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Sample records for adenylate energy charge

  1. Adenylate nucleotide levels and energy charge in Arthrobacter crystallopoietes during growth and starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leps, W T; Ensign, J C

    1979-07-01

    The adenylate nucleotide concentrations, based on internal water space, were determined in cells of Arthrobacter crystallopoietes during growth and starvation and the energy charge of the cells was calculated. The energy charge of spherical cells rose during the first 10 h of growth, then remained nearly constant for as long as 20 h into the stationary phase. The energy charge of rod-shaped cells rose during the first 4 h of growth, then remained constant during subsequent growth and decreased in the stationary growth phase. Both spherical and rod-shaped cells excreted adenosine monophosphate but not adenosine triphosphate or adenosine diphosphate during starvation. The intracellular energy charge of spherical cells declined during the initial 10 h and then remained constant for 1 week of starvation at a value of 0.78. The intracellular energy charge of rod-shaped cells declined during the first 24 h of starvation, remained constant for the next 80 h, then decreased to a value of 0.73 after a total of 168 h starvation. Both cell forms remained more than 90% viable during this time. Addition of a carbon and energy source to starving cells resulted in an increase in the ATP concentration and as a result the energy charge increased to the smae levels as found during growth.

  2. Alternative Respiration Induced by Glucose Stimulation and Variation of Adenylate Energy Charge in Glucose-Starved Cells of Green Alga Chlorella Protothecoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Effects of inhibitors and glucose on cytochrome and alternative respiration and on adenylate energy charge (AEC) in glucose-starved Chlorella protothecoides were investigated. 1 mmol/L azide (NaN3), which immediately caused an increase of O2 uptake by inhibiting the cytochrome pathway and stimulating alternative respiration, resulted in a decrease of AEC value from 0. 83 to 0. 34 within 3 minutes. When 1 mmol/L salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) was added into the cell suspension, there was no apparent variation in AEC. Adding NaN3 and SHAM together into cell suspension to inhibit both cytochrome and alternative pathways showed a same change of AEC as that of adding NaN3 alone. When 2.0 mmol/L of glucose was added to a suspension of glucose-starved cells, the O2 uptake rate was immediately stimulated from 0.81 up to 1.34 [μrnol/L O2 · min-] · (mL PCV)-1]. The respiration stimulated by glucose could be inhibited about 20% by adding 1 mmol/L SHAM. It was found by titration with SHAM in the absence and presence of NaN3 that 53% of O2 uptake went through the cytochrome pathway and 45% of the alternate pathway was operational in enhanced respiration. It implied that induced operation of the alternative respiratory pathway probably resulted from the burst of the electron flux into the electron transport chain by glucose stimulation.

  3. Adenylate Kinase and AMP Signaling Networks: Metabolic Monitoring, Signal Communication and Body Energy Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Terzic

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Adenylate kinase and downstream AMP signaling is an integrated metabolic monitoring system which reads the cellular energy state in order to tune and report signals to metabolic sensors. A network of adenylate kinase isoforms (AK1-AK7 are distributed throughout intracellular compartments, interstitial space and body fluids to regulate energetic and metabolic signaling circuits, securing efficient cell energy economy, signal communication and stress response. The dynamics of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer regulates multiple intracellular and extracellular energy-dependent and nucleotide signaling processes, including excitation-contraction coupling, hormone secretion, cell and ciliary motility, nuclear transport, energetics of cell cycle, DNA synthesis and repair, and developmental programming. Metabolomic analyses indicate that cellular, interstitial and blood AMP levels are potential metabolic signals associated with vital functions including body energy sensing, sleep, hibernation and food intake. Either low or excess AMP signaling has been linked to human disease such as diabetes, obesity and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Recent studies indicate that derangements in adenylate kinase-mediated energetic signaling due to mutations in AK1, AK2 or AK7 isoforms are associated with hemolytic anemia, reticular dysgenesis and ciliary dyskinesia. Moreover, hormonal, food and antidiabetic drug actions are frequently coupled to alterations of cellular AMP levels and associated signaling. Thus, by monitoring energy state and generating and distributing AMP metabolic signals adenylate kinase represents a unique hub within the cellular homeostatic network.

  4. Cytosolic adenylate changes during exercise in prawn muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, M.T. [College de France, 29 - Concarneau (France); Raffin, J.P.; Pichon, R. [Brest Univ., 29 (France)

    1994-11-01

    {sup 31}P NMR and biochemical analysis were used to assess the effect of heavy exercise on cytosolic adenylate levels in Palaemon serratus abdominal muscle. At rest, the MgATP level corresponded to 85.5% of the total ATP content. The cytosolic adenylate concentrations of the prawn muscle are considerably different from that of vertebrates. The percentage of ADP bound to myofilaments was lower in the prawn muscle. Consequently, the level of free cytosolic AMP was greatly higher (thirty fold higher) than in vertebrate muscle. During vigorous work, the concentration of MgATP dropped and the cytosolic AMP accumulated, while the cytosolic adenine nucleotide pool decreased significantly. The phosphorylation potential value and the ATP/ADP ratio, calculated from the cytosolic adenylate, dropped acutely during the whole period of muscular contractions. On the contrary, the adenylate energy charge calculated from the cytosolic adenylate decreased slightly. Therefore, even in muscle displaying no AMP deamination, the adenylate charge is stabilized during exercise by the dynamic changes between cytosolic and bound adenylate species. (author). 21 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Negatively charged residues of the segment linking the enzyme and cytolysin moieties restrict the membrane-permeabilizing capacity of adenylate cyclase toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masin, Jiri; Osickova, Adriana; Sukova, Anna; Fiser, Radovan; Halada, Petr; Bumba, Ladislav; Linhartova, Irena; Osicka, Radim; Sebo, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The whooping cough agent, Bordetella pertussis, secretes an adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) that plays a crucial role in host respiratory tract colonization. CyaA targets CR3-expressing cells and disrupts their bactericidal functions by delivering into their cytosol an adenylate cyclase enzyme that converts intracellular ATP to cAMP. In parallel, the hydrophobic domain of CyaA forms cation-selective pores that permeabilize cell membrane. The invasive AC and pore-forming domains of CyaA are linked by a segment that is unique in the RTX cytolysin family. We used mass spectrometry and circular dichroism to show that the linker segment forms α-helical structures that penetrate into lipid bilayer. Replacement of the positively charged arginine residues, proposed to be involved in target membrane destabilization by the linker segment, reduced the capacity of the toxin to translocate the AC domain across cell membrane. Substitutions of negatively charged residues then revealed that two clusters of negative charges within the linker segment control the size and the propensity of CyaA pore formation, thereby restricting the cell-permeabilizing capacity of CyaA. The ‘AC to Hly-linking segment’ thus appears to account for the smaller size and modest cell-permeabilizing capacity of CyaA pores, as compared to typical RTX hemolysins. PMID:27581058

  6. Charging Graphene for Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun

    2014-10-06

    Since 2004, graphene, including single atomic layer graphite sheet, and chemically derived graphene sheets, has captured the imagination of researchers for energy storage because of the extremely high surface area (2630 m2/g) compared to traditional activated carbon (typically below 1500 m2/g), excellent electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and potential for low cost manufacturing. These properties are very desirable for achieving high activity, high capacity and energy density, and fast charge and discharge. Chemically derived graphene sheets are prepared by oxidation and reduction of graphite1 and are more suitable for energy storage because they can be made in large quantities. They still contain multiply stacked graphene sheets, structural defects such as vacancies, and oxygen containing functional groups. In the literature they are also called reduced graphene oxide, or functionalized graphene sheets, but in this article they are all referred to as graphene for easy of discussion. Two important applications, batteries and electrochemical capacitors, have been widely investigated. In a battery material, the redox reaction occurs at a constant potential (voltage) and the energy is stored in the bulk. Therefore, the energy density is high (more than 100 Wh/kg), but it is difficult to rapidly charge or discharge (low power, less than 1 kW/kg)2. In an electrochemical capacitor (also called supercapacitors or ultracapacitor in the literature), the energy is stored as absorbed ionic species at the interface between the high surface area carbon and the electrolyte, and the potential is a continuous function of the state-of-charge. The charge and discharge can happen rapidly (high power, up to 10 kW/kg) but the energy density is low, less than 10 Wh/kg2. A device that can have both high energy and high power would be ideal.

  7. Energy of a Charged Wormhole

    CERN Document Server

    Salti, M; Aydogdu, Oktay; Salti, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    The Moller energy(due to matter and fields including gravity) distribution of the traversable Lorentzian wormhole space-time by the scalar field or electric charged is studied in two different approaches of gravity such as general relativity and tele-parallel gravity. The results are found exactly the same in these different approximations. The energy found in tele-parallel gravity is also independent of the tele-parallel dimensionless coupling constant, which means that it is valid in any tele-parallel model. Our results sustains that (a) the importance of the energy-momentum definitions in the evaluation of the energy distribution of a given space-time and (b) the viewpoint of Lassner that the Moller energy-momentum complex is a powerful concept of energy and momentum.

  8. Complete Charging for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊康旗; 徐春辉; 王卫东

    2014-01-01

    Under an in-phase assumption, the complete charging for an energy harvesting system is studied, which consists of a piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH), a bridge rectifier, a filter capacitor, a switch, a controller and a rechargeable battery. For the transient charging, the results indicate that the voltage across the filter capacitor increases as the charging proceeds, which is consistent with that reported in the literature. However, a new finding shows that the charging rate and energy harvesting efficiency decrease over time after their respective peak values are acquired. For the steady-state charging, the results reveal that the energy harvesting efficiency can be adjusted by altering the critical charging voltage that controls the transition of the system. The optimal energy harvesting efficiency is limited by the optimal efficiency of the transient charging. Finally, the relationship between the critical charging voltage and the equivalent resistance of the controller and rechargeable battery is established explicitly.

  9. Energy storage device with large charge separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holme, Timothy P.; Prinz, Friedrich B.; Iancu, Andrei

    2016-04-12

    High density energy storage in semiconductor devices is provided. There are two main aspects of the present approach. The first aspect is to provide high density energy storage in semiconductor devices based on formation of a plasma in the semiconductor. The second aspect is to provide high density energy storage based on charge separation in a p-n junction.

  10. Gravitational Binding Energy in Charged Cylindrical Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, M

    2014-01-01

    We consider static cylindrically symmetric charged gravitating object with perfect fluid and investigate the gravitational binding energy. It is found that only the localized part of the mass function provides the gravitational binding energy, whereas the non-localized part generated by the electric coupling does not contribute for such energy.

  11. Energy extremum principle for charged black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Scott; Funkhouser, Shaker Von Price

    2015-11-01

    For a set of N asymptotically flat black holes with arbitrary charges and masses, all initially at rest and well separated, we prove the following extremum principle: the extremal charge configuration (|qi|=mi for each black hole) can be derived by extremizing the total energy, for variations of the black hole apparent horizon areas, at fixed charges and fixed Euclidean separations. We prove this result through second order in an expansion in the inverse separations. If all charges have the same sign, this result is a variational principle that reinterprets the static equilibrium of the Majumdar-Papapetrou-Hartle-Hawking solution as an extremum of total energy, rather than as a balance of forces; this result augments a list of related variational principles for other static black holes, and is consistent with the independently known Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) energy minimum.

  12. Pacemakers charging using body energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Dinesh; Bairagi, Sweeti; Goel, Sanat; Jangra, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Life-saving medical implants like pacemakers and defibrillators face a big drawback that their batteries eventually run out and patients require frequent surgery to have these batteries replaced. With the advent of technology, alternatives can be provided for such surgeries. To power these devices, body energy harvesting techniques may be employed. Some of the power sources are patient's heartbeat, blood flow inside the vessels, movement of the body parts, and the body temperature (heat). Different types of sensors are employed, such as for sensing the energy from the heartbeat the piezoelectric and semiconducting coupled nanowires are used that convert the mechanical energy into electricity. Similarly, for sensing the blood flow energy, nanogenerators driven by ultrasonic waves are used that have the ability to directly convert the hydraulic energy in human body to electrical energy. Another consideration is to use body heat employing biothermal battery to generate electricity using multiple arrays of thermoelectric generators built into an implantable chip. These generators exploit the well-known thermocouple effect. For the biothermal device to work, it needs a 2°C temperature difference across it. But there are many parts of the body where a temperature difference of 5°C exists - typically in the few millimeters just below the skin, where it is planned to place this device. This study focuses on using body heat as an alternative energy source to recharge pacemaker batteries and other medical devices and prevent the possibility of life-risk during repeated surgery.

  13. Pacemakers charging using body energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Bhatia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-saving medical implants like pacemakers and defibrillators face a big drawback that their batteries eventually run out and patients require frequent surgery to have these batteries replaced. With the advent of technology, alternatives can be provided for such surgeries. To power these devices, body energy harvesting techniques may be employed. Some of the power sources are patient′s heartbeat, blood flow inside the vessels, movement of the body parts, and the body temperature (heat. Different types of sensors are employed, such as for sensing the energy from the heartbeat the piezoelectric and semiconducting coupled nanowires are used that convert the mechanical energy into electricity. Similarly, for sensing the blood flow energy, nanogenerators driven by ultrasonic waves are used that have the ability to directly convert the hydraulic energy in human body to electrical energy. Another consideration is to use body heat employing biothermal battery to generate electricity using multiple arrays of thermoelectric generators built into an implantable chip. These generators exploit the well-known thermocouple effect. For the biothermal device to work, it needs a 2°C temperature difference across it. But there are many parts of the body where a temperature difference of 5°C exists - typically in the few millimeters just below the skin, where it is planned to place this device. This study focuses on using body heat as an alternative energy source to recharge pacemaker batteries and other medical devices and prevent the possibility of life-risk during repeated surgery.

  14. Charged Vaidya Solution Satisfies Weak Energy Condition

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Soumyabrata; Virmani, Amitabh

    2015-01-01

    The external matter stress-tensor supporting charged Vaidya solution appears to violate weak energy condition in certain region of the spacetime. Motivated by this, a new interpretation of charged Vaidya solution was proposed by Ori [1] in which the energy condition continues to be satisfied. In this construction, one glues an outgoing Vaidya solution to the original ingoing Vaidya solution provided the surface where the external stress-tensor vanishes is spacelike. We revisit this study and extend it to higher-dimensions, to AdS settings, and to higher-derivative f(R) theories. In asymptotically flat space context, we explore in detail the case when the mass function m(v) is proportional to the charge function q(v). When the proportionality constant \

  15. A Continuous Kinetic Assay for Adenylation Enzyme Activity and Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel J. Wilson; Aldrich, Courtney C.

    2010-01-01

    Adenylation/adenylate-forming enzymes catalyze the activation of a carboxylic acid at the expense of ATP to form an acyl-adenylate intermediate and pyrophosphate (PPi). In a second half-reaction, adenylation enzymes catalyze the transfer of the acyl moiety of the acyl-adenylate onto an acceptor molecule, which can be either a protein or a small molecule. We describe the design, development, and validation of a coupled continuous spectrophotometric assay for adenylation enzymes that employs hy...

  16. Charged Vaidya solution satisfies weak energy condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Soumyabrata; Ganguli, Suman; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-07-01

    The external matter stress-tensor supporting charged Vaidya solution appears to violate weak energy condition in certain region of the spacetime. Motivated by this, a new interpretation of charged Vaidya solution was proposed by Ori (Class Quant Grav 8:1559, 1991) in which the energy condition continues to be satisfied. In this construction, one glues an outgoing Vaidya solution to the original ingoing Vaidya solution provided the surface where the external stress-tensor vanishes is spacelike. We revisit this study and extend it to higher-dimensions, to AdS settings, and to higher-derivative f( R) theories. In asymptotically flat space context, we explore in detail the case when the mass function m( v) is proportional to the charge function q( v). When the proportionality constant ν = q(v)/m(v) lies in between zero and one, we show that the surface where the external stress-tensor vanishes is spacelike and lies in between the inner and outer apparent horizons.

  17. Uridylation and adenylation of RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, JianBo; Song, Jun; Mo, BeiXin; Chen, XueMei

    2015-11-01

    The posttranscriptional addition of nontemplated nucleotides to the 3' ends of RNA molecules can have a significant impact on their stability and biological function. It has been recently discovered that nontemplated addition of uridine or adenosine to the 3' ends of RNAs occurs in different organisms ranging from algae to humans, and on different kinds of RNAs, such as histone mRNAs, mRNA fragments, U6 snRNA, mature small RNAs and their precursors etc. These modifications may lead to different outcomes, such as increasing RNA decay, promoting or inhibiting RNA processing, or changing RNA activity. Growing pieces of evidence have revealed that such modifications can be RNA sequence-specific and subjected to temporal or spatial regulation in development. RNA tailing and its outcomes have been associated with human diseases such as cancer. Here, we review recent developments in RNA uridylation and adenylation and discuss the future prospects in this research area. PMID:26563174

  18. Conformal collider physics: Energy and charge correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Hofman, Diego M

    2008-01-01

    We study observables in a conformal field theory which are very closely related to the ones used to describe hadronic events at colliders. We focus on the correlation functions of the energies deposited on calorimeters placed at a large distance from the collision. We consider initial states produced by an operator insertion and we study some general properties of the energy correlation functions for conformal field theories. We argue that the small angle singularities of energy correlation functions are controlled by the twist of non-local light-ray operators with a definite spin. We relate the charge two point function to a particular moment of the parton distribution functions appearing in deep inelastic scattering. The one point energy correlation functions are characterized by a few numbers. For ${\\cal N}=1$ superconformal theories the one point function for states created by the R-current or the stress tensor are determined by the two parameters $a$ and $c$ characterizing the conformal anomaly. Demandin...

  19. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagami, Alessandro S; Edvinsson, Lars; Goadsby, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) is found in human trigeminocervical complex and can trigger migraine. PACAP levels were measured using a sensitive radioimmunoassay. Stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) in cat elevated PACAP levels in cranial blood. Patients...

  20. Double charge exchange at high impact energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Dževad

    1994-03-01

    In fast ion-atom collisions, double ionization always dominates the two-electron transfer. For this reason, an adequate description of double charge exchange requires proper inclusion of intermediate ionization channels. This is even more important in two- than in one-electron transitions. First-order Born-type perturbation theories ignore throughout these electronic continuum intermediate states and hence provide utterly unreliable high energy cross sections for two-electron capture processes. Therefore, it is essential to use second- and higher-order theories, which include the intermediate ionization continua of the two electrons in an approximate manner. In the present paper, a new second-order theory called the Born distorted wave (BDW) approximation is introduced and implemented in the case of symmetric resonant double electron capture from the ground state of helium by fast alpha particles. A genuine four-body formalism is adopted, in contrast to the conventional independent particle model of atomic scattering theory. The obtained results for the total cross sections are compared with the available experimental data, and satisfactory agreement is recorded. As the incident energy increases, a dramatic improvement is obtained in going from the CB1 to the BDW approximation, since the latter closely follows the measurement, whereas the former overestimates the observed total cross sections by two orders of magnitude. This strongly indicates that the role of continuum intermediate states is decisive, even at those incident energies for which the Thomas double scattering effects are not important. This is in sharp contrast to the case of one-electron transfer atomic reactions.

  1. Molecular cloning and amplification of the adenylate cyclase gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, J Y; Clegg, D O; Koshland, D E

    1981-01-01

    A segment of DNA containing cya, the gene for adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1], has been isolated from Salmonella typhimurium. The phage lambda gt4 was used as a cloning vector and adenylate cyclase-positive hybrid phages were isolated that complemented adenylate cyclase-negative bacteria. The cloned DNA fragment encodes a polypeptide of molecular weight 81,000 that gives rise to adenylate cyclase activity. This protein represents a functional mutant of the ...

  2. Dynamical charge fluctuation at FAIR energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment to be held at the Facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) is being designed to investigate the baryonic matter under extreme thermodynamic conditions. The hot and dense matter produced in this experiment will be rich in baryon number. It would be worthwhile to examine how the signatures proposed for identifying and characterizing a baryon free QGP like state behave in a baryon rich environment. Event-by-event fluctuation of net electrical charge and/or baryon number is one such indicator of the formation of the QGP, used and tested in RHIC and LHC heavy-ion experiments. One starts by defining the net charge Q = (N+ - N-) and the total charge Nch = (N+ + N-) where the quantities N+ and N- are respectively, the multiplicities of positively and negatively charged particles

  3. Electric Charge as a Form of Imaginary Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxi Zhang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric charge is considered as a form of imaginary energy. With this consideration, the energy of an electrically charged particle is a complex number. The real part is proportional to the mass, while the imaginary part is proportional to the electric charge. The energy of an antiparticle is given by conjugating the energy of its corresponding particle. Newton's law of gravity and Coulomb's law of electric force are classically unified into a single expression of the interaction between the complex energies of two electrically charged particles. Interaction between real energies (or masses is the gravitational force. Interaction between imaginary energies (or electric charges is the electromagnetic force. Since radiation is also a form of real energy, there are another two types of interactions between real energies: the mass-radiation interaction and the radiation-radiation interaction. Calculating the work done by the mass-radiation interaction on a photon, we can derive the Einsteinian gravitational redshift. Calculating the work done by the radiation-radiation interaction on a photon, we can obtain a radiation redshift. This study suggests the electric charge as a form of imaginary energy, so that classically unifies the gravitational and electric forces and derives the Einsteinian gravitational redshift.

  4. Cooperative phenomena in binding and activation of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase by calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhss, A; Krin, E; Munier, H; Gilles, A M; Danchin, A; Glaser, P; Bârzu, O

    1993-01-25

    The catalytic domain of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase located within the first 400 amino acids of the protein can be cleaved by trypsin in two subdomains (T25 and T18) corresponding to ATP-(T25) and calmodulin (CaM)-(T18) binding sites. Reassociation of subdomains by CaM is a cooperative process, which is a unique case among CaM-activated enzymes. To understand better the molecular basis of this phenomenon, we used several approaches such as partial deletions of the adenylate cyclase gene, isolation of peptides of various size, and site-directed mutagenesis experiments. We found that a stretch of 72 amino acid residues overlapping the carboxyl terminus of T25 and the amino terminus of T18 accounts for 90% of the binding energy of adenylate cyclase-CaM complex. The hydrophobic "side" of the helical region situated around Trp242 plays a major role in the interaction of adenylate cyclase with CaM, whereas basic residues that alternate with acidic residues in bacterial enzyme play a much less important role. The amino-terminal half of the catalytic domain of adenylate cyclase contributes only 10% to the binding energy of CaM, whereas the last 130 amino acid residues are not at all involved in binding. However, these segments of adenylate cyclase might affect protein/protein interaction and catalysis by propagating conformational changes to the CaM-binding sequence which is located in the middle of the catalytic domain of bacterial enzyme. PMID:8420945

  5. Phantom Energy Accretion by a Stringy Charged Black Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Sharif; G.Abbas

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical behavior of phantom energy near a stringy magnetically charged black hole. For this purpose, we derive equations of motion for steady-state spherically symmetric Row of phantom energy onto the stringy magnetically charged black hole. It is found that phantom energy accreting onto a black hole decreases its mass. Further, the location of the critical points of accretion is explored, which yields a mass to charge ratio. This ratio implies that accretion process cannot transform a black hole into an extremal black hole or a naked singularity, hence cosmic censorship hypothesis remains valid here.%We investigate the dynamical behavior of phantom energy near a stringy magnetically charged black hole.For this purpose,we derive equations of motion for steady-state spherically symmetric flow of phantom energy onto the stringy magnetically charged black hole.It is found that phantom energy accreting onto a black hole decreases its mass.Further,the location of the critical points of accretion is explored,which yields a mass to charge ratio.This ratio implies that accretion process cannot transform a black hole into an extremal black hole or a naked singularity,hence cosmic censorship hypothesis remains valid here.

  6. Skeletal muscle contractile performance and ADP accumulation in adenylate kinase-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hancock, C.R.; Janssen, E.E.W.; Terjung, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    The production of AMP by adenylate kinase (AK) and subsequent deamination by AMP deaminase limits ADP accumulation during conditions of high-energy demand in skeletal muscle. The goal of this study was to investigate the consequences of AK deficiency (-/-) on adenine nucleotide management and whole

  7. Energy mechanism of charges analyzed in real current environment

    CERN Document Server

    Ianconescu, R; Ianconescu, Reuven

    2003-01-01

    We analyze in this work the energy transfer process of accelerated charges, the mass fluctuations accompanying this process, and their inertial properties. Based on a previous work, we use here the dipole antenna, which is a very convenient framework for such analysis, for analyzing those characteristics. We show that the radiation process can be viewed by two energy transfer processes: one from the energy source to the charges and the second from the charges into the surrounding space. Those processes, not being in phase, result in mass fluctuations. The same principle is true during absorption. We show that in a transient period between absorption and radiation the dipole antenna gains mass according to the amount of absorbed energy and loses this mass as radiated energy. We rigorously prove that the gain of mass, resulting from electrical interaction has inertial properties in the sense of Newton's third low. We arrive to this result by modeling the reacting spacetime region by an electric dipole.

  8. Research on Battery Charging-Discharging in New Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Yanbo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As an energy storage component, the battery plays increasingly important role in new energy industry. Charging and discharging system is the vital part of the application of the battery, but the charge and discharge are always designed separately and carried by different part in the traditional application. Additionally, most battery discharge mode and method are always simplified which cannot ensure to meet the demand of power utilization. In the actual energy storage system, the design of the energy converter, which make the power storage and supply as a whole and the design of the charge and discharge method, will play an important role in efficient utilization of the battery system. As a part of the new energy system, the study makes battery and the charging and discharging system as a whole to store energy, which can store and release electric energy high efficiently according to the system state and control the bidirectional flow of energy precisely. Using TMS320F2812 as the control core, the system which integrates charging and discharging with battery monitoring can achieve the bidirectional Buck/Boost power control. It can achieve three-stage charging and selective discharging of the battery. Due to the influence of the diode reverse recovery time, current oscillation will appear. In order to eliminate the oscillation, we can set the circuit to work in critical conduction mode. The experimental result shows that the system can achieve the charging and discharging control of lead-acid battery and increase the battery life time further.

  9. Charge and Energy Dependences of Ionization and Transfer for Helium in Collisions with Fast Charged Projectiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Hong-Bin; WANG Bao-Hong; DING Bao-Wei; LIU Zhao-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    The classical method within the independent electron model is employed to investigate (i) charge dependences of single and double ionization for helium by various charged ions Aq+ (q = 1 - 8) at impact energies of 0.64 and 1.44 MeV/u, respectively, (ii) energy dependences of transfer ionization for helium by 0.5-3 MeV/u A8,9+ ions impact. The Lenz-Jensen model of the atom is applied instead of the Bohr model of the atom, and the impact-parameter dependences are also introduced into the calculations. Satisfactory agreement is found between theoretical and experimental data.

  10. 10 CFR 904.6 - Charge for capacity and firm energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charge for capacity and firm energy. 904.6 Section 904.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.6 Charge for capacity and firm energy. The charge for Capacity...

  11. Quasilocal Energy for Static Charged Black Holes in String Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shi-Liang; JING Ji-Liang; WANG Yong-Jiu

    2001-01-01

    The Brown-York quasilocal energies of some static charged dilaton black holes are calculated, and then the validity of Martinez's conjecture is explored in string theory. It is shown that the energy is positive and monotonically decreases to the ADM mass at spatial infinity, and the conjecture that the Brown-York quasilocal energy at the outer horizon of black hole reduces to twice of its irreducible mass is still applicable for the static charged black holes in string theory. The result is different from Bose-Naing's one.``

  12. Thermal energy and charge currents in multi-terminal nanorings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Tobias; Kreisbeck, Christoph; Riha, Christian; Chiatti, Olivio; Buchholz, Sven S.; Wieck, Andreas D.; Reuter, Dirk; Fischer, Saskia F.

    2016-06-01

    We study in experiment and theory thermal energy and charge transfer close to the quantum limit in a ballistic nanodevice, consisting of multiply connected one-dimensional electron waveguides. The fabricated device is based on an AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure and is covered by a global top-gate to steer the thermal energy and charge transfer in the presence of a temperature gradient, which is established by a heating current. The estimate of the heat transfer by means of thermal noise measurements shows the device acting as a switch for charge and thermal energy transfer. The wave-packet simulations are based on the multi-terminal Landauer-Büttiker approach and confirm the experimental finding of a mode-dependent redistribution of the thermal energy current, if a scatterer breaks the device symmetry.

  13. Charging electric cars from solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xusheng; Tanyi, Elvis; Zou, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Before vehicles were heavily relied on coal, fossil fuels and wind for power.  Now, they are rapidly being replaced by electric vehicles and or plug-in hybrid electric cars. But these electric cars are still faced with the problem of energy availability because they rely on energy from biomass, hydro power and wind turbines for power generation. The abundance of solar radiation and its use as solar energy as a power source in driving these rapidly increasing electric cars is not only an impor...

  14. Energy Charge, Redox State, and Metabolite Turnover in Single Human Hepatocytes Revealed by Capillary Microsampling Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linwen; Vertes, Akos

    2015-10-20

    Metabolic analysis of single cells to uncover cellular heterogeneity and metabolic noise is limited by the available tools. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of capillary microsampling electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with ion mobility separation for nontargeted analysis of single cells. On the basis of accurate mass measurements and collision cross-section determination, a large number of chemical species, 22 metabolites and 54 lipids, were identified. To assess the cellular response to metabolic modulators, the adenylate energy charge (AEC) levels for control and rotenone treated cells were evaluated. A significant reduction in the AEC values was observed for rotenone treated cells. For the cells under oxidative stress, the mean value for the [reduced glutathione (GSH)]/[oxidized glutathione (GSSG)] ratio was significantly decreased, whereas the distribution of the [uridine diphosphate N-acetylhexosamine (UDP-HexNAc)]/[uridine diphosphate hexose (UDP-hexose)] ratio exhibited dramatic tailing to higher values. Lipid turnover rates were studied by pulse-chase experiments at the single cell level. PMID:26398405

  15. Inorganic electret with enhanced charge stability for energy harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    We report a new surface treatment of inorganic electret materials which enhances the charge stability. Coating the surfaces with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H - perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) makes the electret surface more hydrophobic which improves the surface charge stability under high humidity...... conditions. Thermal tests show that the thermal stability of charge in the inorganic electrets is also much better than that of polymer materials such as CYTOP. A demonstrator device with SiO2 electrets shows promising results for energy harvesting applications....

  16. Equilibrium charge state distributions of high energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium charge state fractions have been measured for N, O, Ne, S, Ar and Kr ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon after passing through various stripping materials. Further data were obtained at higher energy for S ions (4.12 MeV/nucleon) and Ar ions (4.12 and 9.6 MeV/nucleon). The mean charge fractions can be fitted to universal curves for both solid and gaseous strippers. Measurements of the equilibrium fraction of krypton ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon passing through heavy vapours have shown that a higher average charge state is obtained than for lighter gaseous strippers. (Auth.)

  17. Charge-pickup of 238U at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections for the charge-pickup of 238U projectiles were measured at E/A=600 and 1000 MeV for seven different targets (Be, C, Al, Cu, In, Au and U). Events with two fission fragments with a sum charge of 93 in the exit channel were selected. Due to the significant excitation energy, the dominant part of produced Np nuclei fission instead of decaying to the ground state by evaporation. The observed cross sections can be well reproduced by intranuclear-cascade-plus-evaporation calculations and, therefore, confirm recent results that no exotic processes are needed to explain charge-pickup processes. (orig.)

  18. Low energy charged particles interacting with amorphous solid water layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Yonatan; Asscher, Micha [Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Edmund J. Safra Campus, Givat-Ram, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2012-04-07

    The interaction of charged particles with condensed water films has been studied extensively in recent years due to its importance in biological systems, ecology as well as interstellar processes. We have studied low energy electrons (3-25 eV) and positive argon ions (55 eV) charging effects on amorphous solid water (ASW) and ice films, 120-1080 ML thick, deposited on ruthenium single crystal under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Charging the ASW films by both electrons and positive argon ions has been measured using a Kelvin probe for contact potential difference (CPD) detection and found to obey plate capacitor physics. The incoming electrons kinetic energy has defined the maximum measurable CPD values by retarding further impinging electrons. L-defects (shallow traps) are suggested to be populated by the penetrating electrons and stabilize them. Low energy electron transmission measurements (currents of 0.4-1.5 {mu}A) have shown that the maximal and stable CPD values were obtained only after a relatively slow change has been completed within the ASW structure. Once the film has been stabilized, the spontaneous discharge was measured over a period of several hours at 103 {+-} 2 K. Finally, UV laser photo-emission study of the charged films has suggested that the negative charges tend to reside primarily at the ASW-vacuum interface, in good agreement with the known behavior of charged water clusters.

  19. Low energy charged particles interacting with amorphous solid water layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Yonatan; Asscher, Micha

    2012-04-01

    The interaction of charged particles with condensed water films has been studied extensively in recent years due to its importance in biological systems, ecology as well as interstellar processes. We have studied low energy electrons (3-25 eV) and positive argon ions (55 eV) charging effects on amorphous solid water (ASW) and ice films, 120-1080 ML thick, deposited on ruthenium single crystal under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Charging the ASW films by both electrons and positive argon ions has been measured using a Kelvin probe for contact potential difference (CPD) detection and found to obey plate capacitor physics. The incoming electrons kinetic energy has defined the maximum measurable CPD values by retarding further impinging electrons. L-defects (shallow traps) are suggested to be populated by the penetrating electrons and stabilize them. Low energy electron transmission measurements (currents of 0.4-1.5 μA) have shown that the maximal and stable CPD values were obtained only after a relatively slow change has been completed within the ASW structure. Once the film has been stabilized, the spontaneous discharge was measured over a period of several hours at 103 ± 2 K. Finally, UV laser photo-emission study of the charged films has suggested that the negative charges tend to reside primarily at the ASW-vacuum interface, in good agreement with the known behavior of charged water clusters.

  20. Rapid Charging of Thermal Energy Storage Materials through Plasmonic Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongyong Wang; Peng Tao; Yang Liu; Hao Xu; Qinxian Ye; Hang Hu; Chengyi Song; Zhaoping Chen; Wen Shang; Tao Deng

    2014-01-01

    Direct collection, conversion and storage of solar radiation as thermal energy are crucial to the efficient utilization of renewable solar energy and the reduction of global carbon footprint. This work reports a facile approach for rapid and efficient charging of thermal energy storage materials by the instant and intense photothermal effect of uniformly distributed plasmonic nanoparticles. Upon illumination with both green laser light and sunlight, the prepared plasmonic nanocomposites with ...

  1. Resonance charge exchange mechanism at high and moderate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, A.V.; Gevorkyan, A.S.

    1984-03-01

    Charge exchange mechanisms at high and medium energies are investigated, taking the resonance charge exchange of a proton by an hydrogen atom as an example. It is established that there are two classical charge exchange mechanisms related to direct proton knockout from the bound state and one quantum-mechanical mechanism corresponding to the electron tunnelling from one bound state to another. The classical cross-section diverges for two of these mechanisms, and the quasiclassical scattering amplitude must be calculated on the base of a complex classical trajectory. Physical grounds for the choice of such trajectories are discussed and calculations of the Van Vleck determinant for these mechanisms are presented. Contributions from different mechanisms to the total charge excha nge cross-section are analyzed. A comparison with experimental data and results of other authors is made.

  2. Resonant charge exchange mechanisms at high and moderate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, A.V.; Gevorkyan, A.S.

    1984-03-01

    Charge transfer mechanisms at high and moderate energies are considered for the case of resonant charge exchange of a proton on a hydrogen atom. It is shown that there are two classical charge exchange mechanisms associated with direct ejection of a proton from a bound state, and one quantum mechanical mechanism, in which an electron goes from one bound state into another. The classical cross section diverges for two of these mechanisms, and the semiclassical scattering amplitude must be calculated using the complex classical trajectory. The physical premises for choosing these trajectories are discussed and calculations of the Van Vleck determinant for the mechanisms are presented. The relative contributions of the various mechanisms to the total charge exchange cross section are analyzed, and the results are compared with other experimental data.

  3. Fast Charging and Smart Charging Tests for Electric Vehicles Batteries Using Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forero Camacho Oscar Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric Vehicles (EV technologies are still relatively new and under strong development. Although some standardized solutions are being promoted and becoming a new trend, there is an outstanding need for common platforms and sharing of knowledge and core technologies. This paper presents the development of a test platform, including three Li-ion batteries designed for EV applications, and three associated bi-directional power converters, for testing impacts on different advanced loadings of EV batteries. Different charging algorithms/profiles have been tested, including constant current and power, and forced and pulsed power. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of smart charging and fast charging on the power system, on the battery state of health and degradation, and to find out the limitations of the batteries for a Smart Grid. The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of both tests in terms of regulation of the aggregated local power, power capacity and the power exchange with the grid. The smart charging tests performed have demonstrated that even with a simple control algorithm, without any forecasting, it is possible to provide the required charging and at the same time the power system services, reducing the peak power and the energy losses in the power connection line of the power exchange with the national grid.

  4. Medical radiation dosimetry theory of charged particle collision energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate radiation dosimetry is a requirement of radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. It is necessary so as to satisfy the needs of patient safety, therapeutic and diagnostic optimisation, and retrospective epidemiological studies of the biological effects resulting from low absorbed doses of ionising radiation. The radiation absorbed dose received by the patient is the ultimate consequence of the transfer of kinetic energy through collisions between energetic charged particles and atoms of the tissue being traversed. Thus, the ability of the medical physicist to both measure and calculate accurately patient dosimetry demands a deep understanding of the physics of charged particle interactions with matter. Interestingly, the physics of charged particle energy loss has an almost exclusively theoretical basis, thus necessitating an advanced theoretical understanding of the subject in order to apply it appropriately to the clinical regime. ​ Each year, about one-third of the worl...

  5. Charge-state-dependent energy loss of slow ions. I. Experimental results on the transmission of highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Richard A.; Gruber, Elisabeth; Smejkal, Valerie; Facsko, Stefan; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2016-05-01

    We report on energy loss measurements of slow (v ≪v0 ), highly charged (Q >10 ) ions upon transmission through a 1-nm-thick carbon nanomembrane. We emphasize here the scaling of the energy loss with the velocity and charge exchange or loss. We show that a weak linear velocity dependence exists, whereas charge exchange dominates the kinetic energy loss, especially in the case of a large charge capture. A universal scaling of the energy loss with the charge exchange and velocity is found and discussed in this paper. A model for charge-state-dependent energy loss for slow ions is presented in paper II in this series [R. A. Wilhelm and W. Möller, Phys. Rev. A 93, 052709 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.052709].

  6. INTRAMOLECULAR CHARGE AND ENERGY TRANSFER IN MULTICHROMOPHORIC AROMATIC SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward C. Lim

    2008-09-09

    A concerted experimental and computational study of energy transfer in nucleic acid bases and charge transfer in dialkylaminobenzonitriles, and related electron donor-acceptor molecules, indicate that the ultrafast photoprocesses occur through three-state conical interactions involving an intermediate state of biradical character.

  7. Renewable Energy for Electric Vehicles: Price Based Charging Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richstein, J.C.; Schuller, A.; Dinther, C.; Ketter, W.; Weinhardt, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the charging coordination of battery electric vehicles (BEV) with respect to the availability of intermittent renewable energy generation considering individual real world driving profiles in a deterministic simulation based analysis, mapping a part of the German power s

  8. Exact solutions, energy, and charge of stable Q-balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Marques, M.A. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    In this work we deal with nontopological solutions of the Q-ball type in two spacetime dimensions. We study models of current interest, described by a Higgs-like and other, similar potentials which unveil the presence of exact solutions. We use the analytic results to investigate how to control the energy and charge to make the Q-balls stable. (orig.)

  9. Charge reorganization energy and small polaron binding energy of rubrene thin films by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhm, Steffen; Xin, Qian; Hosoumi, Shunsuke; Fukagawa, Hirohiko; Sato, Kazushi; Ueno, Nobuo; Kera, Satoshi

    2012-02-14

    The hole–phonon coupling of a rubrene monolayer on graphite is measured by means of angle resolved ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Thus, the charge reorganization energy λ and the small polaron binding energy is determined, which allows insight into the nature of charge transport in condensed rubrene. PMID:22403829

  10. Interaction of low-energy highly charged ions with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis presented herein deals with experimental studies of the interaction between highly charged ions and neutral matter at low collision energies. The energy range investigated is of great interest for the understanding of both charge exchange reactions between ions comprising the solar wind and various astrophysical gases, as well as the creation of near-surface nanostructures. Over the course of this thesis an experimental setup was constructed, capable of reducing the kinetic energy of incoming ions by two orders of magnitude and finally focussing the decelerated ion beam onto a solid or gaseous target. A coincidence method was employed for the simultaneous detection of photons emitted during the charge exchange process together with the corresponding projectile ions. In this manner, it was possible to separate reaction channels, whose superposition presumably propagated large uncertainties and systematic errors in previous measurements. This work has unveiled unexpectedly strong contributions of slow radiative decay channels and clear evidence of previously only postulated decay processes in charge exchange-induced X-ray spectra. (orig.)

  11. Models for Energy and Charge Transport and Storage in Biomolecules

    OpenAIRE

    Mingaleev, S. F.; Christiansen, P. L.; Gaididei, Yu. B.; M. Johansson; Rasmussen, K.Ø.

    1999-01-01

    Two models for energy and charge transport and storage in biomolecules are considered. A model based on the discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation with long-range dispersive interactions (LRI's) between base pairs of DNA is offered for the description of nonlinear dynamics of the DNA molecule. We show that LRI's are responsible for the existence of an interval of bistability where two stable stationary states, a narrow, pinned state and a broad, mobile state, coexist at each value of the tot...

  12. Energy loss of charged particles colliding with an oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, D. N.

    2015-04-01

    Energy loss of fast charged particles colliding with an oscillator is considered in the dipole approximation. In this approximation, the problem is solved exactly and the energy loss of the oscillator from the initial state | m> = |0> is found in the form of the sum of single integrals. It is shown that passing to the limit, the Bethe theory for an atom with small perturbations can be obtained, and in the case of strong fields, the correction to the Bethe theory, analogous to the Bloch correction, can be calculated; in addition, a classical limit coinciding with the Bohr formula is possible.

  13. Adenylate cyclases involvement in pathogenicity, a minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Adriana; Bucurenci, Nadia; Onu, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP), one of the most important secondary messengers, is produced by adenylate cyclase (AC) from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). AC is a widespread enzyme, being present both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although they have the same enzymatic activity (ATP cyclization), the structure of these proteins varies, depending on their function and the producing organism. Some pathogenic bacteria utilize these enzymes as toxins which interact with calmodulin (or another eukaryote activator), causing intense cAMP synthesis and disruption of infected cell functions. In contrast, other pathogenic bacteria benefit of augmentation of AC activity for their own function. Based on sequence analysis ofAC catalytic domain from two pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus anthracis and Bordetellapertussis) with known three-dimensional structures, a possible secondary structure for 1-255 amino acid fragment from Pseudomonas aeruginosa AC (with 80TKGFSVKGKSS90 as the ATP binding site) is proposed.

  14. Instrument to measure energy and charge of low energy interplanetary particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums, E.; Gloeckler, G.; Cain, J.; Sciambi, R.; Fan, C. Y.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment to measure the charge composition and energy spectra of ultra low energy charged particles in interplanetary space has been developed and launched on the IMP 8 (Explorer 50) satellite on Oct. 26, 1973. The instrument consists of two separate sensors sharing common electronics. One of these sensors uses a thin window gas proportional counter to measure the rate of energy loss and a totally depleted silicon surface barrier detector to measure total energy of incoming particles. The energy range for two dimensional analysis extends from 300 KeV to 2.5 MeV for protons and 60 KeV/nucleon to 25 MeV/nucleon for iron with excellent resolution of individual chemical elements. The other sensor combines electrostatic deflection with total energy measurements in silicon surface barrier detectors to give the ionic charge and kinetic energy of the particle.

  15. Structural studies of Schistosoma mansoni adenylate kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, I.A. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Pereira, H.M.; Garrat, R.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP-SC), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Parasitic diseases are a major cause of death in developing countries, however receive little or no attention from pharmaceutical companies for the development of novel therapies. In this respect, the Center for Structural Molecular Biology (CBME) of the Institute of Physics of Sao Carlos (IFSC / USP) has developed expertise in all stages of the development of active compounds against target enzymes from parasitic diseases. The present work focuses on the adenylate kinase enzymes (ADK's) from Schistosoma mansoni. These enzymes are widely distributed and catalyze the reaction of phosphoryl exchange between nucleotides in the reaction 2ADP to ATP + AMP, which is critical for the cells life cycle. Due to the particular property of the reaction catalyzed, the ADK's are recognized as reporters of the cells energetic state, translating small changes in the balance between ATP and ADP into a large change in concentration of AMP. The genome of S. mansoni was recently sequenced by the Sanger Center in England. On performing searches for genes encoding adenylate kinases we found two such genes. The corresponding gene products were named ADK1 (197 residues) and ADK2 (239 residues), and the two sequences share only 28 percent identity. Both have been cloned into the pET-28a(+)vector, expressed in E. coli and purified. Preliminary tests of activity have been performed only for ADK1 showing it to be catalytically active. Crystallization trials were performed for both proteins and thus far, crystals of ADK1 have been obtained which diffract to 2.05 at the LNLS beamline MX2 and the structure solved by molecular replacement. Understanding, at the atomic level, the function of these enzymes may help in the development of specific inhibitors and may provide tools for developing diagnostic tests for schistosomiasis. (author)

  16. Charge transport in columnar stacked triphenylenes: Effects of conformational fluctuations on charge transfer integrals and site energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Grozema, F.C.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.; Siebbeles, L.D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Values of charge transfer integrals, spatial overlap integrals and site energies involved in transport of positive charges along columnar stacked triphenylene derivatives are provided. These parameters were calculated directly as the matrix elements of the Kohn–Sham Hamiltonian, defined in terms of

  17. Charged Pion Energy Reconstruction in the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bosman, M; Nessi, Marzio

    2000-01-01

    The intrinsic performance of the ATLAS barrel and extended barrelcalorimeters for the measurement of charged pions is presented. Pion energyscans (E = 20, 50, 200, 400 and 1000 GeV) at two pseudo-rapidity points ($\\eta$= 0.3 and 1.3) and pseudorapidity scans ($-0.2 < \\eta < 1.8$) with pions ofconstant transverse energy ($E_T = 20$ and 50 GeV) are analysed. A simpleapproach, that accounts in first order for non-compensation and dead materialeffects, is used for the pion energy reconstruction. The intrinsic performancesof the calorimeter are studied: resolution, linearity, effect of dead material,tails in the energy distribution. The effect of electronic noise, cell energycuts and restricted cone size are investigated.

  18. A large solid angle detector for medium energy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A charged particle detector with 0.7 sr solid angular acceptance has been built, principally to detect protons in the energy range 25-150 MeV in experiments with tagged photon beams. The detector consists of a three element ΔE1-ΔE2-E plastic scintillator telescope. Position information is obtained from the time difference between signals from the two ends of each scintillator. The design of the detector and tests of its performance are described. An energy resolution of 2.8 MeV fwhm at 60 MeV proton energy, and a two-dimensional position resolution of 24 mm x 41 mm fwhm has been obtained. Successful operation in the tagged photon environment is demonstrated. (orig.)

  19. Rapid charging of thermal energy storage materials through plasmonic heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongyong; Tao, Peng; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hao; Ye, Qinxian; Hu, Hang; Song, Chengyi; Chen, Zhaoping; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Direct collection, conversion and storage of solar radiation as thermal energy are crucial to the efficient utilization of renewable solar energy and the reduction of global carbon footprint. This work reports a facile approach for rapid and efficient charging of thermal energy storage materials by the instant and intense photothermal effect of uniformly distributed plasmonic nanoparticles. Upon illumination with both green laser light and sunlight, the prepared plasmonic nanocomposites with volumetric ppm level of filler concentration demonstrated a faster heating rate, a higher heating temperature and a larger heating area than the conventional thermal diffusion based approach. With controlled dispersion, we further demonstrated that the light-to-heat conversion and thermal storage properties of the plasmonic nanocomposites can be fine-tuned by engineering the composition of the nanocomposites.

  20. Models for Energy and Charge Transport, and Storage in Biomolecules

    CERN Document Server

    Mingaleev, S F; Gaididei, Yu B; Johansson, M; Rasmussen, K O; Mingaleev, Serge F.; Christiansen, Peter L.; Gaididei, Yuri B.; Johansson, Magnus; Rasmussen, Kim O.

    1999-01-01

    Two models for energy and charge transport and storage in biomolecules are considered. A model based on the discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation with long-range dispersive interactions (LRI's) between base pairs of DNA is offered for the description of nonlinear dynamics of the DNA molecule. We show that LRI's are responsible for the existence of an interval of bistability where two stable stationary states, a narrow, pinned state and a broad, mobile state, coexist at each value of the total energy. The possibility of controlled switching between pinned and mobile states is demonstrated. The mechanism could be important for controlling energy storage and transport in DNA molecules. Another model is offered for the description of nonlinear excitations in proteins and other anharmonic biomolecules. We show that in the highly anharmonic systems a bound state of Davydov and Boussinesq solitons can exist.

  1. Charged Pion Energy Reconstruction in the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bosman, Martine; Nessi, Marzio

    1999-01-01

    Intrinsic performance of the ATLAS calorimeters in the barrel region with respect to charged pions was studied. For this the following simulated data were used: pion energy scans ($E = 20, 50, 200, 400$ and $1000$ GeV) at two pseudo-rapidity points ($eta = 0.3$ and $1.3$) and pseudo-rapidity scans ($-0.2 < eta < 1.8$) with pions of constant transverse energy ($E_T = 20$ and $50$ GeV). For pion energy reconstruction the benchmark approach was used. Performance was estimated for cases, when energy and rapidity dependent and independent calibration parameters were applied. The best results were obtained with energy and rapidity dependent parameters. Studies done for pions enabled optimization of the cone size and of the cut to obtain the best energy resolution. Energy dependence of the resolution can be parameterized as: $(50pm4)%/sqrt{E} oplus (3.4pm0.3)% oplus 1.0/E$ at $eta = 0.3$ and $(68pm8)%/sqrt{E} oplus (3.0pm0.7)% oplus 1.5/E$ at $eta = 1.3$. Larger constant term at $eta=0.3$ can be explained by l...

  2. Charge and Energy Transfer Dynamics in Molecular Systems

    CERN Document Server

    May, Volkhard

    2004-01-01

    This second edition is based on the successful concept of the first edition in presenting a unified perspective on molecular charge and energy transfer processes. The authors bridge the regimes of coherent and dissipative dynamics, thus establishing the connection between classic rate theories and modern treatments of ultrafast phenomena. The book serves as an introduction for graduate students and researchers. Among the new topics of this second edition are. - semiclassical and quantum-classical hybrid formulations of molecular dynamics. - the basics of femtosecond nonlinear spectroscopy. - e

  3. On the energy losses of fast charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, V. I.; Makarov, D. N.; Gusarevich, E. S.

    2010-09-01

    The energy losses of fast charged particles colliding with atoms have been considered in the eikonal approximation. It has been shown that the nonperturbative contribution to the effective stopping from the region of the intermediate impact parameters (comparable with the characteristic sizes of the electron shells of the target) not only can be significant as compared to shell corrections to the Bethe-Bloch formula (usually considered in the first order of perturbation theory), but also can provide significant (up to 50%) corrections to this formula.

  4. Charge collection efficiency of GaAs detectors studied with low-energy heavy charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, R; Linhart, V; O'Shea, V; Pospísil, S; Raine, C; Smith, K; Sinor, M; Wilhelm, I

    1999-01-01

    Epitaxially grown GaAs layers have recently been produced with sufficient thickness and low enough free carrier concentration to permit their use as radiation detectors. Initial tests have shown that the epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor as the depletion behaviour follows the square root dependency on the applied bias. This article presents the results of measurements of the growth of the active depletion depth with increasing bias using low-energy protons and alpha particles as probes for various depths and their comparison to values extrapolated from capacitance measurements. From the proton and alpha particle spectroscopic measurements, an active depth of detector material that collects 100% of the charge generated inside it was determined. The consistency of these results with independent capacitance measurements supports the idea that the GaAs epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor. (author)

  5. Adenylate kinase from Streptococcus pneumoniae is essential for growth through its catalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Thanh Thach

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus infection causes more than 1.6 million deaths worldwide. Pneumococcal growth is a prerequisite for its virulence and requires an appropriate supply of cellular energy. Adenylate kinases constitute a major family of enzymes that regulate cellular ATP levels. Some bacterial adenylate kinases (AdKs are known to be critical for growth, but the physiological effects of AdKs in pneumococci have been poorly understood at the molecular level. Here, by crystallographic and functional studies, we report that the catalytic activity of adenylate kinase from S. pneumoniae (SpAdK serotype 2 D39 is essential for growth. We determined the crystal structure of SpAdK in two conformations: ligand-free open form and closed in complex with a two-substrate mimic inhibitor adenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A. Crystallographic analysis of SpAdK reveals Arg-89 as a key active site residue. We generated a conditional expression mutant of pneumococcus in which the expression of the adk gene is tightly regulated by fucose. The expression level of adk correlates with growth rate. Expression of the wild-type adk gene in fucose-inducible strains rescued a growth defect, but expression of the Arg-89 mutation did not. SpAdK increased total cellular ATP levels. Furthermore, lack of functional SpAdK caused a growth defect in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SpAdK is essential for pneumococcal growth in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Multiforms of mammalian adenylate kinase and its monoclonal antibody against AK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Y; Takenaka, H; Sumida, M; Oka, K; Hamada, M; Kuby, S A

    1990-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the intracellular distribution of the multiforms of the adenylate kinase (AK) isoenzymes in mammalian tissues, to shed some light on their physiological roles, especially in energy metabolism. The adenylate kinase zymograms obtained from isoelectric focusing yielded two typical isoform patterns: (1) with a pI greater than or equal to 9 and 8.6, specific for bovine skeletal muscle, heart, aorta and brain, and (2) with a pI = 7.9 and 7.1, specific for liver and kidney. Pattern (1) was attributed to the cytosolic isoenzyme (AK1) as demonstrated by immunostaining with anti-AK1. Pattern (2) was attributed to the mitochondrial isoenzyme (AK2). These results were largely confirmed by chromatofocusing experiments. The AK1 isoenzyme was partially purified from the cytosol fraction of bovine aortic smooth muscle and had an apparent Mr of 23.5 kilodaltons. Its kinetic features are discussed from a comparative standpoint. Finally, the human serum AK1 isoform was also detected by Western blotting with a monoclonal antibody directed against crystalline porcine muscle AK1. These results are to form the basis of further studies on the 'aberrant' adenylate kinase isoenzyme from the serum of Duchenne muscular dystrophics.

  7. Coulomb charging energy of vacancy-induced states in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, V. G.; Dias da Silva, Luis G. G. V.; Lewenkopf, C. H.

    2016-08-01

    Vacancies in graphene have been proposed to give rise to π -like magnetism in carbon materials, a conjecture which has been supported by recent experimental evidence. A key element in this "vacancy magnetism" is the formation of magnetic moments in vacancy-induced electronic states. In this work we compute the charging energy U of a single-vacancy-generated localized state for bulk graphene and graphene ribbons. We use a tight-binding model to calculate the dependency of the charging energy U on the amplitudes of the localized wave function on the graphene lattice sites. We show that for bulk graphene U scales with the system size L as (lnL) -2, confirming the predictions in the literature, based on heuristic arguments. In contrast, we find that for realistic system sizes U is of the order of eV, a value that is orders of magnitude higher than the previously reported estimates. Finally, when edges are considered, we show that U is very sensitive to the vacancy position with respect to the graphene flake boundaries. In the case of armchair nanoribbons, we find a strong enhancement of U in certain vacancy positions as compared to the value for vacancies in bulk graphene.

  8. Adenyl cyclase in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Ryan, K J

    1971-09-21

    This study demonstrated that the human placenta possesses an adenyl cyclase system responsive to catecholamines and sodium flouride (NaF). 2.5 gm human term placentas were homogenized, centrifuged, washed, resuspended, and used as the enzyme system when placed with various agents. Incubations and the determination of adenosine 3', 5' monophosphate (cyclic AMP) formed were performed. Samples stimulated by .0001 M catecholamines (L-epinephrine or L-norepinephrine) or .01 M NaF had higher levels of cyclic AMP than the controls (p. 005 for catecholamine-treated samples and p. 001 for NaF-treated samples). A concentration of .0001 M L-epinephrine or L-norepinephrine appeared to be a maximum effective dose and .0000001 M a minimum. L=epinephrine was 10 times as effective in the stimulation as L-norepinephrine. With .0001 M, 499 and 439 pmoles/10 minutes per 25 mg of tissue was formed, whereas in the control (no added hormones) 256 pmoles/10 minutes were formed. 3.2% ethanol activated the system by a small amount (p.02). Propranolol alone did not appear to have any effect; however, the effect of .0001 M L-epinephrine was reduced by 95% in the presence of .00001 M propranolol. Propranolol had no effect on NaF-stimulated activity.

  9. Charged Particle, Photon Multiplicity, and Transverse Energy Production in High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the charged particle and photon multiplicities and transverse energy production in heavy-ion collisions starting from few GeV to TeV energies. The experimental results of pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles and photons at different collision energies and centralities are discussed. We also discuss the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation and expansion dynamics using the Landau hydrodynamics and the underlying physics. Meanwhile, we present the estimation of initial energy density multiplied with formation time as a function of different collision energies and centralities. In the end, the transverse energy per charged particle in connection with the chemical freeze-out criteria is discussed. We invoke various models and phenomenological arguments to interpret and characterize the fireball created in heavy-ion collisions. This review overall provides a scope to understand the heavy-ion collision data and a possible formation of a deconfined phase of partons via the global observables like charged particles, photons, and the transverse energy measurement.

  10. Charged Particle, Photon Multiplicity, and Transverse Energy Production in High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the charged particle and photon multiplicities and transverse energy production in heavy-ion collisions starting from few GeV to TeV energies. The experimental results of pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles and photons at different collision energies and centralities are discussed. We also discuss the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation and expansion dynamics using the Landau hydrodynamics and the underlying physics. Meanwhile, we present the estimation of initial energy density multiplied with formation time as a function of different collision energies and centralities. In the end, the transverse energy per charged particle in connection with the chemical freeze-out criteria is discussed. We invoke various models and phenomenological arguments to interpret and characterize the fireball created in heavy-ion collisions. This review overall provides a scope to understand the heavy-ion collision data and a possible formation of a deconfined phase of partons via the global observables like charged particles, photons, and the transverse energy measurement

  11. The lowest-energy charge-transfer state and its role in charge separation in organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Guangjun; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang

    2016-06-29

    Energy independent, yet higher than 90% internal quantum efficiency (IQE), has been observed in many organic photovoltaics (OPVs). However, its physical origin remains largely unknown and controversial. The hypothesis that the lowest charge-transfer (CT) state may be weakly bound at the interface has been proposed to rationalize the experimental observations. In this paper, we study the nature of the lowest-energy CT (CT1) state, and show conclusively that the CT1 state is localized in typical OPVs. The electronic couplings in the donor and acceptor are found to determine the localization of the CT1 state. We examine the geminate recombination of the CT1 state and estimate its lifetime from first principles. We identify the vibrational modes that contribute to the geminate recombination. Using material parameters determined from first principles and experiments, we carry out kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to examine the charge separation of the localized CT1 state. We find that the localized CT1 state can indeed yield efficient charge separation with IQE higher than 90%. Dynamic disorder and configuration entropy can provide the energetic and entropy driving force for charge separation. Charge separation efficiency depends more sensitively on the dimension and crystallinity of the acceptor parallel to the interface than that normal to the interface. Reorganization energy is found to be the most important material parameter for charge separation, and lowering the reorganization energy of the donor should be pursued in the materials design. PMID:27306609

  12. The lowest-energy charge-transfer state and its role in charge separation in organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Guangjun; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang

    2016-06-29

    Energy independent, yet higher than 90% internal quantum efficiency (IQE), has been observed in many organic photovoltaics (OPVs). However, its physical origin remains largely unknown and controversial. The hypothesis that the lowest charge-transfer (CT) state may be weakly bound at the interface has been proposed to rationalize the experimental observations. In this paper, we study the nature of the lowest-energy CT (CT1) state, and show conclusively that the CT1 state is localized in typical OPVs. The electronic couplings in the donor and acceptor are found to determine the localization of the CT1 state. We examine the geminate recombination of the CT1 state and estimate its lifetime from first principles. We identify the vibrational modes that contribute to the geminate recombination. Using material parameters determined from first principles and experiments, we carry out kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to examine the charge separation of the localized CT1 state. We find that the localized CT1 state can indeed yield efficient charge separation with IQE higher than 90%. Dynamic disorder and configuration entropy can provide the energetic and entropy driving force for charge separation. Charge separation efficiency depends more sensitively on the dimension and crystallinity of the acceptor parallel to the interface than that normal to the interface. Reorganization energy is found to be the most important material parameter for charge separation, and lowering the reorganization energy of the donor should be pursued in the materials design.

  13. Development of a new procedure based on the energy charge measurement using ATP bioluminescence assay for the detection of living mould from graphic documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonirainy, Malalanirina Sylvia; Arnold, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    Fungal contamination is a major cause of deterioration in libraries and archives. Curators and conservators increasingly need rapid microbiological analyses. This paper presents a rapid detection method for the fungal contaminants on documents. A previous study showed that the calculation of energy charge, using bioluminescence ATP assays, provides a useful indicator to determinate the viability of fungal strains. We argue that this sensitive and time-saving method is better than traditional culture techniques. However, the procedure needs to be modified to make it usable for lay persons. An improved and simplified protocol is proposed here for the extraction of adenylate nucleotides (AN) from fungal spores and for their measurements. Our new procedure can detect the existence of viable fungal strains on documents, presenting suspect spots within minutes. The extraction is performed by filtration with DMSO-TE solution as extractant. The different step of the measurement of AN content is carried out successively in a single test tube instead of the three tubes necessary in the initial method. The new procedure was tested on 12 strains among those most frequently found in archives and libraries and validated on swab samples from real documents.

  14. Charge transport in columnar stacked triphenylenes: Effects of conformational fluctuations on charge transfer integrals and site energies

    OpenAIRE

    K. Senthilkumar; Grozema, F.C.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.; Siebbeles, L.D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Values of charge transfer integrals, spatial overlap integrals and site energies involved in transport of positive charges along columnar stacked triphenylene derivatives are provided. These parameters were calculated directly as the matrix elements of the Kohn–Sham Hamiltonian, defined in terms of the molecular orbitals on individual triphenylene molecules. This was realized by exploiting the unique feature of the Amsterdam density functional theory program that allows one to use molecular o...

  15. Monospecific antibody against Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase protects from Pertussis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Faiz Kazi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acellular pertussis vaccines has been largely accepted world-wide however, there are reports about limitedantibody response against these vaccines suggesting that multiple antigens should be included in acellular vaccinesto attain full protection. The aim of present study was to evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase as aprotective antigen.Materials and methods: Highly mono-specific antibody against adenylate cyclase (AC was raised in rabbits usingnitrocellulose bound adenylate cyclase and the specificity was assessed by immuoblotting. B.pertussis 18-323, wasincubated with the mono-specific serum and without serum as a control. Mice were challenged intra-nasally and pathophysiolgicalresponses were recorded.Results: The production of B.pertussis adenylate cyclase monospecific antibody that successfully recognized on immunoblotand gave protection against fatality (p< 0.01 and lung consolidation (p <0.01. Mouse weight gain showedsignificant difference (p< 0.05.Conclusion: These preliminary results highlight the role of the B.pertussis adenylate cyclase as a potential pertussisvaccine candidate. B.pertussis AC exhibited significant protection against pertussis in murine model. J Microbiol InfectDis 2012; 2(2: 36-43Key words: Pertussis; monospecific; antibody; passive-protection

  16. Glucagon and adenylate cyclase: binding studies and requirements for activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, G S; Fletcher, M A; Klein, I

    1975-01-01

    Solubilization of myocardial adenylate cyclase abolished responsiveness to glucagon and catecholamines, two of the hormones which activate the membrane-bound enzyme. Adenylate cyclase freed of detergent by DEAE-cellulose chromatography continues to remain unresponsive to hormone stimulation. However, adding purified bovine brain phospholipids--phosphotidylserine and monophosphatidylinositol--restored responsiveness to glucagon and catecholamines, respectively. 125-i-glucagon binding appeared to be independent of phospholipid, since equal binding was observed in the presence or absence of detergent and in the presence or absence of phospholipids. Chromatography of the solubilized preparation on Sephadex G-100 WAS CHARACTERIZED BY 125-I-glucagon binding and fluoride-stimulatable adenylate cyclase activity appearing in the fractions consistent with the void volume, suggesting a molecular weight greater than 100,000 for the receptor-adenylate cyclase complex. Prior incubation of the binding peak with 125-I-glucagon and rechromatography of the bound glucagon on Sephadex G-100 shifted its elution to a later fraction consistent with a smaller-molecular-weight peak. The molecular weight of this material was 24,000 to 28,000, as determined by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The latter findings are consistent with a dissociable receptor site for glucagon on myocardial adenylate cyclase. PMID:165684

  17. Electrostatic energy, potential energy, and energy dissipation for a width-variable capacitor system during adiabatic charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Shunji; Katagiri, Yoshitada; Matsuno, Shun-ichi

    2007-02-01

    This paper considers the energy consumed by charging and discharging a width-variable capacitor. The capacitor with plate distance d is coupled with repulsive mechanical potential energy, which is proportional to 1/dn. In this capacitor model, there is a stable point between attractive electrical force and repulsive mechanical force. All energies, including the electrostatic energy, potential energy, and energy dissipation, are proportional not to the ordinary value V2 but to V2/(n-1)+2, where V is the abrupt power supply voltage. We apply N-stepwise adiabatic charging to the width-variable capacitor system. It is shown that the energy consumption after charging and discharging (or recycling) can be 1/N times smaller than that of the conventional abrupt operation. By increasing the step number N, the adiabatic operation can ideally charge and discharge the width-variable capacitor system with absolutely no energy dissipation, although the voltage dependence of energies is quite different from the usual one. Adiabatic charging is very promising for realizing dissipationless operation in the proposed system.

  18. Scaling of the Coulomb Energy Due to Quantum Fluctuations in the Charge on a Quantum Dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molenkamp, L. W; Flensberg, Karsten; Kemerink, M.

    1995-01-01

    The charging energy of a quantum dot is measured through the effect of its potential on the conductance of a second dot. This technique allows a measurement of the scaling of the dot's charging energy with the conductance of the tunnel barriers leading to the dot. We find that the charging energy...... scales quadratically with the reflection probability of the barriers. The observed power law agrees with a recent theory....

  19. Assessment of renewable energy technologies for charging electric vehicles in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric vehicle charging by renewable energy can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents a data-intensive techno-economic model to estimate the cost of charging an electric vehicle with a battery capacity of 16 kW h for an average travel distance of 65 km from small-scale renewable electricity in various jurisdictions in Canada. Six scenarios were developed that encompass scale of operation, charging time, and type of renewable energy system. The costs of charging an electric vehicle from an off-grid wind energy system at a charging time of 8 h is 56.8–58.5 cents/km in Montreal, Quebec, and 58.5–60.0 cents/km in Ottawa, Ontario. However, on integration with a small-scale hydro, the charging costs are 9.4–11.2 cents/km in Montreal, 9.5–11.1 cents/km in Ottawa and 10.2–12.2 cents/km in Vancouver, British Columbia. The results show that electric vehicle charging from small-scale hydro energy integration is cost competitive compared charging from conventional grid electricity in all the chosen jurisdictions. Furthermore, when the electric vehicle charging time decreases from 8 to 4 h, the cost of charging increases by 83% and 11% from wind and hydro energy systems, respectively. - Highlights: • Techno-economic analysis conducted for EV charging from wind and hydro. • EV charging from hydro energy is cost competitive than from wind energy. • GHG mitigation estimated from operation of EV charged from renewable energy. • Sensitivity of key parameters on cost of charging considered

  20. Recurrent adenylation domain replacement in the microcystin synthetase gene cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laakso Kati

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microcystins are small cyclic heptapeptide toxins produced by a range of distantly related cyanobacteria. Microcystins are synthesized on large NRPS-PKS enzyme complexes. Many structural variants of microcystins are produced simulatenously. A recombination event between the first module of mcyB (mcyB1 and mcyC in the microcystin synthetase gene cluster is linked to the simultaneous production of microcystin variants in strains of the genus Microcystis. Results Here we undertook a phylogenetic study to investigate the order and timing of recombination between the mcyB1 and mcyC genes in a diverse selection of microcystin producing cyanobacteria. Our results provide support for complex evolutionary processes taking place at the mcyB1 and mcyC adenylation domains which recognize and activate the amino acids found at X and Z positions. We find evidence for recent recombination between mcyB1 and mcyC in strains of the genera Anabaena, Microcystis, and Hapalosiphon. We also find clear evidence for independent adenylation domain conversion of mcyB1 by unrelated peptide synthetase modules in strains of the genera Nostoc and Microcystis. The recombination events replace only the adenylation domain in each case and the condensation domains of mcyB1 and mcyC are not transferred together with the adenylation domain. Our findings demonstrate that the mcyB1 and mcyC adenylation domains are recombination hotspots in the microcystin synthetase gene cluster. Conclusion Recombination is thought to be one of the main mechanisms driving the diversification of NRPSs. However, there is very little information on how recombination takes place in nature. This study demonstrates that functional peptide synthetases are created in nature through transfer of adenylation domains without the concomitant transfer of condensation domains.

  1. Strong subadditivity, null energy condition and charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi (HRT) conjectured formula for entanglement entropy in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence with time-dependent backgrounds, we investigate the relation between the bulk null energy condition (NEC) of the stress-energy tensor with the strong sub-additivity (SSA) property of entanglement entropy in the boundary theory. In a background that interpolates between an AdS to an AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom-type geometry, we find that generically there always exists a critical surface beyond which the violation of NEC would naively occur. However, the extremal area surfaces that determine the entanglement entropy for the boundary theory, can penetrate into this forbidden region only for certain choices for the mass and the charge functions in the background. This penetration is then perceived as the violation of SSA in the boundary theory. We also find that this happens only when the critical surface lies above the apparent horizon, but not otherwise. We conjecture that SSA, which is thus non-trivially related to NEC, also characterizes the entire time-evolution process along which the dual field theory may thermalize

  2. Strong Subadditivity, Null Energy Condition and Charged Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Caceres, Elena; Pedraza, Juan F; Tangarife, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Using the Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi (HRT) conjectured formula for entanglement entropy in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence with time-dependent backgrounds, we investigate the relation between the bulk null energy condition (NEC) of the stress-energy tensor with the strong sub-additivity (SSA) property of entanglement entropy in the boundary theory. In a background that interpolates between an AdS to an AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom-type geometry, we find that generically there always exists a critical surface beyond which the violation of NEC would naively occur. However, the extremal area surfaces that determine the entanglement entropy for the boundary theory, can penetrate into this forbidden region only for certain choices for the mass and the charge functions in the background. This penetration is then perceived as the violation of SSA in the boundary theory. We also find that this happens only when the critical surface lies above the apparent horizon, but not otherwise. We conjecture that SSA, which...

  3. Probing bulk defect energy bands using generalized charge pumping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuduzzaman, Muhammad; Weir, Bonnie; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2012-04-01

    The multifrequency charge pumping (CP) technique has long been used to probe the density of defects at the substrate-oxide interface, as well as in the bulk of the oxide of MOS transistors. However, profiling the energy levels of the defects has been more difficult due to the narrow scanning range of the voltage of a typical CP signal, and the uncertainty associated with the defect capture cross-section. In this paper, we discuss a generalized CP method that can identify defect energy bands within a bulk oxide, without requiring separate characterization of the defect capture cross-section. We use the new technique to characterize defects in both fresh and stressed samples of various dielectric compositions. By quantifying the way defects are generated as a function of time, we gain insight into the nature of defect generation in a particular gate dielectric. We also discuss the relative merits of voltage, time, and other variables of CP to probe bulk defect density, and compare the technique with related characterization approaches.

  4. Strong subadditivity, null energy condition and charged black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, Elena [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima,Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico); Theory Group, Department of Physics, The University of Texas,Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Kundu, Arnab [Theory Group, Department of Physics, The University of Texas,Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Pedraza, Juan F.; Tangarife, Walter [Theory Group, Department of Physics, The University of Texas,Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Texas Cosmology Center, The University of Texas,Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-01-16

    Using the Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi (HRT) conjectured formula for entanglement entropy in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence with time-dependent backgrounds, we investigate the relation between the bulk null energy condition (NEC) of the stress-energy tensor with the strong sub-additivity (SSA) property of entanglement entropy in the boundary theory. In a background that interpolates between an AdS to an AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom-type geometry, we find that generically there always exists a critical surface beyond which the violation of NEC would naively occur. However, the extremal area surfaces that determine the entanglement entropy for the boundary theory, can penetrate into this forbidden region only for certain choices for the mass and the charge functions in the background. This penetration is then perceived as the violation of SSA in the boundary theory. We also find that this happens only when the critical surface lies above the apparent horizon, but not otherwise. We conjecture that SSA, which is thus non-trivially related to NEC, also characterizes the entire time-evolution process along which the dual field theory may thermalize.

  5. Effects of Ions Charge-Mass Ratio on Energy and Energy Spread of Accelerated Ions in Laser Driven Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANG Hai-Bo; DENG Shi-Qiang; XIE Bai-Song

    2013-01-01

    Effects of ions charge-mass ratio on energy and energy spread of accelerated ions in laser driven plasma are investigated in detail by proposing a simple double-layer model for a foil target driven by an ultrastrong laser.The radiation pressure acceleration mechanism plays an important role on the studied problem.For the ions near the plasma mirror,i.e.electrons layer,the dependence of ions energy on their charge-mass ratio is derived theoretically.It is found that the larger the charge-mass ratio is,the higher the accelerated ions energy gets.For those ions far away from the layer,the dependence of energy and energy spread on ions charge-mass ratio are also obtained by numerical performance.It exhibits that,as ions charge-mass ratio increases,not only the accelerated ions energy but also the energy spread will become large.

  6. Isospin Effect of Charged Particle Multiplicity in Intermediate Energy Heavy Ion Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuRongjiang; WuHeyu; JinGenming; ZhuYongtai; DuanLimin; XiaoZhigang; WangHongwei

    2003-01-01

    The dependences of He and intermediate mass fragments (IMF) production rates in the reactions 55 MeV/u 40Ar+58,64 Ni on the isospin, impact parameter and primary excitation energy of the reaction nuclear system were studied by using the 4π charged particle multi-detector array system (MUDAL). For the mentioned two reaction systems, the measured He particle contribution in the total charged particle multiplicity increases with increasing the total charged particle multiplicity but for the contribution of IMFs in the total charged particle multiplicity increases with increasing the total charged particle multiplicity at lower total charged particle multiplicities, and latter on it drops down with further increasing of the total charged particle multiplicities (see Fig.l). The experimental results of these two reaction systems with the same nuclear charge indicate that the contribution of He and IMFs in the total charged particle multiplicities are obviously isospin dependent.

  7. Interacting Electrons in Parabolic Quantum Dots:. Energy Levels, Addition Energies, and Charge Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Michael; Siewert, Jens; Vojta, Thomas

    2001-08-01

    We investigate the properties of interacting electrons in a parabolic confinement. To this end we numerically diagonalize the Hamiltonian using the Hartree-Fock based diagonalization method which is related to the configuration interaction approach. We study different types of interactions, Coulomb as well as short range. In addition to the ground state energy we calculate the spatial charge distribution and compare the results to those of the classical calculation. We find that a sufficiently strong screened Coulomb interaction produces energy level bunching for classical as well as for quantum-mechanical dots. Bunching in the quantum-mechanical system occurs due to an interplay of kinetic and interaction energy, moreover, it is observed well before reaching the limit of a Wigner crystal. It also turns out that the shell structure of classical and quantum mechanical spatial charge distributions is quite similar.

  8. Dissociation of OCS by high energy highly charged ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OCS is an important molecule with immense biological, chemical and astrophysical significance. Various dissociation channels of OCSq+ (where q = 2 to 4), formed in the interaction of 5 MeV u-1 Si12+ ion beam with neutral OCS, have been studied using recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy. The concerted and/or sequential nature of dissociation is inferred from the shape and slope of the coincidence islands in the 2D coincidence map. It is observed that the C+ + S+ + O channel results from concerted as well as sequential decay of OCS2+. However the other channels originate purely from the concerted process in which the two terminal fragments (oxygen and sulphur) fly back to back and the central carbon fragment is left with negligible momentum. The kinetic energy release (KER) distributions for all the fragmentation channels arising from the dissociation of OCSq+ (where q = 2 to 4) have been measured and compared with the available data in the literature. It is observed that the KER values for complete Coulomb fragmentation channels are much smaller than those of incomplete Coulomb fragmentation cases and the KER increases with the increasing charge states of the parent molecular ions. From the momentum correlation map, we estimated the geometry of the precursor molecular ion undergoing three-body dissociation and inferred that bent dissociative states are involved in most of the fragmentation channels of OCSq+. (authors)

  9. The self-energy of a charged particle in the presence of a topological defect distribution

    CERN Document Server

    De Carvalho, A M M; Furtado, C; Moraes, Fernando; Furtado, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    In this work we study a charged particle in the presence of both a continuous distribution of disclinations and a continuous distribution of edge dislocations in the framework of the geometrical theory of defects. We obtain the self-energy for a single charge both in the internal and external regions of either distribution. For both distributions the result outside the defect distribution is the self-energy that a single charge experiments in the presence of a single defect.

  10. N(+)-N long-range interaction energies and resonance charge exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallcop, J. R.; Partridge, H.

    1985-01-01

    The aerothermodynamic studies of proposed space missions require atmospheric charge-transfer data. N2(+) eigenstate energies are calculated with use of the complete-active-space self-consistent-field method with an extended Gaussian basis set. The N(+)-N charge-exchange cross section, determined from these energies, agrees with merged-beam measurements. This contradicts the previous theoretical conclusion. A simple physical description of the long-range interaction is presented and should expedite future charge-transfer studies.

  11. A robust force field based method for calculating conformational energies of charged drug-like molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pøhlsgaard, Jacob; Harpsøe, Kasper; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen;

    2012-01-01

    molecules, including polar and charged compounds. Identifying global energy minimum conformations of such compounds with force-field methods is problematic due to the exaggeration of intramolecular electrostatic interactions. We demonstrate that the global energy minimum conformations of zwitterionic...

  12. Charge scheduling of an energy storage system under time-of-use pricing and a demand charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yourim; Kim, Yong-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    A real-coded genetic algorithm is used to schedule the charging of an energy storage system (ESS), operated in tandem with renewable power by an electricity consumer who is subject to time-of-use pricing and a demand charge. Simulations based on load and generation profiles of typical residential customers show that an ESS scheduled by our algorithm can reduce electricity costs by approximately 17%, compared to a system without an ESS and by 8% compared to a scheduling algorithm based on net power.

  13. A parametrisation of the energy loss distributions of charged particles and its applications for silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sikler, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    The energy loss distribution of charged particles in silicon is approximated by a simple analytical parametrization. Its use is demonstrated through several examples. With the help of energy deposits in sensing elements of the detector, the position of track segments and the corresponding deposited energy are estimated with improved accuracy and less bias. The parametrization is successfully used to estimate the energy loss rate of charged particles, and it is applied to detector gain calibration tasks.

  14. Charge fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at RHIC energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI; Xu(蔡勖); ZHOU; Daimei(周代梅); SA; Benhao(萨本豪)

    2003-01-01

    A hadron and string cascade model, JPCIAE, together with the corresponding Monte Carlo eventgenerator, has been employed in this paper to investigate further the charge fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at√Snn= 130 GeV. The default JPCIAE calculations are in good agreement with PHENIX and STAR data. Wefound that the thermal predictions for the π gas, the resonance π gas and quark matter deviate, respectively,from the corresponding dynamical simulations from the JPCIAE model. The discrepancies were also foundbetween the π charge fluctuations and the charge fluctuations of all species of hadrons. However the chargefluctuations for "π from ρ and ω decay" and for all the hadrons from resonance decay are close to each other,indicating the correlation between positively and negatively charged hadrons is not sensitive to the species ofhadrons. This work shows further that it is questionable to use the charge fluctuations as a signature of QGP.

  15. Beamline for low-energy transport of highly charged ions at HITRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andelkovic, Z., E-mail: z.andelkovic@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Herfurth, F.; Kotovskiy, N. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); König, K.; Maaß, B.; Murböck, T. [Technische Universität Darmstadt (Germany); Neidherr, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Schmidt, S. [Technische Universität Darmstadt (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz (Germany); Steinmann, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany); Vogel, M.; Vorobjev, G. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-09-21

    A beamline for transport of highly charged ions with energies as low as a few keV/charge has been constructed and commissioned at GSI. Complementary to the existing infrastructure of the HITRAP facility for deceleration of highly charged ions from the GSI accelerator, the new beamline connects the HITRAP ion decelerator and an EBIT with the associated experimental setups. Therefore, the facility can now transport the decelerated heavy highly charged ions to the experiments or supply them offline with medium-heavy highly charged ions from the EBIT, both at energies as low as a few keV/charge. Here we present the design of the 20 m long beamline with the corresponding beam instrumentation, as well as its performance in terms of energy and transport efficiency.

  16. Beamline for low-energy transport of highly charged ions at HITRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A beamline for transport of highly charged ions with energies as low as a few keV/charge has been constructed and commissioned at GSI. Complementary to the existing infrastructure of the HITRAP facility for deceleration of highly charged ions from the GSI accelerator, the new beamline connects the HITRAP ion decelerator and an EBIT with the associated experimental setups. Therefore, the facility can now transport the decelerated heavy highly charged ions to the experiments or supply them offline with medium-heavy highly charged ions from the EBIT, both at energies as low as a few keV/charge. Here we present the design of the 20 m long beamline with the corresponding beam instrumentation, as well as its performance in terms of energy and transport efficiency

  17. Charge Exchange Cross Sections Measured at Low Energies in Q-Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Michelsen, Poul

    1972-01-01

    A new technique for measurements of charge exchange cross sections at low energies is described. The measurements are performed in a single‐ended Q machine. The resonance charge exchange cross section for Cs at 2 eV was found to be 0.6×10−13 cm2±20%.......A new technique for measurements of charge exchange cross sections at low energies is described. The measurements are performed in a single‐ended Q machine. The resonance charge exchange cross section for Cs at 2 eV was found to be 0.6×10−13 cm2±20%....

  18. Measuring charge fluctuations in high-energy nuclear collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

    2001-01-01

    Various measures of charge fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions are discussed. Advantages of the Phi-measure are demonstrated and its relation to other fluctuation measures is established. To get the relation, Phi is expressed through the moments of multiplicity distribution. We study how the measures act in the case of a `background' model which represents the classical hadron gas in equilibrium. The model assumes statistical particle production constrained by charge conservation. It also ta...

  19. Composite charged particle detectors with logarithmic energy response for large dynamic range energy measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.M.; Begemann-Blaich, M.L.; Blaich, T.; Boissevain, J.A.; Gavron, A.; Jacak, B.V.; Lysaght, P.S.; Wilhelmy, J.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Sangster, T.C.; Britt, H.C.; Fields, D.J.; Lanier, R.G.; Massoletti, D.J.; Namboodiri, M.N. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Chan, Y.D.; Harmon, A.; Pouliot, J.; Stokstad, R.G. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Dacal, A. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Fisica); Fraenkel, Z.; Mamane, G. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel)); Webb, M.L. (Dynamics Technology, Inc., Torrance, CA (USA))

    1989-09-15

    We have developed an array of detectors to identify charged particles produced in heavy ion reactions. The array, which consists of eight individual detector modules and a forward hodoscope, subtends a solid angle of 0.58{pi} and covers 62% of the reaction plane in laboratory coordinates. Each of the eight identical modules has an active area which extends 13{sup 0} above and below the array plane with additional limited coverage between 13{sup 0} and 26{sup 0}. Each module measures the position, energy and velocity of charged particles over a dynamic range which extends from minium ionizing protons with energies up to 200 MeV to highly ionizing fission fragments with Coulomb-like energies. Position and time-of-flight are measured with low pressure multiwire proprotional counters (MWPC). Total energies for heavier ions are obtained from large ion chambers. Energy and position measurements for more energetic lighter ions which pass through the ion chambers are made with segmented phoswich arrays. The forward angle hodoscope is a 34-element array of phoswich detectors mounted symmetrically around the beam axis. These detectors are sensitive to beam velocity particles (E/A > 10-40 MeV/A) and capable of elemental resolution from protons to Z = 23. (orig.).

  20. Characteristics of high efficiency current charging system for HTS magnet with solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Wook; Yoon, Yong-Soo; Chung, Yoon-Do; Jo, Hyun-Chul; Kim, Ho-Min; Oh, Sung-Kwun; Kim, Hyun-Ki; Oh, Jae-Gi; Ko, Tae-Kuk

    In terms of electrical energy, the technical fusion with solar energy system is promisingly applied in order to improve the efficiency in the power applications, since the solar energy system can convert an eternal electric energy in all-year-around. As one of such power applications, we proposed a current charging system for HTS magnet combined with solar energy (CHS). As this system can operate without external utility power to charge the HTS load magnet due to the solar energy, the operating efficiency is practically improved. The power converter, which is interfaced with solar energy and HTS magnet systems, plays an important role to transfer the stable electric energy and thus, the stabilized performance of the converter with solar energy system is one of essential factors. In this study, we investigated various charging performances under different operating conditions of the converter. In addition, operating characteristics have been analyzed by solving solar cell equivalent equations based on circuit simulation program.

  1. The impact of charging on low-energy electron beam lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Lau Kien; Drouin, Dominique; Lavallée, Eric; Beauvais, Jacques

    2004-12-01

    A major issue in low voltage lithography is surface charging, which results in beam deflection presented as uneven exposure between adjacent structures. In this study, charge-induced pattern distortions in low-voltage energy beam lithography (LVEBL) were investigated using a silicide direct-write electron beam lithography process. Two methodologies have been proposed to avert charging effects in LVEBL, namely, pattern randomizing and lithography using the crossover voltage. Experimental results demonstrated that these methods are effective in significantly reducing the problems associated with charging. They indicate that charging on a sample is a function of time interval and proximity between line structures. In addition, the optimum time and distance between exposures for no charge-induced pattern distortion were determined. By using the crossover voltage of the material for lithography, charging effect can be significantly minimized. PMID:19780323

  2. Instantaneous charge state of Uranium projectiles in fully ionized plasmas from energy loss experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Roberto; Casas, David

    2016-01-01

    The instantaneous charge state of uranium ions traveling through a fully ionized hydrogen plasma has been theoretically studied and compared with one of the first energy loss experiments in plasmas, carried out at GSI-Darmstadt by Hoffmann \\textit{et al.} in the 90's. For this purpose, two different methods to estimate the instantaneous charge state of the projectile have been employed: (1) rate equations using ionization and recombination cross sections, and (2) equilibrium charge state formulas for plasmas. Also, the equilibrium charge state has been obtained using these ionization and recombination cross sections, and compared with the former equilibrium formulas. The equilibrium charge state of projectiles in plasmas is not always reached, it depends mainly on the projectile velocity and the plasma density. Therefore, a non-equilibrium or an instantaneous description of the projectile charge is necessary. The charge state of projectile ions cannot be measured, except after exiting the target, and experime...

  3. Energy and Charge Transfer from Guest to Host in Doped Organic Electroluminescent Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏建; 彭景翠; 许雪梅; 瞿述; 罗小华; 赵楚军

    2002-01-01

    The luminescence properties of doped organic electroluminescent devices are explained by means off Hamiltonian model. The results show that there is a corresponding relation between the amount of transferred charge and the change of the energy originating from charge transfer, and the relation can be influenced by dopant concentration.As the amount of transferred charge increases, the total energy decreases and the luminescence intensity increases.Therefore, we deduce that the energy transfer from guest to host may be derived from the charge transfer. For a given organic electroluminescent device, the maximum value of the conductivity can be observed in a specific dopant concentration. The calculated results show that the greater the transferred charges, the higher the conductivities in doped organic electroluminescent devices. The results agree basically with experimental results.

  4. Energy conversion by surface-tension driven charge separation

    CERN Document Server

    Pini, Cesare; Dietzel, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the shear-induced electrokinetic streaming potential present in free-surface electrolytic flows subjected to a gradient in surface tension is assessed. Firstly, for a Couette flow with fully resolved electric double layer (EDL), the streaming potential per surface stress as a function of the Debye parameter and surface potential is analyzed. By contrast to the Smoluchowski limit in pressure-driven channel flow, the shear-induced streaming potential vanishes for increasing Debye parameter (infinitely thin EDL), unless the free surface contains (induced) surface charge or the flow at the charged, solid wall is permitted to slip. Secondly, a technical realization of surface-tension induced streaming is proposed, with surface stress acting on the free (slipping) surfaces of a micro-structured, superhydrophobic wall. The streaming potential is analyzed with respect to the slip parameter and surface charge. Finally, the surface tension is assumed to vary with temperature (thermocapillarity) or with su...

  5. Correlated inter-domain motions in adenylate kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Esteban-Martín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Correlated inter-domain motions in proteins can mediate fundamental biochemical processes such as signal transduction and allostery. Here we characterize at structural level the inter-domain coupling in a multidomain enzyme, Adenylate Kinase (AK, using computational methods that exploit the shape information encoded in residual dipolar couplings (RDCs measured under steric alignment by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. We find experimental evidence for a multi-state equilibrium distribution along the opening/closing pathway of Adenylate Kinase, previously proposed from computational work, in which inter-domain interactions disfavour states where only the AMP binding domain is closed. In summary, we provide a robust experimental technique for study of allosteric regulation in AK and other enzymes.

  6. A Control Algorithm for Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Stations Equipped with Flywheel Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel;

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a control strategy for plugin electric vehicle (PEV) fast charging station (FCS) equipped with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS). The main role of the FESS is not to compromise the predefined charging profile of PEV battery during the provision of a hysteresis-type active...

  7. Modification of adenylate cyclase by photoaffinity analogs of forskolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, L.T.; Nie, Z.M.; Mende, T.J.; Richardson, S.; Chavan, A.; Kolaczkowska, E.; Watt, D.S.; Haley, B.E.; Ho, R.J. (Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, FL (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Photoaffinity labeling analogs of the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (PF) have been synthesized, purified and tested for their effect on preparations of membrane-bound, Lubrol solubilized and forskolin affinity-purified adenylate cyclase (AC). All analogs of forskolin significantly activated AC. However, in the presence of 0.1 to 0.3 microM forskolin, the less active forskolin photoaffinity probes at 100 microM caused inhibition. This inhibition was dose-dependent for PF, suggesting that PF may complete with F for the same binding site(s). After cross-linking (125I)PF-M to either membrane or Lubrol-solubilized AC preparations by photolysis, a radiolabeled 100-110 kDa protein band was observed after autoradiography following SDS-PAGE. F at 100 microM blocked the photoradiolabeling of this protein. Radioiodination of forskolin-affinity purified AC showed several protein bands on autoradiogram, however, only one band (Mr = 100-110 kDa) was specifically labeled by (125I)PF-M following photolysis. The photoaffinity-labeled protein of 100-110 kDa of AC preparation of rat adipocyte may be the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase of rat adipocyte itself as supported by the facts that (a) no other AC-regulatory proteins are known to be of this size, (b) the catalytic unit of bovine brain enzyme is in the same range and (c) this PF specifically stimulates AC activity when assayed alone, and weekly inhibits forskolin-activation of cyclase. These studies indicate that radiolabeled PF probes may be useful for photolabeling and detecting the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase.

  8. Modification of adenylate cyclase by photoaffinity analogs of forskolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoaffinity labeling analogs of the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (PF) have been synthesized, purified and tested for their effect on preparations of membrane-bound, Lubrol solubilized and forskolin affinity-purified adenylate cyclase (AC). All analogs of forskolin significantly activated AC. However, in the presence of 0.1 to 0.3 microM forskolin, the less active forskolin photoaffinity probes at 100 microM caused inhibition. This inhibition was dose-dependent for PF, suggesting that PF may complete with F for the same binding site(s). After cross-linking [125I]PF-M to either membrane or Lubrol-solubilized AC preparations by photolysis, a radiolabeled 100-110 kDa protein band was observed after autoradiography following SDS-PAGE. F at 100 microM blocked the photoradiolabeling of this protein. Radioiodination of forskolin-affinity purified AC showed several protein bands on autoradiogram, however, only one band (Mr = 100-110 kDa) was specifically labeled by [125I]PF-M following photolysis. The photoaffinity-labeled protein of 100-110 kDa of AC preparation of rat adipocyte may be the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase of rat adipocyte itself as supported by the facts that [a] no other AC-regulatory proteins are known to be of this size, [b] the catalytic unit of bovine brain enzyme is in the same range and [c] this PF specifically stimulates AC activity when assayed alone, and weekly inhibits forskolin-activation of cyclase. These studies indicate that radiolabeled PF probes may be useful for photolabeling and detecting the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase

  9. Design & Implementation of a Mobile Phone Charging System Based on Solar Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba I. Ali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to harvest energy from the environment represents an important technology area that promises to eliminate wires and battery maintenance for many important applications and permits deploying self powered devices. This paper suggests the use of a solar energy harvester to charge mobile phone devices. In the beginning, a comprehensive overview to the energy harvesting concept and technologies is presented. Then the design procedure of our energy harvester was detailed. Our prototype solar energy harvester proves its efficiency to charge the aimed batteries under sunlight or an indoor artificial light.

  10. Search for Fractionally Charged Nuclei in High-Energy Oxygen-Lead Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to use stacks of CR-39 plastic track detectors to look for fractionally charged projectile fragments produced in collisions of high-energy oxygen, sulfur, and calcium nuclei with a lead target. The expected charge resolution is @s^z~=~0.06e for fragments with 17e/3~@$<$~Z~@$<$~23e/3. We request that two target + stack assemblies be exposed to 1~x~10|5 oxygen nuclei at maximum available energy.

  11. Imaging the potential distribution of charged adsorbates on graphene by low-energy electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Escher, Conrad; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2016-01-01

    While imaging individual atoms can routinely be achieved in high resolution transmission electron microscopy, visualizing the potential distribution of individually charged adsorbates leading to a phase shift of the probing electron wave is still a challenging task. Since low-energy electrons are sensitive to localized potential gradients, we employed this tool in the 30 eV kinetic energy range to visualize the potential distribution of localized charged adsorbates present on free-standing graphene.

  12. Meson exchange currents in pion double charge exchange at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, L

    1995-01-01

    In this letter we study the high energy behavior of the forward differential cross section for the O(18)(pi+,pi-)Ne(18) double charge exchange reaction. We have evaluated the sequential and the meson exchange current mechanisms. The meson exchange current contribution shows a very weak energy dependence and becomes dominant at incident pion kinetic energies above 600 MeV.

  13. Energy of a Stringy Charged Black Hole in the Teleparallel Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Salti, M

    2006-01-01

    We use the teleparallel geometry analog of the Moller energy-momentum complex to calculate the energy distribution (due to matter plus field including gravity) of a charged black hole solution in heterotic string theory. We find the same energy distribution as obtained by Gad who investigated the same problem by using the Moller energy-momentum complex in general relativity. The total energy depends on the black hole mass M and charge Q. The energy obtained is also independent of the teleparallel dimensionless coupling constant, which means that it is valid not only in the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity, but also in any teleparallel model. Furthermore, our results also sustains (a) the importance of the energy-momentum definitions in the evaluation of the energy distribution of a given spacetime and (b) the viewpoint of Lessner that the Moller energy-momentum complex is a powerful concept of energy and momentum.

  14. Activation energies for gas-phase dissociations of multiply charged ions from electrospay ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busman, M.; Rockwood, A.L.; Smith, R.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-03-19

    The reactions of multiply protonated melittin molecular ions of various charge states produced from an electrospray ionization source have been studied. The flow of ions entrained in gas through a heated metal capillary inlet serves as a reaction vessel for gas-phase measurements of molecular ion reaction rates using mass spectrometry. Activation energies for the unimolecular dissociation reactions are calculated from the temperature dependence of the reaction kinetics. The differences in activation energies for the reactions of the different charge states are attributed to the destabilizing effect of Coulombic repulsion for high charged ions. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Space Charge Compensation in the Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport Line with Negative Hydrogen Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Valerio-Lizarraga, C; Leon-Monzon, I; Lettry, J; Midttun, O; Scrivens, R

    2014-01-01

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Tranport (LEBT) using the package IBSimu1, which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H- beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  16. The role of electron capture and energy exchange of positively charged particles passing through matter

    OpenAIRE

    Ulmer, W.

    2011-01-01

    The conventional treatment of the Bethe-Bloch equation for protons accounts for electron capture at the end of the projectile track by the small Barkas correction. This is only a possible way for protons, whereas for light and heavier charged nuclei the exchange of energy and charge along the track has to be accounted for by regarding the projectile charge q as a function of the residual energy. This leads to a significant modification of the Bethe-Bloch equation, otherwise the range in a med...

  17. Moller's Energy in the Dyadosphere of a Charged Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Aydogdu, O; Aydogdu, Oktay; Salti, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    We use the M{\\o}ller energy-momentum complex both in general relativity and teleparallel gravity to evaluate energy distribution (due to matter plus fields including gravity) in the dyadosphere region for Reissner-Nordstr{\\"o}m black hole. We found the same and acceptable energy distribution in these different approaches of the M{\\o}ller energy-momentum complex. Our teleparallel gravitational result is also independent of the teleparallel dimensionless coupling constant, which means that it is valid in any teleparallel model. This paper sustains (a) the importance of the energy-momentum definitions in the evaluation of the energy distribution of a given space-time and (b) the viewpoint of Lessner that the M{\\o}ller energy-momentum complex is a powerful concept for energy and momentum.

  18. Long-Term Exposure to High Corticosterone Levels Inducing a Decrease of Adenylate Kinase 1 Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yu'nan; SHEN Jia; SU Hui; HUANG Yufang; XING Dongming; DU Lijun

    2009-01-01

    Corticosterone, a principal glucocorticoid synthesized in the rodent adrenal cortex, can be cumula-tively toxic to hippocampal neurons, the cause of which is not known. The present study determined whether the cytosol adenylate kinase (AK) system was involved in the neuronal damage induced by long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels. We investigated the effects of long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels on AK1 activity, AK1 mRNA expression, and energy levels in cultured hippocampal neurons. The results show that long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels induces a reduction of the cultured hippocampal neuron viability, significantly reduces energy levels, and causes a time-dependant re-duction of the AK1 activity. These findings indicate that changes in the AK system might be the mechanism underlying neuronal damage induced by long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels.

  19. Heavy ion charge-state distribution effects on energy loss in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.

    2013-10-01

    According to dielectric formalism, the energy loss of the heavy ion depends on its velocity and its charge density. Also, it depends on the target through its dielectric function; here the random phase approximation is used because it correctly describes fully ionized plasmas at any degeneracy. On the other hand, the Brandt-Kitagawa (BK) model is employed to depict the projectile charge space distribution, and the stripping criterion of Kreussler is used to determine its mean charge state . This latter criterion implies that the mean charge state depends on the electron density and temperature of the plasma. Also, the initial charge state of the heavy ion is crucial for calculating inside the plasma. Comparing our models and estimations with experimental data, a very good agreement is found. It is noticed that the energy loss in plasmas is higher than that in the same cold gas cases, confirming the well-known enhanced plasma stopping (EPS). In this case, EPS is only due to the increase in projectile effective charge Qeff, which is obtained as the ratio between the energy loss of each heavy ion and that of the proton in the same plasma conditions. The ratio between the effective charges in plasmas and in cold gases is higher than 1, but it is not as high as thought in the past. Finally, another significant issue is that the calculated effective charge in plasmas Qeff is greater than the mean charge state , which is due to the incorporation of the BK charge distribution. When estimations are performed without this distribution, they do not fit well with experimental data.

  20. Charged particle induced energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review article deals with the X-ray emission induced by heavy, charged particles and the use of this process as an analytical method (PIXE). The physical processes involved, X-ray emission and the various reactions contributing to the background, are described in some detail. The sensitivity is calculated theoretically and the results compared with practical experience. A discussion is given on how the sensitivity can be optimized. The experimental arrangements are described and the various technical problems discussed. The analytical procedure, especially the sample preparation, is described in considerable detail. A number of typical practical applications are discussed. (author)

  1. Changes in Adenylate Nucleotides Concentration and Na+, K+-ATPase Activities in Erythrocytes of Horses in Function of Breed and Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Suska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the concentrations of ATP, ADP, AMP (HPLC methods, total nucleotide pool (TAN, adenylate energy charge (AEC and Na+, K+-ATPase erythrocytic activities (by Choi's method of horses as a function of breed and sex. The studies were conducted on 54 horses (stallions and mares of different constitution types: breathing constitution (Wielkopolska and Hanoverian breed and digestive constitution (Ardenian breed. Horse erythrocytes, independently of examined breed, present low ATP concentration in comparison to other mammal species while retaining relatively high AEC. Erythrocytes of breathing constitution type horses appear to have a more intensive glucose metabolism and a more efficient energetic metabolism when compared to digestive constitution type horses. The conclusions may be proven by significantly higher ATP concentration, higher TAN and significantly higher AEC in breathing constitution type horses compared to the digestive constitution type. Sex does not significantly influence adenine nucleotides concentration in the erythrocytes of the examined horses, however, stallions have slightly higher values in comparison to mares. A positive correlation was found between Na+, K+, -ATPase activity, ATP, ADP and AMP concentration and TAN in Wielkopolska and Ardenian breeds, which was not confirmed for the Hanoverian breed.

  2. Research on Quantitative Models of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Based on Principle of Energy Equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenpo Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to adapt the matching and planning requirements of charging station in the electric vehicle (EV marketization application, with related layout theories of the gas stations, a location model of charging stations is established based on electricity consumption along the roads among cities. And a quantitative model of charging stations is presented based on the conversion of oil sales in a certain area. Both are combining the principle based on energy consuming equivalence substitution in process of replacing traditional vehicles with EVs. Defined data are adopted in the example analysis of two numerical case models and analyze the influence on charging station layout and quantity from the factors like the proportion of vehicle types and the EV energy consumption at the same time. The results show that the quantitative model of charging stations is reasonable and feasible. The number of EVs and the energy consumption of EVs bring more significant impact on the number of charging stations than that of vehicle type proportion, which provides a basis for decision making for charging stations construction layout in reality.

  3. Fast Charging and Smart Charging Tests for Electric Vehicles Batteries Using Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forero Camacho, Oscar Mauricio; Mihet-Popa, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EV) technologies are still relatively new and under strong development. Although some standardized solutions are being promoted and becoming a new trend, there is an outstanding need for common platforms and sharing of knowledge and core technologies. This paper presents...... time the power system services, reducing the peak power and the energy losses in the power connection line of the power exchange with the national grid....

  4. New analytical potential energy function for doubly charged diatomic molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fan-Hou; Yang Chuan-Lu; Zhu Zheng-He; Jing Fu-Qian

    2005-01-01

    A new analytical potential function for doubly charged diatomic ions is proposed as V(R)=(∑k n=0anRn-1)exp(-ak+1R)+C/R,where an, ak+1 and C are parameters, and R is the nuclear distance. This function can be used to describe the potential curves for doubly charged diatomic ions with both potential minimum and maximum, or without any stationary point. As examples, potential functions of this form for ground states of BH2+, He22+ and HF2+ have been derived.The calculations using the theoretical method QCISD with basis set 6-311++G* have shown that the potential minimum of BH2+is at Rmin=0.147nm, the maximum at Rmax=0.185nm, and ΔE = Emax - Emin=0.062 eV; for He22+Rmin=0.0736nm, Rmax=0.105nm, and ΔE = Emax - Emin=0.71 eV. It is found that the potential curve for HF2+ is one with a singly repulsive branch. The force constants and spectroscopic data for BH2+ and He22+ have also been worked out.

  5. An aberrant adenylate kinase isoenzyme from the serum of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, M; Okuda, H; Oka, K; Watanabe, T; Ueda, K; Nojima, M; Kuby, S A; Manship, M; Tyler, F H; Ziter, F A

    1981-08-13

    The sera from patients with human Duchenne (X-linked) progressive muscular dystrophy contain elevated adenylate kinase (ATP: AMP phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.4.3) activities, in addition to their characteristically high creatine kinase (ATP; creatine N-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.3.2) activities. By agarose gel electrophoresis of human Duchenne dystrophic serum, the presence of an apparently normal human serum adenylate kinase together with a variant species of adenylate kinase was detected. The latter enzyme species appeared, in its mobility, to be similar to that of the normal human liver-type adenylate kinase. The presence of this aberrant liver-type adenylate kinase could also be demonstrated by characteristic (for the liver type) inhibition patterns with P1,P5-di-(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate, 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) and phosphoenolpyruvate. On the other hand, by inhibition titrations with an anti-muscle-type adenylate kinase, hemolysates from the erythrocytes of several Duchenne and Becker's dystrophics were found to contain approx. 96% muscle-type adenylate kinase and their serum approx. 97% muscle-type adenylate kinase. These same patients contained approx. 89% M-M type creatine kinase in their serum (by inhibition against anti-human muscle-type creatine kinase) indicative of the presence also of M-B plus B-B type active isoenzymes. All of these data can best be explained by the presence of a variant or mutant adenylate kinase isoenzyme in the dystrophic serum. This isoenzyme appears to resemble the liver type in its inhibition patterns with P1,P5-di(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate, 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) and phosphoenolpyruvate, and in its heat stability (compare also the agarose gel electrophoresis pattern); but structurally, it is a muscle type, or derived from a muscle type, as shown immunologically by inhibition reactions with anti-muscle-type adenylate kinase. Whether this is a fetal-type isoenzyme of adenylate kinase will require further

  6. Determining the charged particle energy losses with usage of transmutation isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Didik, V A; Skoryatina, E A; Kozlovskij, V V

    2002-01-01

    The method for determining the charged particles energy losses in a solid body, based on the comparison of the transmutation isotopes profiles, formed by irradiation with the particles of various energies, is proposed. The protons energy losses in copper were determined by the described method. The irradiation was performed on a cyclotron by the energies of 8, 10, 12.5, 15.5 and 18 MeV. The obtained results agree well with the published data

  7. First-Principle Framework for Total Charging Energies in Electrocatalytic Materials and Charge-Responsive Molecular Binding at Gas-Surface Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Tahini, Hassan A; Seal, Prasenjit; Smith, Sean C

    2016-05-01

    Heterogeneous charge-responsive molecular binding to electrocatalytic materials has been predicted in several recent works. This phenomenon offers the possibility of using voltage to manipulate the strength of the binding interaction with the target gas molecule and thereby circumvent thermochemistry constraints, which inhibit achieving both efficient binding and facile release of important targets such as CO2 and H2. Stability analysis of such charge-induced molecular adsorption has been beyond the reach of existing first-principle approaches. Here, we draw on concepts from semiconductor physics and density functional theory to develop a first principle theoretical approach that allows calculation of the change in total energy of the supercell due to charging. Coupled with the calculated adsorption energy of gas molecules at any given charge, this allows a complete description of the energetics of the charge-induced molecular adsorption process. Using CO2 molecular adsorption onto negatively charged h-BN (wide-gap semiconductor) and g-C4N3 (half metal) as example cases, our analysis reveals that - while adsorption is exothermic after charge is introduced - the overall adsorption processes are not intrinsically spontaneous due to the energetic cost of charging the materials. The energies needed to overcome the barriers of these processes are 2.10 and 0.43 eV for h-BN and g-C4N3, respectively. This first principle approach opens up new pathways for a more complete description of charge-induced and electrocatalytic processes. PMID:27067063

  8. Charged Current Neutrino Nucleus Interactions at Intermediate Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, T; Mosel, U

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a model to describe the interactions of neutrinos with nucleons and nuclei, focusing on the region of the quasielastic and Delta(1232) peaks. We describe neutrino nucleon collisions with a fully relativistic formalism which incorporates state-of-the-art parametrizations of the form factors for both the nucleon and the N-Delta transition. The model has then been extended to finite nuclei, taking into account nuclear effects such as Fermi motion, Pauli blocking (both within the local density approximation), nuclear binding and final state interactions. The in-medium modification of the Delta resonance due to Pauli blocking and collisional broadening have also been included. Final state interactions are implemented by means of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) coupled-channel transport model. Results for charged current inclusive cross sections and exclusive channels as pion production and nucleon knockout are presented and discussed.

  9. Statistical similarity between high energy charged particle fluxes in near-earth space and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Chang, Z.; Wang, H.; Lu, H.

    2014-05-01

    It has long been noticed that rapid short-term variations of high energy charged particle fluxes in near-Earth space occur more frequently several hours before the main shock of earthquakes. Physicists wish that this observation supply a possible precursor of strong earthquakes. Based on DEMETER data, we investigate statistical behaviors of flux fluctuations for high energy charged particles in near-Earth space. Long-term clustering, scaling, and universality in the temporal occurrence are found. There is high degree statistical similarity between high energy charged particle fluxes in near-Earth space and earthquakes. Thus, the observations of the high energy particle fluxes in near-Earth space may supply a useful tool in the study of earthquakes.

  10. Intelligent energy allocation strategy for PHEV charging station using gravitational search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Imran; Vasant, Pandian M.; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Abdullah-Al-Wadud, M.

    2014-10-01

    Recent researches towards the use of green technologies to reduce pollution and increase penetration of renewable energy sources in the transportation sector are gaining popularity. The development of the smart grid environment focusing on PHEVs may also heal some of the prevailing grid problems by enabling the implementation of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) concept. Intelligent energy management is an important issue which has already drawn much attention to researchers. Most of these works require formulation of mathematical models which extensively use computational intelligence-based optimization techniques to solve many technical problems. Higher penetration of PHEVs require adequate charging infrastructure as well as smart charging strategies. We used Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) to intelligently allocate energy to the PHEVs considering constraints such as energy price, remaining battery capacity, and remaining charging time.

  11. A schematic model for energy and charge transfer in the chlorophyll complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Malik, F.B.

    2011-01-01

    A theory for simultaneous charge and energy transfer in the carotenoid-chlorophyll-a complex is presented here and discussed. The observed charge transfer process in these chloroplast complexes is reasonably explained in terms of this theory. In addition, the process leads to a mechanism to drive...... an electron in a lower to a higher-energy state, thus providing a mechanism for the ejection of the electron to a nearby molecule (chlorophyll) or into the environment. The observed lifetimes of the electronically excited states are in accord/agreement with the investigations of Sundström et al....... and are in the range of pico-seconds and less. The change in electronic charge distribution in internuclear space as the system undergoes an electronic transition to a higher-energy state could, under appropriate physical conditions, lead to oscillating dipoles capable of transmitting energy from the carotenoid-chlorophylls...

  12. Re-Scaling of Energy in the Stringy Charged Black Hole Solutions using Approximate Symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, M.; Waheed, Saira

    2010-01-01

    This paper is devoted to study the energy problem in general relativity using approximate Lie symmetry methods for differential equations. We evaluate second-order approximate symmetries of the geodesic equations for the stringy charged black hole solutions. It is concluded that energy must be re-scaled by some factor in the second-order approximation.

  13. Charged particle density distributions in Au + Au collisions at relativistic heavy-ion collider energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fauad Rami

    2003-05-01

    Charged particle pseudorapidity distributions have been measured in Au + Au collisions using the BRAHMS detector at RHIC. The results are presented as a function of the collision centrality and the center of mass energy. They are compared to the predictions of different parton scattering models and the important role of hard scattering processes at RHIC energies is discussed.

  14. Parameter-free calculation of charge-changing cross sections at high energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y.; Horiuchi, W.; Terashima, S.; Kanungo, R.; Ameil, F.; Atkinson, J.; Ayyad, Y.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Dillmann, I.; Estradé, A.; Evdokimov, A.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Guastalla, G.; Janik, R.; Knoebel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Marta, M.; Mostazo, M.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, J.; Tanihata, I.; Vargas, J.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2016-07-01

    Charge-changing cross sections at high energies are expected to provide useful information on nuclear charge radii. No reliable theory to calculate the cross section has yet been available. We develop a formula using Glauber and eikonal approximations and test its validity with recent new data on carbon isotopes measured at around 900 A MeV. We first confirm that our theory reproduces the cross sections of 12,13,14C+12C consistently with the known charge radii. Next we show that the cross sections of C-1912 on a proton target are all well reproduced provided the role of neutrons is accounted for. We also discuss the energy dependence of the charge-changing cross sections.

  15. Potential energy curves for neutral and multiply charged carbon monoxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pradeep Kumar; N Sathyamurthy

    2010-01-01

    Potential energy curves of various electronic states of CO+ (0 ≤ ≤ 6) are generated at MRCI/CASSCF level using cc-pvQZ basis set and the results are compared with available experimental and theoretical data.

  16. Observation of high iron charge states at low energies in solar energetic particle events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Z.; Möbius, E.; Bochsler, P.; Connell, J. J.; Popecki, M. A. [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Klecker, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Kartavykh, Y. Y. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St-Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Mason, G. M., E-mail: zwm2@unh.edu [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    The ionic charge states of solar energetic particles (SEPs) provide direct information about the source plasma, the acceleration environment, and their transport. Recent studies report that both gradual and impulsive SEP events show mean iron charge states (Q {sub Fe}) ∼ 10-14 at low energies E ≤ 0.1 MeV nuc{sup –1}, consistent with their origin from typical corona material at temperatures 1-2 MK. Observed increases of (Q {sub Fe}) up to 20 at energies 0.1-0.5 MeV nuc{sup –1} in impulsive SEPs are attributed to stripping during acceleration. However, Q {sub Fe} > 16 is occasionally found in the solar wind, particularly coming from active regions, in contrast to the exclusively reported (Q {sub Fe}) ≤ 14 for low energy SEPs. Here we report results from a survey of all 89 SEP events observed with Advanced Composition Explorer Solar Energetic Particle Ionic Charge Analyzer (SEPICA) in 1998-2000 for iron charge states augmented at low energy with Solar and Heliospheric Observatory CELIAS suprathermal time-of-flight (STOF). Nine SEP events with (Q {sub Fe}) ≥ 14 throughout the entire SEPICA and STOF energy range have been identified. Four of the nine events are impulsive events identified through velocity dispersion that are consistent with source temperatures ≥2 MK up to ∼4 MK. The other five events show evidence of interplanetary acceleration. Four of them involve re-acceleration of impulsive material, whose original energy dependent charge states appear re-distributed to varying extent bringing higher charge states to lower energy. One event, which shows flat but elevated (Q {sub Fe}) ∼ 14.2 over the entire energy range, can be associated with interplanetary acceleration of high temperature material. This event may exemplify a rare situation when a second shock plows through high temperature coronal mass ejection material.

  17. Energy and charge state dependences of transfer ionization to single capture ratio for fast multiply charged ions on helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Ridvan

    The charge state and energy dependences of Transfer Ionization (TI) and Single Capture (SC) processes in collisions of multiply charged ions with He from intermediate to high velocities are investigated using coincident recoil ion momentum spectroscopy. The collision chamber is commissioned on the 15-degree port of a switching magnet, which allows the delivery of a beam with very little impurity. The target was provided from a supersonic He jet with a two-stage collimation. The two-stage, geometrically cooled, supersonic He jet has significantly reduced background contribution to the spectrum compared to a single stage He jet. In the case of a differentially pumped gas cell complex calculations based on assumptions for the correction due to the collisions with the contaminant beam led to corrections, which were up to 50%. The new setup allows one to make a direct separation of contaminant processes in the experimental data using the longitudinal momentum spectra. Furthermore, this correction is much smaller (about 8.8%) yielding better overall precision. The collision systems reported here are 1 MeV/u O(4--8)+ , 0.5--2.5 MeV/u F(4--9)+, 2.0 MeV/u Ti 15,17,18+, 1.6--1.75 MeV/u Cu18,20+ and 0.25--0.5 MeV/u I(15--25)+ ions interacting with helium. We have determined the sTIsSC ratio for high velocity highly charged ions on He at velocities in the range of 6 to 10 au and observed that the ratio is monotonically decreasing with velocity. Furthermore, we see a ratio that follows a q2 dependence up to approximately q = 9. Above q = 9 the experimental values exceed the q2 dependence prediction due to antiscreening. C. D. Lin and H. C. Tseng have performed coupled channel calculations for the energy dependence of TI and SC for F9+ + He and find values slightly higher than our measured values, but with approximately the same energy dependence. The new data, Si, Ti and Cu, go up only to q = 20 and show a smooth monotonically increasing TI/SC ratio. The TI/SC ratio for I (15

  18. Single Production of Charged Top-Pions at High Energy Linear e+e- Colliders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUEChong-Xing; JIAYong; LIULan-Jun; WANGXue-Lei

    2003-01-01

    The dominant decay modes of charged top-pions (πt± ) are t-↑b or -↑tb. We consider the single production of charged top-pions in association with a top quark via e+e- annihilation and calculate the production cross section of the processes e+e- → -↑tbπ+ (t-↑bπ-) at the leading order. We find that it can reach 1.2 fb with reasonable parameter values.The charged top-pions may be detected via the channel tbπ± in the future high energy e+e- colliders.

  19. Modulation of folding energy landscape by charge–charge interactions: Linking experiments with computational modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Tzul, Franco O.; Schweiker, Katrina L.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative understanding of how individual interactions contribute to the kinetics and thermodynamics of protein folding is critical for deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms that define the energy folding landscape. We applied a structure-based model that explicitly accounts for the interactions between charges, to folding–unfolding of four different protein pairs: rationally stabilized, via optimization of surface charge–charge interactions, variants, and respective wild types. ...

  20. Measurement of the Atmospheric Muon Charge Ratio at TeV Energies with MINOS

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, P; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Auty, D J; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bergfeld, T; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Böhm, J; Böhnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Buckley-Geer, E; Bungau, C; Cabrera, A; Chapman, J D; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Culling, A J; De Jong, J K; De Santo, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drakoulakos, D; Durkin, T; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk-Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Giurgiu, G A; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E W; Grossman, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Joffe-Minor, T; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M S; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kotelnikov, S K; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Lang, K; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Ling, J; Liu, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Michael, D G; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mislivec, A; Miyagawa, P S; Moore, C D; Morfin, J; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, W P; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovic, Z; Pearce, G F; Peck, C W; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Piteira, R; Pittam, R; Plunkett, R K; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Reyna, D E; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schreiner, P; Semenov, V K; Seun, S M; Shanahan, P; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, V; Smith, C; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Velissaris, C; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Wu, Q K; Yang, T; Yumiceva, F X; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R

    2007-01-01

    The 5.4 kton MINOS far detector has been taking charge-separated cosmic ray muon data since the beginning of August, 2003 at a depth of 2070 meters-water-equivalent in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, Minnesota, USA. The data with both forward and reversed magnetic field running configurations were combined to minimize systematic errors in the determination of the underground muon charge ratio. When averaged, two independent analyses find the charge ratio underground to be 1.374 +/- 0.004 (stat.) +0.012 -0.010(sys.). Using the map of the Soudan rock overburden, the muon momenta as measured underground were projected to the corresponding values at the surface in the energy range 1-7 TeV. Within this range of energies at the surface, the MINOS data are consistent with the charge ratio being energy independent at the two standard deviation level. When the MINOS results are compared with measurements at lower energies, a clear rise in the charge ratio in the energy range 0.3 -- 1.0 TeV is apparent. A qualitativ...

  1. Pertussis toxin inhibits cAMP-induced desensitization of adenylate cyclase in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snaar-Jagalska, B. Ewa; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1990-01-01

    cAMP binds to surface receptors of Dictyostelium discoideum cells, transducing the signal to adenylate cyclase, guanylate cyclase and to chemotaxis. The activation of adenylate cyclase is maximal after 1 min and then declines to basal levels due to desensitization, which is composed of two component

  2. Guanylate cyclase in Dictyostelium discoideum with the topology of mammalian adenylate cyclase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J; Snippe, H; Kleineidam, RG; Van Haastert, PJM

    2001-01-01

    The core of adenylate and guanylate cyclases is formed by an intramolecular ol intermolecular dimer of two cyclase domains arranged in an antiparallel fashion. Metazoan membrane-bound adenylate cyclases are composed of 12 transmembrane spanning regions, and two cyclase domains which function as a he

  3. Excitation energy transfer and charge separation in photosystem II membranes revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broess, Koen; Trinkunas, Gediminas; van der Weij-de Wit, Chantal D; Dekker, Jan P; van Hoek, Arie; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2006-11-15

    We have performed time-resolved fluorescence measurements on photosystem II (PSII) containing membranes (BBY particles) from spinach with open reaction centers. The decay kinetics can be fitted with two main decay components with an average decay time of 150 ps. Comparison with recent kinetic exciton annihilation data on the major light-harvesting complex of PSII (LHCII) suggests that excitation diffusion within the antenna contributes significantly to the overall charge separation time in PSII, which disagrees with previously proposed trap-limited models. To establish to which extent excitation diffusion contributes to the overall charge separation time, we propose a simple coarse-grained method, based on the supramolecular organization of PSII and LHCII in grana membranes, to model the energy migration and charge separation processes in PSII simultaneously in a transparent way. All simulations have in common that the charge separation is fast and nearly irreversible, corresponding to a significant drop in free energy upon primary charge separation, and that in PSII membranes energy migration imposes a larger kinetic barrier for the overall process than primary charge separation. PMID:16861268

  4. Energy straggling determination for charged particles in thick targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy straggling is reported for deuterons in carbon and protons in silicon, and the data obtained is compared with predictions of Bohr and Bethe. The experimental method used is based on a reaction resonance widening, observed at backward angles in the thick targets. The incident energy determines the depth at which the resonant scattering occurs and the energy straggling can be measured from the backscattering spectra. The data obtained for the energy straggling of deuterons are approximately two times bigger than those predicted by Bohr's theory; nevertheless, the values found for the energy straggling of protons in silicon are in agreement with the values predicted by the aforesaid theory. This disagreement was explained by the fact that carbon targets used were amorphous and porous, in contrast with those of cristal silicon, (it is an experimental fact that porous materials are expected to give higher stragglings than non-porous ones). Thus, the method reviewed in this work is valid, but the porosity effects should be taken into account in comparing results among materials with different densities. (author)

  5. Charged multiplicities and $J/\\psi$ suppression at SPS and RHIC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Capella, A

    2001-01-01

    Charged multiplicities in nucleus--nucleus collisions are calculated in the Dual Parton Model taking into account shadowing corrections. Its dependence on the number of collisions and participants is analyzed and found in agreement with experiment at SPS and RHIC energies. Using these results, we compute the $J/\\psi$ suppression at SPS as a function of the transverse energy and of the energy of the zero degree calorimeter. Predictions for RHIC are presented.

  6. Binding Energies of a Positively Charged Exciton in a Quantum Disc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The binding energies of the lowest singlet and triplet states of positively charged excitons confined to a quantum disc are studied using exact diagonalization techniques. We investigate the dependence of the binding energies on the confinement strength and on the effective electron-to-hole mass ratio. The results we have obtained show that the binding energies are closely correlated to the strength of the confinement potential and the effective electron-to-hole mass ratio.

  7. Charge and Mass Effects on Low Energy Ion Channeling in Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; ZHENG Li-Ping; ZHANG Wei; XV Zi-Jian; REN Cui-Lan; HUAI Ping; ZHU Zhi-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    @@ Channeling phenomena of He, Ne, Ar and Kr ions at energy (200-5000eV) in single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation with analytical potentials.The critical angles for the particles to be channeled in an SWCNT are analyzed.In the incident energy range of 200-5000 eV, it is found that the ion energy dependence of the critical angle obeys an improved Lindhard equation which is closely related to the ratio of nuclear charge number to atomic mass Z/M.The critical angle for different types of ions channeling in SWCNTs is determined by both the atomic nuclear charge and mass.%Channeling phenomena of He, Ne, Ar and Kr ions at energy (200-5000eV) in single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation with analytical potentials. The critical angles for the particles to be channeled in an SWCNT are analyzed. In the incident energy range of 200-5000eV, it is found that the ion energy dependence of the critical angle obeys an improved Lindhard equation which is closely related to the ratio of nuclear charge number to atomic mass Z/M. The critical angle for different types of ions channeling in SWCNTs is determined by both the atomic nuclear charge and mass.

  8. Observation of High Iron Charge States at Low Energies in Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z.; Möbius, E.; Klecker, B.; Bochsler, P.; Connell, J. J.; Kartavykh, Y. Y.; Mason, G. M.; Popecki, M. A.

    2014-04-01

    The ionic charge states of solar energetic particles (SEPs) provide direct information about the source plasma, the acceleration environment, and their transport. Recent studies report that both gradual and impulsive SEP events show mean iron charge states langQ Ferang ~ 10-14 at low energies E nuc-1, consistent with their origin from typical corona material at temperatures 1-2 MK. Observed increases of langQ Ferang up to 20 at energies 0.1-0.5 MeV nuc-1 in impulsive SEPs are attributed to stripping during acceleration. However, Q Fe > 16 is occasionally found in the solar wind, particularly coming from active regions, in contrast to the exclusively reported langQ Ferang = 14 throughout the entire SEPICA and STOF energy range have been identified. Four of the nine events are impulsive events identified through velocity dispersion that are consistent with source temperatures >=2 MK up to ~4 MK. The other five events show evidence of interplanetary acceleration. Four of them involve re-acceleration of impulsive material, whose original energy dependent charge states appear re-distributed to varying extent bringing higher charge states to lower energy. One event, which shows flat but elevated langQ Ferang ~ 14.2 over the entire energy range, can be associated with interplanetary acceleration of high temperature material. This event may exemplify a rare situation when a second shock plows through high temperature coronal mass ejection material.

  9. Charging System Optimization of Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Water Wave Energy Harvesting and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yanyan; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Limin; Chen, Xiangyu; Gao, Zhenliang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-08-24

    Ocean waves are one of the most promising renewable energy sources for large-scope applications due to the abundant water resources on the earth. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology could provide a new strategy for water wave energy harvesting. In this work, we investigated the charging characteristics of utilizing a wavy-structured TENG to charge a capacitor under direct water wave impact and under enclosed ball collision, by combination of theoretical calculations and experimental studies. The analytical equations of the charging characteristics were theoretically derived for the two cases, and they were calculated for various load capacitances, cycle numbers, and structural parameters such as compression deformation depth and ball size or mass. Under the direct water wave impact, the stored energy and maximum energy storage efficiency were found to be controlled by deformation depth, while the stored energy and maximum efficiency can be optimized by the ball size under the enclosed ball collision. Finally, the theoretical results were well verified by the experimental tests. The present work could provide strategies for improving the charging performance of TENGs toward effective water wave energy harvesting and storage.

  10. Energy dissipation of highly charged ions interacting with solid surfaces; Energieeintrag langsamer hochgeladener Ionen in Festkoerperoberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, D.

    2006-07-01

    Motivated by the incomplete scientific description of the relaxation of highly charged ions in front of solid surfaces and their energy balance, this thesis describes an advanced complementary study of determining deposited fractions and re-emitted fractions of the potential energy of highly charged ions. On one side, a calorimetric measurement setup is used to determine the retained potential energy and on the other side, energy resolved electron spectroscopy is used for measuring the reemitted energy due to secondary electron emission. In order to study the mechanism of energy retention in detail, materials with different electronic structures are investigated: Cu, n-Si, p-Si and SiO{sub 2}. In the case of calorimetry, a linear relationship between the deposited potential energy and the inner potential energy of the ions was determined. The total potential energy which stays in the solid remains almost constant at about (80 {+-} 10) %. Comparing the results of the Cu, n-Si and p-Si targets, no significant difference could be shown. Therefore we conclude that the difference in energy deposition between copper, n-doped Si and p-doped Si is below 10 %, which is significantly lower than using SiO{sub 2} targets. For this purpose, electron spectroscopy provides a complementary result. For Cu and Si surfaces, an almost linear increase of the re-emitted energy with increasing potential energy of the ion up to Ar{sup 7+} was also observed. The ratio of the re-emitted energy is about (10 {+-} 5) % of the total potential energy of the incoming ion, almost independent of the ion charge state. In contrast, an almost vanishing electron emission was observed for SiO{sub 2} and for charge states below q=7. For Ar{sup 8+} and Ar{sup 9+}, the electron emission increased due to the contribution of the projectile LMM Auger electrons and the re-emitted energy amounts up to 20 % for Cu and Si and around 10 % for SiO{sub 2}. These results are in good agreement with the calorimetric

  11. Direct observation of Space Charge Dynamics by picosecond Low Energy Electron Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Cirelli, C; Hengsberger, M.; Dolocan, A; Over, H.; Osterwalder, J; Greber, T.

    2008-01-01

    The electric field governing the dynamics of space charge produced by high intensity femtosecond laser pulses focused on a copper surface is investigated by time-resolved low-energy-electron-scattering. The pump-probe experiment has a measured temporal resolution of better than 35 ps at 55 eV probe electron energy. The probe electron acceleration due to space charge is reproduced within a 3-dimensional non-relativistic model, which determines an effective number of electrons in the space char...

  12. Systematic study of individual charge-changing cross sections of intermediate-energy secondary beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Precision total and partial charge-changing cross section measurements of medium-mass nuclides were performed. • Systematic reaction data of intermediate-energy heavy-ion beams were obtained. • A significant odd-even effect is found in the partial charge-changing cross sections. -- Abstract: Charge-changing interactions of stable and unstable medium-mass nuclides have been systematically investigated at intermediate energies. Secondary beams ranging from Ar to Ge isotopes produced by projectile fragmentation of 56Fe and 70Ge were irradiated onto a carbon target, and their total and partial charge-changing cross sections were precisely measured. A clear odd–even effect found in the partial charge-changing cross sections monotonically varies as a function of the Z/N ratio among the isotopes, and grows toward the neutron-deficient side. The total charge-changing cross sections are sensitive to the Z number of nuclides, and tend to gradually increase toward the neutron-deficient side in some isotopes

  13. Benchmark of Space Charge Simulations and Comparison with Experimental Results for High Intensity, Low Energy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cousineau, Sarah M

    2005-01-01

    Space charge effects are a major contributor to beam halo and emittance growth leading to beam loss in high intensity, low energy accelerators. As future accelerators strive towards unprecedented levels of beam intensity and beam loss control, a more comprehensive understanding of space charge effects is required. A wealth of simulation tools have been developed for modeling beams in linacs and rings, and with the growing availability of high-speed computing systems, computationally expensive problems that were inconceivable a decade ago are now being handled with relative ease. This has opened the field for realistic simulations of space charge effects, including detailed benchmarks with experimental data. A great deal of effort is being focused in this direction, and several recent benchmark studies have produced remarkably successful results. This paper reviews the achievements in space charge benchmarking in the last few years, and discusses the challenges that remain.

  14. Synthetic system mimicking the energy transfer and charge separation of natural photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, D.; Moore, T.A.

    1985-05-01

    A synthetic molecular triad consisting of a porphyrin P linked to both a quinone Q and a carotenoid polyene C has been prepared as a mimic of natural photosynthesis for solar energy conversion purposes. Laser flash excitation of the porphyrin moiety yields a charge-separated state Csup(+.)-P-Qsup(-.) within 100 ps with a quantum yield of more than 0.25. This charge-separated state has a lifetime on the microsecond time scale in suitable solvents. The triad also models photosynthetic antenna function and photoprotection from singlet oxygen damge. The successful biomimicry of photosynthetic charge separation is in part the result of multistep electron transfers which rapidly separate the charges and leave the system at high potential, but with a considerable barrier to recombination.

  15. Fractionally Charged Zero-Energy Single-Particle Excitations in a Driven Fermi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalets, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A voltage pulse of a Lorentzian shape carrying half of the flux quantum excites out of a zero-temperature Fermi sea an electron in a mixed state, which looks like a quasiparticle with an effectively fractional charge e /2 . A prominent feature of such an excitation is a narrow peak in the energy distribution function lying exactly at the Fermi energy μ . Another spectacular feature is that the distribution function has symmetric tails around μ , which results in a zero-energy excitation. This sounds improbable since at zero temperature all available states below μ are fully occupied. The resolution lies in the fact that such a voltage pulse also excites electron-hole pairs, which free some space below μ and thus allow a zero-energy quasiparticle to exist. I discuss also how to address separately electron-hole pairs and a fractionally charged zero-energy excitation in an experiment.

  16. Charging operation with high energy efficiency for electric vehicle valve-regulated lead-acid battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeya, Tomohiko; Mita, Yuichi; Ishihara, Kaoru [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Komae Res. Lab., Lithium Battery Project, Tokyo (Japan); Sawada, Nobuyuki [Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Sapporo (Japan); Takagi, Sakae; Murakami, Jun-ichi [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Sendai (Japan); Kobayashi, Kazuyuki [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Yokohama (Japan); Sakabe, Tetsuya [Chubu Electric Power Co., Nagoya (Japan); Kousaka, Eiichi [Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Toyama (Japan); Yoshioka, Haruki [The Kansai Electric Power Co., Osaka (Japan); Kato, Satoru [The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Hiroshima (Japan); Yamashita, Masanori [Shikoku Research Inst. Inc., Takamatsu (Japan); Narisoko, Hayato [The Okinawa Electric Power Co., Naha (Japan); Nishiyama, Kazuo [The Central Electric Power Council, Tokyo (Japan); Adachi, Kazuyuki [Kyushu Electric Power Co., Fukuoka (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    A new, high-energy-efficiency charging operation with as little amount of overcharge as possible is proposed to improve the energy efficiency and the cycle life for an EV valve-regulated lead-acid battery. Under this operation, the EV battery system is charged with 105% of amount of the preceding discharge five out of six times and once with 115% in order that it is fully charged. The cycle lives were estimated using a valve-regulated lead-acid battery system of 12 modules connected in series, by SFUDS79 pattern discharging and measurement of the amount of discharge every 50 cycles. Three-step constant current charging with 115% of amount of the preceding discharge required more than 5 h with the final charging step of more than 210 min, with coulomb efficiency of only 87% and energy efficiency of 74%. On the other hand, under the high-energy-efficiency charging operation, three-step charging with 105% shortens the final charging time to 132 min. It was completed in less than 4 h with coulomb and energy efficiency of 95% and 84%, respectively. This operation increased the energy efficiency from 74% to 83% on average in six charging, and extended the cycle life by about 30% to more than 400 cycles. Decreasing the amount of charge by as much as possible suppressed the corrosion of the grids in the positive plate and the heat evolution in batteries due to shortening of the final charging step. Although the high-energy-efficiency charging operation led to the accumulation of inactive PbSO{sub 4} at the upper part of the negative plate, possibly due to the decreasing amount of overcharge, this operation could prolong the cycle life. Full charging once every six times is though to be effective in suppressing degradation caused by the accumulation of inactive PbSO{sub 4} in the negative plate due to the shortage of charge. (orig.)

  17. The role of electron capture and energy exchange of positively charged particles passing through matter

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmer, W

    2011-01-01

    The conventional treatment of the Bethe-Bloch equation for protons accounts for electron capture at the end of the projectile track by the small Barkas correction. This is only a possible way for protons, whereas for light and heavier charged nuclei the exchange of energy and charge along the track has to be accounted for by regarding the projectile charge q as a function of the residual energy. This leads to a significant modification of the Bethe-Bloch equation, otherwise the range in a medium is incorrectly determined. The LET in the Bragg peak domain and distal end is significantly influenced by the electron capture. A rather significant result is that in the domain of the Bragg peak the superiority of carbon ions is reduced compared to protons.

  18. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A., E-mail: cristhian.alfonso.valerio.lizarraga@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico); Midttun, Øystein [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  19. Food restriction modulates β-adrenergic-sensitive adenylate cyclase in rat liver during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenylate cyclase activities were studied in rat liver during postmaturational aging of male Fischer 344 rats fed ad libitum or restricted to 60% of the ad libitum intake. Catecholamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased by 200-300% between 6 and 24-27 mo of age in ad libitum-fed rats, whereas in food-restricted rats catecholamine response increased by only 58-84% between 6 and 30 mo. In ad libitum-fed rats, glucagon-stimulated enzyme activity also increased by 40% between 6 and 12 mo and in restricted rats a similar age-related increase was delayed until 18 mo. β-Adrenergic receptor density increased by 50% between 6 and 24 mo in livers from ad libitum-fed but not food-restricted rats and showed a highly significant correlation with maximal isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity over the postmaturational life span. Age-related increases in unstimulated (basal) adenylate cyclase activity and nonreceptor-mediated enzyme activation were retarded by food restriction. The results demonstrate that food restriction diminishes a marked age-related increase in β-adrenergic-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity of rat liver. Alterations of adrenergic-responsive adenylate cyclase with age and the modulatory effects of food restriction appear to be mediated by changes in both receptor and nonreceptor components of adenylate cyclase

  20. Proposal of the Electrically Charged Stellar Black Holes as Accelerators of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Soto-Manriquez, Jose

    2016-01-01

    A new mechanism for the acceleration of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) is presented here. It is based on the tunnel-ionization of neutral atoms approaching electrically charged stellar black holes and on the repulsion of the resulting positively charged atomic part by huge, long-range electric fields. Energies above $10^{18}$ eV for these particles are calculated in a simple way by means of this single-shot, all-electrical model. When this acceleration mechanism is combined with the supernova explosions in the galactic halo of the massive runaway stars expelled from the galactic disk, this model predicts nearly the correct values of the measured top energy of the UHECRs and their flux in a specified EeV energy range. It also explains the near isotropy of the arrivals of these energetic particles to Earth, as has been recently measured by the Auger Observatory.

  1. Damaging impacts of energetic charge particles on materials in plasma energy explosive events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Bai-Quan; Peng Li-Lin; Yan Jian-Cheng; Luo Zheng-Ming; Chen Zhi

    2006-01-01

    To provide some reference data for estimation of the erosion rates and lifetimes of some candidate plasma facing component (PF3 materials in the plasma stored energy explosive events (PSEEE), this paper calculates the sputtering yields of Mo, W and deuterium saturated Li surface bombarded by energetic charged particles by a new sputtering physics description method based on bipartition model of charge particle transport theory. The comparisons with Monte Carlo data of TRIM code and experimental results are made. The dependences of maximum energy deposition,particle and energy reflection coefficients on the incident energy of energetic runaway electrons impinging on the different material surfaces are also calculated. Results may be useful for estimating the lifetime of PFC and analysing the impurity contamination extent, especially in the PSEEE for high power density and with high plasma current fusion reactor.

  2. Elastic, excitation, ionization and charge transfer cross sections of current interest in fusion energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, D.R.; Krstic, P.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. TN (United States). Physics Div.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the present interest in modeling and diagnosing the edge and divertor plasma regions in magnetically confined fusion devices, we have sought to provide new calculations regarding the elastic, excitation, ionization, and charge transfer cross sections in collisions among relevant ions, neutrals, and isotopes in the low-to intermediate-energy regime. We summarize here some of our recent work. (author)

  3. Pseudo Open Drain IO Standards Based Energy Efficient Solar Charge Sensor Design on 20nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, K; Pandey, B; Nanda, K;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an approach is made to design Pseudo open drain IO standards Based Energy efficient solar charge sensor design on 20nm and 28nm technology. We have used LVCMOS18, POD10, POD10_DCI and POD12 I/O standard. In this design, we have taken two main parameters for analysis that are frequen...

  4. Gluon saturation and pseudo-rapidity distributions of charged hadrons at RHIC energy regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xin-Bing; FENG Sheng-Qin

    2012-01-01

    We modified the gluon saturation model by rescaling the momentum fraction according to saturation momentum and introduced Cooper-Frye hydrodynamic evolution to systematically study the pseudorapidity distributions of final charged hadrons at different energies and different centralities for Au-Au collisions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).The features of both gluon saturation and hydrodynamic evolution at different energies and different centralities for Au-Au collisions are investigated in this paper.

  5. Charge state and energy loss of relativistic heavy ions in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relativistic heavy-ion collisions of few-electron projectiles ranging from argon up to uranium have been investigated in solid and gaseous media. Electron-loss and electron-capture cross sections, charge-state distributions, as well as energy loss and energy deposition have been measured and are compared with theoretical predictions. Especially fully-ionized heavy projectiles represent a unique possibility to test atomic-collision theories. (orig.)

  6. Total Energy of Charged Black Holes in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Korunur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the energy content (including matter and fields of the Møller energy-momentum complex in the framework of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion (EMDA theory using teleparallel gravity. We perform the required calculations for some specific charged black hole models, and we find that total energy distributions associated with asymptotically flat black holes are proportional to the gravitational mass. On the other hand, we see that the energy of the asymptotically nonflat black holes diverge in a limiting case.

  7. Enhanced charge efficiency and reduced energy use in capacitive deionization by increasing the discharge voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T; Dykstra, J E; Porada, S; van der Wal, A; Yoon, J; Biesheuvel, P M

    2015-05-15

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an electrochemical method for water desalination using porous carbon electrodes. A key parameter in CDI is the charge efficiency, Λ, which is the ratio of salt adsorption over charge in a CDI-cycle. Values for Λ in CDI are typically around 0.5-0.8, significantly less than the theoretical maximum of unity, due to the fact that not only counterions are adsorbed into the pores of the carbon electrodes, but at the same time coions are released. To enhance Λ, ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) can be implemented. With membranes, Λ can be close to unity because the membranes only allow passage for the counterions. Enhancing the value of Λ is advantageous as this implies a lower electrical current and (at a fixed charging voltage) a reduced energy use. We demonstrate how, without the need to include IEMs, the charge efficiency can be increased to values close to the theoretical maximum of unity, by increasing the cell voltage during discharge, with only a small loss of salt adsorption capacity per cycle. In separate constant-current CDI experiments, where after some time the effluent salt concentration reaches a stable value, this value is reached earlier with increased discharge voltage. We compare the experimental results with predictions of porous electrode theory which includes an equilibrium Donnan electrical double layer model for salt adsorption in carbon micropores. Our results highlight the potential of modified operational schemes in CDI to increase charge efficiency and reduce energy use of water desalination. PMID:25278271

  8. Prokaryotic adenylate cyclase toxin stimulates anterior pituitary cells in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin, M.J.; Evans, W.S.; Rogol, A.D.; Weiss, A.A.; Thorner, M.O.; Orth, D.N.; Nicholson, W.E.; Yasumoto, T.; Hewlett, E.L.

    1986-08-01

    Bordetella pertussis synthesis a variety of virulence factors including a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase (AC) toxin. Treatment of anterior pituitary cells with this AC toxin resulted in an increase in cellular cAMP levels that was associated with accelerated exocytosis of growth hormone (GH), prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). The kinetics of release of these hormones, however, were markedly different; GH and prolactin were rapidly released, while LH and ACTH secretion was more gradually elevated. Neither dopamine agonists nor somatostatin changes the ability of AC toxin to generate cAMP (up to 2 h). Low concentrations of AC toxin amplified the secretory response to hypophysiotrophic hormones. The authors conclude that bacterial AC toxin can rapidly elevate cAMP levels in anterior pituitary cells and that it is the response that explains the subsequent acceleration of hormone release.

  9. Charge-changing reactions of secondary fragments produced in high-energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have begun a program to measure charge changing cross sections of projectile fragments using a quite different technique that is capable of much higher data acquisition rates. The primary beam impinges on a stack of 50 Lucite strips having an average thickness of 3.17 mm, emitting Cerenkov light as its passes through them. Since at a given velocity the intensity of light is proportional to Z2, where Z is the charge of the particle, a fragmentation reaction in a particular strip will be registered as a drop in the light output from that and subsequent strips. The authors use total internal reflection to transport the light to photomultiplier tubes so that there is no wrapping between the strips. Since the energy threshold of the device is approx.1.1 GeV/nucleon, low energy target fragments will not contribute to the signal, a distinct advantage over similar schemes using energy loss to measure the fragment charge. The resolution of the individual strips is typically 0.58 charge units, full width at half maximum, allowing reactions to be well localized even for single unit charge changes. In addition to the C detectors, scintillators and Si(Li) detectors were used to measure precisely the position and charge of the incoming beam particle. The authors have taken data using two beams, 56Fe and 40Ar, at 1.88 and 1.82 GeV/nucleon respectively, and two trigger modes, a free trigger to measure the reaction rate of the incoming beam and an inelastic trigger in which a reaction was required to occur in one of the first 14 C detectors. A total of 909,000 56Fe interactions and 460,000 40Ar interactions have been analyzed so far

  10. Local vs. non-local energy loss of low energy ions: Influence of charge exchange processes in close collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primetzhofer, D., E-mail: daniel.primetzhofer@physics.uu.se [Ion Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 516, S-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Goebl, D.; Bauer, P. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2013-12-15

    We investigate the contribution of charge exchange processes in close collisions between projectile and target atoms to the electronic energy loss of low energy ions. We measure the energy loss of slow hydrogen and He ions in ultrathin Al films through which the ions are transmitted before and after backscattering by the atoms of a Ta substrate. The individual contributions to the energy loss are analyzed. The roles of thresholds for reionization and of scattering kinematics as key parameters for the coupling between elastic and inelastic losses are discussed. The implications of the obtained results for different experimental approaches to deduce stopping cross sections are outlined.

  11. Experimental study of influence of inlet geometry on thermal stratification in thermal energy storage during charging process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Švarc Petr

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Various analyses of charging processes of real single-medium thermal energy storage were applied in this work. Two different inlet geometries of direct intakes into thermal energy storage were investigated for the process of charging in Richardson numbers 0.4 and 15. Temperature distributions for both cases are shown and compared in selected time steps. Several simple methods for assessment of an ability to maintain and support thermal stratification during charging processes were compared with exergy analysis.

  12. Production of a high energy beam of multiply charged Cn+60 ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time fullerene ions have been accelerated to high energy (14-50 MeV). Negative ions of C-60 were produced in the ion source with a Cs gun and injected into the tandem accelerator. The change of charge from negative to positive was achieved in a N2 gas cell at the high voltage terminal before the second acceleration. To identify the accelerated molecular ions, the injected beam was pulsed, and time of flight measurements were performed. Unambiguous mass and charge assignments were obtained

  13. Reactive Power Support of Electrical Vehicle Charging Station Upgraded with Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SUN, BO; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Savaghebi, Mehdi;

    2015-01-01

    Electrical vehicles (EVs) are presenting increasingly potential to replace the conventional fossil fuel based vehicles due to environmental friendly characteristic. Accordingly, Charging Stations (CS), as an intermediate between grid and large numbers of EVs, are supposed to have more critical...... influence on future smart transportation network. This paper explores an off-board charging station upgraded with flywheel energy storage system that could provide a reactive power support to the grid utility. A supervisory control scheme based on distributed bus signaling is proposed to coordinate...

  14. Single Production of Charged Top-Pions at High Energy Linear e+e- Colliders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Chong-Xing; JIA Yong; LIU Lan-Jun; WANG Xue-Lei

    2003-01-01

    The dominant decay modes of charged top-pions (π±t ) are tb or ~b. We consider the single production ofcharged top-pions in association with a top quark via e+ e- annihilation and calculate the production cross section of theprocesses e+ e- → t-bπ+ (tb-π-) at the leading order. We find that it can reach 1.2 fb with reasonable parameter values.The charged top-pions may be detected via the channel tbπ± in the future high energy e+ e- colliders.

  15. Twin boundary energy and characterization of charge redistribution near the twin boundaries of cupperate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Mahnaz [Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshnevisan, Bahram, E-mail: m.mohammadi_2@grad.kashanu.ac.ir [Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Javad Hashemifar, S. [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Ab initio simulation for twin boundary energy in YBCO system for the 1st time. • Study of the twin boundary energy variation versus the inserted strain. • Proportionality of twin lamella width by the inserted strain. • Local charge transfer and charge redistribution on the twin planes. • Total DOSs for the twined system at Fermi level is higher than the untwined one. • This explain the effect of twin boundaries in agreement with experimental data. - Abstract: Ab-initio calculations under general gradient approximation have been employed for the first time to find out twin boundary energy, γ, in twined YBCO systems. Despite a vast discrepancy in reported experimental values, our results show that the γ value falls in the range of 40–85 mJ/m{sup 2}. On the other hand, functional form of γ versus inserted strains shows that the mean value for the twin width lamella would tend to approach zero as the strain goes to zero. We have also investigated the local charge transfer and the modification of the electronic states of the basal and twin planes in YBCO, because the charge redistribution at interfaces can modify transport across the grains considerably and determine the applicability of high-T{sub c} superconductors in the electronic applications. The total density of electronic states at the Fermi level for the twined system is enhanced in comparison with the untwined one. Our results explain the influence of twin boundaries in superconductive properties of YBCO, in experimental situations.

  16. Energy transfer through a multi-layer liner for shaped charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnick, Saul; Goodman, Albert

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to the determination of parameters for selecting materials for use as liners in shaped charges to transfer the greatest amount of energy to the explosive jet. Multi-layer liners constructed of metal in shaped charges for oil well perforators or other applications are selected in accordance with the invention to maximize the penetrating effect of the explosive jet by reference to four parameters: (1) Adjusting the explosive charge to liner mass ratio to achieve a balance between the amount of explosive used in a shaped charge and the areal density of the liner material; (2) Adjusting the ductility of each layer of a multi-layer liner to enhance the formation of a longer energy jet; (3) Buffering the intermediate layers of a multi-layer liner by varying the properties of each layer, e.g., composition, thickness, ductility, acoustic impedance and areal density, to protect the final inside layer of high density material from shattering upon impact of the explosive force and, instead, flow smoothly into a jet; and (4) Adjusting the impedance of the layers in a liner to enhance the transmission and reduce the reflection of explosive energy across the interface between layers.

  17. Interaction of low-energy highly charged ions with matter; Wechselwirkung niederenergetischer hochgeladener Ionen mit Materie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzel, Rainer

    2010-06-09

    The thesis presented herein deals with experimental studies of the interaction between highly charged ions and neutral matter at low collision energies. The energy range investigated is of great interest for the understanding of both charge exchange reactions between ions comprising the solar wind and various astrophysical gases, as well as the creation of near-surface nanostructures. Over the course of this thesis an experimental setup was constructed, capable of reducing the kinetic energy of incoming ions by two orders of magnitude and finally focussing the decelerated ion beam onto a solid or gaseous target. A coincidence method was employed for the simultaneous detection of photons emitted during the charge exchange process together with the corresponding projectile ions. In this manner, it was possible to separate reaction channels, whose superposition presumably propagated large uncertainties and systematic errors in previous measurements. This work has unveiled unexpectedly strong contributions of slow radiative decay channels and clear evidence of previously only postulated decay processes in charge exchange-induced X-ray spectra. (orig.)

  18. Regional differences in system usage charges. Impediment to a fair energy transition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conversion of the German electricity supply system to production from renewable resources under the national energy transition policy is making it necessary to expand and restructure the distribution networks. Based on the expansion goals of the federal government, expectations are that thinly populated regions with low conflict potential will see a continued growth in distributed generation. This will increase the geographic asymmetry that exists between the production of renewable energy in rural, peripheral regions and its consumption predominantly in urban regions, thus enlarging the regional differences in system usage charges seen already today. The geographic disparity between production and consumption may grow larger still with the continuing installation of new and repowering of existing renewable energy plants. Of the possibilities discussed so far for reforming the scheme of charges, some would only have a weak impact, while others would even exacerbate the problem. The solution proposed in the present article takes account of the costs incurred through upstream supply networks in accordance with Article 14 Section 1 Sentence 1 of the Ordinance on System Usage Charges. In effect it leads to an allocation of costs according to the user-pays principle, thus protecting consumers connected to rural distribution networks against an undue cost burden and charging a fair share of the costs to consumers in urban and industrial distribution networks.

  19. Solar Energetic Particle drifts and the energy dependence of 1 AU charge states

    CERN Document Server

    Dalla, S; Battarbee, M

    2016-01-01

    The event-averaged charge state of heavy ion Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs), measured at 1 AU from the Sun, typically increases with the ions' kinetic energy. The origin of this behaviour has been ascribed to processes taking place within the acceleration region. In this paper we study the propagation through interplanetary space of SEP Fe ions, injected near the Sun with a variety of charge states that are uniformly distributed in energy, by means of a 3D test particle model. In our simulations, due to gradient and curvature drifts associated with the Parker spiral magnetic field, ions of different charge propagate with very different efficiencies to an observer that is not magnetically well connected to the source region. As a result we find that, for many observer locations, the 1 AU event-averaged charge state , as obtained from our model, displays an increase with particle energy E, in qualitative agreement with spacecraft observations. We conclude that drift-associated propagation is a possible explan...

  20. Scaling and charge ratio in the energy range 1-10 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the investigation was to study the spectra of generation of neutral and charged pions in the upper atmosphere in order to establish the scaling behaviour of the multiple birth of particles at primary particle energies above the acceleration energies. The study of the spectrum gamma-quanta in the atmosphere and the muon spectrum at the sea level made it possible to adjust the pion generation spectrum. In experiments with emulsion chambers the spectra of gamma-quanta and electrons at different zenith angles at two levels in the atmosphere (225 and 700 gxcm-2) and the muon spectrum at the sea level were determined. The obtained data on pion birth in the atmosphere pointed to the conservation of scale and charge invariance in pion birth at nucleon energies of 1012-1014 eV

  1. Experimental investigation on charging and discharging performance of absorption thermal energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A prototype of ATES using LiBr/H2O was designed and built. • Charging and discharging performances of ATES system were investigated. • ESE and ESD for cooling, domestic hot water and heating were obtained. - Abstract: Because of high thermal storage density and little heat loss, absorption thermal energy storage (ATES) is known as a potential thermal energy storage (TES) technology. To investigate the performance of the ATES system with LiBr–H2O, a prototype with 10 kW h cooling storage capacity was designed and built. The experiments demonstrated that charging and discharging processes are successful in producing 7 °C chilled water, 65 °C domestic hot water, or 43 °C heating water to meet the user’s requirements. Characteristics such as temperature, concentration and power variation of the ATES system during charging and discharging processes were investigated. The performance of the ATES system for supplying cooling, heating or domestic hot water was analyzed and compared. The results indicate that the energy storage efficiencies (ESE) for cooling, domestic hot water and heating are 0.51, 0.97, 1.03, respectively, and the energy storage densities (ESD) for cooling, domestic hot water and heating reach 42, 88, 110 kW h/m3, respectively. The performance is better than those of previous TES systems, which proves that the ATES system using LiBr–H2O may be a good option for thermal energy storage

  2. Energy-dependent Charge States and Their Connection with Ion Abundances in Impulsive Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFabio, R.; Guo, Z.; Möbius, E.; Klecker, B.; Kucharek, H.; Mason, G. M.; Popecki, M.

    2008-11-01

    Impulsive solar energetic particle (SEP) events show substantial enhancements of heavy ions and 3He over the composition in the Sun's atmosphere. Mass per charge dependent acceleration mechanisms have been proposed to account for this preferential acceleration. However, a problem emerged for all the preferential acceleration models with the measurement of ionization states near 1 MeV nucleon-1, which showed that ions from C to Mg are fully stripped, a challenge that had been recognized early on. Since all models relied on differences in the charge-to-mass ratio to enable preferential acceleration, the proposed mechanisms were incompatible with this observation. Recent observations of the ionic charge states at lower energies have revealed a dependence on energy, with the charge states decreasing for lower energy ions. This raises the possibility that the low-energy charge states reflect the plasma conditions at the acceleration site, while the high-energy charge states are due to stripping low in the solar corona. In a survey of impulsive events we show that the increase of the Fe charge states with energy is highly significant for the sample of events and thus most likely a general feature of impulsive events. To see whether there is a connection between the enhancements and charge states, we extended the ACE SEPICA charge-state observations to lower energies and combined them with the ion fluxes from ACE ULEIS for impulsive events observed between 1997 and 2000. We find a positive correlation between the abundance ratios and the charge states at low energy, while the charge states at the highest energy do not demonstrate such dependence. This supports the idea that the higher mass particles are preferentially accelerated before being stripped.

  3. Charged particle assisted nuclear reactions in solid state environment: renaissance of low energy nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    The features of electron assisted neutron exchange processes in crystalline solids are survayed. It is stated that, contrary to expectations, the cross section of these processes may reach an observable magnitude even in the very low energy case because of the extremely huge increment caused by the Coulomb factor of the electron assisted processes and by the effect of the crystal-lattice. The features of electron assisted heavy charged particle exchange processes, electron assisted nuclear capure processes and heavy charged particle assisted nuclear processes are also overviewed. Experimental observations, which may be related to our theoretical findings, are dealt with. The anomalous screening phenomenon is related to electron assisted neutron and proton exchange processes in crystalline solids. A possible explanation of observations by Fleischmann and Pons is presented. The possibility of the phenomenon of nuclear transmutation is qualitatively explained with the aid of usual and charged particle assisted r...

  4. Charge exchange and energy loss of slowed down heavy ions channeled in silicon crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is devoted to the study of charge exchange processes and of the energy loss of highly charged heavy ions channeled in thin silicon crystals. The two first chapters present the techniques of heavy ion channeling in a crystal, the ion-electron processes and the principle of our simulations (charge exchange and trajectory of channeled ions). The next chapters describe the two experiments performed at the GSI facility in Darmstadt, the main results of which follow: the probability per target atom of the mechanical capture (MEC) of 20 MeV/u U91+ ions as a function of the impact parameter (with the help of our simulations), the observation of the strong polarization of the target electron gas by the study of the radiative capture and the slowing down of Pb81+ ions from 13 to 8,5 MeV/u in channeling conditions for which electron capture is strongly reduced. (author)

  5. Energy and centrality dependences of charged multiplicity pseudorapidity density in relativistic nuclear collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou Dai Mei; Sá Ben-Hao; Li Zhong Dao

    2002-01-01

    Using a hadron and string cascade model, JPCIAE, and the corresponding Monte Carlo events generator, the energy and centrality dependences of charged particle pseudorapidity density in relativistic nuclear collisions were studied. Within the framework of this model, both the relativistic p anti p experimental data and the PHOBOS and PHENIX Au + Au data could be reproduced fairly well without retuning the model parameters. The author shows that since is not a well defined physical variable both experimentally and theoretically, the charged particle pseudorapidity density per participant pair can increase and also can decrease with increasing of , so it may be hard to use charged particle pseudorapidity density per participant pair as a function of to distinguish various theoretical models for particle production

  6. The Low-Energy Charged Particle (LECP) experiment on the Voyager Spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) experiment on the Voyager spacecraft is designed to provide comprehensive measurements of energetic particles in the Jovian, Saturnian, Uranian and interplanetary environments. These measurements will be used in establishing the morphology of the magnetospheres of Saturn and Uranus, including bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetotail, trapped radiation, and satellite-energetic particle interactions. The experiment consists of two subsystems, the Low Energy Magnetospheric Particle Analyzer (LEMPA) whose design is optimized for magnetospheric measurements, and the Low Energy Particle Telescope (LEPT) whose design is optimized for measurements in the distant magnetosphere and the interplanetary medium. (Auth.)

  7. Energy losses of fast heavy multiply charged structural ions in collisions with complex atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, V. I.; Sidorov, D. B.

    2007-07-01

    A nonperturbatve theory of energy losses of fast heavy multiply charged structural ions in collisions with neutral complex atoms is elaborated with allowance for simultaneous excitations of ionic and atomic electron shells. Formulas for the effective deceleration that are similar to the well-known Bethe-Bloch formulas are derived. By way of example, the energy lost by partially stripped U q+ ions (10 ≤ q ≤ 70) colliding with argon atoms and also the energy lost by Au, Pb, and Bi ions colliding with various targets are calculated. The results of calculation are compared with experimental data.

  8. Correlation between the Open-Circuit Voltage and Charge Transfer State Energy in Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yunlong; Holmes, Russell J

    2015-08-26

    In order to further improve the performance of organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), it is essential to better understand the factors that limit the open-circuit voltage (VOC). Previous work has sought to correlate the value of VOC in donor-acceptor (D-A) OPVs to the interface energy level offset (EDA). In this work, measurements of electroluminescence are used to extract the charge transfer (CT) state energy for multiple small molecule D-A pairings. The CT state as measured from electroluminescence is found to show better correlation to the maximum VOC than EDA. The difference between EDA and the CT state energy is attributed to the Coulombic binding energy of the CT state. This correlation is demonstrated explicitly by inserting an insulating spacer layer between the donor and acceptor materials, reducing the binding energy of the CT state and increasing the measured VOC. These results demonstrate a direct correlation between maximum VOC and CT state energy.

  9. Charging studies of heat packs using parabolic dish solar energy concentrator for extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohitash; Vyas, Sumita; Kumar, Ravindra; Dixit, Ambesh

    2016-05-01

    Parabolic dish solar energy concentrator with aperture diameter 1.4 m and focal length 0.32 m is designed and fabricated to charge and store solar thermal energy in phase change material (PCM) based heat packs. Overall heat loss factor, heat duty, over all thermal efficiency, and optical efficiency factor are calculated using water sensible heating and cooling tests and values are 16.11 W m-2 K-1, 546.9 W, 49.2% and 0.62 respectively. The performance characteristic curve is generated using these parameters to understand its performance at different ambient temperatures and solar insolation. The fabricated concentrator has been used to charge 16 PCM heat packs with 150 g PCM in each heat pack, which took about 35 minutes for complete charging of PCM heat packs at average ambient temperature 39 °C and solar radiation flux density 715 W m-2 K-1. The charged heat packs are subjected to discharge studies at average ambient temperature about - 7 °C and observed heat release in the temperature range of 48 to 40 °C for 50 minutes, suggesting its applications for comfort and therapeutic applications in high altitude areas.

  10. Organic photovoltaic devices with concurrent solar energy harvesting and charge storage capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshi, Arash; Tevi, Tete; Rahimi, Fatemeh

    2015-09-01

    Due to large variation of the solar energy availability in a day, energy storage is required in many applications when solar cells are used. However, application of external energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, increases the cost of solar energy systems and requires additional charging circuitry. This combination is bulky and relatively expensive, which is not ideal for many applications. In this work, a novel idea is presented for making electrochemical devices with dual properties of solar energy harvesting and internal charge storage. The device is essentially a supercapacitor with a photoactive electrode. Energy harvesting occurs through light absorption at one of the electrodes made of a composite of a conducting polymer (i.e. PEDOT:PSS) and a Porphyrin dye. The energy storage takes place in the both photoactive and counter electrode (CE). We have studied the effect of the CE material on the device characteristics. Using Y-Carbon (a commercial available electrode), an open circuit voltage of 0.49 V was achieved in light across the cell with ~1 mF capacitance. The other two choices for CE were activated carbon and carbon nanotube based electrodes. The cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy demonstrated that the Y Carbon electrode was a better match.

  11. Optimization of ATP synthase function in mitochondria and chloroplasts via the adenylate kinase equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir U Igamberdiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The bulk of ATP synthesis in plants is performed by ATP synthase, the main bioenergetics engine of cells, operating both in mitochondria and in chloroplasts. The reaction mechanism of ATP synthase has been studied in detail for over half a century; however, its optimal performance depends also on the steady delivery of ATP synthase substrates and the removal of its products. For mitochondrial ATP synthase, we analyze here the provision of stable conditions for (i the supply of ADP and Mg2+, supported by adenylate kinase (AK equilibrium in the intermembrane space, (ii the supply of phosphate via membrane transporter in symport with H+, and (iii the conditions of outflow of ATP by adenylate transporter carrying out the exchange of free adenylates. We also show that, in chloroplasts, AK equilibrates adenylates and governs Mg2+ contents in the stroma, optimizing ATP synthase and Calvin cycle operation, and affecting the import of inorganic phosphate in exchange with triose phosphates. It is argued that chemiosmosis is not the sole component of ATP synthase performance, which also depends on AK-mediated equilibrium of adenylates and Mg2+, adenylate transport and phosphate release and supply.

  12. Aprataxin resolves adenylated RNA–DNA junctions to maintain genome integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumbale, Percy [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Lab. of Structural Biology; Williams, Jessica S. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Lab. of Structural Biology; Schellenberg, Matthew J. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Lab. of Structural Biology; Kunkel, Thomas A. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Lab. of Structural Biology and Lab. of Molecular Genetics; Williams, R. Scott [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Lab. of Structural Biology and Lab. Molecular Genetics

    2013-12-22

    Faithful maintenance and propagation of eukaryotic genomes is ensured by three-step DNA ligation reactions used by ATP-dependent DNA ligases. Paradoxically, when DNA ligases encounter nicked DNA structures with abnormal DNA termini, DNA ligase catalytic activity can generate and/or exacerbate DNA damage through abortive ligation that produces chemically adducted, toxic 5'-adenylated (5'-AMP) DNA lesions. Aprataxin (APTX) reverses DNA adenylation but the context for deadenylation repair is unclear. Here we examine the importance of APTX to RNase-H2-dependent excision repair (RER) of a lesion that is very frequently introduced into DNA, a ribonucleotide. We show that ligases generate adenylated 5' ends containing a ribose characteristic of RNase H2 incision. APTX efficiently repairs adenylated RNA–DNA, and acting in an RNA–DNA damage response (RDDR), promotes cellular survival and prevents S-phase checkpoint activation in budding yeast undergoing RER. Structure–function studies of human APTX–RNA–DNA–AMP–Zn complexes define a mechanism for detecting and reversing adenylation at RNA–DNA junctions. This involves A-form RNA binding, proper protein folding and conformational changes, all of which are affected by heritable APTX mutations in ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 1. Together, these results indicate that accumulation of adenylated RNA–DNA may contribute to neurological disease.

  13. Temporal evolution of ion energy distribution functions and ion charge states of Cr and Cr-Al pulsed arc plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Koichi, E-mail: tanak@mmc.co.jp [Central Research Institute, Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, 1002-14 Mukohyama, Naka-shi, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan); Anders, André [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 53, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    To study the temporal evolution of ion energy distribution functions, charge-state-resolved ion energy distribution functions of pulsed arc plasmas from Cr and Cr-Al cathodes were recorded with high time resolution by using direct data acquisition from a combined energy and mass analyzer. The authors find increases in intensities of singly charged ions, which is evidence that charge exchange reactions took place in both Cr and Cr-Al systems. In Cr-Al plasmas, the distributions of high-charge-state ions exhibit high energy tails 50 μs after discharge ignition, but no such tails were observed at 500 μs. The energy ratios of ions of different charge states at the beginning of the pulse, when less neutral atoms were in the space in front of the cathode, suggest that ions are accelerated by an electric field. The situation is not so clear after 50 μs due to particle collisions. The initial mean ion charge state of Cr was about the same in Cr and in Cr-Al plasmas, but it decreased more rapidly in Cr-Al plasmas compared to the decay in Cr plasma. The faster decay of the mean ion charge state and ion energy caused by the addition of Al into a pure Cr cathode suggests that the mean ion charge state is determined not only by ionization processes at the cathode spot but also by inelastic collision between different elements.

  14. High-energy charged particle bursts in the near-Earth space as earthquake precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Aleksandrin

    Full Text Available The experimental data on high-energy charged particle fluxes, obtained in various near-Earth space experiments (MIR orbital station, METEOR-3, GAMMA and SAMPEX satellites were processed and analyzed with the goal to search for particle bursts. Particle bursts have been selected in every experiment considered. It was shown that the significant part of high-energy charged particle bursts correlates with seismic activity. Moreover, the particle bursts are observed several hours before strong earthquakes; L-shells of particle bursts and corresponding earthquakes are practically the same. Some features of a seismo-magnetosphere connection model, based on the interaction of electromagnetic emission of seismic origin and radiation belt particles, were considered.

    Key words. Ionospheric physics (energetic particles, trapped; energetic particles, precipitating; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  15. Low-energy pion double charge exchange and nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent measurements of pion double-charge exchange (DCX) at energies 20 to 70 MeV are providing a new means for studying nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei. At these energies the nucleus is relatively transparent, allowing simpler theoretical models to be used in interpreting the data and leading to a clearer picture. Also the contribution to DCX of sequential charge-exchange scattering through the intermediate analog state is suppressed near 50 MeV and transitions through non-analog intermediate states become very important. Recent theoretical studies by several groups have shown that while transitions through the analog route involve relatively long nucleon-nucleon distances, those through non-analog intermediate states obtain nearly half their strength from nucleon pairs with less than 1 fermi separation. Thus DCX near 50 MeV is an excellent way to study short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations. 31 refs., 29 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.; Phobos Collaboration

    2003-04-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at √ SNN = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/ overlinepp and e +e - data. / in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with √ s in a similar way as Nch in e +e - collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  17. Numerical Studies of Electromagnetic Instabilities in Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Energy Anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Startsev, Edward; Lee, Wei-li

    2005-01-01

    In intense charged particle beams with large energy anisotropy, free energy is available to drive transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instabilities. Such slow-wave transverse electromagnetic instabilities can be described by the so-called Darwin model, which neglects the fast-wave portion of the displacement current. The Weibel instability may also lead to an increase in the longitudinal velocity spread, which would make the focusing of the beam difficult and impose a limit on the minimum spot size achievable in heavy ion fusion experiments. This paper reports the results of recent numerical studies of the Weibel instability using the Beam Eigenmode And Spectra (bEASt) code for space-charge-dominated, low-emittance beams with large tune depression. To study the nonlinear stage of the instability, the Darwin model is being developed and incorporated into the Beam Equilibrium Stability and Transport(BEST) code.

  18. Charge transfer in the interactions of partially stripped ions with atoms at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Coulomb-Born (CB) approximation has been employed to study charge transfer cross sections in collisions of Cq+, Nq+ and Oq+ (q = 1-5) with atomic hydrogen in ground state in the energy range of 30-200 keV/amu. The interaction of the active electron with the incoming projectile ion has been approximated by a model potential containing both a long-range part and a short-range part. Variations of total capture cross sections with impact energy compare favourable well with the available experimental observations and with other theoretical findings. In addition, sub-shell distributions of total capture cross sections are given in graphical form. However, we are unable to find any oscillation in the charge-state dependence of total capture cross sections. (author)

  19. Computer simulation of coherent interaction of charged particles and photons with crystalline solids at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, A

    2007-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation code has been developed and tested for studying the passage of charged particle beams and radiation through the crystalline matter at the energies from tens of MeV up to hundreds of GeV. The developed Monte Carlo code simulates electron, positron and photon shower in single crystals and amorphous media. The Monte Carlo code tracks the all generations of charged particles and photons through the aligned crystal by taking into account the parameters of incoming beam, multiple scattering, energy loss, emission angles, transverse dimension of beams, and linear polarization of produced photons. The simulation results are compared with the CERN-NA-59 experimental data. The realistic descriptions of the electron and photon beams and the physical processes within the silicon and germanium single crystals have been implemented.

  20. Recovering Swift-XRT energy resolution through CCD charge trap mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Pagani, C; Abbey, A F; Mountford, C; Osborne, J P; Capalbi, M; Perri, M; Angelini, L; Burrows, D N; Campana, S; Cusumano, G; Evans, P A; Kennea, J A; Moretti, A; Page, K L; Starling, R L C

    2011-01-01

    The X-ray telescope on board the Swift satellite for gamma-ray burst astronomy has been exposed to the radiation of the space environment since launch in November 2004. Radiation causes damage to the detector, with the generation of dark current and charge trapping sites that result in the degradation of the spectral resolution and an increase of the instrumental background. The Swift team has a dedicated calibration program with the goal of recovering a significant proportion of the lost spectroscopic performance. Calibration observations of supernova remnants with strong emission lines are analysed to map the detector charge traps and to derive position-dependent corrections to the measured photon energies. We have achieved a substantial recovery in the XRT resolution by implementing these corrections in an updated version of the Swift XRT gain file and in corresponding improvements to the Swift XRT HEAsoft software. We provide illustrations of the impact of the enhanced energy resolution, and show that we ...

  1. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at √SNN = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/p-barp and e+e- data. ch>/part/2> in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with √s in a similar way as Nch in e+e- collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions

  2. Development of low energy ion beam system for space charge compensation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low energy ion beam system for space charge compensation (SCC) experiments was developed and evaluated. This system was designed for observation of SCC of a positive ion beam with an electron beam. The system consisted of the ion source chamber and the SCC experiment chamber. The ion source chamber was equipped with the compact microwave ion source for low voltage extraction. Ion current at initial position of the analysis chamber was 84 μA at extraction voltage of 500 V, and satisfied a condition to observe the SCC effect clearly. In order to evaluate the SCC, we measured the arrival ion current by supplying thermionic electrons, which were extracted from a tungsten filament driven by ac voltage. As the electron supply, the arrival ion current increased from 40 to 68 μA at the potential of filament of +3 eV which produced the thermionic electron with extremely low energy extracted by space charge of the ion beam

  3. Modeling Charge-Sign Asymmetric Solvation Free Energies With Nonlinear Boundary Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P

    2014-01-01

    We show that charge-sign-dependent asymmetric hydration can be modeled accurately using linear Poisson theory but replacing the standard electric-displacement boundary condition with a simple nonlinear boundary condition. Using a single multiplicative scaling factor to determine atomic radii from molecular dynamics Lennard-Jones parameters, the new model accurately reproduces MD free-energy calculations of hydration asymmetries for (i) monatomic ions, (ii) titratable amino acids in both their protonated and unprotonated states, and (iii) the Mobley "bracelet" and "rod" test problems [J. Phys. Chem. B, v. 112:2408, 2008]. Remarkably, the model also justifies the use of linear response expressions for charging free energies. Our boundary-element method implementation demonstrates the ease with which other continuum-electrostatic solvers can be extended to include asymmetry.

  4. A 2-D Implicit, Energy and Charge Conserving Particle In Cell Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, Allen L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knoll, Dana A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cieren, Emmanuel B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feltman, Nicolas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leibs, Christopher A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCarthy, Colleen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murthy, Karthik S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yijie [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-10

    Recently, a fully implicit electrostatic 1D charge- and energy-conserving particle-in-cell algorithm was proposed and implemented by Chen et al ([2],[3]). Central to the algorithm is an advanced particle pusher. Particles are moved using an energy conserving scheme and are forced to stop at cell faces to conserve charge. Moreover, a time estimator is used to control errors in momentum. Here we implement and extend this advanced particle pusher to include 2D and electromagnetic fields. Derivations of all modifications made are presented in full. Special consideration is taken to ensure easy coupling into the implicit moment based method proposed by Taitano et al [19]. Focus is then given to optimizing the presented particle pusher on emerging architectures. Two multicore implementations, and one GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) implementation are discussed and analyzed.

  5. Charge exchange processes in He+/Cu scattering at low energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalal-Kouache, K.; Bruckner, B.; Roth, D.; Goebl, D.; Bauer, P.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present results on charge exchange of He+ ions at a polycrystalline Cu surface. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the trajectories of projectiles scattered by an angle Θ = 136 ° . By including Auger neutralization and charge exchange in close collisions, energy spectra of the scattered ions as well as ion fraction values were calculated for primary energies in the range 0.5-5 keV and compared to experimental results. In the simulations, the Auger neutralization rate Γ and the probabilities of resonant neutralization (PRN) and reionization (PRI) are treated as free parameters. Using well accepted values from literature for these quantities very good agreement between simulations and experimental data was achieved.

  6. Transport and effects of high-energy charged fusion-products in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An explicit expression that describes the guiding-center motion of a high-energy charged particle in a lossless, axisymmetric, low-beta (β less than or equal to 0.1) tokamak has been derived. The expression is valid in any type of toroidal and poloidal field configurations as long as the poloidal flux surfaces, specified by psi (r), are circular. A similar explicit expression is obtained for fields having a vertical stabilizing component, B/sub v/

  7. Calculations on charge state and energy loss of argon ions in partially and fully ionized carbon plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D; Casas, David; Morales, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    The energy loss of argon ions in a target depends on their velocity and charge density. At the energies studied in this work, it depends mostly on the free and bound electrons in the target. Here the random-phase approximation is used for analyzing free electrons at any degeneracy. For the plasma-bound electrons, an interpolation between approximations for low and high energies is applied. The Brandt-Kitagawa (BK) model is employed to depict the projectile charge space distribution, and the stripping criterion of Kreussler et al. is used to determine its equilibrium charge state Q(eq). This latter criterion implies that the equilibrium charge state depends slightly on the electron density and temperature of the plasma. On the other hand, the effective charge Q(eff) is obtained as the ratio between the energy loss of the argon ion and that of the proton for the same plasma conditions. This effective charge Q(eff) is larger than the equilibrium charge state Q(eq) due to the incorporation of the BK charge distribution. Though our charge-state estimations are not exactly the same as the experimental values, our energy loss agrees quite well with the experiments. It is noticed that the energy loss in plasmas is higher than that in the same cold target of about, ∼42-62.5% and increases with carbon plasma ionization. This confirms the well-known enhanced plasma stopping. It is also observed that only a small part of this energy loss enhancement is due to an increase of the argon charge state, namely only ∼2.2 and 5.1%, for the partially and the fully ionized plasma, respectively. The other contribution is connected with a better energy transfer to the free electrons at plasma state than to the bound electrons at solid state of about, ∼38.8-57.4%, where higher values correspond to a fully ionized carbon plasma. PMID:27078472

  8. Calculations on charge state and energy loss of argon ions in partially and fully ionized carbon plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.; Casas, David; Morales, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    The energy loss of argon ions in a target depends on their velocity and charge density. At the energies studied in this work, it depends mostly on the free and bound electrons in the target. Here the random-phase approximation is used for analyzing free electrons at any degeneracy. For the plasma-bound electrons, an interpolation between approximations for low and high energies is applied. The Brandt-Kitagawa (BK) model is employed to depict the projectile charge space distribution, and the stripping criterion of Kreussler et al. is used to determine its equilibrium charge state Qeq. This latter criterion implies that the equilibrium charge state depends slightly on the electron density and temperature of the plasma. On the other hand, the effective charge Qeff is obtained as the ratio between the energy loss of the argon ion and that of the proton for the same plasma conditions. This effective charge Qeff is larger than the equilibrium charge state Qeq due to the incorporation of the BK charge distribution. Though our charge-state estimations are not exactly the same as the experimental values, our energy loss agrees quite well with the experiments. It is noticed that the energy loss in plasmas is higher than that in the same cold target of about, ˜42 -62.5 % and increases with carbon plasma ionization. This confirms the well-known enhanced plasma stopping. It is also observed that only a small part of this energy loss enhancement is due to an increase of the argon charge state, namely only ˜2.2 and 5.1 % , for the partially and the fully ionized plasma, respectively. The other contribution is connected with a better energy transfer to the free electrons at plasma state than to the bound electrons at solid state of about, ˜38.8 -57.4 % , where higher values correspond to a fully ionized carbon plasma.

  9. Design study of low-energy beam transport for multi-charge beams at RAON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Qiang, Ji; Kim, Eun-San

    2015-12-01

    The Rare isotope Accelerator Of Newness (RAON) at the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) is being designed to simultaneously accelerate beams with multiple charge states. It includes a driver superconducting (SC) linac for producing 200 MeV/u and 400 kW continuous wave (CW) heavy ion beams from protons to uranium. The RAON consists of a few electron cyclotron resonance ion sources, a low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system, a CW 81.25 MHz, 500 keV/u radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, a medium-energy beam transport system, the SC linac, and a charge-stripper system. The LEBT system for the RISP accelerator facility consists of a high-voltage platform, two 90° dipoles, a multi-harmonic buncher (MHB), solenoids, electrostatic quadrupoles, a velocity equalizer, and a diagnostic system. The ECR ion sources are located on a high-voltage platform to reach an initial beam energy of 10 keV/u. After extraction, the ion beam is transported through the LEBT system to the RFQ accelerator. The generated charge states are selected by an achromatic bending system and then bunched by the MHB in the LEBT system. The MHB is used to achieve a small longitudinal emittance in the RFQ by generating a sawtooth wave with three harmonics. In this paper, we present the results and issues of the beam dynamics of the LEBT system.

  10. Potential energy, force distribution and oscillatory motion of chloride ion inside electrically charged carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, F.; Ansari, R.; Darvizeh, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this research, a continuum-based model is presented to explore potential energy, force distribution and oscillatory motion of ions, and in particular chloride ion, inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs) decorated by functional groups at two ends. To perform this, van der Waals (vdW) interactions between ion and nanotube are modeled by the 6-12 Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential, whereas the electrostatic interactions between ion and functional groups are modeled by the Coulomb potential and the total interactions are analytically derived by summing the vdW and electrostatic interactions. Making the assumption that carbon atoms and charge of functional groups are all uniformly distributed over the nanotube surface and the two ends of nanotube, respectively, a continuum approach is utilized to evaluate the related interactions. Based on the actual force distribution, the equation of motion is also solved numerically to arrive at the time history of displacement and velocity of inner core. With respect to the proposed formulations, comprehensive studies on the variations of potential energy and force distribution are carried out by varying functional group charge and nanotube length. Moreover, the effects of these parameters together with initial conditions on the oscillatory behavior of system are studied and discussed in detail. It is found out that chloride ion escapes more easily from negatively charged CNTs which is followed by uncharged and positively charged ones. It is further shown that the presence of functional groups leads to enhancing the operating frequency of such oscillatory systems especially when the electric charges of ion and functional groups have different signs.

  11. Large impact of reorganization energy on photovoltaic conversion due to interfacial charge-transfer transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Jun-ichi

    2015-05-14

    Interfacial charge-transfer (ICT) transitions are expected to be a novel charge-separation mechanism for efficient photovoltaic conversion featuring one-step charge separation without energy loss. Photovoltaic conversion due to ICT transitions has been investigated using several TiO2-organic hybrid materials that show organic-to-inorganic ICT transitions in the visible region. In applications of ICT transitions to photovoltaic conversion, there is a significant problem that rapid carrier recombination is caused by organic-inorganic electronic coupling that is necessary for the ICT transitions. In order to solve this problem, in this work, I have theoretically studied light-to-current conversions due to the ICT transitions on the basis of the Marcus theory with density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations. An apparent correlation between the reported incident photon-to-current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) and calculated reorganization energies was clearly found, in which the IPCE increases with decreasing the reorganization energy consistent with the Marcus theory in the inverted region. This activation-energy dependence was systematically explained by the equation formulated by the Marcus theory based on a simple excited-state kinetic scheme. This result indicates that the reduction of the reorganization energy can suppress the carrier recombination and enhance the IPCE. The reorganization energy is predominantly governed by the structural change in the chemical-adsorption moiety between the ground and ICT excited states. This work provides crucial knowledge for efficient photovoltaic conversion due to ICT transitions. PMID:25892453

  12. Heavy Inertial Confinement Energy: Interactions Involoving Low charge State Heavy Ion Injection Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuBois, Robert D

    2006-04-14

    During the contract period, absolute cross sections for projectile ionization, and in some cases for target ionization, were measured for energetic (MeV/u) low-charge-state heavy ions interacting with gases typically found in high and ultra-high vacuum environments. This information is of interest to high-energy-density research projects as inelastic interactions with background gases can lead to serious detrimental effects when intense ion beams are accelerated to high energies, transported and possibly confined in storage rings. Thus this research impacts research and design parameters associated with projects such as the Heavy Ion Fusion Project, the High Current and Integrated Beam Experiments in the USA and the accelerator upgrade at GSI-Darmstadt, Germany. Via collaborative studies performed at GSI-Darmstadt, at the University of East Carolina, and Texas A&M University, absolute cross sections were measured for a series of collision systems using MeV/u heavy ions possessing most, or nearly all, of their bound electrons, e.g., 1.4 MeV/u Ar{sup +}, Xe{sup 3+}, and U{sup 4,6,10+}. Interactions involving such low-charge-state heavy ions at such high energies had never been previously explored. Using these, and data taken from the literature, an empirical model was developed for extrapolation to much higher energies. In order to extend our measurements to much higher energies, the gas target at the Experimental Storage Ring in GSI-Darmstadt was used. Cross sections were measured between 20 and 50 MeV/u for U{sup 28+}- H{sub 2} and - N{sub 2}, the primary components found in high and ultra-high vacuum systems. Storage lifetime measurements, information inversely proportional to the cross section, were performed up to 180 MeV/u. The lifetime and cross section data test various theoretical approaches used to calculate cross sections for many-electron systems. Various high energy density research projects directly benefit by this information. As a result, the general

  13. Distribution of separated energy and injected charge at normal falling of fast electron beam on target

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyar, V A; Eremin, V V

    2002-01-01

    In terms of a kinetic equation diffusion model for a beam of electrons falling on a target along the normal one derived analytical formulae for distributions of separated energy and injected charge. In this case, no empirical adjustable parameters are introduced to the theory. The calculated distributions of separated energy for an electron plate directed source within infinite medium for C, Al, Sn and Pb are in good consistency with the Spencer data derived on the basis of the accurate solution of the Bethe equation being the source one in assumption of a diffusion model, as well

  14. Beam energy dependence of charged pion ratio in $^{28}$Si + In reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Sako, M; Nakai, Y; Ichikawa, Y; Ieki, K; Imajo, S; Isobe, T; Matsushita, M; Murata, J; Nishimura, S; Sakurai, H; Sameshima, R D; Takada, E

    2014-01-01

    The double differential cross sections for $^{nat}$In($^{28}$Si, $\\pi ^{\\pm}$) reactions are measured at 400, 600, and 800 MeV/nucleon. Both $\\pi^+$ and $\\pi^-$ are found to be emitted isotropically from a single moving source. The $\\pi^- / \\pi^+$ yield ratio is determined as a function of the charged pion energy between 25 and 100 MeV. The experimental results significantly differ from the prediction of the standard transport model calculation using the code PHITS. This discrepancy suggests that more theoretical works are required to deduce firm information on the nuclear symmetry energy from the $\\pi^- / \\pi^+$ yield ratio.

  15. Swarm Intelligence-Based Smart Energy Allocation Strategy for Charging Stations of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Imran Rahman; Pandian M. Vasant; Balbir Singh Mahinder Singh; Abdullah-Al-Wadud, M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent researches towards the use of green technologies to reduce pollution and higher penetration of renewable energy sources in the transportation sector have been gaining popularity. In this wake, extensive participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) requires adequate charging allocation strategy using a combination of smart grid systems and smart charging infrastructures. Daytime charging stations will be needed for daily usage of PHEVs due to the limited all-electric range....

  16. Mass, charge, and energy separation by selective acceleration with a traveling potential hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, L. Schwager; Barr, W. L.; Lowder, R. S.; Post, R. F.

    1996-10-01

    A traveling electric potential hill has been used to generate an ion beam with an energy distribution that is mass dependent from a monoenergetic ion beam of mixed masses. This effect can be utilized as a novel method for mass separation applied to identification or enrichment of ions (e.g., of elements, isotopes, or molecules). This theory for mass-selective acceleration is presented here and is shown to be confirmed by experiment and by a time-dependent particle-in-cell computer simulation. Results show that monoenergetic ions with the particular mass of choice are accelerated by controlling the hill potential and the hill velocity. The hill velocity is typically 20%-30% faster than the ions to be accelerated. The ability of the hill to pickup a particular mass uses the fact that small kinetic energy differences in the lab frame appear much larger in the moving hill frame. Ions will gain energy from the approaching hill if their relative energy in the moving hill frame is less than the peak potential of the hill. The final energy of these accelerated ions can be several times the source energy, which facilitates energy filtering for mass purification or identification. If the hill potential is chosen to accelerate multiple masses, the heaviest mass will have the greatest final energy. Hence, choosing the appropriate hill potential and collector retarding voltage will isolate ions with the lightest, heaviest, or intermediate mass. In the experimental device, called a Solitron, purified 20Ne and 22Ne are extracted from a ribbon beam of neon that is originally composed of 20Ne:22Ne in the natural ratio of 91:9. The isotopic content of the processed beam is determined by measuring the energy distribution of the detected current. These results agree with the theory. In addition to mass selectivity, our theory can also be applied to the filtration of an ion beam according to charge state or energy. Because of this variety of properties, the Solitron is envisioned to

  17. Special charges related to household energy use. Documentations 1970-2012; Saeravgifter relatert til husholdningenes energiforbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessmann, Sandra; Halvorsen, Bente; Larsen, Bodil M.

    2012-11-15

    This paper provides an overview of special charges related to household energy use in Norway from 1970 to 2012. Excise duties are presented by the object they apply (rather than to describe the fee arrangements separately). Moreover, they are categorized into three groups: tax on stationary energy, taxes on mobile purposes relating to the ownership and usage-dependent charges on mobile applications. Chapter 2 collects taxes in the first category. The author describes the special taxes imposed on households' stationary energy, such as heating the home. Chapter 3 discusses the various fees imposed on the owner of the vehicle, and how these fees are independent of the amount of transport used. Chapter 4 describes the history of usage-dependent charges on mobile purposes, which include taxes on fuel. This paper is intended to be an encyclopedia for use in future analyzes of the Special Tax behavioral effects in Norwegian households. It is first and foremost in the project households respond to energy and environmental policy measures, funded by the Research Council of the project is not only to look at the excise taxes separately but also how various energy and environmental policy instruments work together. This is one of the reasons for the division of special taxes that have been made in the note. Household energy use contributes to a significant proportion of greenhouse gas emissions and a reduction in household energy consumption is an important goal of climate policy. A number of policy instruments have been eager cat to move household energy consumption away from fossil fuels to renewable energy and increase energy efficiency in Norwegian homes. To ensure the effectiveness of current and future policies, and minimize adverse behavioral effects, information from analyzes of several means changing household adaptation would be of great importance. Project Support: The work of this paper is funded within the Research Council Renergie program (project {sup H

  18. Photoprotection of reaction centers: thermal dissipation of absorbed light energy vs charge separation in lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Ulrich; Soni, Vineet; Strasser, Reto J

    2011-05-01

    During desiccation, fluorescence emission and stable light-dependent charge separation in the reaction centers (RCs) of photosystem II (PSII) declined strongly in three different lichens: in Parmelia sulcata with an alga as the photobiont, in Peltigera neckeri with a cyanobacterium and in the tripartite lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. Most of the decline of fluorescence was caused by a decrease in the quantum efficiency of fluorescence emission. It indicated the activation of photoprotective thermal energy dissipation. Photochemical activity of the RCs was retained even after complete desiccation. It led to light-dependent absorption changes and found expression in reversible increases in fluorescence or in fluorescence quenching. Lowering the temperature changed the direction of fluorescence responses in P. sulcata. The observations are interpreted to show that reversible light-induced increases in fluorescence emission in desiccated lichens indicate the functionality of the RCs of PSII. Photoprotection is achieved by the drainage of light energy to dissipating centers outside the RCs before stable charge separation can take place. Reversible quenching of fluorescence by strong illumination is suggested to indicate the conversion of the RCs from energy conserving to energy dissipating units. This permits them to avoid photoinactivation. On hydration, re-conversion occurs to energy-conserving RCs. PMID:21029105

  19. Beam energy dependence of pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sumit; Nayak, Tapan K.; Datta, Kaustuv

    2016-06-01

    Heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN probe matter at extreme conditions of temperature and energy density. Most of the global properties of the collisions can be extracted from the measurements of charged-particle multiplicity and pseudorapidity (η ) distributions. We have shown that the available experimental data on beam energy and centrality dependence of η distributions in heavy-ion (Au +Au or Pb +Pb ) collisions from √{sNN}=7.7 GeV to 2.76 TeV are reasonably well described by the AMPT model, which is used for further exploration. The nature of the η distributions has been described by a double Gaussian function using a set of fit parameters, which exhibit a regular pattern as a function of beam energy. By extrapolating the parameters to a higher energy of √{sNN}=5.02 TeV, we have obtained the charged-particle multiplicity densities, η distributions, and energy densities for various centralities. Incidentally, these results match well with some of the recently published data by the ALICE Collaboration.

  20. Linkage between Fitness of Yeast Cells and Adenylate Kinase Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tükenmez, Hasan; Magnussen, Helge Magnus; Kovermann, Michael; Byström, Anders; Wolf-Watz, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes have evolved with highly specific values of their catalytic parameters kcat and KM. This poses fundamental biological questions about the selection pressures responsible for evolutionary tuning of these parameters. Here we are address these questions for the enzyme adenylate kinase (Adk) in eukaryotic yeast cells. A plasmid shuffling system was developed to allow quantification of relative fitness (calculated from growth rates) of yeast in response to perturbations of Adk activity introduced through mutations. Biophysical characterization verified that all variants studied were properly folded and that the mutations did not cause any substantial differences to thermal stability. We found that cytosolic Adk is essential for yeast viability in our strain background and that viability could not be restored with a catalytically dead, although properly folded Adk variant. There exist a massive overcapacity of Adk catalytic activity and only 12% of the wild type kcat is required for optimal growth at the stress condition 20°C. In summary, the approach developed here has provided new insights into the evolutionary tuning of kcat for Adk in a eukaryotic organism. The developed methodology may also become useful for uncovering new aspects of active site dynamics and also in enzyme design since a large library of enzyme variants can be screened rapidly by identifying viable colonies. PMID:27642758

  1. Energy and spatial momentum of charged rotating frames in tetrad gravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gamal G.L. Nashed

    2011-01-01

    We compute the total energy and the spatial momentum of four charged rotating (Kerr-Newman) frames by using the gravitational energy-momentum 3-form within the framework of the tetrad formulation of the general relativity theory.We show how the effect of the inertial always makes the total energy divergent.We use a natural regularization method,which yields the physical value for the total energy of the system.We show how the regularization method works on a number of different rotating frames that are related to each other by the local Lorentz transformation.We also show that the inertial has no effect on the spatial momentum components.

  2. Effects of dark energy on P–V criticality of charged AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Letter, we investigate the effects of dark energy on P–V criticality of charged AdS black holes by considering the case of the RN-AdS black holes surrounded by quintessence. By treating the cosmological constant as thermodynamic pressure, we study its thermodynamics in the extended phase space. It is shown that quintessence dark energy does not affect the existence of small/large black hole phase transition. For the case ωq=−2/3 we derive analytic expressions of critical physical quantities, while for cases ωq≠−2/3 we appeal to numerical method for help. It is shown that quintessence dark energy affects the critical physical quantities near the critical point. Critical exponents are also calculated. They are exactly the same as those obtained before for arbitrary other AdS black holes, which implies that quintessence dark energy does not change the critical exponents

  3. Flexible Local Load Controller for Fast ElectricVehicle Charging Station Supplemented with Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; SUN, BO; Schaltz, Erik;

    2014-01-01

    of dedicated flywheel energy storage system (FESS) within the charging station and compensating some of the adverse effects of high power charging is explored in this paper. Although sharing some similarities with vehicle to grid (V2G) technology, the principal advantage of this strategy is the fact that many...

  4. Engineering interfacial photo-induced charge transfer based on nanobamboo array architecture for efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaotian; Liow, Chihao; Bisht, Ankit; Liu, Xinfeng; Sum, Tze Chien; Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Shuzhou

    2015-04-01

    Engineering interfacial photo-induced charge transfer for highly synergistic photocatalysis is successfully realized based on nanobamboo array architecture. Programmable assemblies of various components and heterogeneous interfaces, and, in turn, engineering of the energy band structure along the charge transport pathways, play a critical role in generating excellent synergistic effects of multiple components for promoting photocatalytic efficiency. PMID:25704499

  5. Tailoring Membrane Nanostructure and Charge Density for High Electrokinetic Energy Conversion Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldrup, Sofie; Catalano, Jacopo; Hinge, Mogens; Jensen, Grethe V; Pedersen, Jan S; Bentien, Anders

    2016-02-23

    The electrokinetic energy conversion (EKEC) of hydraulic work directly into electrical energy has been investigated in charged polymeric membranes with different pore charge densities and characteristic diameters of the nanoporous network. The membranes were synthesized from blends of nitrocellulose and sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) and were comprehensively characterized with respect to structure, composition, and transport properties. It is shown that the SPS can be used as a sacrificial pore generation medium to tune the pore size and membrane porosity, which in turn highly affects the transport properties of the membranes. Furthermore, it is shown that very high EKEC efficiencies (>35%) are encountered in a rather narrow window of the properties of the nanoporous membrane network, that is, with pore diameters of ca. 10 nm and pore charge densities of 4.6 × 10(2) to 1.5 × 10(3) mol SO3(-) m(-3) for dilute solutions (0.03 M LiCl). The high absolute value of the efficiency combined with the determination of the optimal membrane morphology makes membrane-based EKEC devices a step closer to practical applications and high-performance membrane design less empirical.

  6. Laser-driven micro-Coulomb charge movement and energy conversion to relativistic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobble, J. A.; Palaniyappan, S.; Johnson, R. P.; Shimada, T.; Huang, C.; Gautier, D. C.; Clark, D. D.; Falk, K.; Jung, D.

    2016-09-01

    Development of robust instrumentation has shown evidence for a multi-μC expulsion of relativistic electrons from a sub-μm-thick foil, laser illuminated with 60-70 J on target at 2 × 1020 W/cm2. From previous work and with electron spectroscopy, it is seen that an exponential electron energy distribution is accurate enough to calculate the emitted electron charge and energy content. The 5-10-μC charge for the >100-TW Trident Laser represents the first active measurement of the >50% laser-light-to-electron conversion efficiency. By shorting out the TV/m electric field usually associated with accelerating multi-MeV ions from such targets, one finds that this charge is representative of a multi-MA current of relativistic electrons for diverse applications from electron fast ignition to advanced radiography concepts. Included with the details of the discoveries of this research, shortcomings of the diagnostics and means of improving their fidelity are discussed.

  7. Binding energies of the lithium isoelectronic sequence approaching the critical charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katriel, Jacob; Puchalski, Mariusz; Pachucki, Krzysztof

    2012-10-01

    The Simon-Zhislin-Hunziker theorem implies that Zc, the critical charge below which the three electron atom is not bound, is at most 2. The vanishing electron affinity of He implies that Zc is not less than 2. Hence, Zc=2. To elucidate the approach to the critical charge, we calculated nonrelativistic binding energies for the third electron in the ground state, 1s22s2S, and in the first and second excited states, 1s22p2P and 1s23s2S, for nuclear charges approaching Zc. At this limit the quantum defects for both 2S states are found to approach unity. This implies that the orbital specifying the outer (ns,n=2,3) electron becomes a very diffuse (n-1)s-type orbital, except within the relatively tiny space occupied by the inner two-electron shell. For the 2P state the quantum defect approaches zero both as Z→∞ and as Z→2. An expression for the s-p splitting at Z→2 is suggested, that improves upon earlier results based on energies computed (or measured) at integer values of Z. Rigorous large Z asymptotic expressions for the quantum defects in the 1s2ns2S states are presented, exhibiting the expected mild dependence on the principal quantum number.

  8. Stochastic optimal charging of electric-drive vehicles with renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the stochastic optimization algorithm that may eventually be used by electric energy suppliers to coordinate charging of electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) in order to maximize the use of renewable energy in transportation. Due to the stochastic nature of transportation patterns, the Monte Carlo simulation is applied to model uncertainties presented by numerous scenarios. To reduce the problem complexity, the simulated driving patterns are not individually considered in the optimization but clustered into fleets using the GAMS/SCENRED tool. Uncertainties of production of renewable energy sources (RESs) are presented by statistical central moments that are further considered in Hong’s 2-point + 1 estimation method in order to define estimate points considered in the optimization. Case studies illustrate the application of the proposed optimization in achieving maximal exploitation of RESs in transportation by EDVs. -- Highlights: ► Optimization model for EDV charging applying linear programming. ► Formation of EDV fleets based on the driving patterns assessment applying the GAMS/SCENRED. ► Consideration of uncertainties of RES production and energy prices in the market. ► Stochastic optimization. ► Application of Hong’s 2-point + 1 estimation method.

  9. Energy loss of tens keV charged particles traveling in the hot dense carbon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, ZhenGuo; Wang, ZhiGang; He, Bin; Li, DaFang; Zhang, Ping

    2016-08-01

    The energy loss of charged particles, including electrons, protons, and α-particles with tens keV initial energy E 0, traveling in the hot dense carbon (C) plasma for densities from 2.281 to 22.81 g/cm3 and temperatures from 400 to 1500 eV is systematically and quantitatively studied by using the dimensional continuation method. The behaviors of different charged particles are readily distinguishable from each other. Firstly, because an ion is thousands times heavier than an electron, the penetration distance of the electron is much longer than that of proton and α-particle traveling in the plasma. Secondly, most energy of electron projectile with E 0 < 100 keV deposits into the electron species of C plasma, while for the cases of proton and α-particle with E 0 < 100 keV, about more than half energy transfers into the ion species of C plasma. A simple decreasing law of the penetration distance as a function of the plasma density is fitted, and different behaviors of each projectile particle can be clearly found from the fitted data. We believe that with the advanced progress of the present experimental technology, the findings shown here could be confirmed in ion-stopping experiments in the near future.

  10. Fundamental Studies of Charge Migration and Delocalization Relevant to Solar Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Therien

    2012-06-01

    This program aimed to understand the molecular-level principles by which complex chemical systems carry out photochemical charge separation, transport, and storage, and how these insights could impact the design of practical solar energy conversion and storage devices. Towards these goals, this program focused on: (1) carrying out fundamental mechanistic and transient dynamical studies of proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) reactions; (2) characterizing and interrogating via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic methods novel conjugated materials that feature large charge delocalization lengths; and (3) exploring excitation delocalization and migration, as well as polaron transport properties of meso-scale assemblies that are capable of segregating light-harvesting antennae, nanoscale wire-like conduction elements, and distinct oxidizing and reducing environments.

  11. Study of Charge Diffusion in a Silicon Detector Using an Energy Sensitive Pixel Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Schioppa, E. J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Visser, J.; Koffeman, E.; Heijne, E.; Engel, K. J.; Uher, J.

    2015-01-01

    A 300 μm thick thin p-on-n silicon sensor was connected to an energy sensitive pixel readout ASIC and exposed to a beam of highly energetic charged particles. By exploiting the spectral information and the fine segmentation of the detector, we were able to measure the evolution of the transverse profile of the charge carriers cloud in the sensor as a function of the drift distance from the point of generation. The result does not rely on model assumptions or electric field calculations. The data are also used to validate numerical simulations and to predict the detector spectral response to an X-ray fluorescence spectrum for applications in X-ray imaging.

  12. An edge-on charge-transfer design for energy-resolved x-ray detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zaifeng; Yang, Haoyu; Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Ge

    2016-06-01

    As an x-ray beam goes through the human body, it will collect important information via interaction with tissues. Since this interaction is energy-sensitive, the state-of-the-art spectral CT technologies provide higher quality images of biological tissues with x-ray energy information (or spectral information). With existing energy-integrating technologies, a large fraction of energy information is ignored in the x-ray detection process. Although the recently proposed photon-counting technology promises to achieve higher image quality at a lower radiation dose, it suffers from limitations in counting rate, performance uniformity, and fabrication cost. In this paper, we focus on an alternative approach to resolve the energy distribution of transmitted x-ray photons. First, we analyze the x-ray attenuation in a silicon substrate and describe a linear approximation model for x-ray detection. Then, we design an edge-on architecture based on the proposed energy-resolving model. In our design, the x-ray-photon-induced charges are transferred sequentially resembling the working process of a CCD camera. Finally, we numerically evaluate the linear approximation of x-ray attenuation and derive the energy distribution of x-ray photons. Our simulation results show that the proposed energy-sensing approach is feasible and has the potential to complement the photon-counting technology.

  13. An edge-on charge-transfer design for energy-resolved x-ray detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zaifeng; Yang, Haoyu; Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Ge

    2016-06-01

    As an x-ray beam goes through the human body, it will collect important information via interaction with tissues. Since this interaction is energy-sensitive, the state-of-the-art spectral CT technologies provide higher quality images of biological tissues with x-ray energy information (or spectral information). With existing energy-integrating technologies, a large fraction of energy information is ignored in the x-ray detection process. Although the recently proposed photon-counting technology promises to achieve higher image quality at a lower radiation dose, it suffers from limitations in counting rate, performance uniformity, and fabrication cost. In this paper, we focus on an alternative approach to resolve the energy distribution of transmitted x-ray photons. First, we analyze the x-ray attenuation in a silicon substrate and describe a linear approximation model for x-ray detection. Then, we design an edge-on architecture based on the proposed energy-resolving model. In our design, the x-ray-photon-induced charges are transferred sequentially resembling the working process of a CCD camera. Finally, we numerically evaluate the linear approximation of x-ray attenuation and derive the energy distribution of x-ray photons. Our simulation results show that the proposed energy-sensing approach is feasible and has the potential to complement the photon-counting technology.

  14. Adenylate kinase 2 (AK2 promotes cell proliferation in insect development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ru-Ping

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adenylate kinase 2 (AK2 is a phosphotransferase that catalyzes the reversible reaction 2ADP(GDP ↔ ATP(GTP + AMP and influences cellular energy homeostasis. However, the role of AK2 in regulating cell proliferation remains unclear because AK2 has been reported to be involved in either cell proliferation or cell apoptosis in different cell types of various organisms. Results This study reports AK2 promotion of cell proliferation using the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera and its epidermal cell line HaEpi as models. Western blot analysis indicates that AK2 constitutively expresses in various tissues during larval development. Immunocytochemistry analysis indicates that AK2 localizes in the mitochondria. The recombinant expressed AK2 in E. coli promotes cell growth and viability of HaEpi cell line by 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. AK2 knockdown in larvae by RNA interference causes larval growth defects, including body weight decrease and development delay. AK2 knockdown in larvae also decreases the number of circulating haemocytes. The mechanism for such effects might be the suppression of gene transcription involved in insect development caused by AK2 knockdown. Conclusion These results show that AK2 regulates cell growth, viability, and proliferation in insect growth and development.

  15. Scaling of the transition temperature of hole-doped cuprate superconductors with the charge-transfer energy

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Cédric; Yee, Chuck-Hou; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    We use first-principles calculations to extract two essential microscopic parameters, the charge-transfer energy and the inter-cell oxygen-oxygen hopping, which correlate with the maximum superconducting transition temperature $\\Tcmax$ across the cuprates. We explore the superconducting state in the three-band model of the copper-oxygen planes using cluster Dynamical Mean-Field Theory. We find that the variation in the charge-transfer energy largely accounts for the empirical trend in $\\Tcmax...

  16. Transmission of electrons through insulating PET foils: Dependence on charge deposition, tilt angle and incident energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthisinghe, D.; Dassanayake, B. S.; Wickramarachchi, S. J.; Stolterfoht, N.; Tanis, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    Transmission of electrons through insulating polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanocapillaries was observed as a function of charge deposition, angular and energy dependence. Two samples with capillary diameters 100 and 200 nm and pore densities 5 × 108/cm2 and 5 × 107/cm2, respectively, were studied for incident electron energies of 300, 500 and 800 eV. Transmission and steady state of the electrons were attained after a time delay during which only a few electron counts were observed. The transmission through the capillaries depended on the tilt angle with both elastic and inelastic electrons going through. The guiding ability of electrons was found to increase with the incident energy in contrast to previous measurements in our laboratory for a similar PET foil.

  17. Initial Energy Logistics Cost Analysis for Stationary, Quasi-Dynamic, and Dynamic Wireless Charging Public Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jae Jang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an initial investment cost analysis of public transportation systems operating with wireless charging electric vehicles (EVs. There are three different types of wireless charging systems, namely, stationary wireless charging (SWC, in which charging happens only when the vehicle is parked or idle, quasi-dynamic wireless charging (QWC, in which power is transferred when a vehicle is moving slowly or in stop-and-go mode, and dynamic wireless charging (DWC, in which power can be supplied even when the vehicle is in motion. This analysis compares the initial investment costs for these three types of charging systems for a wireless charging-based public transportation system. In particular, this analysis is focused on the energy logistics cost in transportation, which is defined as the cost of transferring and storing the energy needed to operate the transportation system. Performing this initial investment analysis is complicated, because it involves considerable tradeoffs between the costs of batteries in the EV fleet and different kinds of battery-charging infrastructure. Mathematical optimization models for each type of EV and infrastructure system are used to analyze the initial costs. The optimization methods evaluate the minimum initial investment needed to deploy the public transportation system for each type of EV charging solution. To deal with the variable cost estimates for batteries and infrastructure equipment in the current market, a cost-sensitivity analysis is performed. The goal of this analysis is to identify the market cost conditions that are most favorable for each type of wireless charging solution. Furthermore, the cost analysis quantitatively verifies the qualitative comparison of the three different wireless charging types conducted in the previous research.

  18. Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada); Rattner, Jerome B. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada); Hoorn, Frans A. van der, E-mail: fvdhoorn@ucalgary.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada)

    2009-10-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3{beta} by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.

  19. Interconversion of functional motions between mesophilic and thermophilic adenylate kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Daily

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic properties are functionally important in many proteins, including the enzyme adenylate kinase (AK, for which the open/closed transition limits the rate of catalytic turnover. Here, we compare our previously published coarse-grained (double-well Gō simulation of mesophilic AK from E. coli (AKmeso to simulations of thermophilic AK from Aquifex aeolicus (AKthermo. In AKthermo, as with AKmeso, the LID domain prefers to close before the NMP domain in the presence of ligand, but LID rigid-body flexibility in the open (O ensemble decreases significantly. Backbone foldedness in O and/or transition state (TS ensembles increases significantly relative to AKmeso in some interdomain backbone hinges and within LID. In contact space, the TS of AKthermo has fewer contacts at the CORE-LID interface but a stronger contact network surrounding the CORE-NMP interface than the TS of AKmeso. A "heated" simulation of AKthermo at 375K slightly increases LID rigid-body flexibility in accordance with the "corresponding states" hypothesis. Furthermore, while computational mutation of 7 prolines in AKthermo to their AKmeso counterparts produces similar small perturbations, mutation of these sites, especially positions 8 and 155, to glycine is required to achieve LID rigid-body flexibility and hinge flexibilities comparable to AKmeso. Mutating the 7 sites to proline in AKmeso reduces some hinges' flexibilities, especially hinge 2, but does not reduce LID rigid-body flexibility, suggesting that these two types of motion are decoupled in AKmeso. In conclusion, our results suggest that hinge flexibility and global functional motions alike are correlated with but not exclusively determined by the hinge residues. This mutational framework can inform the rational design of functionally important flexibility and allostery in other proteins toward engineering novel biochemical pathways.

  20. Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3β by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.

  1. HECTOR: a code for the study of high energy charged particles in axisymmetric tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A code for the study of high energy charged particles resulting primarily from thermonuclear reactions within the confining magnetic fields of non-circular axisymmetric tokamak plasmas is described. The trajectories of the particles are traced in the (C.O.M.) space using a new, fast, and efficient hybrid orbit following scheme based upon the drift equations in the guiding centre approximation and the constants of motion. The code includes the important Coulomb scattering processes of dynamical friction and pitch angle scattering. The code is specifically designed to operate within the experimental environment or in a predictive mode. (author)

  2. Discharge characteristics of dielectric materials examined in mono-, dual-, and spectral energy electron charging environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, P.; Treadway, M.; Wild, N.; Kitterer, B.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of midenergy electrons on the charge and discharge characteristics of spacecraft dielectric materials and the data base from which basic discharge models can be formulated is expanded. Thin dielectric materials were exposed to low, mid combined low and mid, and spectral energy electron environments. Three important results are presented: (1) it determined electron environments that lead to dielectric discharges at potentials less negative than -5 kV; (2) two types of discharges were identified that dominate the kinds of discharges seen; and (3) it is shown that, for the thin dielectric materials tested, the worst-case discharges observed in the various environments are similar.

  3. Deployment of Behind-The-Meter Energy Storage for Demand Charge Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpson, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how economically motivated customers will use energy storage for demand charge reduction, as well as how this changes in the presence of on-site photovoltaic power generation, to investigate the possible effects of incentivizing increased quantities of behind-the-meter storage. It finds that small, short-duration batteries are most cost effective regardless of solar power levels, serving to reduce short load spikes on the order of 2.5% of peak demand. While profitable to the customer, such action is unlikely to adequately benefit the utility as may be desired, thus highlighting the need for modified utility rate structures or properly structured incentives.

  4. High resolution probe of coherence in low-energy charge exchange collisions with oriented targets

    OpenAIRE

    Leredde, A.; Fléchard, X.; Cassimi, A.; Hennecart, D.; Pons, B.

    2013-01-01

    The trapping lasers of a magneto-optical trap (MOT) are used to bring Rb atoms into well defined oriented states. Coupled to recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy (RIMS), this yields a unique MOTRIMS setup which is able to probe scattering dynamics, including their coherence features, with unprecedented resolution. This technique is applied to the low-energy charge exchange processes Na$^+$+Rb($5p_{\\pm 1}$) $\\rightarrow$ Na($3p,4s$)+Rb$^+$. The measurements reveal detailed features of the collisio...

  5. High resolution probe of coherence in low-energy charge exchange collisions with oriented targets

    CERN Document Server

    Leredde, A; Cassimi, A; Hennecart, D; Pons, B

    2013-01-01

    The trapping lasers of a magneto-optical trap (MOT) are used to bring Rb atoms into well defined oriented states. Coupled to recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy (RIMS), this yields a unique MOTRIMS setup which is able to probe scattering dynamics, including their coherence features, with unprecedented resolution. This technique is applied to the low-energy charge exchange processes Na$^+$+Rb($5p_{\\pm 1}$) $\\rightarrow$ Na($3p,4s$)+Rb$^+$. The measurements reveal detailed features of the collisional interaction which are employed to improve the theoretical description. All of this enables to gauge the reliability of intuitive pictures predicting the most likely capture transitions.

  6. Two-Level Control for Fast Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations with Multi Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SUN, BO; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos;

    2015-01-01

    This paper applies a hierarchical control for a fast charging station (FCS) composed of paralleled PWM rectifier and dedicated paralleled multiple flywheel energy storage systems (FESSs), in order to mitigate peak power shock on grid caused by sudden connection of electrical vehicle (EV) chargers....... Distributed DC-bus signaling (DBS) and method resistive virtual impedance are employed in the power coordination of grid and flywheel converters, and a centralized secondary controller generates DC voltage correction term to adjust the local voltage set point. The control system is able to realize the power...

  7. Distributed Bus Signaling Control for a DC Charging Station with Multi Paralleled Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos;

    2015-01-01

    Fast charging stations (FCS) will become an essential part of future transportation systems with an increasing number of electrical vehicles. However, since these FCS plugs have power ratings of up to 100 kW, serious stress caused by large number of FCS could threaten the stability of the main...... power grid. To overcome the possible adverse impacts, this paper applies a dedicated paralleled flywheels energy storage system (ESS) in FCS, to balance the power by the method of ramping the initial power peak. Distributed DC-bus signaling (DBS) method is employed in the power coordination of grid...

  8. Distributed Cooperative Control of Multi Flywheel Energy Storage System for Electrical Vehicle Fast Charging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez;

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in electrical vehicles will play a critical role in future smart grid and sudden connection of electrical vehicles chargers may cause huge power-peaks with high slew-rates on grid. In order to cope with this issue, this paper applies a distributed cooperative control for fast charging station...... with dedicated paralleled flywheel-based energy storage system. The distributed DC-bus signaling method is employed in the power coordination of grid and flywheel converters, and a distributed secondary controller generates DC voltage correction term to adjust the local voltage set-point through a dynamic...

  9. Survival of intestinal crypt cells after exposure to high Z, high energy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the experiments described is to evaluate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high energy charged particles for cell killing in the mouse crypt-cell survival assay. The reference radiation, 225 kVp x rays, is slightly more effective than plateau helium ions. For carbon, neon and argon ions there is a suggestion of a saturation effect with increasing LET. Furthermore, it should be emphasized that there is a large difference associated with particles of different atomic number or mass at the same average LET

  10. Modeling and Control of Flexible HEV Charging Station upgraded with Flywheel Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Shafiee, Qobad; Wu, Dan;

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a fast DC charging station (FCS) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) that is connected at a remote location. Power rating of this new technology can go up to a hundred kW and it represents a main challenge for its broad acceptance in distribution systems....... In that sense, growing number of these stations, if operated in a nonflexible regime, will start to cause problems in future distribution systems such as overloads of local network’s corridors and reduction of its total equivalent spinning reserves. A power balancing strategy based on a local energy storage...

  11. Space charge compensation on the low energy beam transport of Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)733270; Scrivens, Richard; Jesus Castillo, Santos

    Part of the upgrade program in the injector chains of the CERN accelerator complex is the replacement of the the proton accelerator Linac2 for the brand new Linac4 which will accelerate H$^-$ and its main goal is to increase the beam intensity in the next sections of the LHC accelerator chain. The Linac4 is now under commissioning and will use several ion sources to produce high intensity unbunched H$^-$ beams with different properties, and the low energy beam transport (LEBT) is the system in charge of match all these different beams to the Radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ). The space charge forces that spread the beam ions apart of each other and cause emittance growth limits the maximum intensity that can be transported in the LEBT, but the space charge of intense unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the generated ions by the impact ionization of the residual gas, which creates a source of secondary particles inside the beam pipe. For negative ion beams, the effect of the beam electric field is to ex...

  12. Model calculation of the charge transfer in low-energy He+ scattering from metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge-transfer mechanisms in low-energy helium-scattering spectroscopy are analyzed by using an Anderson-like description of the time-dependent collisional process, which allows us to include several electronic bands of extended and localized nature in the solid. The Hamiltonian parameters are obtained from a Hartree-Fock self-consistent-field calculation of the He-target atom dimeric system. We examine in particular cases such as Ca and Ga linear chain substrates. We found that at velocities large enough, the localized state in the solid contributes to the He+ neutralization, showing the characteristic oscillatory behavior of the nonadiabatic charge exchange between localized states, in agreement with other calculations. In the range of low velocities we found that if the hybridization between the He orbital and the localized states in the solid is able to produce the formation of an antibonding state having a predominant weight of the He-1s orbital, this promotes the charge exchange between the Helium and the extended bandstates of the solid

  13. Theoretical and observed potential energy curves for neutral 4-unit charge Coulomb systems containing antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Van Hooydonk, G

    2005-01-01

    Comparing observed and theoretical potential energy curves for natural and exotic neutral 4-unit charge Coulomb systems like HH and HantiH leads to new conclusions on the effect of charge-antisymmetry in nature. With singularities in the HantiH PEC as found by Aldrovandi and Puget and by Junker and Bardsley, any cusp in the HantiH PEC significantly affects the annihilation cross section. This problem for the HantiH interaction generated many new wave mechanical calculations mainly to remove annoying cusps. We review all available PECs for 4-unit charge systems and find that corrections for the Morgan-Hughes HantiH PEC can either go to the repulsive side (to the conventionally expected annihilation channel) or to the opposite attractive side (to the attractive branch of the observed PEC of natural molecular HH). We observe that all theoretical HantiH PECs published thus far would intersect the observed PEC of natural HH. This is, however, impossible with the non-crossing rule. A classical ab initio calculation...

  14. Accretion of dark energy onto higher dimensional charged BTZ black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debnath, Ujjal [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Howrah (India)

    2015-09-15

    In this work, we have studied the accretion of the (n+2)-dimensional charged BTZ black hole (BH). The critical point and square speed of sound have been obtained. The mass of the BTZ BH has been calculated and we have observed that the mass of the BTZ BH is related with the square root of the energy density of the dark energy which accretes onto the BH in our accelerating FRW universe. We have assumed modified Chaplygin gas (MCG) as a candidate of dark energy which accretes onto the BH and we have found the expression of BTZ BH mass. Since in our solution of MCG, this model generates only quintessence dark energy (not phantom) and so BTZ BH mass increases during the whole evolution of the accelerating universe. Next we have assumed five kinds of parametrizations of well-known dark-energy models. These models generate both quintessence and phantom scenarios i.e., phantom crossing models. So if these dark energies accrete onto the BTZ BH, then in the quintessence stage, the BH mass increases up to a certain value (finite value) and then decreases to a certain finite value for the phantom stage during the whole evolution of the universe. We have shown these results graphically. (orig.)

  15. Energy loss and charge transfer effects of low energy protons in thin organic films

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, C M

    2000-01-01

    observed in TRIM simulations. It is possible that this might be attributed to a quasi-channelling effect in the 12-8 PDA at these low energies. Attempts were made to apply the same techniques to the study of thin films of double-stranded DNA. It proved difficult to produce reliable measurements over the considerable lengths of time the samples had to reside in a high vacuum. Energy loss measurements were nevertheless made for some of the DNA films although these, together with the estimates of film thickness, could not be used for any quantitative measurements. The energy loss and stopping power of protons with incident energies between 4.93 and 15 keV has been determined for self-supporting Langmiur-Blodgett films of polymerised 12-8 diacetylene (12-8 PDA), of 54 and 60 nm thicknesses, in a transmission mode. Energy loss as a function of both incident proton energy and energy loss as a function of angle has been determined for the two thicknesses of 12-8 PDA in this energy range and the experimental data com...

  16. Adding high time resolution to charge-state-specific ion energy measurements for pulsed copper vacuum arc plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Koichi; Zhou, Xue; Anders, André

    2015-01-01

    Charge-state-resolved ion energy-time-distributions of pulsed Cu arc plasma were obtained by using direct (time dependent) acquisition of the ion detection signal from a commercial ion mass-per-charge and energy-per-charge analyzer. We find a shift of energies of Cu2+, Cu3+ and Cu4+ ions to lower values during the first few hundred microseconds after arc ignition, which is evidence for particle collisions in the plasma. The generation of Cu1+ ions in the later part of the pulse, measured by the increase of Cu1+ signal intensity and an associated slight reduction of the mean charge state point to charge exchange reactions between ions and neutrals. At the very beginning of the pulse, when the plasma expands into vacuum and the plasma potential strongly fluctuates, ions with much higher energy (over 200 eV) were observed. Early in the pulse, the ion energies observed are approximately proportional to the ion charge state, and we conclude that the acceleration mechanism is primarily based on acceleration in an e...

  17. Glucose Repression of Fbp1 Transcription in Schizosaccharomyces Pombe Is Partially Regulated by Adenylate Cyclase Activation by a G Protein α Subunit Encoded by Gpa2 (Git8)

    OpenAIRE

    Nocero, M.; Isshiki, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Hoffman, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, genetic studies have identified genes that are required for glucose repression of fbp1 transcription. The git2 gene, also known as cyr1, encodes adenylate cyclase. Adenylate cyclase converts ATP into the second messenger cAMP as part of many eukaryotic signal transduction pathways. The git1, git3, git5, git7, git8 and git10 genes act upstream of adenylate cyclase, presumably encoding an adenylate cyclase activation pathway. In mammalian cells, a...

  18. Beam-energy dependence of charge separation along the magnetic field in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczyk, L; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Leyva, A Davila; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; de Souza, R Derradi; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kosarzewski, L K; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Don, D M M D Madagodagettige; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen,, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-01-01

    Local parity-odd domains are theorized to form inside a Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) which has been produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The local parity-odd domains manifest themselves as charge separation along the magnetic field axis via the chiral magnetic effect (CME). The experimental observation of charge separation has previously been reported for heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energies. In this paper, we present the results of the beam-energy dependence of the charge correlations in Au+Au collisions at midrapidity for center-of-mass energies of 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39 and 62.4 GeV from the STAR experiment. After background subtraction, the signal gradually reduces with decreased beam energy, and tends to vanish by 7.7 GeV. The implications of these results for the CME will be discussed.

  19. Study of event-by-event fluctuations in the charged particle ratio in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou Dai Mei; Liu Zhi Yi; Lu Zhong Dao; Sá Ben-Hao

    2002-01-01

    Using a hadron and string cascade model, JPCIAE, and the corresponding Monte Carlo event generator, the behavior of the charged particle ratio event-by-event fluctuations in subsystem depending on energy, centrality, resonance decay and rapidity interval was investigated for Pb+Pb collisions at SPS and ALICE energies, and for Au+Au collisions at RHIC energies. The model results of charged particle ratio event-by-event fluctuations as a function of the rapidity interval in Pb+Pb collisions at SPS energies were comparable with the preliminary NA49 data. It turned out that the charged particle ratio fluctuation has no strong energy, centrality, resonance decay and rapidity interval dependences. (13 refs).

  20. Electronic structure, stacking energy, partial charge, and hydrogen bonding in four periodic B-DNA models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Lokendra; Rulis, Paul; Liang, Lei; Ching, W. Y.

    2014-08-01

    We present a theoretical study of the electronic structure of four periodic B-DNA models labeled (AT)10,(GC)10, (AT)5(GC)5, and (AT-GC)5 where A denotes adenine, T denotes thymine, G denotes guanine, and C denotes cytosine. Each model has ten base pairs with Na counterions to neutralize the negative phosphate group in the backbone. The (AT)5(GC)5 and (AT-GC)5 models contain two and five AT-GC bilayers, respectively. When compared against the average of the two pure models, we estimate the AT-GC bilayer interaction energy to be 19.015 Kcal/mol, which is comparable to the hydrogen bonding energy between base pairs obtained from the literature. Our investigation shows that the stacking of base pairs plays a vital role in the electronic structure, relative stability, bonding, and distribution of partial charges in the DNA models. All four models show a highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) to lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap ranging from 2.14 to 3.12 eV with HOMO states residing on the PO4 + Na functional group and LUMO states originating from the bases. Our calculation implies that the electrical conductance of a DNA molecule should increase with increased base-pair mixing. Interatomic bonding effects in these models are investigated in detail by analyzing the distributions of the calculated bond order values for every pair of atoms in the four models including hydrogen bonding. The counterions significantly affect the gap width, the conductivity, and the distribution of partial charge on the DNA backbone. We also evaluate quantitatively the surface partial charge density on each functional group of the DNA models.

  1. Charging and discharging characteristics of dielectric materials exposed to low- and mid-energy electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, P.; Kitterer, B.; Treadaway, M.

    1982-01-01

    Charging and discharging characteristics of dielectric samples exposed to 1-25 keV and 25-100 keV electrons in a laboratory environment are reported. The materials examined comprised OSR, Mylar, Kapton, perforated Kapton, and Alphaquartz, serving as models for materials employed on spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit. The tests were performed in a vacuum chamber with electron guns whose beams were rastered over the entire surface of the planar samples. The specimens were examined in low-impedance-grounded, high-impedance-grounded, and isolated configurations. The worst-case and average peak discharge currents were observed to be independent of the incident electron energy, the time-dependent changes in the worst case discharge peak current were independent of the energy, and predischarge surface potentials are negligibly dependent on incident monoenergetic electrons.

  2. Supercell convergence of charge-transfer energies in pentacene molecular crystals from constrained DFT

    CERN Document Server

    Turban, David H P; O'Regan, David D; Hine, Nicholas D M

    2016-01-01

    Singlet fission (SF) is a multi-exciton generation process that could be harnessed to improve the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. Experimentally, systems derived from the pentacene molecule have been shown to exhibit ultrafast SF with high yields. Charge-transfer (CT) configurations are likely to play an important role as intermediates in the SF process in these systems. In molecular crystals, electrostatic screening effects and band formation can be significant in lowering the energy of CT states, enhancing their potential to effectively participate in SF. In order to simulate these, it desirable to adopt a computational approach which is acceptably accurate, relatively inexpensive, which and scales well to larger systems, thus enabling the study of screening effects. We propose a novel, electrostatically-corrected constrained Density Functional Theory (cDFT) approach as a low-cost solution to the calculation of CT energies in molecular crystals such as pentacene. Here we consider an implementation in th...

  3. Localized description of surface energy gap effects in the resonant charge exchange between atoms and surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias-Garcia, A; Garcia, Evelina A; Goldberg, E C, E-mail: aiglesiasg@santafe-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (INTEC-CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, CC91, (S3000GLN) Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2011-02-02

    The resonant charge exchange between atoms and surfaces is described by considering a localized atomistic view of the solid within the Anderson model. The presence of a surface energy gap is treated within a simplified tight-binding model of the solid, and a proper calculation of the Hamiltonian terms based on a LCAO expansion of the solid eigenstates is performed. It is found that interference terms jointly with a surface projected gap maximum at the {Gamma} point and the Fermi level inside it, lead to hybridization widths negligible around the Fermi level. This result can explain experimental observations related to long-lived adsorbate states and anomalous neutral fractions of low energy ions in alkali/Cu(111) systems.

  4. On the Binding Energy and the Charge Symmetry Breaking in A<=16 Lambda-hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Botta, E; Feliciello, A

    2016-01-01

    Recent achievements in hypernuclear spectroscopy, in particular the determination of the $\\Lambda$-binding energy B$_{\\Lambda}$ by high precision magnetic spectrometry, contributed to stimulate considerably the search for Charge Symmetry Breaking effects in $\\Lambda$-hypernuclei isomultiplets. We have reorganized the results from the FINUDA experiment and we have produced a list of B$_{\\Lambda}$ values for hypernuclei with A$\\leq$16 considering only the data from magnetic spectrometers with an absolute calibration of the energy scale (FINUDA at DA$\\Phi$NE and electroproduction experiments). By comparing them with the corresponding B$_{\\Lambda}$ from the emulsion experiments, we observe that there is a systematic small difference that is taken into account. A synopsis of all the results on B$_{\\Lambda}$ so far published is finally suggested. Several interesting conclusions are drawn, among which the equality within the errors of B$_{\\Lambda}$ for the A=7, 12, 16 isomultiplets, based only on recent spectrometri...

  5. Dynamic wireless charging of electric vehicles on the move with Mobile Energy Disseminators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandros A. Maglaras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic wireless charging of electric vehicles (EVs is becoming a preferred method since it enables power exchange between the vehicle and the grid while the vehicle is moving. In this article, we present mobile energy disseminators (MED, a new concept, that can facilitate EVs to extend their range in a typical urban scenario. Our proposed method exploits Inter-Vehicle (IVC communications in order to eco-route electric vehicles taking advantage of the existence of MEDs. Combining modern communications between vehicles and state of the art technologies on energy transfer, vehicles can extend their travel time without the need for large batteries or extremely costly infrastructure. Furthermore, by applying intelligent decision mechanisms we can further improve the performance of the method.

  6. Correlation of Resonance Charge Exchange Cross-Section Data in the Low-Energy Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, John W.

    1962-01-01

    During the course of a literature survey concerning resonance charge exchange, an unusual degree of agreement was noted between an extrapolation of the data reported by Kushnir, Palyukh, and Sena and the data reported by Ziegler. The data of Kushnir et al. are for ion-atom relative energies from 10 to 1000 ev, while the data of Ziegler are for a relative energy of about 1 ev. Extrapolation of the data of Kushnir et al. was made in accordance with Holstein's theory, 3 which is a combination of time-dependent perturbation methods and classical orbit theory. The results of this theory may be discussed in terms of a critical impact parameter b(sub c).

  7. Energy-momentum conservation in pre-metric electrodynamics with magnetic charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Gerald [Center for Signals and Waves, Austin, TX (United States)

    2004-07-16

    A necessary and sufficient condition for energy-momentum conservation is proved within a topological, pre-metric approach to classical electrodynamics including magnetic as well as electric charges. The extended Lorentz force, consisting of mutual actions by F {approx} (E, B) on the electric current and G {approx} (H, D) on the magnetic current, can be derived from an energy-momentum 'potential' if and only if the constitutive relation G = G(F) satisfies a certain vanishing condition. The electric-magnetic reciprocity introduced by Hehl and Obukhov is shown to define a one-parameter family * {sub z} of complex structures on the product space of 2-form pairs (F, G), independent of any spacetime metric, which reduces to the product of two Hodge star operators once a Lorentzian metric is introduced. In contrast to a recent claim made in the literature, it does not define a complex structure on the space of 2-forms itself.

  8. An Energy- and Charge-conserving, Implicit, Electrostatic Particle-in-Cell Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Guangye; Barnes, Daniel C

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel fully implicit formulation for a 1D electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulation approach. Unlike earlier implicit electrostatic PIC approaches (which are based on a linearized Vlasov-Poisson formulation), ours is based on a nonlinearly converged Vlasov-Amp\\`ere (VA) model. By iterating particles and fields to a tight nonlinear convergence tolerance, the approach features superior stability and accuracy properties, avoiding most of the accuracy pitfalls in earlier implicit PIC implementations. In particular, the formulation is stable against temporal (CFL) and spatial (aliasing) instabilities. It is charge- and energy-conserving to numerical roundoff for arbitrary implicit time steps. While momentum is not exactly conserved, errors are kept small by an adaptive particle sub-stepping orbit integrator, which is instrumental to prevent particle tunneling. The VA model is orbit-averaged along particle orbits to enforce an energy conservation theorem with particle sub-steppin...

  9. A closed parameterization of DNA-damage by charged particles as a function of energy

    CERN Document Server

    D, Frank Van den Heuvel Ph

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To present a closed formalism calculating charged particle radiation damage induced in DNA, based on a simplified molecular model. The formalism is valid for all types of charged particles and due to its closed nature is suited to provide fast conversion of dose to DNA-damage. Methods: The induction of complex DNA--damaged is modelled using the standard scattering theory with a simplified effective potential. This leads to a proposal to use the Breit-Wigner expression to model the probability of the complex damage inelastic scatter as a function of kinetic energy of the scattered particle. A microscopic phenomenological Monte Carlo code is used to predict the damage to a DNA molecule embedded in a cell. The model is fit to the result of the simulation for four particles: electrons, protons, alpha--particles, and Carbon ions. The model is then used to predict the damage in a cell as a function of kinetic energy. Finally, a framework is proposed and implemented to provide data that can be assessed expe...

  10. Studies on low energy beam transport for high intensity high charged ions at IMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y., E-mail: yangyao@impcas.ac.cn; Lu, W.; Fang, X. [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Sun, L. T.; Hu, Q.; Cao, Y.; Feng, Y. C.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.; Xie, D. Z. [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an advanced fully superconducting ECR ion source at IMP designed to be operational at the microwave frequency of 18–24 GHz. The existing SECRAL beam transmission line is composed of a solenoid lens and a 110° analyzing magnet. Simulations of particle tracking with 3D space charge effect and realistic 3D magnetic fields through the line were performed using particle-in-cell code. The results of the beam dynamics show that such a low energy beam is very sensitive to the space charge effect and significantly suffers from the second-order aberration of the analyzing magnet resulting in large emittance. However, the second-order aberration could be reduced by adding compensating sextupole components in the beam line. On this basis, a new 110° analyzing magnet with relatively larger acceptance and smaller aberration is designed and will be used in the design of low energy beam transport line for a new superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL-II. The features of the analyzer and the corresponding beam trajectory calculation will be detailed and discussed in this paper.

  11. Studies on low energy beam transport for high intensity high charged ions at IMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Sun, L T; Hu, Q; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Feng, Y C; Fang, X; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W; Xie, D Z

    2014-02-01

    Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an advanced fully superconducting ECR ion source at IMP designed to be operational at the microwave frequency of 18-24 GHz. The existing SECRAL beam transmission line is composed of a solenoid lens and a 110° analyzing magnet. Simulations of particle tracking with 3D space charge effect and realistic 3D magnetic fields through the line were performed using particle-in-cell code. The results of the beam dynamics show that such a low energy beam is very sensitive to the space charge effect and significantly suffers from the second-order aberration of the analyzing magnet resulting in large emittance. However, the second-order aberration could be reduced by adding compensating sextupole components in the beam line. On this basis, a new 110° analyzing magnet with relatively larger acceptance and smaller aberration is designed and will be used in the design of low energy beam transport line for a new superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL-II. The features of the analyzer and the corresponding beam trajectory calculation will be detailed and discussed in this paper. PMID:24593453

  12. Enhancing energy recovery in the steel industry: Matching continuous charge with off-gas variability smoothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A system based on phase change material is inserted into the off-gas-line of a continuous charge electric arc furnace. • The off-gas temperature profile after scrap preheating is smoothed. • A heat transfer fluid through phase change material containers allows to control overheating issues. • The smoothed off-gas profiles enable efficient downstream power generation. • The recovery system investment cost is decreased due to lower sizes of components. - Abstract: In order to allow an efficient energy recovery from off-gas in the steel industry, the high variability of heat flow should be managed. A temperature smoothing device based on phase change materials at high temperatures is inserted into the off-gas line of a continuous charge electric arc furnace process with scrap preheating. To address overheating issues, a heat transfer fluid flowing through containers is introduced and selected by developing an analytical model. The performance of the smoothing system is analyzed by thermo-fluid dynamic simulations. The reduced maximum temperature of off-gas allows to reduce the size and investment cost of the downstream energy recovery system, while the increased minimum temperature enhances the steam turbine load factor, thus increasing its utilization. Benefits on environmental issues due to dioxins generation are also gained

  13. Incident energy and charge deposition dependences of electron transmission through a microsized tapered glass capillary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramarachchi, S. J.; Ikeda, T.; Dassanayake, B. S.; Keerthisinghe, D.; Tanis, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    An experimental study of electron transmission and guiding through a tapered glass capillary has been performed. Electrons were transmitted for tilt angles up to ∼6.5° and ∼9.5° (laboratory angles) for incident energies of 500 and 1000 eV, respectively. It is found that elastic and inelastic contributions give rise to distinguishable peaks in the transmitted profile. For 500 eV elastic transmission dominates the profile, while for 1000 eV both elastic and inelastic contributions are present. The transmission for both energies was studied as a function of the charge (time) deposition and found to be strongly dependent. Results suggest fundamental differences between 500 and 1000 eV incident electrons. For 500 eV the transmission slowly increases suggesting charge up of the capillary wall, reaching relative stability with infrequent breakdowns for all angles investigated. For 1000 eV for tilt angles near zero degrees the time dependent profile shows oscillations in the transmission, which never reached a stable condition, while for the larger angle investigated the transmission reached near equilibrium. Inelastic processes dominated the transmission for 1000 eV even at very small tilt angles, but was generally elastic (due to Coulomb deflection) for 500 eV even for the largest tilt angle measured.

  14. Ionization and fragmentation of C60 by highly charged, high-energy xenon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C60 vapor was bombarded by 136Xe35+ and 136Xe18+ ions in the energy range 420 endash 625 MeV to study the various ionization and fragmentation processes that occur. Since the center-of-mass energies used in this work exceeded those of previous studies by several orders of magnitude, new excitation and dissociation modes were expected and indeed found. Positive ions were extracted from the interaction region and their times of flight were measured both singly and in coincidence with other ionic fragments. A wide range of stable charge states and cluster sizes from monatomic carbon up to C60 was observed. Even-numbered carbon fragments dominated the heavier mass range but both even and odd carbon numbers occurred at lower masses. Evidence was found for three qualitatively different ionization and fragmentation channels suggesting different ranges of collision impact parameters: ionization of the parent C60 molecule, loss of even numbers of carbon atoms, and open-quote open-quote multifragmentation close-quote close-quote into many small fragments. This latter mode included the production of singly charged Cn+ fragments with all values of n being observed from n=1 up to at least n=19. We interpret our results in terms of a theoretical model that indicates that the total interaction cross section contains comparable contributions from (a) excitation of the giant dipole plasmon resonance, and (b) large-energy-transfer processes that lead to multiple fragmentation of the molecule. The distribution of fragment cluster masses for n approx-lt 20 is reproduced by a open-quote open-quote percolation theory close-quote close-quote description analogous to that used to describe multifragmentation of nuclei by high-energy protons. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Aprataxin resolves adenylated RNA-DNA junctions to maintain genome integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Tumbale, Percy; Williams, Jessica S.; Schellenberg, Matthew J.; Kunkel, Thomas A.; Williams, R Scott

    2013-01-01

    Faithful maintenance and propagation of eukaryotic genomes is ensured by three-step DNA ligation reactions employed by ATP-dependent DNA ligases 1,2 . Paradoxically, when DNA ligases encounter nicked DNA structures with abnormal DNA termini, DNA ligase catalytic activity can generate and/or exacerbate DNA damage through abortive ligation that produces chemically adducted, toxic 5′-adenylated (5′-AMP) DNA lesions 3–6 (Fig. 1a). Aprataxin (Aptx) reverses DNA-adenylation but the context for dead...

  16. Self-regulation of charged defect compensation and formation energy pinning in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Hui; Yin, Wan-Jian; Park, Ji-Sang; Wei, Su-Huai

    2015-11-01

    Current theoretical analyses of defect properties without solving the detailed balance equations often estimate Fermi-level pinning position by omitting free carriers and assume defect concentrations can be always tuned by atomic chemical potentials. This could be misleading in some circumstance. Here we clarify that: (1) Because the Fermi-level pinning is determined not only by defect states but also by free carriers from band-edge states, band-edge states should be treated explicitly in the same footing as the defect states in practice; (2) defect formation energy, thus defect density, could be pinned and independent on atomic chemical potentials due to the entanglement of atomic chemical potentials and Fermi energy, in contrast to the usual expectation that defect formation energy can always be tuned by varying the atomic chemical potentials; and (3) the charged defect compensation behavior, i.e., most of donors are compensated by acceptors or vice versa, is self-regulated when defect formation energies are pinned. The last two phenomena are more dominant in wide-gap semiconductors or when the defect formation energies are small. Using NaCl and CH3NH3PbI3 as examples, we illustrate these unexpected behaviors. Our analysis thus provides new insights that enrich the understanding of the defect physics in semiconductors and insulators.

  17. Self-regulation of charged defect compensation and formation energy pinning in semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Hui; Yin, Wan-Jian; Park, Ji-Sang; Wei, Su-Huai

    2015-01-01

    Current theoretical analyses of defect properties without solving the detailed balance equations often estimate Fermi-level pinning position by omitting free carriers and assume defect concentrations can be always tuned by atomic chemical potentials. This could be misleading in some circumstance. Here we clarify that: (1) Because the Fermi-level pinning is determined not only by defect states but also by free carriers from band-edge states, band-edge states should be treated explicitly in the same footing as the defect states in practice; (2) defect formation energy, thus defect density, could be pinned and independent on atomic chemical potentials due to the entanglement of atomic chemical potentials and Fermi energy, in contrast to the usual expectation that defect formation energy can always be tuned by varying the atomic chemical potentials; and (3) the charged defect compensation behavior, i.e., most of donors are compensated by acceptors or vice versa, is self-regulated when defect formation energies are pinned. The last two phenomena are more dominant in wide-gap semiconductors or when the defect formation energies are small. Using NaCl and CH3NH3PbI3 as examples, we illustrate these unexpected behaviors. Our analysis thus provides new insights that enrich the understanding of the defect physics in semiconductors and insulators. PMID:26584670

  18. Energy Decomposition Analysis with a Stable Charge-Transfer Term for Interpreting Intermolecular Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Ka Un; Herbert, John M

    2016-06-14

    Many schemes for decomposing quantum-chemical calculations of intermolecular interaction energies into physically meaningful components can be found in the literature, but the definition of the charge-transfer (CT) contribution has proven particularly vexing to define in a satisfactory way and typically depends strongly on the choice of basis set. This is problematic, especially in cases of dative bonding and for open-shell complexes involving cation radicals, for which one might expect significant CT. Here, we analyze CT interactions predicted by several popular energy decomposition analyses and ultimately recommend the definition afforded by constrained density functional theory (cDFT), as it is scarcely dependent on basis set and provides results that are in accord with chemical intuition in simple cases, and in quantitative agreement with experimental estimates of the CT energy, where available. For open-shell complexes, the cDFT approach affords CT energies that are in line with trends expected based on ionization potentials and electron affinities whereas some other definitions afford unreasonably large CT energies in large-gap systems, which are sometimes artificially offset by underestimation of van der Waals interactions by density functional theory. Our recommended energy decomposition analysis is a composite approach, in which cDFT is used to define the CT component of the interaction energy and symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) defines the electrostatic, polarization, Pauli repulsion, and van der Waals contributions. SAPT/cDFT provides a stable and physically motivated energy decomposition that, when combined with a new implementation of open-shell SAPT, can be applied to supramolecular complexes involving molecules, ions, and/or radicals. PMID:27049750

  19. Integrated PEV Charging Solutions and Reduced Energy for Occupant Comfort (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Brochure on Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility, featuring the Vehicle Modification Facility, Vehicle Test Pad and ReCharge Integrated Demonstration System. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) offer the opportunity to shift transportation energy demands from petroleum to electricity, but broad adoption will require integration with other systems. While automotive experts work to reduce the cost of PEVs, fossil fueled cars and trucks continue to burn hundreds of billions of gallons of petroleum each year - not only to get from point A to point B, but also to keep passengers comfortable with air conditioning and heat. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), three installations form a research laboratory known as the Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility (VTIF). At the VTIF, engineers are developing strategies to address two separate but equally crucial areas of research: meeting the demands of electric vehicle-grid integration and minimizing fuel consumption related to vehicle climate control. Part of NREL's Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems (CTTS), the VTIF is dedicated to renewable and energy efficient solutions. This facility showcases technology and systems designed to increase the viability of sustainably powered vehicles. NREL researchers instrument every class of on-road vehicle, conduct hardware and software validation for electric vehicle (EV) components and accessories, and develop analysis tools and technology for the Department of Energy, other government agencies and industry partners. Research conducted at the VTIF examines the interaction of building energy systems, utility grids, renewable energy sources and PEVs, integrating energy management solutions, and maximizing potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction, while smoothing the transition and reducing costs for EV owners. NREL's collaboration with automakers, charging station manufacturers, utilities and fleet operators to assess technologies using VTIF

  20. State-of-Charge Balance Using Adaptive Droop Control for Distributed Energy Storage Systems in DC MicroGrid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the coordinated control of distributed energy storage systems (DESSs) in DC micro-grids. In order to balance the state-of-charge (SoC) of each energy storage unit (ESU), an SoC-based adaptive droop control method is proposed. In this decentralized control method, the droop...

  1. The dynamics of energy and charge transfer in lead sulfide quantum dot solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingley, Zachary [Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Lu, Siyuan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Madhukar, Anupam, E-mail: madhukar@usc.edu [Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2014-02-28

    We report on a systematic time-resolved photoluminescence study of the competing energy and charge transfer rates in PbS QDs of differing sizes in the same QD solid as a function of both temperature and ligand-controlled different inter-QD average separations. This complements previous studies that typically varied only one parameter and reveals new aspects while also confirming some known features. For the smallest PbS QDs, the dominant decay process is nonradiative resonant energy transfer (NRET) to adjacent larger dots for all separations but at a rate that increases with decreasing temperature. For the largest QDs, NRET being forbidden, the decay is found to be exponential in the inter-QD separation consistent with carrier tunneling but, for each fixed tunneling distance, exhibiting a thermally activated tunneling carrier population with the activation energy dependent upon the ligand length controlling the inter-QD separation. A consistent understanding of this expanded and rich decay rate behavior of both large and small QDs, we show, can be obtained by accounting for the ligand length dependent (a) dielectric environment of the QD solid modeled using an effective medium description, (b) the energy cost of dissociating the exciton into electron and hole in neighboring QDs, and (c) the potential participation of midgap states. Implications of the findings for NRET based photovoltaics are discussed.

  2. Roles of Energy/Charge Cascades and Intermixed Layers at Donor/Acceptor Interfaces in Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kyohei; Suzuki, Kaori; Chen, Yujiao; Tajima, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    The secret to the success of mixed bulk heterojunctions (BHJs) in yielding highly efficient organic solar cells (OSCs) could reside in the molecular structures at their donor/acceptor (D/A) interfaces. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of energy and charge cascade structures at the interfaces by using well-defined planar heterojunctions (PHJs) as a model system. The results showed that (1) the charge cascade structure enhanced VOC because it shuts down the recombination pathway through charge transfer (CT) state with a low energy, (2) the charge cascade layer having a wider energy gap than the bulk material decreased JSC because the diffusion of the excitons from the bulk to D/A interface was blocked; the energy of the cascade layers must be appropriately arranged for both the charges and the excitons, and (3) molecular intermixing in the cascade layer opened the recombination path through the low-energy CT state and decreased VOC. Based on these findings, we propose improved structures for D/A interfaces in BHJs.

  3. Roles of Energy/Charge Cascades and Intermixed Layers at Donor/Acceptor Interfaces in Organic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kyohei; Suzuki, Kaori; Chen, Yujiao; Tajima, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    The secret to the success of mixed bulk heterojunctions (BHJs) in yielding highly efficient organic solar cells (OSCs) could reside in the molecular structures at their donor/acceptor (D/A) interfaces. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of energy and charge cascade structures at the interfaces by using well-defined planar heterojunctions (PHJs) as a model system. The results showed that (1) the charge cascade structure enhanced VOC because it shuts down the recombination pathway through charge transfer (CT) state with a low energy, (2) the charge cascade layer having a wider energy gap than the bulk material decreased JSC because the diffusion of the excitons from the bulk to D/A interface was blocked; the energy of the cascade layers must be appropriately arranged for both the charges and the excitons, and (3) molecular intermixing in the cascade layer opened the recombination path through the low-energy CT state and decreased VOC. Based on these findings, we propose improved structures for D/A interfaces in BHJs. PMID:27404948

  4. A comparison of experimental thermal stratification parameters for an oil/pebble-bed thermal energy storage (TES) system during charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Six experimental thermal stratification parameters are evaluated in a TES system. → Stratification number and temperature difference evaluate stratification adequately. → Exergy efficiency and Reynolds number evaluate stratification qualitatively. → Richardson number and energy efficiency not clearly related with stratification. -- Abstract: Six different experimental thermal stratification evaluation parameters during charging for an oil/pebble-bed TES system are presented. The six parameters are the temperature distribution along the height of the storage tank at different time intervals, the charging energy efficiency, the charging exergy efficiency, the stratification number, the Reynolds number and the Richardson number. These parameters are evaluated under six different experimental charging conditions. Temperature distribution along the height of the storage tank at different time intervals and the stratification number are parameters found to describe thermal stratification quantitatively adequately. On the other-hand, the charging exergy efficiency and the Reynolds number give important information about describing thermal stratification qualitatively and should be used with care. The charging energy efficiency and the Richardson number have no clear relationship with thermal stratification.

  5. Dynamical image-charge effect in molecular tunnel junctions: Beyond energy level alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chengjun; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2014-01-01

    When an electron tunnels between two metal contacts it temporarily induces an image charge (IC) in the electrodes which acts back on the tunneling electron. It is usually assumed that the IC forms instantaneously such that a static model for the image potential applies. Here we investigate how the finite IC formation time affects charge transport through a molecule suspended between two electrodes. For a single-level model, an analytical treatment shows that the conductance is suppressed by a factor Z2, where Z is the quasiparticle renormalization factor, compared to the static IC approximation. We show that Z can be expressed either in terms of the plasma frequency of the electrode or as the overlap between electrode wave functions corresponding to an empty and filled level, respectively. First-principles GW calculations for benzene-diamine connected to gold electrodes show that the dynamical corrections can reduce the conductance by more than a factor of two when compared to static GW or density functional theory where the molecular energy levels have been shifted to match the exact quasiparticle levels.

  6. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide stimulates renin secretion via activation of PAC1 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hautmann, Matthias; Friis, Ulla G; Desch, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    Besides of its functional role in the nervous system, the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Therefore, PACAP is a potent vasodilator in several vascular beds, including the renal vasculature. Because t...

  7. Subtyping of Salmonella enterica subspecies I using single nucleotide polymorphisms in adenylate cyclase (cyaA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to rapidly identify serotypes of Salmonella enterica subspecies I are of vital importance for protecting the safety of food. To supplement the serotyping method dkgB-linked intergenic sequence ribotyping (ISR), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were characterized within adenylate cyclas...

  8. Modulation of receptors and adenylate cyclase activity during sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves as a regulator of body temperature and weight maintenance. Thermogenesis can be stimulated by catecholamine activation of adenylate cyclase through the β-adrenergic receptor. To investigate the effects of sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure on the β-adrenergic pathway, adenylate cyclase activity and β-adrenergic receptors were assessed in rat BAT after 2 wk of sucrose feeding, 2 days of food deprivation, or 2 days of cold exposure. β-Adrenergic receptors were identified in BAT using [125I]iodocyanopindolol. Binding sites had the characteristics of mixed β1- and β2-type adrenergic receptors at a ratio of 60/40. After sucrose feeding or cold exposure, there was the expected increase in BAT mitochondrial mass as measured by total cytochrome-c oxidase activity but a decrease in β-adrenergic receptor density due to a loss of the β1-adrenergic subtype. This BAT β-adrenergic receptor downregulation was tissue specific, since myocardial β-adrenergic receptors were unchanged with either sucrose feeding or cold exposure. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased in BAT after sucrose feeding or cold exposure but not after food deprivation. These data suggest that in BAT, sucrose feeding or cold exposure result in downregulation of β-adrenergic receptors and that isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was limited by receptor availability

  9. The Binding Energy, Spin-Excitation Gap, and Charged Gap in the Boson-Fermion Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kai-Hua; TIAN Guang-Shan; HAN Ru-Qi

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, by applying a simplified version of Lieb 's spin-refleetion-positivity method, which was recentlydeveloped by one of us [G.S. Tian and J.G. Wang, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 (2002) 941], we investigate some generalproperties of the boson-fermion Hamiltonian, which has been widely used as a phenomenological model to describe thereal-space pairing of electrons. On a mathematically rigorous basis, we prove that for either negative or positive couplingV, which represents the spontaneous decay and recombination process between boson and fermion in the model, thepairing energy of electrons is nonzero. Furthermore, we also show that the spin-excitation gap of the boson-fermionHamiltonian is always larger than its charged gap, as predicted by the pre-paired electron theory.

  10. The Binding Energy, Spin-Excitation Gap, and Charged Gap in the Boson-Fermion Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGKai-Hua; Guang-Shan; HANRu-Qi

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, by applying a simplified version of Lieb's spin-reflection-positivity method, which was recently developed by one of us [G.S. Tian and J.G. Wang, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 (2002) 941], we investigate some general properties of the boeon-fermion Hamiltonlan, which has been widely used as a phenomenological model to describe the real-space pairing of electrons. On a mathematically rigorous basis, we prove that for either negative or positive couping V, which represents the spontaneous decay and recombination process between boson and fermion in the model, the pairing energy of electrons is nonzero. Furthermore, we also show that the spin-excitation gap of the boson-fermion Hamiltonian is always larger than its charged gap, as predicted by the pre-palred electron theory.

  11. Charge neutralized low energy beam transport at Brookhaven 200 MeV linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raparia, D; Alessi, J; Atoian, G; Zelenski, A

    2016-02-01

    The H(-) magnetron source provides about 100 mA H(-) beam to be match into the radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator. As H(-) beam traverses through low energy transport, it ionizes the residual gas and electrons are repelled and positive ions are trapped in the beam, due to negative potential of the beam, providing charge neutralization for the H(-) beam. The neutralization time for the critical density depends upon the background gas and its pressure. Critical density for xenon gas at 35 keV is about 43 times smaller than that of hydrogen and stripping cross section is only 5 times than that of hydrogen gas. We are using xenon gas to reduce neutralization time and to improve transmission through the 200 MeV linac. We are also using pulse nitrogen gas to improve transmission and stability of polarized H(-) beam from optically pumped polarized ion source. PMID:26932107

  12. A low energy ion beamline for highly charged ions at SpecTrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the precision experiments of the HITRAP facility at GSI Darmstadt is SpecTrap, which aims to trap heavy Highly Charged Ions (HCI) in a Penning trap and cool them to cryogenic temperatures. Using laser spectroscopy it is possible to measure their hyperfine structure with an envisaged relative accuracy of the order of 10-7 which will serve as a test of strong-field quantum electrodynamics. This poster presents the current status of the SpecTrap experiment and give an overview of the associated beamline from the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) to the Penning trap. The EBIS can produce HCI up to Xe44+ and the beamline is able to transport these ions with small kinetic energy with a few keV to SpecTrap or other experimental setups. Additionally the methods and first experimental results for detecting, cooling and manipulating the ions inside the trap are shown.

  13. Charge neutralized low energy beam transport at Brookhaven 200 MeV linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The H− magnetron source provides about 100 mA H− beam to be match into the radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator. As H− beam traverses through low energy transport, it ionizes the residual gas and electrons are repelled and positive ions are trapped in the beam, due to negative potential of the beam, providing charge neutralization for the H− beam. The neutralization time for the critical density depends upon the background gas and its pressure. Critical density for xenon gas at 35 keV is about 43 times smaller than that of hydrogen and stripping cross section is only 5 times than that of hydrogen gas. We are using xenon gas to reduce neutralization time and to improve transmission through the 200 MeV linac. We are also using pulse nitrogen gas to improve transmission and stability of polarized H− beam from optically pumped polarized ion source

  14. 36-MeV-triton-induced charge exchange: Mass measurements and energy levels of neutron-rich nuclei and the charge exchange reaction mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy spectra and differential cross sections have been obtained for the charge exchange reaction (3H,3He) on targets of /sup 30,28/Si and /sup 26/Mg at an incident energy of 36 MeV. Previously unobserved energy levels of /sup 30/Al and /sup 26/Na are reported and compared to shell model predictions. Microscopic form factors based on the M3Y effective nucleon-nucleon interaction are used in distorted-wave Born approximation codes to fit the data. The sensitivity of the model to input parameters is discussed and some spin assignments made. Coupled channels calculations are performed to fit the two-step contributions to the data via sequential one-nucleon transfers

  15. Electric Vehicles Integration in the Electric Power System with Intermittent Energy Sources - The Charge/Discharge infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco

    The replacement of conventional fuelled vehicles with electric vehicles (EVs) is going to increase in the coming years, following the trend seen for renewable energy sources (RES), as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power. In this scenario, the electric power systems in Europe are going to accommodate...... increased levels of non-dispatchable and fluctuating energy sources, as well as additional power demand due to EV charging. If the charging of EVs can be intelligently managed, several advantages can be offered to the power system. How useful coordinated EV charging can be, in combination with RES...... and the power levels needed. Furthermore, during EV coordination, a number of nonlinearities and battery ageing issues should be taken into account, to ensure a correct EV coordination and to preserve the EV battery lifetime. The third part of this research exploits the use of EV load coordination as an energy...

  16. Isotopic dependence of the nuclear charge radii and binding energies in the relativistic Hartree-Fock formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niembro, R., E-mail: niembror@unican.es; Marcos, S.; Lopez-Quelle, M. [Universidad de Cantabria (Spain); Savushkin, L. N. [St. Petersburg University for Telecommunications (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-15

    Relativistic nonlinear models based on the Hartree and Hartree-Fock approximations, including the {sigma}, {omega}, {pi}, and {rho} mesons, are worked out to explore the behavior of the nuclear charge radii and the binding energies of several isotopic chains. We find a correlation between the magnitude of the anomalous kink effect (KE) in the Pb isotopic family and the compressibility modulus (K) of nuclear matter. The KE appears to be sensitive, in particular, to the mechanisms which control the K value. The influence of the symmetry energy on the Ca isotopic chain is also studied. The behavior of the charge radii of single-particle states for some special cases and its repercussion on the nuclear charge radius is analyzed. The effect of pairing correlations on the models improves considerably the quality of the results in both binding energy and KE.

  17. The knee in the cosmic ray energy spectrum from the simultaneous EAS charged particles and muon density spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Bijay, Biplab; Bhadra, Arunava

    2015-01-01

    In this work we examine with the help of Monte Carlo simulation whether a consistent primary energy spectrum of cosmic rays emerges from both the experimentally observed total charged particles and muon size spectra of cosmic ray extensive air showers considering primary composition may or may not change beyond the knee of the energy spectrum. It is found that EAS-TOP observations consistently infer a knee in the primary energy spectrum provided the primary is pure unchanging iron whereas no consistent primary spectrum emerges from simultaneous use of the KASCADE observed total charged particle and muon spectra. However, it is also found that when primary composition changes across the knee the estimation of spectral index of total charged particle spectrum is quite tricky, depends on the choice of selection of points near the knee in the size spectrum.

  18. Lateral charged particle distribution of extensive air showers - source of information about energy and nature of the primary cosmic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CORSIKA simulated showers for H, C and Fe cosmic primaries in 8 energy intervals from 1016 eV to 1018 eV, taking into account the response of KASCADE-Grande detectors, have been used to reconstruct the charged particle density for KASCADE-Grande observations, based on the Linsley lateral distribution function (LDF). Extensive studies have been done to investigate features for energy estimation and mass discrimination of cosmic primaries around 1017 eV. It has been found that the charged particle density distribution of EAS exhibits interesting information for both aspects: at larger distances from shower core, around 500 m - 600 m the charge particle density could be used as energy identifier, and at shorter distances from shower core, around, 100 m - 200 m, it signals the mass of the EAS primary. (author)

  19. Supercell convergence of charge-transfer energies in pentacene molecular crystals from constrained DFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turban, David H. P.; Teobaldi, Gilberto; O'Regan, David D.; Hine, Nicholas D. M.

    2016-04-01

    Singlet fission (SF) is a multiexciton generation process that could be harnessed to improve the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. Experimentally, systems derived from the pentacene molecule have been shown to exhibit ultrafast SF with high yields. Charge-transfer (CT) configurations are likely to play an important role as intermediates in the SF process in these systems. In molecular crystals, electrostatic screening effects and band formation can be significant in lowering the energy of CT states, enhancing their potential to effectively participate in SF. In order to simulate these, it desirable to adopt a computational approach which is acceptably accurate, relatively inexpensive, and which scales well to larger systems, thus enabling the study of screening effects. We propose an electrostatically corrected constrained density functional theory (cDFT) approach as a low-cost solution to the calculation of CT energies in molecular crystals such as pentacene. Here we consider an implementation in the context of the onetep linear-scaling DFT code, but our electrostatic correction method is in principle applicable in combination with any constrained DFT implementation, also outside the linear-scaling framework. Our newly developed method allows us to estimate CT energies in the infinite crystal limit, and with these to validate the accuracy of the cluster approximation.

  20. An energy harvester using self-powered feed forward converter charging approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper proposes a stand-alone energy harvester system that considers economical, environmental, and technological implications. The applications of this paper are maintenance free, low cost and environmentally friendly commercial devices. The stand-alone system contains a self starting/self powering circuitry which allows the system power to be turned off while not in use. This proposed system requires neither batteries nor a power supply unit; it constitutes a true stand-alone, low maintenance and pollution free system. Additionally, it proposes a feed forward charging scheme to eliminate the needs of using voltage feedback, current feedback, or both, and hence reduces electronic complexity and cost of the charger. A detailed analysis of the feed forward charger, and the self-starting/self power circuitry was carried out to obtain the relationship between the system parameters and the outputs of the system. This paper also presents simulation results and experimental data to reveal performance of the charger and the self-starting/self powering circuitry. - Highlights: ► We frame an energy harvester that requires neither batteries nor a power supply unit. ► The harvester can avoid impacting the lifetime quality of energy storage elements. ► We show a thorough operation analysis for both ideal and non-ideal cases. ► The harvester possesses simplicity, low cost, and commercialization potential. ► Design concept integrates technical, economic and environmental concerns

  1. Receptor binding and adenylate cyclase activities of glucagon analogues modified in the N-terminal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R.L.; Pelton, J.T.; Trivedi, D.; Johnson, D.G.; Coy, D.H.; Sueiras-Diaz, J.; Hruby, V.J.

    1986-04-08

    In this study, we determined the ability of four N-terminally modified derivatives of glucagon, (3-Me-His1,Arg12)-, (Phe1,Arg12)-, (D-Ala4,Arg12)-, and (D-Phe4)glucagon, to compete with 125I-glucagon for binding sites specific for glucagon in hepatic plasma membranes and to activate the hepatic adenylate cyclase system, the second step involved in producing many of the physiological effects of glucagon. Relative to the native hormone, (3-Me-His1,Arg12)glucagon binds approximately twofold greater to hepatic plasma membranes but is fivefold less potent in the adenylate cyclase assay. (Phe1,Arg12)glucagon binds threefold weaker and is also approximately fivefold less potent in adenylate cyclase activity. In addition, both analogues are partial agonists with respect to adenylate cyclase. These results support the critical role of the N-terminal histidine residue in eliciting maximal transduction of the hormonal message. (D-Ala4,Arg12)glucagon and (D-Phe4)glucagon, analogues designed to examine the possible importance of a beta-bend conformation in the N-terminal region of glucagon for binding and biological activities, have binding potencies relative to glucagon of 31% and 69%, respectively. (D-Ala4,Arg12)glucagon is a partial agonist in the adenylate cyclase assay system having a fourfold reduction in potency, while the (D-Phe4) derivative is a full agonist essentially equipotent with the native hormone. These results do not necessarily support the role of an N-terminal beta-bend in glucagon receptor recognition. With respect to in vivo glycogenolysis activities, all of the analogues have previously been reported to be full agonists.

  2. Structural and Functional Studies of Fatty Acyl Adenylate Ligases from E. coli and L. pneumophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z Zhang; R Zhou; J Sauder; P Tonge; S Burley; S Swaminathan

    2011-12-31

    Fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) is a new member of a family of adenylate-forming enzymes that were recently discovered in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are similar in sequence to fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) ligases (FACLs). However, while FACLs perform a two-step catalytic reaction, AMP ligation followed by CoA ligation using ATP and CoA as cofactors, FAALs produce only the acyl adenylate and are unable to perform the second step. We report X-ray crystal structures of full-length FAAL from Escherichia coli (EcFAAL) and FAAL from Legionella pneumophila (LpFAAL) bound to acyl adenylate, determined at resolution limits of 3.0 and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. The structures share a larger N-terminal domain and a smaller C-terminal domain, which together resemble the previously determined structures of FAAL and FACL proteins. Our two structures occur in quite different conformations. EcFAAL adopts the adenylate-forming conformation typical of FACLs, whereas LpFAAL exhibits a unique intermediate conformation. Both EcFAAL and LpFAAL have insertion motifs that distinguish them from the FACLs. Structures of EcFAAL and LpFAAL reveal detailed interactions between this insertion motif and the interdomain hinge region and with the C-terminal domain. We suggest that the insertion motifs support sufficient interdomain motions to allow substrate binding and product release during acyl adenylate formation, but they preclude CoA binding, thereby preventing CoA ligation.

  3. Optimal battery charging, Part I: Minimizing time-to-charge, energy loss, and temperature rise for OCV-resistance battery model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, A.; Han, X.; Avvari, G. V.; Raghunathan, N.; Balasingam, B.; Pattipati, K. R.; Bar-Shalom, Y.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a closed-form solution to the problem of optimally charging a Li-ion battery. A combination of three cost functions is considered as the objective function: time-to-charge (TTC), energy losses (EL), and a temperature rise index (TRI). First, we consider the cost function of the optimization problem as a weighted sum of TTC and EL. We show that the optimal charging strategy in this case is the well-known Constant Current-Constant Voltage (CC-CV) policy with the value of the current in the CC stage being a function of the ratio of weighting on TTC and EL and of the resistance of the battery. Then, we extend the cost function to a weighted sum of TTC, EL and TRI and derive an analytical solution for the problem. It is shown that the analytical solution can be approximated by a CC-CV with the value of current in the CC stage being a function of ratio of weighting on TTC and EL, resistance of the battery and the effective thermal resistance.

  4. Characterization of Charge-Carrier Transport in Semicrystalline Polymers: Electronic Couplings, Site Energies, and Charge-Carrier Dynamics in Poly(bithiophene- alt -thienothiophene) [PBTTT

    KAUST Repository

    Poelking, Carl

    2013-01-31

    We establish a link between the microscopic ordering and the charge-transport parameters for a highly crystalline polymeric organic semiconductor, poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT). We find that the nematic and dynamic order parameters of the conjugated backbones, as well as their separation, evolve linearly with temperature, while the side-chain dynamic order parameter and backbone paracrystallinity change abruptly upon the (also experimentally observed) melting of the side chains around 400 K. The distribution of site energies follows the behavior of the backbone paracrystallinity and can be treated as static on the time scale of a single-charge transfer reaction. On the contrary, the electronic couplings between adjacent backbones are insensitive to side-chain melting and vary on a much faster time scale. The hole mobility, calculated after time-averaging of the electronic couplings, reproduces well the value measured in a short-channel thin-film transistor. The results underline that to secure efficient charge transport in lamellar arrangements of conjugated polymers: (i) the electronic couplings should present high average values and fast dynamics, and (ii) the energetic disorder (paracrystallinity) should be small. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. Voltage Scheduling Droop Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy Storage in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz;

    2014-01-01

    the State-of-Charge balance. In this paper, a new droop method based on voltage scheduling for State-of-Charge balance is proposed to keep the SoC balance for the energy storage units. The proposed method has the advantage of avoiding the stability problem existed in traditional methods based on droop gain...... scheduling. Simulation experiment is taken in Matlab on a DC microgrid with two distributed energy storage units. The simulation results show that the proposed method has successfully achieved SoC balance during the load changes while maintaining the DC bus voltage within the allowable range....

  6. Absorbing Charged Rotating Metric in de Sitter Space in Advanced Time Coordinates and the Related Energy-Momentum Tensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dian-Yah

    2000-01-01

    Absorbing charged rotating (ACR) metric in de Sitter space and related energy-momentum tensor are derived.The ACR metric is very simple in advanced time coordinates. The ACR metric involves 8 independent parameters which are divided into two classes: (1) the mass M, charge Q, angular momentum per unit mass a, and cosmological constant A; (2) M/ v, 2M/ v2, Q/ v, and 2Q/ v2. The non-stationary part of the energy-momentum tensor is positive definite everywhere.

  7. Voltage Scheduling Droop Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy Storage in DC Microgrids

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chendan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    Due to higher power quality, lower conversion loss, and more DC loads, there has been an increasing awareness on DC microgrid. Previous emphasis has been on equal power sharing among different units in the DC microgrid, whileoverlooking the coordination of the energy storage units to maintain the State-of-Charge balance. In this paper, a new droop method based on voltage scheduling for State-of-Charge balance is proposed to keep the SoC balance for the energy storage units. The proposed metho...

  8. Design and evaluation of a microgrid for PEV charging with flexible distribution of energy sources and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Moinak

    This thesis aspires to model and control, the flow of power in a DC microgrid. Specifically, the energy sources are a photovoltaic system and the utility grid, a lead acid battery based energy storage system and twenty PEV charging stations as the loads. Theoretical principles of large scale state space modeling are applied to model the considerable number of power electronic converters needed for controlling voltage and current thresholds. The energy storage system is developed using principles of neural networks to facilitate a stable and uncomplicated model of the lead acid battery. Power flow control is structured as a hierarchical problem with multiple interactions between individual components of the microgrid. The implementation is done using fuzzy logic with scheduling the maximum use of available solar energy and compensating demand or excess power with the energy storage system, and minimizing utility grid use, while providing multiple speeds of charging the PEVs.

  9. Probing the Origin of Neutrino Masses and Mixings via Doubly Charged Scalars: Complementarity of the Intensity and the Energy Frontiers

    CERN Document Server

    Geib, Tanja; Merle, Alexander; No, Jose Miguel; Panizzi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    We discuss how the intensity and the energy frontiers provide complementary constraints within a minimal model of neutrino mass involving just one new field beyond the Standard Model at accessible energy, namely a doubly charged scalar $S^{++}$ and its antiparticle $S^{--}$. In particular we focus on the complementarity between high-energy LHC searches and low-energy probes such as lepton flavor violation. Our setting is a prime example of how high- and low-energy physics can cross-fertilize each other.

  10. Probing the origin of neutrino masses and mixings via doubly charged scalars: Complementarity of the intensity and the energy frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Tanja; King, Stephen F.; Merle, Alexander; No, Jose Miguel; Panizzi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    We discuss how the intensity and the energy frontiers provide complementary constraints within a minimal model of neutrino mass involving just one new field beyond the Standard Model at accessible energy, namely a doubly charged scalar S++ and its antiparticle S-- . In particular, we focus on the complementarity between high-energy LHC searches and low-energy probes such as lepton flavor violation. Our setting is a prime example of how high- and low-energy physics can cross-fertilize each other.

  11. Charge and energy transfer by solitons in low-dimensional nanosystems with helical structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the nonlinear mechanism of the energy and charge transfer in low-dimensional nanosystems with helical structure. We show that the helical symmetry is important for the formation, stability and dynamical properties of the soliton-like self-trapped electron states. We obtain several types of stationary soliton solutions, namely single-band and hybrid two-band solitons which possess different energies. The two-band hybrid soliton spontaneously breaks the local translational and helical symmetries. For the values of the parameters of α-helical proteins this soliton possesses the lowest energy as compared with other types of solitons. This soliton has an inner structure which is manifested by a modulated multi-hump amplitude distribution of excitations on the individual strands of hydrogen bonds, identified in the helix. The displacement of such a soliton along the helix reveals distinctly the complex and composite structure of the soliton and causes oscillations of the energy distributions between the strands of hydrogen bonds. We show that the frequency of these oscillations is proportional to the soliton velocity. The radiative life-time of this hybrid soliton is calculated and shown to exceed by several orders of magnitude the life-time of a soliton excitation in a three-strand macromolecule without helical structure. The other two soliton solutions are formed by single-band states. These solitons preserve the helical symmetry, but in the α-helix they are dynamically unstable: once initially formed, they transform into the ground hybrid soliton state when propagating along the chain

  12. Charge and energy transfer by solitons in low-dimensional nanosystems with helical structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brizhik, L. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, 03143 Kyiv (Ukraine)], E-mail: brizhik@bitp.kiev.ua; Eremko, A. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, 03143 Kyiv (Ukraine)], E-mail: eremko@bitp.kiev.ua; Piette, B. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: B.M.A.G.Piette@durham.ac.uk; Zakrzewski, W. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: W.J.Zakrzewski@durham.ac.uk

    2006-05-09

    We study the nonlinear mechanism of the energy and charge transfer in low-dimensional nanosystems with helical structure. We show that the helical symmetry is important for the formation, stability and dynamical properties of the soliton-like self-trapped electron states. We obtain several types of stationary soliton solutions, namely single-band and hybrid two-band solitons which possess different energies. The two-band hybrid soliton spontaneously breaks the local translational and helical symmetries. For the values of the parameters of {alpha}-helical proteins this soliton possesses the lowest energy as compared with other types of solitons. This soliton has an inner structure which is manifested by a modulated multi-hump amplitude distribution of excitations on the individual strands of hydrogen bonds, identified in the helix. The displacement of such a soliton along the helix reveals distinctly the complex and composite structure of the soliton and causes oscillations of the energy distributions between the strands of hydrogen bonds. We show that the frequency of these oscillations is proportional to the soliton velocity. The radiative life-time of this hybrid soliton is calculated and shown to exceed by several orders of magnitude the life-time of a soliton excitation in a three-strand macromolecule without helical structure. The other two soliton solutions are formed by single-band states. These solitons preserve the helical symmetry, but in the {alpha}-helix they are dynamically unstable: once initially formed, they transform into the ground hybrid soliton state when propagating along the chain.

  13. Charge and energy transfer in a bithiophene perylenediimide based donor-acceptor-donor system for use in organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Jan; Dreuw, Andreas; Burghardt, Irene

    2013-07-28

    The elementary charge and excitation energy transfer steps in a novel symmetric donor-acceptor-donor triad first described in Roland et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2012, 14, 273, consisting of a central perylenediimide moiety as a potential electron acceptor and two identical electron rich bithiophene compounds, have been investigated using quantum chemical methodology. These elementary processes determine the applicability of such systems in photovoltaic devices. The molecular structure, excited states and the photo-physical properties are investigated using smaller model systems and including solvation effects. The donor and acceptor π-systems are separated by an ethyl bridge such that the molecular orbitals are either located on the donor or acceptor moiety making the identification of locally excited versus charge transfer states straightforward. Using excited state geometry optimizations, the mechanism of photo-initiated charge separation could be identified. Geometry relaxation in the excited donor state leads to a near-degeneracy with the locally excited acceptor state, entailing strong excitonic coupling and resonance energy transfer. This energy transfer process is driven by planarization and bond length alternation of the donor molecule. Geometry relaxation of the locally excited acceptor state in turn reveals a crossing with the energetically lowest charge transfer excited state. The energetic position of the latter depends in a sensitive fashion on the solvent. This provides an explanation of the sequential process observed in the experiment, favoring ultrafast (∼130 fs) formation of the excited acceptor state followed by slower (∼3 ps scale) formation of the charge separated state.

  14. Response of radiochromic dye films to low energy heavy charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Buenfil, A E; Gamboa-Debuen, I; Aviles, P; Avila, O; Olvera, C; Robledo, R; Rodriguez-Ponce, M; Mercado-Uribe, H; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M; Brandan, M E

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the possible use of radiochromic dye films (RCF) as heavy charged particle dosemeters. We present the results of irradiating two commercial RCF (GafChromic HD-810 and MD-55-1) with 1.5, 2.9 and 4.4 MeV protons, 1.4, 2.8, 4.7, 5.9, 6.8 MeV sup 4 He ions and 8.5 and 12.4 MeV sup 1 sup 2 C ions, at proton doses from about 1 Gy up to 3 kGy, helium ions doses from 3 Gy to 5 kGy and carbon ion doses from 30 Gy to 20 kGy. The films were scanned and digitized using commercial equipment. For a given particle, the response per unit dose at different energies indicates an energy dependence of the sensitivity, which is discussed. Comparison was made for the use of a standard spectrophotometer to obtain optical density readings versus a white light scanner.

  15. Analysis of the low-energy $\\pi^- p$ charge-exchange data

    CERN Document Server

    Matsinos, Evangelos

    2012-01-01

    We analyse the charge-exchange (CX) measurements $\\pi^- p\\rightarrow \\pi^0 n$ below pion laboratory kinetic energy of 100 MeV. After the removal of five degrees of freedom from the initial database, we combined it with the truncated $\\pi^+ p$ database of our recent PSA and fitted to the data using the ETH model. The set of model-parameter values, as well as the predictions (which are derived on their basis) for the phase shifts and for the low-energy $\\pi N$ constants, are significantly different from the results we obtained in the analysis of the truncated $\\pi^\\pm p$ elastic-scattering databases. Concerning the phase shifts, the main difference occurs in $\\tilde{\\delta}_{0+}^{1/2}$; smaller differences have been found in two p-wave phase shifts. We discuss the implications of these findings in terms of the violation of the isospin invariance in the hadronic part of the $\\pi N$ interaction. The effect observed is at the level of $7-8%$ in the CX scattering amplitude below about 70 MeV. The results and conclu...

  16. A Wearable Wireless Energy Link for Thin-Film Batteries Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Monti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless charger for low capacity thin-film batteries is presented. The proposed device consists of a nonradiative wireless resonant energy link and a power management unit. Experimental data referring to a prototype operating in the ISM band centered at 434 MHz are presented and discussed. In more detail, in order to facilitate the integration into wearable accessories (such as handbags or suitcases, the prototype of the wireless energy link was implemented by exploiting a magnetic coupling between two planar resonators fabricated by using a conductive fabric on a layer of leather. From experimental data, it is demonstrated that, at 434 MHz, the RF-to-RF power transfer efficiency of the link is approximately 69.3%. As for the performance of the system as a whole, when an RF power of 7.5 dBm is provided at the input port, a total efficiency of about 29.7% is obtained. Finally, experiments performed for calculating the charging time for a low capacity thin-film battery demonstrated that, for RF input power higher than 6 dBm, the time necessary for recharging the battery is lower than 50 minutes.

  17. Eikonal approximation in the theory of energy loss by fast charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, V. I.; Makarov, D. N.; Gusarevich, E. S.

    2011-05-01

    Energy losses in fast charged particles as a result of collisions with atoms are considered in the eikonal approximation. It is shown that the nonperturbative contribution to effective stopping in the range of intermediate impact parameters (comparable with the characteristic sizes of the electron shells of the target atoms) may turn out to be significant as compared to shell corrections to the Bethe-Bloch formula calculated in perturbation theory. The simplifying assumptions are formulated under which the Bethe-Bloch formula can be derived in the eikonal approximation. It is shown that the allowance for nonperturbative effects may lead to considerable (up to 50%) corrections to the Bethe-Bloch formula. The applicability range for the Bethe-Bloch formula is analyzed. It is concluded that calculation of the energy loss in the eikonal approximation (in the range of impact parameters for which the Bethe-Bloch formula is normally used) is much more advantageous than analysis based on the Bethe-Bloch formula and its modifications because not only the Bloch correction is included in the former calculations, the range of intermediate impact parameters is also taken into account nonperturbatively; in addition, direct generalization to the cases of collisions of complex projectiles and targets is possible in this case.

  18. Charge-dependent and A-dependent effects in isotope shifts of Coulomb displacement energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulomb displacement energies in a series of isotopes generally decrease with A. This decrease can arise from an increase with A of the average distance of interaction between pairs of protons. In the shell model a decrease can also result from charge-independence-breaking effects if the neutron-proton interaction for the valence nucleons is more attractive than the neutron-neutron interaction. Using the model recently proposed by Sherr and Talmi for the 1d/sub 3/2/ shell, existing data for this shell and also the 1d/sub 5/2/ and 1f/sub 7/2/ shells were analyzed allowing all matrix elements to vary as A/sup -lambda/3/. Least squares calculations of the rms deviation sigma were carried out for varying values of lambda from -2 to +2. It was found that although there was a minimum in sigma vs lambda it was too shallow to exclude any lambda for -1 to +1 in the 1d/sub 3/2/ and 1f/sub 7/2/ shells or 0 to +1 in the 1d/sub 5/2/ shell. It is therefore not possible to distinguish between A dependence and charge dependence in this model. The magnitude of the latter as expressed in terms of (np-nn) matrix elements depends strongly on the former. As lambda increases from -1 to +1, these (np-nn) matrix elements decrease roughly linearly in absolute magnitude and eventually change sign. For lambda = 0 they have appreciable and reasonable magnitudes for the 1d/sub 3/2/ and 1f/sub 7/2/ shells but for the 1d/sub 5/2/ shell the values are too small to be considered significant

  19. Energy spread and time structure of ion beams extracted from the ReA-EBIT rare isotope charge breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Thomas M.; Lapierre, Alain; Schwarz, Stefan; Kittimanapun, Kritsada; Bollen, Georg [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University (MSU), 640 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2015-01-09

    The ReA re-accelerator of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University utilizes an Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) for charge breeding thermalized rare isotope beams. Recent commissioning measurements have been performed to characterize the performance of this EBIT. The energy spread of extracted highly charged ion beams was measured to be about 0.3% of the total beam energy. From this, the temperature of the ion ensemble in the trap is calculated to be kT{sub q}/q = 31eV for O{sup 7+}, while it is kT{sub q}/q = 25eV for K{sup 15+}. In addition initial results are presented for two extraction schemes developed to spread highly charged ion pulses in time.

  20. Provision of Flexible Load Control by Multi-Flywheel-Energy-Storage System in Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Andrade, Fabio;

    2015-01-01

    Electrical vehicle (EV) chargers are going to occupy a considerable portion of total energy consumption in the future smart grid. Fast charging stations (FCS), as the most demanding representatives of charging infrastructure, will be requested to provide some ancillary services to the power system...... in order to support basic electrical operation. This paper proposes a local implementation of a hysteresis-based aggregation algorithm for coordinated control of multiple stations that can provide functions such as peak shaving, spinning reserves, frequency control, regulation and load following. Local...... control is achieved by distributed bus signaling control which exploits multiple flywheel energy storage systems to respond to the system-level control signals without compromising EV charging process. Due to switching nature of the system, a common Lyapunov function has been found in order to prove its...

  1. Charge-state dependence of energy loss of MeV dimers in GaAs(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon and oxygen dimers with charge states 1+ and 3+ were implanted into GaAs along the [100] direction at an energy of 0.5 MeV/atom. The defect depth profiles are extracted from Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and channeling. The depth profile of carbon is extracted from secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements. The defect density produced by dimer ions is larger than monomer ions. The depth profile of carbon in dimer implanted GaAs is deeper than that of monomer implanted GaAs showing negative molecular effect. The defect depth profile of oxygen dimer implanted GaAs is deeper for 3+ than that for 1+ charge state. This indicates that energy loss of O23+ is smaller than that of O2+. It is attributed to charge asymmetry and a higher degree of alignment of O23+ along the [100] axis of GaAs

  2. Charge-exchange, ionization and excitation in low-energy Li$^{+}-$ Ar, K$^{+}-$ Ar, and Na$^{+}-$He collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Lomsadze, Ramaz A; Kezerashvili, RomanYa; Schulz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Absolute cross sections are measured for charge-exchange, ionization, and excitation within the same experimental setup for the Li$^{+}-$Ar, K$^{+}-$ Ar, and Na$^{+}-$ He collisions in the ion energy range $0.5-10$ keV. Results of our measurements along with existing experimental data and the schematic correlation diagrams are used to analyze and determine the mechanisms for these processes. The experimental results show that the charge-exchange processes are realized with high probabilities and electrons are predominately captured in ground states. The cross section ratio for charge exchange, ionization and excitation processes roughly attains the value $10:2:1$, respectively. The contributions of various partial inelastic channels to the total ionization cross sections are estimated and a primary mechanism for the process is defined. The energy-loss spectrum, in addition, is applied to estimate the relative contribution of different inelastic channels and to determine the mechanisms for the ionization and f...

  3. Workplace Charging. Charging Up University Campuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Ryder, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Lommele, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.

  4. How High Local Charge Carrier Mobility and an Energy Cascade in a Three-Phase Bulk Heterojunction Enable >90% Quantum Efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Burke, Timothy M.

    2013-12-27

    Charge generation in champion organic solar cells is highly efficient in spite of low bulk charge-carrier mobilities and short geminate-pair lifetimes. In this work, kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are used to understand efficient charge generation in terms of experimentally measured high local charge-carrier mobilities and energy cascades due to molecular mixing. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Shah, Viral S; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Welsh, Michael J; Randak, Christoph O

    2015-05-29

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl(-) channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia.

  6. Intermediate ionization continua for double charge exchange at high impact energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, D.ževad

    1993-05-01

    We investigate the problem of two-electron capture from heliumlike atomic systems by bare nuclei ZP+(ZTe1,e2)i-->(ZPe1,e2)f+ZT at high incident energies, using the four-body formalism of the first- and second-order theories. Our goal is to establish the relative importance of the intermediate ionization continua of the two electrons in comparison with the usual direct path of the double electron transfer. For this purpose we presently introduce the boundary-corrected continuum-intermediate-state (BCIS) approximation, which preserves all the features of two-electron capture as a genuine four-body problem. The proposed second-order theory provides a fully adequate description of the fact that, in an intermediate stage of collision, both electrons move in the field of the two Coulomb centers. The previously devised boundary-corrected first Born (CB1) approximation can be obtained as a further simplification of the BCIS model if the invoked two-electron Coulomb waves are replaced by their long-range logarithmic phase factors defined in terms of the corresponding interaggregate separation R. The BCIS method is implemented on the symmetric resonant double charge exchange in collisions between α particles and He(1s2) at impact energies E>=900 keV. The obtained results for the differential and total cross sections are compared with the available experimental data and satisfactory agreement is recorded. As the incident energy increases, a dramatic improvement is obtained in going from the CB1 to the BCIS approximation, since the latter closely follows the measurement, whereas the former overestimates the observed total cross sections by two orders of magnitude.

  7. Irradiation of Neurons with High-Energy Charged Particles: An In Silico Modeling Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Alp

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a stochastic computational model of microscopic energy deposition events is used to study for the first time damage to irradiated neuronal cells of the mouse hippocampus. An extensive library of radiation tracks for different particle types is created to score energy deposition in small voxels and volume segments describing a neuron's morphology that later are sampled for given particle fluence or dose. Methods included the construction of in silico mouse hippocampal granule cells from neuromorpho.org with spine and filopodia segments stochastically distributed along the dendritic branches. The model is tested with high-energy (56Fe, (12C, and (1H particles and electrons. Results indicate that the tree-like structure of the neuronal morphology and the microscopic dose deposition of distinct particles may lead to different outcomes when cellular injury is assessed, leading to differences in structural damage for the same absorbed dose. The significance of the microscopic dose in neuron components is to introduce specific local and global modes of cellular injury that likely contribute to spine, filopodia, and dendrite pruning, impacting cognition and possibly the collapse of the neuron. Results show that the heterogeneity of heavy particle tracks at low doses, compared to the more uniform dose distribution of electrons, juxtaposed with neuron morphology make it necessary to model the spatial dose painting for specific neuronal components. Going forward, this work can directly support the development of biophysical models of the modifications of spine and dendritic morphology observed after low dose charged particle irradiation by providing accurate descriptions of the underlying physical insults to complex neuron structures at the nano-meter scale.

  8. Coherence, energy and charge transfers in de-excitation pathways of electronic excited state of biomolecules in photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Malik, F. Bary

    2013-01-01

    The observed multiple de-excitation pathways of photo-absorbed electronic excited state in the peridinin–chlorophyll complex, involving both energy and charge transfers among its constituents, are analyzed using the bio-Auger (B-A) theory. It is also shown that the usually used F¨orster–Dexter th...

  9. Charge deep-level transient spectroscopy study of high-energy-electron-beam-irradiated hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, A.; Nádaždy, V.; Zeman, M.; Swaaiij, R.A.C.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of changes in the defect density of states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) due to high-energy electron irradiation using charged deep-level transient spectroscopy. It was found that defect states near the conduction band were removed, while in other band gap regions the

  10. Double-Quadrant State-of-Charge-Based Droop Control Method for Distributed Energy Storage Systems in Autonomous DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a double-quadrant state-of-charge (SoC) based droop control method for distributed energy storage system (DESS) is proposed to reach the proper power distribution in autonomous DC microgrids. Since DESS is commonly used in DC microgrids, it is necessary to achieve the rational power...

  11. On the Komar Energy and the Generalized Smarr Formula for a Charged Black Hole of Noncommutative Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Larranaga, Alexis; Jimenez, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the Komar energy $E$ for a charged black hole inspired by noncommutative geometry and identify the total mass ($M_{0}$) by considering the asymptotic limit. We also found the generalized Smarr formula, which shows a deformation from the well known relation $M_{0}-\\frac{Q_{0}^{2}}{r}=2ST$ depending on the noncommutative scale length $\\ell$ .

  12. Charge versus Energy Transfer Effects in High-Performance Perylene Diimide Photovoltaic Blend Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranbir; Shivanna, Ravichandran; Iosifidis, Agathaggelos; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Floudas, George; Narayan, K S; Keivanidis, Panagiotis E

    2015-11-11

    Perylene diimide (PDI)-based organic photovoltaic devices can potentially deliver high power conversion efficiency values provided the photon energy absorbed is utilized efficiently in charge transfer (CT) reactions instead of being consumed in nonradiative energy transfer (ET) steps. Hitherto, it remains unclear whether ET or CT primarily drives the photoluminescence (PL) quenching of the PDI excimer state in PDI-based blend films. Here, we affirm the key role of the thermally assisted PDI excimer diffusion and subsequent CT reaction in the process of PDI excimer PL deactivation. For our study we perform PL quenching experiments in the model PDI-based composite made of poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexanoyl)-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene)-2-6-diyl] (PBDTTT-CT) polymeric donor mixed with the N,N'-bis(1-ethylpropyl)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDI) acceptor. Despite the strong spectral overlap between the PDI excimer PL emission and UV-vis absorption of PBDTTT-CT, two main observations indicate that no significant ET component operates in the overall PL quenching: the PL intensity of the PDI excimer (i) increases with decreasing temperature and (ii) remains unaffected even in the presence of 10 wt % content of the PBDTTT-CT quencher. Temperature-dependent wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments further indicate that nonradiative resonance ET is highly improbable due to the large size of PDI domains. The dominance of the CT over the ET process is verified by the high performance of devices with an optimum composition of 30:70 PBDTTT-CT:PDI. By adding 0.4 vol % of 1,8-diiodooctane we verify the plasticization of the polymer side chains that balances the charge transport properties of the PBDTTT-CT:PDI composite and results in additional improvement in the device efficiency. The temperature-dependent spectral width of the PDI excimer PL band suggests the presence of energetic disorder in the

  13. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the circulation after sumatriptan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Petersen, Jesper Troensegaard;

    2013-01-01

    The origin of migraine pain is still elusive, but increasingly researchers focus on the neuropeptides in the perivascular space of cranial vessels as important mediators of nociceptive input during migraine attacks. The parasympathetic neurotransmitters, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating...

  14. Contribution of π-bonds to effective charges, cohesive energy, and force constants of graphene-like compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, S. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    For 14 two-dimensional hexagonal compounds IV-IV and III-V, analytical expressions have been obtained using the Harrison bond-orbital method for the contribution from the π-interaction to the polarity of interatomic bonds, the effective atomic and transverse dynamical charges and their dependences on the deformation, as well as to the binding energy, the cohesive energy, and the central and non-central force constants.

  15. Triboelectric-Potential-Regulated Charge Transport Through p-n Junctions for Area-Scalable Conversion of Mechanical Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xian Song; Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhu, Guang

    2016-01-27

    Regulation of charge-transport direction is realized through the coupling of triboelectrification, electrostatic induction, and semiconducting properties for area-scalable conversion of mechanical energy. The output current from each unit triboelectric generator can always constructively add up due to the unidirectional flow of electrons. This work proposes a practical and general route to area-scalable applications of the triboelectric generator and other energy-harvesting techniques. PMID:26611707

  16. Charged particle multiplicity and transverse energy distribution using Weibull-Glauber approach in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Behera, Nirbhay K; Naik, Bharati; Nandi, Basanta K; Pani, Tanmay

    2016-01-01

    The charged particle multiplicity distribution and the transverse energy distribution measured in heavy-ion collisions at top RHIC and LHC energies are described using the two-component model approach based on convolution of Monte Carlo Glauber model with the Weibull model for particle production. The model successfully describes the multiplicity and transverse energy distribution of minimum bias collision data for a wide range of energies. We also propose that Weibull-Glauber model can be used to determine the centrality classes in heavy-ion collision as an alternative to the conventional Negative Binomial distribution for particle production.

  17. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY VIA OPTIMIZED CHARGE MOTION AND SLURRY FLOW IN PLANT SCALE SAG MILLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Sravan K. Prathy; Trilokyanath Patra

    2005-12-01

    The U.S. mining industry operates approximately 80 semi-autogenesis grinding mills (SAG) throughout the United States. Depending on the mill size the SAG mills draws between 2 MW and 17 MW. The product from the SAG mill is further reduced in size using pebble crushers and ball mills. Hence, typical gold or copper ore requires between 2.0 and 7.5 kWh per ton of energy to reduce the particle size. Considering a typical mining operation processes 10,000 to 100,000 tons per day the energy expenditure in grinding is 50 percent of the cost of production of the metal. A research team from the University of Utah is working to make inroads into saving energy in these SAG mills. In 2003, Industries of the Future Program of the Department of Energy tasked the University of Utah team to build a partnership between the University and the mining industry for the specific purpose of reducing energy consumption in SAG mills. A partnership was formed with Cortez Gold Mines, Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation, Process Engineering Resources Inc. and others. In the current project, Cortez Gold Mines played a key role in facilitating the 26-ft SAG mill at Cortez as a test mill for this study. According to plant personnel, there were a number of unscheduled shut downs to repair broken liners and the mill throughput fluctuated depending on ore type. The University team had two softwares, Millsoft and FlowMod to tackle the problem. Millsoft is capable of simulating the motion of charge in the mill. FlowMod calculates the slurry flow through the grate and pulp lifters. Based on this data the two models were fine-tuned to fit the Cortez SAG will. In the summer of 2004 a new design of shell lifters were presented to Cortez and in September 2004 these lifters were installed in the SAG mill. By December 2004 Cortez Mines realized that the SAG mill is drawing approximately 236-kW less power than before while maintaining the same level of production. In the first month there was extreme cycling

  18. Studies on density dependence of charge separation in a direct energy converter using slanted Cusp magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an advanced fusion, fusion-produced charged particles must be separated from each other for efficient energy conversion to electricity. The CuspDEC performs this function of separation and direct energy conversion. Analysis of working characteristics of CuspDEC on plasma density is an important subject. This paper summarizes and discusses experimental and theoretical works for high density plasma by using a small scale experimental device employing a slanted cusp magnetic field. When the incident plasma is low-density, good separation of the charged particles can be accomplished and this is explained by the theory based on a single particle motion. In high density plasma, however, this theory cannot be always applied due to space charge effects. In the experiment, as gradient of the field line increases, separation capability of the charged particles becomes higher. As plasma density becomes higher, however, separation capability becomes lower. This can be qualitatively explained by using calculations of the modified Störmer potential including space charge potential. (author)

  19. Beam hardening artefacts in computed tomography with photon counting, charge integrating and energy weighting detectors: a simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2005-12-21

    Photon counting x-ray imaging provides efficient rejection of the electronics noise, no pulse height (Swank) noise, less noise due to optimal photon energy weighting and the possibility of energy resolved image acquisition. These advantages apply also to CT when projection data are acquired using a photon counting detector. However, photon counting detectors assign a weighting factor of 1 to all detected photons whereas the weighting factor of a charge integrating detector is proportional to the energy of the detected photon. Therefore, data collected by photon counting and charge integrating detectors represent the 'hardening' of the photon beam passed through the object differently. This affects the beam hardening artefacts in the reconstructed CT images. This work represents the first comparative evaluation of the effect of photon counting, charge integrating and energy weighting photon detectors on beam hardening artefacts in CT. Beam hardening artefacts in CT images were evaluated for 20 cm and 14 cm diameter water cylinders with bone and low contrast inserts, at 120 kVp and 90 kVp x-ray tube voltages, respectively. It was shown that charge integrating results in 1.8% less beam hardening artefacts from bone inserts (i.e., CT numbers in the 'shadow' of the bone are less by 1.8% as compared to CT numbers over the periphery of the image), as compared to photon counting. However, optimal photon energy weighting, which provides highest SNR, results in 7.7% higher beam hardening artefacts from bone inserts as compared to photon counting. The magnitude of the 'cupping' artefacts was lower by 1% for charge integrating and higher by 6.1% for energy weighting acquisitions as compared to photon counting. Only the photon counting systems provide an accurate representation of the beam hardening effect due to its flat energy weighting. Because of their energy dependent weighting factors, the charge integrating and energy weighting systems do

  20. Six git genes encode a glucose-induced adenylate cyclase activation pathway in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    OpenAIRE

    Susan M. Byrne; Hoffman, Charles S.

    1993-01-01

    An important eukaryotic signal transduction pathway involves the regulation of the effector enzyme adenylate cyclase, which produces the second messenger, cAMP. Previous genetic analyses demonstrated that glucose repression of transcription of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe fbp1 gene requires the function of adenylate cyclase, encoded by the git2 gene. As mutations in git2 and in six additional git genes are suppressed by exogenous cAMP, these ‘upstream’ git genes were proposed to act to produ...

  1. The Crystal Structure of the Adenylation Enzyme VinN Reveals a Unique β-Amino Acid Recognition Mechanism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyanaga, Akimasa; Cieślak, Jolanta; Shinohara, Yuji; Kudo, Fumitaka; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Adenylation enzymes play important roles in the biosynthesis and degradation of primary and secondary metabolites. Mechanistic insights into the recognition of α-amino acid substrates have been obtained for α-amino acid adenylation enzymes. The Asp residue is invariant and is essential for the stabilization of the α-amino group of the substrate. In contrast, the β-amino acid recognition mechanism of adenylation enzymes is still unclear despite the importance of β-amino acid activation for the biosynthesis of various natural products. Herein, we report the crystal structure of the stand-alone adenylation enzyme VinN, which specifically activates (2S,3S)-3-methylaspartate (3-MeAsp) in vicenistatin biosynthesis. VinN has an overall structure similar to that of other adenylation enzymes. The structure of the complex with 3-MeAsp revealed that a conserved Asp230 residue is used in the recognition of the β-amino group of 3-MeAsp similar to α-amino acid adenylation enzymes. A mutational analysis and structural comparison with α-amino acid adenylation enzymes showed that the substrate-binding pocket of VinN has a unique architecture to accommodate 3-MeAsp as a β-amino acid substrate. Thus, the VinN structure allows the first visualization of the interaction of an adenylation enzyme with a β-amino acid and provides new mechanistic insights into the selective recognition of β-amino acids in this family of enzymes. PMID:25246523

  2. The crystal structure of the adenylation enzyme VinN reveals a unique β-amino acid recognition mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyanaga, Akimasa; Cieślak, Jolanta; Shinohara, Yuji; Kudo, Fumitaka; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2014-11-01

    Adenylation enzymes play important roles in the biosynthesis and degradation of primary and secondary metabolites. Mechanistic insights into the recognition of α-amino acid substrates have been obtained for α-amino acid adenylation enzymes. The Asp residue is invariant and is essential for the stabilization of the α-amino group of the substrate. In contrast, the β-amino acid recognition mechanism of adenylation enzymes is still unclear despite the importance of β-amino acid activation for the biosynthesis of various natural products. Herein, we report the crystal structure of the stand-alone adenylation enzyme VinN, which specifically activates (2S,3S)-3-methylaspartate (3-MeAsp) in vicenistatin biosynthesis. VinN has an overall structure similar to that of other adenylation enzymes. The structure of the complex with 3-MeAsp revealed that a conserved Asp(230) residue is used in the recognition of the β-amino group of 3-MeAsp similar to α-amino acid adenylation enzymes. A mutational analysis and structural comparison with α-amino acid adenylation enzymes showed that the substrate-binding pocket of VinN has a unique architecture to accommodate 3-MeAsp as a β-amino acid substrate. Thus, the VinN structure allows the first visualization of the interaction of an adenylation enzyme with a β-amino acid and provides new mechanistic insights into the selective recognition of β-amino acids in this family of enzymes. PMID:25246523

  3. Identification of residues essential for catalysis and binding of calmodulin in Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, P; Elmaoglou-Lazaridou, A; Krin, E.; Ladant, D.; Bârzu, O; Danchin, A

    1989-01-01

    In order to identify molecular features of the calmodulin (CaM) activated adenylate cyclase of Bordetella pertussis, a truncated cya gene was fused after the 459th codon in frame with the alpha-lacZ' gene fragment and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant, 604 residue long protein was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange and affinity chromatography. The kinetic parameters of the recombinant protein are very similar to that of adenylate cyclase purified from B.pertussis culture sup...

  4. Orientation dependence of the probability of close collisions during passage of high-energy negatively charged particle through a bent crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probability of close collisions of high-energy negatively charged particle with atoms in a bent crystal was considered as a function of the angle between the initial particle momentum and the bending plane. This allowed to compare the probability of close collisions of high-energy negatively charged particle in a bent crystal in two different regimes of deflection: planar channeling and stochastic deflection. The results of simulation of negatively charged particle motion in a bent crystal shown the great efficiency of high-energy negatively charged particle beam deflection by a bent crystal due to stochastic deflection and small efficiency of deflection due to planar channeling

  5. Impacts of side chain and excess energy on the charge photogeneration dynamics of low-bandgap copolymer-fullerene blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Ming-Ming; Hu, Rong; Xing, Ya-Dong; Liu, Yu-Chen; Ai, Xi-Cheng; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Hou, Jian-Hui

    2014-02-28

    Primary charge photogeneration dynamics in neat and fullerene-blended films of a pair of alternating benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b(')]dithiophene (BDT) and thieno[3,4-b]thiophene (TT) copolymers are comparatively studied by using near-infrared, time-resolved absorption (TA) spectroscopy under low excitation photon fluence. PBDTTT-E and PBDTTT-C, differed merely in the respective TT-substituents of ester (-E) and carbonyl (-C), show distinctly different charge photogeneration dynamics. The pair of neat PBDTTT films show exciton lifetimes of ∼0.1 ns and fluorescence quantum yields below 0.2%, as well as prominent excess-energy enhanced exciton dissociation. In addition, PBDTTT-C gives rise to >50% higher P(•+) yield than PBDTTT-E does irrespective to the excitation photon energy. Both PBDTTT-E:PC61BM and PBDTTT-C:PC61BM blends show subpicosecond exciton lifetimes and nearly unitary fluorescence quenching efficiency and, with respect to the former blend, the latter one shows substantially higher branching ratio of charge separated (CS) state over interfacial charge transfer (ICT) state, and hence more efficient exciton-to-CS conversion. For PBDTTT-C:PC61BM, the ultrafast charge dynamics clearly show the processes of ICT-CS interconversion and P(•+) migration, which are possibly influenced by the ICT excess energy. However, such processes are relatively indistinctive in the case of PBDTTT-E:PC61BM. The results strongly prove the importance of ICT dissociation in yielding free charges, and are discussed in terms of the film morphology and the precursory solution-phase macromolecular conformation. PMID:24588194

  6. Charge exchange and energy loss of slowed down heavy ions channeled in silicon crystals; Echanges de charge et perte d'energie d'ions lourds ralentis, canalises dans des cristaux de silicium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, E

    2005-10-15

    This work is devoted to the study of charge exchange processes and of the energy loss of highly charged heavy ions channeled in thin silicon crystals. The two first chapters present the techniques of heavy ion channeling in a crystal, the ion-electron processes and the principle of our simulations (charge exchange and trajectory of channeled ions). The next chapters describe the two experiments performed at the GSI facility in Darmstadt, the main results of which follow: the probability per target atom of the mechanical capture (MEC) of 20 MeV/u U{sup 91+} ions as a function of the impact parameter (with the help of our simulations), the observation of the strong polarization of the target electron gas by the study of the radiative capture and the slowing down of Pb{sup 81+} ions from 13 to 8,5 MeV/u in channeling conditions for which electron capture is strongly reduced. (author)

  7. Low-Energy Electron Potentiometry: Contactless Imaging of Charge Transport on the Nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, J; Jobst, J; Sorger, C; Tromp, R M; Weber, H B; van der Molen, S J

    2015-09-04

    Charge transport measurements form an essential tool in condensed matter physics. The usual approach is to contact a sample by two or four probes, measure the resistance and derive the resistivity, assuming homogeneity within the sample. A more thorough understanding, however, requires knowledge of local resistivity variations. Spatially resolved information is particularly important when studying novel materials like topological insulators, where the current is localized at the edges, or quasi-two-dimensional (2D) systems, where small-scale variations can determine global properties. Here, we demonstrate a new method to determine spatially-resolved voltage maps of current-carrying samples. This technique is based on low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and is therefore quick and non-invasive. It makes use of resonance-induced contrast, which strongly depends on the local potential. We demonstrate our method using single to triple layer graphene. However, it is straightforwardly extendable to other quasi-2D systems, most prominently to the upcoming class of layered van der Waals materials.

  8. Azimuthal asymmetries of charged hadrons produced in high-energy muon scattering off longitudinally polarised deuterons

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C; The COMPASS collaboration; Akhunzyanov, R; Alexeev, M G; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Andrieux, V; Anfimov, N V; Anosov, V; Augsten, K; Augustyniak, W; Austregesilo, A; Azevedo, C D R; Badelek, B; Balestra, F; Ball, M; Barth, J; Beck, R; Bedfer, Y; Bernhard, J; Bicker, K; Bielert, E R; Birsa, R; Bodlak, M; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bressan, A; Buechele, M; Chang, W -C; Chatterjee, C; Chiosso, M; Choi, I; Chung, S -U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Curiel, Q; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Dhara, L; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Dreisbach, Ch; Duic, V; Duennweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger jr, M; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Fuchey, E; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Giarra, J; Giordano, F; Gnesi, I; Gorzellik, M; Grabmueller, S; Grasso, A; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Grube, B; Grussenmeyer, T; Guskov, A; Haas, F; Hahne, D; Hamar, G; von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Heitz, R; Herrmann, F; Horikawa, N; d'Hose, N; Hsieh, C -Y; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, A; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jary, V; Joosten, R; Joerg, P; Kabuss, E; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Koenigsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O M; Kraemer, M; Kremser, P; Krinner, F; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kulinich, Y; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Kurjata, R P; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levillain, M; Levorato, S; Lian, Y -S; Lichtenstadt, J; Longo, R; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makins, N; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Marianski, B; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matousek, J; Matsuda, H; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G V; Meyer, M; Meyer, W; Mikhailov, Yu V; Mikhasenko, M; Mitrofavov, E; Mitrofanov, N; Miyachi, Y; Nagaytsev, A; Nerling, F; Neyret, D; Novy, J; Nowak, W -D; Nukazuka, G; Nunes, A S; Olshevsky, A G; Orlov, I; Ostrick, M; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Peng, J -C; Pereira, F; Pesek, M; Peshekhonov, D V; Pierre, N; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Regali, C; Reicherz, G; Riedl, C; Roskot, M; Rossiyskaya, N; Ryabchikov, D I; Rybnikov, A; Rychter, A; Salac, R; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Santos, C; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sawada, T; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schmidt, K; Schmieden, H; Schoenning, K; Seder, E; Selyunin, A; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sirtl, S; Slunecka, M; Smolik, J; Srnka, A; Steffen, D; Stolarski, M; Subrt, O; Sulc, M; Suzuki, H; Szabelski, A; Szameitat, T; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Tasevsky, M; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Thibaud, F; Thiel, A; Tosello, F; Tskhay, V; Uhl, S; Veloso, J; Virius, M; Vondra, J; Wallner, S; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; ter Wolbeek, J; Zaremba, K; Zavada, P; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Zhuravlev, N; Ziembicki, M; Zink, A

    2016-01-01

    Single hadron azimuthal asymmetries in the cross sections of positive and negative hadron production in muon semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering off longitudinally polarised deuterons are determined using the 2006 COMPASS data and also all deuteron COMPASS data. For each hadron charge, the dependence of the azimuthal asymmetry on the hadron azimuthal angle $\\phi$ is obtained by means of a five-parameter fitting function that besides a $\\phi$-independent term includes four modulations predicted by theory: $\\sin\\phi$, $\\sin 2 \\phi$, $\\sin 3\\phi$ and $\\cos\\phi$. The amplitudes of the five terms have been first extracted for the data integrated over all kinematic variables. In further fits, the $\\phi$-dependence is determined as a function of one of three kinematic variables (Bjorken-$x$, fractional energy of virtual photon taken by the outgoing hadron and hadron transverse momentum), while disregarding the other two. Except the $\\phi$-independent term, all the modulation amplitudes are very small, and no c...

  9. Charge neutralized low energy beam transport at Brookhaven 200 MeV linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raparia, D., E-mail: raparia@bnl.gov; Alessi, J.; Atoian, G.; Zelenski, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11786 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The H{sup −} magnetron source provides about 100 mA H{sup −} beam to be match into the radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator. As H{sup −} beam traverses through low energy transport, it ionizes the residual gas and electrons are repelled and positive ions are trapped in the beam, due to negative potential of the beam, providing charge neutralization for the H{sup −} beam. The neutralization time for the critical density depends upon the background gas and its pressure. Critical density for xenon gas at 35 keV is about 43 times smaller than that of hydrogen and stripping cross section is only 5 times than that of hydrogen gas. We are using xenon gas to reduce neutralization time and to improve transmission through the 200 MeV linac. We are also using pulse nitrogen gas to improve transmission and stability of polarized H{sup −} beam from optically pumped polarized ion source.

  10. High throughput on-chip analysis of high-energy charged particle tracks using lensfree imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Wei; Shabbir, Faizan; Gong, Chao; Gulec, Cagatay; Pigeon, Jeremy; Shaw, Jessica; Greenbaum, Alon; Tochitsky, Sergei; Joshi, Chandrashekhar [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ozcan, Aydogan, E-mail: ozcan@ucla.edu [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Bioengineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI), University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-04-13

    We demonstrate a high-throughput charged particle analysis platform, which is based on lensfree on-chip microscopy for rapid ion track analysis using allyl diglycol carbonate, i.e., CR-39 plastic polymer as the sensing medium. By adopting a wide-area opto-electronic image sensor together with a source-shifting based pixel super-resolution technique, a large CR-39 sample volume (i.e., 4 cm × 4 cm × 0.1 cm) can be imaged in less than 1 min using a compact lensfree on-chip microscope, which detects partially coherent in-line holograms of the ion tracks recorded within the CR-39 detector. After the image capture, using highly parallelized reconstruction and ion track analysis algorithms running on graphics processing units, we reconstruct and analyze the entire volume of a CR-39 detector within ∼1.5 min. This significant reduction in the entire imaging and ion track analysis time not only increases our throughput but also allows us to perform time-resolved analysis of the etching process to monitor and optimize the growth of ion tracks during etching. This computational lensfree imaging platform can provide a much higher throughput and more cost-effective alternative to traditional lens-based scanning optical microscopes for ion track analysis using CR-39 and other passive high energy particle detectors.

  11. Low-Energy Electron Potentiometry: Contactless Imaging of Charge Transport on the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, J.; Jobst, J.; Sorger, C.; Tromp, R. M.; Weber, H. B.; van der Molen, S. J.

    2015-09-01

    Charge transport measurements form an essential tool in condensed matter physics. The usual approach is to contact a sample by two or four probes, measure the resistance and derive the resistivity, assuming homogeneity within the sample. A more thorough understanding, however, requires knowledge of local resistivity variations. Spatially resolved information is particularly important when studying novel materials like topological insulators, where the current is localized at the edges, or quasi-two-dimensional (2D) systems, where small-scale variations can determine global properties. Here, we demonstrate a new method to determine spatially-resolved voltage maps of current-carrying samples. This technique is based on low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and is therefore quick and non-invasive. It makes use of resonance-induced contrast, which strongly depends on the local potential. We demonstrate our method using single to triple layer graphene. However, it is straightforwardly extendable to other quasi-2D systems, most prominently to the upcoming class of layered van der Waals materials.

  12. Azimuthal asymmetries of charged hadrons produced in high-energy muon scattering off longitudinally polarised deuterons

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C; Akhunzyanov, R; Alexeev, M G; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Andrieux, V; Anfimov, N V; Anosov, V; Augsten, K; Augustyniak, W; Austregesilo, A; Azevedo, C D R; Badełek, B; Balestra, F; Ball, M; Barth, J; Beck, R; Bedfer, Y; Bernhard, J; Bicker, K; Bielert, E R; Birsa, R; Bodlak, M; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bressan, A; Buchele, M; Chang, W-C; Chatterjee, C; Chiosso, M; Choi, I; Chung, S-U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Curiel, Q; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Dhara, L; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Dreisbach, Ch; Duic, V; Dunnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger jr, M; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Fuchey, E; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Giarra, J; Giordano, F; Gnesi, I; Gorzellik, M; Grabmuller, S; Grasso, A; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Grube, B; Grussenmeyer, T; Guskov, A; Haas, F; Hahne, D; Hamar, G; von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Heitz, R; Herrmann, F; Horikawa, N; d’Hose, N; Hsieh, C-Y; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, A; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jary, V; Joosten, R; Jorg, P; Kabuß, E; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Konigsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O M; Kramer, M; Kremser, P; Krinner, F; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kulinich, Y; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Kurjata, R P; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levillain, M; Levorato, S; Lian, Y-S; Lichtenstadt, J; Longo, R; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makins, N; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Marianski, B; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matousek, J; Matsuda, H; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G V; Meyer, M; Meyer, W; Mikhailov, Yu V; Mikhasenko, M; Mitrofanov, E; Mitrofanov, N; Miyachi, Y; Nagaytsev, A; Nerling, F; Neyret, D; Novy, J; Nowak, W-D; Nukazuka, G; Nunes, A S; Olshevsky, A G; Orlov, I; Ostrick, M; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Peng, J-C; Pereira, F; Pesek, M; Peshekhonov, D V; Pierre, N; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Regali, C; Reicherz, G; Riedl, C; Roskot, M; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Rybnikov, A; Rychter, A; Salac, R; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Santos, C; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sawada, T; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schmidt, K; Schmieden, H; Schonning, K; Seder, E; Selyunin, A; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sirtl, S; Slunecka, M; Smolik, J; Srnka, A; Steffen, D; Stolarski, M; Subrt, O; Sulc, M; Suzuki, H; Szabelski, A; Szameitat, T; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Tasevsky, M; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Thibaud, F; Thiel, A; Tosello, F; Tskhay, V; Uhl, S; Veloso, J; Virius, M; Vondra, J; Wallner, S; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; ter Wolbeek, J; Zaremba, K; Zavada, P; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Zhuravlev, N; Ziembicki, M; Zink, A

    2016-01-01

    Single hadron azimuthal asymmetries in the cross sections of positive and negative hadron production in muon semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering off longitudinally polarised deuterons are determined using the 2006 COMPASS data and also all deuteron COMPASS data. For each hadron charge, the dependence of the azimuthal asymmetry on the hadron azimuthal angle $\\phi$ is obtained by means of a five-parameter fitting function that besides a $\\phi$-independent term includes four modulations predicted by theory: $\\sin\\phi$, $\\sin 2 \\phi$, $\\sin 3\\phi$ and $\\cos\\phi$. The amplitudes of the five terms have been first extracted for the data integrated over all kinematic variables. In further fits, the $\\phi$-dependence is determined as a function of one of three kinematic variables (Bjorken-$x$, fractional energy of virtual photon taken by the outgoing hadron and hadron transverse momentum), while disregarding the other two. Except the $\\phi$-independent term, all the modulation amplitudes are very small, and no cl...

  13. CHARGE-TRANSFER AND ENERGY-TRANSFER IN THE PHOTO-INDUCED COPOLYMERIZATION OF 2-VINYLNAPHTHALENE WITH MALEIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tong; LUO Bin; LI Shanjun; CHU Guobei

    1990-01-01

    The initiation mechanism of the copolymerization of 2-vinylnaphthalene with maleic anhydride was studied under irradiation of 365 nm. The excited complex was formed from ( 1 ) the local excitation of 2-vinylnaphthalene followed by the charge-transfer interaction with maleic anhydride and ( 2 ) the excitation of the ground state charge-transfer complex, and then it collapsed to 1,4-tetramethylene biradical for initiation. A 1:1 alternating copolymer was formed in different monomer feeds. Addition of benzophenone could greatly enhance the rate of copolymerization through energy-transfer mechanism.

  14. An initiation-promotion model of tumour prevalence from high-charge and energy radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    A repair/misrepair kinetic model for multiple radiation-induced lesions (mutation inactivation) is coupled to a two-mutation model of initiation-promotion in tissue to provide a parametric description of tumour prevalence in the mouse Harderian gland from high-energy and charge radiations. Track-structure effects are considered using an action-cross section model. Dose-response curves are described for gamma rays and relativistic ions, and good agreement with experiment is found. The effects of nuclear fragmentation are also considered for high-energy proton and alpha-particle exposures. The model described provides a parametric description of age-dependent cancer induction for a wide range of radiation fields. Radiosensitivity parameters found in the model for an initiation mutation (sigma 0 = 7.6 x 10(-10) cm2 and D0 = 148.0 Gy) are somewhat different than previously observed for neoplastic transformation of C3H10T1/2 cell cultures (sigma 0 = 0.7 x 10(-10) cm2 and D0 = 117.0 Gy). We consider the two hypotheses that radiation acts solely as an initiator or as both initiator and promoter and make model calculations for fractionation exposures from gamma rays and relativistic Fe ions. For fractionated Fe exposures, an inverse-dose-rate effect is provided by a promotion hypothesis with an increase of 30% or more, dependent on the dose level and fractionation schedule, using a mutation rate for promotion similar to that of single-gene mutations.

  15. Swarm Intelligence-Based Smart Energy Allocation Strategy for Charging Stations of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches towards the use of green technologies to reduce pollution and higher penetration of renewable energy sources in the transportation sector have been gaining popularity. In this wake, extensive participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs requires adequate charging allocation strategy using a combination of smart grid systems and smart charging infrastructures. Daytime charging stations will be needed for daily usage of PHEVs due to the limited all-electric range. Intelligent energy management is an important issue which has already drawn much attention of researchers. Most of these works require formulation of mathematical models with extensive use of computational intelligence-based optimization techniques to solve many technical problems. In this paper, gravitational search algorithm (GSA has been applied and compared with another member of swarm family, particle swarm optimization (PSO, considering constraints such as energy price, remaining battery capacity, and remaining charging time. Simulation results obtained for maximizing the highly nonlinear objective function evaluate the performance of both techniques in terms of best fitness.

  16. Squeezing out hydrated protons: low-frictional-energy triboelectric insulator charging on a microscopic scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Knorr

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Though triboelectric charging of insulators is common, neither its mechanism nor the nature of the charge is well known. Most research has focused on the integral amount of charge transferred between two materials upon contact, establishing, e.g., a triboelectric series. Here, the charge distribution of tracks on insulating polymer films rubbed by polymer-covered pointed swabs is investigated in high resolution by Kelvin probe force microscopy. Pronounced bipolar charging was observed for all nine rubbing combinations of three different polymers, with absolute surface potentials of up to several volts distributed in streaks along the rubbing direction and varying in polarity on μm-length scales perpendicular to the rubbing direction. Charge densities increased considerably for rubbing in higher relative humidity, for higher rubbing loads, and for more hydrophilic polymers. The ends of rubbed tracks had positively charged rims. Surface potential decay with time was strongly accelerated in increased humidity, particularly for polymers with high water permeability. Based on these observations, a mechanism is proposed of triboelectrification by extrusions of prevalently hydrated protons, stemming from adsorbed and dissociated water, along pressure gradients on the surface by the mechanical action of the swab. The validity of this mechanism is supported by explanations given recently in the literature for positive streaming currents of water at polymer surfaces and by reports of negative charging of insulators tapped by accelerated water droplets and of potential built up between the front and the back of a rubbing piece, observations already made in the 19th century. For more brittle polymers, strongly negatively charged microscopic abrasive particles were frequently observed on the rubbed tracks. The negative charge of those particles is presumably due in part to triboemission of electrons by polymer chain scission, forming radicals and negatively

  17. Application of charge density methods to a protein model compound: calculation of Coulombic intermolecular interaction energies from the experimental charge density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Wu, Guang; Abramov, Yuriy A; Volkov, Anatoliy V; Coppens, Philip

    2002-09-17

    A combined experimental and theoretical charge density study of the pentapeptide Boc-Gln-d-Iva-Hyp-Ala-Phol (Boc, butoxycarbonyl; Gln, glutamine; Iva, isovaline; Hyp, hydroxyproline; Ala, ethylalanine; Phol, phenylalaninol) is described. The experimental analysis, based on synchrotron x-ray data collected at 20 K, is combined with ab initio theoretical calculations. The topologies of the experimental and theoretical densities are analyzed in terms of the atoms in molecules quantum theory. Topological parameters, including atomic charges and higher moments integrated over the atomic basins, have been evaluated with the program topxd and are used to calculate the electrostatic interactions between the molecules in the crystal. The interaction energies obtained after adding dispersive and repulsive van der Waals contributions agree quite well with those based on M-B3LYP/6-31G** dimer calculations for two of the three dimers in the crystal, whereas for the third a larger stabilization is obtained than predicted by the calculation. The agreement with theory is significantly better than that obtained with multipole moments derived directly from the aspherical atom refinement. The convergence of the interaction as a function of addition of successively higher moments up to and including hexadecapoles (l = 4) is found to be within 2-3 kJ/mol. Although shortcomings of both the theoretical and experimental procedures are pointed out, the agreement obtained supports the potential of the experimental method for the evaluation of interactions in larger biologically relevant molecules. PMID:12221293

  18. Full charge-density scheme with a kinetic-energy correction: Application to ground-state properties of the 4d metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitos, Levente; Kollár, J.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    We present a full charge-density technique to evaluate total energies from the output of self-consistent linear muffin-tin orbitals (LMTO) calculations in the atomic-sphere approximation (ASA). The Coulomb energy is calculated exactly from the complete, nonspherically symmetric charge density def...

  19. Beam energy dependence of moments of the net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2014-01-01

    We report the first measurements of the moments -mean ($M$), variance ($\\sigma^{2}$), skewness ($S$) and kurtosis ($\\kappa$) -of the net-charge multiplicity distributions at mid-rapidity in Au+Au collisions at seven energies, ranging from $\\sqrt {{s_{\\rm NN}}}$=7.7 to 200 GeV, as a part of the Beam Energy Scan program at RHIC. The moments are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of net-charge, which are expected to diverge at the QCD critical point. We compare the products of the moments, $\\sigma^{2}/M$, $S\\sigma$ and $\\kappa\\sigma^{2}$ with the expectations from Poisson and negative binomial distributions (NBD). The $S\\sigma$ values deviate from Poisson and are close to NBD baseline, while the $\\kappa\\sigma^{2}$ values tend to lie between the two. Within the present uncertainties, our data do not show clear evidence of non-monotonic behavior as a function of collision energy.

  20. Fission fragment charge and mass distributions in 239Pu(n,f) in the adiabatic nuclear energy density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Regnier, D; Schunck, N; Verriere, M

    2016-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r-process to fuel cycle optimization for nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data is available is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. In this work, we calculate the pre-neutron emission charge and mass distributions of the fission fragments formed in the neutron-induced fission of 239Pu using a microscopic method based on nuclear energy density functional (EDF) method, where large amplitude collective motion is treated adiabatically using the time dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). Fission fragment distributions are extracted from the flux of the collective wave packet through the scission line. We find that the main characteristics of the fission charge and mass distributions can be well reproduced by existing energy functionals even in tw...

  1. A power management system for energy harvesting and wireless sensor networks application based on a novel charge pump circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloulou, R.; De Peslouan, P.-O. Lucas; Mnif, H.; Alicalapa, F.; Luk, J. D. Lan Sun; Loulou, M.

    2016-05-01

    Energy Harvesting circuits are developed as an alternative solution to supply energy to autonomous sensor nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks. In this context, this paper presents a micro-power management system for multi energy sources based on a novel design of charge pump circuit to allow the total autonomy of self-powered sensors. This work proposes a low-voltage and high performance charge pump (CP) suitable for implementation in standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technologies. The CP design was implemented using Cadence Virtuoso with AMS 0.35μm CMOS technology parameters. Its active area is 0.112 mm2. Consistent results were obtained between the measured findings of the chip testing and the simulation results. The circuit can operate with an 800 mV supply and generate a boosted output voltage of 2.835 V with 1 MHz as frequency.

  2. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by inducing energy conservation and distributed generation from elimination of electric utility customer charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper quantifies the increased greenhouse gas emissions and negative effect on energy conservation (or 'efficiency penalty') due to electric rate structures that employ an unavoidable customer charge. First, the extent of customer charges was determined from a nationwide survey of US electric tariffs. To eliminate the customer charge nationally while maintaining a fixed sum for electric companies for a given amount of electricity, an increase of 7.12% in the residential electrical rate was found to be necessary. If enacted, this increase in the electric rate would result in a 6.4% reduction in overall electricity consumption, conserving 73 billion kW h, eliminating 44.3 million metric tons of carbon dioxide, and saving the entire US residential sector over $8 billion per year. As shown here, these reductions would come from increased avoidable costs, thus leveraging an increased rate of return on investments in energy efficiency, energy conservation behavior, distributed energy generation, and fuel choices. Finally, limitations of this study and analysis are discussed and conclusions are drawn for proposed energy policy changes

  3. Equilibrium fluid-crystal interfacial free energy of bcc-crystallizing aqueous suspensions of polydisperse charged spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palberg, Thomas; Wette, Patrick; Herlach, Dieter M.

    2016-02-01

    The interfacial free energy is a central quantity in crystallization from the metastable melt. In suspensions of charged colloidal spheres, nucleation and growth kinetics can be accurately measured from optical experiments. In previous work, from these data effective nonequilibrium values for the interfacial free energy between the emerging bcc nuclei and the adjacent melt in dependence on the chemical potential difference between melt phase and crystal phase were derived using classical nucleation theory (CNT). A strictly linear increase of the interfacial free energy was observed as a function of increased metastability. Here, we further analyze these data for five aqueous suspensions of charged spheres and one binary mixture. We utilize a simple extrapolation scheme and interpret our findings in view of Turnbull's empirical rule. This enables us to present the first systematic experimental estimates for a reduced interfacial free energy, σ0 ,b c c, between the bcc-crystal phase and the coexisting equilibrium fluid. Values obtained for σ0 ,b c c are on the order of a few kBT . Their values are not correlated to any of the electrostatic interaction parameters but rather show a systematic decrease with increasing size polydispersity and a lower value for the mixture as compared to the pure components. At the same time, σ0 also shows an approximately linear correlation to the entropy of freezing. The equilibrium interfacial free energy of strictly monodisperse charged spheres may therefore be still greater.

  4. Evidence for positive selection acting on microcystin synthetase adenylation domains in three cyanobacterial genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhiainen Leo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyanobacteria produce a wealth of secondary metabolites, including the group of small cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxins that constitutes the microcystin family. The enzyme complex that directs the biosynthesis of microcystin is encoded in a single large gene cluster (mcy. mcy genes have a widespread distribution among cyanobacteria and are likely to have an ancient origin. The notable diversity within some of the Mcy modules is generated through various recombination events including horizontal gene transfer. Results A comparative analysis of the adenylation domains from the first module of McyB (McyB1 and McyC in the microcystin synthetase complex was performed on a large number of microcystin-producing strains from the Anabaena, Microcystis and Planktothrix genera. We found no decisive evidence for recombination between strains from different genera. However, we detected frequent recombination events in the mcyB and mcyC genes between strains within the same genus. Frequent interdomain recombination events were also observed between mcyB and mcyC sequences in Anabaena and Microcystis. Recombination and mutation rate ratios suggest that the diversification of mcyB and mcyC genes is driven by recombination events as well as point mutations in all three genera. Sequence analysis suggests that generally the adenylation domains of the first domain of McyB and McyC are under purifying selection. However, we found clear evidence for positive selection acting on a number of amino acid residues within these adenylation domains. These include residues important for active site selectivity of the adenylation domain, strongly suggesting selection for novel microcystin variants. Conclusion We provide the first clear evidence for positive selection acting on amino acid residues involved directly in the recognition and activation of amino acids incorporated into microcystin, indicating that the microcystin complement of a given strain may

  5. Beam-Energy and System-Size Dependence of Dynamical Net Charge Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, B I; Ahammed, Z; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Baumgart, S; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Benedosso, F; Betts, R R; Bhardwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Biritz, B; Bland, L C; Bombara, M; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Bouchet, J; Braidot, E; Brandin, A V; Bültmann, S; Burton, T P; Bystersky, M; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Callner, J; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, J Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, K E; Christie, W; Chung, S U; Clarke, R F; Codrington, M J M; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cosentino, M R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Dash, S; Daugherity, M; Dedovich, T G; DePhillips, M; Derevshchikov, A A; de Souza, R Derradi; Didenko, L; Djawotho, P; Dogra, S M; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dunlop, J C; Mazumdar, M R Dutta; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Elhalhuli, E; Elnimr, M; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Eun, L; Fachini, P; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Feng, A; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Gangadharan, D R; Ganti, M S; García-Solis, E; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gorbunov, Y N; Gordon, A; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D; Grube, B; Guertin, S M; Guimaraes, K S F F; Sen-Gupta, A; Gupta, N; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Harris, J W; He, W; Heinz, M; Heppelmann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hoffman, A M; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Hollis, R S; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Iordanova, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jakl, P; Jin, F; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kajimoto, K; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kettler, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klein, S R; Knospe, A G; Kocoloski, A; Koetke, D D; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kouchpil, V; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kumar, L; Kurnadi, P; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; LaPointe, S; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, C-H; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Y; Lin, G; Lin, X; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, J; Liu, L; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meschanin, A; Millane, J; Miller, M L; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, A; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nepali, C; Netrakanti, P K; Ng, M J; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okada, H; Okorokov, V; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevozchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Phatak, S C; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porile, N; Poskanzer, A M; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Pruthi, N K; Putschke, J; Qattan, I A; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Russcher, M J; Rykov, V; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Sakuma, T; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarsour, M; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shabetai, A; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shi, S S; Shi, X-H; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Staszak, D; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Subba, N L; Sumbera, M; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; de Toledo, A Szanto; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tian, J; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trainor, T A; Tram, V N; Trattner, A L; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van der Kolk, N; Van Leeuwen, M; Molen, A M Vander; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasilevski, I M; Vasilev, A N; Videbaek, F; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Wada, M; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, J S; Wang, Q; Wang, X; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, J; Wu, Y; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yepes, P; Yoo, I-K; Yue, Q; Zawisza, M; Zbroszczyk, H; Zhan, W; Zhang, H; Zhang, S; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, Y; Zhong, C; Zhou, J; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zuo, J X

    2008-01-01

    We present measurements of net charge fluctuations in $Au + Au$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = $ 19.6, 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV, $Cu + Cu$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = $ 62.4, 200 GeV, and $p + p$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 200 GeV using the dynamical net charge fluctuations measure $\

  6. Search for charged scalars in e+e- annihilation up to 64 GeV CM energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search for the production of charged scalars has been carried out in e+e- annihilation at center of mass energies up to 64 GeV with 61.1 pb-1 of integrated luminosity using the VENUS detector at TRISTAN. The assumptions concerning the production and decay of hypothetical charged scalars are minimal; they are expected to be singly charged and decay into a pair of fermions. No positive evidence for their production has been found in a study of all combinations of the anti lν(lanti ν) and Uanti D(anti UD) decay channels. We have excluded the mass region of 8.0-20.0 GeV/c2 regardless of the decay mode. (orig.)

  7. Search for charged scalars in e sup + e sup - annihilation up to 64 GeV CM energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuzuki, T.; Haba, J.; Kanda, N.; Nagashima, Y.; Sugimoto, S.; Suzuki, A.; Takaki, H.; Takita, M. (Dept. of Physics, Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan)); Abe, K. (Dept. of Physics, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)); Amako, K.; Arai, Y.; Fukawa, M.; Fukushima, Y.; Ishihara, N.; Kamitani, T.; Kanematsu, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Kondo, T.; Korhonen, T.T.; MacNaughton, J.; Matsui, T.; Odaka, S.; Ogawa, K.; Ohama, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakuda, M.; Shirai, J.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takasaki, F.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uehara, S.; Unno, Y.; Watase, Y.; Yamada, Y. (KEK, National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Ibaraki (Japan)); Asano, Y.; Mori, S.; Shirakata, M.; Takada, Y.; Yonezawa, Y. (Inst. of Applied Physics, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)); Chiba, M.; Fukui, T.; Hinode, F.; Hirose, T.; Minami, M.; Narita, Y.; Oyama, T.; Utsumi, M.; Watanabe, T.; Yabuki, F. (Dept. of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan)); Chiba, Y.; Ohsugi, T.; Taketani, A.; Terunuma, N. (Dept. of Physics, Hiroshima Univ. (Japan)); Daigo, M. (Wak

    1991-09-12

    A search for the production of charged scalars has been carried out in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation at center of mass energies up to 64 GeV with 61.1 pb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity using the VENUS detector at TRISTAN. The assumptions concerning the production and decay of hypothetical charged scalars are minimal; they are expected to be singly charged and decay into a pair of fermions. No positive evidence for their production has been found in a study of all combinations of the anti l{nu}(lanti {nu}) and Uanti D(anti UD) decay channels. We have excluded the mass region of 8.0-20.0 GeV/c{sup 2} regardless of the decay mode. (orig.).

  8. Adenylate cyclase toxin promotes internalisation of integrins and raft components and decreases macrophage adhesion capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Martín

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis, the bacterium that causes whooping cough, secretes an adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT that must be post-translationally palmitoylated in the bacterium cytosol to be active. The toxin targets phagocytes expressing the CD11b/CD18 integrin receptor. It delivers a catalytic adenylate cyclase domain into the target cell cytosol producing a rapid increase of intracellular cAMP concentration that suppresses bactericidal functions of the phagocyte. ACT also induces calcium fluxes into target cells. Biochemical, biophysical and cell biology approaches have been applied here to show evidence that ACT and integrin molecules, along with other raft components, are rapidly internalized by the macrophages in a toxin-induced calcium rise-dependent process. The toxin-triggered internalisation events occur through two different routes of entry, chlorpromazine-sensitive receptor-mediated endocytosis and clathrin-independent internalisation, maybe acting in parallel. ACT locates into raft-like domains, and is internalised, also in cells devoid of receptor. Altogether our results suggest that adenylate cyclase toxin, and maybe other homologous pathogenic toxins from the RTX (Repeats in Toxin family to which ACT belongs, may be endowed with an intrinsic capacity to, directly and efficiently, insert into raft-like domains, promoting there its multiple activities. One direct consequence of the integrin removal from the cell surface of the macrophages is the hampering of their adhesion ability, a fundamental property in the immune response of the leukocytes that could be instrumental in the pathogenesis of Bordetella pertussis.

  9. Age-associated alterations in hepatic. beta. -adrenergic receptor/adenylate cyclase complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, S.M.; Herring, P.A.; Arinze, I.J.

    1987-09-01

    The effect of age on catecholamine regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis and on hepatic adenylate cyclase was studied in male rats up to 24 mo of age. Epinephrine and norepinephrine stimulated glycogenolysis in isolated hepatocytes at all age groups studied. Isoproterenol, however, stimulated glycogenolysis only at 24 mo. In isolated liver membranes, usual activators of adenylate cyclase increased the activity of the enzyme considerably more in membranes from 24-mo-old rats than in membranes from either 3- or 22-mo-old rats. The Mn/sup 2 +/-dependent activity of the cyclase was increased by 2.9-fold in 3-mo-old animals and approx. 5.7-fold in 24-mo-old rats, indicating a substantial age-dependent increase in the intrinsic activity of the catalytic unit. The density of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor, as measured by the binding of (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol to plasma membranes, was 5-8 fmol/mg protein in rats aged 3-12 mo but increased to 19 fmol/mg protein in 24-mo-old rats. Computer-aided analysis of isoproterenol competition of the binding indicated a small age-dependent increase in the proportion of ..beta..-receptors in the high-affinity state. These observations suggest that ..beta..-receptor-mediated hepatic glycogenolysis in the aged rat is predicated upon increases in the density of ..beta..-receptors as well as increased intrinsic activity of the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase.

  10. NMR studies of the AMP-binding site and mechanism of adenylate kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, D.C.; Kuby, S.A.; Mildvan, A.S.

    1987-03-24

    NMR has previously been used to determine the conformation of enzyme-bound MgATP and to locate the MgATP-binding site on adenylate kinase. To determine the conformation and location of the other substrate, AMP, distances have been measured from Cr/sup 3 +/AMPPCP, a linear competitive inhibitor with respect to MgATP, to six protons and to the phosphorus atom of AMP on adenylate kinase, with the paramagnetic probe-T/sub 1/ method. Time-dependent nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) have been used to measure five interproton distances on enzyme-bound AMP. These distances were used to determine the conformation of bound AMP in addition to its position with respect to metal-ATP. Ten intermolecular NOEs, from protons of the enzyme to those of AMP, were detected, indicating the proximity of at least three hydrophobic amino acids to bound AMP. These constraints, together with the conformation of AMP and the intersubstrate distances, were used to position AMP into the X-ray structure of adenylate kinase. The AMP binding site is found to be near Leu-116, Arg-171, Val-173, Val-182, and Leu-190; all of these residues have been found to be invariant in muscle-type rabbit, calf, human, porcine.

  11. Fusion Energy Advisory Committee: Advice and recommendations to the Department of Energy in partial response to the Charge Letter of September 24, 1991: Part D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a compilation of the written records that relate to the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee's deliberations with regard to the Letter of Charge received from the Director of Energy Research, dated September 24, 1991. During its fourth meeting, held in May 1992, FEAC provided a detailed response to that part of the charge that requested review of the potential effectiveness, and hence the advisability, of implementing a more diverse US fusion program. In particular, it responded to the paragraph: ''By May 1992, 1 would like to have your recommendations on a US concept improvement program, including relative priorities and taking into account ongoing and planned work abroad.'' In order to respond to this charge in a timely manner, FEAC established a working group, designated ''Panel number-sign 3'', which reviewed the US and international fusion programs in detail and prepared background material, included in this report as Appendix 1, to help FEAC in its deliberations

  12. Impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles charging demand on the optimal energy management of renewable micro-grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper suggests a new stochastic expert framework to investigate the charging effect of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on the optimal operation and management of micro-grids (MGs). In this way, a useful method based on smart charging approach is proposed to consider the charging demand of PHEVs in both residential location and public charging stations. The analysis is simulated for 24 h considering the uncertainties associated with the forecast error in the charging demand of PHEVs, hourly load consumption, hourly energy price and Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) output power. In order to see the effect of storage devices on the operation of the MG, NiMH-Battery is also incorporated in the MG. According to the high complexity of the problem, a new optimization method called θ-krill herd (θ-KH) algorithm is proposed which uses the phase angle vectors to update the velocity/position of krill animals with faster and more stable convergence. In addition, a new modification method is proposed to improve the search ability of the algorithm, effectively. The suggested problem is examined on an MG including different RESs such as photovoltaic (PV), fuel cells (FCs), wind turbine (WT), micro turbine (MT) and battery as the storage device. - Highlights: • Introducing an expert stochastic framework for optimal operation and management of MGs including PHEVs. • Introducing a new artificial optimization algorithm based on KH evolutionary technique. • Introducing a new version of KH algorithm called θ-KH for the optimization applications. • Modeling the uncertainty of forecast error in Wind turbine, Photovoltaics, market price, load data, PHEVs electric charging demand in an intelligent framework

  13. Experimental study of interactions of highly charged ions with atoms at keV energies: Progress report for period May 15, 1985-February 15, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in interactions of low energy highly charged ions with electrons, atoms or ions is due to their importance to controlled thermonuclear fusion research and the interesting nature of the fundamental processes involved. Studies of such interactions have long been hampered by a lack of suitable ions sources. A superconducting solenoid, cryogenic Electron Beam Ion Source, CEBIS, has been constructed at Cornell University to produce low energy very highly charged ions. At present, using a pulsed 0.5A,8.5 keV electron beam, the source is capable of producing highly charged ions of C,N,O, including bare nuclei, and ions of Ar up to charge state 11 + in 1 millisecond of confinement time. The source is being used in experiments to investigate charge transfer and accompanying processes in low energy, highly charged ion-atom collisions

  14. Comparative effect of methioninyl adenylate on the growth of Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enouf, J; Laurence, F; Farrugia, G; Blanchard, P; Robert-Gero, M

    1976-10-11

    The bacteriostatic effect of methioninyl adenylate(MAMP)--a specific inhibitor of the enzyme methionyl-tRNA synthetase--was investigated on Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 0.1 mM of this molecule added to the culture, inhibits the growth of S. typhimurium. The inhibition is specifically reversible by 0.1 mM L-methionine. In the same conditions even 1-2 mM MAMP has a very slight effect on the growth rate of P. aeruginosa and only during the first two generations. The same observation was made with the two other members of the fluorescens group P.fluorescens and P.putida. The growth rate of P. testosteroni with 1 mM MAMP in the medium is similar to the growth rate of P. aeruginosa but the other member of the acidovorans group P. acidovorans is much more affected by the smae concentration of the inhibitor. --P. multivorans is inhibited by MAMP like P. acidovorans but with a somewhat higher yield at the end of the culture. --MAMP has no effect on P. alcaligenes. The possible reasons for the weak bacteriostatic effect of MAMP on P. aeruginosa were investigated. It was established that the inhibitor enters the cells and is not used as a carbon and energy source. The intracellular methionine concentration in S. typhimurium and in P. aeruginosa is about the same and does not increase when bacteria are cultivated with MAMP. The MTS of the two microorganisms is inhibited by MAMP in vitro to about the same extent. Furthermore the tRNAmet from P. aeruginosa are fully acylated after 3 to 4 generations with this compound. Nevertheless MAMP elicits higher MTS activity in P. aeruginosa and in P. acidovorans after 1 h of incubation. The most striking difference between S. typhimurium and P. aeruginosa is that the intra and extracellular level of 5'phosphodiesterase which degrades MAMP is 10-20 fold higher in the second than in the first species.

  15. U.S. Department of Energy's EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge, Mid-Program Review: Employees Plug In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    This Program Review takes an unprecedented look at the state of workplace charging in the United States -- a report made possible by U.S. Department of Energy leadership and valuable support from our partners as they share their progress in developing robust workplace charging programs. Through the Workplace Charging Challenge, more than 250 participants are accelerating the development the nation's worksite PEV charging infrastructure and are supporting cleaner, more convenient transportation options within their communities. Challenge partners are currently providing access to PEV charging stations at more than 440 worksites across the country and are influencing countless other organizations to do the same.

  16. A universal self-charging system driven by random biomechanical energy for sustainable operation of mobile electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Simiao; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yi, Fang; Zhou, Yu Sheng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-12-01

    Human biomechanical energy is characterized by fluctuating amplitudes and variable low frequency, and an effective utilization of such energy cannot be achieved by classical energy-harvesting technologies. Here we report a high-efficient self-charging power system for sustainable operation of mobile electronics exploiting exclusively human biomechanical energy, which consists of a high-output triboelectric nanogenerator, a power management circuit to convert the random a.c. energy to d.c. electricity at 60% efficiency, and an energy storage device. With palm tapping as the only energy source, this power unit provides a continuous d.c. electricity of 1.044 mW (7.34 W m-3) in a regulated and managed manner. This self-charging unit can be universally applied as a standard `infinite-lifetime' power source for continuously driving numerous conventional electronics, such as thermometers, electrocardiograph system, pedometers, wearable watches, scientific calculators and wireless radio-frequency communication system, which indicates the immediate and broad applications in personal sensor systems and internet of things.

  17. Measurement of the atmospheric muon charge ratio at TeV energies with the MINOS detector

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, P.; Andreopoulos, C.; Arms, K. E.; Armstrong, R.; Auty, D. J.; Avvakumov, S.; Ayres, D. S.; Baller, B.; Barish, B.; Barnes, JR; Falk Harris, E; Harris, P.G.; Hartnell, J.; Symes, P. A.; et al, ...

    2007-01-01

    The 5.4 kton MINOS far detector has been taking charge-separated cosmic ray muon data since the beginning of August, 2003 at a depth of 2070 meters-water-equivalent in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, Minnesota, USA. The data with both forward and reversed magnetic field running configurations were combined to minimize systematic errors in the determination of the underground muon charge ratio. When averaged, two independent analyses find the charge ratio underground to be 1.374 +/- 0.004 (...

  18. Low energy highly charged ion beam facility at Inter University Accelerator Centre: Measurement of the plasma potential and ion energy distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A deceleration lens coupled to one of the beam lines of the electron cyclotron resonance based low energy beam facility at Inter University Accelerator Centre is reported. This system is capable of delivering low energy (2.5 eV/q–1 keV/q) highly charged ion beams. The presence of plasma potential hinders the measurements of low energies (<50 eV), therefore, plasma potential measurements have been undertaken using a retarding plate analyzer in unison with the deceleration assembly. The distributions of the ion energies have been obtained and the effect of different source parameters on these distributions is studied

  19. Apolipoprotein E expression and behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a lipid binding protein that plays an important role in tissue repair following brain injury. In the present studies, we have investigated whether apoE affects the behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation. Sixteen male apoE knockout (KO) mice and sixteen genetically matched wild-type (WT) C57BL mice were used in this experiment. Half of the KO and half of the WT animals were irradiated with 600 MeV/amu iron particles (2 Gy whole body). The effect of irradiation on motor coordination and stamina (Rotarod test), exploratory behavior (open field test), and spatial working and reference memory (Morris water maze) was assessed. Rotarod test: Performance was adversely affected by radiation exposure in both KO and WT groups at 30 d after irradiation. By 60 d after radiation, the radiation effect was lost in WT, but still apparent in irradiated KO mice. Open field test: Radiation reduced open field exploratory activity 14, 28, 56, 84, and 168 d after irradiation of KO mice, but had no effect on WT mice. Morris water maze: Radiation adversely affected spatial working memory in the KO mice, but had no discernible effect in the WT mice as assessed 180 d after irradiation. In contrast, irradiated WT mice showed marked impairment of spatial reference memory in comparison to non-irradiated mice, while no effect of radiation was observed in KO mice. These studies show that apoE expression influences the behavioral toxicity of HZE particle radiation and suggest that apoE plays a role in the repair/recovery from radiation injury of the central nervous system (CNS). ApoE deficiency may exacerbate the previously reported effects of HZE particle radiation in accelerating the brain aging process. (author)

  20. Apolipoprotein E expression and behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nelson, G.A.; Slater, J.M.; Pearlstein, R.D. [Loma Linda Univ., CA (United States). Medical Center; Vazquez, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Laskowitz, D.T. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Medical Center

    2002-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a lipid binding protein that plays an important role in tissue repair following brain injury. In the present studies, we have investigated whether apoE affects the behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation. Sixteen male apoE knockout (KO) mice and sixteen genetically matched wild-type (WT) C57BL mice were used in this experiment. Half of the KO and half of the WT animals were irradiated with 600 MeV/amu iron particles (2 Gy whole body). The effect of irradiation on motor coordination and stamina (Rotarod test), exploratory behavior (open field test), and spatial working and reference memory (Morris water maze) was assessed. Rotarod test: Performance was adversely affected by radiation exposure in both KO and WT groups at 30 d after irradiation. By 60 d after radiation, the radiation effect was lost in WT, but still apparent in irradiated KO mice. Open field test: Radiation reduced open field exploratory activity 14, 28, 56, 84, and 168 d after irradiation of KO mice, but had no effect on WT mice. Morris water maze: Radiation adversely affected spatial working memory in the KO mice, but had no discernible effect in the WT mice as assessed 180 d after irradiation. In contrast, irradiated WT mice showed marked impairment of spatial reference memory in comparison to non-irradiated mice, while no effect of radiation was observed in KO mice. These studies show that apoE expression influences the behavioral toxicity of HZE particle radiation and suggest that apoE plays a role in the repair/recovery from radiation injury of the central nervous system (CNS). ApoE deficiency may exacerbate the previously reported effects of HZE particle radiation in accelerating the brain aging process. (author)

  1. Reconstitution of the GTP-dependent adenylate cyclase from products of the yeast CYR1 and RAS2 genes in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Uno, I.; Mitsuzawa, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Tanaka, K; Oshima, T.; Ishikawa, T

    1985-01-01

    Plasmids carrying the CYR1 gene of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which encodes adenylate cyclase, were introduced into the cya mutant strain of Escherichia coli. The transformants had a GTP-independent adenylate cyclase activity but did not produce cAMP. The E. coli transformant carrying the yeast RAS2 or RAS2val19 gene had no adenylate cyclase activity. Transformant cells carrying both CYR1 and RAS2 produced GTP-dependent adenylate cyclase and cAMP, and those carrying CYR1 and RAS2val19 pr...

  2. Ultrafast energy and charge transfer in D2O/Ru(0001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin D2O layers on a Ru(0001) surface experiencing energy transfer from the photoexcited metal and charge confinement after UV illumination were studied with surface-sensitive optical techniques and in a time-resolved manner to gain a microscopic understanding of the fundamental processes within this system. The intrinsically interface-sensitive sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy is employed to investigate the surface structure of an ice film grown on the Ru(0001) substrate with different thickness and thus with different interaction strength with the metal. The vibrational signatures of thicker ice samples show characteristic differences between the surfaces of amorphous and crystalline ice, but the structure of the wetting layer is significantly influenced by the metal and distinctly different from that of ice, which leads to the pronounced hydrophobic properties of the first water adlayer. The number of hydrogen bonds between this wetting layer and further multilayers is shown to be considerably limited, which most probably gives rise to the Stranski-Krastanov growth mechanism. In the present work, the reason for the stabilization is consistently explained. After an electron is excited from the metal into the (D2O) ice layer by an intense, ultrashort UV (4.66 eV) laser pulse and stabilized at its surface, the SFG vibrational spectrum in the OD stretch region is changed dramatically. Electron injection resonantly enhances the SFG signal up to a factor of 103, particularly in the frequency range of vibrations involved in hydrogen bonding. The signal from the ice surface is simultaneously overwhelmed by the contribution from the bulk. The observed changes do not spontaneously reverse back to the original state on a timescale of several hours and strongly depend on the D2O structure, since no change in the sum-frequency spectra of thin amorphous ice layers can be observed under otherwise identical conditions. The screening occurs on a timescale

  3. High-energy Electron Scattering and the Charge Distributions of Selected Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, B.; Ravenhall, D. G.; Hofstadter, R.

    1955-10-01

    Experimental results are presented of electron scattering by Ca, V, Co, In, Sb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Bi, Th, and U, at 183 Mev and (for some of the elements) at 153 Mev. For those nuclei for which asphericity and inelastic scattering are absent or unimportant, i.e., Ca, V, Co, In, Sb, Au, and Bi, a partial wave analysis of the Dirac equation has been performed in which the nuclei are represented by static, spherically symmetric charge distributions. Smoothed uniform charge distributions have been assumed; these are characterized by a constant charge density in the central region of the nucleus, with a smoothed-our surface. Essentially two parameters can be determined, related to the radium and to the surface thickness. An examination of the Au experiments show that the functional forms of the surface are not important, and that the charge density in the central regions is probably fairly flat, although it cannot be determined very accurately.

  4. Impact of Fast Charging on Life of EV Batteries; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Smith, Kandler; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-05-03

    Installation of fast charging infrastructure is considered by many as one of potential solutions to increase the utility and range of electric vehicles (EVs). This is expected to reduce the range anxiety of drivers of EVs and thus increase their market penetration. Level 1 and 2 charging in homes and workplaces is expected to contribute to the majority of miles driven by EVs. However, a small percentage of urban driving and most of inter-city driving could be only achieved by a fast-charging network. DC fast charging at 50 kW, 100 kW, 120 kW compared to level 1 (3.3 kW) and level 2 (6.6 kW) results in high-current charging that can adversely impact the life of the battery. In the last couple of years, we have investigated the impact of higher current rates in batteries and potential of higher temperatures and thus lower service life. Using mathematical models, we investigated the temperature increase of batteries due to higher heat generation during fast charge and have found that this could lead to higher temperatures. We compared our models with data from other national laboratories both for fine-tuning and calibration. We found that the incremental temperature rise of batteries during 1C to 3C fast charging may reduce the practical life of the batteries by less than 10% over 10 to 15 years of vehicle ownership. We also found that thermal management of batteries is needed for fast charging to prevent high temperature excursions leading to unsafe conditions.

  5. Testing Partonic Charge Symmetry at a High-Energy Electron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, T J; Murdock, D P; Thomas, A W

    2011-01-01

    We examine the possibility that one could measure partonic charge symmetry violation (CSV) by comparing neutrino or antineutrino production through charged-current reactions induced by electrons or positrons at a possible electron collider at the LHC. We calculate the magnitude of CSV that might be expected at such a facility. We show that this is likely to be a several percent effect, substantially larger than the typical CSV effects expected for partonic reactions.

  6. Binding Energies of Negatively Charged Donors in a Gaussian Potential Quantum Dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate a negatively charged donor centre (D-) trapped by a quantum dot, which is subjected to a Gaussian potential confinement. Calculations are carried out by using the method of numerical diagonalization of Hamiltonian within the effective-mass approximation. The dependence of the ground state of the negatively charged donor on the dot size and the potential depth is studied. The same calculations performed with the parabolic approximation of the Gaussian potential lead to the results that are qualitatively and quantitatively different.

  7. Final Technical Report for the Energy Frontier Research Center Understanding Charge Separation and Transfer at Interfaces in Energy Materials (EFRC:CST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanden Bout, David A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Our EFRC was founded with the vision of creating a broadly collaborative and synergistic program that would lead to major breakthroughs in the molecular-level understanding of the critical interfacial charge separation and charge transfer (CST) processes that underpin the function of candidate materials for organic photovoltaic (OPV) and electrical-energy-storage (EES) applications. Research in these energy contexts shares an imposing challenge: How can we understand charge separation and transfer mechanisms in the presence of immense materials complexity that spans multiple length scales? To address this challenge, our 50-member Center undertook a total of 28 coordinated research projects aimed at unraveling the CST mechanisms that occur at interfaces in these nanostructured materials. This rigorous multi-year study of CST interfaces has greatly illuminated our understanding of early-timescale processes (e.g., exciton generation and dissociation dynamics at OPV heterojunctions; control of Li+-ion charging kinetics by surface chemistry) occurring in the immediate vicinity of interfaces. Program outcomes included: training of 72 graduate student and postdoctoral energy researchers at 5 institutions and spanning 7 academic disciplines in science and engineering; publication of 94 peer-reviewed journal articles; and dissemination of research outcomes via 340 conference, poster and other presentations. Major scientific outcomes included: implementation of a hierarchical strategy for understanding the electronic communication mechanisms and ultimate fate of charge carriers in bulk heterojunction OPV materials; systematic investigation of ion-coupled electron transfer processes in model Li-ion battery electrode/electrolyte systems; and the development and implementation of 14 unique technologies and instrumentation capabilities to aid in probing sub-ensemble charge separation and transfer mechanisms.

  8. Space Charge Correction on Emittance Measurement of Low Energy Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treado, Colleen J.; /Massachusetts U., Amherst

    2012-09-07

    The goal of any particle accelerator is to optimize the transport of a charged particle beam along a set path by confining the beam to a small region close to the design trajectory and directing it accurately along the beamline. To do so in the simplest fashion, accelerators use a system of magnets that exert approximately linear electromagnetic forces on the charged beam. These electromagnets bend the beam along the desired path, in the case of bending magnets, and constrain the beam to the desired area through alternating focusing and defocusing effects, in the case of quadrupole magnets. We can model the transport of such a beam through transfer matrices representing the actions of the various beamline elements. However, space charge effects, produced from self electric fields within the beam, defocus the beam and must be accounted for in the calculation of beam emittance. We present below the preliminary results of a MATLAB code built to model the transport of a charged particle beam through an accelerator and measure the emittance under the influence of space charge effects. We demonstrate the method of correctly calculating the emittance of a beam under space charge effects using a least square fit to determine the initial properties of the beam given the beam size measured at a specific point after transport.

  9. Measurement of the charged particle multiplicities at a centre of mass energy of 7 TeV at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Voong, David; Rademacker, Jonas

    This thesis presents a method for unfolding the observed charged particle distributions produced from proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV at the LHCb detector. These results will help to constrain the parameters phenomenological particle production models and Monte Carlo event generators, and help to provide insight on the mechanisms behind particle production, especially in the soft QCD regime

  10. Binding Energy of Positively and Negatively Charged Excitons in GaAs/AlxGal-xAs Quantum Wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建军; 张淑芳; 杨国琛; 李树深

    2002-01-01

    Using a simple two-parameter wavefunction, we calculate variationally the binding energy of positively and negatively charged excitons in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum wells for well widths from 10 to 300A. We consider the effect of effective mass, dielectric constant mismatch in the two materials, and the whole correlation among the particles. The results are discussed and compared in detail with previous experimental and theoretical results,which show fair agreement with them.

  11. A New Battery Energy Storage Charging/Discharging Scheme for Wind Power Producers in Real-Time Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Y Nguyen; Dinh Hung Nguyen; Yong Tae Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Under a deregulated environment, wind power producers are subject to many regulation costs due to the intermittence of natural resources and the accuracy limits of existing prediction tools. This paper addresses the operation (charging/discharging) problem of battery energy storage installed in a wind generation system in order to improve the value of wind power in the real-time market. Depending on the prediction of market prices and the probabilistic information of wind generation, wind pow...

  12. Transverse momentum and transverse mass distributions of charged hadrons produced in Au-Au collisions at high energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fu-Hu

    2008-01-01

    The transverse momentum distribution and the transverse mass distribution of charged hadrons produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies are described by using a two-cylinder model. The results calculated by the model are compared and found to be in agreement with the experimental data of the STAR and E895 Collaborations, measured in Au-Au collisions at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and alternating-gradient synchrotron (AGS) energies, respectively. In the energy range concerned, the excitation degree of emission source close to the central axis of cylinders increases obviously with the collision centrality and incident energy increasing, but it does not show any obvious change with the increase of the (pseudo) rapidity in central collisions. The excitation degree of emission source close to the side-surface of cylinders does not show any obvious change with the collision centrality, the (pseudo) rapidity, and the incident energy increasing.

  13. Charge-Exchange Excitation of the Isobaric Analog State and Implication for the Nuclear Symmetry Energy and Neutron Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoa, Dao T.; Loc, Bui Minh; Zegers, R. G. T.

    The charge-exchange (p, n) or (3He,t) reaction can be considered as elastic scattering of proton or 3He by the isovector term of the optical potential that flips the projectile isospin. Therefore, the accurately measured charge-exchange scattering cross section for the isobaric analog states can be a good probe of the isospin dependence of the optical potential, which is determined exclusively within the folding model by the difference between the neutron and proton densities and isospin dependence of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. On the other hand, the same isospin- and density-dependent nucleon-nucleon interaction can also be used in a Hartree-Fock calculation of asymmetric nuclear matter, to estimate the nuclear matter energy and its asymmetry part. As a result, the fine-tuning of the isospin dependence of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction against the measured (p, n) or (3He,t) cross sections should allow us to make some realistic prediction of the nuclear symmetry energy and its density dependence. Moreover, given the neutron skin of the target related directly to the neutron-proton difference of the ground-state density, it can be well probed in the analysis of the charge-exchange (3He,t) reactions at medium energies when the two-step processes can be neglected and the t-matrix interaction can be used in the folding calculation.

  14. Synthesis and energy band characterization of hybrid molecular materials based on organic–polyoxometalate charge-transfer salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cationic amphiphilic molecule was synthesized and employed to encapsulate Lindqvist ([M6O19]2−) and Keggin polyoxometalates ([SiM12O40]4−, M=Mo, W) to form hybrid molecules through electrostatic interaction. The X-ray diffraction results illustrate that the former hybrids possess lamellar nanostructures in their solid states, while the latter hybrids show a cubic Im3m packing model with low intensities and poor long-range order. These hybrids have clear charge-transfer characters as shown in their deeper colors and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra. According to the reported reduction potentials of the POM acceptors and the band gaps deduced from their diffuse reflectance spectra, we have calculated the theoretical values of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) position similar to the electron affinity (EA) of solid materials. Such energy level parameters are comparable to those of electroluminescence and electron-transport materials commonly used in organic electroluminescence devices. These organic–polyoxometalate charge-transfer salts have more advantages, such as higher decomposition temperatures, easier film fabrication and better electron affinities, which presumably would be used for electron-transport materials in the area of the electroluminescence. - Graphical abstract: Hybrid molecular materials with charge-transfer characters formed by a positively charged donor L and acceptors of the Lindqvist-type and Keggin-type POMs have lamellar and cubic structures in their solid state. - Highlights: • Charge-transfer salts are obtained by self-assembling POMs with an anthracene cation. • Their energy parameters are comparable to those of optoelectronic materials in OLEDs. • These POM-based hybrids could be applied in the area of optoelectronic devices

  15. Synthesis and energy band characterization of hybrid molecular materials based on organic–polyoxometalate charge-transfer salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Chunxia [Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metals Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou City, Gansu Province (China); Traditional Chinese Medicine College of Gansu, Gansu (China); Bu, Weifeng, E-mail: buwf@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metals Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou City, Gansu Province (China)

    2014-11-15

    A cationic amphiphilic molecule was synthesized and employed to encapsulate Lindqvist ([M{sub 6}O{sub 19}]{sup 2−}) and Keggin polyoxometalates ([SiM{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4−}, M=Mo, W) to form hybrid molecules through electrostatic interaction. The X-ray diffraction results illustrate that the former hybrids possess lamellar nanostructures in their solid states, while the latter hybrids show a cubic Im3m packing model with low intensities and poor long-range order. These hybrids have clear charge-transfer characters as shown in their deeper colors and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra. According to the reported reduction potentials of the POM acceptors and the band gaps deduced from their diffuse reflectance spectra, we have calculated the theoretical values of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) position similar to the electron affinity (E{sub A}) of solid materials. Such energy level parameters are comparable to those of electroluminescence and electron-transport materials commonly used in organic electroluminescence devices. These organic–polyoxometalate charge-transfer salts have more advantages, such as higher decomposition temperatures, easier film fabrication and better electron affinities, which presumably would be used for electron-transport materials in the area of the electroluminescence. - Graphical abstract: Hybrid molecular materials with charge-transfer characters formed by a positively charged donor L and acceptors of the Lindqvist-type and Keggin-type POMs have lamellar and cubic structures in their solid state. - Highlights: • Charge-transfer salts are obtained by self-assembling POMs with an anthracene cation. • Their energy parameters are comparable to those of optoelectronic materials in OLEDs. • These POM-based hybrids could be applied in the area of optoelectronic devices.

  16. A minor conformation of a lanthanide tag on adenylate kinase characterized by paramagnetic relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hass, Mathias A. S.; Liu, Wei-Min [Leiden University, Leiden Institute of Chemistry (Netherlands); Agafonov, Roman V.; Otten, Renee; Phung, Lien A. [Brandeis University, Department of Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (United States); Schilder, Jesika T. [Leiden University, Leiden Institute of Chemistry (Netherlands); Kern, Dorothee [Brandeis University, Department of Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (United States); Ubbink, Marcellus, E-mail: m.ubbink@chem.leidenuniv.nl [Leiden University, Leiden Institute of Chemistry (Netherlands)

    2015-02-15

    NMR relaxation dispersion techniques provide a powerful method to study protein dynamics by characterizing lowly populated conformations that are in dynamic exchange with the major state. Paramagnetic NMR is a versatile tool for investigating the structures and dynamics of proteins. These two techniques were combined here to measure accurate and precise pseudocontact shifts of a lowly populated conformation. This method delivers valuable long-range structural restraints for higher energy conformations of macromolecules in solution. Another advantage of combining pseudocontact shifts with relaxation dispersion is the increase in the amplitude of dispersion profiles. Lowly populated states are often involved in functional processes, such as enzyme catalysis, signaling, and protein/protein interactions. The presented results also unveil a critical problem with the lanthanide tag used to generate paramagnetic relaxation dispersion effects in proteins, namely that the motions of the tag can interfere severely with the observation of protein dynamics. The two-point attached CLaNP-5 lanthanide tag was linked to adenylate kinase. From the paramagnetic relaxation dispersion only motion of the tag is observed. The data can be described accurately by a two-state model in which the protein-attached tag undergoes a 23° tilting motion on a timescale of milliseconds. The work demonstrates the large potential of paramagnetic relaxation dispersion and the challenge to improve current tags to minimize relaxation dispersion from tag movements.

  17. Calculation of the electrostatic energy of formed of two charged helices on rods in a generalized braid geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, D J

    2013-01-01

    This is a technical document that outlines a calculation of an electrostatic interaction energy between two rods, with charge helices on them, forming a braid. We deal here with screened electrostatics. A general braid geometry is considered, though to obtain local expressions for the energy the curvature of the rods is considered to be small. Further approximations are made for small tilt angle. This is a generalization of the calculations given in the supplemental material of [R. Cortini et Al, Biophys. J. 101 875 (2011)] for a straight symmetric braid structure, using a different method of calculation where the braid geometry does not need to be supposed a priori.

  18. Tunable coupling in circuit quantum electrodynamics using a superconducting charge qubit with a V-shaped energy level diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S J; Hoffman, A J; Gambetta, J M; Houck, A A

    2011-02-25

    We introduce a new type of superconducting charge qubit that has a V-shaped energy spectrum and uses quantum interference to provide independently tunable qubit energy and coherent coupling to a superconducting cavity. Dynamic access to the strong coupling regime is demonstrated by tuning the coupling strength from less than 200 kHz to greater than 40 MHz. This tunable coupling can be used to protect the qubit from cavity-induced relaxation and avoid unwanted qubit-qubit interactions in a multiqubit system.

  19. Quightness: A proposed figure of merit for sources of low-energy, high-charge-state ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Robert W.

    1990-03-01

    A variety of ion sources, including the EBIS and ECRIS, are distinguished by their ability to produce low-energy ions of very high charge state. It would be useful to have some figure of merit that is particularly sensitive to this performance. I propose here such a quantity, called ``Quightness,'' which is related to brightness but which enhances the contrast between sources supplying multicharged ions of low energy. The rationale for introducing this quantity, its etymology and relationship to other figures of merit, and some representative values are presented.

  20. Quightness: A proposed figure of merit for sources of low-energy, high-charge-state ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmieder, R.W. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551 (US))

    1990-03-01

    A variety of ion sources, including the EBIS and ECRIS, are distinguished by their ability to produce low-energy ions of very high charge state. It would be useful to have some figure of merit that is particularly sensitive to this performance. I propose here such a quantity, called Quightness,'' which is related to brightness but which enhances the contrast between sources supplying multicharged ions of low energy. The rationale for introducing this quantity, its etymology and relationship to other figures of merit, and some representative values are presented.

  1. Charge Dependence and Electric Quadrupole Effects on Single-Nucleon Removal in Relativistic and Intermediate Energy Nuclear Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Single nucleon removal in relativistic and intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is studied using a generalization of Weizsacker-Williams theory that treats each electromagnetic multipole separately. Calculations are presented for electric dipole and quadrupole excitations and incorporate a realistic minimum impact parameter, Coulomb recoil corrections, and the uncertainties in the input photonuclear data. Discrepancies are discussed. The maximum quadrupole effect to be observed in future experiments is estimated and also an analysis of the charge dependence of the electromagnetic cross sections down to energies as low as 100 MeV/nucleon is made.

  2. Nonperturbative shell correction to the Bethe-Bloch formula for the energy losses of fast charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, V. I.; Makarov, D. N.

    2011-09-01

    A simple method including nonperturbative shell corrections has been developed for calculating energy losses on complex atoms. The energy losses of fast highly charged ions on neon, argon, krypton, and xenon atoms have been calculated and compared with experimental data. It has been shown that the inclusion of the non-perturbative shell corrections noticeably improves agreement with experimental data as compared to calculations by the Bethe-Bloch formula with the standard corrections. This undoubtedly helps to reduce the number of fitting parameters in various modifications of the Bethe-Bloch formula, which are usually determined semiempirically.

  3. On the Remarkable Features of the Lower Limits of Charge and the Radiated Energy of Antennas as Predicted by Classical Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Cooray

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic energy radiated by antennas working in both the frequency domain and time domain is studied as a function of the charge associated with the current in the antenna. The frequency domain results, obtained under the assumption of sinusoidal current distribution, show that, for a given charge, the energy radiated within a period of oscillation increases initially with L/λ and then starts to oscillate around a steady value when L/λ > 1. The results show that for the energy radiated by the antenna to be equal to or larger than the energy of one photon, the oscillating charge in the antenna has to be equal to or larger than the electronic charge. That is, U ≥ hν or UT ≥ h ⇒ q ≥ e, where U is the energy dissipated over a period, ν is the frequency of oscillation, T is the period, h is Planck’s constant, q is the rms value of the oscillating charge, and e is the electronic charge. In the case of antennas working in the time domain, it is observed that UΔt ≥ h/4π ⇒ q ≥ e, where U is the total energy radiated, Δt is the time over which the energy is radiated, and q is the charge transported by the current. It is shown that one can recover the time–energy uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics from this time domain result. The results presented in this paper show that when quantum mechanical constraints are applied to the electromagnetic energy radiated by a finite antenna as estimated using the equations of classical electrodynamics, the electronic charge emerges as the smallest unit of free charge in nature.

  4. Design of Solar/Electric Powered Hybrid Vehicle (SEPHV System with Charge Pattern Optimization for Energy Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Balamurugan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Solar Electric Powered Hybrid Vehicle (SEPHV system which solves the major problems of fuel and pollution. An electric vehicle usually uses a battery which has been charged by external electrical power supply. All recent electric vehicles present a drive on AC power supplied motor. An inverter set is required to be connected with the battery through which AC power is converted to DC power. During this conversion many losses take place and also the maintenance cost of the AC System is very high. The proposed topology has the most feasible solar/electric power generation system mounted on the vehicle to charge the battery during all durations. With a view of providing ignited us to develop this “Solar/Electric Powered Hybrid Vehicle” [SEPHV].This multi charging vehicle can charge itself from both solar and electric power. The vehicle is altered out of a Maruti Omni vehicle by replacing its engine with a 1.2HP, 24V Permanent Magnet DC [PMDC] Motor. The Supply to the motor is obtained from a battery set of 12V, 150AH. The household electric supply of 230V is reduced with a step-down transformer to 48V and then it is converted to the DC with a rectifying unit to charge the battery. Two solar panels each with a rating of 230watts are attached to the top of the Vehicle to grab the solar energy and is controlled with a help of charge controller. The SEPHV can be driven by 1.2 HP PMDC motor consisting of two 230 watts PV panel in the voltage rating of 24 V. The power which is absorbed by the PV panel is stored into the four 150 AH 12 V batteries. When there is no presence of sun, electric power supply act as an auxiliary energy source. For controlling speed of the motor, a switch is designed with four tapping, provided with different values of resistance at each tapping. It acts as a speed control switch for Solar/Electric Powered Hybrid Vehicle. This type of technique is to reduce the running cost and increasing the running

  5. Effect of dense plasmas on exchange-energy shifts in highly charged ions: An alternative approach for arbitrary perturbation potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmej, F. [Sorbonne Universites, Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR 7605, case 128, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris (France); Ecole Polytechnique, Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses LULI, Physique Atomique dans les Plasmas Denses PAPD, F-91228 Palaiseau (France); Bennadji, K. [Sorbonne Universites, Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR 7605, case 128, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris (France); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtz Centre of Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lisitsa, V. S. [Russian Research Center Kurchatov, Laboratory of Radiation Theory, Kurchatov Square 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    An alternative method of calculation of dense plasma effects on exchange-energy shifts {Delta}E{sub x} of highly charged ions is proposed which results in closed expressions for any plasma or perturbation potential. The method is based on a perturbation theory expansion for the inner atomic potential produced by charged plasma particles employing the Coulomb Green function method. This approach allows us to obtain analytic expressions and scaling laws with respect to the electron temperature T, density n{sub e}, and nuclear charge Z. To demonstrate the power of the present method, two specific models were considered in detail: the ion sphere model (ISM) and the Debye screening model (DSM). We demonstrate that analytical expressions can be obtained even for the finite temperature ISM. Calculations have been carried out for the singlet 1s2p{sup 1} P{sub 1} and triplet 1s2p{sup 3} P{sub 1} configurations of He-like ions with charge Z that can be observed in dense plasmas via the He-like resonance and intercombination lines. Finally we discuss recently available purely numerical calculations and experimental data.

  6. Polarization Energies at Organic–Organic Interfaces: Impact on the Charge Separation Barrier at Donor–Acceptor Interfaces in Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ryno, Sean

    2016-05-31

    We probe the energetic landscape at a model pentacene/fullerene-C60 interface to investigate the interactions between positive and negative charges, which are critical to the processes of charge separation and recombination in organic solar cells. Using a polarizable force field, we find that polarization energy, i.e. the stabilization a charge feels due to its environment, is larger at the interface than in the bulk for both a positive and a negative charge. The combination of the charge being more stabilized at the interface and the Coulomb attraction between the charges, results in a barrier to charge separation at the pentacene-C60 interface that can be in excess of 0.7 eV for static configurations of the donor and acceptor locations. However, the impact of molecular motions, i.e., the dynamics, at the interface at room temperature results in a distribution of polarization energies and in charge separation barriers that can be significantly reduced. The dynamic nature of the interface is thus critical, with the polarization energy distributions indicating that sites along the interface shift in time between favorable and unfavorable configurations for charge separation.

  7. Key elements of space charge compensation on a low energy high intensity beam injector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shixiang; Lu, Pengnan; Ren, Haitao; Zhao, Jie; Chen, Jia; Xu, Yuan; Guo, Zhiyu; Chen, Jia'er; Zhao, Hongwei; Sun, Liangting

    2013-03-01

    Space charge effect (SCE) along the beam line will decrease beam quality. Space charge compensation (SCC) with extra gas injection is a high-efficiency method to reduce SCE. In this paper, we will report the experimental results on the beam profile, potential distribution, beam emittance, and beam transmission efficiency of a 35 keV∕90 mA H(+) beam and a 40 keV∕10 mA He(+) beam compensated by Ar∕Kr. The influence of gas type, gas flow, and injection location will be discussed. Emphasis is laid on the consideration of SCC when designing and commissioning a high intensity ion beam injector. Based on measured data, a new definition of space charge compensation degree is proposed. PMID:23556812

  8. Key elements of space charge compensation on a low energy high intensity beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Shixiang; Lu Pengnan; Ren Haitao; Zhao Jie; Chen Jia; Xu Yuan; Guo Zhiyu; Chen Jia' er [Institution of Nuclear Science and Technology (INST), State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology (KLNPT), Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhao Hongwei; Sun Liangting [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Space charge effect (SCE) along the beam line will decrease beam quality. Space charge compensation (SCC) with extra gas injection is a high-efficiency method to reduce SCE. In this paper, we will report the experimental results on the beam profile, potential distribution, beam emittance, and beam transmission efficiency of a 35 keV/90 mA H{sup +} beam and a 40 keV/10 mA He{sup +} beam compensated by Ar/Kr. The influence of gas type, gas flow, and injection location will be discussed. Emphasis is laid on the consideration of SCC when designing and commissioning a high intensity ion beam injector. Based on measured data, a new definition of space charge compensation degree is proposed.

  9. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charge pattern optimization for energy cost and battery longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashash, Saeid; Moura, Scott J.; Forman, Joel C.; Fathy, Hosam K.

    This paper examines the problem of optimizing the charge pattern of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), defined as the timing and rate with which the PHEV obtains electricity from the power grid. The optimization goal is to simultaneously minimize (i) the total cost of fuel and electricity and (ii) the total battery health degradation over a 24-h naturalistic drive cycle. The first objective is calculated for a previously-developed stochastic optimal PHEV power management strategy, whereas the second objective is evaluated through an electrochemistry-based model of anode-side resistive film formation in lithium-ion batteries. The paper shows that these two objectives are conflicting, and trades them off using a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm. As a result, a Pareto front of optimal charge patterns is obtained. The effects of electricity price and trip schedule on the optimal Pareto points and the PHEV charge patterns are analyzed and discussed.

  10. Charge Exchange in Low-Energy H, D + C4+ Collisions with Full Account of Electron Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vaeck

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the application of the quantum approach, which takes full account of electron translation at low collisional energies, to the charge exchange process H, D + C4+ → H+, D+ + C3+(3s; 3p; 3d. The partial and the total integral cross sections of the process are calculated in the energy range from 1 till 60 eV/amu. It is shown that the present results are independent from the upper integration limit for numerical solution of the coupled channel equations although nonadiabatic couplings remain nonzero up to infinity. The calculated partial and total cross sections are in agreement with the previous low-energy calculations and the available experimental data. It is shown that for low collisional energies the isotopic effect takes place. The observed effect is explained in terms of the nonadiabatic dynamics.

  11. Physical chemistry of charged interfaces: multi-scale modelling and applications to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the advantages of a multi-scale modelling strategy for the understanding of systems with charged interfaces. On the one hand, one can simulate a complex system at different levels, depending on the relevant length and time scales for a given physical chemistry problem. On the other hand, one should make the link between the various levels of description, e.g. following a bottom-up approach. The case of charged porous materials, in particular clay minerals, is illustrated here by discussing physical chemistry issues that arise in the context of geological disposal of nuclear wastes and CO2 sequestration. (author)

  12. Topmetal-II−: a direct charge sensor for high energy physics and imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topmetal-II−, a direct charge sensor, was manufactured in an XFAB 350 nm CMOS process. The Topmetal-II− sensor features a 72 × 72 pixel array with an 83 μm pixel pitch which collects and measures charge directly from the surrounding media. We introduce the implementation of the circuitry in the sensor including an analogue readout channel and a column based digital readout channel. The analogue readout channel allows the access to the full waveform from each pixel through a time-shared multiplexing. The digital readout channel records hits identified by an individually settable threshold in each pixel. Some simulation and preliminary test results are also discussed

  13. Wideband energy harvesting using a combination of an optimized synchronous electric charge extraction circuit and a bistable harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenge of variable vibration frequencies for energy harvesting calls for the development of wideband energy harvesters. Bistability has been proven to be a potential solution. Optimization of the energy extraction is another important objective for energy harvesting. Nonlinear synchronized switching techniques have demonstrated some of the best performances. This paper presents a novel energy harvesting solution which combines these two techniques: the OSECE (optimized synchronous electric charge extraction) technique is used along with a BSM (buckled-spring–mass) bistable generator to achieve wideband energy harvesting. The effect of the electromechanical coupling coefficient on the harvested power for the bistable harvester with the nonlinear energy extraction technique is discussed for the first time. The performances of the proposed solution for different levels of electromechanical coupling coefficients in the cases of chirp and noise excitations are compared against the performances of the bistable harvester with the standard technique. It is shown that the OSECE technique is a much better option for wideband energy harvesting than the standard circuit. Moreover, the harvested energy is drastically increased for all excitations in the case of low electromechanical coupling coefficients. When the electromechanical coupling coefficient is high, the performance of the OSECE technique is not as good as the standard circuit for forward sweeps, but superior for the reverse sweep and band-limited noise cases. However, considering that real excitation signals are more similar to noise signals, the OSECE technique enhances the performance. (paper)

  14. Electron-emission processes in highly charged Ar and Xe ions impinging on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite at energies just above the kinetic threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewits, E.; Hoekstra, R.; Dobes, K.; Aumayr, F.

    2014-01-01

    At keV energies, many electronic processes contribute to the emission of secondary electrons in the interaction of highly charged ions on surfaces. To unravel contributions resulting from isolated hollow atoms in front of the surface or embedded in the electron gas of the target, heavy highly charge

  15. Space Charge Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, M; Palumbo, L

    2014-01-01

    The space charge forces are those generated directly by the charge distribution, with the inclusion of the image charges and currents due to the interaction of the beam with a perfectly conducting smooth pipe. Space charge forces are responsible for several unwanted phenomena related to beam dynamics, such as energy loss, shift of the synchronous phase and frequency , shift of the betatron frequencies, and instabilities. We will discuss in this lecture the main feature of space charge effects in high-energy storage rings as well as in low-energy linacs and transport lines.

  16. Adenylate cyclase activity along the rabbit nephron as measured in single isolated segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, M; Chabardès, D; Montégut, M; Clique, A; Morel, F

    1975-01-01

    A method is described, which allows adenylate cyclase activity measurement in single pieces of various nephron segments. Tubular samples of 0.5 to 2 mm length were isolated by microdissection from collagenase treated slices of rabbit kidney. A photograph of each piece was taken in order to measure its length. After a permeabilisation treatment involving preincubation in a hypoosmotic medium and a freezing step, each sample was incubated for 30 mm at 30 degrees C in a medium containing high specific (alpha-32-P)-ATP 3-10-4 M, final volume 2.5 mu 1. The (32P)-cAMP formed was separated from the other labelled nucleotides by filtering the incubate on a dry aluminium oxide microcolumn, 3H cAMP was added as a tracer for measuring cAMP recovery. The sensitivity of the method was found to be a few fentomoles (10-15 M) cAMP. cAMP generation increased linearly as a function of the incubation time up to more than 30 min, and as a function of the length of the segment used. Control and fluoride (5 mM) stimulated adenvlate cyclase activities were measured in the following segments of the nephron: early proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), pars recta of the proximal tubule (PR), thin descending limb of the loop (TDL), cortical portion of the thick ascending limb (CAL), distal convoluted tubule (dct), first branched portion of the collecting tubule (BCT), further cortical (CCT) and medullary (MCT) portions of the collecting tubule. Mean control adenylate cyclase activity varied from 7 (PR) to 75 (BCT) fmoles/mm/30 min. Flouride addition resulted in a 10 (BCT) to 50 (PR) fold increase in enzyme activity. Series of replicates gave a scatter equal to plus or minus 20% (S.D. as a per cent of the mean). The method described appears to be suitable to determine which nephron segments contain hormone-dependent adenylate cyclase.

  17. Importance of volume corrections on the net-charge distributions at the RHIC BES energies

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Hao-jie

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents my recent investigations of volume corrections on the cumulant products of net-charge distributions in statistical model, corresponding to the data reported by the STAR collaboration. The corrected statistical expectations, under simple Poisson approximations, can reasonably explain the data measured in experiment. The results indicate that volume corrections play crucial role in event-by-event multiplicity fluctuation studies.

  18. Energy resolution and related charge carrier mobility in LaBr3:Ce scintillators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khodyuk, I.V.; Quarati, F.G.A.; Alekhin, M.S.; Dorenbos, P.

    2013-01-01

    The scintillation response of LaBr3:Ce scintillation crystals was studied as function of temperature and Ce concentration with synchrotron X-rays between 9 keV and 100 keV. The results were analyzed using the theory of carrier transport in wide band gap semiconductors to gain new insights into charg

  19. Surface and structure modification induced by high energy and highly charged uranium ion irradiation in monocrystal spinel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its high temperature properties and relatively good behavior under irradiation, magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) is considered as a possible material to be used as inert matrix for the minor actinides burning. In this case, irradiation damage is an unavoidable problem. In this study, high energy and highly charged uranium ions (290 MeV U32+) were used to irradiate monocrystal spinel to the fluence of 1.0 × 1013 ions/cm2 to study the modification of surface and structure. Highly charged ions carry large potential energy, when they interact with a surface, the release of potential energy results in the modification of surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) results showed the occurrence of etching on surface after uranium ion irradiation. The etching depth reached 540 nm. The surprising efficiency of etching is considered to be induced by the deposition of potential energy with high density. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the (4 4 0) diffraction peak obviously broadened after irradiation, which indicated that the distortion of lattice has occurred. After multi-peak Gaussian fitting, four Gaussian peaks were separated, which implied that a structure with different damage layers could be formed after irradiation

  20. Thick-lens velocity-map imaging spectrometer with high resolution for high-energy charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, N. G.; Paul, D.; Gura, A.; Laurent, G.; De, S.; Li, H.; Wang, Z.; Ahn, B.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, T. K.; Litvinyuk, I. V.; Cocke, C. L.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Kim, D.; Kling, M. F.

    2014-05-01

    A novel design for a velocity-map imaging (VMI) spectrometer with high resolution over a wide energy range surpassing a standard VMI design is reported. The main difference to a standard three-electrode VMI is the spatial extension of the applied field using 11 electrodes forming a thick-lens. This permits measurements of charged particles with higher energies while achieving excellent resolving power over a wide range of energies. Using SIMION simulations, the thick-lens VMI is compared to a standard design for up to 360 eV electrons. The simulations also show that the new spectrometer design is suited for charged-particle detection with up to 1 keV using a repeller-electrode voltage of -30 kV. The experimental performance is tested by laser-induced ionization of rare gases producing electrons up to about 70 eV. The thick-lens VMI is useful for a wide variety of studies on atoms, molecules and nanoparticles in intense laser fields and high-photon-energy fields from high-harmonic-generation or free-electron lasers.

  1. Search for charged Higgs bosons in $e^+ e^-$ collisions at energies up to $\\sqrt{s}$ = 189 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R.; Ghez, Philippe; Goy, C.; Jezequel, S.; Lees, J.P.; Martin, F.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Bravo, S.; Casado, M.P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J.M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, L.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, J.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, L.M.; Pacheco, A.; Paneque, D.; Ruiz, H.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Boix, G.; Buchmuller, O.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R.W.; Frank, M.; Gianotti, F.; Greening, T.C.; Halley, A.W.; Hansen, J.B.; Harvey, John; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kado, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Maley, P.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, Gigi; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Spagnolo, P.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Tournefier, E.; Valassi, A.; Ward, J.J.; Wright, A.E.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Chazelle, G.; Deschamps, O.; Dessagne, S.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.C.; Pallin, D.; Pascolo, J.M.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, P.H.; Nilsson, B.S.; Waananen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J.C.; Machefert, F.; Rouge, A.; Swynghedauw, M.; Tanaka, R.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G.P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Chalmers, M.; Kennedy, J.; Lynch, J.G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raeven, B.; Smith, D.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A.S.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E.E.; Leibenguth, G.; Putzer, A.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D.M.; Cameron, W.; Davies, G.; Dornan, P.J.; Girone, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nowell, J.; Przysiezniak, H.; Sedgbeer, J.K.; Thompson, J.C.; Thomson, Evelyn J.; White, R.; Ghete, V.M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C.K.; Buck, P.G.; Clarke, D.P.; Ellis, G.; Finch, A.J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R.W.L.; Robertson, N.A.; Smizanska, M.; Giehl, I.; Holldorfer, F.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Krocker, M.; Muller, A.S.; Nurnberger, H.A.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.G.; Schmeling, S.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeitnitz, C.; Ziegler, T.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Ealet, A.; Fouchez, D.; Leroy, O.; Kachelhoffer, T.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Tilquin, A.; Aleppo, M.; Gilardoni, Simone S.; Ragusa, F.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Heister, A.; Huttmann, K.; Lutjens, G.; Mannert, C.; Manner, W.; Moser, H.G.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Azzurri, P.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.F.; Heusse, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Serin, L.; Veillet, J.J.; Videau, I.; de Vivie de Regie, J.B.; Zerwas, D.; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, T.; Calderini, G.; Ciulli, V.; Foa, L.; Giammanco, A.; Giassi, A.; Ligabue, F.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciaba, A.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tenchini, R.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P.G.; Blair, G.A.; Coles, J.; Cowan, G.; Green, M.G.; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Jones, L.T.; Medcalf, T.; Strong, J.A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J.H.; Clifft, R.W.; Edgecock, T.R.; Norton, P.R.; Tomalin, I.R.; Bloch-Devaux, Brigitte; Boumediene, D.; Colas, P.; Fabbro, B.; Faif, G.; Lancon, E.; Lemaire, M.C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.F.; Rosowsky, A.; Seager, P.; Trabelsi, A.; Tuchming, B.; Vallage, B.; Black, S.N.; Dann, J.H.; Loomis, C.; Kim, H.Y.; Konstantinidis, N.; Litke, A.M.; McNeil, M.A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C.N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hodgson, P.N.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Affholderbach, K.; Boehrer, Armin; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Hess, J.; Misiejuk, A.; Prange, G.; Sieler, U.; Borean, C.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; He, H.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S.R.; Cranmer, K.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D.P.S.; Gao, Y.; Gonzalez, S.; Hayes, O.J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; Kile, J.; McNamara, P.A.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y.B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I.J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, J.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.

    2000-01-01

    The data collected at centre-of-mass energies of 188.6 GeV by ALEPH at LEP, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 176.2 pb-1, are analysed in a search for pair-produced charged Higgs bosons H+/-. Three analyses are employed to select the taunutaunu, taunucs and cscs final states. No evidence for a signal is found. Upper limits are set on the production cross section as a function of the branching fraction BR(H+ to tau nu) and of the mass M(H+), assuming that the sum of the branching ratios is equal to one. In the framework of a two-Higgs-doublet model, charged Higgs bosons with masses below 65.4 GeV/c2 are excluded at 95% confidence level independently of the decay mode.

  2. Preliminary proposals for extending the ENDF format to allow incident charged particles and energy-angle correlation for emitted particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rewrite of Data Formats and Procedures for the Evaluated Nuclear Data File, ENDF pertains to the latest version, ENDF/B-VI. Earlier versions provided representations for neutron cross sections and distributions, photon production from neutron reactions, a limited amount of charged-particle production from neutron reactions, photo-atomic interaction data, thermal neutron scattering data, and radionuclide production and decay data (including fission products). This version allows higher incident energies, adds more complete descriptions of the distributions of emitted particles, and provides for incident charged particles and photo-nuclear data by partitioning the ENDF library into sublibraries. Decay data, fission product yield data, thermal scattering data, and photo-atomic data have also been formally placed in sublibraries. In addition, this rewrite represents an extensive update to the Version V manual

  3. Low-Frequency MEMS Electrostatic Vibration Energy Harvester With Corona-Charged Vertical Electrets and Nonlinear Stoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Cottone, F.; Boisseau, S.; Galayko, D.; Marty, F.; Basset, P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports for the first time a MEMS electrostatic vibration energy harvester (e-VEH) with corona-charged vertical electrets on its electrodes. The bandwidth of the 1-cm2 device is extended in low and high frequencies by nonlinear elastic stoppers. With a bias voltage of 46 V (electret@21 V + DC external source@25 V) between the electrodes, the RMS power of the device reaches 0.89 μW at 33 Hz and 6.6 μW at 428 Hz. The -3dB frequency band including the hysteresis is 223∼432 Hz, the one excluding the hysteresis 88∼166 Hz. We also demonstrate the charging of a 47 μF capacitor used for powering a wireless and autonomous temperature sensor node with a data transmission beyond 10 m at 868 MHz.

  4. Focusing of high-energy particles in the electrostatic field of a homogeneously charged sphere and the effective momentum approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Aste, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The impact of the strongly attractive electromagnetic field of heavy nuclei on electrons in quasi-elastic (e,e') scattering is often accounted for by the effective momentum approximation. This method is a plane wave Born approximation which takes the twofold effect of the attractive nucleus on initial and final state electrons into account, namely the modification of the electron momentum in the vicinity of the nucleus, and the focusing of electrons towards the nuclear region leading to an enhancement of the corresponding wave function amplitudes. The focusing effect due to the attractive Coulomb field of a homogeneously charged sphere on a classical ensemble of charged particles incident on the field is calculated in the highly relativistic limit and compared to results obtained from exact solutions of the Dirac equation. The result is relevant for the theoretical foundation of the effective momentum approximation and describes the high energy behavior of the amplitude of continuum Dirac waves in the potenti...

  5. Charge exchange between H(1s) and fully stripped heavy ions at low-keV impact energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximate cross sections for charge transfer between ground-state atomic hydrogen and completely stripped ions of C, N, O, Ne, Si, and Ar have been obtained in the velocity range 6 x 106--7 x 107 cm/sec. In these collisions, electron capture occurs predominantly into high-lying orbitals of the product heavy ion. The calculations are made using the Landau-Zener theory modified for application to a multistate system. The peak cross sections are found to increase by about a factor of 5 in going from C+6 ( approx. = 21 A2) to Ar+18 ( approx. = 110 A2) and the cross-section curves tend to ''flatten out'' for the heavier ions where three or four crossings contribute to the charge exchange. At the higher energies, the cross sections become roughly equal to 1.4 x 10-16Z3/2 cm2

  6. Modeling of trap-assisted tunneling on performance of charge trapping memory with consideration of trap position and energy level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Yun; Zhao, Kai; Du, Gang; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yi

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the trap-assisted tunneling (TAT) mechanism is modeled as a two-step physical process for charge trapping memory (CTM). The influence of the TAT mechanism on CTM performance is investigated in consideration of various trap positions and energy levels. For the simulated CTM structure, simulation results indicate that the positions of oxide traps related to the maximum TAT current contribution shift towards the substrate interface and charge storage layer interface during time evolutions in programming and retention operations, respectively. Lower programming voltage and retention operations under higher temperature are found to be more sensitive to tunneling oxide degradation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61404005, 61421005, and 91434201).

  7. The TFTR E Parallel B Spectrometer for Mass and Energy Resolved Multi-Ion Charge Exchange Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.L. Roquemore; S.S. Medley

    1998-01-01

    The Charge Exchange Neutral Analyzer diagnostic for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor was designed to measure the energy distributions of both the thermal ions and the supra thermal populations arising from neutral-beam injection and ion cyclotron radio-frequency heating. These measurements yield the plasma ion temperature, as well as several other plasma parameters necessary to provide an understanding of the plasma condition and the performance of the auxiliary heating methods. For this application, a novel charge-exchange spectrometer using a dee-shaped region of parallel electric and magnetic fields was developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The design and performance of this spectrometer is described in detail, including the effects of exposure of the microchannel plate detector to magnetic fields, neutrons, and tritium.

  8. Relation of isospin-symmetry breaking correction for superallowed beta decay to energy of charge-exchange giant monopole resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Rodin, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    Having applied an analytical transformation, a new exact representation for the nuclear isospin-symmetry breaking correction $\\delta_C$ to superallowed beta decay is obtained. The correction is shown to be essentially reciprocal to the square of an energy parameter $\\Omega_M$ which characterizes charge-exchange monopole strength distribution. The proportionality coefficient in this relation is determined by basic properties of the ground state of the even-even mother nucleus, and should be reliably calculated in any realistic nuclear model. Therefore, the single parameter $\\Omega_M$ contains all the information about the properties of excited $0^+$ states needed to describe $\\delta_C$. This parameter can possibly be determined experimentally by charge-exchange reactions. Basic quantities of interest are calculated within the isospin-consistent continuum random phase approximation, and the values of $\\delta_C$ are compared with the corresponding results by other approaches.

  9. NMR studies of the AMP-binding site and mechanism of adenylate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, D C; Kuby, S A; Mildvan, A S

    1987-03-24

    NMR has previously been used to determine the conformation of enzyme-bound MgATP and to locate the MgATP-binding site on adenylate kinase [Fry, D. C., Kuby, S. A., & Mildvan, A. S. (1985) Biochemistry 24, 4680-4694]. To determine the conformation and location of the other substrate, AMP, distances have been measured from Cr3+AMPPCP, a linear competitive inhibitor with respect to MgATP, to six protons and to the phosphorus atom of AMP on adenylate kinase, with the paramagnetic probe-T1 method. Time-dependent nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) have been used to measure five interproton distances on enzyme-bound AMP. These distances were used to determine the conformation of bound AMP in addition to its position with respect to metal-ATP. Enzyme-bound AMP exhibits a high anti-glycosyl torsional angle (chi = 110 +/- 10 degrees), a 3'-endo,2'-exo ribose pucker (delta = 105 +/- 10 degrees), and gauche-trans orientations about the C4'-C5' bond (gamma = 180 +/- 10 degrees) and the C5'-O5' bond (beta = 170 +/- 20 degrees). The distance from Cr3+ to the phosphorus of AMP is 5.9 +/- 0.3 A, indicating a reaction coordinate distance of approximately 3 A, which is consistent with an associative SN2 mechanism for the phosphoryl transfer. Ten intermolecular NOEs, from protons of the enzyme to those of AMP, were detected, indicating the proximity of at least three hydrophobic amino acids to bound AMP. These constraints, together with the conformation of AMP and the intersubstrate distances, were used to position AMP into the X-ray structure of adenylate kinase. The AMP binding site is found to be near (less than or equal to 4 A from) Leu-116, Arg-171, Val-173, Val-182, and Leu-190; all of these residues have been found to be invariant in muscle-type rabbit, calf, human, porcine [Kuby, S. A., Palmieri, R. H., Frischat, A., Fischer, A. H., Wu, L. H., Maland, L., & Manship, M. (1984) Biochemistry 23, 2393-2399], and chicken adenylate kinase [Kishi, F., Maruyama, M., Tanizawa, Y

  10. Structural characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei adenylate kinase (Adk): Profound asymmetry in the crystal structure of the 'open' state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchko, G.W.; Robinson, H.; Abendroth, J.; Staker, B. L.; Myler, P. J.

    2010-04-16

    In all organisms adenylate kinases (Adks) play a vital role in cellular energy metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis. Due to differences in catalytic properties between the Adks found in prokaryotes and in the cytoplasm of eukaryotes, there is interest in targeting this enzyme for new drug therapies against infectious bacterial agents. Here we report the 2.1 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure for the 220-residue Adk from Burkholderia pseudomallei (BpAdk), the etiological agent responsible for the infectious disease melioidosis. The general structure of apo BpAdk is similar to other Adk structures, composed of a CORE subdomain with peripheral ATP-binding (ATP{sub bd}) and LID subdomains. The two molecules in the asymmetric unit have significantly different conformations, with a backbone RMSD of 1.46 {angstrom}. These two BpAdk conformations may represent 'open' Adk sub-states along the preferential pathway to the 'closed' substrate-bound state.

  11. Harvesting water wave energy by asymmetric screening of electrostatic charges on a nanostructured hydrophobic thin-film surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guang; Su, Yuanjie; Bai, Peng; Chen, Jun; Jing, Qingshen; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-06-24

    Energy harvesting from ambient water motions is a desirable but underexplored solution to on-site energy demand for self-powered electronics. Here we report a liquid-solid electrification-enabled generator based on a fluorinated ethylene propylene thin film, below which an array of electrodes are fabricated. The surface of the thin film is charged first due to the water-solid contact electrification. Aligned nanowires created on the thin film make it hydrophobic and also increase the surface area. Then the asymmetric screening to the surface charges by the waving water during emerging and submerging processes causes the free electrons on the electrodes to flow through an external load, resulting in power generation. The generator produces sufficient output power for driving an array of small electronics during direct interaction with water bodies, including surface waves and falling drops. Polymer-nanowire-based surface modification increases the contact area at the liquid-solid interface, leading to enhanced surface charging density and thus electric output at an efficiency of 7.7%. Our planar-structured generator features an all-in-one design without separate and movable components for capturing and transmitting mechanical energy. It has extremely lightweight and small volume, making it a portable, flexible, and convenient power solution that can be applied on the ocean/river surface, at coastal/offshore areas, and even in rainy places. Considering the demonstrated scalability, it can also be possibly used in large-scale energy generation if layers of planar sheets are connected into a network. PMID:24745893

  12. Fusion Energy Advisory Committee: Advice and recommendations to the US Department of Energy in response to the charge letter of September 1, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This document is a compilation of the written records that relate to the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee`s deliberations with regard to the Letter of Charge received from the Director of Energy Research, dated September 1, 1992. During its sixth meeting, held in March 1993, FEAC provided a detailed response to the charge contained in the letter of September 1, 1992. In particular, it responded to the paragraph: ``I would like the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC) to evaluate the Neutron Interactive Materials Program of the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE). Materials are required that will satisfy the service requirements of components in both inertial and magnetic fusion reactors -- including the performance, safety, economic, environmental, and recycle/waste management requirements. Given budget constraints, is our program optimized to achieve these goals for DEMO, as well as to support the near-term ITER program?`` Before FEAC could generate its response to the charge in the form of a letter report, one member, Dr. Parker, expressed severe concerns over one of the conclusions that the committee had reached during the meeting. It proved necessary to resolve the issue in public debate, and the matter was reviewed by FEAC for a second time, during its seventh meeting, held in mid-April, 1993. In order to help it to respond to this charge in a timely manner, FEAC established a working group, designated Panel No. 6, which reviewed the depth and breadth of the US materials program, and its interactions and collaborations with international programs. The panel prepared background material, included in this report as Appendix I, to help FEAC in its deliberations.

  13. Fusion Energy Advisory Committee: Advice and recommendations to the US Department of Energy in response to the charge letter of September 1, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a compilation of the written records that relate to the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee's deliberations with regard to the Letter of Charge received from the Director of Energy Research, dated September 1, 1992. During its sixth meeting, held in March 1993, FEAC provided a detailed response to the charge contained in the letter of September 1, 1992. In particular, it responded to the paragraph: ''I would like the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC) to evaluate the Neutron Interactive Materials Program of the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE). Materials are required that will satisfy the service requirements of components in both inertial and magnetic fusion reactors -- including the performance, safety, economic, environmental, and recycle/waste management requirements. Given budget constraints, is our program optimized to achieve these goals for DEMO, as well as to support the near-term ITER program?'' Before FEAC could generate its response to the charge in the form of a letter report, one member, Dr. Parker, expressed severe concerns over one of the conclusions that the committee had reached during the meeting. It proved necessary to resolve the issue in public debate, and the matter was reviewed by FEAC for a second time, during its seventh meeting, held in mid-April, 1993. In order to help it to respond to this charge in a timely manner, FEAC established a working group, designated Panel No. 6, which reviewed the depth and breadth of the US materials program, and its interactions and collaborations with international programs. The panel prepared background material, included in this report as Appendix I, to help FEAC in its deliberations

  14. Suppression of Divergence of Low Energy Ion Beams by Space Charge Neutralization with Low Energy Electrons Emitted from Field Emitter Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suppression of divergence of low energy neon ion beam was experimentally demonstrated by neutralizing the space charge of ion beam with low energy electrons emitted from silicon field emitter arrays (Si-FEAs). Treatment of the FEAs with trifluoromethane plasma realized surface carbonization which was efficient to elongate the lifetime of the FEA and to improve the electron energy distribution. Together with the improvement of the performance of Si-FEA, we have developed a novel electron deceleration system to produce low energy electrons. A low energy neon ion beam was produced and the beam property was investigated with and without the electron supply from surface carbonized Si-FEA (Si:C-FEA). As a result, the divergence of the neon ion beam was largely suppressed with presence of the electrons.

  15. Carotenoid to chlorophyll energy transfer in the peridinin–chlorophyll-a–protein complex involves an intramolecular charge transfer state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigmantas, Donatas; Hiller, Roger G.; Sundström, Villy; Polívka, Tomáš

    2002-01-01

    Carotenoids are, along with chlorophylls, crucial pigments involved in light-harvesting processes in photosynthetic organisms. Details of carotenoid to chlorophyll energy transfer mechanisms and their dependence on structural variability of carotenoids are as yet poorly understood. Here, we employ femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy to reveal energy transfer pathways in the peridinin–chlorophyll-a–protein (PCP) complex containing the highly substituted carotenoid peridinin, which includes an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state in its excited state manifold. Extending the transient absorption spectra toward near-infrared region (600–1800 nm) allowed us to separate contributions from different low-lying excited states of peridinin. The results demonstrate a special light-harvesting strategy in the PCP complex that uses the ICT state of peridinin to enhance energy transfer efficiency. PMID:12486228

  16. A numerical model for charge transport and energy conversion of perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yecheng; Gray-Weale, Angus

    2016-02-14

    Based on the continuity equations and Poisson's equation, we developed a numerical model for perovskite solar cells. Due to different working mechanisms, the model for perovskite solar cells differs from that of silicon solar cells and Dye Sensitized Solar Cells. The output voltage and current are calculated differently, and in a manner suited in particular to perovskite organohalides. We report a test of our equations against experiment with good agreement. Using this numerical model, it was found that performances of solar cells increase with charge carrier's lifetimes, mobilities and diffusion lengths. The open circuit voltage (Voc) of a solar cell is dependent on light intensities, and charge carrier lifetimes. Diffusion length and light intensity determine the saturated current (Jsc). Additionally, three possible guidelines for the design and fabrication of perovskite solar cells are suggested by our calculations. Lastly, we argue that concentrator perovskite solar cells are promising.

  17. Recovering Swift-XRT energy resolution through CCD charge trap mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Pagani, C; Beardmore, A. P.; Abbey, A. F.; Mountford, C.; Osborne, J. P.; Capalbi, M.; Perri, M.; Angelini, L; Burrows, D. N.; S. Campana; Cusumano, G.; Evans, P A; Kennea, J. A.; A. Moretti(Fermilab, Batavia, IL, USA); Page, K. L.

    2011-01-01

    The X-ray telescope on board the Swift satellite for gamma-ray burst astronomy has been exposed to the radiation of the space environment since launch in November 2004. Radiation causes damage to the detector, with the generation of dark current and charge trapping sites that result in the degradation of the spectral resolution and an increase of the instrumental background. The Swift team has a dedicated calibration program with the goal of recovering a significant proportion of the lost spe...

  18. Inverse problem of the potential scattering of charged particles at fixed orbital angular momentum and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popushoi, M.N.

    1985-12-01

    This paper obtains expressions for recovering the central interaction potential of charged particles in the case when the interaction leads to multiplication of the S matrix defined in the complex plane of the Coulomb coupling constant by a rational S function. A study is made of the influence of the sign of the potential on the position of the poles of the S function and of the behavior of the phase shift.

  19. Experimental and Theoretical Study on Influence of Different Charging Structures on Blasting Vibration Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbin Gu; Zhenxiong Wang; Jianghai Chen; Jianqing Liu; Ming Lu

    2015-01-01

    As an important parameter in blasting design, charging structure directly influences blasting effect. Due to complex conditions of this blasting and excavating engineering in Jiangsu, China, the authors carried out comparative researches with coupling structure, air-decoupling structure, and water-decoupling structure. After collecting, comparing, and analyzing produced signals on blasting vibration, the authors summarized that when proportional distances are the same, water-decoupling struct...

  20. Charge and energy transfer in argon-core-neon-shell clusters irradiated by free-electron-laser pulses at 62 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugishima, A.; Iwayama, H.; Yase, S.; Murakami, H.; Nagaya, K.; Yao, M.; Fukuzawa, H.; Liu, X.-J.; Motomura, K.; Ueda, K.; Saito, N.; Foucar, L.; Rudenko, A.; Kurka, M.; Kühnel, K.-U.; Ullrich, J.; Czasch, A.; Dörner, R.; Feifel, R.; Nagasono, M.; Higashiya, A.; Yabashi, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Togashi, T.; Kimura, H.; Ohashi, H.

    2012-09-01

    The multiple ionization of Ar-core-Ne-shell clusters in intense extreme-ultraviolet laser pulses (λ˜62 nm) from the free-electron laser in Japan was investigated utilizing a momentum imaging technique. The Ar composition dependence of the kinetic energies and the yields of the fragment ions give evidence for charge transfer from the Ar core to the Ne shell. We have extended the uniformly charged sphere model originally applied to pristine clusters [Islam , Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.73.041201 73, 041201(R) (2006)] to the core-shell heterogeneous clusters to estimate the amounts of charge and energy transfers.

  1. Beam Energy Dependence of Moments of the Net-Charge Multiplicity Distributions in Au +Au Collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Banerjee, A.; Barnovska, Z.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Corliss, R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Grosnick, D.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hajkova, O.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lima, L. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Oliveira, R. A. N.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Plyku, D.; Poljak, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandacz, A.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; deSouza, U. G.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    We report the first measurements of the moments—mean (M), variance (σ2), skewness (S), and kurtosis (κ)—of the net-charge multiplicity distributions at midrapidity in Au +Au collisions at seven energies, ranging from √sNN =7.7 to 200 GeV, as a part of the Beam Energy Scan program at RHIC. The moments are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of net charge, and are sensitive to the location of the QCD critical point. We compare the products of the moments, σ2/M, Sσ, and κσ2, with the expectations from Poisson and negative binomial distributions (NBDs). The Sσ values deviate from the Poisson baseline and are close to the NBD baseline, while the κσ2 values tend to lie between the two. Within the present uncertainties, our data do not show nonmonotonic behavior as a function of collision energy. These measurements provide a valuable tool to extract the freeze-out parameters in heavy-ion collisions by comparing with theoretical models.

  2. A New Battery Energy Storage Charging/Discharging Scheme for Wind Power Producers in Real-Time Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Y Nguyen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Under a deregulated environment, wind power producers are subject to many regulation costs due to the intermittence of natural resources and the accuracy limits of existing prediction tools. This paper addresses the operation (charging/discharging problem of battery energy storage installed in a wind generation system in order to improve the value of wind power in the real-time market. Depending on the prediction of market prices and the probabilistic information of wind generation, wind power producers can schedule the battery energy storage for the next day in order to maximize the profit. In addition, by taking into account the expenses of using batteries, the proposed charging/discharging scheme is able to avoid the detrimental operation of battery energy storage which can lead to a significant reduction of battery lifetime, i.e., uneconomical operation. The problem is formulated in a dynamic programming framework and solved by a dynamic programming backward algorithm. The proposed scheme is then applied to the study cases, and the results of simulation show its effectiveness.

  3. Constraining the density dependence of the symmetry energy using the multiplicity and average $p_T$ ratios of charged pions

    CERN Document Server

    Cozma, M D

    2016-01-01

    The charged pion multiplicity ratio in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions, a probe of the density dependence of symmetry energy above the saturation point, has been proven in a previous study to be extremely sensitive to the strength of the isovector $\\Delta$(1232) potential in nuclear matter. As there is no current knowledge, either from theory or experiment, about the magnitude of this quantity, the extraction of constraints for the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation by using exclusively the mentioned observable is hindered at present. It is shown that, by including the ratio of average $p_T$ of charged pions $\\langle p_T^{(\\pi^+)}\\rangle/\\langle p_T^{(\\pi^-)}\\rangle$ in the list of fitted observables, the noted problem can be circumvented. A realistic description of this observable requires the accounting for the interaction of pions with the dense nuclear matter environment by the incorporation of the so called S-wave and P-wave pion optical potentials. This is performed within the framework...

  4. The interaction energy of charged filaments in an electrolyte: Results for all filament spacings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D A

    2011-05-01

    Electrically charged long-chain macromolecules in an electrolyte can form an ordered lattice whose spacing is greater than their diameter. If entropic effects are neglected, these nematic structures can be predicted from a balance of Coulomb repulsion and van-der-Waals attraction forces. To enhance the utility of such theories, this paper extends existing results for the interaction between charged filaments, and gives approximate formulae for the screened Coulomb and van-der-Waals potentials over the whole range of their centre-to-centre spacing d. The repulsive Coulomb potential is proportional to exp(-λd)/λd for all spacings when the Debye screening length 1/λ is smaller than the sum of the filament radii. The attractive van-der-Waals potential is asymptotic to d⁻⁵ at large d. For smaller spacings, the potential is calculated by numerical integration and compared with published formulae: the series expansion of Brenner and McQuarrie converges too slowly, whereas the interpolation formula of Moisescu provides reasonable accuracy over the whole range of d. Combining these potentials shows that there is a finite range of charge densities for which a nematic crystal lattice is stable, but this conclusion ignores entropic effects associated with motile filaments. The role of electrostatic forces in aligning filaments and stabilizing a nematic liquid-crystal phase is discussed, in conjunction with other mechanisms such as motor proteins, crosslinkers or scaffolding structures. PMID:21295590

  5. Charge exchange system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1978-01-01

    An improved charge exchange system for substantially reducing pumping requirements of excess gas in a controlled thermonuclear reactor high energy neutral beam injector. The charge exchange system utilizes a jet-type blanket which acts simultaneously as the charge exchange medium and as a shield for reflecting excess gas.

  6. Charge Exchange in Low-Energy H, D + C4+ Collisions with Full Account of Electron Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riera

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the anisotropy of the interaction potential on ion-diatom non-adiabatic collisions is analized by considering the influence of the anisotropy on orientation averaged total cross sections for charge transfer in H++H2(X1Σ+g collisions. We discuss the possibility of employing simpli ed methods such as an isotropic approximation, where only the electronic energies and interactions of a single orientation are necessary. The use of several isotropic calculations to evaluate the orientation averaged cross section is analized.

  7. Charge deep-level transient spectroscopy study of high-energy-electron-beam-irradiated hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Klaver, A.; Nádaždy, V.; Zeman, M.; Swaaiij, R.A.C.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of changes in the defect density of states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) due to high-energy electron irradiation using charged deep-level transient spectroscopy. It was found that defect states near the conduction band were removed, while in other band gap regions the defect-state density increased. A similar trend is observed for a-Si:H which has been subjected to light soaking, but in that case the majority of defect states are created around midgap, whereas ...

  8. Model calculation of the charge transfer in low-energy He{sup +} scattering from metallic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.A. [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, CC91, 3000, Santa Fe (Argentina); Bolcatto, P.G. [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, CC91, 3000, Santa Fe (Argentina)]|[Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000, Santa Fe (Argentina); Goldberg, E.C. [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, CC91, 3000, Santa Fe (Argentina)

    1995-12-15

    Charge-transfer mechanisms in low-energy helium-scattering spectroscopy are analyzed by using an Anderson-like description of the time-dependent collisional process, which allows us to include several electronic bands of extended and localized nature in the solid. The Hamiltonian parameters are obtained from a Hartree-Fock self-consistent-field calculation of the He-target atom dimeric system. We examine in particular cases such as Ca and Ga linear chain substrates. We found that at velocities large enough, the localized state in the solid contributes to the He{sup +} neutralization, showing the characteristic oscillatory behavior of the nonadiabatic charge exchange between localized states, in agreement with other calculations. In the range of low velocities we found that if the hybridization between the He orbital and the localized states in the solid is able to produce the formation of an antibonding state having a predominant weight of the He-1{ital s} orbital, this promotes the charge exchange between the Helium and the extended bandstates of the solid.

  9. Charge-exchange scattering to the isobaric analog state at medium energies as a probe of the neutron skin

    CERN Document Server

    Loc, Bui Minh; Zegers, R G T

    2014-01-01

    The charge-exchange (3He,t) scattering to the isobaric analog state (IAS) of the target can be considered as "elastic" scattering of 3He by the isovector term of the optical potential (OP) that flips the projectile isospin. Therefore, the accurately measured charge-exchange scattering cross- section for the IAS can be a good probe of the isospin dependence of the OP, which is determined exclusively within the folding model by the difference between the neutron and proton densities and isospin dependence of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Given the neutron skin of the target is related directly to the same density difference, it can be well probed in the analysis of the charge- exchange (3He,t) reactions at medium energies when the two-step processes can be neglected and the t-matrix interaction can be used in the folding calculation. For this purpose, the data of the (3He,t) scattering to the IAS of 90Zr and 208Pb targets at Elab = 420 MeV have been analyzed in the distorted wave Born approximation using the...

  10. Path ensembles for conformational transitions in adenylate kinase using weighted--ensemble path sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatt, Divesh

    2009-01-01

    We perform first path sampling simulations of conformational transitions of semi--atomistic protein models. We generate an ensemble of pathways for conformational transitions between open and closed forms of adenylate kinase using weighted ensemble path sampling method. Such an ensemble of pathways is critical in determining the important regions of configuration space sampled during a transition. To different semi--atomistic models are used: one is a pure Go model, whereas the other includes level of residue specificity via use of Miyajawa--Jernigan type interactions and hydrogen bonding. For both the models, we find that the open form of adenylate kinase is more flexible and the the transition from open to close is significantly faster than the reverse transition. We find that the transition occurs via the AMP binding domain snapping shut at a fairly fast time scale. On the other hand, the flexible lid domain fluctuates significantly and the shutting of the AMP binding domain does not depend upon the positi...

  11. The role of transcriptional regulation in maintaining the availability of mycobacterial adenylate cyclases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Casey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium species have a complex cAMP regulatory network indicated by the high number of adenylate cyclases annotated in their genomes. However the need for a high level of redundancy in adenylate cyclase genes remains unknown. We have used semiquantitiative RT-PCR to examine the expression of eight Mycobacterium smegmatis cyclases with orthologs in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, where cAMP has recently been shown to be important for virulence. All eight cyclases were transcribed in all environments tested, and only four demonstrated environmental-mediated changes in transcription. M. smegmatis genes MSMEG_0545 and MSMEG_4279 were upregulated during starvation conditions while MSMEG_0545 and MSMEG_4924 were downregulated in H2O2 and MSMEG_3780 was downregulated in low pH and starvation. Promoter fusion constructs containing M. tuberculosis H37Rv promoters showed consistent regulation compared to their M. smegmatis orthologs. Overall our findings indicate that while low levels of transcriptional regulation occur, regulation at the mRNA level does not play a major role in controlling cellular cyclase availability in a given environment.

  12. The effect of adrenergic receptor—adenyl cyclase system on myocardial ischemic preconditioning in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANXiao-Li; LANJi-Cheng; 等

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the effects of every part of adrenergic receptor-adenyl cyclase system on ischemic preconditioning of myocardium in rats in vivo,SD rats were divided into three groups:IP group,I/R group and CON group.Rate were received surgical procedure and undergone left coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion.Hearts were extracted to analyze the infarct size by TTC staining,to measure serum myocardial enzymes,to study β-AR Bamx and Kd by radioligand binding assay of receptors(RAB),and to check the activity of AC and the content of cAMP by radioimmunoassay(RIA).The infarct area was found much smaller in IP group than I/R group(P<0.001);CK,CK-MB and LDH were found significantly higher in I/R group (P<0.001),The Bmax of β-AR in IP group were higher than in I/R group (P<0.001), No difference of Kd could be seen between IP and I/R group,In IP group,the activity of Ac and the content of cAMP were higher than I/R group(P<0.05 and 0.001,respectively).It is concluded that ischemic preconditioning can protect the hearts from necrosis and reduce endo-enzyme leakage.The system of adrenergic receptor-adenyl cyclase system probably takes part in the protection of the IP.

  13. Leveraging the Mechanism of Oxidative Decay for Adenylate Kinase to Design Structural and Functional Resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Stanley C; Richards, David H; Mitch, William A; Wilson, Corey J

    2015-10-16

    Characterization of the mechanisms underlying hypohalous acid (i.e., hypochlorous acid or hypobromous acid) degradation of proteins is important for understanding how the immune system deactivates pathogens during infections and damages human tissues during inflammatory diseases. Proteins are particularly important hypohalous acid reaction targets in pathogens and in host tissues, as evidenced by the detection of chlorinated and brominated oxidizable residues. While a significant amount of work has been conducted for reactions of hypohalous acids with a range of individual amino acids and small peptides, the assessment of oxidative decay in full-length proteins has lagged in comparison. The most rigorous test of our understanding of oxidative decay of proteins is the rational redesign of proteins with conferred resistances to the decay of structure and function. Toward this end, in this study, we experimentally determined a putative mechanism of oxidative decay using adenylate kinase as the model system. In turn, we leveraged this mechanism to rationally design new proteins and experimentally test each system for oxidative resistance to loss of structure and function. From our extensive assessment of secondary structure, protein hydrodynamics, and enzyme activity upon hypochlorous acid or hypobromous acid challenge, we have identified two key strategies for conferring structural and functional resistance, namely, the design of proteins (adenylate kinase enzymes) that are resistant to oxidation requires complementary consideration of protein stability and the modification (elimination) of certain oxidizable residues proximal to catalytic sites. PMID:26266833

  14. Identification of Adenyl Cyclase Activity in a Disease Resistance Protein in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Hussein, Rana

    2012-11-01

    Cyclic nucleotide, cAMP, is an important signaling molecule in animals and plants. However, in plants the enzymes that synthesize this second messenger, adenyl cyclases (ACs), remain elusive. Given the physiological importance of cAMP in signaling, particularly in response to biotic and abiotic stresses, it is thus important to identify and characterize ACs in higher plants. Using computational approaches, a disease resistance protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, At3g04220 was found to have an AC catalytic center motif. In an attempt to prove that this candidate has adenyl cyclases activity in vitro, the coding sequence of the putative AC catalytic domain of this protein was cloned and expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein was purified. The nucleotide cyclase activity of the recombinant protein was examined using cyclic nucleotide enzyme immunoassays. In parallel, the expression of At3g04220 was measured in leaves under three different stress conditions in order to determine under which conditions the disease resistance protein could function. Results show that the purified recombinant protein has Mn2+ dependent AC activity in vitro, and the expression analysis supports a role for At3g04220 and cAMP in plant defense.

  15. Full charge-density calculation of the surface energy of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitos, Levente; Kollár, J..; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1994-01-01

    We have calculated the surface energy and the work function of the 4d metals by means of an energy functional based on a self-consistent, spherically symmetric atomic-sphere potential. In this approach the kinetic energy is calculated completely within the atomic-sphere approximation (ASA) by mea...

  16. Fast Charging Battery Buses for the Electrification of Urban Public Transport—A Feasibility Study Focusing on Charging Infrastructure and Energy Storage Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Rogge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrification of public transport bus networks can be carried out utilizing different technological solutions, like trolley, battery or fuel cell buses. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how and to what extent existing bus networks can be electrified with fast charging battery buses. The so called opportunity chargers use mainly the regular dwell time at the stops to charge their batteries. This results in a strong linkage between the vehicle scheduling and the infrastructure planning. The analysis is based on real-world data of the bus network in Muenster, a mid-sized city in Germany. The outcomes underline the necessity to focus on entire vehicle schedules instead on individual trips. The tradeoff between required battery capacity and charging power is explained in detail. Furthermore, the impact on the electricity grid is discussed based on the load profiles of a selected charging station and a combined load profile of the entire network.

  17. Sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites with high energy density and great charge-discharge efficiency at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Liu, Feihua; Yang, Tiannan; Gadinski, Matthew R; Zhang, Guangzu; Chen, Long-Qing; Wang, Qing

    2016-09-01

    The demand for a new generation of high-temperature dielectric materials toward capacitive energy storage has been driven by the rise of high-power applications such as electric vehicles, aircraft, and pulsed power systems where the power electronics are exposed to elevated temperatures. Polymer dielectrics are characterized by being lightweight, and their scalability, mechanical flexibility, high dielectric strength, and great reliability, but they are limited to relatively low operating temperatures. The existing polymer nanocomposite-based dielectrics with a limited energy density at high temperatures also present a major barrier to achieving significant reductions in size and weight of energy devices. Here we report the sandwich structures as an efficient route to high-temperature dielectric polymer nanocomposites that simultaneously possess high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss. In contrast to the conventional single-layer configuration, the rationally designed sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites are capable of integrating the complementary properties of spatially organized multicomponents in a synergistic fashion to raise dielectric constant, and subsequently greatly improve discharged energy densities while retaining low loss and high charge-discharge efficiency at elevated temperatures. At 150 °C and 200 MV m(-1), an operating condition toward electric vehicle applications, the sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites outperform the state-of-the-art polymer-based dielectrics in terms of energy density, power density, charge-discharge efficiency, and cyclability. The excellent dielectric and capacitive properties of the polymer nanocomposites may pave a way for widespread applications in modern electronics and power modules where harsh operating conditions are present. PMID:27551101

  18. Centrality and energy dependence of charged-particle multiplicities in heavy ion collisions in the context of elementary reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. Van; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2006-08-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured the total multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of collision centrality in Au+Au collisions at sNN= 19.6, 130, and 200 GeV. An approximate independence of / on the number of participating nucleons is observed, reminiscent of “wounded nucleon” scaling (Nch∝Npart) observed in proton-nucleus collisions. Unlike p+A, the constant of proportionality does not seem to be set by the pp/p¯p data at the same energy. Rather, there seems to be a surprising correspondence with the total multiplicity measured in e+e- annihilations, as well as the rapidity shape measured over a large range. The energy dependence of the integrated multiplicity per participant pair shows that e+e- and A+A data agree over a large range of center-of-mass energies (s>20 GeV), and pp/p¯p data can be brought to agree approximately with the e+e- data by correcting for the typical energy taken away by leading particles. This is suggestive of a mechanism for soft particle production that depends mainly on the amount of available energy. It is conjectured that the dominant distinction between A+A and p+p collisions is the multiple collisions per participant, which appears to be sufficient to substantially reduce the energy taken away by leading particles.

  19. Fast Charging Battery Buses for the Electrification of Urban Public Transport : A Feasibility Study Focusing on Charging Infrastructure and Energy Storage Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Rogge; Sebastian Wollny; Dirk Uwe Sauer

    2015-01-01

    The electrification of public transport bus networks can be carried out utilizing different technological solutions, like trolley, battery or fuel cell buses. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how and to what extent existing bus networks can be electrified with fast charging battery buses. The so called opportunity chargers use mainly the regular dwell time at the stops to charge their batteries. This results in a strong linkage between the vehicle scheduling and the infrastructure plan...

  20. Accurate Detection of Adenylation Domain Functions in Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases by an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay System Using Active Site-directed Probes for Adenylation Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Fumihiro; Miyamoto, Kengo; Konno, Sho; Kasai, Shota; Kakeya, Hideaki

    2015-12-18

    A significant gap exists between protein engineering and enzymes used for the biosynthesis of natural products, largely because there is a paucity of strategies that rapidly detect active-site phenotypes of the enzymes with desired activities. Herein, we describe a proof-of-concept study of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system for the adenylation (A) domains in nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) using a combination of active site-directed probes coupled to a 5'-O-N-(aminoacyl)sulfamoyladenosine scaffold with a biotin functionality that immobilizes probe molecules onto a streptavidin-coated solid support. The recombinant NRPSs have a C-terminal His-tag motif that is targeted by an anti-6×His mouse antibody as the primary antibody and a horseradish peroxidase-linked goat antimouse antibody as the secondary antibody. These probes can selectively capture the cognate A domains by ligand-directed targeting. In addition, the ELISA technique detected A domains in the crude cell-free homogenates from the Escherichia coli expression systems. When coupled with a chromogenic substrate, the antibody-based ELISA technique can visualize probe-protein binding interactions, which provides accurate readouts of the A-domain functions in NRPS enzymes. To assess the ELISA-based engineering of the A domains of NRPSs, we reprogramed 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB)-activating enzyme EntE toward salicylic acid (Sal)-activating enzymes and investigated a correlation between binding properties for probe molecules and enzyme catalysts. We generated a mutant of EntE that displayed negligible loss in the kcat/Km value with the noncognate substrate Sal and a corresponding 48-fold decrease in the kcat/Km value with the cognate substrate DHB. The resulting 26-fold switch in substrate specificity was achieved by the replacement of a Ser residue in the active site of EntE with a Cys toward the nonribosomal codes of Sal-activating enzymes. Bringing a laboratory ELISA technique

  1. Accurate Detection of Adenylation Domain Functions in Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases by an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay System Using Active Site-directed Probes for Adenylation Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Fumihiro; Miyamoto, Kengo; Konno, Sho; Kasai, Shota; Kakeya, Hideaki

    2015-12-18

    A significant gap exists between protein engineering and enzymes used for the biosynthesis of natural products, largely because there is a paucity of strategies that rapidly detect active-site phenotypes of the enzymes with desired activities. Herein, we describe a proof-of-concept study of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system for the adenylation (A) domains in nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) using a combination of active site-directed probes coupled to a 5'-O-N-(aminoacyl)sulfamoyladenosine scaffold with a biotin functionality that immobilizes probe molecules onto a streptavidin-coated solid support. The recombinant NRPSs have a C-terminal His-tag motif that is targeted by an anti-6×His mouse antibody as the primary antibody and a horseradish peroxidase-linked goat antimouse antibody as the secondary antibody. These probes can selectively capture the cognate A domains by ligand-directed targeting. In addition, the ELISA technique detected A domains in the crude cell-free homogenates from the Escherichia coli expression systems. When coupled with a chromogenic substrate, the antibody-based ELISA technique can visualize probe-protein binding interactions, which provides accurate readouts of the A-domain functions in NRPS enzymes. To assess the ELISA-based engineering of the A domains of NRPSs, we reprogramed 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB)-activating enzyme EntE toward salicylic acid (Sal)-activating enzymes and investigated a correlation between binding properties for probe molecules and enzyme catalysts. We generated a mutant of EntE that displayed negligible loss in the kcat/Km value with the noncognate substrate Sal and a corresponding 48-fold decrease in the kcat/Km value with the cognate substrate DHB. The resulting 26-fold switch in substrate specificity was achieved by the replacement of a Ser residue in the active site of EntE with a Cys toward the nonribosomal codes of Sal-activating enzymes. Bringing a laboratory ELISA technique

  2. Fusion Energy Advisory Committee: Advice and recommendations to the Department of Energy in partial response to the Charge Letter of September 24, 1991: Part A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a compilation of the written records that relate to the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee's initial deliberations with regard to the Letter of Charge received from the Director of Energy Research, dated September 24, 1991. In particular. during its first meeting in September 1991, FEAC provided its initial response to the three points of charge, which are outlined below: ''I would like to explore seriously the programmatic implications of this recommendation under two budget scenarios -- a constant dollar budget for magnetic fusion through FY 1996 and a budget at 5% real growth per year through FY 1996. I am therefore charging FEAC to advise me on the following questions. Identify how available funds now used for BPX, as well as a modest increase (described above) could be used to strengthen the eidsting base program for magnetic fusion research; within the above envelope of funding, identify what follow-on experimental devices for the US fusion program might be planned for use after the completion of experiments at TF-RR and before the planned start of ITER operation. For such devices, indicate how they would fit into the international fusion program; and what should be the US position on the appropriate scope, timing, and mission of ITER if BPX does not go forward?

  3. Fusion Energy Advisory Committee: Advice and recommendations to the Department of Energy in partial response to the Charge Letter of September 24, 1991: Part C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a compilation of the written records that relate to the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee's deliberations with regard to the Letter of Charge received from the Director of Energy Research, dated September 24, 1991. During its third meeting, held in March 1992, FEAC provided a detailed response to that part of the charge that pertained to the period between the cessation of experiments on TFTR and the startup of experiments on ITER. In particular, it responded to the paragraph: ''By March 1992, 1 would like your views on how to fill the gap between the completion of TFTR work and the planned start of ITER operation. In addressing this issue, please include consideration of international collaboration, both here and abroad.'' In order to respond to this charge in a timely manner, FEAC established a working group, designated ''Panel number-sign 2'', which reviewed the proposed ITER program in detail and prepared background material, included in this report as Appendix II, to help FEAC in its deliberations

  4. Fusion Energy Advisory Committee: Advice and recommendations to the Department of Energy in partial response to the Charge Letter of September 24, 1991: Part B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a compilation of the written records that relate to the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee's deliberations with regard to the Letter of Charge received from the Director of Energy Research, dated September 24, 1991. During its second meeting, held in February 1992, FEAC provided a detailed response to that part of the charge that pertained to ITER. In particular, it responded to the paragraph: ''Then, by January 1992, 1 would like to have your recommendations on the appropriate scope and mission of ITER and any suggestions you can make to lower its cost or accelerate its schedule. At the same time, I would like your recommendations on the relative importance to the United States of the various ITER technology tasks, on the role and level of US industrial involvement in the ITER engineering design activity, and on the balance between ITER project-specific R ampersand D and the base program. In order to respond to this charge in a timely manner, FEAC established a working group, designated ''Panel 1'', which reviewed the proposed ITER program in detail and prepared background material, included in this report as Appendix II, to help FEAC in its deliberations

  5. Observation of Energy Dependent Charge States in Impulsive Solar Energetic Particle Events with ACE SEPICA and Implications on Source Conditions and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z.; Moebius, E.; Difabio, R.; Klecker, B.; Kartavykh, J.; Mason, G.; Droege, W.; Kucharek, H.; Popecki, M.

    2008-05-01

    The ionic charge states of Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events provide information both about the plasma environment of the flare site and the propagation process of the energetic particles. We have performed a survey of the charge state behavior for impulsive flare-related SEP events with ACE SEPICA from 1998 through 2000. This event set has been selected by eliminating all CME and shock-related events, out of which two thirds showed a short time injection with recognizable energy dispersion, an independent sign for impulsive events. However, all events in this survey also showed a strong energy dependence of the ionic charge state of heavy ions, most pronounced for iron. Based on the finding that this energy dependence is very similar for all events with and without obvious injection, we then expanded the database to all events with a charge state increase for iron by at least 2.5 units, within the energy range from 0.06 to 0.54 Mev/nuc. For the combined set of 34 impulsive events we find that the source temperature is constrained by the lowest energy charge state to 1-3 million K. In combination with models on interplanetary propagation, including scattering, convection and adiabatic deceleration, a systematic study of the observed Fe charge state behavior is consistent with a range of mean free path lengths of 0.1 - 1 AU for these energetic particles. Further implications on the propagation and acceleration conditions are discussed.

  6. Ionization and charge transfer in high-energy ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron capture and loss by fast highly charged ions in a gas target, and ionization of the target by passage of the fast projectile beam, are fundamental processes in atomic physics. These processes, along with excitation, can be experimentally studied separately (''singles'') or together (''coincidence''). This paper is a review of recent results on singles measurements for electron capture and loss and for target ionization, for velocities which are generally high relative to the active electron, including recent ionization measurements for a nearly relativistic projectile. 11 refs., 6 figs

  7. The noise performance of electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices at X-ray energies

    OpenAIRE

    Tutt, James H.; Holland, Andrew D.; Hall, David J.; Harriss, Richard D.; Murray, Neil J.

    2012-01-01

    Electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (EMCCDs) are used in low-light-level (L3) applications for detecting optical, ultraviolet, and near-infrared photons (10–1100 nm). The on-chip gain process is able to increase the detectability of any signal collected by the device through the multiplication of the signal before the output node. Thus, the effective readout noise can be reduced to subelectron levels, allowing the detection of single photons. However, this gain process introduces an a...

  8. Beam-Energy Dependence of Charge Balance Functions from Au+Au Collisions at RHIC

    OpenAIRE

    STAR Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Balance functions have been measured in terms of relative pseudorapidity ($\\Delta \\eta$) for charged particle pairs at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) from Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 7.7 GeV to 200 GeV using the STAR detector. These results are compared with balance functions measured at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. The width of the balance function decreases as the collisions beco...

  9. Energy Recovery from a Space-Charge Neutralized Positive Ion Beam by Means of Magnetic Electron Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Philip Michael

    The charge-exchange neutralization efficiency of positive ion based neutral beams used in plasma heating applications decreases as the beam energy increases. Direct energy recovery from the charged particles can be accomplished by electrostatically decelerating the positive ions; the problem is to effect this without accelerating the space -charge neutralizing electrons residing in the beam. Prior work with both electrostatic and magnetic electron suppression is reviewed. A finite difference ion optics code which solves the nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson equation is adapted to energy recovery application and used to analyze the transverse magnetic field electron suppression experiments carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1980 and 1982. Three numerical models are discussed and evaluated. The double plasma model, which assumes an equilibrium Boltzmann distribution of electrons at both the neutralizer potential and the ion collector potential, most successfully duplicates the experimental results with beams in the 40 keV, 10 A range. It is used to analyze the effects of the magnetic field strength, the ion "boost" energy, and the ion beam current density on the ion collection efficiency. Conclusions of the study are: (1) the electron leakage current scales as B('-1), necessitating magnetic suppression fields in excess of 0.1 tesla; (2) the neutralizer geometry should provide an electrostatic field to counteract the magnetic force on the ions; (3) fractional energy beam ions should be confined to the neutralizer interior; (4) the neutral line density in the recovery region should be less than 3 x 10('-3) torr(.)cm. Recovery efficiency decreases with increasing beam current density; a net recovery efficiency of 30% (ion collection efficiency of 75%) at 5 mA/cm('2) falls to zero at 10 mA/cm('2) for a 40 keV beam. New designs are presented and analyzed: an ion collection efficiency of close to 90% is predicted for an 80 keV D ion beam with an ion current

  10. Stretchable and Waterproof Self-Charging Power System for Harvesting Energy from Diverse Deformation and Powering Wearable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fang; Wang, Jie; Wang, Xiaofeng; Niu, Simiao; Li, Shengming; Liao, Qingliang; Xu, Youlong; You, Zheng; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-07-26

    A soft, stretchable, and fully enclosed self-charging power system is developed by seamlessly combining a stretchable triboelectric nanogenerator with stretchable supercapacitors, which can be subject to and harvest energy from almost all kinds of large-degree deformation due to its fully soft structure. The power system is washable and waterproof owing to its fully enclosed structure and hydrophobic property of its exterior surface. The power system can be worn on the human body to effectively scavenge energy from various kinds of human motion, and it is demonstrated that the wearable power source is able to drive an electronic watch. This work provides a feasible approach to design stretchable, wearable power sources and electronics. PMID:27351212

  11. Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in Pb–Pb collisions at super proton synchrotron energies from the NA50 experiment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marek Idzik; M C Abreu; B Alessandro; C Alexa; R Arnaldi; M Atayan; C Baglin; A Baldit; M Bedjidian; S Beolè; V Boldea; P Bordalo; G Borges; A Bussière; L Capelli; C Castanier; J Castor; B Chaurand; I Chevrot; B Cheynis; E Chiavassa; C Cicalò; T Claudino; M P Comets; N Constans; S Constantinescu; P Cortese; A De Falco; N De Marco; G Dellacasa; A Devaux; S Dita; O Drapier; L Ducroux; B Espagnon; J Fargeix; P Force; M Gallio; Y K Gavrilov; C Gerschel; P Giubellino; M B Golubeva; M Gonin; A A Grigorian; S Grigorian; J Y Grossiord; F F Guber; A Guichard; H Gulkanyan; R Hakobyan; R Haroutunian; M Idzik; D Jouan; T L Karavitcheva; L Kluberg; A B Kurepin; Y Le Bornee; C Lourenço; P Macciotta; M Mac Cormick; A Marzari-Chiesa; M Masera; A Masoni; M Monteno; A Musso; P Petiau; A Piccotti; J R Pizzi; W L Prado da Silva; F Prino; G Puddu; C Quintans; L Ramello; S Ramos; P Rato Mendes; L Riccati; A Romana; H Santos; P Saturnini; E Scalas; E Scomparin; S Serci; R Shahoyan; F Sigaudo; S Silva; M Sitta; P Sonderegger; X Tarrago; N S Topilskaya; G L Usai; E Vercellin; L Villatte; N Willis; NA50 Collaboration

    2003-05-01

    We present the measurements of charged particle pseudorapidity distributions dch/d performed by the NA50 experiment in Pb–Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. Measurements were done at incident energies of 40 GeV ($\\sqrt{s}=8.77$ GeV) and 158 GeV ($\\sqrt{s}=17.3$ GeV) per nucleon over a broad impact parameter range. The multiplicity distributions are studied as a function of centrality using the number of participating nucleons (part), or the number of binary nucleon–nucleon collisions (coll). Their values at midrapidity exhibit a linear scaling with part at both energies. Particle yield increases approximately by a factor of 2 between $\\sqrt{s}=8.77$ GeV and $\\sqrt{s}=17.3$ GeV.

  12. Hydrodynamic description for the pseudorapidity distributions of the charged particles produced in nucleus + nucleus collisions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using the revised Landau hydrodynamic model and taking into account the effect of leading particles, we discuss the pseudorapidity distributions of the charged particles produced in high energy heavy-ion collisions. The leading particles are assumed to have the rapidity distributions with Gaussian forms with the normalization constant being equal to the number of participants, which can be figured out in theory. The results from the revised Landau hydrodynamic model, together with the contributions from leading particles, were found to be consistent with the experimental data obtained by the PHOBOS Collaboration on RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory) in different centrality Cu + Cu and Au + Au collisions at high energies.

  13. Exciton Recombination, Energy-, and Charge Transfer in Single- and Multilayer Quantum-Dot Films on Silver Plasmonic Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Taeho; Cho, Kyung-Sang; Yun, Dong-Jin; Kim, Jinwoo; Li, Xiang-Shu; Moon, Eui-Seong; Baik, Chan-Wook; Il Kim, Sun; Kim, Miyoung; Choi, Jun Hee; Park, Gyeong-Su; Shin, Jai-Kwang; Hwang, Sungwoo; Jung, Tae-Sung

    2016-05-01

    We examine exciton recombination, energy-, and charge transfer in multilayer CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) on silver plasmonic resonators using photoluminescence (PL) and excitation spectroscopy along with kinetic modeling and simulations. The exciton dynamics including all the processes are strongly affected by the separation distance between QDs and silver resonators, excitation wavelength, and QD film thickness. For a direct contact or very small distance, interfacial charge transfer and tunneling dominate over intrinsic radiative recombination and exciton energy transfer to surface plasmons (SPs), resulting in PL suppression. With increasing distance, however, tunneling diminishes dramatically, while long-range exciton-SP coupling takes place much faster (>6.5 ns) than intrinsic recombination (~200 ns) causing considerable PL enhancement. The exciton-SP coupling strength shows a strong dependence on excitation wavelengths, suggesting the state-specific dynamics of excitons and the down-conversion of surface plasmons involved. The overlayers as well as the bottom monolayer of QD multilayers exhibit significant PL enhancement mainly through long-range exciton-SP coupling. The overall emission behaviors from single- and multilayer QD films on silver resonators are described quantitatively by a photophysical kinetic model and simulations. The present experimental and simulation results provide important and useful design rules for QD-based light harvesting applications using the exciton-surface plasmon coupling.

  14. Exciton Recombination, Energy-, and Charge Transfer in Single- and Multilayer Quantum-Dot Films on Silver Plasmonic Resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Taeho; Cho, Kyung-Sang; Yun, Dong-Jin; Kim, Jinwoo; Li, Xiang-Shu; Moon, Eui-Seong; Baik, Chan-Wook; Il Kim, Sun; Kim, Miyoung; Choi, Jun Hee; Park, Gyeong-Su; Shin, Jai-Kwang; Hwang, Sungwoo; Jung, Tae-Sung

    2016-01-01

    We examine exciton recombination, energy-, and charge transfer in multilayer CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) on silver plasmonic resonators using photoluminescence (PL) and excitation spectroscopy along with kinetic modeling and simulations. The exciton dynamics including all the processes are strongly affected by the separation distance between QDs and silver resonators, excitation wavelength, and QD film thickness. For a direct contact or very small distance, interfacial charge transfer and tunneling dominate over intrinsic radiative recombination and exciton energy transfer to surface plasmons (SPs), resulting in PL suppression. With increasing distance, however, tunneling diminishes dramatically, while long-range exciton-SP coupling takes place much faster (>6.5 ns) than intrinsic recombination (~200 ns) causing considerable PL enhancement. The exciton-SP coupling strength shows a strong dependence on excitation wavelengths, suggesting the state-specific dynamics of excitons and the down-conversion of surface plasmons involved. The overlayers as well as the bottom monolayer of QD multilayers exhibit significant PL enhancement mainly through long-range exciton-SP coupling. The overall emission behaviors from single- and multilayer QD films on silver resonators are described quantitatively by a photophysical kinetic model and simulations. The present experimental and simulation results provide important and useful design rules for QD-based light harvesting applications using the exciton-surface plasmon coupling. PMID:27184469

  15. Wind Energy Based Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Sitting. A GIS/Wind Resource Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Xydis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transportation sector is severely correlated with major problems in environment, citizens’ health, climate and economy. Issues such as traffic, fuel cost and parking space have make life more difficult, especially in the dense urban environment. Thus, there is a great need for the development of the electric vehicle (EV sector. The number of cars in cities has increased so much that the current transportation system (roads, parking places, traffic lights, etc. cannot accommodate them properly. The increasing number of vehicles does not affect only humans but also the environment, through air and noise pollution. According to EPA, the 39.2% of total gas emissions in 2007 was caused by transportation activities. Studies have shown that the pollutants are not only gathered in the major roads and/or highways but can travel depending on the meteorological conditions leading to generic pollution. The promotion of EVs and the charging stations are both equally required to be further developed in order EVs to move out of the cities and finally confront the range problem. In this work, a wind resource and a GIS analysis optimizes in a wider area the sitting of wind based charging stations and proposes an optimizing methodology.

  16. I. Charge exchange collisions of highly stripped ions with atomic hydrogen. II. Development of a three-stage double tandem accelerator-decelerator system for low energy, highly stripped ions. Final report, March 1, 1977-May 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first measurements of charge exchange (electron transfer) in kiloelectron-volt-energy highly stripped boron, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen ion collisions with atoms have been extended to additional collision energies and charge values for the ions. A first accelerator-decelerator source of very highly stripped ions has been developed, and its usefulness in charge exchange studies established

  17. BIOTIC STRESS IMPACT ON ACTIVITY OF VARIOUS FORMS OF ADENYLATE CYCLASE IN ORGANELLES OF POTATO PLANT CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomovatskaya L.A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding significant interest towards study of adenylate cyclase plant signal system, there is still no complete picture of functioning and regulation mechanisms of this signal system in plants under biotic stress. With this in view, our study was aimed at identification of various forms of adenylate cyclase (transmembrane and “soluble” in the nucleus and chloroplasts of potato cells and modulation of their activity under the impact of exopolysaсcharides ofpotato ring rot pathogen. The investigations conducted allowed to conclude that two forms of adenylate cyclase function in nuclei and chloroplasts of potato plants: transmembrane and “soluble”. Activity of these forms of the enzyme extracted from plant cells of the two potato varieties contrasted by resistance to potato ring rot pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, changed in the reverse manner with the mediated impact of exopolysaсcharides secreted by virulent and mucinous strain of bacterial pathogen: in the plants of resistant сultivar it increased, in the plants of sensitive сultivar it was oppressed. It was concluded that activity of both forms of adenylate cyclase directly depended on the degree of resistance of a particular potato variety to given pathogen.

  18. SAAMBE: Webserver to Predict the Charge of Binding Free Energy Caused by Amino Acids Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marharyta Petukh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the effect of amino acid substitutions on protein–protein affinity (typically evaluated via the change of protein binding free energy is important for both understanding the disease-causing mechanism of missense mutations and guiding protein engineering. In addition, researchers are also interested in understanding which energy components are mostly affected by the mutation and how the mutation affects the overall structure of the corresponding protein. Here we report a webserver, the Single Amino Acid Mutation based change in Binding free Energy (SAAMBE webserver, which addresses the demand for tools for predicting the change of protein binding free energy. SAAMBE is an easy to use webserver, which only requires that a coordinate file be inputted and the user is provided with various, but easy to navigate, options. The user specifies the mutation position, wild type residue and type of mutation to be made. The server predicts the binding free energy change, the changes of the corresponding energy components and provides the energy minimized 3D structure of the wild type and mutant proteins for download. The SAAMBE protocol performance was tested by benchmarking the predictions against over 1300 experimentally determined changes of binding free energy and a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.62 was obtained. How the predictions can be used for discriminating disease-causing from harmless mutations is discussed. The webserver can be accessed via http://compbio.clemson.edu/saambe_webserver/.

  19. Towards hot electron mediated charge exchange in hyperthermal energy ion-surface interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ray, M. P.; Lake, R. E.; Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar;

    2010-01-01

    electrons useful for driving chemical reactions at surfaces. Using the binary collision approximation and a nonadiabatic model that takes into account the time-varying nature of the ion–surface interaction, the energy loss of the ions is reproduced. The energy loss for Na + ions incident on the devices...

  20. Improving Energy Efficiency Via Optimized Charge Motion and Slurry Flow in Plant Scale Sag Mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj K. Rajamani

    2006-07-21

    A research team from the University of Utah is working to make inroads into saving energy in these SAG mills. In 2003, Industries of the Future Program of the Department of Energy tasked the University of Utah team to build a partnership between the University and the mining industry for the specific purpose of reducing energy consumption in SAG mills. A partnership was formed with Cortez Gold Mines, Outokumpu Technology, Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation, and Process Engineering Resources Inc. At Cortez Gold Operations the shell and pulp lifters of the semiautogenous grinding mill was redesigned. The redesigned shell lifter has been in operation for over three years and the redesigned pulp lifter has been in operation for over nine months now. This report summarizes the dramatic reductions in energy consumption. Even though the energy reductions are very large, it is safe to say that a 20% minimum reduction would be achieved in any future installations of this technology.

  1. Energy Dependence of the Transverse Momentum Distributions of Charged Particles in pp Collisions Measured by ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Ahn, Sang Un; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki Eskeli; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bergognon, Anais Annick Erica; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blanco, Francesco; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubskiy, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bornschein, Joerg; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile Ioan; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Dang, Ruina; Danu, Andrea; Das, Kushal; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; Deppman, Airton; Oliveira Valeriano De Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; De Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Divia, Roberto; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Doenigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutt Mazumder, Abhee Kanti; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David Philip; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigory; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floratos, Emmanouil; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gomez Jimenez, Ramon; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gotovac, Sven; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grajcarek, Robert; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Khan, Kamal; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Hayrapetyan, Arsen; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hicks, Bernard Richard; Hippolyte, Boris; Hori, Yasuto; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hrivnacova, Ivana; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ichou, Raphaelle; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ionita, Costin; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanytskyi, Oleksii; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalliokoski, Tuomo Esa Aukusti; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kazantsev, Andrey; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Ketzer, Bernhard Franz; Khan, Palash; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kohler, Markus Konrad; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratyev, Valery; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskikh, Artem; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucera, Vit; Kucheryaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexey; Kurepin, Alexander; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasilij; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lea, Ramona; Lechman, Mateusz Arkadiusz; Lee, Sung Chul; Lee, Graham Richard; Legrand, Iosif; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenhardt, Matthieu Laurent; Lenti, Vito; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera Renee; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Loo, Kai Krister; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luo, Jiebin; Luparello, Grazia; Luzzi, Cinzia; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Ma, Rongrong; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Maire, Antonin; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazumder, Rakesh; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Monteno, Marco; Montes Prado, Esther; Moon, Taebong; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Nilsson, Mads Stormo; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Nyanin, Alexander; Nyatha, Anitha; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Sun Kun; Oh, Saehanseul; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palaha, Arvinder Singh; Palmeri, Armando; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Park, Woojin; Passfeld, Annika; Patalakha, Dmitry; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Paul, Biswarup; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perrino, Davide; Peryt, Wiktor Stanislaw; Pesci, Alessandro; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petran, Michal; Petris, Mariana; Petrov, Plamen Rumenov; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pitz, Nora; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Planinic, Mirko; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Pohjoisaho, Esko Heikki Oskari; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Pospisil, Vladimir; Potukuchi, Baba; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puddu, Giovanna; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Rademakers, Alphonse; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Raniwala, Sudhir; Raniwala, Rashmi; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Rauch, Wolfgang Hans; Rauf, Aamer Wali; Razazi, Vahedeh; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reicher, Martijn; Reidt, Felix; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riccati, Lodovico; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rivetti, Angelo; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Sharma, Rohni; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossegger, Stefan; Rossi, Andrea; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakaguchi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dosatsu; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Santagati, Gianluca; Santoro, Romualdo; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Scott, Patrick Aaron; Segato, Gianfranco; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Seo, Jeewon; Serci, Sergio; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shabratova, Galina; Shahoyan, Ruben; Sharma, Satish; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Smakal, Radek; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Jihye; Soos, Csaba; Soramel, Francesca; Spacek, Michal; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew Donald; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Stolpovskiy, Mikhail; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Subieta Vasquez, Martin Alfonso; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Susa, Tatjana; Symons, Timothy; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Takahashi, Jun; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tarazona Martinez, Alfonso; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terrevoli, Cristina; Ter-Minasyan, Astkhik; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Torii, Hisayuki; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ulery, Jason Glyndwr; Ullaland, Kjetil; Ulrich, Jochen; Uras, Antonio; Urciuoli, Guido Maria; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Vannucci, Luigi; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vargas Trevino, Aurora Diozcora; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Sergey; Voloshin, Kirill; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Vladimir; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Yifei; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Kengo; Weber, Michael; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Xiang, Changzhou; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yang, Shiming; Yano, Satoshi; Yasnopolskiy, Stanislav; Yi, Jungyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zach, Cenek; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zelnicek, Pierre; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zhu, Jianlin; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zimmermann, Alice; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Zyzak, Maksym

    2013-01-01

    Differential cross sections of charged particles in inelastic pp collisions as a function of $p_T$ have been measured at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV at the LHC. The $p_T$ spectra are compared to NLO-pQCD calculations. Though the differential cross section for an individual $\\sqrt{s}$ cannot be described by NLO-pQCD, the relative increase of cross section with $\\sqrt{s}$ is in agreement with NLO-pQCD. Based on these measurements and observations, procedures are discussed to construct pp reference spectra at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76 and 5.02 TeV up to $p_T$ = 50 GeV/c as required for the calculation of the nuclear modification factor in nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions.

  2. Azimuthal asymmetries in production of charged hadrons by high energy muons on polarized deuterium targets

    CERN Document Server

    Savin, I A

    2010-01-01

    Search for azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of charged hadrons by 160 GeV muons on the longitudinally polarized deuterium target, has been performed using the 2002- 2004 COMPASS data. The observed asymmetries integrated over the kinematical variables do not depend on the azimuthal angle of produced hadrons and are consistent with the ratio $g_1^d(x)/f_1^d(x)$. The asymmetries are parameterized taking into account possible contributions from different parton distribution functions and parton fragmentation functions depending on the transverse spin of quarks.They can be modulated (either/or/and) with $\\sin(\\phi), \\sin(2\\phi), \\sin(3\\phi)$ and $\\cos(\\phi)$. The $x$-, $z$- and $p_h^T$-dependencies of these amplitudes are studied.

  3. Small Wind Electric Energy Charging System Simulation and Application based on MPPT Algorithm and SEPIC Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suxiang Qian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, designed the work principle for the wind power system based on the PMSG and the framework for the system, induced the PMSG mathematic model and put up the control strategy for the whole system, including the output voltage control of the PMSG, the realization of the Maximum Power Point Tracing (MPPT method, the control strategy for the SEPIC converter. Then, the dissertation built the simulation model for the wind power system based on the PMSG using the MATLAB software. The use of this control strategy is described. To realize the power of the independent regulator and battery charging load design in detail. The control strategies mentioned in the above are simulated and simulation results are obtained, respectively in the condition of different wind speed. The laboratory results show the schemes are reasonable and practical.

  4. Mesoscopic capacitor and zero-point energy: Poisson's distribution for virtual charges, pressure, and decoherence control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, J. C.

    2014-08-01

    Mesoscopic capacitor theory, which includes intrinsic inductive effects from quantum tunneling, is applied to conducting spherical shells. The zero-point pressure and the number of virtual charged pairs are determined assuming a Poisson distribution. They are completely defined by a dimensionless mesoscopic parameter (χc) measuring the average number of virtual pairs per solid angle and carrying mesoscopic information. Fluctuations remain finite and well defined. Connections with usual quantum-field-theory limit enables us to evaluate χc 1.007110. Equivalently, for a mesoscopic parallel-plate capacitor, the shot noise distribution becomes operative with χc 0.94705 as well being related to the density of virtual pairs. Temperature decoherence and capacitor control are discussed by considering typical values of quantum dot devices and Coulomb blockade theory.

  5. Diffraction Radiation Diagnostics for Moderate to High Energy Charged Particle Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorito, R B

    2001-01-01

    Diffraction radiation (DR) is produced when a charged particle passes throughan aperture or near a discontinuity in the media in which it is traveling. DRis closely related to transition radiation (TR), which is produced when acharged particle traverses the boundary between media with different dielectricconstants. In contrast to TR, which is now extensively used for beam diagnosticpurposes, the potential of DR as a non-interceptive, multi-parameter beamdiagnostic remains largely undeveloped. For diagnostic measurements it isuseful to observe backward reflected DR from an circular aperture or slitinclined with respect to the beam velocity. However, up to now, well foundedequations for the spectral-angular intensities of backward DR from suchapertures have not been available. We present a new derivation of the spectralangular intensity of backward DR produced from an inclined slit for twoorientations of the slit axis, i.e. perpendicular and parallel to the plane ofincidence. Our mathematical approach is genera...

  6. Evaluation of excitation energy and spin from light charged particles multiplicities in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Steckmeyer, J C; Grotowski, K; Pawowski, P; Aiello, S; Anzalone, A; Bini, M; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Cardella, G; Casini, G; Cavallaro, S; Charvet, J L; Dayras, R; De Filippo, E; Durand, D; Femin, S; Frankland, J D; Galíchet, E; Geraci, M; Giustolisi, F; Guazzoni, P; Iacono-Manno, M; Lanzalone, G; Lanzan, G; Le Neindre, N; Lo Nigro, S; Lo Piano, F; Olmi, A; Pagano, A; Papa, M; Pârlog, M; Pasquali, G; Piantelli, S; Pirrone, S; Politi, G; Porto, F; Rivet, M F; Rizzo, F; Rosato, E; Roy, R; Sambataro, S; Sperduto, M L; Stefanini, A A; Sutera, C; Tamain, B; Vient, E; Volant, C; Wieleczko, J P; Zetta, L

    2005-01-01

    A simple procedure for evaluating the excitation energy and the spin transfer in heavy-ion dissipative collisions is proposed. It is based on a prediction of the GEMINI evaporation code : for a nucleus with a given excitation energy, the average number of emitted protons decreases with increasing spin, whereas the average number of alpha particles increases. Using that procedure for the reaction 107Ag+58Ni at 52 MeV/nucleon, the excitation energy and spin of quasi-projectiles have been evaluated. The results obtained in this way have been compared with the predictions of a model describing the primary dynamic stage of heavy-ion collisions.

  7. Measurement of neutron and charged particle contamination in high energy medical therapy x-ray beams using recoil track registration in polycarbonate foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of photoneutrons and high-energy charged particles by betatrons and linear accelerators used in radiotherapy is measured. It is concluded there exists sufficient contamination in high-energy x-ray beams to be a consideration in certain radiotherapy situations

  8. Møller's energy in the dyadosphere of a charged black hole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oktay Aydogdu; Mustafa Salti

    2008-12-01

    We use the Møller energy–momentum complex both in general relativity and teleparallel gravity to evaluate energy distribution (due to matter plus fields including gravity) in the dyadosphere region for Reissner–Nordström black hole. We found the same and acceptable energy distribution in these different approaches of the Møller energy–momentum complex. Our teleparallel gravitational result is also independent of the teleparallel dimensionless coupling constant, which means that it is valid in any teleparallel model. This paper sustains (a) the importance of the energy–momentum definitions in the evaluation of the energy distribution of a given space–time and (b) the viewpoint of Lessner that the Møller energy–momentum complex is a powerful concept for energy and momentum.

  9. Møller's energy in the dyadosphere of a charged black hole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oktay Aydogdu; Mustafa Salti

    2006-08-01

    We use the Møller energy–momentum complex both in general relativity and teleparallel gravity to evaluate energy distribution (due to matter plus fields including gravity) in the dyadosphere region for Reissner–Nordström black hole. We found the same and acceptable energy distribution in these different approaches of the Møller energy–momentum complex. Our teleparallel gravitational result is also independent of the teleparallel dimensionless coupling constant, which means that it is valid in any teleparallel model. This paper sustains (a) the importance of the energy–momentum definitions in the evaluation of the energy distribution of a given space–time and (b) the viewpoint of Lessner that the Møller energy–momentum complex is a powerful concept for energy and momentum.

  10. Electrically charged finite energy solutions of an SO(5) and an SU(3) Higgs-Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills-Higgs system in 3+1 dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Lérida, Francisco; Tchrakian, D. H.

    2015-05-01

    We study spherically symmetric finite energy solutions of two Higgs-Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills-Higgs (HCS-YMH) models in 3+1 dimensions, one with gauge group SO(5) and the other with SU(3). The Chern-Simons (CS) densities are defined in terms of both the Yang-Mills (YM) and Higgs fields and the choice of the two gauge groups is made so that they do not vanish. The solutions of the SO(5) model carry only electric charge and zero magnetic charge, while the solutions of the SU(3) model are dyons carrying both electric and magnetic charges like the Julia-Zee (JZ) dyon. Unlike the latter, however, the electric charge in both models receives an important contribution from the CS dynamics. We pay special attention to the relation between the energies and charges of these solutions. In contrast with the electrically charged JZ dyon of the Yang-Mills-Higgs (YMH) system, whose mass is larger than that of the electrically neutral (magnetic monopole) solutions, the masses of the electrically charged solutions of our HCS-YMH models can be smaller than their electrically neutral counterparts in some parts of the parameter space. To establish this is the main task of this work, which is performed by constructing the HCS-YMH solutions numerically. In the case of the SU(3) HCS-YMH, we have considered the question of angular momentum and it turns out that it vanishes.

  11. Electrically charged finite energy solutions of an $SO(5)$ and an $SU(3)$ Higgs-Chern-Simons--Yang-Mills-Higgs systems in $3+1$ dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Navarro-Lerida, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    We study spherically symmetric finite energy solutions of two Higgs-Chern-Simons--Yang-Mills-Higgs (HCS-YMH) models in $3+1$ dimensions, one with gauge group $SO(5)$ and the other with $SU(3)$. The Chern-Simons (CS) densities are defined in terms of both the Yang-Mills (YM) and Higgs fields and the choice of the two gauge groups is made so they do not vanish. The solutions of the $SO(5)$ model carry only electric charge and zero magnetic charge, while the solutions of the $SU(3)$ model are dyons carrying both electric and magnetic charges like the Julia-Zee (JZ) dyon. Unlike the latter however, the electric charge in both models receives an important contribution from the CS dynamics. We pay special attention to the relation between the energies and charges of these solutions. In contrast with the electrically charged JZ dyon of the Yang-Mills-Higgs (YMH) system, whose mass is larger than that of the electrically neutral (magnetic monopole) solutions, the masses of the electrically charged solutions of our HC...

  12. Fluctuations in Electronic Energy Affecting Singlet Fission Dynamics and Mixing with Charge-Transfer State: Quantum Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihashi, Yuta; Ishizaki, Akihito

    2016-02-01

    Singlet fission is a spin-allowed process by which a singlet excited state is converted to two triplet states. To understand mechanisms of the ultrafast fission via a charge transfer (CT) state, one has investigated the dynamics through quantum-dynamical calculations with the uncorrelated fluctuation model; however, the electronic states are expected to experience the same fluctuations induced by the surrounding molecules because the electronic structure of the triplet pair state is similar to that of the singlet state except for the spin configuration. Therefore, the fluctuations in the electronic energies could be correlated, and the 1D reaction coordinate model may adequately describe the fission dynamics. In this work we develop a model for describing the fission dynamics to explain the experimentally observed behaviors. We also explore impacts of fluctuations in the energy of the CT state on the fission dynamics and the mixing with the CT state. The overall behavior of the dynamics is insensitive to values of the reorganization energy associated with the transition from the singlet state to the CT state, although the coherent oscillation is affected by the fluctuations. This result indicates that the mixing with the CT state is rather robust under the fluctuations in the energy of the CT state as well as the high-lying CT state. PMID:26732701

  13. Critical rate of energy loss for registration of charged particles in cellulose nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellulose nitrate films LR-115 type II (Kodak-Pathe) have been exposed, at right angles, to alpha-particle beams in the energy range 2.5 - 5.5 MeV. From measurements of both through etched track density, a critical rate of energy lo ss for track registration of (0.85 +- 0.05) MeV cm2/mg has been derived, which corresponds to a critical alpha-particle energy of (4.6 +- 0.4) MeV. These results are compatible with those obtained by other authors whenever similar etching conditions are used. The concepts of threshold rate of energy loss and a threshold energy for etched-track formation are introduced, and their values are obtained from the experiment as being (0.80 +- 0.05) MeV cm2/mg and (5.1 +- 0.4) Mev, respectively. In addition, the present work provides a suitable set of useful, reference data for further applications of such plastic nuclear track detector in problems concerned with the detection of low-energy alpha particles. (Author)

  14. State of Charge Balancing Control of a Multi-Functional Battery Energy Storage System Based on a 11-Level Cascaded Multilevel PWM Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Songcen; Teodorescu, Remus; Máthé, Lászlo;

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on modeling and SOC (State of Charge) balancing control of lithium-ion battery energy storage system based on cascaded multilevel converter for both grid integration and electric vehicle propulsion applications. The equivalent electrical circuit model of lithium-ion battery...... module is established based on the relationship between SOC (State of Charge) and OCV (Open Circuit Voltage) which is obtained from the battery charge and discharge test curves. A hierarchical control structure is proposed to realize different operating modes. The decoupled current control scheme...

  15. Influence of charge and coordination number on bond dissociation energies, distances, and vibrational frequencies for the phosphorus-phosphorus bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, Saurabh S; Whalen, J Marc; Burford, Neil

    2014-09-01

    We report a comprehensive and systematic experimental and computational assessment of the P-P bond in prototypical molecules that represent a rare series of known compounds. The data presented complement the existing solid-state structural data and previous computational studies to provide a thorough thermodynamic and electronic understanding of the P-P bond. Comparison of homolytic and heterolytic bond dissociation for tricoordinate-tricoordinate, tricoordinate-tetracoordinate, and tetracoordinate-tetracoordinate P-P bonds in frameworks 1-6 provides fundamental insights into covalent bonding. For all types of P-P bond discussed, homolytic dissociation is favored over heterolytic dissociation, although the distinction is small for 2(1+) and 6(1+). The presence of a single cationic charge in a molecule substantially strengthens the P-P bond (relative to analogous neutral frameworks) such that it is comparable with the C-C bond in alkanes. Nevertheless, P-P distances are remarkably independent of molecular charge or coordination number, and trends in values of d(PC) and νsymm(PC) imply that a molecular cationic charge is distributed over the alkyl substituents. In the gas phase, the diphosphonium dication 3(2+) has similar energy to two [PMe3](+) radical cations, so that it is the lattice enthalpy of 3[OTf]2 in the solid-state that enables isolation, highlighting that values from gas-phase calculations are poor guides for synthetic planning for ionic compounds. There are no relationships or correlations between bond lengths, strengths, and vibrational frequencies.

  16. Adenylate cyclase 5 is required for melanophore and male pattern development in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottler, Verena A; Künstner, Axel; Koch, Iris; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Langenecker, Tobias; Hoffmann, Margarete; Sharma, Eshita; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

    2015-09-01

    Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are colorful fish that have attracted the attention of pigmentation researchers for almost a century. Here, we report that the blond phenotype of the guppy is caused by a spontaneous mutation in the guppy ortholog of adenylate cyclase 5 (adcy5). Using double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, we linked the blond phenotype to a candidate region of 118 kb, in which we subsequently identified a 2-bp deletion in adcy5 that alters splicing and leads to a premature stop codon. We show that adcy5, which affects life span and melanoma growth in mouse, is required for melanophore development and formation of male orange pigmentation traits in the guppy. We find that some components of the male orange pattern are particularly sensitive to loss of Adcy5 function. Our work thus reveals a function for Adcy5 in patterning of fish color ornaments.

  17. Distribution and protective function of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP in the retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya eNakamachi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, which is found in 27- or 38-amino acid forms, belongs to the VIP/glucagon/secretin family. PACAP and its three receptor subtypes are expressed in neural tissues, with PACAP known to exert a protective effect against several types of neural damage. The retina is considered to be part of the central nervous system, and retinopathy is a common cause of profound and intractable loss of vision. This review will examine the expression and morphological distribution of PACAP and its receptors in the retina, and will summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the protective effect of PACAP against different kinds of retinal damage, such as that identified in association with diabetes, ultraviolet light, hypoxia, optic nerve transection, and toxins. This article will also address PACAP-mediated protective pathways involving retinal glial cells.

  18. Synthetic genes for human muscle-type adenylate kinase in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Nishikawa, S; Tanaka, T; Uesugi, S; Takenaka, H; Hamada, M; Kuby, S A

    1989-01-01

    An artificial gene coding for the human muscle-type cytosolic adenylate kinase (hAK1) was chemically synthesized and directly expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of trp promoter. The DNA duplex of 596 bp was designed and constructed from 40 oligonucleotide fragments of typically 30 nucleotides in length. Twelve unique restriction sites were fairly evenly spaced in the synthetic gene to facilitate site-specific mutagenesis at any part of this recombinant protein. The genes for mutant hAK1 (Tyr 95----Phe 95, Y95F hAK1; Arg 97----Ala 97, R97A hAK1) were constructed by cassette mutagenesis and utilized restriction sites incorporated in the hAK1 gene. The recombinant hAK1 was purified to homogeneity by a two-step chromatographic procedure with a good yield, and showed the same adenylate kinase activity as that of authentic hAK1. Preliminary kinetic studies show that the enzymatic activity (Vmax app,cor/Et) of Y95F hAK1 was slightly greater than that of recombinant hAK1, whereas R97A hAK1 still possessed approximately 4% of recombinant hAK1 activity. These results suggest that the Arg-97 residue is important but not essential for catalytic activity, and that Tyr-95 can be replaced by phenylalanine without substantial effects on the enzymatic activity. Moreover, preliminary estimates of the apparent kinetic parameters suggest that these residues are not required for MgATP binding, and therefore they do not appear to be part of the MgATP binding site.

  19. NMr studies of the AMP binding site and mechanism of adenylate kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuby, S.A.; Fry, D.C.; Mildvan, A.S.

    1986-05-01

    The authors recently located by NMR the MgATP binding site on adenylate kinase correcting the proposed location for this site based on X-ray studies of the binding of salicylate. To determine the conformation and location of the other substrate, they have determined distances from Cr/sup 3 +/ AMPPCP to 6 protons and to the phosphorus atom of AMP on adenylate kinase using the paramagnetic-probe-T/sub 1/ method. They have also used time-dependent NOEs to measure five interproton distances on AMP, permitting evaluation of the conformation of enzyme-bound AMP and its position with respect to metal-ATP. Enzyme-bound AMP exhibits a high-anti glycosyl torsional angle (X = 110/sup 0/), a 3'-endo sugar pucker (delta = 105/sup 0/), and a gauche-trans orientation about the C/sub 4/'-C/sub 5/' bond (..gamma.. = 180/sup 0/). The distance from Cr/sup 3 +/ to the phosphorus of AMP is 6.4 +/- 0.3 A, indicating a reaction coordinate distance of greater than or equal to A which is consistent with an associative SN2 mechanism for the phosphoryl transfer. Ten intermolecular NOEs, from protons of the enzyme to those of AMP were detected. These constraints, together with the conformation of AMP and the X-ray structure of the enzyme, suggest proximity (less than or equal to A) of AMP to leu 116, arg 171, val 173, gln 185, thr 188, and asp 191.

  20. Integration of Semiconducting Sulfides for Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Absorption and Efficient Charge Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Tao-Tao; Liu, Yan; Li, Yi; Zhao, Yuan; Wu, Liang; Jiang, Jun; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-05-23

    The full harvest of solar energy by semiconductors requires a material that simultaneously absorbs across the whole solar spectrum and collects photogenerated electrons and holes separately. The stepwise integration of three semiconducting sulfides, namely ZnS, CdS, and Cu2-x S, into a single nanocrystal, led to a unique ternary multi-node sheath ZnS-CdS-Cu2-x S heteronanorod for full-spectrum solar energy absorption. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the nonstoichiometric copper sulfide nanostructures enables effective NIR absorption. More significantly, the construction of pn heterojunctions between Cu2-x S and CdS leads to staggered gaps, as confirmed by first-principles simulations. This band alignment causes effective electron-hole separation in the ternary system and hence enables efficient solar energy conversion.