stress management; (5 regular exercise; and (6 total AHP score. High frequency AS was associated with low frequencies of obesity after potential confounding factors were controlled. Junior high school adolescents reported significantly higher frequencies of AS than high school participants. Gender, family structure, home location and frequency of television watching or computer use were not significantly associated with AS. Conclusion These findings support the proposition that AS is associated with good health status and high-frequency adoption of health-related behavior. Furthermore, these findings suggest that inadequate

  16. Can the ASAR Global Monitoring Mode Product Adequately Capture Spatial Soil Moisture Variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, I.; Lakshmi, V.; Walker, J.; Panciera, R.; Wagner, W.; Doubkova, M.

    2008-12-01

    Global soil moisture (SM) monitoring in the past several decades has been undertaken mainly at coarse spatial resolution, which is not adequate for addressing small-scale phenomena and processes. The currently operational Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (NASA) and future planned missions such as the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (ESA) and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (NASA) will remain resolution limited. Finer scale soil moisture estimates can be achieved either by down-scaling the available coarse resolution radiometer and scatterometer (i.e. ERS1/2, ASCAT) observations or by using high resolution active microwave SAR type systems (typical resolution is in the order of meters). Considering the complex land surface - backscatter signal interaction, soil moisture inversion utilizing active microwave observations is difficult and generally needs supplementary data. Algorithms based on temporal change detection offer an alternative less complex approach for deriving (and disaggregating coarse) soil moisture estimates. Frequent monitoring and low frequency range along with a high pixel resolution are essential preconditions when characterizing spatial and temporal soil moisture variability. An alternative active system that meets these requirements is the Advance Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) on ENVISAT [C-band, global, 1 km in Global Monitoring (GM) Mode]. The Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien) has developed a 1 km soil moisture product using the temporal change detection approach and the ASAR GM. The TU Wien SM product sensitivity was evaluated at two scales: point (using in situ data from permanent soil moisture stations) and regional [using ground measured data and aircraft estimates derived from the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer (PLMR)] over the National Airborne Field Experiment (NAFE'05) area located in the Goulburn catchment, SE Australia. The month long (November 2005) campaign was undertaken in a region predominantly covered

  17. Experiments of conditioning C-14 immobilized in a solid matrix adequate for final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havris, A.; Havris, C.; Deneanu, N.

    2001-01-01

    The operation of Cernavoda NPP entails production and management of significant amounts of radioactive waste. 80% of the β - γ activity, except for the spent fuel contribution, originates in the ion exchange resin wastes. Long term storage of utilised ion exchangers in shielded pools implies large storing rooms, additional costs for technical surveillance and maintenance operations, and, besides, it rises the risk of contaminating the personnel and environment. The research works conducted in INR Pitesti aim at transferring the activity of ion exchange resin waste to an inorganic support by acid stripping or bacterial degrading. In both methods the C-14 released as CO 2 is embodied on an inorganic solid support which is subsequently conditioned into a matrix adequate to final disposal. The retaining efficiency of CO 2 by a Ca(OH) 2 or Ba(OH) 2 solid column was established as well as the optimal waste-cement proportion. It was done by carrying out compression tests on Portland cement samples with different inclusion of CaCO 3 and BaCO 3 . The resulting composition diagram is shown. Optimal cement : waste ratio was found to equal 1 and 0.9 for CaCO 3 and BaCO 3 , respectively. The chemical stability of the cement-CaCO 3 or cement-BaCO 3 samples was determined by investigating swelling, cracking or braking phenomena, following immersion in distilled water, and by conducting leaching tests, as well. The leaching rates for the two materials were found to be 96 x 10 -4 gC/cm 2 ·day decreasing down to 3.0 x 10 -4 gC/cm 2 ·day in 35 days and 62 x 10 -4 gC/cm 2 ·day decreasing down to 4 x 10 -4 gC/cm 2 ·day in 12 days of exposure to de-mineralized water, respectively. Long term (4,000 years) evaluations showed that only 0.25% of the C-14 immobilized in the conditions described is released in the environment. Tests on degradation of the two samples immersed for 90 days, as well as the water absorption rate showed that both cement-CaCO 3 and cement-BaCO 3 are adequate

  18. Inferences and metaphoric comprehension in unilaterally implanted children with adequate formal oral language performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastri, Maria; Filipo, Roberto; Ruoppolo, Giovanni; Viccaro, Marika; Dincer, Hilal; Guerzoni, Letizia; Cuda, Domenico; Bosco, Ersilia; Prosperini, Luca; Mancini, Patrizia

    2014-05-01

    To assess skills in inferences during conversations and in metaphors comprehension of unilaterally cochlear implanted children with adequate abilities at the formal language tests, comparing them with well-matched hearing peers; to verify the influence of age of implantation on overall skills. The study was designed as a matched case-control study. 31 deaf children, unilateral cochlear implant users, with normal linguistic competence at formal language tests were compared with 31 normal hearing matched peers. Inferences and metaphor comprehension skills were assessed through the Implicit Meaning Comprehension, Situations and Metaphors subtests of the Italian Standardized Battery of "Pragmatic Language Skills MEDEA". Differences between patient and control groups were tested by the Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations between age at implantation and time of implant use with each subtest were investigated by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. No significant differences between the two groups were found in inferencing skills (p=0.24 and p=0.011 respectively for Situations and Implicit Meaning Comprehension). Regarding figurative language, unilaterally cochlear implanted children performed significantly below their normal hearing peers in Verbal Metaphor comprehension (p=0.001). Performances were related to age at implantation, but not with time of implant use. Unilaterally cochlear implanted children with normal language level showed responses similar to NH children in discourse inferences, but not in figurative language comprehension. Metaphors still remains a challenge for unilateral implant users and above all when they have not any reference, as demonstrated by the significant difference in verbal rather than figurative metaphors comprehension. Older age at implantation was related to worse performance for all items. These aspects, until now less investigated, had to receive more attention to deeply understand specific mechanisms involved and possible effects

  19. Do clinicians receive adequate training to identify trafficked persons? A scoping review of NHS Foundation Trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Charles Dr; Mahay, Arun; Stuckler, David; Steele, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    We investigate whether physicians in secondary care in the English NHS receive adequate training to recognise and appropriately refer for services those persons suspected to be victims of human trafficking. Freedom of Information requests were sent to the 105 England's NHS Trusts delivering acute care in England. NHS Trusts providing secondary care in England. English NHS Trusts. We requested data about the training provided on human trafficking to clinicians, including the nature, delivery, and format of any education, and any planned training. A total of 89.5% of the 105 Trusts responded. Of these Trusts, 69% provide education to physicians on human trafficking, and a further 6% provide training but did not specify who received it. The majority of Trusts providing training did so within wider safeguarding provision (91%). Only one trust reported that it provides stand-alone training on trafficking to all its staff, including physicians. Within training offered by Trusts, 54% observed best practice providing training on the clinical indicators of trafficking, while 16% referenced the National Referral Mechanism. Amongst those not providing training, 39% of Trusts report provision is in development. Our results find that 25% of NHS Foundation Trusts appear to lack training for physicians around human trafficking. It is also of concern that of the Trusts who currently do not provide training, only 39% are developing training or planning to do so. There is an urgent need to review and update the scope of available training and bring it into alignment with current legislation.

  20. GENERIC APPROACH IN CHOICE OF ADEQUATE METHODOLOGY FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF IT INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Kozina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Investments into information technology (IT, (hereinafter: IT investments havereached very high figures, which are still continually on the rise. IT potentials are being usedin an increasing number of ways. Various company managers have different approaches tothis issue. A large number of methods/models for the assessment of IT investments isavailable, so the question is posed of how to choose the adequate assessment category. Thesaid reasons have initiated a need for defining the generic approach in the choice ofadequate methodology for the assessment of IT investments, which was indeed the goal ofthis paper. General ideas to this approach stem from the fact that each IT investment has itspurpose and belongs to a certain type of IT investment (decision-making aspect whichdemands its relevant methodology for assessing IT investments. Two groups of demands(conditions have been defined in choosing relevant methodology. The first group pertains tomethodology analysis and determination of its compatibility with characteristics of thedefined decision-making aspect. The second group of conditions pertains to methodologyanalysis with respect to its possibilities (abilities of integrating quantity, quality and riskfactors of IT decision. Conducted field research shows that the assessment of IT investmentshas been done mainly using simpler methods/models and their combinations, and is focusedon quantity aspects of IT values.

  1. [Neonatal ABO incompatibility underlies a potentially severe hemolytic disease of the newborn and requires adequate care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senterre, T; Minon, J-M; Rigo, J

    2011-03-01

    ABO allo-immunization is the most frequent hemolytic disease of the newborn and ABO incompatibility is present in 15-25 % of pregnancies. True ABO alloimmunization occurs in approximately one out of 150 births. Intensity is generally lower than in RhD allo-immunization. We report on three cases showing that ABO allo-immunization can lead to severe hemolytic disease of the newborn with potentially threatening hyperbilirubinemia and complications. Early diagnosis and adequate care are necessary to prevent complications in ABO incompatibility. A direct antiglobulin test is the cornerstone of diagnosis and should be performed at birth on cord blood sampling in all group infants born to O mothers, especially if of African origin. Risk factor analysis and attentive clinical monitoring during the first days of life are essential. Vigilance is even more important for infants discharged before the age of 72 h. Every newborn should be assessed for the risk of developing severe hyperbilirubinemia and should be examined by a qualified healthcare professional in the first days of life. Treatment depends on the total serum bilirubin level, which may increase very rapidly in the first 48 h of life in cases of hemolytic disease of the newborn. Phototherapy and, in severe cases, exchange transfusion are used to prevent hyperbilirubinemia encephalopathy. Intravenous immunoglobulins are used to reduce exchange transfusion. Treatments of severe hemolytic disease of the newborn should be provided and performed by trained personnel in neonatal intensive care units. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana Tapia

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  3. Hydrological functional unit identification - linking observables and concepts towards a minimal adequate catchment representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackisch, C.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding catchment structures and properties as most probable result of past work during their evolution under the continuous depletion of gradients opens a connection of landscape properties to dominating processes. While a qualitative description from the expert's perspective can comprehend most of these; a distinct objective delineation into functional units, their topology and their connectivity appears far more problematic as a) spatio-temporal scale, b) degrees of freedom and c) aspects of self-organisation have to be brought in accordance. Our study highlights several conceptual approaches aiming to link hydrological landscape understanding, observation and modelling. Moreover, a GIS-based case study for the Attert basin is presented, which shows that from a multitude of possible class combinations, already very few cover the vast majority of the catchment. Consequently, dominating processes, prevailing topologies, most insightful data demands and possible non ad hoc model representations are outlined. The result is a step towards a minimal adequate catchment representation. To base this on physical descriptions with truly observable parameters, we further revise most insightful data for functional unit identification and observation and if and how it can be derived in the landscape and from products available.

  4. Adequate Funding for Primary Education in the Artibonite Department of Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylund, Clayton Carl

    Since its formation following a slave revolution in 1804, the Republic of Haiti has a long history of political instability, civil unrest and poverty. As of 2015, Haiti's gross domestic product (GDP) was US1,732, per capita, making it the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere. Haiti's education sector was no exception to this sparsity, receiving only 2.5 percent of the nation's overall GDP. The purpose of this study was to determine adequate funding for Haitian primary schools based upon mathematical achievement levels and the professional judgment of site-based administrators. A Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), originally administered to Florida's third-grade students in 2006, was utilized to determine mathematical achievement. In 2015, the translated FCAT was administered to 207 students, enrolled in four schools, located in the lower Artibonite department of Haiti. The results indicated that the sample answered sixteen of the forty mathematics questions correctly, on average. Based on these results, the four site-based administrators recommended the funding amounts necessary to increase mathematical achievement by 15 percent. The average annual amounts, in US dollars, included 461 per teacher salary, a 540 administrative salary, 40 per student for instructional materials, 367 per student for meals, and 37 per student for uniforms.

  5. Are Nutritional Care Adequate for Elderly Hospitalized Patients? A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Kjøllesdal Eide

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses nutritional care in identifying and treating nutritional risk in elderly hospitalized patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a large Norwegian University hospital in the period 2011 to 2013. Data on nutritional risk and care for elderly patients (≥70 years without dementia were collected at 20 wards by 173 second-year nursing students in acute-care clinical studies. A stratified sampling technique was utilized to improve the representativeness of the sample. In total, 508 patients (48.8% women with a mean age of 79.6 years participated. The internationally and nationally recommended nutritional care was not implemented at the hospital, suggesting that nutritional care for elderly hospitalized patients was not adequate. This implies that the majority of the elderly patients nutritionally at risk are neither identified nor treated according to their needs. The article highlights the importance of having systematic nutritional care practices to make it possible for the hospital ward staff to routinely identify nutritional risk and initiate appropriate nutritional treatment measures.

  6. Improvement of adequate use of warfarin for the elderly using decision tree-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K E; Lo, C-L; Hu, Y-H

    2014-01-01

    Due to the narrow therapeutic range and high drug-to-drug interactions (DDIs), improving the adequate use of warfarin for the elderly is crucial in clinical practice. This study examines whether the effectiveness of using warfarin among elderly inpatients can be improved when machine learning techniques and data from the laboratory information system are incorporated. Having employed 288 validated clinical cases in the DDI group and 89 cases in the non-DDI group, we evaluate the prediction performance of seven classification techniques, with and without an Adaptive Boosting (AdaBoost) algorithm. Measures including accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve are used to evaluate model performance. Decision tree-based classifiers outperform other investigated classifiers in all evaluation measures. The classifiers supplemented with AdaBoost can generally improve the performance. In addition, weight, congestive heart failure, and gender are among the top three critical variables affecting prediction accuracy for the non-DDI group, while age, ALT, and warfarin doses are the most influential factors for the DDI group. Medical decision support systems incorporating decision tree-based approaches improve predicting performance and thus may serve as a supplementary tool in clinical practice. Information from laboratory tests and inpatients' history should not be ignored because related variables are shown to be decisive in our prediction models, especially when the DDIs exist.

  7. Toward Adequate Operation of Amorphous Oxide Thin-Film Transistors for Low-Concentration Gas Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Jung, Sung Hyeon; Cho, Sung Woon; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2018-03-28

    We suggest the use of a thin-film transistor (TFT) composed of amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) as a channel and a sensing layer for low-concentration NO 2 gas detection. Although amorphous oxide layers have a restricted surface area when reacting with NO 2 gas, such TFT sensors have incomparable advantages in the aspects of electrical stability, large-scale uniformity, and the possibility of miniaturization. The a-IGZO thin films do not possess typical reactive sites and grain boundaries, so that the variation in drain current of the TFTs strictly originates from oxidation reaction between channel surface and NO 2 gas. Especially, the sensing data obtained from the variation rate of drain current makes it possible to monitor efficiently and quickly the variation of the NO 2 concentration. Interestingly, we found that enhancement-mode TFT (EM-TFT) allows discrimination of the drain current variation rate at NO 2 concentrations ≤10 ppm, whereas a depletion-mode TFT is adequate for discriminating NO 2 concentrations ≥10 ppm. This discrepancy is attributed to the ratio of charge carriers contributing to gas capture with respect to total carriers. This capacity for the excellent detection of low-concentration NO 2 gas can be realized through (i) three-terminal TFT gas sensors using amorphous oxide, (ii) measurement of the drain current variation rate for high selectivity, and (iii) an EM mode driven by tuning the electrical conductivity of channel layers.

  8. Alcoholic pancreatitis in rats fed ethanol in a nutritionally adequate liquid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M

    1987-01-01

    In an effort to develop a model of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis in Sprague-Dawley rats fed a nutritionally adequate diet, 3 groups of 15 animals each were fed Wayne Rodent-Blox ad libitum, Lieber-DeCarli diet with 40% of carbohydrate calories replaced by ethanol ad libitum and isocaloric amounts of Lieber-DeCarli diet respectively for a period of 18 months. Rats were anesthetized and basal and secretin-stimulated pancreatic juice was obtained. Pancreatic glands were isolated and divided into portions for histology, biochemical analyses, and cell fractionation. The homogenate, zymogen granule fraction, mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction, microsomal fraction and postmicrosomal supernatant as well as aliquots of pancreatic juice were analyzed for cathepsin B, acid phosphatase, beta-D-glucoronidase, arylsulphatase and leucine naphthylamidase. All of the ethanol-fed animals developed morphological changes akin to human chronic pancreatitis. There were focal areas of parenchymal degeneration with fibrosis, protein plug formation and tubular complexes. In the pancreatic tissue of animals fed ethanol, total protein, trypsinogen (and free trypsin) were increased and amylase was decreased. While acid phosphatase was increased in all of the particulate fractions, cathepsin B was increased in the zymogen granule and mitochondrial-lysosomal fractions. Basal and post-secretin pancreatic juice did not show a significant increase in digestive or lysosomal enzymes. It is suggested that focal degenerative changes may be due to trypsin generated by intracellular activation of digestive enzymes by lysosomal enzyme cathepsin B.

  9. Aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis for scattered sound in auditoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Molly K.; Xiang, Ning; Kleiner, Mendel

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this work was to apply an aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis technique to the analysis of sound scattering effects in auditoria. Time-frequency representations were developed as a motivated effort that takes into account binaural hearing, with a specific implementation of interaural cross-correlation process. A model of the human auditory system was implemented in the MATLAB platform based on two previous models [A. Härmä and K. Palomäki, HUTear, Espoo, Finland; and M. A. Akeroyd, A. Binaural Cross-correlogram Toolbox for MATLAB (2001), University of Sussex, Brighton]. These stages include proper frequency selectivity, the conversion of the mechanical motion of the basilar membrane to neural impulses, and binaural hearing effects. The model was then used in the analysis of room impulse responses with varying scattering characteristics. This paper discusses the analysis results using simulated and measured room impulse responses. [Work supported by the Frank H. and Eva B. Buck Foundation.

  10. Household-level technologies to improve the availability and preparation of adequate and safe complementary foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Patience; Tomkins, Andrew

    2003-03-01

    Plant-based complementary foods are the main source of nutrients for many young children in developing countries. They may, however, present problems in providing nutritionally adequate and safe diets for older infants and young children. The high starch content leads to low-nutrient diets that are bulky and dense, with high levels of antinutritive factors such as phytates, tannins, lectins, and enzyme inhibitors. Phytates impair mineral bioavailability, lectins interfere with intestinal structure, and enzyme inhibitors inhibit digestive enzymes. In addition, there is often microbial contamination, which leads to diarrhea, growth-faltering, and impaired development, and the presence of chemical contaminants may lead to neurological disease and goiter. The fact that some fruits containing carotenoids are only available seasonally contributes to the vulnerability of children receiving predominantly plant-based diets. Traditional household food technologies have been used for centuries to improve the quality and safety of complementary foods. These include dehulling, peeling, soaking, germination, fermentation, and drying. While modern communities tend to reject these technologies in favor of more convenient fast-food preparations, there is now a resurgence of interest in older technologies as a possible means of improving the quality and safety of complementary foods when the basic diet cannot be changed for economic reasons. This paper describes the biology, safety, practicability, and acceptability of these traditional processes at the household or community level, as well as the gaps in research, so that more effective policies and programs can be implemented to improve the quality and safety of complementary foods.

  11. Prediction of Adequate Prenatal Care Utilization Based on the Extended Parallel Process Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian, Sepideh; Imani, Fatemeh; Riazi, Hedyeh; Salmani, Fatemeh

    2017-10-01

    Pregnancy complications are one of the major public health concerns. One of the main causes of preventable complications is the absence of or inadequate provision of prenatal care. The present study was conducted to investigate whether Extended Parallel Process Model's constructs can predict the utilization of prenatal care services. The present longitudinal prospective study was conducted on 192 pregnant women selected through the multi-stage sampling of health facilities in Qeshm, Hormozgan province, from April to June 2015. Participants were followed up from the first half of pregnancy until their childbirth to assess adequate or inadequate/non-utilization of prenatal care services. Data were collected using the structured Risk Behavior Diagnosis Scale. The analysis of the data was carried out in SPSS-22 using one-way ANOVA, linear regression and logistic regression analysis. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Totally, 178 pregnant women with a mean age of 25.31±5.42 completed the study. Perceived self-efficacy (OR=25.23; Pprenatal care. Husband's occupation in the labor market (OR=0.43; P=0.02), unwanted pregnancy (OR=0.352; Pcare for the minors or elderly at home (OR=0.35; P=0.045) were associated with lower odds of receiving prenatal care. The model showed that when perceived efficacy of the prenatal care services overcame the perceived threat, the likelihood of prenatal care usage will increase. This study identified some modifiable factors associated with prenatal care usage by women, providing key targets for appropriate clinical interventions.

  12. Defining an adequate sample of earlywood vessels for retrospective injury detection in diffuse-porous species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Arbellay

    Full Text Available Vessels of broad-leaved trees have been analyzed to study how trees deal with various environmental factors. Cambial injury, in particular, has been reported to induce the formation of narrower conduits. Yet, little or no effort has been devoted to the elaboration of vessel sampling strategies for retrospective injury detection based on vessel lumen size reduction. To fill this methodological gap, four wounded individuals each of grey alder (Alnus incana (L. Moench and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh. were harvested in an avalanche path. Earlywood vessel lumina were measured and compared for each tree between the injury ring built during the growing season following wounding and the control ring laid down the previous year. Measurements were performed along a 10 mm wide radial strip, located directly next to the injury. Specifically, this study aimed at (i investigating the intra-annual duration and local extension of vessel narrowing close to the wound margin and (ii identifying an adequate sample of earlywood vessels (number and intra-ring location of cells attesting to cambial injury. Based on the results of this study, we recommend analyzing at least 30 vessels in each ring. Within the 10 mm wide segment of the injury ring, wound-induced reduction in vessel lumen size did not fade with increasing radial and tangential distances, but we nevertheless advise favoring early earlywood vessels located closest to the injury. These findings, derived from two species widespread across subarctic, mountainous, and temperate regions, will assist retrospective injury detection in Alnus, Betula, and other diffuse-porous species as well as future related research on hydraulic implications after wounding.

  13. The Goal of Adequate Nutrition: Can It Be Made Affordable, Sustainable, and Universal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian McFarlane

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Until about 1900, large proportions of the world population endured hunger and poverty. The 20th century saw world population increase from 1.6 to 6.1 billion, accompanied and to some extent made possible by rapid improvements in health standards and food supply, with associated advances in agricultural and nutrition sciences. In this paper, I use the application of linear programming (LP in preparation of rations for farm animals to illustrate a method of calculating the lowest cost of a human diet selected from locally available food items, constrained to provide recommended levels of food energy and nutrients; then, to find a realistic minimum cost, I apply the further constraint that the main sources of food energy in the costed diet are weighted in proportion to the actual reported consumption of food items in that area. Worldwide variations in dietary preferences raise the issue as to the sustainability of popular dietary regimes, and the paper reviews the factors associated with satisfying requirements for adequate nutrition within those regimes. The ultimate physical constraints on food supply are described, together with the ways in which climate change may affect those constraints. During the 20th century, food supply increased sufficiently in most areas to keep pace with the rapid increase in world population. Many challenges will need to be overcome if food supply is to continue to meet demand, and those challenges are made more severe by rising expectations of quality of life in the developing world, as well as by the impacts of climate change on agriculture and aquaculture.

  14. Nutrition intervention and adequate hygiene practices to improve iron status of vulnerable preschool Burkinabe children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanou, Dia; Turgeon-O'Brien, Huguette; Desrosiers, Thérèse

    2010-01-01

    To determine the impact of an intervention that combined an increase in dietary and bioavailable iron intakes and an improvement in hygiene behaviors on the iron status of preschool children from Burkina Faso. Thirty-three orphans and vulnerable children from 11 families who were 1-6 y old, were non-anemic, or had mild to moderate anemia were enrolled in an 18-wk trial. Using the probability approach for planning diets in an assisted-living facility, bioavailable iron intake was increased from 0.4 to 0.9 mg/d by increasing the amounts of meat and citrus fruits and by adding iron-rich condiments to the diet, for an estimated cost of U.S. $0.59/mo. Hygiene behaviors were modified by implementing hand-washing before meals and by the use of individual plates for meals. Iron status indicators were measured twice and means at enrollment and after intervention were compared. After intervention, hemoglobin concentration increased from 98.7 to 103.8 g/L (P=0.006). There was a decrease in total iron binding capacity (107 to 91 micromol/L, P=0.05) and a marginal increase in transferrin saturation (13% to 17%, P=0.06). Significant improvement was not observed for serum ferritin concentration or prevalence of depleted iron stores, likely due to the confounding effect of infection. Anemia and iron-deficiency anemia were decreased from 64% to 30% and from 61% to 30%, respectively. Dietary modification associated with adequate hygiene behaviors could be a relevant strategy to control iron deficiency and anemia in areas where infection is a major health problem.

  15. Adequate plasma drug concentrations suggest that amoxicillin can be administered by continuous infusion using elastomeric pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arensdorff, Lyne; Boillat-Blanco, Noémie; Decosterd, Laurent; Buclin, Thierry; de Vallière, Serge

    2017-09-01

    Elastomeric pumps can be useful for the administration of antibiotics in the outpatient setting. To determine amoxicillin degradation in elastomeric pumps, as well as the effectiveness of amoxicillin treatment administered by elastomeric pumps. Antibiotic degradation was measured in elastomeric pumps filled with 6 g of amoxicillin in 240 mL of NaCl 0.9% by drawing samples at 12 h intervals when stored in the fridge for 48 h and when worn around the waist for 24 h. Subsequently nine patients were treated with continuous infusions of 8 or 12 g of amoxicillin per day. Plasma amoxicillin concentrations were measured on each visit to the outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy unit. Clinical outcome was verified 3 months after the end of treatment. Amoxicillin degradation in elastomeric pumps reached 10% after 48 h in the fridge and an additional 30% when worn around the waist for 24 h. Mean plasma drug concentrations achieved with 12 g of amoxicillin per day were 18.5 mg/L (95% CI 13.5-23.5), which is largely above the MIC of amoxicillin-susceptible bacteria. Nine patients treated for various complicated infections were cured and had no unexpected adverse effects. Adequate plasma drug concentrations and favourable clinical outcomes suggest that amoxicillin can be administered by continuous infusion using elastomeric pumps. This treatment modality does not fulfil formal requirements regarding pharmaceutical stability, but the resulting safety impact in patients is probably limited. Therapeutic drug monitoring and a close clinical follow-up are recommended if this route of administration is chosen. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Spirulina does not decrease muscle damage nor oxdidative stress in cycling athletes with adequate nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.M. Franca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Spirulina maxima on oxidative stress and muscle damage in cycling athletes subjected to high volume and intensity of training. Eighteen male athletes were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=11 with age 27.8±3.5 and placebo (n=7 with age 34.3±2.3 in a double-blind fashion. They carried out a protocol of Spirulina dietary supplementation (7.5 g/day of placebo for four weeks and maintained their trainings during this period. A nutritional anamnesis was performed and blood tests were done to determine pre and post levels of creatine kinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LHD, superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA. The supplemented and placebo groups performed the same volume training, has adequate macronutrients and antioxidant vitamins ingestion before study, as well as initial CK, LDH, SOD and MDA levels. Supplementation did not promote a significant alteration in CK levels on supplemented group (158.4±16.3 for 140.0±16.6 U/l, p>0.05, LDH (420±13.2 for 394.9±27.9 UI/l, p>0.05, MDA (2.8±0.2 for 2.9±0.4 nmol/ml, p>0.05, nor an increase in the SOD (7.3±0.6 for 7.0±0.6 U/mg Hb, p>0.05. We conclude that administration of Spirulina does not interfere in the magnitude of muscle damage nor in antioxidant status of cycling athletes that practice intense training.

  17. Do Foley catheters adequately drain the bladder? Evidence from CT imaging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avulova, Svetlana; Li, Valery J.; Khusid, Johnathan A. [Department of Urology, SUNY Downstate College of Medicine, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Choi, Woo S. [Radiology, SUNY Downstate College of Medicine, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Weiss, Jeffrey P., E-mail: johnathan.khusid@downstate.edu [Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Introduction: The Foley catheter has been widely assumed to be an effective means of draining the bladder. However, recent studies have brought into question its efficacy. The objective of our study is to further assess the adequacy of Foley catheter for complete drainage of the bladder. Materials and Methods: Consecutive catheterized patients were identified from a retrospective review of contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced computed tomographic (CT) abdomen and pelvis studies completed from 7/1/2011-6/30/2012. Residual urine volume (RUV) was measured using 5mm axial CT sections as follows: The length (L) and width (W) of the bladder in the section with the greatest cross sectional area was combined with bladder height (H) as determined by multiplanar reformatted images in order to calculate RUV by applying the formula for the volume (V) of a sphere in a cube:V=(π/6)⁎L⁎W⁎H). Results: RUVs of 167 (mean age 67) consecutively catheterized men (n=72) and women (n=95) identified by CT abdomen and pelvis studies were calculated. The mean RUV was 13.2 mL (range: 0.0 mL-859.1 mL, standard deviation: 75.9 mL, margin of error at 95% confidence:11.6 mL). Four (2.4%) catheterized patients had RUVs of >50 mL, two of whom had an improperly placed catheter tip noted on their CT-reports. Conclusions: Previous studies have shown that up to 43% of catheterized patients had a RUV greater than 50 mL, suggesting inadequacy of bladder drainage via the Foley catheter. Our study indicated that the vast majority of patients with Foley catheters (97.6%), had adequately drained bladders with volumes of <50 mL. (author)

  18. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Bicudo Faria-Schützer

    Full Text Available As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control.Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1 The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2 The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3 The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4 The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant.During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman.

  19. Prevention of mother to child transmission lay counsellors: Are they adequately trained?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine H. Thurling

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected women requires a comprehensive health care approach to pregnancy because of the added risk of their HIV status. As a result of the shortage of health care workers in South Africa, lay counsellors play important roles in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT.There is no standardization of training of lay counsellors in South Africa, and training varies in length depending on the training organisation.The study aimed to investigate the training of lay counsellors by analysing their training curricula and interviewing lay counsellors about their perceptions of their training.A two phase research method was applied. Phase one documented an analysis of the training curricula. Phase two was semi-structured interviews with the participants. Purposive sampling was undertaken for this study. The total sample size was 13 people, with a final sample of 9 participants, determined at the point of data saturation.The research was qualitative, descriptive and contextual in design. The curricula analysed had different styles of delivery, and the approaches to learning and courses varied, resulting in inconsistent training outcomes. A need for supervision and mentorship in the working environment was also noted.The training of lay counsellors needs to be adapted to meet the extended roles that they are playing in PMTCT. The standardization of training programmes, and the incorporation of a system of mentorship in the work environment, would ensure that the lay counsellors are adequately prepared for their role in PMTCT.

  20. Adequate antigen availability: a key issue for novel approaches to tumor vaccination and tumor immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accolla, Roberto S; Tosi, Giovanna

    2013-03-01

    A crucial parameter for activation of the anti-tumor immune response is an adequate antigen availability (AAA) defined here as the optimal tumor antigen dose and related antigen processing and MHC-II-restricted presentation necessary to efficiently trigger tumor-specific TH cells. We will discuss two distinct experimental systems: a) a preventive anti-tumor vaccination system; b) a therapy-induced anti-tumor vaccination approach. In the first case tumor cells are rendered constitutively MHC-II+ by transfecting them with the MHC-II transcriptional activator CIITA. Here AAA is generated by the function of tumor's newly expressed MHC-II molecules to present tumor-associated antigens to tumor-specific TH cells. In the second case, AAA is generated by treating established tumors with neovasculature-targeted TNFα. In conjuction with Melphalan, targeted TNFα delivery produces extensive areas of tumor necrosis that generate AAA capable of optimally activate tumor-specific TH cells which in turn activate CTL immune effectors. In both experimental systems tumor rejection and persistent and long-lived TH cell anti-tumor memory, responsible of defending the animals from subsequent challenges with tumor cells, are achieved. Based on these and other investigators' results we propose that AAA is a key element for triggering adaptive immune functions resulting in subversion from a pro-tumor to an anti-tumor microenvironment, tumor rejection and acquisition of anti-tumor immune memory. Hypotheses of neuro-immune networks involved in these approaches are discussed. These considerations are important also for the comprehension of how chemotherapy and/or radiation therapies may help to block and/or to eradicate the tumor and for the construction of suitable anti-tumor vaccine strategies.

  1. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Methods and Findings Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. Conclusions During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman. PMID:26529600

  2. Capillary PO2 does not adequately reflect arterial PO2 in hypoxemic COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnet, Friederike Sophie; Majorski, Daniel Sebastian; Callegari, Jens; Schwarz, Sarah Bettina; Schmoor, Claudia; Windisch, Wolfram; Storre, Jan Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    To compare arterial (P a O 2 ) with capillary (P c O 2 ) partial pressure of oxygen in hypoxemic COPD patients because capillary blood gas analysis (CBG) is increasingly being used as an alternative to arterial blood gas analysis (ABG) in a non-intensive care unit setting, although the agreement between P c O 2 and P a O 2 has not been evaluated in hypoxemic COPD patients. Bland-Altman comparison of P a O 2 and P c O 2 served as the primary outcome parameter if P c O 2 values were ≤60 mmHg and the secondary outcome parameter if P c O 2 values were ≤55 mmHg. Pain associated with the measurements was assessed using a 100-mm visual analog scale. One hundred and two P a O 2 /P c O 2 measurement pairs were obtained. For P c O 2 values ≤60 mmHg, the mean difference between P a O 2 and P c O 2 was 5.99±6.05 mmHg (limits of agreement: -5.88 to 17.85 mmHg). For P c O 2 values ≤55 mmHg (n=73), the mean difference was 5.33±5.52 mmHg (limits of agreement: -5.48 to 16.15 mmHg). If P a O 2 ≤55 (≤60) mmHg was set as the cut-off value, in 20.6% (30.4%) of all patients, long-term oxygen therapy have been unnecessarily prescribed if only P c O 2 would have been assessed. ABG was rated as more painful compared with CBG. P c O 2 does not adequately reflect P a O 2 in hypoxemic COPD patients, which can lead to a relevant number of unnecessary long-term oxygen therapy prescriptions.

  3. Does phenomenological kinetics provide an adequate description of heterogeneous catalytic reactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Burcin; Meskine, Hakim; Reuter, Karsten; Scheffler, Matthias; Metiu, Horia

    2007-05-01

    Phenomenological kinetics (PK) is widely used in the study of the reaction rates in heterogeneous catalysis, and it is an important aid in reactor design. PK makes simplifying assumptions: It neglects the role of fluctuations, assumes that there is no correlation between the locations of the reactants on the surface, and considers the reacting mixture to be an ideal solution. In this article we test to what extent these assumptions damage the theory. In practice the PK rate equations are used by adjusting the rate constants to fit the results of the experiments. However, there are numerous examples where a mechanism fitted the data and was shown later to be erroneous or where two mutually exclusive mechanisms fitted well the same set of data. Because of this, we compare the PK equations to "computer experiments" that use kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulations. Unlike in real experiments, in kMC the structure of the surface, the reaction mechanism, and the rate constants are known. Therefore, any discrepancy between PK and kMC must be attributed to an intrinsic failure of PK. We find that the results obtained by solving the PK equations and those obtained from kMC, while using the same rate constants and the same reactions, do not agree. Moreover, when we vary the rate constants in the PK model to fit the turnover frequencies produced by kMC, we find that the fit is not adequate and that the rate constants that give the best fit are very different from the rate constants used in kMC. The discrepancy between PK and kMC for the model of CO oxidation used here is surprising since the kMC model contains no lateral interactions that would make the coverage of the reactants spatially inhomogeneous. Nevertheless, such inhomogeneities are created by the interplay between the rate of adsorption, of desorption, and of vacancy creation by the chemical reactions.

  4. Importance of adequately performed Valsalva maneuver to detect patent foramen ovale during transesophageal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Clara; Picard, Michael H; Carbone, Aime; Arruda, Ana Lúcia; Flores, Thaís; Klohn, Juliana; Furtado, Meive; Lira-Filho, Edgar B; Cerri, Giovanni G; Andrade, José L

    2013-11-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) plays an important role in evaluating cardioembolic sources of emboli. The identification of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is reportedly improved with TEE compared with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), but the Valsalva maneuver during TEE may be difficult or suboptimal. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the Valsalva maneuver for PFO diagnosis using TEE compared with TTE by evaluating patients with ischemic stroke referred for echocardiography. Only patients able to perform the Valsalva maneuver during TTE were included; efficacy was defined by a 20 cm/sec decrease in transmitral E velocity. A PFO was judged present when microbubbles of agitated intravenous saline were seen in the left chambers within three cycles after right atrial opacification. Of 108 patients (mean age, 55 ± 15 years; 61 men), 48 (44%) were judged to have PFOs by TEE and/or TTE. In 36 patients (33% of the total, 75% of those with PFOs), microbubbles were observed both by TEE and TTE, in seven patients only during TTE, and in five patients only during TEE. In patients able to satisfactorily perform the Valsalva maneuver during TEE, 22 PFOs were found, and two shunts (9%) were missed, whereas in patients unable to perform this maneuver, 26 PFOs were observed, with five shunts missed (19%) (P TTE, either the echocardiographic window was suboptimal or the shunt was small. An adequate Valsalva maneuver is crucial for diagnosis of PFO; most patients with stroke may be screened using TTE with contrast and the Valsalva maneuver, with TEE indicated in case of suboptimal transthoracic images. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Global Uranium And Thorium Resources: Are They Adequate To Satisfy Demand Over The Next Half Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will consider the adequacy of global uranium and thorium resources to meet realistic nuclear power demand scenarios over the next half century. It is presented on behalf of, and based on evaluations by, the Uranium Group - a joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, of which the author is a Vice Chair. The Uranium Group produces a biennial report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand based on information from some 40 countries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, which also briefly reviews thorium resources. Uranium: In 2008, world production of uranium amounted to almost 44,000 tonnes (tU). This supplied approximately three-quarters of world reactor requirements (approx. 59,000 tU), the remainder being met by previously mined uranium (so-called secondary sources). Information on availability of secondary sources - which include uranium from excess inventories, dismantling nuclear warheads, tails and spent fuel reprocessing - is incomplete, but such sources are expected to decrease in market importance after 2013. In 2008, the total world Reasonably Assured plus Inferred Resources of uranium (recoverable at less than 130/kgU) amounted to 5.4 million tonnes. In addition, it is clear that there are vast amounts of uranium recoverable at higher costs in known deposits, plus many as yet undiscovered deposits. The Uranium Group has concluded that the uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet projected high-case requirements for nuclear power for at least half a century. This conclusion does not assume increasing replacement of uranium by fuels from reprocessing current reactor wastes, or by thorium, nor greater reactor efficiencies, which are likely to ameliorate future uranium demand. However, progressively increasing quantities of uranium will need to be mined, against a backdrop of the relatively small number of producing facilities around the world, geopolitical uncertainties and

  6. Are parents in the UK equipped to provide adequate burns first aid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Hamish E; Bache, Sarah E; Muthayya, Preetha; Baker, Julie; Ralston, David R

    2012-05-01

    Simple first aid following a burn injury has been shown to improve outcome. With this in mind, a prospective study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of burns first aid amongst parents in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. This information was used to identify which aspects of burn first aid need to be highlighted in an education campaign and who the target audience should be. A simple mnemonic is suggested to assist parental education on the topic. Parents attending outpatient clinics at Sheffield Children's Hospital were interviewed and asked about the first aid they would provide for a child with a large scald. Removal of hot clothes and jewellery; application of cold water for 10-20 min; obtaining medical advice; and covering the burn with a plastic film or clean cloth were all considered to be ideal responses. Variations in responses in relation to the age and ethnicity of the parent were noted. One hundred and eighty eight parents were included in the questionnaire. Of these, 81% (n=152) were white British and 20% (n=36) were from other ethnic groups. Only 10% (n=18) of all respondent would give all the ideal first aid steps. Less than 40% (n=73) of parents questioned would remove hot clothes and jewellery. There was no significant difference in responses between ethnic groups when assessing knowledge of the need to remove hot soaked clothing. Although 73% (n=137) of parents would run the burn under cool water, only 35% (n=66) would cool the burn for an adequate length of time. White British parents were significantly more likely to run cool water over the burn, and to continue this for the recommended 10-20 min. Whilst 88% (n=165) of parents would seek medical attention, this was significantly less in parents under 20 years old. Finally, 92% (n=173) of parents would protect the wound with appropriate dressings, but of note, 26% (n=9) of parents from minority ethnic groups would potentially impair burn healing by using inappropriate dressings and topical

  7. Peptidyl transferase antibiotics perturb the relative positioning of the 3'-terminal adenosine of P/P'-site-bound tRNA and 23S rRNA in the ribosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirillov, S V; Porse, B T; Garrett, R A

    1999-01-01

    A range of antibiotic inhibitors that act within the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome were examined for their capacity to perturb the relative positioning of the 3' end of P/P'-site-bound tRNA and the Escherichia coli ribosome. The 3'-terminal adenosines of deacylated tRNA and N......' at nucleotides C2601/A2602, U2584/U2585 (F1'), U2506 (F2'), and A2062/C2063 (F4'). Each of these nucleotides lies within the peptidyl transferase loop region of the 23S rRNA. Cross-links were also formed with ribosomal proteins L27 (strong) and L33 (weak), as shown earlier. The antibiotics sparsomycin......, chloramphenicol, the streptogramins pristinamycin IA and IIA, gougerotin, lincomycin, and spiramycin were tested for their capacity to alter the identities or yields of each of the cross-links. Although no new cross-links were detected, each of the drugs produced major changes in cross-linking yields, mainly...

  8. Predictors of Timely Prenatal Care Initiation and Adequate Utilization in a Sample of Late Adolescent Texas Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosamar; Kehoe, Priscilla; Heilemann, MarySue V

    2018-03-01

    Little is known of late adolescent Texas Latinas' prenatal care perceptions or how these perceptions predict timely prenatal care initiation or adequate utilization. Hence, the purpose of this study is to describe and compare these perceptions between participants with timely versus late prenatal care initiation and adequate, intermediate, and inadequate prenatal care utilization; and to determine predictors of timely prenatal care initiation and adequate utilization. Fifty-four postpartum Latinas were recruited through social media. Eligibility criteria were 18 to 21 years old, Texas-born, primiparous, uncomplicated pregnancy/delivery, and English literate. Prenatal care perceptions were measured with the Revised Better Babies Survey and Access Barriers to Care Index. Participants had favorable views of prenatal care benefits; however, not living with the baby's father predicted inadequate prenatal care, Wald χ 2 (1) = 4.93, p = .026. Perceived benefits of timely and adequate prenatal care predicted timely prenatal care initiation, χ 2 (1) = 7.47, p = .006. Self-reported depression during pregnancy predicted timely entry into prenatal care, χ 2 (1) = 4.73, p = .03. Participants' positive prenatal care perceptions did not predict adequate prenatal care utilization, indicating that barriers serve as powerful obstacles in late adolescent Texas Latinas.

  9. Frequency of Adequate Endometrial Biopsy in Evaluation of Postmenopausal Women With Benign Endometrial Cells on Pap Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Jeffrey W; Alston, Meredith J; Mazzoni, Sara E; Stickrath, Elaine

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency that endometrial biopsies (EMBs) performed on postmenopausal (PMP) women with benign endometrial cells (BECs) on Pap test are adequate for assessing malignancy or hyperplasia. This is a case series including all PMP women older than 55 years at a single academic institution between January 2008 and September 2015 with a Pap test result including BEC. Patients were identified via an internal cytology database. Patient data, the ability to obtain an EMB, and the result of the EMB were collected. An adequate EMB was defined as the presence of glands and stroma sufficient to assess for endometrial hyperplasia and/or malignancy. Descriptive statistics were performed, and then univariable and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate associations of patient factors and adequacy of EMB. One hundred sixteen women met inclusion criteria. One hundred seven had an EMB scheduled (92%) and of those 91 EMBs were obtained (85%). Of the obtained biopsies, 63 were inadequate to rule out the diagnosis of hyperplasia and/or malignancy (69%). Of these, 19 patients underwent pelvic ultrasound (30%), 12 followed up with repeat Pap test (19%), and 4 underwent dilation and curettage (6%). Of the adequate biopsies, 5 had a diagnosis of hyperplasia (18%) and 5 with malignancy (18%). In PMP women with BEC on Pap test, adequate EMB was only obtained in 31% of patients. Most patients without an adequate biopsy had no further workup of their abnormal Pap test.

  10. Maintenance of exercise training benefits is associated with adequate milk and dairy products intake in elderly hypertensive subjects following detraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro de; Santos, Neucilane Silveira Dos; Aguiar, Larissa Pereira; Sousa, Luís Gustavo Oliveira de

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether maintenance of exercise training benefits is associated with adequate milk and dairy products intake in hypertensive elderly subjects after detraining. Twenty-eight elderly hypertensive patients with optimal clinical treatment underwent 16 weeks of multicomponent exercise training program followed by 6 weeks of detraining, and were classified according to milk and dairy products intake as low milk (exercise training, there was a significant reduction (pexercise training benefits related to pressure levels, lower extremity strength and aerobic capacity, is associated with adequate milk and dairy products intake in hypertensive elderly subjects following 6 weeks of detraining.

  11. Rectal cancer delivery of radiotherapy in adequate time and with adequate dose is influenced by treatment center, treatment schedule, and gender and is prognostic parameter for local control: Results of study CAO/ARO/AIO-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietkau, Rainer; Roedel, Claus; Hohenberger, Werner; Raab, Rudolf; Hess, Clemens; Liersch, Torsten; Becker, Heinz; Wittekind, Christian; Hutter, Matthias; Hager, Eva; Karstens, Johann; Ewald, Hermann; Christen, Norbert; Jagoditsch, Michael; Martus, Peter; Sauer, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The impact of the delivery of radiotherapy (RT) on treatment results in rectal cancer patients is unknown. Methods and Materials: The data from 788 patients with rectal cancer treated within the German CAO/AIO/ARO-94 phase III trial were analyzed concerning the impact of the delivery of RT (adequate RT: minimal radiation RT dose delivered, 4300 cGy for neoadjuvant RT or 4700 cGy for adjuvant RT; completion of RT in <44 days for neoadjuvant RT or <49 days for adjuvant RT) in different centers on the locoregional recurrence rate (LRR) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years. The LRR, DFS, and delivery of RT were analyzed as endpoints in multivariate analysis. Results: A significant difference was found between the centers and the delivery of RT. The overall delivery of RT was a prognostic factor for the LRR (no RT, 29.6% ± 7.8%; inadequate RT, 21.2% ± 5.6%; adequate RT, 6.8% ± 1.4%; p = 0.0001) and DFS (no RT, 55.1% ± 9.1%; inadequate RT, 57.4% ± 6.3%; adequate RT, 69.1% ± 2.3%; p = 0.02). Postoperatively, delivery of RT was a prognostic factor for LRR on multivariate analysis (together with pathologic stage) but not for DFS (independent parameters, pathologic stage and age). Preoperatively, on multivariate analysis, pathologic stage, but not delivery of RT, was an independent prognostic parameter for LRR and DFS (together with adequate chemotherapy). On multivariate analysis, the treatment center, treatment schedule (neoadjuvant vs. adjuvant RT), and gender were prognostic parameters for adequate RT. Conclusion: Delivery of RT should be regarded as a prognostic factor for LRR in rectal cancer and is influenced by the treatment center, treatment schedule, and patient gender

  12. Escherichia coli cells expressing a mutant glyV (glycine tRNA) gene have a UVM-constitutive phenotype: implications for mechanisms underlying the mutA or mutC mutator effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, H S; Humayun, M Z

    1997-12-01

    Transfection of M13 single-stranded viral DNA bearing a 3,N4-ethenocytosine lesion into Escherichia coli cells pretreated with UV results in a significant elevation of mutagenesis at the lesion site compared to that observed in untreated cells. This response, termed UVM, for UV modulation of mutagenesis, is induced by a variety of DNA-damaging agents and is distinct from known cellular responses to DNA damage, including the SOS response. This report describes our observation, as a part of our investigation of the UVM phenomenon, that E. coli cells bearing a mutA or mutC allele display a UVM-constitutive phenotype. These mutator alleles were recently mapped (M. M. Slupska, C. Baikalov, R. Lloyd, and J. H. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:4380-4385, 1996) to the glyV (mutA) and glyW (mutC) tRNA genes. Each mutant allele was shown to arise by an identical mutation in the anticodon sequence such that the mutant tRNAs could, in principle, mistranslate aspartate codons in mRNA as glycine at a low level. Because a UVM-constitutive phenotype resulting from a mutation in a tRNA gene was unexpected, we undertook a series of experiments designed to test whether the phenotype was indeed mediated by the expression of mutant glycine tRNAs. We placed either a wild-type or a mutant glyV gene under the control of a heterologous inducible promoter on a plasmid vector. E. coli cells expressing the mutant glyV gene displayed all three of the following phenotypes: (i) missense suppression of a test allele, (ii) a mutator phenotype measured by mutation to rifampin resistance, and (iii) a UVM-constitutive phenotype. These phenotypes were not associated with cells expressing the wild-type glyV gene or with cells in which the mutant allele was present but was not transcriptionally induced. These observations provide strong support for the idea that expression of mutant tRNA can confer a mutator phenotype, including the UVM-constitutive phenotype observed in mutA and mutC cells

  13. 21 CFR 1.283 - What happens to food that is imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens to food that is imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice? 1.283 Section 1.283 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Imported Food Consequences § 1.283 What happens to food that is imported or offered for import without...

  14. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Rohner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women’s urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001. Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women’s education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency.

  15. Late Reopening of Adequately Coiled Intracranial Aneurysms Frequency and Risk Factors in 400 Patients With 440 Aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferns, Sandra P.; Sprengers, Marieke E. S.; van Rooij, Willem Jan; van Zwam, Wim H.; de Kort, Gerard A. P.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Schaafsma, Joanna D.; van den Berg, Rene; Sluzewski, Menno; Brouwer, Patrick A.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.

    Background and Purpose-In aneurysms that are adequately occluded 6 months after coiling, the risk of late reopening is largely unknown. We assessed the occurrence of late aneurysm reopening and possible risk factors. Methods-From January 1995 to June 2005, 1808 intracranial aneurysms were coiled in

  16. Are forestation, bio-char and landfilled biomass adequate offsets for the climate effects of burning fossil fuels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Forestation and landfilling purpose-grown biomass are not adequate offsets for the CO2 emission from burning fossil fuels. Their permanence is insufficiently guaranteed and landfilling purpose-grown biomass may even be counterproductive. As to permanence, bio-char may do better than forests or

  17. The Comprehension Problems for Second-Language Learners with Poor Reading Comprehension Despite Adequate Decoding: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Mercedes; Wagner, Richard K.

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 16 existing studies to examine the nature of the comprehension problems for children who were second-language learners with poor reading comprehension despite adequate decoding. Results indicated that these children had deficits in oral language (d = -0.80), but these deficits were not as severe as their reading…

  18. Fed up with the right to food? : The Netherlands' policies and practices regarding the human right to adequate food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospes, O.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    There is no one in this world who would deny the importance of access to adequate food for every human being. In fact, access to food has been declared a human right in 1948 with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In spite of the right to food to be more than half a century old, many are not

  19. Using Fuzzy Logic to Identify Schools Which May Be Misclassified by the No Child Left Behind Adequate Yearly Progress Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation developed, tested, and prototyped a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) that would assist decision makers in identifying schools that may have been misclassified by existing Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) methods. This prototype was then used to evaluate Louisiana elementary schools using published school data for Academic Year 2004. …

  20. Assuring Adequate Health Insurance for Children With Special Health Care Needs: Progress From 2001 to 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandour, Reem M; Comeau, Meg; Tobias, Carol; Dworetzky, Beth; Hamershock, Rose; Honberg, Lynda; Mann, Marie Y; Bachman, Sara S

    2015-01-01

    To report on coverage and adequacy of health insurance for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) in 2009-2010 and assess changes since 2001. Data were from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN), a random-digit telephone survey with 40,243 (2009-2010) and 38,866 (2001) completed interviews. Consistency and adequacy of insurance was measured by: 1) coverage status, 2) gaps in coverage, 3) coverage of needed services, 4) reasonableness of uncovered costs, and 5) ability to see needed providers, as reported by parents. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess factors associated with adequate insurance coverage in 2009-2010. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence estimates were examined to identify changes in the type of insurance coverage and the proportion of CSHCN with adequate coverage by insurance type. The proportion of CSHCN with private coverage decreased from 64.7% to 50.7% between 2001 and 2009-2010, while public coverage increased from 21.7% to 34.7%; the proportion of CSHCN without any insurance declined from 5.2% to 3.5%. The proportion of CSHCN with adequate coverage varied over time and by insurance type: among privately covered CSHCN, the proportion with adequate coverage declined (62.6% to 59.6%), while among publicly covered CSHCN, the proportion with adequate insurance increased (63.0% to 70.7%). Publicly insured CSHCN experienced improvements in each of the 3 adequacy components. There has been a continued shift from private to public coverage, which is more affordable, offers benefits that are more likely to meet CSHCN needs, and allowed CSHCN to see necessary providers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet.

  2. The Leap of a Provincial SME into the Global Market Using E-commerce: The Success of Adequate Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz de Abajo, Beatriz; García Salcines, Enrique; Burón Fernández, F. Javier; López Coronado, Miguel; de Castro Lozano, Carlos

    The leap into the global market is not easy when it involves a provincial family business. This article demonstrates how adequate planning is fundamental in a small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) with the tight budget they have available to them, in order to be able to differentiate themselves in a highly competitive market, taking into accounts the benefits and risks involved. The Information Technology (IT) tools put in place will give the necessary support and allow for the possibility of increasing and improving the infrastructure as the company requires. An adequate strategy for the future to increases sales would be e-marketing techniques as well as the current promotions which contribute to diffusing the brand.

  3. A model for determining when an analysis contains sufficient detail to provide adequate NEPA coverage for a proposed action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, C.H.

    1994-11-01

    Neither the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) nor its subsequent regulations provide substantive guidance for determining the Level of detail, discussion, and analysis that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. Yet, decisionmakers are routinely confronted with the problem of making such determinations. Experience has shown that no two decisionmakers are Likely to completely agree on the amount of discussion that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. one decisionmaker may determine that a certain Level of analysis is adequate, while another may conclude the exact opposite. Achieving a consensus within the agency and among the public can be problematic. Lacking definitive guidance, decisionmakers and critics alike may point to a universe of potential factors as the basis for defending their claim that an action is or is not adequately covered. Experience indicates that assertions are often based on ambiguous opinions that can be neither proved nor disproved. Lack of definitive guidance slows the decisionmaking process and can result in project delays. Furthermore, it can also Lead to inconsistencies in decisionmaking, inappropriate Levels of NEPA documentation, and increased risk of a project being challenged for inadequate coverage. A more systematic and less subjective approach for making such determinations is obviously needed. A paradigm for reducing the degree of subjectivity inherent in such decisions is presented in the following paper. The model is specifically designed to expedite the decisionmaking process by providing a systematic approach for making these determination. In many cases, agencies may find that using this model can reduce the analysis and size of NEPA documents

  4. Adequate levels of adherence with controller medication is associated with increased use of rescue medication in asthmatic children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajer Elkout

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of asthma controller medication adherence and the level of asthma control in children is poorly defined. AIMS: To assess the association between asthma controller medication adherence and asthma control in children using routinely acquired prescribing data. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of children aged 0-18 years prescribed inhaled corticosteroids only (ICS, leukotriene receptors antagonists (LTRA, or long-acting β2 agonists (LABA and ICS prescribed as separate or combined inhalers, between 01/09/2001 and 31/08/2006, registered with primary care practices contributing to the Practice Team Information database. The medication possession ratio (MPR was calculated and associations with asthma control explored. Poor asthma control was defined as the issue of prescriptions for ≥ 1 course of oral corticosteroids (OCS and/or ≥ 6 short-acting β2 agonists (SABA canisters annually. RESULTS: A total of 3172 children prescribed asthma controller medication were identified. Of these, 15-39% (depending on controller medication demonstrated adequate MPR. Adequate MPR was associated with male gender, good socio-economic status, and oral LTRA therapy. Adequate MPR was more likely to be associated with increased use of rescue medication. However logistic regression only identified a significant relationship for ICS only (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-2.48; p<0.001, LTRA (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.27-3.48; p = 0.004 and LABA/ICS (OR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.62-5.02; p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Poor adherence was observed for all asthma controller medications, although was significantly better for oral LRTA. In this study adequate adherence was not associated with the use of less rescue medication, suggesting that adherence is a complex issue.

  5. The Audit Opinion of the DISA FY 2011 Working Capital Fund Financial Statements Was Not Adequately Supported

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    President’s Council on Integrity and Efficiency MD&A Management Discussion and Analysis MFR Memorandum for Record NoF Notification of...memorandums for record ( MFRs ) would have a material impact on the financial statements and ultimately Acuity’s opinion, • perform adequate completeness...the deficiencies identified by DISA in its FBWT MFRs would impact the reliability of the financial statements and ultimately Acuity’s opinion

  6. Selection of adequate site location during early stages of construction project management: A multi-criteria decision analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marović, Ivan; Hanak, Tomaš

    2017-10-01

    In the management of construction projects special attention should be given to the planning as the most important phase of decision-making process. Quality decision-making based on adequate and comprehensive collaboration of all involved stakeholders is crucial in project’s early stages. Fundamental reasons for existence of this problem arise from: specific conditions of construction industry (final products are inseparable from the location i.e. location has a strong influence of building design and its structural characteristics as well as technology which will be used during construction), investors’ desires and attitudes, and influence of socioeconomic and environment aspects. Considering all mentioned reasons one can conclude that selection of adequate construction site location for future investment is complex, low structured and multi-criteria problem. To take into account all the dimensions, the proposed model for selection of adequate site location is devised. The model is based on AHP (for designing the decision-making hierarchy) and PROMETHEE (for pairwise comparison of investment locations) methods. As a result of mixing basis feature of both methods, operational synergies can be achieved in multi-criteria decision analysis. Such gives the decision-maker a sense of assurance, knowing that if the procedure proposed by the presented model has been followed, it will lead to a rational decision, carefully and systematically thought out.

  7. Making ecological models adequate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Wayne M.; Marshall, Charles R.; Carlson, Colin J.; Giuggioli, Luca; Ryan, Sadie J.; Romañach, Stephanie; Boettiger, Carl; Chamberlain, Samuel D.; Larsen, Laurel; D'Odorico, Paolo; O'Sullivan, David

    2018-01-01

    Critical evaluation of the adequacy of ecological models is urgently needed to enhance their utility in developing theory and enabling environmental managers and policymakers to make informed decisions. Poorly supported management can have detrimental, costly or irreversible impacts on the environment and society. Here, we examine common issues in ecological modelling and suggest criteria for improving modelling frameworks. An appropriate level of process description is crucial to constructing the best possible model, given the available data and understanding of ecological structures. Model details unsupported by data typically lead to over parameterisation and poor model performance. Conversely, a lack of mechanistic details may limit a model's ability to predict ecological systems’ responses to management. Ecological studies that employ models should follow a set of model adequacy assessment protocols that include: asking a series of critical questions regarding state and control variable selection, the determinacy of data, and the sensitivity and validity of analyses. We also need to improve model elaboration, refinement and coarse graining procedures to better understand the relevancy and adequacy of our models and the role they play in advancing theory, improving hind and forecasting, and enabling problem solving and management.

  8. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  9. Insights into substrate promiscuity of human seryl-tRNA synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Kaitlyn M; Puppala, Anupama K; Lee, Jonathan W; Lee, Hyun; Simonović, Miljan

    2017-11-01

    Seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS) attaches L-serine to the cognate serine tRNA (tRNA Ser ) and the noncognate selenocysteine tRNA (tRNA Sec ). The latter activity initiates the anabolic cycle of selenocysteine (Sec), proper decoding of an in-frame Sec UGA codon, and synthesis of selenoproteins across all domains of life. While the accuracy of SerRS is important for overall proteome integrity, it is its substrate promiscuity that is vital for the integrity of the selenoproteome. This raises a question as to what elements in the two tRNA species, harboring different anticodon sequences and adopting distinct folds, facilitate aminoacylation by a common aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. We sought to answer this question by analyzing the ability of human cytosolic SerRS to bind and act on tRNA Ser , tRNA Sec , and 10 mutant and chimeric constructs in which elements of tRNA Ser were transposed onto tRNA Sec We show that human SerRS only subtly prefers tRNA Ser to tRNA Sec , and that discrimination occurs at the level of the serylation reaction. Surprisingly, the tRNA mutants predicted to adopt either the 7/5 or 8/5 fold are poor SerRS substrates. In contrast, shortening of the acceptor arm of tRNA Sec by a single base pair yields an improved SerRS substrate that adopts an 8/4 fold. We suggest that an optimal tertiary arrangement of structural elements within tRNA Sec and tRNA Ser dictate their utility for serylation. We also speculate that the extended acceptor-TΨC arm of tRNA Sec evolved as a compromise for productive binding to SerRS while remaining the major recognition element for other enzymes involved in Sec and selenoprotein synthesis. © 2017 Holman et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  10. Do clinical examination gloves provide adequate electrical insulation for safe hands-on defibrillation? I: Resistive properties of nitrile gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Charles D; Lee-Shrewsbury, Victoria; Hogg, Kitwani; Petley, Graham W

    2013-07-01

    Uninterrupted chest compressions are a key factor in determining resuscitation success. Interruptions to chest compression are often associated with defibrillation, particularly the need to stand clear from the patient during defibrillation. It has been suggested that clinical examination gloves may provide adequate electrical resistance to enable safe hands-on defibrillation in order to minimise interruptions. We therefore examined whether commonly used nitrile clinical examination gloves provide adequate resistance to current flow to enable safe hands-on defibrillation. Clinical examination gloves (Kimberly Clark KC300 Sterling nitrile) worn by members of hospital cardiac arrest teams were collected immediately following termination of resuscitation. To determine the level of protection afforded by visually intact gloves, electrical resistance across the glove was measured by applying a DC voltage across the glove and measuring subsequent resistance. Forty new unused gloves (control) were compared with 28 clinical (non-CPR) gloves and 128 clinical (CPR) gloves. One glove in each group had a visible tear and was excluded from analysis. Control gloves had a minimum resistance of 120 kΩ (median 190 kΩ) compared with 60 kΩ in clinical gloves (both CPR (median 140 kΩ) and non-CPR groups (median 160 kΩ)). Nitrile clinical examination gloves do not provide adequate electrical insulation for the rescuer to safely undertake 'hands-on' defibrillation and when exposed to the physical forces of external chest compression, even greater resistive degradation occurs. Further work is required to identify gloves suitable for safe use for 'hands-on' defibrillation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Subjects with molecularly defined familial hypercholesterolemia or familial defective apoB-100 are not being adequately treated.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond P Leren

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To study whether subjects with a molecular genetic diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH or familial defective apoB-100 (FDB are being adequately treated.A questionnaire regarding medical history was sent to 2611 subjects who had been provided with a molecular genetic diagnosis of FH or FDB, and a blood sample was obtained for lipid measurements.956 (36.6% of the 2611 subjects participated. The mean age for starting lipid-lowering therapy was 33.4 (±12.1 years. Among those below 18 years of age, only 20.4% were on lipid-lowering drugs, whereas 89.1% of those aged 18 and above were on lipid-lowering drugs. The mean levels of total serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were 5.7 (±1.5 mmol/l and 3.9 (±1.3 mmol/l, respectively. Among those who were on lipid-lowering drugs, 29.0% and 12.2% had levels of LDL cholesterol below 3.0 mmol/l and 2.6 mmol/l, respectively. Only 47.3% of the 956 subjects were considered as being adequately treated largely due to a failure to titrate their drug regimens. From the use of cholesterol-years score, lipid-lowering therapy must start before the age of 20 in order to prevent the subjects from contracting premature coronary heart disease.The majority of FH/FDB subjects are being diagnosed late in life and are not being adequately treated. In order to prevent them from contracting premature coronary heart disease, it is key that levels of LDL cholesterol are normalized from a young age and that sufficient doses of lipid-lowering drugs are being used.

  12. Adequate Consultation And Dialogue With Local Community Unlocking The Untapped Potential For Peace And Development Evidences From South Omo Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yimer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues that adequate consultation and public wide dialogues at the grass root level are the two potential entry points in times of development interventions. This will foster peace among the nearby people and led a foundation for the subsequent development. The study was undertaken to examine whether the agro-pastoral communities of South Omo zone were jeopardized as a result of the Omo Kuraz Sugar development project or not. It also targeted whether there was adequate consultation with the local people at the earliest days of the project. Adopting Ethnographic design the study accompanied by primary data collected through participant observation focus group discussion and key informant interview indicated that there were attempts to consult the indigenous people though not adequate. It also indicated that despite the absence of compensation for the local displaced people due to their mobile life the people were not endangered as a result of the project. This project as a development project that is established at the communal land of the agro-pastoralists is providing training for the nearby people to hire them in its various offices. Far from the claims of the various oversees institutions propounded as if the agro-pastoral communities were miserably suffered from such a project the people consider it as if it is their own project. The study implied that South Omo zone is a counter example of how local level consultation and a wide range of dialogue are indispensable preconditions to foster peace and development in many pastoral and agro-pastoral areas of the country.

  13. Are forestation, bio-char and landfilled biomass adequate offsets for the climate effects of burning fossil fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Forestation and landfilling purpose-grown biomass are not adequate offsets for the CO 2 emission from burning fossil fuels. Their permanence is insufficiently guaranteed and landfilling purpose-grown biomass may even be counterproductive. As to permanence, bio-char may do better than forests or landfilled biomass, but there are major uncertainties about net greenhouse gas emissions linked to the bio-char life cycle, which necessitate suspension of judgement about the adequacy of bio-char addition to soils as an offset for CO 2 emissions from burning fossil fuels.

  14. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-03

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  15. Routine supplementation does not warrant the nutritional status of vitamin d adequate after gastric bypass Roux-en-Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Cintia Leticia; Dames Olivieri Saubermann, Ana Paula; Jacqueline, Jacqueline; Pereira, Silvia Elaine; Saboya, Carlos; Ramalho, Andréa

    2013-01-01

    Bariatric surgery can lead to nutritional deficiencies, including those related to bone loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of calcium, vitamin D and PTH in obese adults before and six months after gastric bypass surgery in Roux-en-Y (RYGB) and evaluate the doses of calcium and vitamin D supplementation after surgery. Retrospective longitudinal study of adult patients of both sexes undergoing RYGB. We obtained data on weight, height, BMI and serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, ionized calcium and PTH. Following surgery, patients received dietary supplementation daily 500 mg calcium carbonate and 400 IU vitamin D. We studied 56 women and 27 men. Preoperative serum concentrations of vitamin D were inadequate in 45% of women and 37% of men, while in the postoperative period 91% of women and 85% of men had deficiency of this vitamin. No change in serum calcium was found before and after surgery. Serum PTH preoperatively remained adequate in 89% of individuals of both sexes. After surgery serum concentrations remained adequate and 89% women and 83% men evaluated. Obesity appears to be a risk factor for the development of vitamin D. The results show that supplementation routine postoperative was unable to treat and prevent vitamin D deficiency in obese adults undergoing RYGB. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Exercise prescription for the older population: The interactions between physical activity, sedentary time, and adequate nutrition in maintaining musculoskeletal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shad, Brandon J; Wallis, Gareth; van Loon, Luc J C; Thompson, Janice L

    2016-11-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) promotes musculoskeletal health in older adults. However, the majority of older individuals do not meet current PA guidelines and are also highly sedentary. Emerging evidence indicates that large amounts of sedentary time accelerate the loss of skeletal muscle mass (i.e., sarcopenia) and physical function with advancing age. However, current PA recommendations for sedentary time are non-specific (i.e., keep sedentary time to a minimum). Research indicates that physical inactivity and large amounts of sedentary time accelerate sarcopenic muscle loss by inducing skeletal muscle 'anabolic resistance'. These findings suggest a critical interaction between engaging in 'sufficient' levels of PA, minimising sedentary time, and consuming 'adequate' nutrition to promote optimal musculoskeletal health in older adults. However, current PA recommendations do not take into account the important role that nutrition plays in ensuring older adults can maximise the benefits from the PA in which they engage. The aim of this narrative review is: (1) to briefly summarise the evidence used to inform current public health recommendations for PA and sedentary time in older adults; and (2) to discuss the presence of 'anabolic resistance' in older adults, highlighting the importance of regular PA and minimising sedentary behaviour. It is imperative that the synergy between PA, minimising sedentary behaviour and adequate nutrition is integrated into future PA guidelines to promote optimal musculoskeletal health and metabolic responses in the growing ageing population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Poor neurological sequelae of herpes simplex virus encephalitis in an infant despite adequate antiviral and adjunct corticosteroid therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna B Basak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-month-old infant presented to our emergency department with fever, altered consciousness, and focal seizures of acute onset. He had vesicular skin lesions over the right preauricular region. CT brain showed a large hypodense lesion involving the left temporo-parietal region, left basal ganglia and left thalamus. MRI brain revealed bilateral multifocal corticomedullary lesions suggestive of encephalitis. CSF-PCR was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV type I. He was treated with standard dose intravenous acyclovir for 15 days along with a trial of pulse methylprednisolone, but was readmitted within a week with features of an early relapse. The infant survived but developed significant neurological sequelae. Although treatment of HSV is available, the neurological outcome is guarded even with adequate antiviral therapy. Adjunct corticosteroid therapy did not appear to attenuate the neurological sequelae.

  18. Effects of Awareness Material on Suicide-Related Knowledge and the Intention to Provide Adequate Help to Suicidal Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Florian; Scherr, Sebastian; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Krallmann, Sabrina; Till, Benedikt

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of educative media reports on the intention to provide help to suicidal individuals and on suicide-related knowledge. To test whether material debunking widely shared myths influences knowledge and the intention to provide adequate help to others, and if such information reduces reading enjoyment. A randomized controlled trial was utilized. Participants allocated to the intervention group were exposed to awareness material explicitly addressing suicide myths. Analyses show that exposure to printed awareness material increased knowledge, which in turn positively influenced intentions to provide help. The inclusion of information regarding suicide myths did not reduce reading enjoyment. The awareness material used in this study only addressed two suicide myths that were considered to be especially important. Information debunking suicide myths in suicide-related media reports is therefore both feasible and potentially helpful.

  19. Assessment of minimum sample sizes required to adequately represent diversity reveals inadequacies in datasets of domestic dog mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Kristen; Allard, Marc

    2010-02-01

    Evolutionary and forensic studies commonly choose the mitochondrial control region as the locus for which to evaluate the domestic dog. However, the number of dogs that need to be sampled in order to represent the control region variation present in the worldwide population is yet to be determined. Following the methods of Pereira et al. (2004), we have demonstrated the importance of surveying the complete control region rather than only the popular left domain. We have also evaluated sample saturation in terms of the haplotype number and the number of polymorphisms within the control region. Of the most commonly cited evolutionary research, only a single study has adequately surveyed the domestic dog population, while all forensic studies have failed to meet the minimum values. We recommend that future studies consider dataset size when designing experiments and ideally sample both domains of the control region in an appropriate number of domestic dogs.

  20. Vegetable dishes, dairy products and fruits are key items mediating adequate dietary intake for Japanese adults with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, N; Inayama, T; Hata, K; Oka, J

    2015-11-01

    This is a cross-sectional study. The objective of this study was to ascertain the essential items mediating adequate dietary intake based on the Japanese Food Guide in common among the transtheoretical model (TTM), self-efficacy (SE) and outcome expectancy (OE). Members of the organization Spinal Injuries Japan. We posted a questionnaire survey to 2731 community-dwelling Japanese adults with spinal cord injury (SCI), and responses from 841 individuals were analyzed. Food intake was assessed as the frequency scores of 10 food items eaten in a daily diet in Japan. The correlations between the frequency scores of food intake and TTM, SE and OE were determined by binominal logistic regression analysis. The frequency scores of food intake were significantly associated with 'To eat vegetable dishes (dishes made mainly from vegetables or potatoes) not less than twice a day', 'To eat green/yellow vegetables not less than twice a day', 'To eat dairy products not less than once a day' and 'To eat fruits not less than once a day' in TTM. 'To eat vegetable dishes (dishes made mainly from vegetables or potatoes) not less than twice a day', 'To eat dairy products not less than once a day' and 'To eat fruits not less than once a day' were significantly associated with the frequency scores of food intake in SE. In OE, no differences were shown. This study finds that vegetable dishes, dairy products and fruits are the key items mediating adequate dietary intake. Dietary guidelines promoting the intake of these dishes for SCI individuals are needed.

  1. Many randomized trials of physical therapy interventions are not adequately registered: a survey of 200 published trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rafael Zambelli; Elkins, Mark R; Moseley, Anne M; Sherrington, Catherine; Herbert, Robert D; Maher, Christopher G; Ferreira, Paulo H; Ferreira, Manuela L

    2013-03-01

    Clinical trial registration has several putative benefits: prevention of selective reporting, avoidance of duplication, encouragement of participation, and facilitation of reviews. Previous surveys suggest that most trials are registered. However, these surveys examined only trials in journals with high impact factors, which may bias the results. This study examined the completeness of clinical trial registration and the extent of selective reporting of outcomes in a random sample of published randomized trials in physical therapy. This was a retrospective cohort study in which 200 randomized trials of physical therapy interventions were randomly selected from those published in 2009 and indexed in the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), regardless of the publishing journal. Evidence of registration was sought for each trial in the study, on clinical trial registers, and by contacting authors. The proportion of randomized trials that were registered was 67/200 (34%). This proportion was significantly lower than among the trials in journals with high impact factors, where the proportion was 75% (odds ratio=7.4, 95% confidence interval=2.6-21.4). Unambiguous primary outcomes (ie, method and time points of measurement clearly defined in the trial registry entry) were registered for 32 trials, and registration was adequate (ie, prospective with unambiguous primary outcomes) for 5/200 (2.5%) trials. Selective outcome reporting occurred in 23 (47%) of the 49 trials in which selective reporting was assessable. The inclusion of only English-language trials prevents generalization of the results to non-English-language trials. Registration of randomized trials of physical therapy interventions is rarely adequate. Consequently, the putative benefits of registration are not being fully realized.

  2. Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Wehner, Martin; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula; Lampert, Friedrich; Poprawe, Reinhart; Hermans, Martin; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of introducing ultra-short pulsed lasers (USPL) in restorative dentistry by maintaining the well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also overcoming disadvantages, such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. USPL ablation of dental hard tissues was investigated in two phases. Phase 1--different wavelengths (355, 532, 1,045, and 1,064 nm), pulse durations (picoseconds and femtoseconds) and irradiation parameters (scanning speed, output power, and pulse repetition rate) were assessed for enamel and dentin. Ablation rate was determined, and the temperature increase measured in real time. Phase 2--the most favorable laser parameters were evaluated to correlate temperature increase to ablation rate and ablation efficiency. The influence of cooling methods (air, air-water spray) on ablation process was further analyzed. All parameters tested provided precise and selective tissue ablation. For all lasers, faster scanning speeds resulted in better interaction and reduced temperature increase. The most adequate results were observed for the 1064-nm ps-laser and the 1045-nm fs-laser. Forced cooling caused moderate changes in temperature increase, but reduced ablation, being considered unnecessary during irradiation with USPL. For dentin, the correlation between temperature increase and ablation efficiency was satisfactory for both pulse durations, while for enamel, the best correlation was observed for fs-laser, independently of the power used. USPL may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, since effective ablation and low temperature increase were observed. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this technique seems to be promising for promoting the laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach.

  3. Characterization of the human laminin beta2 chain locus (LAMB2): linkage to a gene containing a nonprocessed, transcribed LAMB2-like pseudogene (LAMB2L) and to the gene encoding glutaminyl tRNA synthetase (QARS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durkin, M E; Jäger, A C; Khurana, T S

    1999-01-01

    The laminin beta2 chain is an important constituent of certain kidney and muscle basement membranes. We have generated a detailed physical map of a 110-kb genomic DNA segment surrounding the human laminin beta2 chain gene (LAMB2) on chromosome 3p21.3-->p21.2, a region paralogous with the chromosome...... 7q22-->q31 region that contains the laminin beta1 chain gene locus (LAMB1). Several CpG islands and a novel polymorphic microsatellite marker (D3S4594) were identified. The 3' end of LAMB2 lies 16 kb from the 5' end of the glutaminyl tRNA synthetase gene (QARS). About 20 kb upstream of LAMB2 we...... found a gene encoding a transcribed, non-processed LAMB2-like pseudogene (LAMB2L). The sequence of 1.75 kb of genomic DNA at the 3' end of LAMB2L was similar to exons 8-12 of the laminin beta2 chain gene. The LAMB2L-LAMB2-QARS cluster lies telomeric to the gene encoding the laminin-binding protein...

  4. The two-layer geochemical structure of modern biogeochemical provinces and its significance for spatially adequate ecological evaluations and decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    Contamination of the environment has reached such a scale that ecogeochemical situation in any area can be interpreted now as a result of the combined effect of natural and anthropogenic factors. The areas that appear uncomfortable for a long stay can have natural and anthropogenic genesis, but the spatial structure of such biogeochemical provinces is in any case formed of a combination of natural and technogenic fields of chemical elements. Features of structural organization and the difference in factors and specific time of their formation allow their separation on one hand and help in identification of areas with different ecological risks due to overlay of the two structures on the other. Geochemistry of soil cover reflects the long-term result of the naturally balanced biogeochemical cycles, therefore the soil geochemical maps of the undisturbed areas may serve the basis for evaluation of the natural geochemical background with due regard to the main factors of geochemical differentiation in biosphere. Purposeful and incidental technogenic concentrations and dispersions of chemical elements of specific (mainly mono- or polycentric) structure are also fixed in soils that serve as secondary sources of contamination of the vegetation cover and local food chains. Overlay of the two structures forms specific heterogeneity of modern biogeochemical provinces with different risk for particular groups of people, animals and plants adapted to specific natural geochemical background within particular concentration interval. The developed approach is believed to be helpful for biogeochemical regionalizing of modern biosphere (noosphere) and for spatially adequate ecogeochemical evaluation of the environment and landuse decisions. It allows production of a set of applied geochemical maps such as: 1) health risk due to chemical elements deficiency and technogenic contamination accounting of possible additive effects; 2) adequate soil fertilization and melioration with due

  5. Fair Balance and Adequate Provision in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Online Banner Advertisements: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Crystal

    2016-02-18

    The current direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) guidelines were developed with print, television, and radio media in mind, and there are no specific guidelines for online banner advertisements. This study evaluates how well Internet banner ads comply with existing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for DTCA in other media. A content analysis was performed of 68 banner advertisements. A coding sheet was developed based on (1) FDA guidance documents for consumer-directed prescription drug advertisements and (2) previous DTCA content analyses. Specifically, the presence of a brief summary detailing the drug's risks and side effects or of a "major statement" identifying the drug's major risks, and the number and type of provisions made available to consumers for comprehensive information about the drug were coded. In addition, the criterion of "fair balance," the FDA's requirement that prescription drug ads balance information relating to the drug's risks with information relating to its benefits, was measured by numbering the benefit and risk facts identified in the ads and by examining the presentation of risk and benefit information. Every ad in the sample included a brief summary of risk information and at least one form of adequate provision as required by the FDA for broadcast ads that do not give audiences a brief summary of a drug's risks. No ads included a major statement. There were approximately 7.18 risk facts for every benefit fact. Most of the risks (98.85%, 1292/1307) were presented in the scroll portion of the ad, whereas most of the benefits (66.5%, 121/182) were presented in the main part of the ad. Out of 1307 risk facts, 1292 were qualitative and 15 were quantitative. Out of 182 benefit facts, 181 were qualitative and 1 was quantitative. The majority of ads showed neutral images during the disclosure of benefit and risk facts. Only 9% (6/68) of the ads displayed positive images and none displayed negative images when presenting risks

  6. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany--in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar--and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002-2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3-24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0-12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2-7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million-4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR.

  7. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Meier

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany--in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar--and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA, salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002-2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3-24.1 billion EUR in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10% of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR. This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0-12.1; salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2-7.3 and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million-4.7 billion. Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR.

  8. Fair Balance and Adequate Provision in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Online Banner Advertisements: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background The current direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) guidelines were developed with print, television, and radio media in mind, and there are no specific guidelines for online banner advertisements. Objective This study evaluates how well Internet banner ads comply with existing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for DTCA in other media. Methods A content analysis was performed of 68 banner advertisements. A coding sheet was developed based on (1) FDA guidance documents for consumer-directed prescription drug advertisements and (2) previous DTCA content analyses. Specifically, the presence of a brief summary detailing the drug’s risks and side effects or of a “major statement” identifying the drug’s major risks, and the number and type of provisions made available to consumers for comprehensive information about the drug were coded. In addition, the criterion of “fair balance,” the FDA’s requirement that prescription drug ads balance information relating to the drug’s risks with information relating to its benefits, was measured by numbering the benefit and risk facts identified in the ads and by examining the presentation of risk and benefit information. Results Every ad in the sample included a brief summary of risk information and at least one form of adequate provision as required by the FDA for broadcast ads that do not give audiences a brief summary of a drug’s risks. No ads included a major statement. There were approximately 7.18 risk facts for every benefit fact. Most of the risks (98.85%, 1292/1307) were presented in the scroll portion of the ad, whereas most of the benefits (66.5%, 121/182) were presented in the main part of the ad. Out of 1307 risk facts, 1292 were qualitative and 15 were quantitative. Out of 182 benefit facts, 181 were qualitative and 1 was quantitative. The majority of ads showed neutral images during the disclosure of benefit and risk facts. Only 9% (6/68) of the ads displayed positive images and

  9. Presymptomatic diagnosis with MRI and adequate treatment ameliorate the outcome after natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans eLindå

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Natalizumab (Tysabri® is a monoclonal antibody that prevents inflammatory cells from binding to brain endothelial cells and passing into the brain parenchyma. Natalizumab is a highly effective treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML is an opportunistic brain JC virus infection that has been shown to be associated with natalizumab treatment. We describe PML in a patient with MS after 44 monthly infusions of natalizumab. With the aid of a routine MRI scan, PML was detected before any unambiguous clinical manifestations had emerged. PML was treated with plasma exchange to accelerate removal of natalizumab. Mirtazapine and mefloquine was promptly added and approximately one month after plasma exchange, when an immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome (IRIS appeared, steroid treatment was initiated. Steroid treatment was then continued until no virus could be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid. The outcome was favourable. We believe that this case clearly illustrates the importance of an early, presymptomatic, detection of PML and an adequate treatment. We also propose that surveillance with MRI scans, every 3 months after 24 months of treatment, should be performed in JC virus antibody positive natalizumab-treated MS patients in order to detect PML in an early phase.

  10. An analysis of survey reporting in the imaging professions: Is the issue of non-response bias being adequately addressed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Emily F.; Hardy, Maryann; Snaith, Beverly

    2013-01-01

    Background: Surveys are a common method of data collection within health service research. An essential aspect of reporting survey research is ensuring that sufficient information is provided to enable readers to determine the validity and representativeness of research findings. Method: This study reports a secondary analysis of survey research published in Radiography and Clinical Radiology between 2001 and 2010. The purpose of the study was to evaluate trends in response rates and establish how non-response bias was being addressed. Results: Analysis of non-response bias was undertaken in 9.4% (n = 9/96) of studies. Where analysis was performed, strong reliance on demographic characteristics to determine sample representativeness was noted (n = 8/9; 88.9%). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that non-response bias is not being adequately addressed within published imaging related survey research and more needs to be done to encourage a rigorous approach to the analysis and reporting of survey results

  11. Detailed NMR, including 1,1-ADEQUATE, and anticancer studies of compounds from the echinoderm Colobometra perspinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony D; Nielson, Jonathan L; Tapiolas, Dianne M; Motti, Cherie A; Ovenden, Simon P B; Kearns, Philip S; Liptrot, Catherine H

    2009-11-12

    From the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the crinoid Colobometra perspinosa, collected south east of Richards Island (Bedara), Family Islands, Central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 3-(1'-hydroxypropyl)-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone [one of the two stereoisomers of rhodoptilometrin, (1)], 3-propyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (3), 2-[(phenylacetyl)amino]ethanesulfonic acid (4), and 4-hydroxybutanoic acid (5) were isolated. Comparison of (1)H- and (13)C-NMR data for rhodoptilometrin (1) with those reported in the literature showed significant differences for some resonances associated with rings A and C. In an attempt to provide accurately assigned (1)H- and (13)C-NMR data, as well as to confirm the structure of 1, a thorough NMR investigation of this compound was undertaken. Measurements included: concentration dependent (13)C, 1D selective NOE, HSQC, HMBC and 1,1-ADEQUATE. The NMR data for 4 and 5 are reported here for the first time, as is their occurrence from the marine environment. The in vitro anticancer activity of the original extract was found to be associated with 1, 3 and 5.

  12. Factors impacting upon timely and adequate allocation of prehospital medical assistance and resources to cardiac arrest patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeland, Camilla; Sunde, Kjetil; Ramsdal, Helge; Hebbert, Susan R; Soilammi, Linda; Westmark, Fredrik; Nordum, Fredrik; Hansen, Andreas E; Steen-Hansen, Jon E; Olasveengen, Theresa M

    2016-12-01

    Explore, understand and address issues that impact upon timely and adequate allocation of prehospital medical assistance and resources to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. Mixed-methods design obtaining data for one year in three emergency medical communication centres (EMCC); Oslo-Akershus (OA), Vestfold-Telemark (VT) and Østfold (Ø). Data collection included quantitative data from analysis of dispatch logs, ambulance records and audio files. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews and non-participant observations. OA-, VT- and Ø-EMCC responded to 1095 OHCAs and 579 of these calls were included for further analysis (333, 143 and 103, respectively). There were significant site differences in their recognition of OHCA (89, 94 and 78%, respectively, pmisinterpretation of agonal breathing. Interviews and observations revealed individual differences in protocol use, interrogation strategy and assessment of breathing. Use of protocol was only part of decision making, dispatchers trusted their own clinical experience and intuition, and used assumptions about the patient and the situation as part of decision making. Agonal breathing continues to be the main barrier to recognition of cardiac arrest. Individual differences among dispatchers' strategies can directly impact on performance, mainly due to the wide definition of cardiac arrest and lack of uniform tools for assessment of breathing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Detailed NMR, Including 1,1-ADEQUATE, and Anticancer Studies of Compounds from the Echinoderm Colobometra perspinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine H. Liptrot

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available From the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the crinoid Colobometra perspinosa, collected south east of Richards Island (Bedara, Family Islands, Central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 3-(1'-hydroxypropyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone [one of the two stereoisomers of rhodoptilometrin, (1], 3-propyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (3, 2-[(phenylacetylamino]ethanesulfonic acid (4, and 4-hydroxybutanoic acid (5 were isolated. Comparison of 1H- and 13C-NMR data for rhodoptilometrin (1 with those reported in the literature showed significant differences for some resonances associated with rings A and C. In an attempt to provide accurately assigned 1H- and 13C-NMR data, as well as to confirm the structure of 1, a thorough NMR investigation of this compound was undertaken. Measurements included: concentration dependent 13C, 1D selective NOE, HSQC, HMBC and 1,1-ADEQUATE. The NMR data for 4 and 5 are reported here for the first time, as is their occurrence from the marine environment. The in vitro anticancer activity of the original extract was found to be associated with 1, 3 and 5.

  14. Impact of a cost constraint on nutritionally adequate food choices for French women: an analysis by linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, Nicole; Ferguson, Elaine L; Briend, André

    2006-01-01

    To predict, for French women, the impact of a cost constraint on the food choices required to provide a nutritionally adequate diet. Isocaloric daily diets fulfilling both palatability and nutritional constraints were modeled in linear programming, using different cost constraint levels. For each modeled diet, total departure from an observed French population's average food group pattern ("mean observed diet") was minimized. To achieve the nutritional recommendations without a cost constraint, the modeled diet provided more energy from fish, fresh fruits and green vegetables and less energy from animal fats and cheese than the "mean observed diet." Introducing and strengthening a cost constraint decreased the energy provided by meat, fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, vegetable fat, and yogurts and increased the energy from processed meat, eggs, offal, and milk. For the lowest cost diet (ie, 3.18 euros/d), marked changes from the "mean observed diet" were required, including a marked reduction in the amount of energy from fresh fruits (-85%) and green vegetables (-70%), and an increase in the amount of energy from nuts, dried fruits, roots, legumes, and fruit juices. Nutrition education for low-income French women must emphasize these affordable food choices.

  15. [Adequate prescription and application of topicals : How to calculate the right volume for the prescription of ointment needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayoon, D; Dahlhoff, P; Augustin, M

    2017-12-15

    Uncertainty regarding the suitable amount of prescribed ointment and its application by patients may cause insufficient or uneconomic health care provision. To address this issue, standardized methods and experts' knowledge on the suitable amount and coherent patient's elucidation for application of topicals are needed. Presented are current data in routine care and scientific evidence on the prescribed amount of topical agents as well as its application by patients in dermatological care. A literature review was conducted via PubMed using the keywords as individual and pooled search terms: "local therapy", "topical treatment", "prescription", "amount of ointment needed", "involved area", "BSA", "finger-tip-unit", "Rule of Hand", "calculated dosage" and "rule of nines". We included original studies by manually screening title and abstract according to the relevance of the topic. The search strategy identified 19 clinical trials. The fingertip unit (FTU) is the most frequently used measurement for accurate application of external agents. Appropriate prescribed amount is calculated by required topical agent per involved surface area. There is still a need for clarification to which extent the optimized amount of ointment is prescribed and advice for its application in routine care is given. The FTU combined with the "Rule of Hand" is an adequate measurement for patient's guidance on self-application.

  16. The feasibility of producing adequate feedstock for year–round cellulosic ethanol production in an intensive agricultural fuelshed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden, Daniel R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; Allen, Craig R.; Guan, Qingfeng; McCoy, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    To date, cellulosic ethanol production has not been commercialized in the United States. However, government mandates aimed at increasing second-generation biofuel production could spur exploratory development in the cellulosic ethanol industry. We conducted an in-depth analysis of the fuelshed surrounding a starch-based ethanol plant near York, Nebraska that has the potential for cellulosic ethanol production. To assess the feasibility of supplying adequate biomass for year-round cellulosic ethanol production from residual maize (Zea mays) stover and bioenergy switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) within a 40-km road network service area of the existing ethanol plant, we identified ∼14,000 ha of marginally productive cropland within the service area suitable for conversion from annual rowcrops to switchgrass and ∼132,000 ha of maize-enrolled cropland from which maize stover could be collected. Annual maize stover and switchgrass biomass supplies within the 40-km service area could range between 429,000 and 752,000 metric tons (mT). Approximately 140–250 million liters (l) of cellulosic ethanol could be produced, rivaling the current 208 million l annual starch-based ethanol production capacity of the plant. We conclude that sufficient quantities of biomass could be produced from maize stover and switchgrass near the plant to support year-round cellulosic ethanol production at current feedstock yields, sustainable removal rates and bioconversion efficiencies. Modifying existing starch-based ethanol plants in intensive agricultural fuelsheds could increase ethanol output, return marginally productive cropland to perennial vegetation, and remove maize stover from productive cropland to meet feedstock demand.

  17. Undergraduate medical textbooks do not provide adequate information on intravenous fluid therapy: a systematic survey and suggestions for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Arfon G M T; Paterson-Brown, Simon; Drummond, Gordon B

    2014-02-20

    Inappropriate prescribing of intravenous (IV) fluid, particularly 0.9% sodium chloride, causes post-operative complications. Fluid prescription is often left to junior medical staff and is frequently poorly managed. One reason for poor intravenous fluid prescribing practices could be inadequate coverage of this topic in the textbooks that are used. We formulated a comprehensive set of topics, related to important common clinical situations involving IV fluid therapy, (routine fluid replacement, fluid loss, fluids overload) to assess the adequacy of textbooks in common use. We assessed 29 medical textbooks widely available to students in the UK, scoring the presence of information provided by each book on each of the topics. The scores indicated how fully the topics were considered: not at all, partly, and adequately. No attempt was made to judge the quality of the information, because there is no consensus on these topics. The maximum score that a book could achieve was 52. Three of the topics we chose were not considered by any of the books. Discounting these topics as "too esoteric", the maximum possible score became 46. One textbook gained a score of 45, but the general score was poor (median 11, quartiles 4, 21). In particular, coverage of routine postoperative management was inadequate. Textbooks for undergraduates cover the topic of intravenous therapy badly, which may partly explain the poor knowledge and performance of junior doctors in this important field. Systematic revision of current textbooks might improve knowledge and practice by junior doctors. Careful definition of the remit and content of textbooks should be applied more widely to ensure quality and "fitness for purpose", and avoid omission of vital knowledge.

  18. Comparison of single questions and brief questionnaire with longer validated food frequency questionnaire to assess adequate fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Amelia; Roberts, Kia; O'Leary, Fiona; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret Anne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a single question (SQ) for fruit and a SQ or five-item questionnaire for vegetable consumption (VFQ) could replace a longer food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to screen for inadequate versus adequate intakes in populations. Participants (109) completed three test screeners: fruit SQ, vegetable SQ, and a five-item VFQ followed by the reference 74-item FFQ (version 2 of the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies [DQESv2]) including 13 fruit and 25 vegetable items. The five-item VFQ asked about intake of salad vegetables, cooked vegetables, white potatoes, legumes, and vegetable juice. The screeners were compared with the reference (DQESv2 FFQ) for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive powers (PPV, NPV) to detect intakes of two or more servings of fruit and three or more servings of vegetables. Relative validity was examined using Bland-Altman statistics. The fruit SQ showed a PPV of 56% and an NPV of 83%. The PPV for the vegetable SQ was 30% and the NPV was 89%. For the five-item VFQ, the PPV was 39% and the NPV was 85%. Bland-Altman plots and linear regression equations showed that although the screener showed good agreement for fruit (unstandardized b1 coefficient = 0.04) for vegetable intake the difference between methods increased at higher intake levels (unstandardized b1 coefficients = -0.3 for the SQ, b1 = -0.6 for five-item VFQ). The fruit SQ and the five-item VFQ are suitable replacements for longer FFQs to detect inadequate intake and assess population mean but not individual intakes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Study to Determine Adequate Margins in Radiotherapy Planning for Esophageal Carcinoma by Detailing Patterns of Recurrence After Definitive Chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Button, Michael R.; Morgan, Carys A.; Croydon, Elizabeth S.; Roberts, S. Ashley; Crosby, Thomas D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the adequacy of radiotherapy (RT) margins by studying the relapse patterns after definitive chemoradiotherapy for carcinoma of the esophagus. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study assessing the first site of disease relapse after definitive chemoradiotherapy that included four 3-weekly cycles of cisplatin and continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil, with conformal RT (50 Gy in 25 fractions) concurrent with Cycles 3 and 4. The RT planning target volume was the endoscopic ultrasonography/computed tomography-defined gross tumor volume with 1.5-cm lateral and 3-cm superoinferior margins. Results: A total of 145 patients were included. Their average age was 65.4 years, 45% had adenocarcinoma, 61% had lower third esophageal tumors, and 75% had Stage III-IVA disease. After RT, of 142 patients, 85 (60%) had evidence of relapse at a median follow-up of 18 months. The relapse was local (within the RT field) in 55; distant (metastatic) in 13, and a combination of local and distant in 14. The local relapse rates were not influenced by tumor stage, lymph node status, or disease length. Three patients developed a relapse in regions adjacent to the RT fields; however, it is unlikely that larger field margins would have been clinically acceptable or effective in these cases. The median overall survival was 15 months. Conclusion: The gross tumor volume-planning target volume margins in this study appeared adequate. Future efforts to improve outcomes using definitive chemoradiotherapy should be directed toward reducing the high rates of in-field and distant relapses

  20. Evaluation of the condensation potential of hydrocarbon fluids in the national gas pipeline system; establishing of adequate operational schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda Gomez, Cesar Augusto; Arenas Mantilla, Oscar Armando; Santos Santos, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    (Reglamento Unico de Transporte - RUT) established by CREG (CREG, 1999); section four presents the recommended set up of adequate work schemes required lo guarantee the non-existence of hydrocarbon fluid due condensation in the evaluated system

  1. Expression Profile of Genes Potentially Associated with Adequate Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmia Cruz Tfaile Corbi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing research in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D, there are few studies showing the impact of the poor glycemic control on biological processes occurring in T2D. In order to identify potential genes related to poorly/well-controlled patients with T2D, our strategy of investigation included a primary screen by microarray (Human Genome U133 in a small group of individuals followed by an independent validation in a greater group using RT-qPCR. Ninety patients were divided as follows: poorly controlled T2D (G1, well-controlled T2D (G2, and normoglycemic individuals (G3. After using affy package in R, differentially expressed genes (DEGs were prospected as candidate genes potentially relevant for the glycemic control in T2D patients. After validation by RT-qPCR, the obtained DEGs were as follows—G1 + G2 versus G3: HLA-DQA1, SOS1, and BRCA2; G2 versus G1: ENO2, VAMP2, CCND3, CEBPD, LGALS12, AGBL5, MAP2K5, and PPAP2B; G2 versus G3: HLA-DQB1, MCM4, and SEC13; and G1 versus G3: PPIC. This demonstrated a systemic exacerbation of the gene expression related to immune response in T2D patients. Moreover, genes related to lipid metabolisms and DNA replication/repair were influenced by the glycemic control. In conclusion, this study pointed out candidate genes potentially associated with adequate glycemic control in T2D patients, contributing to the knowledge of how the glycemic control could systemically influence gene expression.

  2. Twice-monthly administration of a lower dose of epoetin beta pegol can maintain adequate hemoglobin levels in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikami, Yuki; Fujimori, Akira; Okada, Shioko; Kumei, Mai; Mizobuchi, Noriko; Sakai, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Epoetin beta pegol is a continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) with a long half-life. Although CERA has been shown to maintain adequate hemoglobin (Hb) levels at prolonged dosing intervals, the optimal dosing schedule remains unclear. We therefore compared the efficacy of maintaining hemoglobin levels with administration of twice-monthly CERA (TWICE) versus once-monthly CERA (ONCE). Twenty hemodialysis patients receiving epoetin beta (EPO) were enrolled in this crossover study. Patients were assigned to either the TWICE or the ONCE group based on matching Hb levels and EPO doses. After 6 months of treatment, the CERA dosage was interchanged between the groups and the study was continued for an additional 6 months. The effect of the different regimens on iron metabolism was also assessed during the first 6 months of the study. Hb levels significantly increased in the TWICE group, allowing for a reduction in CERA dosage, while the dose of CERA required to maintain Hb levels in the ONCE group remained unchanged. After the interchange, a decrease in Hb levels with incremental increase in CERA dosage was observed in the TWICE→ONCE group, with the opposite effect observed in the ONCE→TWICE group. Although increases in ferritin and hepcidin-25 levels in the ONCE group were noted at one month, they disappeared at 6 months. Although Hb levels were maintained in both the ONCE and TWICE groups, a twice-monthly administration was advantageous, as it required a lower dose of CERA. © 2014 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2014 International Society for Apheresis.

  3. Double-Outlet Right Ventricle With Noncommitted Ventricular Septal Defect and 2 Adequate Ventricles: Is Anatomical Repair Advantageous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemain, Olivier; Bonnet, Damien; Houyel, Lucile; Vergnat, Mathieu; Ladouceur, Magalie; Lambert, Virginie; Jalal, Zakaria; Vouhé, Pascal; Belli, Emre

    The management of double-outlet right ventricle associated with anatomically noncommitted ventricular septal defect constitutes a surgical challenge. The limits for, and the specific outcomes after anatomical vs univentricular repair still remain to be established. Between 1993 and 2011, 36 consecutive patients presenting with double-outlet right ventricle or noncommitted ventricular septal defect (21 inlet, 10 muscular, and 5 central perimembranous) and 2 adequately sized ventricles underwent surgical repair at 2 centers. Right ventricular outflow tract obstruction was present in 18 of 36 patients (50%). A total of 21 patients had undergone previous palliative procedures. Anatomical repair (group I) by means of intraventricular baffle construction was performed in 24 (associated right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction in 12 and arterial switch in 5) at a median age of 10.5 months. Ventricular septal defect was surgically enlarged in 12 (50%) patients. The remaining 12 patients underwent univentricular repair (group II). There were 4 hospital deaths (11%), all in group I (P = 0.30 vs group II). A total of 8 of 20 patients in group I survivors underwent 13 reoperations after a median delay of 24 months: subaortic stenosis was the main cause for reoperation in 6 of 8 patients. There was 1 late death in group I and 2 late deaths in group II. The median follow-up was 5.6 years (95% CI: 0.2-9.8). The 10- year actuarial survival rate and freedom from reoperation were 74.7 ± 5% and 58 ± 5% in group I and 71 ± 7% and 70 ± 7% in group II, respectively. At the last visit, all survivors were in New York Heart Association class I-II. Univariate analysis showed that atrioventricular septal defect and isolated mitral cleft were associated with death (P = 0.04) and need for reoperation (P = 0.038). In conclusion, anatomical repair, associated with substantial rates of mortality and need for reoperation, should be considered with caution. Associated atrioventricular

  4. Studying nursing in a rural setting: are students adequately supported and prepared for rural practice? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, L F

    2007-01-01

    A rural nursing program has a vital role in improving the recruitment and retention of nurses in rural and remote settings. A small pilot study was conducted to explore the views and experiences of the first cohort of undergraduate nursing students who completed a rurally based bachelor of nursing program which commenced in 2002 in Renmark, South Australia. The participants were eight current undergraduate nursing students who were part of the first cohort of nursing students nearing completion of the program. The pilot study set out to explore support provided to rural nursing students studying in a rural setting; to investigate whether rural nursing students feel adequately prepared for rural clinical practice near completion of the nursing program; to identify the challenges and highlights of studying rurally; and to explore the probability of retention and recruitment of future nursing graduates in a rural setting. The method used was a descriptive, exploratory, web-based survey. Quantitative data were limited to descriptive statistics of demographic characteristics, career goals, graduate nurse program and future employment intentions, level of support, preparation for practice, challenges and highlights of rural study and clinical placements. Qualitative responses to open-ended questions were content analysed to identify common themes. This study found between two and four participants indicated they received no support from academic, administrative staff and clinical facilitators from the city campus. Five participants (63%) indicated they received no financial support during their studies. Seven of the participants (88%) surveyed, indicated an intention to undertake a graduate nurse program and the same number indicated they would be living in a rural or remote area in 5 years time. Six participants (75%) indicated they were prepared with regard to their 'attitude' towards their future practice as a registered nurse. The study identified some of the

  5. DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) controls the expression of the cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) gene of Aeromonas hydrophila via tRNA modifying enzyme-glucose-inhibited division protein (GidA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erova, Tatiana E; Kosykh, Valeri G; Sha, Jian; Chopra, Ashok K

    2012-05-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is both a human and animal pathogen, and the cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) is a crucial virulence factor of this bacterium because of its associated hemolytic, cytotoxic, and enterotoxic activities. Previously, to define the role of some regulatory genes in modulating Act production, we showed that deletion of a glucose-inhibited division gene (gidA) encoding tRNA methylase reduced Act levels, while overproduction of DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) led to a concomitant increase in Act-associated biological activities of a diarrheal isolate SSU of A. hydrophila. Importantly, there are multiple GATC binding sites for Dam within an upstream sequence of the gidA gene and one such target site in the act gene upstream region. We showed the dam gene to be essential for the viability of A. hydrophila SSU, and, therefore, to better understand the interaction of the encoding genes, Dam and GidA, in act gene regulation, we constructed a gidA in-frame deletion mutant of Escherichia coli GM28 (dam(+)) and GM33 (∆dam) strains. We then tested the expressional activity of the act and gidA genes by using a promoterless pGlow-TOPO vector containing a reporter green fluorescent protein (GFP). Our data indicated that in GidA(+) strains of E. coli, constitutive methylation of the GATC site(s) by Dam negatively regulated act and gidA gene expression as measured by GFP production. However, in the ∆gidA strains, irrespective of the presence or absence of constitutively active Dam, we did not observe any alteration in the expression of the act gene signifying the role of GidA in positively regulating Act production. To determine the exact mechanism of how Dam and GidA influence Act, a real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay was performed. The analysis indicated an increase in gidA and act gene expression in the A. hydrophila Dam-overproducing strain, and these data matched with Act production in the E. coli GM28 strain. Thus, the extent of DNA methylation

  6. The importance of adequate follow-up in defining treatment success after external beam irradiation for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicini, Frank A.; Kestin, Larry L.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    1999-01-01

    median follow-up of 3 years for this cohort (range: 1 to 5 years). This process was repeated five times for five random samples of seven cohorts each. Biochemical failure was calculated according to the Consensus Panel definition. Results: In the first analysis, significantly different rates of biochemical control (varying by 6-21%) were calculated for the same actuarial year chosen for analysis depending only upon the length of follow-up used. For example, the 3-year actuarial rate of biochemical control (BC) varied from 71% when calculated with 3 years of follow-up versus 50.4% with 7 years (p < 0.01). These differences in actuarial rates of BC were observed in all subsets of patients analyzed (e.g., PSA < 10, Gleason ≤ 6, n = 132, p < 0.001; PSA < 10, Gleason ≥ 7, n = 33, p = 0.03; PSA ≥ 10, Gleason ≤ 6, n = 109, p < 0.001; and PSA ≥ 10, Gleason ≥ 7, n = 72, p = 0.002). The absolute magnitude of the difference in actuarial rates of BC was greatest during years 2 (range 18-30%), 3 (range 16-25%), and 4 (range 15-24%) after treatment. In the second analysis using median PSA follow-ups (as defined above), statistically significant differences in actuarial rates of BC were again observed. For example, the 3-year actuarial rate of BC varied from 74.8% with a median follow-up of 2 years versus 49.2% with a median follow-up of 6 years. These dramatic differences in BC were still observed beyond 5 years. Conclusion: When the ASTRO Consensus Panel definition of BF is used to calculate treatment success with external beam RT for prostate cancer, adequate follow-up is critical. Depending upon the length of time after treatment, significantly different rates of BC (varying by 15% to 30%) can be calculated for the same time interval chosen for analysis. These results suggest that data should only be reported if the length of follow-up extends at least beyond the time point at which actuarial results are examined for the majority of patients

  7. Children with Disabilities Are Often Misdiagnosed Initially and Children with Neuropsychiatric Disorders Are Referred to Adequate Resources 30 Months Later than Children with Other Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen-Eriksson, Alli-Marie; Svensson, Yvonne; Gunnarsson, Ronny K.

    2013-01-01

    Disabilities in a child may lead to low self-esteem and social problems. The lives of parents and siblings are also affected. Early intervention may decrease these consequences. To promote early intervention early referral to adequate resources is essential. In a longitudinal retrospective observational study it was found that children with…

  8. Intelligence, Academic Self-Concept, and Information Literacy: The Role of Adequate Perceptions of Academic Ability in the Acquisition of Knowledge about Information Searching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present paper argues that adequate self-perceptions of academic ability are essential for students' realization of their intellectual potential, thereby fostering learning of complex skills, e.g., information-seeking skills. Thus, academic self-concept should moderate the relationship between intelligence and information…

  9. Dietary vitamin A intakes of Filipino elders with adequate or low liver vitamin A concentrations as assessed by the deuterated-retinol-dilution method: implications for dietary requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Solon, Florentino S; Fermin, Liza S; Perfecto, Christine S; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M

    2004-04-01

    The vitamin A requirements of elderly humans have not been studied. In a cross-sectional study of 60-88-y-old men (n = 31) and women (n = 31) in rural Philippines, we assessed the dietary intakes of elders with adequate (> or = 0.07 micromol/g) or low (value for elders. The mean (+/- SD) vitamin A intakes of the men and women with adequate vitamin A in liver were 135 +/- 86 and 134 +/- 104 microg retinol activity equivalents (RAE)/d, respectively; intakes of the men and women with low vitamin A in liver were 75 +/- 53 and 60 +/- 27 microg RAE/d, respectively. Total-body vitamin A or liver vitamin A but not serum retinol correlated with dietary RAE, preformed vitamin A, beta-carotene, fat, and protein. An estimated acceptable or sufficient dietary vitamin A intake associated with adequate liver vitamin A concentrations in elders is 6.45 microg RAE/kg body wt; for a reference 76-kg man and a 61-kg woman, these values are approximately 500 and 400 microg RAE/d, respectively. The dietary vitamin A intakes of elders with adequate or low liver vitamin A concentrations as estimated by use of the deuterated-retinol-dilution technique are useful for assessing vitamin A requirements.

  10. Migration and access to maternal healthcare: determinants of adequate antenatal care and institutional delivery among socio-economically disadvantaged migrants in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Yadlapalli S; Kumari, Rita; Kaushal, Sonia

    2013-10-01

    To identify the determinants of adequate antenatal care (ANC) utilisation and institutional deliveries among socio-economically disadvantaged migrants living in Delhi, India. In a cross-sectional survey, 809 rural-urban migrant mothers with a child aged below 2 years were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Data on receiving antenatal, delivery and post-natal services, migration history and other social, demographic and income were collected. Recent migrants used the services significantly less than settled migrants. ANC was adequate only among 37% (35% of recent migrant women and 39% of settled migrants). Multinomial regression revealed that being a recent migrant, multiparous, illiterate and married to an unskilled worker were significant risk factors for receiving inadequate ANC. Around 53% of deliveries took place at home. ANC seeking has a strong influence on place of delivery: 70% of births to women who received inadequate ANC were at home. Women who are educated, had their first delivery after the age of 20 years and received adequate ANC were more likely to deliver their child in hospital. Post-natal care is grossly neglected among these groups. Migrant women, particularly recent migrants, are at the risk of not receiving adequate maternal healthcare. Because migration is a continuing phenomenon, measures to mitigate disadvantage due to migration need to be taken in the healthcare system. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Direct and Indirect Effects of Word Reading and Vocabulary on Adolescents' Reading Comprehension: Comparing Struggling and Adequate Comprehenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslund, Eric L.; Clemens, Nathan H.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Simmons, Leslie E.

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined statistically significant differences between struggling and adequate readers using a multicomponent model of reading comprehension in 796 sixth through eighth graders, with a primary focus on word reading and vocabulary. Path analyses and Wald tests were used to investigate the direct and indirect relations of word…

  12. Benthic macroinvertebrate field sampling effort required to produce a sample adequate for the assessment of rivers and streams of Neuquén Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    This multi-year pilot study evaluated a proposed field method for its effectiveness in the collection of a benthic macroinvertebrate sample adequate for use in the condition assessment of streams and rivers in the Neuquén Province, Argentina. A total of 13 sites, distribut...

  13. Adequate vitamin D levels in a Swedish population living above latitude 63°N: The 2009 Northern Sweden MONICA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnemark, Anna; Norberg, Margareta; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Eliasson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Background Even though vitamin D is mainly produced by exposure to sunlight, little is known regarding vitamin D levels in populations living in sub-Arctic areas with little or no daylight during winter. Objective We describe distributions of vitamin D3 and the prevalence of adequate levels in a population living above 63°N. Design We sampled 1,622 randomly selected subjects, aged 25–74 years, between January and May, 2009, as part of the Northern Sweden MONICA study (69.2% participation rate). By using HPLC, 25(OH) vitamin D3 was analysed. Levels used for definitions were deficient, D3Sweden or Finland had lower levels. Conclusion The large majority living close to the Arctic Circle in Sweden have adequate D3 levels even during the second half of the dark winter. Subjects with D3 deficiency were uncommon but insufficient levels were often found among young men. PMID:25976742

  14. External Ventricular Catheters: Is It Appropriate to Use an Open/Monitor Position to Adequately Trend Intracranial Pressure in a Neuroscience Critical Care Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Nicole E; Villanueva, Nancy E; Pazuchanics, Susan J

    2016-10-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring can be an important assessment tool in critically and acutely ill patients. An external ventricular drain offers a comprehensive way to monitor ICP and drain cerebrospinal fluid. The Monro-Kellie hypothesis, Pascal's principle, and fluid dynamics were used to formulate an assumption that an open/monitor position on the stopcock is an adequate trending measure for ICP monitoring while concurrently draining cerebrospinal fluid. Data were collected from 50 patients and totaled 1053 separate number sets. The open/monitor position was compared with the clamped position every hour. An order for "open to drain" was needed for appropriate measurement and nursing care. Results showed the absolute average differences between open/monitor and clamped positions at 1.6268 mm Hg. This finding suggests that it is appropriate to use an open/monitor position via an external ventricular drain for adequate trending of patients' ICP.

  15. Multiple giant succular and fusiform right and left coronary artery aneurysms after early and adequate treatment of atypical kawasaki disease with unusual presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Behjati-Ardakani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The major complication of Kawasaki disease is coronary artery dilatation and aneurysm. It occurs in approximately 15-25% of untreated children with Kawasaki Disease. Early diagnosis and treatment with Intravenous immune globulin (IVIG and aspirin (ASA can reduce the incidence of coronary artery abnormality to 2%-5%. We report one case of Atypical Kawasaki Disease with Multiple giant coronary artery aneurysms despite early adequate treatment with IVIG and ASA.

  16. The Public Protector as a Mechanism of Political Accountability: The Extent of its Contribution to the Realisation of the Right to Access Adequate Housing in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Joel Tchawouo Mbiada

    2017-01-01

    This paper is premised on the concept of political accountability which aims to hold accountable government for its action and or omission. Political accountability encompasses a number of mechanisms such as the judiciary and the ombudsman. Courts have been instrumental in enforcing the realisation of the right to access to adequate housing in South Africa. This paper argues, however, that the judiciary is not the only enforcing avenue because other mechanisms of political accountability may ...

  17. Impact of rabies vaccination history on attainment of an adequate antibody titre among dogs tested for International Travel Certification, Israel - 2010-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Yakobson, B.; Taylor, Nick; Dveres, N.; Rotblat, S.; Spero, Ż.; Lankau, E. W.; Maki, J.

    2017-01-01

    Rabies is endemic in wildlife or domestic carnivore populations globally. Infection of domestic dogs is of particular concern in many areas. In regions where domestic animals are at risk of exposure to rabies virus, dogs should be routinely vaccinated against rabies to protect both pet and human populations. Many countries require demonstration of an adequate level of serum rabies neutralizing antibodies to permit entry of dogs during international travel. We analysed rabies titres of dogs se...

  18. Frequency of the adequate use of statistical tests of hypothesis in original articles published in the Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia between January 2008 and December 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Fabiano Timbó; de Souza, Diego Agra

    2010-01-01

    Statistical analysis is necessary for adequate evaluation of the original article by the reader allowing him/her to better visualize and comprehend the results. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of the adequate use of statistical tests in original articles published in the Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia from January 2008 to December 2009. Original articles published in the Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia between January 2008 and December 2009 were selected. The use of statistical tests was deemed appropriate when the selection of the tests was adequate for continuous and categorical variables and for parametric and non-parametric tests, the correction factor was described when the use of multiple comparisons was reported, and the specific use of a statistical test for analysis of one variable was mentioned. Seventy-six original articles from a total of 179 statistical tests were selected. The frequency of the statistical tests used more often was: Chi-square 20.11%, Student t test 19.55%, ANOVA 10.05%, and Fisher exact test 9.49%. The frequency of the adequate use of statistical tests was 56.42% (95% CI 49.16% to 63.68%), erroneous use in 13.41% (95% CI 8.42% to 18.40%), and an inconclusive result in 30.16% (95% CI 23.44% to 36.88%). The frequency of inadequate use of statistical tests in the articles published by the Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia between January 2008 and December 2009 was 56.42%. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Does Initial Learning about the Meaning of Fractions Present Similar Challenges for Students with and without Adequate Whole-Number Skill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkung, Jessica M; Fuchs, Lynn S; Koziol, Natalie

    2018-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) explore whether early fractions understanding at 4 th grade is differentially challenging for students with versus without adequate whole-number competence and (b) identify specific whole-number skill associated with difficulty in fractions understanding. Based on initial whole-number competence, 1,108 4 th graders were classified as having (a) adequate whole-number competence ( n = 775), (b) less severe whole-number difficulty ( n = 201), and (c) severe whole-number difficulty ( n = 132). At the end of 4 th grade, they were assessed on fractions understanding and further classified as with versus without difficulty in fractions understanding. Multi-level logistic regression indicated that compared to students with adequate whole-number competence, those with less severe whole-number difficulty were almost 5 times as likely to experience difficulty with fractions understanding whereas those with severe whole-number difficulty were about 32 times as likely to experience difficulty with fractions understanding. Students with severe whole-number difficulty were about 7 times as likely to experience difficulty with fractions understanding compared to those with less severe whole-number difficulty. Among students with adequate whole-number competence, the pretest whole-number skill distinguishing those with versus without difficulty in fractions understanding was basic division facts (i.e., 2-digit dividend ÷ 1-digit divisor) and simple multiplication (i.e., 3-digit × 1-digit without regrouping). The role of whole-number competence in developing initial fractions understanding and implications for instruction are discussed.

  20. Adequate Prenatal Care Reduces the Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with History of Infertility: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibekova, Raushan; Huang, Jian-Pei; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of various measures of prenatal care on adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with a history of infertility. Study Design A retrospective cohort study. Methods Data were derived by linking 2 large nationwide population-based datasets, the National Health Insurance Research Database and Taiwan Birth Certificate Registry. The study sample included 15,056 women with an infertility diagnosis and 60,224 randomly selected women without infertility matched to the study sample by maternal age. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed for the analysis. Results Women diagnosed with infertility respectively had 1.39 (95% CI, 1.06~1.83), 1.15 (95% CI, 1.08~1.24), 1.13 (95% CI, 1.08~1.18), and 1.08 (95% CI, 1.05~1.12) higher odds of having very low birth weight (VLBW) babies, preterm births, labor complications, and cesarean sections (CSs) compared to women without infertility. Inadequate numbers of total and major prenatal visits and late initiation of prenatal care increased the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility, especially the risk of a VLBW baby. However, no significant associations were found for the risks of adverse birth outcomes in infertile women with adequate prenatal care compared to fertile women with adequate care. Conclusions Study findings suggest that adequate prenatal care can reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility. PMID:24358347

  1. Decreased thrombotic mortality and morbidity after valvular cardiac surgery as a consequence of adequate coumarin anticoagulation. A retrospective study in 516 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrassi, G M; Cardin, G; Schiavinato, M L; Russo, R; de Mozzi, P; Schivazappa, L; Girolami, A

    1978-01-01

    Two almost identical groups of 258 patients each who underwent surgery for the substitution of one or more than one cardiac valve were taken into consideration. After surgery all patients, with the exception of those who received a porcine allograph, were given coumarin drugs for 1 year for thrombosis prophylaxis. In the first group of patients operated in 1972 and 1973 the laboratory follow-up and the therapeutic range were neither constant nor uniform. In the case of the second group, which included patients operated in 1974 and 1975, adequate laboratory follow-up and constantly adequate therapeutic ranges were always kept. This retrospective study has shown a statistically significant decrease in mortality due to thromboembolism and to unknown causes in the second group of patients (x2 = 8,313, "p" less than 0,0025). A decrease of the non-lethal embolic complications was also noted in the second group of patients (x2 = 6,813, "p" less than 0,0025). On the other hand, bleeding complications were greater in the second group of patients (x2 = 3,485, "p" less than 0,05) and this was interpreted as secondary to the higher anticoagulation administered to the latter patients. The results indicate that an adequate coumarin anticoagulation seems able to decrease the incidence of lethal or non-lethal thromboembolic complications after cardiac valve replacement significantly.

  2. Thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis in selenium-adequate mice displays rapid and persistent abnormity of hepatic selenoenzymes which are mute to selenium supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinsong; Wang Huali; Yu Hanqing

    2007-01-01

    Selenium reduction in cirrhosis is frequently reported. The known beneficial effect of selenium supplementation on cirrhosis is probably obtained from nutritionally selenium-deficient subjects. Whether selenium supplementation truly improves cirrhosis in general needs additional experimental investigation. Thioacetamide was used to induce cirrhosis in selenium-adequate and -deficient mice. Selenoenzyme activity and selenium content were measured and the influence of selenium supplementation was evaluated. In Se-adequate mice, thioacetamide-mediated rapid onset of hepatic oxidative stress resulted in an increase in thioredoxin reductase activity and a decrease in both glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium content. The inverse activity of selenoenzymes (i.e. TrxR activity goes up and GPx activity goes down) was persistent and mute to selenium supplementation during the progress of cirrhosis; accordingly, cirrhosis was not improved by selenium supplementation in any period. On the other hand, selenium supplementation to selenium-deficient mice always more efficiently increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium content compared with those treated with thioacetamide, indicating that thioacetamide impairs the liver bioavailability of selenium. Although thioacetamide profoundly affects hepatic selenium status in selenium-adequate mice, selenium supplementation does not modify the changes. Selenium supplementation to cirrhotic subjects with a background of nutritional selenium deficiency can improve selenium status but cannot restore hepatic glutathione peroxidase and selenium to normal levels

  3. Assessment of medical students’ proficiency in dermatology: Are medical students adequately prepared to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions in the United States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Ulman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed whether a current medical school curriculum is adequately preparing medical students to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions. A 15-item anonymous multiple choice quiz covering fifteen diseases was developed to test students’ ability to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions. The quiz also contained five items that assessed students’ confidence in their ability to diagnose common dermatologic conditions, their perception of whether they were receiving adequate training in dermatology, and their preferences for additional training in dermatology. The survey was performed in 2014, and was completed by 85 students (79.4%. Many students (87.6% felt that they received inadequate training in dermatology during medical school. On average, students scored 46.6% on the 15-item quiz. Proficiency at the medical school where the study was performed is considered an overall score of greater than or equal to 70.0%. Students received an average score of 49.9% on the diagnostic items and an average score of 43.2% on the treatment items. The findings of this study suggest that United States medical schools should consider testing their students and assessing whether they are being adequately trained in dermatology. Then schools can decide if they need to re-evaluate the timing and delivery of their current dermatology curriculum, or whether additional curriculum hours or clinical rotations should be assigned for dermatologic training.

  4. The Public Protector as a Mechanism of Political Accountability: The Extent of its Contribution to the Realisation of the Right to Access Adequate Housing in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Joel Tchawouo Mbiada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is premised on the concept of political accountability which aims to hold accountable government for its action and or omission. Political accountability encompasses a number of mechanisms such as the judiciary and the ombudsman. Courts have been instrumental in enforcing the realisation of the right to access to adequate housing in South Africa. This paper argues, however, that the judiciary is not the only enforcing avenue because other mechanisms of political accountability may also contribute to the realisation of the right to housing. The paper, therefore, explores the extent of the Public Protector's contribution to the realisation of the right to access to adequate housing. The paper then argues that it is through its functions that the Public Protector exercises its accounting role in the realisation of the right to access to adequate housing. The paper, however, cautions that the Public Protector is not an alternative dispute resolution institution parallel to courts. But that the Public Protector complements the role played by courts by offering another medium through which such right may be realised.

  5. Adequate prenatal care reduces the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with history of infertility: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibekova, Raushan; Huang, Jian-Pei; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of various measures of prenatal care on adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with a history of infertility. A retrospective cohort study. Data were derived by linking 2 large nationwide population-based datasets, the National Health Insurance Research Database and Taiwan Birth Certificate Registry. The study sample included 15,056 women with an infertility diagnosis and 60,224 randomly selected women without infertility matched to the study sample by maternal age. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed for the analysis. Women diagnosed with infertility respectively had 1.39 (95% CI, 1.06~1.83), 1.15 (95% CI, 1.08~1.24), 1.13 (95% CI, 1.08~1.18), and 1.08 (95% CI, 1.05~1.12) higher odds of having very low birth weight (VLBW) babies, preterm births, labor complications, and cesarean sections (CSs) compared to women without infertility. Inadequate numbers of total and major prenatal visits and late initiation of prenatal care increased the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility, especially the risk of a VLBW baby. However, no significant associations were found for the risks of adverse birth outcomes in infertile women with adequate prenatal care compared to fertile women with adequate care. Study findings suggest that adequate prenatal care can reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility.

  6. Adequate prenatal care reduces the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with history of infertility: a nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raushan Alibekova

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of various measures of prenatal care on adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with a history of infertility. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Data were derived by linking 2 large nationwide population-based datasets, the National Health Insurance Research Database and Taiwan Birth Certificate Registry. The study sample included 15,056 women with an infertility diagnosis and 60,224 randomly selected women without infertility matched to the study sample by maternal age. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed for the analysis. RESULTS: Women diagnosed with infertility respectively had 1.39 (95% CI, 1.06~1.83, 1.15 (95% CI, 1.08~1.24, 1.13 (95% CI, 1.08~1.18, and 1.08 (95% CI, 1.05~1.12 higher odds of having very low birth weight (VLBW babies, preterm births, labor complications, and cesarean sections (CSs compared to women without infertility. Inadequate numbers of total and major prenatal visits and late initiation of prenatal care increased the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility, especially the risk of a VLBW baby. However, no significant associations were found for the risks of adverse birth outcomes in infertile women with adequate prenatal care compared to fertile women with adequate care. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings suggest that adequate prenatal care can reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility.

  7. Adequate procedures for specific exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staevie, G.L.G.; Gattringer, D.K.; Dal Mas, C.R.; Tessman, M.

    1996-01-01

    Some ideal procedures for specific radiographic exams are briefly presented. The aim is to improve the quality standard, establishing a specific method for each exam in order to decrease films waste and reduce the patient dose exposure

  8. Adequate Funding for Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, Jason B.

    2010-01-01

    Public schools are currently operating in a pressure-cooker of accountability systems in which they must teach students to high standards and meet ever increasing targets for student proficiency, or face increasingly severe sanctions. Into this mix is thrown educational technology and the funding for that technology. The literature espouses the…

  9. Selenocysteine oxidation in glutathione peroxidase catalysis: an MS-supported quantum mechanics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orian, Laura; Mauri, Pierluigi; Roveri, Antonella; Toppo, Stefano; Benazzi, Louise; Bosello-Travain, Valentina; De Palma, Antonella; Maiorino, Matilde; Miotto, Giovanni; Zaccarin, Mattia; Polimeno, Antonino; Flohé, Leopold; Ursini, Fulvio

    2015-10-01

    Glutathione peroxidases (GPxs) are enzymes working with either selenium or sulfur catalysis. They adopted diverse functions ranging from detoxification of H(2)O(2) to redox signaling and differentiation. The relative stability of the selenoenzymes, however, remained enigmatic in view of the postulated involvement of a highly unstable selenenic acid form during catalysis. Nevertheless, density functional theory calculations obtained with a representative active site model verify the mechanistic concept of GPx catalysis and underscore its efficiency. However, they also allow that the selenenic acid, in the absence of the reducing substrate, reacts with a nitrogen in the active site. MS/MS analysis of oxidized rat GPx4 complies with the predicted structure, an 8-membered ring, in which selenium is bound as selenenylamide to the protein backbone. The intermediate can be re-integrated into the canonical GPx cycle by glutathione, whereas, under denaturing conditions, its selenium moiety undergoes β-cleavage with formation of a dehydro-alanine residue. The selenenylamide bypass prevents destruction of the redox center due to over-oxidation of the selenium or its elimination and likely allows fine-tuning of GPx activity or alternate substrate reactions for regulatory purposes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Functions and cellular localization of cysteine desulfurase and selenocysteine lyase in Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poliak, Pavel; Van Hoewyk, D.; Oborník, Miroslav; Zíková, Alena; Stuart, K. D.; Tachezy, J.; Pilon, M.; Lukeš, Julius

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 277, č. 2 (2010), s. 383-393 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/1667 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Fe–S cluster * mitochondrion * RNAi * selenoprotein * Trypanosoma Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.129, year: 2010

  11. A selenocysteine derivative therapy affects radiation-induced pneumonitis in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Amit; Jain, V K; Priyadarsini, K I; Haston, Christina K

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism leading to the radiation-induced lung response of pneumonitis is largely unknown. Here we investigated whether treatment with 3,3'-diselenodipropionic acid (DSePA), which reduces radiation-induced oxidative stress in acute response models, decreases the lung response to irradiation. Mice of the C3H/HeJ (alveolitis/pneumonitis-responding) strain received 18 Gy whole-thorax irradiation, and a subset of these mice was treated with DSePA (2 mg/kg) three times per week, beginning at 2 hours after radiation treatment, and continuing in the postirradiation period until death because of respiratory distress symptoms. DSePA treatment increased the postirradiation survival time of mice by an average of 32 days (P = 0.0002). Radiation-treated and DSePA-treated mice presented lower levels of lipid peroxidation and augmented glutathione peroxidase in the lungs, compared with those levels measured in mice receiving radiation only, when mice receiving radiation only were killed because of distress symptoms, whereas catalase and superoxide dismutase levels did not show consistent differences among treatment groups. DSePA treatment decreased pneumonitis and the numbers of mast cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage, respectively, of irradiated mice relative to mice exposed to radiation alone. DSePA treatment also decreased the radiation-induced increase in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage and lung-tissue expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin, while increasing the expression of glutathione peroxidase-4. We conclude that DSePA treatment reduces radiation-induced pneumonitis in mice by delaying oxidative damage and the inflammatory cell influx.

  12. Evidenced-based, practical food portion sizes for preschool children and how they fit into a well balanced, nutritionally adequate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, J A; Emmett, P M

    2015-04-01

    Healthy eating guidelines for 1-4-year-old children are available but evidence-based portion sizes have not been specified. Parents and early-years providers are concerned about under- or over-feeding young children. The present study aimed to report detailed information about appropriate average portion size ranges and suggest a practical food plan for feeding preschool children, providing adequate nutrient intakes within energy requirements. Two sources of information were used to obtain an appropriate portion size range for the types of foods normally eaten by this age group. Median portions of a variety of foods were combined into a food plan fulfilling healthy eating guidelines regarding the number of servings from each food group. The nutrient and energy content of the plan was assessed and compared with recommended adequate nutrient intakes and percentage energy contributions from macronutrients. UK children, aged 1-4 years, taking part in Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children and National Diet and Nutrition Survey, were used in the present study. Portion size ranges were developed for 164 foods. The theoretical food plan using foods with high to medium nutrient density was shown to provide an adequate intake of all nutrients, except vitamin D, for which there are very few food sources. These practical food portion size ranges could be used both in early years settings and in advice to parents. The food plan emphasises the need to include a variety of nutrient-dense foods if a balanced diet is to be achieved for preschool children. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. Hard- and software of real time simulation tools of Electric Power System for adequate modeling power semiconductors in voltage source convertor based HVDC and FACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufa Ruslan A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of the presented research is based on the needs for development of new methods and tools for adequate simulation of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS devices and High Voltage Direct Current Transmission (HVDC system as part of real electric power systems (EPS. For that, a hybrid approach for advanced simulation of the FACTS and HVDC based on Voltage Source is proposed. The presented simulation results of the developed hybrid model of VSC confirm the achievement of the desired properties of the model and the effectiveness of the proposed solutions.

  14. Do Current Fortification and Supplementation Programs Assure Adequate Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Belgian Infants, Toddlers, Pregnant Women, and Lactating Women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Moyersoen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate intakes of fat-soluble vitamins are essential to support the growth and development of the foetus, the neonate, and the young child. By means of an online self-administered frequency questionnaire, this study aimed to evaluate the intake of vitamins A, D, E, and K in Belgian infants (n = 455, toddlers (n = 265, pregnant women (n = 161, and lactating women (n = 165. The contribution of foods, fortified foods, and supplements on the total intake was quantified. 5% of toddlers, 16% of pregnant women, and 35% of lactating women had an inadequate vitamin A intake. Conversely, excessive vitamin A intakes were associated with consumption of liver (products. Furthermore, 22% of infants were at risk for inadequate vitamin D intake due to the lack of prophylaxis, while consumption of highly dosed supplements posed a risk for excessive intakes in 6%–26% of infants. Vitamin D intake in pregnant women and lactating women was inadequate (median of 51%, respectively, 60% of the adequate intake. In all groups, the risk for inadequate intake of vitamin E and K was low. Contribution of fortified foods to vitamin A, D, E, and K intake was minor, except in toddlers. National fortification strategies should be investigated as an alternative or additional strategy to prevent vitamin D and A deficiency. There is a need to revise and set uniform supplement recommendations. Finally, non-users of vitamin D prophylaxis need to be identified for targeted treatment.

  15. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

    1987-01-01

    Ethambutol, [CH 3 CH 2 -CH(CH 2 OH)-NH-CH 2 ] 2 (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by 65 Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, 65 Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption

  16. Towards a sustainable architecture: Adequate to the environment and of maximum energy efficiency; Hacia una arquitectura sustentable: adecuada al ambiente y de maxima eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morillon Galvez, David [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    An analysis of the elements and factors that the architecture of buildings must have to be sustainable, such as: a design adequate to the environment, saving and efficient use of alternate energies, and the auto-supply is presented. In addition a methodology for the natural air conditioning (bioclimatic architecture) of buildings, as well as ideas for the saving and efficient use of energy, with the objective of contributing to the adequate use of components of the building (walls, ceilings, floors etc.), is presented, that when interacting with the environment it takes advantage of it, without deterioration of the same, obtaining energy efficient designs. [Spanish] Se presenta un analisis de los elementos y factores que debe tener la arquitectura de edificios para ser sustentable, como; un diseno adecuado al ambiente, ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia, el uso de energias alternas y el autoabastecimiento. Ademas se propone una metodologia para la climatizacion natural (arquitectura bioclimatica) de edificios, asi como ideas para el ahorro y uso eficiente de energia, con el objetivo de aportar al uso adecuado de componentes del edificio (muros, techos, pisos etc.) que al interactuar con el ambiente tome ventaja de el, sin deterioro del mismo, logrando disenos energeticamente eficientes.

  17. Impact of Rabies Vaccination History on Attainment of an Adequate Antibody Titre Among Dogs Tested for International Travel Certification, Israel - 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakobson, B; Taylor, N; Dveres, N; Rotblat, S; Spero, Ż; Lankau, E W; Maki, J

    2017-06-01

    Rabies is endemic in wildlife or domestic carnivore populations globally. Infection of domestic dogs is of particular concern in many areas. In regions where domestic animals are at risk of exposure to rabies virus, dogs should be routinely vaccinated against rabies to protect both pet and human populations. Many countries require demonstration of an adequate level of serum rabies neutralizing antibodies to permit entry of dogs during international travel. We analysed rabies titres of dogs seeking travel certification in Israel to assess demographic and vaccine history factors associated with antibody titres below the acceptable threshold for travel certification. Having received only one previous rabies vaccination and a longer duration since the most recent vaccination was received were primary risk factors for not achieving an adequate rabies virus neutralizing antibody titre for travel certification. These risk factors had stronger effects in younger animals, but were consistent for dogs of all ages. In particular, these findings reiterate the importance of administering at least two rabies vaccinations (the primo vaccination and subsequent booster) to ensure population-level protection against rabies in dogs globally. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

    1987-04-01

    Ethambutol, (CH/sub 3/CH/sub 2/-CH(CH/sub 2/OH)-NH-CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/ (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by /sup 65/Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, /sup 65/Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption.

  19. Modelling of adequate and safe vitamin D intake in Danish women using different fortification and supplementation scenarios to inform fortification policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Ida Marie; Tetens, Inge; Ege, Majken

    2018-01-01

    Fortification of foods with vitamin D may be a population-based solution to low vitamin D intake. We performed modelling of vitamin D from diet, fortified foods and supplements in a population of Danish women 18-50 years, a risk group of vitamin D deficiency, to inform fortification policies...... from a habitual diet without fish to habitual diet including fish, fortified foods and supplements (40/80 µg). Four different foods were used as potential foods to fortify with vitamin D. The vitamin D intake was below the Average Requirement (AR) of 7.5 µg/day for 88% of the assessed women. Safe...... on safe and adequate levels. Based on individual habitual dietary vitamin D intake of female participants from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity (DANSDA) (n = 855), we performed graded intake modelling to predict the intake in six scenarios increasing the vitamin D intake...

  20. How Feasible is Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP? Simulations of School AYP "Uniform Averaging" and "Safe Harbor" under the No Child Left Behind Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaekyung Lee

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB requires that schools make “adequate yearly progress” (AYP towards the goal of having 100 percent of their students become proficient by year 2013-14. Through simulation analyses of Maine and Kentucky school performance data collected during the 1990s, this study investigates how feasible schools would have met the AYP targets if the mandate had been applied in the past with “uniform averaging (rolling averages” and “safe harbor” options that have potential to help reduce the number of schools needing improvement or corrective action. Contrary to some expectations, the applications of both options would do little to reduce the risk of massive school failure due to unreasonably high AYP targets for all student groups. Implications of the results for the NCLB school accountability system and possible ways to make the current AYP more feasible and fair are discussed.

  1. Adequate formal language performance in unilateral cochlear implanted children: is it indicative of complete recovery in all linguistic domains? Insights from referential communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Patrizia; Dincer D'Alessandro, Hilal; Guerzoni, Letizia; Cuda, Domenico; Ruoppolo, Giovanni; Musacchio, Angela; Di Mario, Alessia; De Seta, Elio; Bosco, Ersilia; Nicastri, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Referential communication (RC) is a key element in achieving a successful communication. This case series aimed to evaluate RC in children with unilateral cochlear implants (CIs) with formal language skills within the normal range. A total of 31 children with CIs, with language development within the normal range, were assessed using the Pragmatic Language Skills test (MEDEA). Of the children with CIs, 83.9% reached performance levels appropriate for their chronological ages. The results confirmed a positive effect of cochlear implantation on RC development, although difficulties remained in some CI users. The outcomes emphasize the need to pay greater attention to the pragmatic aspects of language, assessing them with adequate testing in the early phase after cochlear implantation. Clear knowledge of children's communicative competence is the key in optimizing their communicative environments in order to create the basis for future successful interpersonal exchanges and social integration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) on growth performance and non-specific immunity of juvenile red drum fed diets with low or adequate phosphorus levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyou; Gatlin, Delbert M

    2017-12-11

    This study evaluated the effects of α-ketoglutarate (AKG) on the growth performance, body, and skeletal composition, as well as non-specific immunity of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fed adequate or low-phosphorus diets. A 2 × 2 factorial design was arranged with two levels of total phosphorus (1.0 or 1.6%) and two levels (0 or 1%) of AKG. Each diet was fed to red drum in four replicate 110-L aquaria (15 fish/aquarium) twice daily for 7 weeks. The results indicated that the low-P diets significantly (P non-specific immunity of red drum, while AKG supplementation had limited positive effects on immunological responses and fillet yield of juvenile red drum.

  3. Examination of the roles and capacities of duty bearers responsible for protecting the human rights to adequate food, nutritional health and wellbeing in Ugandan children's homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Monica; Rukooko, Archangel Byaruhanga; Iversen, Per Ole; Andreassen, Bård A

    2018-04-17

    The majority of Ugandan children face vulnerability and malnutrition. As a State Party to international human rights treaties, Uganda has legal obligations of guaranteeing the fundamental rights and the best interest of the nation's children. Despite being protected under international and national law, Uganda is not providing adequate child protection, including safeguarding children's food security. Numerous privately owned and unregulated children's homes face this problem. The overall aim of the study was to examine to what extent children's homes' operations are consistent with the right to adequate food, nutritional health and wellbeing of children. We performed a qualitative role- and capacity analysis of duty bearers with human rights duties towards children living in children's homes. We studied three groups of duty bearers: caretakers working in private children's homes, State actors working in government and its institutions, and non-State actors working in civil society organizations. A human rights based approach guided all aspects of the study. An analysis of the roles, performance and capacities of duty bearers was employed, with individual face-to-face structured qualitative in-depth interviews, self-administered structured questionnaires, and a structured observational study, as well as a desk review of relevant literature. The State of Uganda's efforts to respect and realize its obligations towards children living in children's homes is inadequate. There are numerous capacity gaps among the duty bearers, and the concepts of human rights and the best interest of the child are not well understood among the duty bearers. The efforts of the State of Uganda to realize its human rights obligations towards children in children's homes are lacking in important areas. Hence the State does not fulfill its minimum obligations under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to ensure all children freedom from hunger. There is a need

  4. Determining Adequate Averaging Periods and Reference Coordinates for Eddy Covariance Measurements of Surface Heat and Water Vapor Fluxes over Mountainous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ying Chen Ming-Hsu Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two coordinate rotation approaches (double and planar-fit rotations and no rotation, in association with averaging periods of 15 - 480 min, were applied to compute surface heat and water vapor fluxes using the eddy covariance approach. Measurements were conducted in an experimental watershed, the Lien-Hua-Chih (LHC watershed, located in central Taiwan. For no rotation and double rotation approaches, an adequate averaging period of 15 or 30 min was suggested for better energy closure and small variations on energy closure fractions. For the planar-fit rotation approach, an adequate averaging period of 60 or 120 min was recommended, and a typical averaging period of 30 min is not superior to that of 60 or 120 min in terms of better energy closure and small variations on energy closure fractions. The Ogive function analysis revealed that the energy closure was improved with the increase of averaging time by capturing sensible heat fluxes at low-frequency ranges during certain midday hours at LHC site. Seasonal variations of daily energy closure fractions, high in dry season and low in wet season, were found to be associated with the surface dryness and strength of turbulent development. The mismatching of flux footprint areas among flux sensors was suggested as the cause of larger CF variations during the dry seasons as that indicated by the footprint analysis showing scattered source areas. During the wet season, the underestimation of turbulent fluxes by EC observations at the LHC site was attributed to weak turbulence developments as the source area identified by the footprint analysis was closer to the flux tower than those scattered in dry season.

  5. Adequate wound care and use of bed nets as protective factors against Buruli Ulcer: results from a case control study in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Landier

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease involving the skin, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Its exact transmission mechanism remains unknown. Several arguments indicate a possible role for insects in its transmission. A previous case-control study in the Nyong valley region in central Cameroon showed an unexpected association between bed net use and protection against Buruli ulcer. We investigated whether this association persisted in a newly discovered endemic Buruli ulcer focus in Bankim, northwestern Cameroon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a case-control study on 77 Buruli ulcer cases and 153 age-, gender- and village-matched controls. Participants were interviewed about their activities and habits. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis identified systematic use of a bed net (Odds-Ratio (OR = 0.4, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI] = [0.2-0.9], p-value (p = 0.04, cleansing wounds with soap (OR [95%CI] = 0.1 [0.03-0.3], p<0.0001 and growing cassava (OR [95%CI] = 0.3 [0.2-0.7], p = 0.005 as independent protective factors. Independent risk factors were bathing in the Mbam River (OR [95%CI] = 6.9 [1.4-35], p = 0.02 and reporting scratch lesions after insect bites (OR [95%CI] = 2.7 [1.4-5.4], p = 0.004. The proportion of cases that could be prevented by systematic bed net use was 32%, and by adequate wound care was 34%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study confirms that two previously identified factors, adequate wound care and bed net use, significantly decreased the risk of Buruli ulcer. These associations withstand generalization to different geographic, climatic and epidemiologic settings. Involvement of insects in the household environment, and the relationship between wound hygiene and M. ulcerans infection should now be investigated.

  6. The content of African diets is adequate to achieve optimal efficacy with fixed-dose artemether-lumefantrine: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premji, Zulfiqarali G; Abdulla, Salim; Ogutu, Bernhards; Ndong, Alice; Falade, Catherine O; Sagara, Issaka; Mulure, Nathan; Nwaiwu, Obiyo; Kokwaro, Gilbert

    2008-11-25

    older populations, indicating that food consumption is adequate post-weaning. In conclusion, it appears that only a very small amount of dietary fat is necessary to ensure optimal efficacy with AL and that the fat content of standard meals or breast milk in sub-Saharan Africa is adequate.

  7. The content of African diets is adequate to achieve optimal efficacy with fixed-dose artemether-lumefantrine: a review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagara Issaka

    2008-11-01

    rates to those observed in older populations, indicating that food consumption is adequate post-weaning. In conclusion, it appears that only a very small amount of dietary fat is necessary to ensure optimal efficacy with AL and that the fat content of standard meals or breast milk in sub-Saharan Africa is adequate.

  8. Comparision effect of adequate intraoperative fluid therapy with dexamethasone on the incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting after general surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shahinfar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background and aim: Nausea and vomiting are one of the most common and unpleasant side effects of surgery and anesthesia, which causes spasms, aspiration, need more medicine. The researchers express several drugs and methods to reduce transmission of its complications. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fluid therapy on nausea and vomiting after abdominal surgery. Methods: In this double blind clinical trial study, 120 patients 15-60 years undergoing general participated in Bojnurd. Patients were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 received adequate intra-operative fluid therapy. Group 2 received pharmacological intervention with dexamethasone 0.1 mg per kg of body weight along with induction of anesthesia- and group 3 - without prophylactic intervention-. The research tools included demographic, visual analogue scale and recorded the number of vomiting. The visual analog scale was used to assess the severity of nausea. In order to assess the severity of vomiting, frequency count was considered as retch or vomit. The scientific validity of content validity was used for data collection. For reliability, the correlation coefficient was used. Based on self-reporting scale, the severity and incidence of nausea and vomiting were evaluated in three stages- post-op, 2 and 6 hours post-op - the data were analyzed with SPSS software. Results: Result showed that the three groups were homogeneous in terms of confounding variables. According one-way ANOVA, the difference between severity and incidence of nausea and vomiting was significantly different among the three groups in the recovery phase. So that based on post hoc test, the difference between the control and fluid therapy with dexamethasone group was significant, and both dexamethasone and fluid therapy had no significant differences in terms of these variables together. Based on the findings the incidence of vomiting was relatively low over time. Conclusion

  9. Supplementing an energy adequate, higher protein diet with protein does not enhance fat-free mass restoration after short-term severe negative energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, C E; Sepowitz, J J; McClung, H L; Lieberman, H R; Farina, E K; McClung, J P; Ferrando, A A; Pasiakos, S M

    2017-06-01

    Negative energy balance during military operations can be severe and result in significant reductions in fat-free mass (FFM). Consuming supplemental high-quality protein following such military operations may accelerate restoration of FFM. Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and whole body protein turnover (single-pool [ 15 N]alanine method) were determined before (PRE) and after 7 days (POST) of severe negative energy balance during military training in 63 male US Marines (means ± SD, 25 ± 3 yr, 84 ± 9 kg). After POST measures were collected, volunteers were randomized to receive higher protein (HIGH: 1,103 kcal/day, 133 g protein/day), moderate protein (MOD: 974 kcal/day, 84 g protein/day), or carbohydrate-based low protein control (CON: 1,042 kcal/day, 7 g protein/day) supplements, in addition to a self-selected, ad libitum diet, for the 27-day intervention (REFED). Measurements were repeated POST-REFED. POST total body mass (TBM; -5.8 ± 1.0 kg, -7.0%), FFM (-3.1 ± 1.6 kg, -4.7%), and net protein balance (-1.7 ± 1.1 g protein·kg -1 ·day -1 ) were lower and proteolysis (1.1 ± 1.9 g protein·kg -1 ·day -1 ) was higher compared with PRE ( P energy (4,498 ± 725 kcal/day). All volunteers, independent of group assignment, achieved positive net protein balance (0.4 ± 1.0 g protein·kg -1 ·day -1 ) and gained TBM (5.9 ± 1.7 kg, 7.8%) and FFM (3.6 ± 1.8 kg, 5.7%) POST-REFED compared with POST ( P energy-adequate, higher protein diets with additional protein may not be necessary to restore FFM after short-term severe negative energy balance. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This article demonstrates 1 ) the majority of physiological decrements incurred during military training (e.g., total and fat-free mass loss), with the exception of net protein balance, resolve and return to pretraining values after 27 days and 2 ) protein supplementation, in addition to an ad libitum, higher protein (~2.0 g·kg -1 ·day -1 ), energy adequate diet, is not necessary to

  10. Typhoid fever: hurdles to adequate hand washing for disease prevention among the population of a peri-urban informal settlement in Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosese Salusalu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem/context: The Pacific island nation of Fiji Islands has high rates of endemic typhoid fever which is difficult to diagnose and often underreported. However, the majority of cases are preventable through use of safe water; adequate sanitation; vaccination; and, most sustainable of all, simple hygienic behaviour, such as hand washing with soap (HWWS. Despite many attempts by public health authorities, little progress has been made in the area of environmental adaptation and behaviour change. Action: To explore perceptions of typhoid fever risk among urban squatters and behavioural determinants surrounding HWWS, indigenous Fijians living in informal settlements with high typhoid fever incidence were invited to participate in focus group discussions. In-depth interviews were conducted with community leaders. Outcome: Perceptions of typhoid fever suggest confusion about risk factors, symptoms and communicability. Environmental barriers for hand washing were related to water and soap access. Standard social marketing approaches have been trialled with little clear evidence of impact. Despite this, we continue to advocate for the social and cultural determinants of typhoid prevention to remain central to future public health strategies. Discussion: Despite behaviour change being notoriously difficult, we argue that community-driven behaviour adaptation initiatives based on sound epidemiological evidence and health communication theory are likely to have significant impact and greater likelihood of sustainability.

  11. Are trainee teachers being adequately prepared to promote the health and well-being of school children? A survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhirst, Sue; Pickett, Karen; Speller, Viv; Shepherd, Jonathan; Byrne, Jenny; Almond, Palo; Grace, Marcus; Hartwell, Debbie; Roderick, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Teachers are a key part of the wider public health workforce in England. We conducted a survey to find out how they are trained for this role during their initial teacher education (ITE). Between 2011 and 2012, we sent an online questionnaire to 220 ITE course managers and conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 19 course managers to explore issues in more depth. The response rate to the questionnaire was 34% (n = 74). Although most of the course managers felt inclusion of health and well-being training in ITE was important, provision across courses was variable. Topics which are public health priorities [e.g. sex and relationships education (SRE) and drugs, alcohol and tobacco] were covered by fewer courses than other topics (e.g. child protection, emotional health and anti-bullying). Perceived barriers to training included lack of time and a belief that health and well-being were low priorities in educational policy. Not all of tomorrow's teachers are being adequately prepared for their role in helping to address public health priorities. Educational policy does not appear to be supporting the priorities of public health policy, and this is a key barrier to health promotion training in ITE. Keywords children, educational settings, health promotion. © Crown copyright 2013.

  12. Predictors of and health- and fall-related program outcomes resulting from complete and adequate doses of a fall risk reduction program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielenz, Thelma J; Durbin, Laura L; Hertzberg, Fern; Nobile-Hernandez, Diana; Jia, Haomiao

    2017-06-01

    Falls are dangerous and costly for older adults. The A Matter of Balance/Volunteer Lay Leader (AMOB/VLL) program is an evidence-based fall risk reduction program that could help reduce this burden. This study introduced a door-through-door transportation program to improve program delivery (N = 126). Characteristics predicting completion of all eight AMOB/VLL sessions were identified using logistic regression. Individual growth models were employed to determine the immediate, intermediate, and long-term goal outcomes resulting from receiving an adequate dose of the program (five to eight sessions). Self-restriction of activities due to fear of falling (OR 5.04, 95 % CI 1.86-13.69) and a lower frequency of moderate and vigorous physical activity (OR 1.14, 95 % CI 1.04-1.27) were significantly predictive of receiving a complete dose. Three outcome goals were significant, including (1) immediate-improved self-efficacy of managing medications and treatments, (2) intermediate-reduced activity limitations, and (3) intermediate-reduced physical disability. Self-restriction of activities due to a fear of falling and physical activity levels may be simple and effective screening questions to prevent AMOB/VLL attrition. In our study, those who did receive the program improved on a specific type of self-efficacy and on self-reported physical functioning.

  13. Can Sophie's choice be adequately captured by cold computation of minimizing losses? An fMRI study of vital loss decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    Full Text Available The vast majority of decision-making research is performed under the assumption of the value maximizing principle. This principle implies that when making decisions, individuals try to optimize outcomes on the basis of cold mathematical equations. However, decisions are emotion-laden rather than cool and analytic when they tap into life-threatening considerations. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, this study investigated the neural mechanisms underlying vital loss decisions. Participants were asked to make a forced choice between two losses across three conditions: both losses are trivial (trivial-trivial, both losses are vital (vital-vital, or one loss is trivial and the other is vital (vital-trivial. Our results revealed that the amygdala was more active and correlated positively with self-reported negative emotion associated with choice during vital-vital loss decisions, when compared to trivial-trivial loss decisions. The rostral anterior cingulate cortex was also more active and correlated positively with self-reported difficulty of choice during vital-vital loss decisions. Compared to the activity observed during trivial-trivial loss decisions, the orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum were more active and correlated positively with self-reported positive emotion of choice during vital-trivial loss decisions. Our findings suggest that vital loss decisions involve emotions and cannot be adequately captured by cold computation of minimizing losses. This research will shed light on how people make vital loss decisions.

  14. Open of chat rooms for discussing geological disposal issues and review of adequate approaches for offering the information using the internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Masayuki; Ito, Toshikazu; Yabuta, Naohiro; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Tsunoda, Hirokazu

    2001-03-01

    JNC is doing publicity work to let the technical reliability for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) comprehended widely. But the information about geological disposal of HLW itself and its technology has not been spread and recognized. It has been required to offer the opportunity to discuss the geological disposal and its technology as our own issue. Recently the internet, which has such characteristics as two-way, instant and open communication means, has become used on business and for pleasure commonly. So the opportunity for discussing the topics related to geological disposal of HLW has been offered on the internet web site so-called 'Internet Forum' by JNC since fiscal year 1999. 'Internet Forum' or an assembly of chat rooms is being run on the web server which is not operated by JNC in order to provide the place where discussion on the issue can be done as fairly and objectively as possible. In this report, the results of Internet Forum in fiscal year 2000 comparing with that in fiscal year 1999 were shown and the adequate approaches of operating 'Internet Forum' and offering the information about geological disposal of HLW were reviewed. (author)

  15. Beyond the Ban – can the Basel Convention adequately Safeguard the Interests of the World’s Poor in the International Trade of Hazardous Waste?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Andrews

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Basel Convention was intended to prevent developing countries from being used as a dumping ground for the world’s toxic waste, a phenomenon often described as ‘toxic colonialism’. However, as the Abidjan disaster in 2006 demonstrated, the Convention is failing to prevent industrialised countries from exporting their hazardous waste to developing countries which lack the capacity to safely dispose of it. Whilst environmental NGOs, the European Union and many developing nations continue to advocate a blanket ban on trade in hazardous waste, this is a misguided response which has proved difficult to enforce. The Basel Convention contains the basic procedural mechanisms and institutional structures within which international trade of hazardous waste can be based. However, some key institutional reforms and far greater financial resources are urgently required if it is to adequately safeguard the world’s poor in the international trade of hazardous waste. These reforms need to be based on a recognition that the Prior Informed Consent procedure is inadequate in the context of north-south hazardous waste trade, where competition for crucial foreign revenue puts pressure on the governments of developing countries to consent to imports of waste that they do not have the capacity to manage without incurring potentially disastrous harm to human health and the environment.

  16. Confidence in the Knowledge Base of English Language Learners Studying Science: Using Agency to Compensate for the Lack of Adequate Linguistic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Aneta L.; Mansour, Nasser

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the cultural and linguistic environments of learners are often associated with identity shifts. The aim of this study was to explore what identity shifts occur when science students from Bahraini national schools transition to an international university. The role of two aspects of learner identity—that is, English proficiency and science background knowledge, was examined in this study. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were conducted with students and with university lecturers. The analysis suggested three conceptual themes of (1) reliance on science knowledge, (2) the auxiliary role of professional language and (3) adequacy of student learning strategies, demonstrating what subjective meanings the participants ascribe to the interplay between science knowledge and linguistic ability. The findings suggest that despite the lack of adequate linguistic attributes, the students are still able to successfully learn science in the context of language change. It is also implied that through strategically utilising their academic background in science, students preserve their identity as successful learners from school through to university. We conclude that agency plays a separate role in transition and is not a sole function of identity. We also contest the idea of language as a necessary attribute of one's identity as it was perceived by our participants to be an advantage and an auxiliary tool rather than a requirement.

  17. [Analysis of the mainstreaming of the perspective of the Human Right to Adequate Food in the institutional design of the National School Nutrition Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Renata Lopes; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia Lanes; Sperandio, Naiara; Priore, Sílvia Eloíza

    2014-01-01

    Being a signatory to international agreements that recognize the Human Right to Adequate Food (HRAF) and having enshrined this right into its Constitution, the Brazilian state imposes a duty to provide, protect and promote the HRAF. For this it is necessary to incorporate the principles of the HRAF into the process of planning and executing the actions of Food and Nutrition Security (FNS). The objective was to analyze the process of mainstreaming of the HRAF in the new institutional design of the National School Nutrition Program (NSNP). This is in line with the principles laid down in General Comment No 12 of the Guide for Policy Analysis and Public Programs and nutritional Food Security under the Perspective of Human Rights and the Organic Law on Food and Nutrition Security (OLFNS). The results show that the new regulatory framework of the NSNP indicates a paradigm shift that is characterized by a gradual decline in the perception of NSNP as policy of a welfare nature. Concomitantly, there is an increase in the concept of the benefit of school food as a right, with the caveat that the construction of a new regulatory framework, although essential, is not sufficient for full implementation of the HRAF.

  18. Direito humano à alimentação adequada: um olhar urbano The human right to adequate food: an urban vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pereira Casemiro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O direito humano à alimentação adequada é compreendido em duas dimensões: estar livre da fome e da desnutrição e ter acesso a uma alimentação adequada1,2. No contexto urbano, com seu forte apelo ao consumo e em que a aquisição de alimentos se dá prioritariamente a partir de relações mercantis, debater este tema em bairros empobrecidos apresenta-se como grande desafio. Este artigo reúne reflexões realizadas a partir de um estudo qualitativo realizado em São João de Meriti, município localizado na Baixada Fluminense (RJ, reunindo líderes da Pastoral da Criança em sessões de grupo focal. O desemprego e subemprego e a dificuldade de acesso aos serviços públicos de saúde, assistência social e saneamento foram apresentados como principais obstáculos para a efetivação do direito humano à alimentação. Foi possível identificar que, dentre as estratégias de enfrentamento da pobreza e da fome, o estabelecimento de circuitos de ajuda mútua tem grande destaque. Apoio social, dádiva e religiosidade apresentaram-se como categorias relevantes nas reflexões dos líderes. Diante de uma realidade em que a pobreza e a fome ou são naturalizadas ou se revertem em moeda de troca durante as eleições, a questão do clientelismo aparece como grande preocupação e desafio para estes líderes.The human right to adequate food is comprehended in two dimensions: being free of hunger and denutrition and having access to an adequate food. The urban context, in which the possession of food is done primarily through merchandising because of its strong consuming appealing, became a big challenge to debate this topic in poor districts today. Here we combine considerations of a qualitative study carried out in São João de Meriti, Rio de Janeiro State, joining leaders from Pastoral da Criança in focal group sessions. The unemployment, the sub-employment and the difficulty in reaching the public health system, the social assistance and basic

  19. More preoperative flexibility implies adequate neural pliability for curve correction without prophylactic untethering in scoliosis patients with asymptomatic tethered spinal cord, a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenhai; Zhang, Hongqi; Guo, Chaofeng; Yu, Honggui; Wang, Longjie; Guo, Qiang

    2017-06-15

    Tethered spinal cord is frequently associated with scoliosis. It is still controversial whether a prophylactic untethering is necessary before correction procedure in scoliosis patients with tethered spinal cord. In this study we determined the clinical outcome of a one-stage posterior scoliosis correction without a prophylactic untethering for treating scoliosis with an asymptomatic tethered spinal cord. Seventeen (5 males and 12 females) scoliosis patients with tethered spinal cords were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent a one-stage posterior scoliosis correction without preventive untethering. Parameters of radiograph were used to assess correction result. The Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 questionnaire was analyzed pre- and post-operatively to evaluate the clinical outcomes. The modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) score was used to assess the pre- and post-operative spinal cord function. The post-operative coronal Cobb angle was significantly decreased compared with preoperative. (23.8 ± 6.4° vs. 58.4 ± 12.6°, P scoliosis correction. No difference existed between the pre- and post-operative total mJOA score (26 ± 2 vs. 27 ± 2, p = 0.39), which including subjective symptom (p = 0.07), clinical symptom (p = 0.33), daily activities (p = 0.44) and bladder function (p = 0.67). One-stage posterior scoliosis correction is a safe and effective surgical procedure for scoliosis patients combined with asymptomatic tethered spinal cord who have adequate spinal cord function reserve.

  20. Healthcare workers' behaviors and personal determinants associated with providing adequate sexual and reproductive healthcare services in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Kim; Crutzen, Rik; van den Borne, Bart; Reddy, Priscilla

    2017-03-13

    Healthcare workers may affect the utilization of sexual and reproductive healthcare (SRH) services, and quality of care thereof, for example by their behaviours or attitudes they hold. This can become a hindrance to accessing and utilizing SRH services, particularly by young people, and thus a better understanding of these behaviours and associated factors is needed to improve access to and utilization of SRH services. A systematic review of literature was conducted to identify studies focusing on healthcare workers' behaviors and personal determinants associated with providing adequate SRH services in sub-Saharan Africa (January 1990 - October 2015). Five databases were searched until 30th October 2015, using a search strategy that was adapted based on the technical requirements of each specific database. Articles were independently screened for eligibility by two researchers. Of the 125-screened full-text articles, 35 studies met all the inclusion criteria. Negative behaviours and attitudes of healthcare workers, as well as other personal determinants, such as poor knowledge and skills of SRH services, and related factors, like availability of essential drugs and equipment are associated with provision of inadequate SRH services. Some healthcare workers still have negative attitudes towards young people using contraceptives and are more likely to limit access to and utilization of SRH by adolescents especially. Knowledge of and implementation of specific SRH components are below optimum levels according to the WHO recommended guidelines. Healthcare workers' negative behaviours and attitudes are unlikely to encourage women in general to access and utilize SRH services, but more specifically young women. Knowledge of SRH services, including basic emergency obstetric care (EmOC) is insufficient among healthcare workers in SSA. A protocol for this systematic review was registered with PROSPERO and the registration number is: CRD42015017509 .

  1. Randomized comparison of the effects of the vitamin D3 adequate intake versus 100 mcg (4000 IU per day on biochemical responses and the wellbeing of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Amanda

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For adults, vitamin D intake of 100 mcg (4000 IU/day is physiologic and safe. The adequate intake (AI for older adults is 15 mcg (600 IU/day, but there has been no report focusing on use of this dose. Methods We compared effects of these doses on biochemical responses and sense of wellbeing in a blinded, randomized trial. In Study 1, 64 outpatients (recruited if summer 2001 25(OHD Results In Study 1, basal summer 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] averaged 48 ± 9 (SD nmol/L. Supplementation for more than 6 months produced mean 25(OHD levels of 79 ± 30 nmol/L for the 15 mcg/day group, and 112 ± 41 nmol/L for the 100 mcg/day group. Both doses lowered plasma parathyroid hormone with no effect on plasma calcium. Between December and February, wellbeing score improved more for the 100-mcg/day group than for the lower-dosed group (1-tail Mann-Whitney p = 0.036. In Study 2, 25(OHD averaged 39 ± 9 nmol/L, and winter wellbeing scores improved with both doses of vitamin D (two-tail p Conclusion The highest AI for vitamin D brought summertime 25(OHD to >40 nmol/L, lowered PTH, and its use was associated with improved wellbeing. The 100 mcg/day dose produced greater responses. Since it was ethically necessary to provide a meaningful dose of vitamin D to these insufficient patients, we cannot rule out a placebo wellbeing response, particularly for those on the lower dose. This work confirms the safety and efficacy of both 15 and 100 mcg/day vitamin D3 in patients who needed additional vitamin D.

  2. Muscle protein turnover in rats treated with corticosterone (CC) or/and nandrolone decanoate (ND) and fed an adequate or a low-protein diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Goena, M.; Larralde, J.

    1986-01-01

    In order to investigate the possible antagonistic effect between glucocorticoids and androgens on muscle protein turnover, the authors have measured the fractional rates of gastrocnemius muscle protein synthesis (k/sub s/) and degradation (k/sub d/) by the constant-intravenous-infusion method using L-/ 14 C/-tyrosine in rats receiving via s.c. per 100 g b.wt. 10 mg of CC, or 2 mg of ND or CC+ND at the indicated doses, and fed either an 18% or 5% protein diets over a period of 5 days. As an additional index of protein synthesis, RNA activity (g of synthesized protein/day/g RNA) was determined as well. Results showed that as compared to vehicle-injected animals fed the adequate diet, CC-treated rats exhibited a reduction of muscle k/sub d/, while ND-treated rats had an outstanding increase of muscle k/sub s/. However, rats receiving CC+ND showed k/sub s/ and k/sub d/ values similar to those displayed by control animals. Nevertheless, when the steroids were injected to rats fed the low-protein diet, CC has a catabolic effect on muscle protein but by reducing k/sub s/, while the anabolic action of ND is still displayed but by a significant reduction of muscle k/sub d/. CC+ND given to these protein-deficient rats caused an increase in muscle k/sub s/ and a reduction in k/sub d/. These results might indicate that, at least in part, ND antagonizes the catabolic action of high doses of CC on muscle protein metabolism

  3. Muscle protein turnover in rats treated with corticosterone (CC) or/and nandrolone decanoate (ND) and fed an adequate or a low-protein diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Goena, M.; Larralde, J.

    1986-03-01

    In order to investigate the possible antagonistic effect between glucocorticoids and androgens on muscle protein turnover, the authors have measured the fractional rates of gastrocnemius muscle protein synthesis (k/sub s/) and degradation (k/sub d/) by the constant-intravenous-infusion method using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine in rats receiving via s.c. per 100 g b.wt. 10 mg of CC, or 2 mg of ND or CC+ND at the indicated doses, and fed either an 18% or 5% protein diets over a period of 5 days. As an additional index of protein synthesis, RNA activity (g of synthesized protein/day/g RNA) was determined as well. Results showed that as compared to vehicle-injected animals fed the adequate diet, CC-treated rats exhibited a reduction of muscle k/sub d/, while ND-treated rats had an outstanding increase of muscle k/sub s/. However, rats receiving CC+ND showed k/sub s/ and k/sub d/ values similar to those displayed by control animals. Nevertheless, when the steroids were injected to rats fed the low-protein diet, CC has a catabolic effect on muscle protein but by reducing k/sub s/, while the anabolic action of ND is still displayed but by a significant reduction of muscle k/sub d/. CC+ND given to these protein-deficient rats caused an increase in muscle k/sub s/ and a reduction in k/sub d/. These results might indicate that, at least in part, ND antagonizes the catabolic action of high doses of CC on muscle protein metabolism.

  4. Ecological stoichiometry of the honeybee: Pollen diversity and adequate species composition are needed to mitigate limitations imposed on the growth and development of bees by pollen quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Filipiak

    Full Text Available The least understood aspects of the nutritional needs of bees are the elemental composition of pollen and the bees' need for a stoichiometrically balanced diet containing the required proportions of nutrients. Reduced plant diversity has been proposed as an indirect factor responsible for the pollinator crisis. We suggest stoichiometric mismatch resulting from a nutritionally unbalanced diet as a potential direct factor. The concentrations and stoichiometric ratios of C, N, S, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu were studied in the bodies of honeybees of various castes and sexes and in the nectar and pollen of various plant species. A literature review of the elemental composition of pollen was performed. We identified possible co-limitations of bee growth and development resulting mainly from the scarcity of Na, S, Cu, P and K, and possibly Zn and N, in pollen. Particular castes and sexes face specific limitations. Concentrations of potentially limiting elements in pollen revealed high taxonomic diversity. High floral diversity may be necessary to maintain populations of pollen eaters. Single-species crop plantations, even if these species are rich in nectar and pollen, might limit bee growth and development, not allowing for gathering nutrients in adequate proportions. However, particular plant species may play greater roles than others in balancing honeybee diets. Therefore, we suggest specific plant species that may (1 ensure optimal growth and production of individuals by producing pollen that is exceptionally well balanced stoichiometrically (e.g., clover or (2 prevent growth and development of honeybees by producing pollen that is extremely unbalanced for bees (e.g., sunflower. Since pollen is generally poor in Na, this element must be supplemented using "dirty water". Nectar cannot supplement the diet with limiting elements. Stoichiometric mismatch should be considered in intervention strategies aimed at improving the nutritional base

  5. Ecological stoichiometry of the honeybee: Pollen diversity and adequate species composition are needed to mitigate limitations imposed on the growth and development of bees by pollen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, Michał; Kuszewska, Karolina; Asselman, Michel; Denisow, Bożena; Stawiarz, Ernest; Woyciechowski, Michał; Weiner, January

    2017-01-01

    The least understood aspects of the nutritional needs of bees are the elemental composition of pollen and the bees' need for a stoichiometrically balanced diet containing the required proportions of nutrients. Reduced plant diversity has been proposed as an indirect factor responsible for the pollinator crisis. We suggest stoichiometric mismatch resulting from a nutritionally unbalanced diet as a potential direct factor. The concentrations and stoichiometric ratios of C, N, S, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu were studied in the bodies of honeybees of various castes and sexes and in the nectar and pollen of various plant species. A literature review of the elemental composition of pollen was performed. We identified possible co-limitations of bee growth and development resulting mainly from the scarcity of Na, S, Cu, P and K, and possibly Zn and N, in pollen. Particular castes and sexes face specific limitations. Concentrations of potentially limiting elements in pollen revealed high taxonomic diversity. High floral diversity may be necessary to maintain populations of pollen eaters. Single-species crop plantations, even if these species are rich in nectar and pollen, might limit bee growth and development, not allowing for gathering nutrients in adequate proportions. However, particular plant species may play greater roles than others in balancing honeybee diets. Therefore, we suggest specific plant species that may (1) ensure optimal growth and production of individuals by producing pollen that is exceptionally well balanced stoichiometrically (e.g., clover) or (2) prevent growth and development of honeybees by producing pollen that is extremely unbalanced for bees (e.g., sunflower). Since pollen is generally poor in Na, this element must be supplemented using "dirty water". Nectar cannot supplement the diet with limiting elements. Stoichiometric mismatch should be considered in intervention strategies aimed at improving the nutritional base for bees.

  6. Evaluation of overall setup accuracy and adequate setup margins in pelvic image-guided radiotherapy: Comparison of the male and female patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksomaa, Marko; Kapanen, Mika; Tulijoki, Tapio; Peltola, Seppo; Hyödynmaa, Simo; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated adequate setup margins for the radiotherapy (RT) of pelvic tumors based on overall position errors of bony landmarks. We also estimated the difference in setup accuracy between the male and female patients. Finally, we compared the patient rotation for 2 immobilization devices. The study cohort included consecutive 64 male and 64 female patients. Altogether, 1794 orthogonal setup images were analyzed. Observer-related deviation in image matching and the effect of patient rotation were explicitly determined. Overall systematic and random errors were calculated in 3 orthogonal directions. Anisotropic setup margins were evaluated based on residual errors after weekly image guidance. The van Herk formula was used to calculate the margins. Overall, 100 patients were immobilized with a house-made device. The patient rotation was compared against 28 patients immobilized with CIVCO's Kneefix and Feetfix. We found that the usually applied isotropic setup margin of 8 mm covered all the uncertainties related to patient setup for most RT treatments of the pelvis. However, margins of even 10.3 mm were needed for the female patients with very large pelvic target volumes centered either in the symphysis or in the sacrum containing both of these structures. This was because the effect of rotation (p ≤ 0.02) and the observer variation in image matching (p ≤ 0.04) were significantly larger for the female patients than for the male patients. Even with daily image guidance, the required margins remained larger for the women. Patient rotations were largest about the lateral axes. The difference between the required margins was only 1 mm for the 2 immobilization devices. The largest component of overall systematic position error came from patient rotation. This emphasizes the need for rotation correction. Overall, larger position errors and setup margins were observed for the female patients with pelvic cancer than for the male patients

  7. The impact of patient positioning on the adequate coverage of the uterus in the primary irradiation of cervical carcinoma: a prospective analysis using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Elisabeth; Eberlein, Klaus; Pradier, Olivier; Schmidberger, Heinz; Hess, Clemens F.

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: The intention of this prospective study is to assess the influence of different patient positionings and the use of belly boards on the coverage of the uterus by standard radiation fields. Material and methods: In 21 women with carcinoma of the uterine cervix magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in prone patient position with and without belly board and computed tomography (CT) scans in supine position were analysed after superimposing standard pelvic box fields. Further, all patients underwent a second MRI field control in prone position with belly board to detect intraindividual variations in the uterus position during treatment. Results: Standard portals did not completely cover the uterus in supine position in 7/21 (33%), in prone position with belly board in 7/21 (33%) and without belly board in 5/21 (24%). Insufficient uterine coverage was found only in the anteroposterior direction. The mean distance (± standard deviation) between the field borders of the lateral portals and the uterus was in supine position anteriorly 3.4 cm (±2.2 cm) and posteriorly 1.8 cm (±1.3 cm), in prone position with belly board anteriorly 2.2 cm (±2.7 cm) and posteriorly 2.6 cm (±1.6 cm), prone without belly board anteriorly 3.3 cm (±2.4 cm) and posteriorly 1.9 cm (±1.1 cm). The difference was statistically significant between supine and prone position with belly board and between prone position with and without belly board. Repeated MRI controls during therapy showed no significant changes compared to the MRIs at the beginning of therapy. Conclusions: The use of standard radiation fields results in a high percentage of geographical misfits. Three-dimensional treatment planning is a prerequisite for adequate uterus coverage

  8. The role of serum and urinary urea in the evaluation of enteral protein intake in adequate and small-for-gestational-age very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Darcie

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Very low birth weight (VLBW infants have special nutritional needs. There is a current tendency to individualize their protein needs. The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of serum and urinary urea as indicators for protein intake in adequate-for-gestational-age (AGA and small-for-gestational-age (SGA VLBW infants. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the nursery attached to the Maternity Ward of the "Prof. Pedro de Alcântara" Children's Institute, Hospital das Clínicas, Department of Pediatrics, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Seventy-two VLBW infants (mean protein intake = 3.7 mg/kg/day were enrolled in a prospective cohort study in two groups: AGA (n = 34 and SGA (n = 38. Blood samples, six-hour urine (6hUr collections and urine sample tests (STUr were obtained for urea and creatinine assays at three and five weeks of life. Statistical analysis: Student's t test, Pearson correlation and linear regression (p < 0.05. RESULTS: There were no differences between groups for serum urea, 6hUr and STUr, or between two assessments within each group. Serum urea correlated with 6hUr in both AGA and SGA, and to STUr in SGA; 6hUr correlated with STUr in both AGA and SGA. There was no correlation between protein intake and serum or urine urea. CONCLUSIONS: Serum and urinary urea did not reflect protein intake when mean intakes of 3.7 g/kg/day were used. Sample tests of urinary urea can be as reliable as urea from urine collected over longer periods.

  9. Phytochelatin Synthesis Promotes Leaf Zn Accumulation of Arabidopsis thaliana Plants Grown in Soil with Adequate Zn Supply and is Essential for Survival on Zn-Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnlenz, Tanja; Hofmann, Christian; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Schmidt, Holger; Schempp, Stefanie; Weber, Michael; Lahner, Brett; Salt, David E; Clemens, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    Phytochelatin (PC) synthesis is essential for the detoxification of non-essential metals such as cadmium (Cd). In vitro experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings had indicated a contribution to zinc (Zn) tolerance as well. We addressed the physiological role of PC synthesis in Zn homeostasis of plants under more natural conditions. Growth responses, PC accumulation and leaf ionomes of wild-type and AtPCS1 mutant plants cultivated in different soils representing adequate Zn supply, Zn deficiency and Zn excess were analyzed. Growth on Zn-contaminated soil triggers PC synthesis and is strongly impaired in PC-deficient mutants. In fact, the contribution of AtPCS1 to tolerating Zn excess is comparable with that of the major Zn tolerance factor MTP1. For plants supplied with a normal level of Zn, a significant reduction in leaf Zn accumulation of AtPCS1 mutants was detected. In contrast, AtPCS1 mutants grown under Zn-limited conditions showed wild-type levels of Zn accumulation, suggesting the operation of distinct Zn translocation pathways. Contrasting phenotypes of the tested AtPCS1 mutant alleles upon growth in Zn- or Cd-contaminated soil indicated differential activation of PC synthesis by these metals. Experiments with truncated versions identified a part of the AtPCS1 protein required for the activation by Zn but not by Cd. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Assessing the potential of wild foods to reduce the cost of a nutritionally adequate diet: an example from eastern Baringo District, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termote, Céline; Raneri, Jessica; Deptford, Amy; Cogill, Bruce

    2014-12-01

    Wild foods and their actual and potential contributions to nutrition security have rarely been studied or considered in nutrition and conservation programs. To study the role of wild food biodiversity in achieving a cost reduction of a nutritionally adequate diet for women and young children in Kenya using linear programming. An ethnobiological inventory of available food biodiversity was carried out by means of focus group discussions, and five wild foods were selected for further modeling. A market survey assessed available food prices by season. Diets were modeled to minimize cost and maximize nutrient adequacy using the Cost of Diet linear programming tool. Modeling was done without and with wild foods. The modeled diets without wild species were deficient in iron for all age groups during the dry season, deficient in vitamin B6 and calcium for infants aged 6 to 8 months during the dry season, and deficient in iron and zinc for infants aged 6 to 8 months over the whole year. Adding wild foods, especially Berchemia discolor, to the modeled diets resulted in a lower-cost diet, while meeting recommended iron intakes for women and children between 12 and 23 months of age. Even after integrating wild foods into the model, targeted approaches are needed to meet micronutrient requirements for infants from 6 to 8 and from 9 to 11 months of age. An application of linear programming to screen available wild foods for meeting recommended nutrient intakes at a minimal cost was illustrated. This type of study helps to objectively assess the potential of biodiversity to contribute to diets and nutrition.

  11. Real-time PCR assays for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA quantitation are adequate for clinical management of patients with chronic HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, Philippe; Bourlière, Marc; Pénaranda, Guillaume; Khiri, Hacène; Ouzan, Denis

    2006-07-01

    Because of the use of viral kinetics during polyethylene glycol (PEG)-interferon-ribavirin therapy and the development of specific new anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) drugs, assessment of the efficacy of anti-HCV drugs needs to be based not on end-point PCR assays but on real-time PCR. The aim of this study was to determine if the two available commercial real-time PCR assays, the Abbott RealTime HCV assay and the Roche Cobas TaqMan HCV assay, can become the standard for HCV RNA quantification. We investigated the prognostic relevance of HCV RNA viral loads at baseline, week 4, and week 12 to a rapid and early virological response to antiviral therapy by using the two assays. Of 59 naïve patients chronically infected by HCV (41 infected with genotype 1) who were treated with ribavirin plus PEG-interferon alfa-2b for 48 weeks, 24 patients (41%) showed a sustained virological response (SVR). With the two assays, viral loads were highly correlated, irrespective of genotype (R2=0.94 for all cases). No difference in diagnostic value was found between the Abbott and Roche assays at week 4, with respective negative predictive values (NPVs) of 84% and 78% and positive predictive values (PPVs) of 62% and 56% (not significant), and at week 12, the respective NPVs were 91% and 90% and PPVs were 44% and 46% (not significant). At week 12, 83% (20/24) and 96% (23/24) of patients with SVR tested negative for HCV RNA by the Abbott and Roche assays, respectively (the difference is not significant). In conclusion, the high sensitivities and large dynamic ranges of the Abbott and Roche assays show that a single real-time quantitative PCR assay is fully adequate for clinical and therapeutic management of HCV.

  12. Comparison of Chemical and Enzymatic Interesterification of Fully Hydrogenated Soybean Oil and Walnut Oil to Produce a Fat Base with Adequate Nutritional and Physical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel Farfán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal physical, chemical and nutritional properties of natural lipids depend on the structure and composition of triacylglycerols. However, they are not always mutually compatible. Lipid modification is a good way to give them specific functionalities, increase their oxidative stability, or improve their nutritional value. As such, chemical and enzymatic interesterification may be used to modify them and produce structured lipids. In accordance, the aim of this study is to compare chemical and enzymatic interesterifi cation of binary blends of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and walnut oil, using sodium methoxide or Lipozyme TL IM, respectively, to produce a fat base with adequate nutritional and physical characteristics. Three different mass ratios of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and walnut oil blends (20:80, 40:60 and 60:40 were interesterified and evaluated. Total interesterification was determined by the stabilization of the solid fat content. Chemical reaction of the 20:80 blend was completed in 10 min and of the 40:60 and 60:40 blends in 15 min. Enzymatically interesterified blends were stabilized in 120 min at all of the mass ratios. Complete interesterification significantly reduced the solid fat content of the blends at any composition. Chemical and enzymatically interesterified fully hydrogenated blend of soybean and walnut oil at mass ratio of 40:60 showed the plastic curve of an all-purpose-type shortening rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, with a high linolenic acid (C18:3n3 content and with zero trans-fatty acids.

  13. Acromioclavicular joint dislocation treated with Bosworth screw and additional K-wiring: results after 7.8 years - still an adequate procedure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiefenboeck, Thomas M; Popp, Domenik; Boesmueller, Sandra; Payr, Stephan; Joestl, Julian; Komjati, Micha; Binder, Harald; Schurz, Mark; Ostermann, Roman C

    2017-08-04

    The acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation is a major reason for shoulder instability. Different concepts of treatment and surgical methods are described in the literature. Thus, the purpose of this study was to present our data of long-term follow-up of patients having undergone treatment of acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation using the Bosworth Screw with additional K-wiring. This study was conducted as a retrospective single centre data analysis. All patients treated operatively for AC joint dislocation with a Bosworth screw and additional K-wire fixation at our Department were asked to participate in this study. The study population consisted of 22 patients, 20 male and 2 female, with a mean age of 40 years ±15.6 years. Three grade-II lesions, 13 grade-III lesions, four grade-IV lesions and two grade-V lesions according to the Rockwood classification were found. The overall mean clinical outcome at the latest follow up was: Constant 95, DASH 6.4, ASES 94.6, SST 99.02, UCLA 33.1, ACJI 91.82 and VAS 0.29 - representing a good-to-excellent long-term outcome in all patients after at least 2 years follow-up (range; 2 - 19 years). Overall, 19 patients (86%) reported to be very satisfied with the achieved result, 15 patients (68%) reported to be able to participate in every sports activity and 16 patients (73%) reported to be able to perform their daily work without limitations. Overall, complications occurred in three patients (14%). Only one patient remained unsatisfied with the achieved result. Summarizing, our reported results showed that surgical fixation of acute AC joint dislocation with a Bosworth screw and additional K-wire fixation leads to good-to-excellent functional outcome and highly satisfactory results in the majority of patients. Despite its complications, in accordance with our results, Bosworth screw fixation with additional K-wiring in AC joint dislocation represents an adequate surgical procedure. Level IV, retrospective study.

  14. Dose reduction and adequate image quality in digital radiography: a contradiction?; Dosisreduktion und adaequate Bildqualitaet in der digitalen Radiographie: ein Widerspruch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poetter-Lang, S.; Duenkelmeyer, M. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Uffmann, M. [Krankenhaus Neunkirchen, Abteilung fuer Radiodiagnostik, Neunkirchen (Austria)

    2012-10-15

    Dose reduction and adequate image quality in digital radiography - a contradiction ?Digital radiography has already replaced traditional screen-film systems. Substantial improvements in both dose efficiency and spatial resolution demonstrate the rapid developments in digital radiography. Needle-detector systems have shown up to a 50% dose reduction compared to traditional screen-film systems. There is also a dose reduction capability of up to 50% comparing direct radiography (DR) systems to computed radiography (CR) systems for chest X-rays. However, despite the most recent achievements of CR technology, the dose efficiency of DR systems (caesium iodide flat-panel detector) is unparalleled. The progress in detector technology has contributed to dose reduction and improved image quality, while saving time and providing a higher examination rate. The use of dose indicators and longitudinal dose control are important to avoid substantial accidental dose increase. The dose applied to patients should fall markedly below the defined diagnostic reference levels within the European Union. Regular quality control, as well as continuous education and training of medical and technical personnel, contribute to ensure that the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle is consistently followed. (orig.) [German] Dosisreduktion und adaequate Bildqualitaet in der digitalen Radiographie - ein Widerspruch ?Die Verfahren der digitalen Radiographie haben die herkoemmlichen Film-Folien-Systeme nahezu vollstaendig ersetzt. Steigende Dosiseffizienz und verbesserte Ortsaufloesung sind die wichtigsten Kenngroessen der rasanten Weiterentwicklung digitaler Detektorsysteme. Bei Nadelkristalldetektoren wurde eine Dosisreduktion bis zu 50% gegenueber Film-Folien-Systemen gefunden. Weiter besteht ein Dosiseinsparungspotenzial von bis zu 50% im Vergleich von Direktradiographie(DR)- mit Computed-radiography(CR)-Systemen bei Thoraxaufnahmen. Trotz der aktuellen Fortschritte bei CR

  15. Aiming towards improved flood forecasting: Identification of an adequate model structure for a semi-arid and data-scarce region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Tobias; Francke, Till; Bronstert, Axel

    2015-04-01

    A lot of effort has already been put into the development of forecasting systems to warn people of approaching flood events. Such systems, however, are influenced by various sources of uncertainty which constrain the skill of forecasts. The main goal of this study is the identification, quantification and reduction of uncertainties to provide improved early warnings with adequate lead times in a data-scarce region with strong seasonality of the hydrological regime. This includes the setup of hydrological models and post-processing of simulation results by mathematical means such as data assimilation. The focus area is the Jaguaribe watershed in northeastern Brazil. The region is characterized by a seasonal climate with strong inter-annual variation and recurrent droughts. To ensure a secure water supply also during the dry season several thousand small and some large reservoirs have been constructed. On the other hand, floods caused by heavy rain events are an issue as well. This topic, however, so far has hardly been considered by the scientific community and until today no flood forecasting system exists for that region. To identify the most appropriate model structure for the catchment the process-based hydrological model for semi-arid environments WASA was implemented into the eco-hydrological simulation environment ECHSE. The environment consists of a generic part providing data types and simulation methods, and a problem-specific part where the user can implement different model formulations. This provides the possibility to test various process realisations under consistent input and output data structures. The most appropriate model structure can then be determined by statistical means such as Bayesian model averaging. Subsequently, forecast results may be updated by post-processing and/or data assimilation. Furthermore, methods of data fusion can be used to combine measurements of different quality and resolution, such as in-situ and remotely sensed data

  16. Newborn screening for carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency using (C16+C18:1)/C2: Evaluation of additional indices for adequate sensitivity and lower false-positivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Go; Hara, Keiichi; Tsumura, Miyuki; Kagawa, Reiko; Okada, Satoshi; Sakura, Nobuo; Maruyama, Shinsuke; Noguchi, Atsuko; Awaya, Tomonari; Ishige, Mika; Ishige, Nobuyuki; Musha, Ikuma; Ajihara, Sayaka; Ohtake, Akira; Naito, Etsuo; Hamada, Yusuke; Kono, Tomotaka; Asada, Tomoko; Sasai, Hideo; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Fujiki, Ryoji; Ohara, Osamu; Bo, Ryosuke; Yamada, Kenji; Kobayashi, Hironori; Hasegawa, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Takayanagi, Masaki; Hata, Ikue; Shigematsu, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Masao

    2017-11-01

    Japanese patients. These findings suggested that CPT II deficiency can be screened by using (C16+C18:1)/C2 and C16 as indices. An appropriate cutoff level is required to achieve adequate sensitivity albeit at the cost of a considerable increase in the false-positive rate, which might be reduced by using additional indices such as C14/C3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined photon-electron beams in the treatment of the supraclavicular lymph nodes in breast cancer: A novel technique that achieves adequate coverage while reducing lung dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ahmed; Mohamad, Issa; Dayyat, Abdulmajeed; Kanaa'n, Haitham; Sarhan, Nasim; Roujob, Ibrahim; Salem, Abdel-Fattah; Afifi, Shatha; Jaradat, Imad; Mubiden, Rasmi; Almousa, Abdelateif

    2015-01-01

    associated with such plans. Combined photon-electron treatment is a feasible technique for supraclavicular nodal irradiation and results in adequate target coverage, acceptable dosimetric hotspot volume, and slightly reduced lung dose. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 專利侵害責任範圍因果關係的合理詮釋與再建構 Adequate Interpretation and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    沈宗倫 Chung-Lun Shen

    2011-06-01

    property damage. If no adequate causation is taken to measure the scope of patent damage, the damage would either overcompensate or frustrate the patentee. In view of the key role the causation is playing in adjusting patent damage, this article attempts to clarify and comment on the evaluation of patent damage under Taiwan patent law and related court cases, through the comparative observation of laws and the recognition of jurisprudence of patent law.

  19. Combined photon-electron beams in the treatment of the supraclavicular lymph nodes in breast cancer: A novel technique that achieves adequate coverage while reducing lung dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salem, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.salem@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiation Oncology, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman (Jordan); Mohamad, Issa; Dayyat, Abdulmajeed [Department of Radiation Oncology, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman (Jordan); Kanaa’n, Haitham [Section of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman (Jordan); Sarhan, Nasim [Department of Radiation Oncology, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman (Jordan); Roujob, Ibrahim [Section of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman (Jordan); Salem, Abdel-Fattah [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hashemite University, Zarqa (Jordan); Afifi, Shatha [Section of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman (Jordan); Jaradat, Imad; Mubiden, Rasmi; Almousa, Abdelateif [Department of Radiation Oncology, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman (Jordan)

    2015-10-01

    -only plans (mean = 16.2 ± 3%, p < 0.001). As expected, photon-only plans demonstrated the highest target coverage and total lung V{sub 20} {sub Gy}. The superiority of electron-only beams, in terms of decreasing lung dose, is set back by the dosimetric hotspots associated with such plans. Combined photon-electron treatment is a feasible technique for supraclavicular nodal irradiation and results in adequate target coverage, acceptable dosimetric hotspot volume, and slightly reduced lung dose.

  20. 國民中學適足教育經費:臺灣偏遠與非偏遠地區學校的比較 Estimating Adequate Funding to Meet Performance Standards for Junior High School Students: Adequate Funding Comparisons Between Rural and Non-Rural Schools in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    張良丞 Liang-Cheng Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available 臺灣學生近年來在國際大型測驗表現亮眼,但如進一步檢視學校所處地區,即可明顯看出臺灣存在巨大的城鄉差距問題:偏遠地區與大城市相比,不僅數學表現較差,且出現各校數學差距相對較大的情況。不足的教育經費可能是導致此差距的原因之一,本研究因此以成本函數法來估算偏遠與非偏遠地區學校達成預期學生學業成就所需的適足經費,並以國中基測數學基礎級、平均數、精熟級來作為適足分數,以估算不同程度所需的適足經費,結果發現,無論何種適足分數,偏遠地區所需的每生適足經費皆比非偏遠地區為高,且超過半數以上的偏遠學校未達適足經費水準。本研究亦根據研究結果,提出改進建議。 Although the mathematical ability of Taiwanese students is ranked high according to the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA, Taiwan faces the problem of a gap in test scores between rural students and their non-rural counterparts, with the latter group scoring higher on average. Inadequate funding is a possible reason for this discrepancy. Therefore, this paper uses the cost function approach to compare adequate funding requirements between rural and non-rural schools. The adequate funding estimates are calculated based on the different levels of mathematics scores in the Basic Competence Test (basic, average, and proficient. The results showed that rural schools require more per student funding than do non-rural schools, irrespective of the use of score levels as references. A greater portion of rural schools were shown to operate under inadequate per student funding compared with non-rural schools. This paper provides further evidence of the urgency of increased investment in rural schools.

  1. Milk vitamin D in relation to the 'adequate intake' for 0-6-month-old infants : A study in lactating women with different cultural backgrounds, living at different latitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoutjesdijk, Eline; Schaafsma, Anne; Nhien, Nguyen V.; Khor, Geok Lin; Kema, Ido P.; Hollis, Bruce W.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Breast-fed infants are susceptible to vitamin D deficiency rickets. The current vitamin D adequate intake' (AI) for 0-6-month-old infants is 10 mu g/d, corresponding with a human milk antirachitic activity (ARA) of 513 IU/l. We were particularly interested to see whether milk ARA of mothers with

  2. Adequacy of a hospital-wide standard dose of 7mg/kg bodyweight gentamicin sufficient to achieve an adequate prophylactic maximum serum concentration (Cmax) in burn patients undergoing surgical burn wound treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borra, L.C.P.; Bosch, T.M.; Baar, M.E. van; Dokter, J.; Oen, I.M.; Ruijgrok, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pharmacokinetics of drugs can be significantly altered in burn patients. The aim of our study was to validate if the current hospital-wide standard dosage of 7mg/kg total bodyweight gentamicin is sufficient to achieve an adequate prophylactic Cmax (Cmax>/=20mg/L). MATERIALS AND

  3. Roles of tRNA in cell wall biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dare, Kiley; Ibba, Michael

    2012-01-01

    responsible for cell wall modifications, aminoacyl-phosphatidylglycerol synthases (aaPGSs) and Fem, were discovered some time ago, they have recently become of intense interest for their roles in the antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic microorganisms. The addition of positively charged amino acids...... to phosphatidylglycerol (PG) by aaPGSs neutralizes the lipid bilayer making the bacteria less susceptible to positively charged antimicrobial agents. Fem transferases utilize aa-tRNA to form peptide bridges that link strands of peptidoglycan. These bridges vary among the bacterial species in which they are present...... and play a role in resistance to antibiotics that target the cell wall. Additionally, the formation of truncated peptides results in shorter peptide bridges and loss of branched linkages which makes bacteria more susceptible to antimicrobials. A greater understanding of the structure and substrate...

  4. Internship training adequately prepares South African medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The 2-year internship period for medical graduates began in South Africa in 2005 and has never been formally evaluated. Objective. This study assessed the perceptions of community service medical officers (COSMOs) working at district hospitals (DHs) in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) to determine whether the 2-year ...

  5. An Adequate First Order Logic of Intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaochen, Zhou; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1998-01-01

    This paper introduces left and right neighbourhoods as primitive interval modalities to define other unary and binary modalities of intervals in a first order logic with interval length. A complete first order logic for the neighbourhood modalities is presented. It is demonstrated how the logic can...... support formal specification and verification of liveness and fairness, and also of various notions of real analysis....

  6. Persistence of goiter despite adequate iodine intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminzadeh, M.; Karamizadeh, Z.; Amirhakimi, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the state of iodine uptake and frequency of goiter in a previously endemic population after use of iodine salt for ten years. In an area in south of Iran following examination of randomly selected 1504, 8-10 year school children, 102 cases with grade 2 or larger goiter were found. One hundred normal cases regarding thyroid examination were also selected as controls. From all 202 children, random urine specimen was assayed for iodine as an indicator of iodide intake. Frequency of goiter grade 2 or larger was 6.8%. Median levels of urinary iodine in goiterous children and controls were 20.00 micro gram/dL and 24.50 micro gram/dL respectively. Values more than 10 micro g/dL indicate sufficient intake. Frequency of iodine deficiency in patients with goiter was 14.0% vs. 12.7% in control group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P value=0.748). Iodized salt has been effective to provide acceptable iodide intake but other causes are supposed to be responsible as etiologic factors for persistence of endemic goiter. (author)

  7. Undergraduate orthopedic education: Is it adequate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon Jagdish

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Basic musculoskeletal knowledge is essential to the practice of medicine. The purpose of this study was to assess the adequacy of musculoskeletal knowledge of medical students. Materials and Methods : The validated basic competency examination in musculoskeletal medicine devised by Freidman and Bernstein was administered to final year medical students just prior to their final professional examination. Participants were also required to assess their confidence at making a musculoskeletal physical examination and diagnosis as well as comment on the adequacy of time in the curriculum devoted to Orthopedics. Results : The response rate was 83% (40/48. The average cognitive examination score was 48.3%. Two participants (5% obtained a score of ≥ 73.1%, the recommended mean passing score. Seventeen students (42.5% felt orthopedic clinical cases were the most difficult to perform a physical examination and diagnose. Thirteen students (32.5% felt that the time devoted to orthopedics in the medical curriculum was inadequate. Conclusions : Ninety-five percent of the students failed to show basic musculoskeletal competency. A change in medical curriculum and teaching methods is required to address this problem.

  8. Leisure Service Delivery Systems: Are They Adequate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene Fukuhara Dahl

    1992-01-01

    This presentation explores a model of service delivery ranging from direct service provision to advocacy and reports findings on the delivery mode most prevalent in park and recreation departments that serve Asian groups in their community. The implications of the role of the professional, the range of service delivery, and the manner in which ethnic groups are...

  9. Adequate Rhetorical Delivery when Staging Premodernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Barnholdt

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen handler om iscenesættelse af performative kunstværker fra det 18. årh., der ofte også rummer stillingtagen til retorisk fremførelse. Jeg advokerer for, at man sammentænker synkrone indfaldsvinker med diakrone, så man fx ikke udelukkende fokuserer på at genskabe gestus fra det 18.århundre...

  10. Internet privacy options for adequate realisation

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    A thorough multidisciplinary analysis of various perspectives on internet privacy was published as the first volume of a study, revealing the results of the achatech project "Internet Privacy - A Culture of Privacy and Trust on the Internet." The second publication from this project presents integrated, interdisciplinary options for improving privacy on the Internet utilising a normative, value-oriented approach. The ways in which privacy promotes and preconditions fundamental societal values and how privacy violations endanger the flourishing of said values are exemplified. The conditions which must be fulfilled in order to achieve a culture of privacy and trust on the internet are illuminated. This volume presents options for policy-makers, educators, businesses and technology experts how to facilitate solutions for more privacy on the Internet and identifies further research requirements in this area.

  11. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R; Aaron, Grant J; Sharma, Narottam D; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2016-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.

  12. Now you see it. Now you don't: fair balance and adequate provision in advertisements for drugs before and after the switch from prescription to over-the-counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerber, Adrienne E; Kreling, David H

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure differences in fair balance (benefit and risk statements) and adequate provision (toll-free numbers, Internet URLs, print ad references, and medical professional references) in advertising content for drugs that have switched from prescription to over-the-counter (OTC). The Vanderbilt TV News Archive was used to select products to study, to measure the frequency and placement of ads for those products, and to view advertising content for those products. Unique advertisements (n = 108) for loratadine (Claritin), citirizine (Zyrtec), and omeprazole (Prilosec) were analyzed for the presence of adequate provision statements and for the frequency of benefit, risk, and other statements. OTC ads were shorter than prescription ads by 10.6 seconds but contained the same total number of statements. Most prescription ads (n (RX) = 31) contained toll-free numbers (97%), Internet URLs (94%), medical professional references (100%) and print ad references (68%). Few OTC ads (n (OTC) = 77) contained adequate provision statements: 4% contained toll-free numbers and 10% contained Internet URLs. Prescription ads had similar numbers of benefits (1.5) and risks (1.8) per 30 seconds of ad time, and OTC ads had more benefits (6.6) than risks (1.2) per 30 seconds of ad time. Prescription drug ads contained risk statements that listed specific side effects and explicit harms from taking the product, but OTC ads contained nonspecific risk information and statements that implied risk rather than directly identifying risk. Differences in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulation of advertising affected the balance of risk and benefit information that appeared and the specificity of risk information available.

  13. Bilateral sequential cochlear implantation in the congenitally deaf child: evidence to support the concept of a 'critical age' after which the second ear is less likely to provide an adequate level of speech perception on its own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John; Vickers, Debi; Eyles, Julie; Brinton, Julie; Al Malky, Ghada; Aleksy, Wanda; Martin, Jane; Henderson, Lise; Mawman, Deborah; Robinson, Philip; Midgley, Elizabeth; Hanvey, Kate; Twomey, Tracey; Johnson, Susan; Vanat, Zebunnisa; Broxholme, Cath; McAnallen, Cecilia; Allen, Agnes; Bray, Monica

    2009-09-01

    This study attempts to answer the question of whether there is a 'critical age' after which a second contralateral cochlear implant is less likely to provide enough speech perception to be of practical use. The study was not designed to predict factors that determine successful binaural implant use, but to see if there was evidence to help determine the latest age at which the second ear can usefully be implanted, should the first side fail and become unusable.Outcome data, in the form of speech perception test results, were collected from 11 cochlear implant programmes in the UK and one centre in Australia. Forty-seven congenitally bilaterally deaf subjects who received bilateral sequential implants were recruited to the study. The study also included four subjects with congenital unilateral profound deafness who had lost all hearing in their only hearing ear and received a cochlear implant in their unilaterally congenitally deaf ear. Of those 34 subjects for whom complete sets of data were available, the majority (72%) of those receiving their second (or unilateral) implant up to the age of 13 years scored 60 per cent or above in the Bamford Kowal Bench (BKB) sentence test, or equivalent. In contrast, of those nine receiving their second or unilateral implant at the age of 15 or above, none achieved adequate levels of speech perception on formal testing: two scored 29 per cent and 30 per cent, respectively, and the rest seven per cent or less.A discriminant function analysis performed on the data suggests that it is unlikely that a second contralateral implant received after the age of 16 to 18 years will, on its own, provide adequate levels of speech perception. As more children receive sequential bilateral cochlear implants and the pool of data enlarges the situation is likely to become clearer.The results provide support for the concept of a 'critical age' for implanting the second ear in successful congenitally deaf unilateral cochlear implant users. This

  14. Milk vitamin D in relation to the 'adequate intake' for 0-6-month-old infants: a study in lactating women with different cultural backgrounds, living at different latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutjesdijk, Eline; Schaafsma, Anne; Nhien, Nguyen V; Khor, Geok Lin; Kema, Ido P; Hollis, Bruce W; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2017-11-01

    Breast-fed infants are susceptible to vitamin D deficiency rickets. The current vitamin D 'adequate intake' (AI) for 0-6-month-old infants is 10 µg/d, corresponding with a human milk antirachitic activity (ARA) of 513 IU/l. We were particularly interested to see whether milk ARA of mothers with lifetime abundant sunlight exposure reaches the AI. We measured milk ARA of lactating mothers with different cultural backgrounds, living at different latitudes. Mature milk was derived from 181 lactating women in the Netherlands, Curaçao, Vietnam, Malaysia and Tanzania. Milk ARA and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were analysed by liquid-chromatography-MS/MS; milk fatty acids were analysed by GC-flame ionisation detector (FID). None of the mothers reached the milk vitamin D AI. Milk ARA (n; median; range) were as follows: Netherlands (n 9; 46 IU/l; 3-51), Curaçao (n 10; 31 IU/l; 5-113), Vietnam: Halong Bay (n 20; 58 IU/l; 23-110), Phu Tho (n 22; 28 IU/l; 1-62), Tien Giang (n 20; 63 IU/l; 26-247), Ho-Chi-Minh-City (n 18; 49 IU/l; 24-116), Hanoi (n 21; 37 IU/l; 11-118), Malaysia-Kuala Lumpur (n 20; 14 IU/l; 1-46) and Tanzania-Ukerewe (n 21; 77 IU/l; 12-232) and Maasai (n 20; 88 IU/l; 43-189). We collected blood samples of these lactating women in Curaçao, Vietnam and from Tanzania-Ukerewe, and found that 33·3 % had plasma 25(OH)D levels between 80 and 249·9 nmol/l, 47·3 % between 50 and 79·9 nmol/l and 19·4 % between 25 and 49·9 nmol/l. Milk ARA correlated positively with maternal plasma 25(OH)D (range 27-132 nmol/l, r 0·40) and milk EPA+DHA (0·1-3·1 g%, r 0·20), and negatively with latitude (2°S-53°N, r -0·21). Milk ARA of mothers with lifetime abundant sunlight exposure is not even close to the vitamin D AI for 0-6-month-old infants. Our data may point at the importance of adequate fetal vitamin D stores.

  15. O contexto global e nacional frente aos desafios do acesso adequado à água para consumo humano The global and national context regarding the challenges involved in ensuring adequate access to water for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Giraldo da Silva Augusto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar os desafios do acesso à água para consumo humano, considerando-se o contexto internacional e nacional. A partir da deliberação da ONU de que o acesso à água limpa e segura é um direito fundamental de todo ser humano são identificadas vulnerabilidades que podem se constituir em restrições ao acesso. A distribuição da água e das populações no planeta, a poluição, as políticas e gestões inadequadas produzem injustiça ambiental. A iniquidade de acesso a água constitui-se na crise contemporânea da água. A partir da década de 1980, emerge o mercado transnacional de água pelo controle privado que ocorre em três níveis principais: de mananciais superficiais e subterrâneos; de água engarrafada; e dos serviços públicos de abastecimento. Os conflitos dos usos múltiplos dos recursos hídricos, do mercado e dos problemas ambientais têm contribuído para a vulnerabilização da saúde das populações e dos ecossistemas. São necessárias políticas públicas adequadas ao exercício do direito humano fundamental de acesso a água com qualidade.The scope of this article is to analyze the challenges involved in ensuring access to water for human consumption taking the international and national context into consideration. Based on the UN declaration that access to safe and clean drinking water is a fundamental human right, vulnerabilities are identified that can consist in restrictions to access to adequate supplies. The distribution of water and the population across the planet, pollution, inadequate policies and management lead to environmental injustice. The iniquity of access to water constitutes the contemporary water crisis. From the 1980s onwards, the transnational water market emerged for private control that occurs at three main levels: surface and underground water sources; bottled water; and public water supply services. The conflicts of the multiple uses of water resources, the

  16. Quem são as crianças que se sentem gordas apesar de terem peso adequado? Who are the children with adequate weight who feel fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Poyastro Pinheiro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a prevalência de crianças com peso adequado que se sentem gordas e os fatores associados a essa percepção. METODOLOGIA: Estudo transversal com 901 escolares, entre 8 e 11 anos, selecionados por conglomerados. As crianças tiveram peso e altura aferidos e responderam um questionário com escala de auto-estima, autopercepção do peso e percepção da expectativa dos pais e amigos em relação a seu peso. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de escolares com percentil do índice de massa corporal (IMC OBJECTIVES: To measure the prevalence of children with adequate weight who feel fat and to examine the factors associated with this perception. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 901 schoolchildren aged 8-11 years selected by cluster sampling. The children had their weight and height measured, and answered a questionnaire that included a self-esteem scale and questions on self-perception of weight, and perception of parents' and friends' expectations regarding the child's weight. RESULTS: The prevalence of children with BMI percentile < 85 who considered themselves fat was 13%, and the variables significantly associated with this perception were: female gender (OR = 2.45; 95%CI 1.42-4.24, 11 years of age (OR = 2.35; 95%CI 1.13-4.89, lowest quartile of self-esteem (OR = 2.08; 95%CI 1.17-3.68, the perception that parents expect them to be thinner (OR = 3.00; 95%IC 1.52-5.91, and body mass index percentile (OR = 1.04; 95%CI 1.03-1.06. CONCLUSION: The perception of being fat when having adequate weight afflicts children before preadolescence, particularly girls aged 11 years, with higher body mass index, lower self-esteem, and who think their parents expect them to be thinner. Future studies should examine in depth the causes and consequences of this attitude.

  17. Comorbidity structure of psychological disorders in the online e-PASS data as predictors of psychosocial adjustment measures: psychological distress, adequate social support, self-confidence, quality of life, and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asadi, Ali M; Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny

    2014-10-28

    A relative newcomer to the field of psychology, e-mental health has been gaining momentum and has been given considerable research attention. Although several aspects of e-mental health have been studied, 1 aspect has yet to receive attention: the structure of comorbidity of psychological disorders and their relationships with measures of psychosocial adjustment including suicidal ideation in online samples. This exploratory study attempted to identify the structure of comorbidity of 21 psychological disorders assessed by an automated online electronic psychological assessment screening system (e-PASS). The resulting comorbidity factor scores were then used to assess the association between comorbidity factor scores and measures of psychosocial adjustments (ie, psychological distress, suicidal ideation, adequate social support, self-confidence in dealing with mental health issues, and quality of life). A total of 13,414 participants were assessed using a complex online algorithm that resulted in primary and secondary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) diagnoses for 21 psychological disorders on dimensional severity scales. The scores on these severity scales were used in a principal component analysis (PCA) and the resulting comorbidity factor scores were related to 4 measures of psychosocial adjustments. A PCA based on 17 of the 21 psychological disorders resulted in a 4-factor model of comorbidity: anxiety-depression consisting of all anxiety disorders, major depressive episode (MDE), and insomnia; substance abuse consisting of alcohol and drug abuse and dependency; body image-eating consisting of eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorders; depression-sleep problems consisting of MDE, insomnia, and hypersomnia. All comorbidity factor scores were significantly associated with psychosocial measures of adjustment (P<.001). They were positively related to psychological distress and

  18. Long-Term Outcome after Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation with Adequate Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Mobilization Using Plerixafor and G-CSF in Poor Mobilizer Lymphoma and Myeloma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S. Moreb

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC mobilization predicts worse outcome for myeloma and lymphoma patients post autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT. We hypothesize that PBSC harvest using plerixafor and G-CSF in poor mobilizers may improve long-term outcome. We retrospectively analyzed the data on patients who had second PBSC mobilization using plerixafor and G-CSF as a rescue. Nine lymphoma and 8 multiple myeloma (MM patients received the drug. A control group of 25 MM and lymphoma patients who were good mobilizers with G-CSF only was used for comparison. Sixteen of the 17 poor mobilizers proceeded to ASCT, and one MM patient had tandem transplants. Length of hospital stay, infection incidence, granulocyte engraftment, and long-term hematopoietic recovery were not significantly different between the two groups. In conclusion, all poor mobilizers were able to obtain adequate stem cells transplant dose and had similar transplant course and long-term outcome to that of the control good mobilizers group.

  19. Mental illness recognition and beliefs about adequate treatment of a patient with schizophrenia: association with gender and perception of aggressiveness-dangerousness in a community sample of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-García, Rebeca; Fresán, Ana; Berlanga, Carlos; Martínez, Nicolás

    2013-12-01

    In developing countries, little is known about public recognition and beliefs about treatment of severe mental disorders, both emergent key elements in reducing stigma and the gap of treatment of such patients. It has been proposed that they may be related to gender and perception of patient's aggressiveness and/or dangerousness. To assess mental illness recognition and beliefs about treatment of schizophrenia, and to determine their relationship with perception of patient's aggressiveness/dangerousness and gender of the perceiver in a community sample of Mexico City. A convenience sample of 1038 subjects responded to a questionnaire that assesses all variables after reading a vignette of a patient with paranoid schizophrenia. Women were 1.88 times more likely to recognize the presence of mental illness and considered psychiatric interventions as the most adequate treatment of symptoms. In contrast, non-psychiatric interventions were more often considered by men (64.7%). Responders who recognize mental illness were more likely to perceive the patient as dangerous, which was related to the suggestion of more restrictive interventions. It is necessary to direct special efforts to increase mental health literacy among men. The general public needs objective information about aggression and dangerousness in anti-stigma campaigns among developing countries similar to Mexico.

  20. Safety and effectiveness of tacrolimus add-on therapy for rheumatoid arthritis patients without an adequate response to biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs): Post-marketing surveillance in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Ishida, Kota; Shiraki, Katsuhisa; Yoshiyasu, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Post-marketing surveillance (PMS) was conducted to assess the safety and effectiveness of tacrolimus (TAC) add-on therapy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and an inadequate response to biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Patients with RA from 180 medical sites across Japan were registered centrally with an electronic investigation system. The observational period was 24 weeks from the first day of TAC administration concomitantly with biological DMARDs. Safety and effectiveness populations included 624 and 566 patients, respectively. Patients were predominantly female (81.1%), with a mean age of 61.9 years. Overall, 125 adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occurred in 94 patients (15.1%), and 15 serious ADRs occurred in 11 patients (1.8%). These incidences were lower compared with previously reported incidences after TAC treatment in PMS, and all of the observed ADRs were already known. A statistically significant improvement was observed in the primary effectiveness variable of Simplified Disease Activity Index after TAC treatment; 62.7% of patients achieved remission or low disease activity at week 24. TAC is well tolerated and effective when used as an add-on to biological DMARDs in Japanese patients with RA who do not achieve an adequate response to biological DMARDs in a real-world clinical setting.