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Sample records for adenylate cyclase activating

  1. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagami, Alessandro S; Edvinsson, Lars; Goadsby, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    with moderate or severe migraine headache had elevated PACAP in the external jugular vein during headache (n = 15), that was reduced 1 h after treatment with sumatriptan 6 mg (n = 11), and further reduced interictally (n = 9). The data suggest PACAP, or its receptors, are a promising target for migraine......Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) is found in human trigeminocervical complex and can trigger migraine. PACAP levels were measured using a sensitive radioimmunoassay. Stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) in cat elevated PACAP levels in cranial blood. Patients...

  2. Restoration of adenylate cyclase responsiveness in murine myeloid leukemia permits inhibition of proliferation by hormone. Butyrate augments catalytic activity of adenylate cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, L; Fleming, J W; Klingberg, D; Gabig, T G; Boswell, H S

    1988-04-01

    Mechanisms of leukemic cell clonal dominance may include aberrations of transmembrane signaling. In particular, neoplastic transformation has been associated with reduced capacity for hormone-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. In the present study, prostaglandin E, a hormonal activator of adenylate cyclase that has antiproliferative activity in myeloid cells, and cholera toxin, an adenylate cyclase agonist that functions at a postreceptor site by activating the adenylate cyclase stimulatory GTP-binding protein (Gs), were studied for antiproliferative activity in two murine myeloid cell lines. FDC-P1, an interleukin 3 (IL 3)-dependent myeloid cell line and a tumorigenic IL 3-independent subline, FI, were resistant to these antiproliferative agents. The in vitro ability of the "differentiation" agent, sodium butyrate, to reverse their resistance to adenylate cyclase agonists was studied. The antiproliferative action of butyrate involved augmentation of transmembrane adenylate cyclase activity. Increased adenylate cyclase catalyst activity was the primary alteration of this transmembrane signaling group leading to the functional inhibitory effects on leukemia cells, although alterations in regulatory G-proteins appear to play a secondary role.

  3. [The aspects of adenylate cyclase activity regulation in myocardium cell membranes during hypokinesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanova, K Ia; Komar, E S; Lobanok, L M

    1999-01-01

    Nonstimulated and isoproterenol, GTF, GITF, NaF stimulated activities of the adenylate cyclase in sarcolemma in white rats' myocardium was studied after two weeks of hypokinesia. As was established, in restrained animals the sensitivity of adenylate cyclase to the specified agents was increased and transition to the bimodal GTF regulation took place. It is hypothesised that involvement of membrane-bound Gi-proteins in the adrenergic effects on cardiomyocytes is one of mechanisms of the cardiotropic effects of restraint and heart distresses.

  4. Receptor binding and adenylate cyclase activities of glucagon analogues modified in the N-terminal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R.L.; Pelton, J.T.; Trivedi, D.; Johnson, D.G.; Coy, D.H.; Sueiras-Diaz, J.; Hruby, V.J.

    1986-04-08

    In this study, we determined the ability of four N-terminally modified derivatives of glucagon, (3-Me-His1,Arg12)-, (Phe1,Arg12)-, (D-Ala4,Arg12)-, and (D-Phe4)glucagon, to compete with 125I-glucagon for binding sites specific for glucagon in hepatic plasma membranes and to activate the hepatic adenylate cyclase system, the second step involved in producing many of the physiological effects of glucagon. Relative to the native hormone, (3-Me-His1,Arg12)glucagon binds approximately twofold greater to hepatic plasma membranes but is fivefold less potent in the adenylate cyclase assay. (Phe1,Arg12)glucagon binds threefold weaker and is also approximately fivefold less potent in adenylate cyclase activity. In addition, both analogues are partial agonists with respect to adenylate cyclase. These results support the critical role of the N-terminal histidine residue in eliciting maximal transduction of the hormonal message. (D-Ala4,Arg12)glucagon and (D-Phe4)glucagon, analogues designed to examine the possible importance of a beta-bend conformation in the N-terminal region of glucagon for binding and biological activities, have binding potencies relative to glucagon of 31% and 69%, respectively. (D-Ala4,Arg12)glucagon is a partial agonist in the adenylate cyclase assay system having a fourfold reduction in potency, while the (D-Phe4) derivative is a full agonist essentially equipotent with the native hormone. These results do not necessarily support the role of an N-terminal beta-bend in glucagon receptor recognition. With respect to in vivo glycogenolysis activities, all of the analogues have previously been reported to be full agonists.

  5. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the circulation after sumatriptan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Petersen, Jesper Troensegaard;

    2013-01-01

    The origin of migraine pain is still elusive, but increasingly researchers focus on the neuropeptides in the perivascular space of cranial vessels as important mediators of nociceptive input during migraine attacks. The parasympathetic neurotransmitters, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating...

  6. A Simple Luminescent Adenylate-Cyclase Functional Assay for Evaluation of Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor Activity

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    Ma’ayan Israeli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Edema Factor (EF, the toxic sub-unit of the Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin (ET is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase whose detrimental activity in the infected host results in severe edema. EF is therefore a major virulence factor of B. anthracis. We describe a simple, rapid and reliable functional adenylate-cyclase assay based on inhibition of a luciferase-mediated luminescence reaction. The assay exploits the efficient adenylate cyclase-mediated depletion of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP, and the strict dependence on ATP of the light-emitting luciferase-catalyzed luciferin-conversion to oxyluciferin, which can be easily visualized. The assay exhibits a robust EF-dose response decrease in luminescence, which may be specifically reverted by anti-EF antibodies. The application of the assay is exemplified in: (a determining the presence of EF in B. anthracis cultures, or its absence in cultures of EF-defective strains; (b evaluating the anti-EF humoral response in experimental animals infected/vaccinated with B. anthracis; and (c rapid discrimination between EF producing and non-producing bacterial colonies. Furthermore, the assay may be amenable with high-throughput screening for EF inhibitory molecules.

  7. Adenylate cyclase activity along the rabbit nephron as measured in single isolated segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, M; Chabardès, D; Montégut, M; Clique, A; Morel, F

    1975-01-01

    A method is described, which allows adenylate cyclase activity measurement in single pieces of various nephron segments. Tubular samples of 0.5 to 2 mm length were isolated by microdissection from collagenase treated slices of rabbit kidney. A photograph of each piece was taken in order to measure its length. After a permeabilisation treatment involving preincubation in a hypoosmotic medium and a freezing step, each sample was incubated for 30 mm at 30 degrees C in a medium containing high specific (alpha-32-P)-ATP 3-10-4 M, final volume 2.5 mu 1. The (32P)-cAMP formed was separated from the other labelled nucleotides by filtering the incubate on a dry aluminium oxide microcolumn, 3H cAMP was added as a tracer for measuring cAMP recovery. The sensitivity of the method was found to be a few fentomoles (10-15 M) cAMP. cAMP generation increased linearly as a function of the incubation time up to more than 30 min, and as a function of the length of the segment used. Control and fluoride (5 mM) stimulated adenvlate cyclase activities were measured in the following segments of the nephron: early proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), pars recta of the proximal tubule (PR), thin descending limb of the loop (TDL), cortical portion of the thick ascending limb (CAL), distal convoluted tubule (dct), first branched portion of the collecting tubule (BCT), further cortical (CCT) and medullary (MCT) portions of the collecting tubule. Mean control adenylate cyclase activity varied from 7 (PR) to 75 (BCT) fmoles/mm/30 min. Flouride addition resulted in a 10 (BCT) to 50 (PR) fold increase in enzyme activity. Series of replicates gave a scatter equal to plus or minus 20% (S.D. as a per cent of the mean). The method described appears to be suitable to determine which nephron segments contain hormone-dependent adenylate cyclase.

  8. Identification of Adenyl Cyclase Activity in a Disease Resistance Protein in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Hussein, Rana

    2012-11-01

    Cyclic nucleotide, cAMP, is an important signaling molecule in animals and plants. However, in plants the enzymes that synthesize this second messenger, adenyl cyclases (ACs), remain elusive. Given the physiological importance of cAMP in signaling, particularly in response to biotic and abiotic stresses, it is thus important to identify and characterize ACs in higher plants. Using computational approaches, a disease resistance protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, At3g04220 was found to have an AC catalytic center motif. In an attempt to prove that this candidate has adenyl cyclases activity in vitro, the coding sequence of the putative AC catalytic domain of this protein was cloned and expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein was purified. The nucleotide cyclase activity of the recombinant protein was examined using cyclic nucleotide enzyme immunoassays. In parallel, the expression of At3g04220 was measured in leaves under three different stress conditions in order to determine under which conditions the disease resistance protein could function. Results show that the purified recombinant protein has Mn2+ dependent AC activity in vitro, and the expression analysis supports a role for At3g04220 and cAMP in plant defense.

  9. Effect of mitomycin C on the activation of adenylate cyclase in rat ascites hepatoma AH130 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K; Matsunaga, T; Sanae, F; Koshiura, R

    1986-09-01

    Isoproterenol (IPN)-stimulated activity of adenylate cyclase was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner by exposure of AH130 cells to mitomycin C (MMC). The enhancement was also observed in prostaglandin E1-, guanine nucleotide analog-, NaF-, cholera toxin- and forskolin-stimulated activities of the enzyme but not in manganese-stimulated activity. In addition, even when the cells pretreated with islet-activating protein were exposed to MMC, IPN-stimulated activity of adenylate cyclase was enhanced. Anaerobic exposure of AH130 cells to MMC somewhat inhibited IPN-stimulated activity of adenylate cyclase in contrast with aerobic exposure. Exposure of cells to adriamycin also caused enhancement of IPN-stimulated activity of adenylate cyclase but exposure to nitrogen mustard inhibited the enzyme stimulation by IPN. The enhancing effect of MMC was lost by the combined treatment with alpha-tocopherol. From these results, it was shown that MMC modulated the activity of adenylate cyclase, probably through alterations in membrane structure.

  10. Cyclic 3', 5'-AMP relay in Dictyostelium discoideum: adaptation is independent of activation of adenylate cyclase

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    In Dictyostelium discoideum, binding of cAMP to high affinity surface receptors leads to a rapid activation of adenylate cyclase followed by subsequent adaptation within several minutes. The rate of secretion of [ 3H ]cAMP, which reflects the state of activation of the enzyme, was measured. Caffeine noncompetitively inhibited the response to cAMP. Inhibition was rapidly reversible and pretreatment of cells with caffeine for up to 22 min had little effect on the subsequent responsiveness to cA...

  11. Adenylate-cyclase activity in platelets of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Marazziti, S Baroni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available D Marazziti, S Baroni, L Palego, I Masala, G Consoli, M Catena Dell’Osso, G Giannaccini, A LucacchiniDipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: Although the main biological hypothesis on the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is centered on the serotonin system, indications are available that other neurotransmitters, and even second messengers, particularly the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP signaling, may be involved, though effective data are few. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the basal and isoprenaline (ISO-stimulated velocity of adenylate-cyclase (AC in human platelet membranes of patients with OCD and healthy control subjects. The results showed that the basal and ISO-stimulated AC activity, as well as the dose-response curves of ISO by using agonist concentrations ranging between 0.1 nM and 10 µM, were not different in the two groups. However, OCD patients showed lower EC50 and higher Emax values than healthy subjects. These findings suggest the presence of supersensitive β-adrenergic receptors in platelets of OCD patients.Keywords: obsessive-compulsive disorder, norepinephrine, second messengers, adenylate-cyclase, platelets, isoprenaline, β-adrenergic receptors

  12. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP participates in adipogenesis by activating ERK signaling pathway.

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    Tatjana Arsenijevic

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP belongs to the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP family. Its action can be mediated by three different receptor subtypes: PAC1, which has exclusive affinity for PACAP, and VPAC1 and VPAC2 which have equal affinity for PACAP and VIP. We showed that all three receptors are expressed in 3T3-L1 cells throughout their differentiation into adipocytes. We established the activity of these receptors by cAMP accumulation upon induction by PACAP. Together with insulin and dexamethasone, PACAP induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cell line. PACAP increased cAMP production within 15 min upon stimulation and targeted the expression and phosphorylation of MAPK (ERK1/2, strengthened by the ERK1/2 phosphorylation being partially or completely abolished by different combinations of PACAP receptors antagonists. We therefore speculate that ERK1/2 activation is crucial for the activation of CCAAT/enhancer- binding protein β (C/EBPβ.

  13. Distribution and protective function of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP in the retina

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    Tomoya eNakamachi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, which is found in 27- or 38-amino acid forms, belongs to the VIP/glucagon/secretin family. PACAP and its three receptor subtypes are expressed in neural tissues, with PACAP known to exert a protective effect against several types of neural damage. The retina is considered to be part of the central nervous system, and retinopathy is a common cause of profound and intractable loss of vision. This review will examine the expression and morphological distribution of PACAP and its receptors in the retina, and will summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the protective effect of PACAP against different kinds of retinal damage, such as that identified in association with diabetes, ultraviolet light, hypoxia, optic nerve transection, and toxins. This article will also address PACAP-mediated protective pathways involving retinal glial cells.

  14. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Reverses Ammonium Metavanadate-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Rats

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    Mounira Tlili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of atmospheric vanadium is constantly increasing due to fossil fuel combustion. This environmental pollution favours vanadium exposure in particular to its vanadate form, causing occupational bronchial asthma and bronchitis. Based on the well admitted bronchodilator properties of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, we investigated the ability of this neuropeptide to reverse the vanadate-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in rats. Exposure to ammonium metavanadate aerosols (5 mg/m3/h for 15 minutes induced 4 hours later an array of pathophysiological events, including increase of bronchial resistance and histological alterations, activation of proinflammatory alveolar macrophages, and increased oxidative stress status. Powerfully, PACAP inhalation (0.1 mM for 10 minutes alleviated many of these deleterious effects as demonstrated by a decrease of bronchial resistance and histological restoration. PACAP reduced the level of expression of mRNA encoding inflammatory chemokines (MIP-1α, MIP-2, and KC and cytokines (IL-1α and TNF-α in alveolar macrophages and improved the antioxidant status. PACAP reverses the vanadate-induced airway hyperresponsiveness not only through its bronchodilator activity but also by counteracting the proinflammatory and prooxidative effects of the metal. Then, the development of stable analogs of PACAP could represent a promising therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory respiratory disorders.

  15. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP knockout mice

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    Satoko eHattori

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP is a neuropeptide acting as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, or neurotrophic factor. PACAP is widely expressed throughout the brain and exerts its functions through the PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1. Recent studies reveal that genetic variants of the PACAP and PAC1 genes are associated with mental disorders, and several behavioral abnormalities of PACAP knockout (KO mice are reported. However, an insufficient number of backcrosses was made using PACAP KO mice on the C57BL/6J background due to their postnatal mortality. To elucidate the effects of PACAP on neuropsychiatric function, the PACAP gene was knocked out in F1 hybrid mice (C57BL/6J x 129SvEv for appropriate control of the genetic background. The PACAP KO mice were then subjected to a behavioral test battery. PACAP deficiency had no significant effects on neurological screen. As shown previously, the mice exhibited significantly increased locomotor activity in a novel environment and abnormal anxiety-like behavior, while no obvious differences between genotypes were shown in home cage activity. In contrast to previous reports, the PACAP KO mice showed normal prepulse inhibition and slightly decreased depression-like behavior. Previous study demonstrates that the social interaction in a resident-intruder test was decreased in PACAP KO mice. On the other hand, we showed that PACAP KO mice exhibited increased social interaction in Crawley’s three-chamber social approach test, although PACAP KO had no significant impact on social interaction in a home cage. PACAP KO mice also exhibited mild performance deficit in working memory in an eight-arm radial maze and the T-maze, while they did not show any significant abnormalities in the left-right discrimination task in the T-maze. These results suggest that PACAP has an important role in the regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, anxiety-like behavior and, potentially

  16. Thyrotropin receptor-adenylate cyclase function in human thyroid neoplasms.

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    Saltiel, A R; Powel-Jones, C H; Thomas, C G; Nayfeh, S N

    1981-06-01

    The action of thyrotropin (TSH) on plasma membranes was studied to elucidate the mechanism of hormonal regulation of malignant versus normal human thyroid tissue. Thyroid plasma membranes of six specimens of papillary or follicular carcinoma and six of adenoma, as well as adjacent normal tissue obtained from these patients, were evaluated with respect to binding of 125I-labeled TSH and stimulation of adenylate cyclase. Scatchard analysis of TSH binding revealed the presence of two species of binding sites in normal thyroid of different affinities and capacities. In 11 of 12 tumors studied, the high-affinity binding site remained intact; however, the total number of low-affinity sites was markedly lower than normal tissue. Other parameters of binding were not altered in neoplastic thyroid. In each of these tissues, the hormone responsiveness and kinetics of adenylate cyclase activation were essentially identical to those observed in normal tissue, although basal activity was typically greater in the neoplasm. One carcinoma was totally deficient in both 125I-labeled TSH binding and TSH-stimulatable adenylate cyclase, although basal activity was detected. Furthermore, adenylate cyclase of this specimen was not activated by prostaglandin, in contrast to normal thyroid and other thyroid tumors. These results suggest that: (a) clinical behavior of thyroid carcinomas may not be reflected by TSH receptor-adenylate cyclase function; (b) lack of clinical response as manifest by tumor regression cannot be ascribed to the absence of functional TSH receptors or adenylate cyclase; and (c) decreased low-affinity binding present in tumors is not correlated with altered hormone responsiveness of adenylate cyclase but may reflect more general cancer-induced changes in membrane structure or composition.

  17. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide modulates catecholamine storage and exocytosis in PC12 cells.

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    Yan Dong

    Full Text Available A number of efforts have been made to understand how pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP functions as a neurotrophic and neuroprotective factor in Parkinson's disease (PD. Recently its effects on neurotransmission and underlying mechanisms have generated interest. In the present study, we investigate the effects of PACAP on catecholamine storage and secretion in PC12 cells with amperometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. PACAP increases quantal release induced by high K+ without significantly regulating the frequency of vesicle fusion events. TEM data indicate that the increased volume of the vesicle is mainly the result of enlargement of the fluidic space around the dense core. Moreover, the number of docked vesicles isn't modulated by PACAP. When cells are acutely treated with L-DOPA, the vesicular volume and quantal release both increase dramatically. It is likely that the characteristics of amperometric spikes from L-DOPA treated cells are associated with increased volume of individual vesicles rather than a direct effect on the mechanics of exocytosis. Treatment with PACAP versus L-DOPA results in different profiles of the dynamics of exocytosis. Release via the fusion pore prior to full exocytosis was observed with the same frequency following treatment with PACAP and L-DOPA. However, release events have a shorter duration and higher average current after PACAP treatment compared to L-DOPA. Furthermore, PACAP reduced the proportion of spikes having rapid decay time and shortened the decay time of both fast and slow spikes. In contrast, the distributions of the amperometric spike decay for both fast and slow spikes were shifted to longer time following L-DOPA treatment. Compared to L-DOPA, PACAP may produce multiple favorable effects on dopaminergic neurons, including protecting dopaminergic neurons against neurodegeneration and potentially regulating dopamine storage and release, making it a promising

  18. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is a sympathoadrenal neurotransmitter involved in catecholamine regulation and glucohomeostasis.

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    Hamelink, Carol; Tjurmina, Olga; Damadzic, Ruslan; Young, W Scott; Weihe, Eberhard; Lee, Hyeon-Woo; Eiden, Lee E

    2002-01-08

    The adrenal gland is important for homeostatic responses to metabolic stress: hypoglycemia stimulates the splanchnic nerve, epinephrine is released from adrenomedullary chromaffin cells, and compensatory glucogenesis ensues. Acetylcholine is the primary neurotransmitter mediating catecholamine secretion from the adrenal medulla. Accumulating evidence suggests that a secretin-related neuropeptide also may function as a transmitter at the adrenomedullary synapse. Costaining with highly specific antibodies against the secretin-related neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) revealed that PACAP is found in nerve terminals at all mouse adrenomedullary cholinergic synapses. Mice with a targeted deletion of the PACAP gene had otherwise normal cholinergic innervation and morphology of the adrenal medulla, normal adrenal catecholamine and blood glucose levels, and an intact initial catecholamine secretory response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. However, insulin-induced hypoglycemia was more profound and longer-lasting in PACAP knock-outs, and was associated with a dose-related lethality absent in wild-type mice. Failure of PACAP-deficient mice to adequately counterregulate plasma glucose levels could be accounted for by impaired long-term secretion of epinephrine, secondary to a lack of induction of tyrosine hydroxylase, normally occurring after insulin hypoglycemia in wild-type mice, and a consequent depletion of adrenomedullary epinephrine stores. Thus, PACAP is needed to couple epinephrine biosynthesis to secretion during metabolic stress. PACAP appears to function as an "emergency response" cotransmitter in the sympathoadrenal axis, where the primary secretory response is controlled by a classical neurotransmitter but sustained under paraphysiological conditions by a neuropeptide.

  19. Pertussis toxin inhibits cAMP-induced desensitization of adenylate cyclase in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snaar-Jagalska, B. Ewa; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1990-01-01

    cAMP binds to surface receptors of Dictyostelium discoideum cells, transducing the signal to adenylate cyclase, guanylate cyclase and to chemotaxis. The activation of adenylate cyclase is maximal after 1 min and then declines to basal levels due to desensitization, which is composed of two component

  20. Adenylate cyclases involvement in pathogenicity, a minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Adriana; Bucurenci, Nadia; Onu, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP), one of the most important secondary messengers, is produced by adenylate cyclase (AC) from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). AC is a widespread enzyme, being present both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although they have the same enzymatic activity (ATP cyclization), the structure of these proteins varies, depending on their function and the producing organism. Some pathogenic bacteria utilize these enzymes as toxins which interact with calmodulin (or another eukaryote activator), causing intense cAMP synthesis and disruption of infected cell functions. In contrast, other pathogenic bacteria benefit of augmentation of AC activity for their own function. Based on sequence analysis ofAC catalytic domain from two pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus anthracis and Bordetellapertussis) with known three-dimensional structures, a possible secondary structure for 1-255 amino acid fragment from Pseudomonas aeruginosa AC (with 80TKGFSVKGKSS90 as the ATP binding site) is proposed.

  1. Calpain-Mediated Processing of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin Generates a Cytosolic Soluble Catalytically Active N-Terminal Domain.

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    Kepa B Uribe

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis, the whooping cough pathogen, secretes several virulence factors among which adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT is essential for establishment of the disease in the respiratory tract. ACT weakens host defenses by suppressing important bactericidal activities of the phagocytic cells. Up to now, it was believed that cell intoxication by ACT was a consequence of the accumulation of abnormally high levels of cAMP, generated exclusively beneath the host plasma membrane by the toxin N-terminal catalytic adenylate cyclase (AC domain, upon its direct translocation across the lipid bilayer. Here we show that host calpain, a calcium-dependent Cys-protease, is activated into the phagocytes by a toxin-triggered calcium rise, resulting in the proteolytic cleavage of the toxin N-terminal domain that releases a catalytically active "soluble AC". The calpain-mediated ACT processing allows trafficking of the "soluble AC" domain into subcellular organella. At least two strategic advantages arise from this singular toxin cleavage, enhancing the specificity of action, and simultaneously preventing an indiscriminate activation of cAMP effectors throughout the cell. The present study provides novel insights into the toxin mechanism of action, as the calpain-mediated toxin processing would confer ACT the capacity for a space- and time-coordinated production of different cAMP "pools", which would play different roles in the cell pathophysiology.

  2. Investigation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of migraine attacks induced by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Hougaard, Anders; Schytz, Henrik W

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP38) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide are structurally and functionally closely related but show differences in migraine-inducing properties. Mechanisms responsible for the difference in migraine induction are unknown. Here, for the ......Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP38) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide are structurally and functionally closely related but show differences in migraine-inducing properties. Mechanisms responsible for the difference in migraine induction are unknown. Here......, for the first time, we present a head-to-head comparison study of the immediate and long-lasting observations of the migraine-inducing, arterial, physiological and biochemical responses comparing PACAP38 and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. In a double-blind crossover study 24 female migraine patients without...... the start of PACAP38 infusion only in those patients who later reported migraine attacks. Blood levels of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and tryptase were unchanged after PACAP38 infusion. In conclusion, PACAP38-induced migraine was associated with sustained dilatation of extracranial arteries...

  3. Guanylate cyclase in Dictyostelium discoideum with the topology of mammalian adenylate cyclase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J; Snippe, H; Kleineidam, RG; Van Haastert, PJM

    2001-01-01

    The core of adenylate and guanylate cyclases is formed by an intramolecular ol intermolecular dimer of two cyclase domains arranged in an antiparallel fashion. Metazoan membrane-bound adenylate cyclases are composed of 12 transmembrane spanning regions, and two cyclase domains which function as a he

  4. Effects of cimetidine on adenylate cyclase activity of guinea pig gastric mucosa stimulated by histamine, sodium fluoride and 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, P; Westermann, E

    1976-08-01

    Cimetidine, a recently developed histamine H2-receptor blocking agent has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion in rat, cat, dog and man. To study the mode of action of cimetidine the modification of stimulatory effects of histamine, sodium flouride and 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate by cimetidine on the adenylate cyclase activity of guinea pig gastric mucosa was studied. The effect of cimetidine was also compared to that of metiamide, an older histamine H2-receptor antagonist. The effect of cimetidine was qualitatively similar to that of metiamide, i.e. a selective blockade of histamine H2-receptors. Quantitatively cimetidine was about 10-fold more potent than metiamide.

  5. Adenyl cyclase in the human placenta.

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    Sato, K; Ryan, K J

    1971-09-21

    This study demonstrated that the human placenta possesses an adenyl cyclase system responsive to catecholamines and sodium flouride (NaF). 2.5 gm human term placentas were homogenized, centrifuged, washed, resuspended, and used as the enzyme system when placed with various agents. Incubations and the determination of adenosine 3', 5' monophosphate (cyclic AMP) formed were performed. Samples stimulated by .0001 M catecholamines (L-epinephrine or L-norepinephrine) or .01 M NaF had higher levels of cyclic AMP than the controls (p. 005 for catecholamine-treated samples and p. 001 for NaF-treated samples). A concentration of .0001 M L-epinephrine or L-norepinephrine appeared to be a maximum effective dose and .0000001 M a minimum. L=epinephrine was 10 times as effective in the stimulation as L-norepinephrine. With .0001 M, 499 and 439 pmoles/10 minutes per 25 mg of tissue was formed, whereas in the control (no added hormones) 256 pmoles/10 minutes were formed. 3.2% ethanol activated the system by a small amount (p.02). Propranolol alone did not appear to have any effect; however, the effect of .0001 M L-epinephrine was reduced by 95% in the presence of .00001 M propranolol. Propranolol had no effect on NaF-stimulated activity.

  6. (/sup 3/H)forskolin- and (/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol-binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1988-03-01

    The characteristics of the cardiac adenylate cyclase system were studied in rats fed diets containing fish oil (menhaden oil) and other oils. Adenylate cyclase activity generally was higher in cardiac homogenates and membranes of rats fed diet containing 10% menhaden oil than in the other oils. The increase in enzyme activity, especially in forskolin-stimulated activity, was associated with an increase in the concentration of the (/sup 3/H) forskolin-binding sites in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The beta-adrenergic receptor concentration was not significantly altered although the affinity for (/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol-binding was lower in membranes of rats fed menhaden oil than those fed the other oils. omega-3 fatty acids from menhaden oil were incorporated into the cardiac membrane phospholipids. The results suggest that the observed increase in myocardial adenylate cyclase activity of rats fed menhaden oil may be due to an increase in the number of the catalytic subunits of the enzyme or due to a greater availability of the forskolin-binding sites.

  7. Plant-activated bacterial receptor adenylate cyclases modulate epidermal infection in the Sinorhizobium meliloti-Medicago symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chang Fu; Garnerone, Anne-Marie; Mathieu-Demazière, Céline; Masson-Boivin, Catherine; Batut, Jacques

    2012-04-24

    Legumes and soil bacteria called rhizobia have coevolved a facultative nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Establishment of the symbiosis requires bacterial entry via root hair infection threads and, in parallel, organogenesis of nodules that subsequently are invaded by bacteria. Tight control of nodulation and infection is required to maintain the mutualistic character of the interaction. Available evidence supports a passive bacterial role in nodulation and infection after the microsymbiont has triggered the symbiotic plant developmental program. Here we identify in Sinorhizobium meliloti, the Medicago symbiont, a cAMP-signaling regulatory cascade consisting of three receptor-like adenylate cyclases, a Crp-like regulator, and a target gene of unknown function. The cascade is activated specifically by a plant signal during nodule organogenesis. Cascade inactivation results in a hyperinfection phenotype consisting of abortive epidermal infection events uncoupled from nodulation. These findings show that, in response to a plant signal, rhizobia play an active role in the control of infection. We suggest that rhizobia may modulate the plant's susceptibility to infection. This regulatory loop likely aims at optimizing legume infection.

  8. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 1 (PAC1) receptor is expressed during embryonic development of the earthworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, Akos; Somogyi, Ildikó; Engelmann, Péter; Lubics, Andrea; Reglodi, Dóra; Pollák, Edit; Molnár, László

    2010-03-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP)-like molecules have been shown to be present in cocoon albumin and in Eisenia fetida embryos at an early developmental stage (E1) by immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay. Here, we focus on detecting the stage at which PAC1 receptor (PAC1R)-like immunoreactivity first appears in germinal layers and structures, e.g., various parts of the central nervous system (CNS), in developing earthworm embryos. PAC1R-like immunoreactivity was revealed by Western blot and Far Western blot as early as the E2 developmental stage, occurring in the ectoderm and later in specific neurons of the developing CNS. Labeled CNS neurons were first seen in the supraesophageal ganglion (brain) and subsequently in the subesophageal and ventral nerve cord ganglia. Ultrastructurally, PAC1Rs were located mainly on plasma membranes and intracellular membranes, especially on cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum. Therefore, PACAP-like compounds probably influence the differentiation of germinal layers (at least the ectoderm) and of some neurons and might act as signaling molecules during earthworm embryonic development.

  9. The effects of isatin (indole-2, 3-dione on pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-induced hyperthermia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Gábor

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated that centrally administered natriuretic peptides and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP-38 have hyperthermic properties. Isatin (indole-2, 3-dione is an endogenous indole that has previously been found to inhibit hyperthermic effects of natriuretic peptides. In this study the aim was to investigate the effects of isatin on thermoregulatory actions of PACAP-38, in rats. Results One μg intracerebroventricular (icv. injection of PACAP-38 had hyperthermic effect in male, Wistar rats, with an onset of the effect at 2 h and a decline by the 6th h after administration. Intraperitoneal (ip. injection of different doses of isatin (25-50 mg/kg significantly decreased the hyperthermic effect of 1 μg PACAP-38 (icv., whereas 12.5 mg/kg isatin (ip. had no inhibiting effect. Isatin alone did not modify the body temperature of the animals. Conclusion The mechanisms that participate in the mediation of the PACAP-38-induced hyperthermia may be modified by isatin. The capability of isatin to antagonize the hyperthermia induced by all members of the natriuretic peptide family and by PACAP-38 makes it unlikely to be acting directly on receptors for natriuretic peptides or on those for PACAP in these hyperthermic processes.

  10. Augmented cystine-glutamate exchange by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide signaling via the VPAC1 receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Jon M.; Albano, Rebecca; Liu, XiaoQian; Hjelmhaug, Julie; Lobner, Doug; Baker, David A.; Choi, SuJean

    2014-01-01

    In the central nervous system, cystine import in exchange for glutamate through system xc− is critical for the production of the antioxidant glutathione by astrocytes, as well as the maintenance of extracellular glutamate. Therefore, regulation of system xc− activity affects multiple aspects of cellular physiology and may contribute to disease states. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuronally-derived peptide that has already been demonstrated to modulate multiple aspects of glutamate signaling suggesting PACAP may also target activity of cystine-glutamate exchange via system xc−. In the current study, 24-hour treatment of primary cortical cultures containing neurons and glia with PACAP concentration-dependently increased system xc− function as measured by radiolabeled cystine uptake. Furthermore, the increase in cystine uptake was completely abolished by the system xc− inhibitor, (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine (CPG), attributing increases in cystine uptake specifically to system xc− activity. Time course and quantitative PCR results indicate that PACAP signaling may increase cystine-glutamate exchange by increasing expression of xCT, the catalytic subunit of system xc−. Furthermore, the potentiation of system xc− activity by PACAP occurs via a PKA-dependent pathway that is not mediated by the PAC1R, but rather the shared vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor VPAC1R. Finally, assessment of neuronal, astrocytic, and microglial-enriched cultures demonstrated that only astrocyte-enriched cultures exhibit enhanced cystine uptake following both PACAP and VIP treatment. These data introduce a novel mechanism by which both PACAP and VIP regulate system xc− activity. PMID:25066643

  11. Pituitary Adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide orchestrates neuronal regulation of the astrocytic glutamate-releasing mechanism system xc (.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Linghai; Albano, Rebecca; Madayag, Aric; Raddatz, Nicholas; Mantsch, John R; Choi, SuJean; Lobner, Doug; Baker, David A

    2016-05-01

    Glutamate signaling is achieved by an elaborate network involving neurons and astrocytes. Hence, it is critical to better understand how neurons and astrocytes interact to coordinate the cellular regulation of glutamate signaling. In these studies, we used rat cortical cell cultures to examine whether neurons or releasable neuronal factors were capable of regulating system xc (-) (Sxc), a glutamate-releasing mechanism that is expressed primarily by astrocytes and has been shown to regulate synaptic transmission. We found that astrocytes cultured with neurons or exposed to neuronal-conditioned media displayed significantly higher levels of Sxc activity. Next, we demonstrated that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) may be a neuronal factor capable of regulating astrocytes. In support, we found that PACAP expression was restricted to neurons, and that PACAP receptors were expressed in astrocytes. Interestingly, blockade of PACAP receptors in cultures comprised of astrocytes and neurons significantly decreased Sxc activity to the level observed in purified astrocytes, whereas application of PACAP to purified astrocytes increased Sxc activity to the level observed in cultures comprised of neurons and astrocytes. Collectively, these data reveal that neurons coordinate the actions of glutamate-related mechanisms expressed by astrocytes, such as Sxc, a process that likely involves PACAP. A critical gap in modeling excitatory signaling is how distinct components of the glutamate system expressed by neurons and astrocytes are coordinated. In these studies, we found that system xc (-) (Sxc), a glutamate release mechanism expressed by astrocytes, is regulated by releasable neuronal factors including PACAP. This represents a novel form of neuron-astrocyte communication, and highlights the possibility that pathological changes involving astrocytic Sxc may stem from altered neuronal activity.

  12. Impaired nocifensive behaviours and mechanical hyperalgesia, but enhanced thermal allodynia in pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, K; Kormos, V; Botz, B; Imreh, A; Bölcskei, K; Gaszner, B; Markovics, A; Szolcsányi, J; Shintani, N; Hashimoto, H; Baba, A; Reglodi, D; Helyes, Z

    2010-10-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP-38) and its receptors (PAC1 and VPAC) have been shown in the spinal dorsal horn, dorsal root ganglia and sensory nerve terminals. Data concerning the role of PACAP in central pain transmission are controversial and we have recently published its divergent peripheral effects on nociceptive processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate acute somatic and visceral nocifensive behaviours, partial sciatic nerve ligation-evoked chronic neuropathic, as well as resiniferatoxin-induced inflammatory thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia in PACAP deficient (PACAP(-/-)) mice to elucidate its overall function in pain transmission. Neuronal activation was investigated with c-Fos immunohistochemistry. Paw lickings in the early (0-5 min) and late (20-45 min) phases of the formalin test were markedly reduced in PACAP(-/-) mice. Acetic acid-evoked abdominal contractions referring to acute visceral chemonociception was also significantly attenuated in PACAP knockout animals. In both models, the excitatory role of PACAP was supported by markedly greater c-Fos expression in the periaqueductal grey and the somatosensory cortex. In PACAP-deficient animals neuropathic mechanical hyperalgesia was absent, while c-Fos immunopositivity 20 days after the operation was significantly higher. In this chronic model, these neurons are likely to indicate the activation of secondary inhibitory pathways. Intraplantarly injected resiniferatoxin-evoked mechanical hyperalgesia involving both peripheral and central processes was decreased, but thermal allodynia mediated by only peripheral mechanisms was increased in PACAP(-/-) mice. These data clearly demonstrate an overall excitatory role of PACAP in pain transmission originating from both exteroceptive and interoceptive areas, it is also involved in central sensitization. This can be explained by the signal transduction mechanisms of its identified receptors, both PAC1 and VPAC

  13. Presence of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the plasma and milk of ruminant animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czegledi, Levente; Tamas, Andrea; Borzsei, Rita; Bagoly, Terez; Kiss, Peter; Horvath, Gabriella; Brubel, Reka; Nemeth, Jozsef; Szalontai, Balint; Szabadfi, Krisztina; Javor, Andras; Reglodi, Dora; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2011-05-15

    Milk contains a variety of proteins and peptides that possess biological activity. Growth factors, such as growth hormone, insulin-like, epidermal and nerve growth factors are important milk components which may regulate growth and differentiation in various neonatal tissues and also those of the mammary gland itself. We have recently shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), an important neuropeptide with neurotrophic actions, is present in the human milk in much higher concentration than in the plasma of lactating women. Investigation of growth factors in the milk of domestic animals is of utmost importance for their nutritional values and agricultural significance. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the presence and concentration of PACAP in the plasma and milk of three ruminant animal species. Furthermore, the presence of PACAP and its specific PAC1 receptor were investigated in the mammary glands. Radioimmunoassay measurements revealed that PACAP was present in the plasma and the milk of the sheep, goat and the cow in a similar concentration to that measured previously in humans. PACAP38-like immunoreactivity (PACAP38-LI) was 5-20-fold higher in the milk than in the plasma samples of the respective animals, a similar serum/milk ratio was found in all the three species. The levels did not show significant changes within the examined 3-month-period of lactation after delivery. Similar PACAP38-LI was measured in the homogenates of the sheep mammary gland samples taken 7 and 30 days after delivery. PAC1 receptor expression was detected in these udder biopsies by fluorescent immunohistochemistry suggesting that this peptide might have an effect on the mammary glands themselves. These data show that PACAP is present in the milk of various ruminant domestic animal species at high concentrations, the physiological implications of which awaits further investigation.

  14. Protective Effects of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Against Oxidative Stress in Zebrafish Hair Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasica, Natalia; Podlasz, Piotr; Sundvik, Maria; Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Kaleczyc, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide, with known antiapoptotic functions. Our previous in vitro study has demonstrated the ameliorative role of PACAP-38 in chicken hair cells under oxidative stress conditions, but its effects on living hair cells is now yet known. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo the protective role of PACAP-38 in hair cells found in zebrafish (Danio rerio) sense organs-neuromasts. To induce oxidative stress the 5-day postfertilization (dpf) zebrafish larvae were exposed to 1.5 mM H2O2 for 15 min or 1 h. This resulted in an increase in caspase-3 and p-38 MAPK level in the hair cells as well as in an impairment of the larvae basic behavior. To investigate the ameliorative role of PACAP-38, the larvae were incubated with a mixture of 1.5 mM H2O2 and 100 nM PACAP-38 following 1 h preincubation with 100 nM PACAP-38 only. PACAP-38 abilities to prevent hair cells from apoptosis were investigated. Whole-mount immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy analyses revealed that PACAP-38 treatment decreased the cleaved caspase-3 level in the hair cells, but had no influence on p-38 MAPK. The analyses of basic locomotor activity supported the protective role of PACAP-38 by demonstrating the improvement of the fish behavior after PACAP-38 treatment. In summary, our in vivo findings demonstrate that PACAP-38 protects zebrafish hair cells from oxidative stress by attenuating oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.

  15. Cloning, tissue distribution and effects of fasting on pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in largemouth bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengjie; Han, Linqiang; Bai, Junjie; Ma, Dongmei; Quan, Yingchun; Fan, Jiajia; Jiang, Peng; Yu, Lingyun

    2015-03-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has a wide range of biological functions. We cloned the full-length cDNAs encoding PACAP and PACAP-related peptide (PRP) from the brain of largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides) and used real-time quantitative PCR to detect PRP-PACAP mRNA expression. The PRP-PACAP cDNA has two variants expressed via alternative splicing: a long form, which encodes both PRP and PACAP, and a short form, which encodes only PACAP. Sequence analysis results are consistent with a higher conservation of PACAP than PRP peptide sequences. The expression of PACAP-long and PACAP-short transcripts was highest in the forebrain, followed by the medulla, midbrain, pituitary, stomach, cerebellum, intestine, and kidney; however, these transcripts were either absent or were weakly expressed in the muscle, spleen, gill, heart, fatty tissue, and liver. The level of PACAP-short transcript expression was significantly higher than expression of the long transcript in the forebrain, cerebella, pituitary and intestine, but lower than that of the long transcript in the stomach. PACAP-long and PACAP-short transcripts were first detected at the blastula stage of embryogenesis, and the level of expression increased markedly between the muscular contraction stage and 3 d post hatch (dph). The expression of PACAP-long and PACAP-short transcripts decreased significantly in the brain following 4 d fasting compared with the control diet group. The down-regulation effect was enhanced as fasting continued. Conversely, expression levels increased significantly after 3 d of re-feeding. Our results suggest that PRP-PACAP acts as an important factor in appetite regulation in largemouth bass.

  16. Effects of combinatorial treatment with pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide and human mesenchymal stem cells on spinal cord tissue repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Min Fang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to understand if human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs and neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP have synergistic protective effect that promotes functional recovery in rats with severe spinal cord injury (SCI. To evaluate the effect of delayed combinatorial therapy of PACAP and hMSCs on spinal cord tissue repair, we used the immortalized hMSCs that retain their potential of neuronal differentiation under the stimulation of neurogenic factors and possess the properties for the production of several growth factors beneficial for neural cell survival. The results indicated that delayed treatment with PACAP and hMSCs at day 7 post SCI increased the remaining neuronal fibers in the injured spinal cord, leading to better locomotor functional recovery in SCI rats when compared to treatment only with PACAP or hMSCs. Western blotting also showed that the levels of antioxidant enzymes, Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and peroxiredoxin-1/6 (Prx-1 and Prx-6, were increased at the lesion center 1 week after the delayed treatment with the combinatorial therapy when compared to that observed in the vehicle-treated control. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that co-culture with hMSCs in the presence of PACAP not only increased a subpopulation of microglia expressing galectin-3, but also enhanced the ability of astrocytes to uptake extracellular glutamate. In summary, our in vivo and in vitro studies reveal that delayed transplantation of hMSCs combined with PACAP provides trophic molecules to promote neuronal cell survival, which also foster beneficial microenvironment for endogenous glia to increase their neuroprotective effect on the repair of injured spinal cord tissue.

  17. Evidence for adenylate cyclase as a scaffold protein for Ras2-Ira interaction in Saccharomyces cerevisie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Sonia; Paiardi, Chiara; Pardons, Katrien; Winderickx, Joris; Martegani, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    Data in literature suggest that budding yeast adenylate cyclase forms a membrane-associated complex with the upstream components of the cAMP/PKA pathway. Here we provide evidences that adenylate cyclase (Cyr1p) acts as a scaffold protein keeping Ras2 available for its regulatory factors. We show that in a strain with deletion of the CYR1 gene (cyr1Δ pde2Δ msn2Δ msn4Δ) the basal Ras2-GTP level is very high and this is independent on the lack of feedback inhibition that could result from the absence of adenylate cyclase activity. Moreover, strains effected either in the intrinsic adenylate cyclase activity (fil1 strain) or in the stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by active G-proteins (lcr1 strain) had a normal basal and glucose-induced Ras2-GTP level, indicating that adenylate cyclase activity does not influence the Ras2 activation state and suggesting that Cyr1 protein is required for the proper interaction between Ras2 and the Ira proteins. We also provide evidence that the two Ras-binding sites mapped on Cyr1p are required for the signalling complex assembly. In fact, we show that the cyr1Δ strain expressing CYR1 alleles lacking either the LRR region or the C-terminal domain still have a high basal and glucose-induced Ras2-GTP level. In contrast, a mutant expressing a Cyr1 protein only missing the N-terminal domain showed a normal Ras2 activation pattern. Likewise, the Ras2-GTP levels are comparable in the wild type strain and the srv2Δ strain, supporting the hypothesis that Cap is not essential for the Ras-adenylate cyclase interaction.

  18. Photo-dynamics of the lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzkofer, A.; Tanwar, M.; Veetil, S. K.; Kateriya, S.; Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P.

    2013-09-01

    The absorption and emission spectroscopic behavior of lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain consisting of a BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) and a cyclase homology domain was studied in the dark, during blue-light exposure and after blue-light exposure at a temperature of 4 °C. The BLUF domain photo-cycle dynamics observed for snap-frozen NgPAC2 was lost by lyophilization (no signaling state formation with flavin absorption red-shift). Instead, blue-light photo-excitation of lyophilized NgPAC2 caused sterically restricted Tyr-Tyr cross-linking (o,o‧-ditysosine formation) and partial flavin cofactor reduction.

  19. Absorption and fluorescence characteristics of photo-activated adenylate cyclase nano-clusters from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, A., E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P. [Institut fuer Biologie/Experimentelle Biophysik, Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin (Germany); Kateriya, S. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India)

    2012-01-02

    Graphical abstract: Protein color center emissions were observed in the wavelength range from 340 nm to 900 nm from nano-clusters of the photo-activated adenylate cyclase (nPAC) from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adenylyl cyclase nPAC in aqueous pH 7.5 buffer dissolved only to nano-clusters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-cluster size was determined by light attenuation (scattering) measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The size of the nano-clusters was growing by coalescing during observation period. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In nPAC nano-clusters color centers were present in emission range of 360-900 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nPAC color center emission is compared with fluorescent protein emission. - Abstract: The spectroscopic characteristics of BLUF (BLUF = sensor of blue light using flavin) domain containing soluble adenylate cyclase (nPAC = Naegleria photo-activated cyclase) samples from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain is studied at room temperature. The absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic development in the dark was investigated over two weeks. Attenuation coefficient spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence excitation distributions were measured. Thawing of frozen nPAC samples gave solutions with varying protein nano-cluster size and varying flavin, tyrosine, tryptophan, and protein color-center emission. Protein color-center emission was observed in the wavelength range of 360-900 nm with narrow emission bands of small Stokes shift and broad emission bands of large Stokes shift. The emission spectra evolved in time with protein nano-cluster aging.

  20. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating-peptide and its receptor antagonists in development of acute pancreatitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Dai Chen; Zong-Guang Zhou; Zhao Wang; Hong-Kai Gao; Wen-Wei Yan; Cun Wang; Gao-Ping Zhao; Xiao-Hui Peng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating-peptide (PACAP) is a late member of the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) family of brain-gut peptides. It is unknown whether PACAP takes part in the development of acute pancreatitis and whether PACAP or its antagonists can be used to suppress the progression of acute pancreatitis.We investigated the actions of PACAP and its receptor antagonists in acute pancreatitis on rats.METHODS: Acute pancreatitis was induced in rats with caerulein or 3.5% sodium taurocholate. The rats were continuously infused with 5-30 μg/kg PACAP via jugular vein within the first 90 min, while 10-100 μg/kg PACAP6-27 and (4-Cl-D-Phe6, Leu17) VIP (PACAP receptor antagonists) were intravenously infused for 1 h. Biochemical and histopathological assessments were made at 4 h after infusion. Pancreatic and duodenal PACAP concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Chinese ink-perfused pancreas was fixed, sectioned and cleared for counting the functional capillary density.RESULTS: PACAP augmented caerulein-induced pancreatitis and failed to ameliorate sodium taurocholate-induced pancreatitis. ELISA revealed that relative concentrations of PACAP in pancreas and duodenum were significantly increased in both sodium taurocholate- and caeruleininduced pancreatitis compared with those in normal controls.Unexpectedly, PACAP6-27 and (4-Cl-DPhe6, Leu17) VIP could induce mild acute pancreatitis and aggravate caeruleininduced pancreatitis with characteristic manifestations of acute hemorrhagic/necrotizing pancreatitis. Functional capillary density of pancreas was interpreted in the context of pancreatic edema, and calibrated functional capillary density (calibrated FCD), which combined measurement of functional capillary density with dry weight/wet weight ratio, was introduced. Hyperemia or congestion, rather than ischemia, characterized pancreatic microcirculatory changes in acute pancreatitis

  1. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide induces vascular relaxation and inhibits non-vascular smooth muscle activity in the rabbit female genital tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, B R; Ottesen, B; Jørgensen, M;

    1994-01-01

    In vitro effects of two bioactive forms of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP): PACAP-38 and PACAP-27 were studied on rabbit vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle. Segments of the ovarian artery and muscle strips from the fallopian tube were used. Two series of experiments...... with PACAP-38 (10(-7) M), PACAP-27 (10(-7) M) or VIP (10(-7) M). The effect of PACAP-38, PACAP-27 and VIP (10(-10)-10(-6) M) was investigated on spontaneously contracting smooth muscle of the fallopian tube. Longitudinally as well as transversally cut specimens were investigated. PACAP-38 produced...... in the low-dose interval was observed. The peptides caused a significant, dose-dependent inhibition of both frequency and amplitude on the fallopian tube smooth muscle activity. The effects of the three peptides on longitudinally as well as transversally cut specimens were alike....

  2. Intein-mediated Rapid Purification of Recombinant Human Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-jie YU; An HONG; Yun DAI; Yuan GAO

    2004-01-01

    In order to obtain the recombinant human PACAP efficiently by intein-mediated single column purification, a gene encoding human PACAP was synthesized and cloned into Escherichia coli expression vector pKYB. The recombinant vector pKY-PAC was transferred into E. coli ER2566 cells and the target protein was over-expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of a self-cleavable affinity tag. After the PACAPintein-CBD fusion protein was purified by chitin-affinity chromatography, the self-cleavage activity of the intein was induced by DTT and the rhPACAP was released from the chitin-bound intein tag. The activity of the rhPACAP to stimulate cyclic AMP accumulation was detected using the human pancreas carcinoma cells SW1990. Twenty-two milligrams of rhPACAP with the purity over 98% was obtained by single column purification from 1 liter of induced culture. The preliminary biological assay indicated that the rhPACAP, which has an extra Met at its N-terminus compared with the native human PACAP, had the similar activity of stimulating cAMP accumulation with the standard PACAP38 in the SW1990 cells. A new efficient production procedure of the active recombinant human PACAP was established.

  3. Monospecific antibody against Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase protects from Pertussis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Faiz Kazi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acellular pertussis vaccines has been largely accepted world-wide however, there are reports about limitedantibody response against these vaccines suggesting that multiple antigens should be included in acellular vaccinesto attain full protection. The aim of present study was to evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase as aprotective antigen.Materials and methods: Highly mono-specific antibody against adenylate cyclase (AC was raised in rabbits usingnitrocellulose bound adenylate cyclase and the specificity was assessed by immuoblotting. B.pertussis 18-323, wasincubated with the mono-specific serum and without serum as a control. Mice were challenged intra-nasally and pathophysiolgicalresponses were recorded.Results: The production of B.pertussis adenylate cyclase monospecific antibody that successfully recognized on immunoblotand gave protection against fatality (p< 0.01 and lung consolidation (p <0.01. Mouse weight gain showedsignificant difference (p< 0.05.Conclusion: These preliminary results highlight the role of the B.pertussis adenylate cyclase as a potential pertussisvaccine candidate. B.pertussis AC exhibited significant protection against pertussis in murine model. J Microbiol InfectDis 2012; 2(2: 36-43Key words: Pertussis; monospecific; antibody; passive-protection

  4. Linalool from rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke) oil inhibits adenylate cyclase in the retina, contributing to understanding its biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Lucia de Fatima S; Maia, José Guilherme S; de Parijós, Amanda M; de Souza, Rita Z; Barata, Lauro Euclides S

    2012-01-01

    Rosewood oil (RO) (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke) is rich in linalool, a monoterpene alcohol, which has well studied anxiolytic, sedative and anticonvulsant effects. The inhibition of the increases in cAMP protects against seizures in a diversity of models of epilepsy. In this paper, the principal aim was to investigate the effects of RO, (±)-linalool and (-)-linalool) on adenylate cyclase. They were tested in chick retinas and forskolin was used to stimulate the enzyme target. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 4-(3-butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-imidazolidin-2-one, and the non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist 3-isobutyl-methyl-xanthine (IBMX), were used to control the participation of phosphodiesterase and adenosine receptors in the resulting effects, respectively. The cAMP accumulation was measured by enzyme immune assay (EIA). Rosewood oil, (-)-linalool and (±)-linalool inhibited exclusively the cAMP accumulation stimulated by forskolin, even when adenosine receptors were blocked with IBMX. The IC(50) values (in μ m concentration range) calculated from their concentration response-curves were not statistically different, however, the compounds presented a different relative efficacy. These results extend the range of subcellular mechanisms underlying the relaxant action of linalool on the central nervous system.

  5. A homolog of the vertebrate pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is both necessary and instructive for the rapid formation of associative memory in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirger, Zsolt; László, Zita; Kemenes, Ildikó; Tóth, Gábor; Reglodi, Dóra; Kemenes, György

    2010-10-13

    Similar to other invertebrate and vertebrate animals, cAMP-dependent signaling cascades are key components of long-term memory (LTM) formation in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis, an established experimental model for studying evolutionarily conserved molecular mechanisms of long-term associative memory. Although a great deal is already known about the signaling cascades activated by cAMP, the molecules involved in the learning-induced activation of adenylate cyclase (AC) in Lymnaea remained unknown. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy in combination with biochemical and immunohistochemical methods, recently we have obtained evidence for the existence of a Lymnaea homolog of the vertebrate pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and for the AC-activating effect of PACAP in the Lymnaea nervous system. Here we first tested the hypothesis that PACAP plays an important role in the formation of robust LTM after single-trial classical food-reward conditioning. Application of the PACAP receptor antagonist PACAP6-38 around the time of single-trial training with amyl acetate and sucrose blocked associative LTM, suggesting that in this "strong" food-reward conditioning paradigm the activation of AC by PACAP was necessary for LTM to form. We found that in a "weak" multitrial food-reward conditioning paradigm, lip touch paired with sucrose, memory formation was also dependent on PACAP. Significantly, systemic application of PACAP at the beginning of multitrial tactile conditioning accelerated the formation of transcription-dependent memory. Our findings provide the first evidence to show that in the same nervous system PACAP is both necessary and instructive for fast and robust memory formation after reward classical conditioning.

  6. Effect of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide on the autophagic activation observed in in vitro and in vivo models of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamine-Ajili, Asma; Fahmy, Ahmed M; Létourneau, Myriam; Chatenet, David; Labonté, Patrick; Vaudry, David; Fournier, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that leads to destruction of the midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. This phenomenon is related to apoptosis and its activation can be blocked by the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). Growing evidence indicates that autophagy, a self-degradation activity that cleans up the cell, is induced during the course of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of neuronal disorders is yet poorly understood and the potential ability of PACAP to modulate the related autophagic activation has never been significantly investigated. Hence, we explored the putative autophagy-modulating properties of PACAP in in vitro and in vivo models of PD, using the neurotoxic agents 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), respectively, to trigger alterations of DA neurons. In both models, following the toxin exposure, PACAP reduced the autophagic activity as evaluated by the production of LC3 II, the modulation of the p62 protein levels, and the formation of autophagic vacuoles. The ability of PACAP to inhibit autophagy was also observed in an in vitro cell assay by the blocking of the p62-sequestration activity produced with the autophagy inducer rapamycin. Thus, the results demonstrated that autophagy is induced in PD experimental models and that PACAP exhibits not only anti-apoptotic but also anti-autophagic properties.

  7. Neurohypophyseal hormone-responsive renal adenylate cyclase. IV. A random-hit matrix model for coupline in a hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R N; Hechter, O

    1978-05-10

    A "random-hit" matrix model is proposed to account for the dynamic and steady state relationship between occupation of bovine renal medullary membrane receptors by [Lys8]vasopressin (LVP) and neurohypophyseal hormones (NHH) and the associated activation of membrane-bound adenylate cyclase. The model was developed by systematic introduction of specific rules concerning receptor coupling into a general structural model which consists of two square matrices of identical size, one composed of homogeneous R ("receptor") units, the second of homogeneous C ("cyclase") units. R units are either occupied (RO) or unoccupied (RU); C units are either active (CA) or inactive (CI). Hormone molecules are envisioned to "collide" with R units randomly; collision with RU leads to "binding", and occupation is maintained for a characteristic mean occupancy time, TO. In this structure, each R unit has an "interaction field" which consists of the "twin" unit in the "C" matrix, and the 4 nearest neighbor C units surrounding the twin. Occupation of an R unit leads to activation of all CI units in the interaction field of that R; CA units in the interaction field are refractory. Thus binding at a given R may "recruit" a variable number of inactive neighboring C units (5, 4, 3, 2, 1, or 0). The model requires that there be individual coupling delays between the moment of binding at a given R and subsequent activation of CI units (mean coupling delay (Td) approximately 10% To). Activation of C units persists as long as the "parent" R is occupied and is maintained for an additional short time interval (Tp) after RO reverts to RU, corresponding to hormone dissociation from receptor. The model accounts for the following previously demonstrated relations between LVP occupation of receptors and adenylate cyclase activation in bovine renal medullary membranes: 1) the shape of the nonlinear steady state relation between normalized (percentage maximal) receptor occupation (O) and cyclase activation

  8. Photo-dynamics of the lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, A., E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Tanwar, M.; Veetil, S.K.; Kateriya, S. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P. [Institut für Biologie/Experimentelle Biophysik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-09-23

    Highlights: • Lyophilizing of NgPAC2 from Naegleria gruberi caused loss of BLUF domain activity. • Photo-induced tyrosine to flavin electron transfer in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced Tyr–Tyr cross-linking to o,o′-dityrosine in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced partial flavin cofactor reduction in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Two NgPAC2 conformations with fast and slow photo-induced electron transfer. - Abstract: The absorption and emission spectroscopic behavior of lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain consisting of a BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) and a cyclase homology domain was studied in the dark, during blue-light exposure and after blue-light exposure at a temperature of 4 °C. The BLUF domain photo-cycle dynamics observed for snap-frozen NgPAC2 was lost by lyophilization (no signaling state formation with flavin absorption red-shift). Instead, blue-light photo-excitation of lyophilized NgPAC2 caused sterically restricted Tyr–Tyr cross-linking (o,o′-ditysosine formation) and partial flavin cofactor reduction.

  9. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP Pathway Is Induced by Mechanical Load and Reduces the Activity of Hedgehog Signaling in Chondrogenic Micromass Cell Cultures

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    Tamás Juhász

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is a neurohormone exerting protective function during various stress conditions either in mature or developing tissues. Previously we proved the presence of PACAP signaling elements in chicken limb bud-derived chondrogenic cells in micromass cell cultures. Since no data can be found if PACAP signaling is playing any role during mechanical stress in any tissues, we aimed to investigate its contribution in mechanotransduction during chondrogenesis. Expressions of the mRNAs of PACAP and its major receptor, PAC1 increased, while that of other receptors, VPAC1, VPAC2 decreased upon mechanical stimulus. Mechanical load enhanced the expression of collagen type X, a marker of hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and PACAP addition attenuated this elevation. Moreover, exogenous PACAP also prevented the mechanical load evoked activation of hedgehog signaling: protein levels of Sonic and Indian Hedgehogs and Gli1 transcription factor were lowered while expressions of Gli2 and Gli3 were elevated by PACAP application during mechanical load. Our results suggest that mechanical load activates PACAP signaling and exogenous PACAP acts against the hypertrophy inducing effect of mechanical load.

  10. Effects of Yulangsan polysaccharide on monoamine neurotransmitters, adenylate cyclase activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in a mouse model of depression induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang Liang; Renbin Huang; Xing Lin; Jianchun Huang; Zhongshi Huang; Huagang Liu

    2012-01-01

    The present study established a mouse model of depression induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress. The model mice were treated with Yulangsan polysaccharide (YLSPS; 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg) for 21 days, and compared with fluoxetine-treated and normal control groups. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, radioimmunity and immunohistochemical staining showed that following treatment with YLSPS (300 and 600 mg/kg), monoamine neurotransmitter levels, prefrontal cortex adenylate cyclase activity and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression were significantly elevated, and depression-like behaviors were improved. Open-field and novelty-suppressed feeding tests showed that mouse activity levels were increased and feeding latency was shortened following treatment. Our results indicate that YLSPS inhibits depression by upregulating monoamine neurotransmitters, prefrontal cortex adenylate cyclase activity and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression.

  11. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) inhibits the slow afterhyperpolarizing current sIAHP in CA1 pyramidal neurons by activating multiple signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ruth D T; Madsen, Marita Grønning; Krause, Michael; Sampedro-Castañeda, Marisol; Stocker, Martin; Pedarzani, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The slow afterhyperpolarizing current (sIAHP ) is a calcium-dependent potassium current that underlies the late phase of spike frequency adaptation in hippocampal and neocortical neurons. sIAHP is a well-known target of modulation by several neurotransmitters acting via the cyclic AMP (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent pathway. The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) and its receptors are present in the hippocampal formation. In this study we have investigated the effect of PACAP on the sIAHP and the signal transduction pathway used to modulate intrinsic excitability of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We show that PACAP inhibits the sIAHP , resulting in a decrease of spike frequency adaptation, in rat CA1 pyramidal cells. The suppression of sIAHP by PACAP is mediated by PAC1 and VPAC1 receptors. Inhibition of PKA reduced the effect of PACAP on sIAHP, suggesting that PACAP exerts part of its inhibitory effect on sIAHP by increasing cAMP and activating PKA. The suppression of sIAHP by PACAP was also strongly hindered by the inhibition of p38 MAP kinase (p38 MAPK). Concomitant inhibition of PKA and p38 MAPK indicates that these two kinases act in a sequential manner in the same pathway leading to the suppression of sIAHP. Conversely, protein kinase C is not part of the signal transduction pathway used by PACAP to inhibit sIAHP in CA1 neurons. Our results show that PACAP enhances the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons by inhibiting the sIAHP through the activation of multiple signaling pathways, most prominently cAMP/PKA and p38 MAPK. Our findings disclose a novel modulatory action of p38 MAPK on intrinsic excitability and the sIAHP, underscoring the role of this current as a neuromodulatory hub regulated by multiple protein kinases in cortical neurons.

  12. Bordetella pertussis commits human dendritic cells to promote a Th1/Th17 response through the activity of adenylate cyclase toxin and MAPK-pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Fedele

    Full Text Available The complex pathology of B. pertussis infection is due to multiple virulence factors having disparate effects on different cell types. We focused our investigation on the ability of B. pertussis to modulate host immunity, in particular on the role played by adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA, an important virulence factor of B. pertussis. As a tool, we used human monocyte derived dendritic cells (MDDC, an ex vivo model useful for the evaluation of the regulatory potential of DC on T cell immune responses. The work compared MDDC functions after encounter with wild-type B. pertussis (BpWT or a mutant lacking CyaA (BpCyaA-, or the BpCyaA- strain supplemented with either the fully functional CyaA or a derivative, CyaA*, lacking adenylate cyclase activity. As a first step, MDDC maturation, cytokine production, and modulation of T helper cell polarization were evaluated. As a second step, engagement of Toll-like receptors (TLR 2 and TLR4 by B. pertussis and the signaling events connected to this were analyzed. These approaches allowed us to demonstrate that CyaA expressed by B. pertussis strongly interferes with DC functions, by reducing the expression of phenotypic markers and immunomodulatory cytokines, and blocking IL-12p70 production. B. pertussis-treated MDDC promoted a mixed Th1/Th17 polarization, and the activity of CyaA altered the Th1/Th17 balance, enhancing Th17 and limiting Th1 expansion. We also demonstrated that Th1 effectors are induced by B. pertussis-MDDC in the absence of IL-12p70 through an ERK1/2 dependent mechanism, and that p38 MAPK is essential for MDDC-driven Th17 expansion. The data suggest that CyaA mediates an escape strategy for the bacterium, since it reduces Th1 immunity and increases Th17 responses thought to be responsible, when the response is exacerbated, for enhanced lung inflammation and injury.

  13. Age-associated alterations in hepatic. beta. -adrenergic receptor/adenylate cyclase complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, S.M.; Herring, P.A.; Arinze, I.J.

    1987-09-01

    The effect of age on catecholamine regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis and on hepatic adenylate cyclase was studied in male rats up to 24 mo of age. Epinephrine and norepinephrine stimulated glycogenolysis in isolated hepatocytes at all age groups studied. Isoproterenol, however, stimulated glycogenolysis only at 24 mo. In isolated liver membranes, usual activators of adenylate cyclase increased the activity of the enzyme considerably more in membranes from 24-mo-old rats than in membranes from either 3- or 22-mo-old rats. The Mn/sup 2 +/-dependent activity of the cyclase was increased by 2.9-fold in 3-mo-old animals and approx. 5.7-fold in 24-mo-old rats, indicating a substantial age-dependent increase in the intrinsic activity of the catalytic unit. The density of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor, as measured by the binding of (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol to plasma membranes, was 5-8 fmol/mg protein in rats aged 3-12 mo but increased to 19 fmol/mg protein in 24-mo-old rats. Computer-aided analysis of isoproterenol competition of the binding indicated a small age-dependent increase in the proportion of ..beta..-receptors in the high-affinity state. These observations suggest that ..beta..-receptor-mediated hepatic glycogenolysis in the aged rat is predicated upon increases in the density of ..beta..-receptors as well as increased intrinsic activity of the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase.

  14. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin differentially modulates toll-like receptor-stimulated activation, migration and T cell stimulatory capacity of dendritic cells.

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    Irena Adkins

    Full Text Available Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA is a key virulence factor of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis. The toxin targets CD11b-expressing phagocytes and delivers into their cytosol an adenylyl cyclase (AC enzyme that subverts cellular signaling by increasing cAMP levels. In the present study, we analyzed the modulatory effects of CyaA on adhesive, migratory and antigen presenting properties of Toll-like receptor (TLR-activated murine and human dendritic cells (DCs. cAMP signaling of CyaA enhanced TLR-induced dissolution of cell adhesive contacts and migration of DCs towards the lymph node-homing chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 in vitro. Moreover, we examined in detail the capacity of toxin-treated DCs to induce CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell responses. Exposure to CyaA decreased the capacity of LPS-stimulated DCs to present soluble protein antigen to CD4+ T cells independently of modulation of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokine production, and enhanced their capacity to promote CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ T regulatory cells in vitro. In addition, CyaA decreased the capacity of LPS-stimulated DCs to induce CD8(+ T cell proliferation and limited the induction of IFN-γ producing CD8(+ T cells while enhancing IL-10 and IL-17-production. These results indicate that through activation of cAMP signaling, the CyaA may be mobilizing DCs impaired in T cell stimulatory capacity and arrival of such DCs into draining lymph nodes may than contribute to delay and subversion of host immune responses during B. pertussis infection.

  15. Reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mice deficient for pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide type-I-receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Mathias; Otto, Christiane; Zörner, Björn; Zacher, Christiane; Schütz, Günther; Henn, Fritz A; Gass, Peter

    2004-04-22

    In vitro pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) induces the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) via its specific receptor PAC1. Since BDNF has been implicated in learning paradigms and mice lacking functional PAC1 have deficits in hippocampus-dependent associative learning, we investigated whether PAC1 mutants show alterations in hippocampal expression of BDNF and its receptor TrkB. Semi-quantitative in situ-hybridization using exon-specific BDNF-probes revealed significantly reduced expression of the exon-III and exon-V-specific transcripts within the hippocampal CA3 region in PAC1-deficient mice. A similar trend was observed for the exon-I-specific transcript. The expression of the exon-III-specific transcript was also reduced within the dentate gyrus, while Trk B-expression did not differ between genotypes. Our data demonstrate that even in vivo PAC1-mediated signaling seems to play a pivotal role for the transcriptional regulation of BDNF.

  16. First report of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in crustaceans: conservation of its functions as growth promoting factor and immunomodulator in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Juana María; Carpio, Yamila; Morales, Reynold; Rodríguez-Ramos, Tania; Ramos, Laida; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2013-12-01

    The high conservation of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) sequence indicates that this peptide fulfills important biological functions in a broad spectrum of organisms. However, in invertebrates, little is known about its presence and its functions remain unclear. Up to now, in non-mammalian vertebrates, the majority of studies on PACAP have focused mainly on the localization, cloning and structural evolution of this peptide. As yet, little is known about its biological functions as growth factor and immunomodulator in lower vertebrates. Recently, we have shown that PACAP, apart from its neuroendocrine role, influences immune functions in larval and juvenile fish. In this work, we isolated for the first time the cDNA encoding the mature PACAP from a crustacean species, the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, corroborating its high degree of sequence conservation, when compared to sequences reported from tunicates to mammalian vertebrates. Based on this, we have evaluated the effects of purified recombinant Clarias gariepinus PACAP administrated by immersion baths on white shrimp growth and immunity. We demonstrated that PACAP improves hemocyte count, superoxide dismutase, lectins and nitric oxide synthase derived metabolites in treated shrimp related with an increase in total protein concentration and growth performance. From our results, PACAP acts as a regulator of shrimp growth and immunity, suggesting that in crustaceans, as in vertebrate organisms, PACAP is an important molecule shared by both the endocrine and the immune systems.

  17. Toxicity of Cry1A toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis to CF1 cells does not involve activation of adenylate cyclase/PKA signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Leivi; Muñóz-Garay, Carlos; Martínez de Castro, Diana L; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacteria produce Cry toxins that are able to kill insect pests. Different models explaining the mode of action of these toxins have been proposed. The pore formation model proposes that the toxin creates pores in the membrane of the larval midgut cells after interaction with different receptors such as cadherin, aminopeptidase N and alkaline phosphatase and that this pore formation activity is responsible for the toxicity of these proteins. The alternative model proposes that interaction with cadherin receptor triggers an intracellular cascade response involving protein G, adenylate cyclase (AC) and protein kinase A (PKA). In addition, it was shown that Cry toxins induce a defense response in the larvae involving the activation of mitogen-activated kinases such as MAPK p38 in different insect orders. Here we analyzed the mechanism of action of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins and a collection of mutants from these toxins in the insect cell line CF1 from Choristoneura fumiferana, that is naturally sensitive to these toxins. Our results show that both toxins induced permeability of K(+) ions into the cells. The initial response after intoxication with Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins involves the activation of a defense response that involves the phosphorylation of MAPK p38. Analysis of activation of PKA and AC activities indicated that the signal transduction involving PKA, AC and cAMP was not activated during Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac intoxication. In contrast we show that Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac activate apoptosis. These data indicate that Cry toxins can induce an apoptotic death response not related with AC/PKA activation. Since Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins affected K(+) ion permeability into the cells, and that mutant toxins affected in pore formation are not toxic to CF1, we propose that pore formation activity of the toxins is responsible of triggering cell death response in CF1cells.

  18. Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of forskolin on adenylate cyclase in rat normal hepatocytes and hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K; Sanae, F; Koshiura, R; Matsunaga, T; Takagi, K; Satake, T; Hasegawa, T

    1989-02-01

    Forskolin synergistically potentiated adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate formation by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) in rat normal hepatocytes freshly prepared by collagenase digestion and rat ascites hepatoma AH66 cells, but dose-dependently inhibited the accumulation by PGE1 in AH66F cells. Forskolin activated adenylate cyclase in a dose-dependent manner in homogenates of all cell lines. In normal hepatocytes and AH66 cells, simultaneous addition of forskolin and other adenylate cyclase activators [isoproterenol (IPN), PGE1, guanosine 5'-triphosphate sodium salt (GTP), 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate sodium salt (Gpp (NH)p), NaF, cholera toxin, islet activating protein and MnCl2] gave greater than additive responses. On the other hand, in AH66F cells, the effect of forskolin on adenylate cyclase was hardly influenced by GTP, but forskolin diminished the activities induced by high concentrations of GTP to that by the diterpene alone. Forskolin also significantly inhibited the PGE1-stimulated and the guanine nucleotide binding regulatory protein-stimulated activities. Because AH66F cells were insensitive to IPN, the combination with forskolin and IPN gave similar activity to that obtained with the diterpene alone. The effect of forskolin on the activation by manganese ion was neither synergistic nor inhibitory but was additive in AH66F cells. These results suggest that forskolin promotes the interaction between the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding regulatory protein and the catalytic unit in normal hepatocytes and AH66 cells, but in AH66F cells forskolin interferes with the coupling of the two components of adenylate cyclase.

  19. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) inhibits the slow afterhyperpolarizing current sIAHP in CA1 pyramidal neurons by activating multiple signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ruth DT; Madsen, Marita Grønning; Krause, Michael; Sampedro-Castañeda, Marisol; Stocker, Martin; Pedarzani, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The slow afterhyperpolarizing current (sIAHP) is a calcium-dependent potassium current that underlies the late phase of spike frequency adaptation in hippocampal and neocortical neurons. sIAHP is a well-known target of modulation by several neurotransmitters acting via the cyclic AMP (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent pathway. The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) and its receptors are present in the hippocampal formation. In this study we have investigated the effect of PACAP on the sIAHP and the signal transduction pathway used to modulate intrinsic excitability of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We show that PACAP inhibits the sIAHP, resulting in a decrease of spike frequency adaptation, in rat CA1 pyramidal cells. The suppression of sIAHP by PACAP is mediated by PAC1 and VPAC1 receptors. Inhibition of PKA reduced the effect of PACAP on sIAHP, suggesting that PACAP exerts part of its inhibitory effect on sIAHP by increasing cAMP and activating PKA. The suppression of sIAHP by PACAP was also strongly hindered by the inhibition of p38 MAP kinase (p38 MAPK). Concomitant inhibition of PKA and p38 MAPK indicates that these two kinases act in a sequential manner in the same pathway leading to the suppression of sIAHP. Conversely, protein kinase C is not part of the signal transduction pathway used by PACAP to inhibit sIAHP in CA1 neurons. Our results show that PACAP enhances the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons by inhibiting the sIAHP through the activation of multiple signaling pathways, most prominently cAMP/PKA and p38 MAPK. Our findings disclose a novel modulatory action of p38 MAPK on intrinsic excitability and the sIAHP, underscoring the role of this current as a neuromodulatory hub regulated by multiple protein kinases in cortical neurons. © 2013 The Authors. Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23996525

  20. A membrane-associated adenylate cyclase modulates lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities required for bull sperm capacitation induced by hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Silvina; Córdoba, Mariana

    2017-04-01

    Hyaluronic acid, as well as heparin, is a glycosaminoglycan present in the female genital tract of cattle. The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative metabolism and intracellular signals mediated by a membrane-associated adenylate cyclase (mAC), in sperm capacitation with hyaluronic acid and heparin, in cryopreserved bull sperm. The mAC inhibitor, 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, was used in the present study. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities and lactate concentration were determined spectrophotometrically in the incubation medium. Capacitation and acrosome reaction were evaluated by chlortetracycline technique, while plasma membrane and acrosome integrity were determined by trypan blue stain/differential interference contrast microscopy. Heparin capacitated samples had a significant decrease in LDH and CK activities, while in hyaluronic acid capacitated samples LDH and CK activities both increased compared to control samples, in heparin and hyaluronic acid capacitation conditions, respectively. A significant increase in lactate concentration in the incubation medium occurred in hyaluronic acid-treated sperm samples compared to heparin treatment, indicating this energetic metabolite is produced during capacitation. The LDH and CK enzyme activities and lactate concentrations in the incubation medium were decreased with 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine treatment in hyaluronic acid samples. The mAC inhibitor significantly inhibited heparin-induced capacitation of sperm cells, but did not completely inhibit hyaluronic acid capacitation. Therefore, hyaluronic acid and heparin are physiological glycosaminoglycans capable of inducing in vitro capacitation in cryopreserved bull sperm, stimulating different enzymatic pathways and intracellular signals modulated by a mAC. Hyaluronic acid induces sperm capacitation involving LDH and CK activities, thereby reducing oxidative metabolism, and this process is mediated by mAC.

  1. Alternative Splicing of the Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Receptor PAC1: Mechanisms of Fine Tuning of Brain Activity

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    Janna eBlechman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA encoding for the neuropeptide receptor PAC1/ADCYAP1R1 generates multiple protein products that exhibit pleiotropic activities. Recent studies in mammals and zebrafish have implicated some of these splice isoforms in control of both cellular and body homeostasis. Here, we review the regulation of PAC1 splice variants and their underlying signal transduction and physiological processes in the nervous system.

  2. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Peptide in the Central Amygdala Causes Anorexia and Body Weight Loss via the Melanocortin and the TrkB Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iemolo, Attilio; Ferragud, Antonio; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PAC1 receptor system represents one of the main regulators of the behavioral, endocrine, and autonomic responses to stress. Although induction of anorexia is a well-documented effect of PACAP, the central sites underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. The present studies addressed this question by examining the neuroanatomical, behavioral, and pharmacological mechanisms mediating the anorexia produced by PACAP in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a limbic structure implicated in the emotional components of ingestive behavior. Male rats were microinfused with PACAP (0-1 μg per rat) into the CeA and home-cage food intake, body weight change, microstructural analysis of food intake, and locomotor activity were assessed. Intra-CeA (but not intra-basolateral amygdala) PACAP dose-dependently induced anorexia and body weight loss without affecting locomotor activity. PACAP-treated rats ate smaller meals of normal duration, revealing that PACAP slowed feeding within meals by decreasing the regularity and maintenance of feeding from pellet-to-pellet; postprandial satiety was unaffected. Intra-CeA PACAP-induced anorexia was blocked by coinfusion of either the melanocortin receptor 3/4 antagonist SHU 9119 or the tyrosine kinase B (TrKB) inhibitor k-252a, but not the CRF receptor antagonist D-Phe-CRF(12-41). These results indicate that the CeA is one of the brain areas through which the PACAP system promotes anorexia and that PACAP preferentially lessens the maintenance of feeding in rats, effects opposite to those of palatable food. We also demonstrate that PACAP in the CeA exerts its anorectic effects via local melanocortin and the TrKB systems, and independently from CRF.

  3. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has a neuroprotective function in dopamine-based neurodegeneration in rat and snail parkinsonian models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Tibor; Jungling, Adel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) rescues dopaminergic neurons from neurodegeneration and improves motor changes induced by 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA) in rat parkinsonian models. Recently, we investigated the molecular background of the neuroprotective effect of PACAP in dopamine (DA)-based neurodegeneration using rotenone-induced snail and 6-OHDA-induced rat models of Parkinson's disease. Behavioural activity, monoamine (DA and serotonin), metabolic enzyme (S-COMT, MB-COMT and MAO-B) and PARK7 protein concentrations were measured before and after PACAP treatment in both models. Locomotion and feeding activity were decreased in rotenone-treated snails, which corresponded well to findings obtained in 6-OHDA-induced rat experiments. PACAP was able to prevent the behavioural malfunctions caused by the toxins. Monoamine levels decreased in both models and the decreased DA level induced by toxins was attenuated by ∼50% in the PACAP-treated animals. In contrast, PACAP had no effect on the decreased serotonin (5HT) levels. S-COMT metabolic enzyme was also reduced but a protective effect of PACAP was not observed in either of the models. Following toxin treatment, a significant increase in MB-COMT was observed in both models and was restored to normal levels by PACAP. A decrease in PARK7 was also observed in both toxin-induced models; however, PACAP had a beneficial effect only on 6-OHDA-treated animals. The neuroprotective effect of PACAP in different animal models of Parkinson's disease is thus well correlated with neurotransmitter, enzyme and protein levels. The models successfully mimic several, but not all etiological properties of the disease, allowing us to study the mechanisms of neurodegeneration as well as testing new drugs. The rotenone and 6-OHDA rat and snail in vivo parkinsonian models offer an alternative method for investigation of the molecular mechanisms of neuroprotective agents, including PACAP. PMID:28067625

  4. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has a neuroprotective function in dopamine-based neurodegeneration in rat and snail parkinsonian models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasz, Gabor; Zrinyi, Zita; Reglodi, Dora; Petrovics, Dora; Rivnyak, Adam; Kiss, Tibor; Jungling, Adel; Tamas, Andrea; Pirger, Zsolt

    2017-02-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) rescues dopaminergic neurons from neurodegeneration and improves motor changes induced by 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA) in rat parkinsonian models. Recently, we investigated the molecular background of the neuroprotective effect of PACAP in dopamine (DA)-based neurodegeneration using rotenone-induced snail and 6-OHDA-induced rat models of Parkinson's disease. Behavioural activity, monoamine (DA and serotonin), metabolic enzyme (S-COMT, MB-COMT and MAO-B) and PARK7 protein concentrations were measured before and after PACAP treatment in both models. Locomotion and feeding activity were decreased in rotenone-treated snails, which corresponded well to findings obtained in 6-OHDA-induced rat experiments. PACAP was able to prevent the behavioural malfunctions caused by the toxins. Monoamine levels decreased in both models and the decreased DA level induced by toxins was attenuated by ∼50% in the PACAP-treated animals. In contrast, PACAP had no effect on the decreased serotonin (5HT) levels. S-COMT metabolic enzyme was also reduced but a protective effect of PACAP was not observed in either of the models. Following toxin treatment, a significant increase in MB-COMT was observed in both models and was restored to normal levels by PACAP. A decrease in PARK7 was also observed in both toxin-induced models; however, PACAP had a beneficial effect only on 6-OHDA-treated animals. The neuroprotective effect of PACAP in different animal models of Parkinson's disease is thus well correlated with neurotransmitter, enzyme and protein levels. The models successfully mimic several, but not all etiological properties of the disease, allowing us to study the mechanisms of neurodegeneration as well as testing new drugs. The rotenone and 6-OHDA rat and snail in vivo parkinsonian models offer an alternative method for investigation of the molecular mechanisms of neuroprotective agents, including PACAP.

  5. Adenylate cyclase toxin promotes internalisation of integrins and raft components and decreases macrophage adhesion capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Martín

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis, the bacterium that causes whooping cough, secretes an adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT that must be post-translationally palmitoylated in the bacterium cytosol to be active. The toxin targets phagocytes expressing the CD11b/CD18 integrin receptor. It delivers a catalytic adenylate cyclase domain into the target cell cytosol producing a rapid increase of intracellular cAMP concentration that suppresses bactericidal functions of the phagocyte. ACT also induces calcium fluxes into target cells. Biochemical, biophysical and cell biology approaches have been applied here to show evidence that ACT and integrin molecules, along with other raft components, are rapidly internalized by the macrophages in a toxin-induced calcium rise-dependent process. The toxin-triggered internalisation events occur through two different routes of entry, chlorpromazine-sensitive receptor-mediated endocytosis and clathrin-independent internalisation, maybe acting in parallel. ACT locates into raft-like domains, and is internalised, also in cells devoid of receptor. Altogether our results suggest that adenylate cyclase toxin, and maybe other homologous pathogenic toxins from the RTX (Repeats in Toxin family to which ACT belongs, may be endowed with an intrinsic capacity to, directly and efficiently, insert into raft-like domains, promoting there its multiple activities. One direct consequence of the integrin removal from the cell surface of the macrophages is the hampering of their adhesion ability, a fundamental property in the immune response of the leukocytes that could be instrumental in the pathogenesis of Bordetella pertussis.

  6. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulate murine neural progenitor cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Eugene; May, Victor; Braas, Karen M; Shutz, Kristin C; Mao-Draayer, Yang

    2008-11-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NPC) have gained wide interest over the last decade from their therapeutic potential, either through transplantation or endogenous replacement, after central nervous system (CNS) disease and damage. Whereas several growth factors and cytokines have been shown to promote NPC survival, proliferation, or differentiation, the identification of other regulators will provide much needed options for NPC self-renewal or lineage development. Although previous studies have shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) can regulate stem/progenitor cells, the responses appeared variable. To examine the direct roles of these peptides in NPCs, postnatal mouse NPC cultures were withdrawn from epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblastic growth factor (FGF) and maintained under serum-free conditions in the presence or absence of PACAP27, PACAP38, or VIP. The NPCs expressed the PAC1(short)null receptor isoform, and the activation of these receptors decreased progenitor cell apoptosis more than 80% from TUNEL assays and facilitated proliferation more than fivefold from bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) analyses. To evaluate cellular differentiation, replicate control and peptide-treated cultures were examined for cell fate marker protein and transcript expression. In contrast with previous work, PACAP peptides downregulated NPC differentiation, which appeared consistent with the proliferation status of the treated cells. Accordingly, these results demonstrate that PACAP signaling is trophic and can maintain NPCs in a multipotent state. With these attributes, PACAP may be able to promote endogenous NPC self-renewal in the adult CNS, which may be important for endogenous self-repair in disease and ageing processes.

  7. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide, A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Diabetic Retinopathy in Rats: Focus on the Vertical Information Processing Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabadfi, K; Reglodi, D; Szabo, A; Szalontai, B; Valasek, A; Setalo, Gy; Kiss, P; Tamas, A; Wilhelm, M; Gabriel, R

    2016-04-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurotrophic and neuroprotective peptide that has been shown to exert protective effects in different neuronal injuries, such as retinal degenerations. Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common complication of diabetes, affects the microvasculature and neuronal architecture of the retina. We have proven earlier that PACAP is also protective in a rat model of DR. In this study, streptozotocin-induced DR was treated with intravitreal PACAP administration in order to further analyze the synaptic structure and proteins of PACAP-treated diabetic retinas, primarily in the vertical information processing pathway. Streptozotocin-treated Wistar rats received intravitreal PACAP injection three times into the right eye 2 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Morphological and molecular biological (qRT-PCR; Western blot) methods were used to analyze retinal synapses (ribbons, conventional) and related structures. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that retinal pigment epithelium, the ribbon synapses and other synaptic profiles suffered alterations in diabetes. However, in PACAP-treated diabetic retinas more bipolar ribbon synapses were found intact in the inner plexiform layer than in DR animals. The ribbon synapse was marked with C-terminal binding protein 2/Bassoon and formed horseshoe-shape ribbons, which were more retained in PACAP-treated diabetic retinas than in DR rats. These results are supported by molecular biological data. The selective degeneration of related structures such as bipolar and ganglion cells could be ameliorated by PACAP treatment. In summary, intravitreal administration of PACAP may have therapeutic potential in streptozotocin-induced DR through maintaining synapse integrity in the vertical pathway.

  8. Prokaryotic adenylate cyclase toxin stimulates anterior pituitary cells in culture

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    Cronin, M.J.; Evans, W.S.; Rogol, A.D.; Weiss, A.A.; Thorner, M.O.; Orth, D.N.; Nicholson, W.E.; Yasumoto, T.; Hewlett, E.L.

    1986-08-01

    Bordetella pertussis synthesis a variety of virulence factors including a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase (AC) toxin. Treatment of anterior pituitary cells with this AC toxin resulted in an increase in cellular cAMP levels that was associated with accelerated exocytosis of growth hormone (GH), prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). The kinetics of release of these hormones, however, were markedly different; GH and prolactin were rapidly released, while LH and ACTH secretion was more gradually elevated. Neither dopamine agonists nor somatostatin changes the ability of AC toxin to generate cAMP (up to 2 h). Low concentrations of AC toxin amplified the secretory response to hypophysiotrophic hormones. The authors conclude that bacterial AC toxin can rapidly elevate cAMP levels in anterior pituitary cells and that it is the response that explains the subsequent acceleration of hormone release.

  9. Racemic Salsolinol and its Enantiomers Act as Agonists of the μ-Opioid Receptor by Activating the Gi Protein-Adenylate Cyclase Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berríos-Cárcamo, Pablo; Quintanilla, María E.; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Zapata-Torres, Gerald; Rivera-Meza, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown that the ethanol-derived metabolite salsolinol (SAL) can activate the mesolimbic system, suggesting that SAL is the active molecule mediating the rewarding effects of ethanol. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that SAL exerts its action on neuron excitability through a mechanism involving opioid neurotransmission. However, there is no direct pharmacologic evidence showing that SAL activates opioid receptors. Methods: The ability of racemic (R/S)-SAL, and its stereoisomers (R)-SAL and (S)-SAL, to activate the μ-opioid receptor was tested in cell-based (light-emitting) receptor assays. To further characterizing the interaction of SAL stereoisomers with the μ-opioid receptor, a molecular docking study was performed using the crystal structure of the μ-opioid receptor. Results: This study shows that SAL activates the μ-opioid receptor by the classical G protein-adenylate cyclase pathway with an half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 2 × 10−5 M. The agonist action of SAL was fully blocked by the μ-opioid antagonist naltrexone. The EC50 for the purified stereoisomers (R)-SAL and (S)-SAL were 6 × 10−4 M and 9 × 10−6 M respectively. It was found that the action of racemic SAL on the μ-opioid receptor did not promote the recruitment of β-arrestin. Molecular docking studies showed that the interaction of (R)- and (S)-SAL with the μ-opioid receptor is similar to that predicted for the agonist morphine. Conclusions: It is shown that (R)-SAL and (S)-SAL are agonists of the μ-opioid receptor. (S)-SAL is a more potent agonist than the (R)-SAL stereoisomer. In silico analysis predicts a morphine-like interaction between (R)- and (S)-SAL with the μ-opioid receptor. These results suggest that an opioid action of SAL or its enantiomers is involved in the rewarding effects of ethanol. PMID:28167903

  10. Multiple nickel-sensitive targets elicit cardiac arrhythmia in isolated mouse hearts after pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-mediated chronotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevoufouet, Etienne E; Nembo, Erastus N; Distler, Fabian; Neumaier, Felix; Hescheler, Jürgen; Nguemo, Filomain; Schneider, Toni

    2017-03-01

    The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-27 modulates various biological processes, from the cellular level to function specification. However, the cardiac actions of this neuropeptide are still under intense studies. Using control (+|+) and mice lacking (-|-) either R-type (Cav2.3) or T-type (Cav3.2) Ca(2+) channels, we investigated the effects of PACAP-27 on cardiac activity of spontaneously beating isolated perfused hearts. Superfusion of PACAP-27 (20nM) caused a significant increase of baseline heart frequency in Cav2.3(+|+) (156.9±10.8 to 239.4±23.4 bpm; p<0.01) and Cav2.3(-|-) (190.3±26.4 to 270.5±25.8 bpm; p<0.05) hearts. For Cav3.2, the heart rate was significantly increased in Cav3.2(-|-) (133.1±8.5 bpm to 204.6±27.9 bpm; p<0.05) compared to Cav3.2(+|+) hearts (185.7±11.2 bpm to 209.3±22.7 bpm). While the P wave duration and QTc interval were significantly increased in Cav2.3(+|+) and Cav2.3(-|-) hearts following PACAP-27 superfusion, there was no effect in Cav3.2(+|+) and Cav3.2(-|-) hearts. The positive chronotropic effects observed in the four study groups, as well as the effect on P wave duration and QTc interval were abolished in the presence of Ni(2+) (50μM) and PACAP-27 (20nM) in hearts from Cav2.3(+|+) and Cav2.3(-|-) mice. In addition to suppressing PACAP's response, Ni(2+) also induced conduction disturbances in investigated hearts. In conclusion, the most Ni(2+)-sensitive Ca(2+) channels (R- and T-type) may modulate the PACAP signaling cascade during cardiac excitation in isolated mouse hearts, albeit to a lesser extent than other Ni(2+)-sensitive targets.

  11. A new recombinant pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide-derived peptide efficiently promotes glucose uptake and glucose-dependent insulin secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ma; Tianjie Luo; Wenna Xu; Zulu Ye; An Hong

    2012-01-01

    The recombinant peptide,DBAYL,a promising therapeutic peptide for type 2 diabetes,is a new,potent,and highly selective agonist for VPAC2 generated through sitedirected mutagenesis based on sequence alignments of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP),vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP),and related analogs.The recombinant DBAYL was used to evaluate its effect and mechanism in blood glucose metabolism and utilization.As much as 28.9 mg recombinant DBAYL peptide with purity over 98% can be obtained from 1 I of Luria-Bertani medium culture by the method established in this study and the prepared DBAYL with four mutations (N10Q,V18L,N29Q,and M added to the N-terminal)were much more stable than BAY55-9837.The half-life of recombinant DBAYL was about 25 folds compared with that of BAY55-9837 in vitro.The bioactivity assay of DBAYL showed that it displaced [125I]PACAP38 and [125I]VIP from VPAC2 with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 48.4 ± 6.9 and 47.1 ± 4.9 nM,respectively,which were significantly lower than that of BAY55-9837,one established VPAC2 agonists.DBAYL enhances the cAMP accumulation in CHO cells expressing human VPAC2 with a half-maximal stimulatory concentration (EC5o) of 0.68 nM,whereas the receptor potency of DBAYL at human VPAC1 (ECso of 737 nM) was only 1/1083of that at human VPAC2,and DBAYL had no activity toward human PAC1 receptor.Western blot analysis of the key proteins of insulin receptor signaling pathway:insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and glucose transporter 4(GLUT4) indicated that the DBAYL could significantly induce the insulin-stimulated IRS-1 and GLUT4 expression more efficiently than BAY55-9837 and VIP in adipocytes.Compared with BAY55-9837 and PACAP38,the recombinant peptide DBAYL can more efficiently promote insulin release and decrease plasma glucose level in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice.These results suggested that DBAYL could efficiently improve glucose uptake and glucose-dependent insulin

  12. Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada); Rattner, Jerome B. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada); Hoorn, Frans A. van der, E-mail: fvdhoorn@ucalgary.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada)

    2009-10-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3{beta} by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.

  13. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: a unique combination of a pore-forming moiety with a cell-invading adenylate cyclase enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masin, Jiri; Osicka, Radim; Bumba, Ladislav; Sebo, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA, ACT or AC-Hly) is a key virulence factor of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis. CyaA targets myeloid phagocytes expressing the complement receptor 3 (CR3, known as αMβ2 integrin CD11b/CD18 or Mac-1) and translocates by a poorly understood mechanism directly across the cytoplasmic membrane into cell cytosol of phagocytes an adenylyl cyclase(AC) enzyme. This binds intracellular calmodulin and catalyzes unregulated conversion of cytosolic ATP into cAMP. Among other effects, this yields activation of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, BimEL accumulation and phagocyte apoptosis induction. In parallel, CyaA acts as a cytolysin that forms cation-selective pores in target membranes. Direct penetration of CyaA into the cytosol of professional antigen-presenting cells allows the use of an enzymatically inactive CyaA toxoid as a tool for delivery of passenger antigens into the cytosolic pathway of processing and MHC class I-restricted presentation, which can be exploited for induction of antigen-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune responses.

  14. Responsiveness of adenylate cyclase to pituitary gonadotropins and evidence of a hormone-induced desensitization in the lizard ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, L; De Stasio, R; Bovenzi, V; Parisi, E; Filosa, S

    1997-07-01

    Gonadotropins (FSH and LH) affect several mammalian gonadal functions. In particular, FSH stimulates oogonial proliferation and oocyte growth, while LH regulates ovulation and progesterone secretion. In lacertilian reptiles, gonadal function is also regulated by pituitary gonadotropins, but which hormone controls ovarian activities and the mechanisms of action are unknown. The present study aimed to clarify mechanisms of action of pituitary gonadotropins on the ovary of Podarcis sicula (Lacertilia). The data demonstrate that mammalian gonadotropins FSH and LH produce a threefold stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity in follicular membranes, while hCG and TSH are less effective, causing a twofold increase in adenylate cyclase activity. Neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and catecholamines have no effect on enzyme activity. The action of mammalian FSH and LH on the ovary mimics the effect of homologous hormones: in lizard ovaries incubated in vitro in the presence of isolated homologous pituitary glands, the intracellular cAMP level increased by 50% with respect to control ovaries. Mammalian gonadotropins appear homologous to lizard gonadotropin(s): Southern blot analyses show that the lizard genome contains nucleotide sequences homologous to those encoding for mammalian beta FSH and beta LH. Both homologous and heterologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase activity occurs in the lizard ovary. In fact, responsiveness of adenylate cyclase to gonadotropin stimulation is abolished in animals 2 hr after in vivo treatment with FSH. Sensitivity to gonadotropin stimulation is restored 2 weeks after the beginning of the in vivo treatment. Desensitization was also observed in ovaries incubated in vitro with mammalian FSH or with isolated pituitary glands.

  15. Characterization of a novel serotonin receptor coupled to adenylate cyclase in the hybrid neuroblastoma cell line NCB. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Pharmacological characterization of the serotonin activation of adenylate cyclase in membrane preparation using over 40 serotonergic and non-serotonergic compounds demonstrated that the receptor mediating the response was distinct from previously described mammalian serotonin receptors. Agonist activity was only observed with tryptamine and ergoline derivatives. Potent antagonism was observed with several ergoline derivatives and with compounds such as mianserin and methiothepine. A comparison of the rank order of potency of a variety of compounds for the NCB.20 cell receptor with well characterized mammalian and non-mammalian serotonin receptors showed a pharmacological similarity, but not identity, with the mammalian 5-HT{sub 1C} receptor, which modulates phosphatidylinositol metabolism, and with serotonin receptors in the parasitic trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma mansoni, which are coupled to adenylate cyclase. Equilibrium binding analysis utilizing ({sup 3}H)serotonin, ({sup 3}H)lysergic acid diethylamide or ({sup 3}H)dihydroergotamine demonstrated that there are no abundant high affinity serotonergic sites, which implies that the serotonin activation of adenylate cyclase is mediated by receptors present in low abundance. Incubation of intact NCB.20 cells with serotinin resulted in a time and concentration dependent desensitization of the serotonin receptor.

  16. Forskolin inhibits the Gs-stimulated adenylate cyclase in rat ascites hepatoma AH66F cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K; Sanae, F; Koshiura, R; Matsunaga, T; Hasegawa, T; Takagi, K; Satake, T

    1989-09-01

    Forskolin increased intracellular cyclic AMP and augmented cyclic AMP formation by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) in normal rat hepatocytes and ascites hepatoma AH66 cells. However, in AH66F cells which were derived from the AH66 cell line, the diterpene only slightly increased the cyclic AMP level, and dose-dependently inhibited the accumulation caused by PGE1. Forskolin dose-dependently activated adenylate cyclase in these membranes, and the magnitude of activation by forskolin was largest in the following order: hepatocytes, AH66 cells, and AH66F cells. This difference may be based on the number of forskolin-binding sites. The binding affinity of forskolin for each cell membrane was similar. The number and affinity of forskolin-binding sites in these cells were not influenced by 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p]. In hepatocytes and AH66 cells, forskolin and other adenylate cyclase activators such as PGE1, GTP, Gpp(NH)p, F-, and Mn2+ synergistically increased the enzyme activity. In AH66F cells, the forskolin-stimulated activity was hardly influenced by the GTP analog, and forskolin diminished the activities induced by the GTP analog in a manner similar to that of diterpene alone. Forskolin (10 microM) also significantly inhibited the activities induced by PGE1, GTP, and F-. The effect of forskolin with Mn2+ was additive in AH66F cells. The data suggest that forskolin promotes the interaction between the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein and the catalytic unit in the membrane of normal hepatocytes and AH66 cells, but it interferes with the coupling in AH66F cells.

  17. Studies on cell migration, adenylate cyclase and membrane-coating granules in the buccal epithelium of the zinc-deficient rabbit, including the influence of isoproterenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S Y

    1988-01-01

    Cell migration was slightly increased; cytochemical reaction deposits of adenylate cyclase and the area density of membrane-coating granules (MCG) were significantly increased. Upon isoproterenol stimulation, the MCG area density was significantly increased, whereas the cell migration rate was unchanged. Thus in zinc deficiency, there may be a simultaneous increase in the production and secretion of MCGs, in adenylate cyclase activity, and in cell migration. The non-significantly increased cell migration rate may not keep pace with the significantly increased cell-production rate, resulting in thickening of the epithelium.

  18. Adenyl cyclases and cAMP in plant signaling - Past and present

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A.

    2010-06-25

    In lower eukaryotes and animals 3\\'-5\\'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and adenyl cyclases (ACs), enzymes that catalyse the formation of cAMP from ATP, have long been established as key components and second messengers in many signaling pathways. In contrast, in plants, both the presence and biological role of cAMP have been a matter of ongoing debate and some controversy. Here we shall focus firstly on the discovery of cellular cAMP in plants and evidence for a role of this second messenger in plant signal transduction. Secondly, we shall review current evidence of plant ACs, analyse aspects of their domain organisations and the biological roles of candidate molecules. In addition, we shall assess different approaches based on search motifs consisting of functionally assigned amino acids in the catalytic centre of annotated and/or experimentally tested nucleotide cyclases that can contribute to the identification of novel candidate molecules with AC activity such as F-box and TIR proteins. 2010 Gehring; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  19. The role of transcriptional regulation in maintaining the availability of mycobacterial adenylate cyclases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Casey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium species have a complex cAMP regulatory network indicated by the high number of adenylate cyclases annotated in their genomes. However the need for a high level of redundancy in adenylate cyclase genes remains unknown. We have used semiquantitiative RT-PCR to examine the expression of eight Mycobacterium smegmatis cyclases with orthologs in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, where cAMP has recently been shown to be important for virulence. All eight cyclases were transcribed in all environments tested, and only four demonstrated environmental-mediated changes in transcription. M. smegmatis genes MSMEG_0545 and MSMEG_4279 were upregulated during starvation conditions while MSMEG_0545 and MSMEG_4924 were downregulated in H2O2 and MSMEG_3780 was downregulated in low pH and starvation. Promoter fusion constructs containing M. tuberculosis H37Rv promoters showed consistent regulation compared to their M. smegmatis orthologs. Overall our findings indicate that while low levels of transcriptional regulation occur, regulation at the mRNA level does not play a major role in controlling cellular cyclase availability in a given environment.

  20. 斜带石斑鱼PACAP的原核表达及活性分析%The prokaryotic expression and biological activity of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide in groupers Epinephelus coioides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江湧; 李文笙; 林浩然

    2005-01-01

    自1989年从绵羊下丘脑提取物发现垂体腺苷酸环化酶激活多肽(Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide,PACAP)以来(Miyata et al.,1989),已证明它能促进垂体激素释放,同时还具有神经递质、神经调质和神经营养等作用,使对PACAP的研究成为十分活跃的领域。PACAP属于血管活性肠肽(VIP)-胰高血糖素-生长激素释放因子-分泌素家族(Campbell and Scanes,1992)成员,已鉴别出包含27和38个氨基酸两种类型。对原索动物(McRory et al.,1997)、两栖类(蛙)(Alexandre et al.,2000)、爬行类(蜥蜴)(Pohland Wank,1998)、鸟类(鸡)(McRory et al.,1997),啮齿类(鼠)(Ghatei et al.,1993)等脊椎动物PACAP的研究多集中在结构与进化方面,对功能了解甚少。

  1. Changes in vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and neuropeptide Y-ergic structures of the enteric nervous system in the carcinoma of the human large intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Mirosław Łakomy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was aimed at immunohistochemical analysis of potential changes in the enteric nervous system caused by cancer of the large intestine. In this purpose, neurons and nerve fibers of intestinal plexuses containing neuropeptides: vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and neuropeptide Y (NPY, in pathologically changed part of the large intestine were microscpically observed and compared. Samples were taken from patients operated due to cancer of the sigmoid colon and rectum. The number of neurons and density of nerve fibres containing neuropeptides found in sections with cancer tissues were compared to those observed in sections from the uninvolved intestinal wall. Changes relating to reductions in the number of NPY-ergic neurons and density of nerve fibres in submucous and myenteric plexuses in the sections with cancer tissues (pathological sections were statistically significant. A statistically similar presence of VIP-ergic and PACAP-ergic neurons in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses was observed in both the pathological and control sections. On the other hand, in the pathological sections, VIP-ergic nerve fibres in the myenteric plexuses and PACAP-ergic nerve fibres in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses were found to be less dense. Analysis revealed changes in pathologically affected part of the large intestine may caused disruption of proper intestinal function. Observed changes in the neural elements which are responsible for relaxation of the intestine may suggest dysfunction in the innervation of this part of the colon.

  2. Mutation in the β-hairpin of the Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates N-lobe conformation in calmodulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Tzvia I.; Goebel, Erich; Hariraju, Dinesh [Department of Microbiology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Finley, Natosha L., E-mail: finleynl@miamioh.edu [Department of Microbiology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Cell, Molecular, and Structural Biology Program, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates bi-lobal structure of CaM. • The structure and stability of the complex rely on intermolecular associations. • A novel mode of CaM-dependent activation of the adenylate cyclase toxin is proposed. - Abstract: Bordetella pertussis, causative agent of whooping cough, produces an adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) that is an important virulence factor. In the host cell, the adenylate cyclase domain of CyaA (CyaA-ACD) is activated upon association with calmodulin (CaM), an EF-hand protein comprised of N- and C-lobes (N-CaM and C-CaM, respectively) connected by a flexible tether. Maximal CyaA-ACD activation is achieved through its binding to both lobes of intact CaM, but the structural mechanisms remain unclear. No high-resolution structure of the intact CaM/CyaA-ACD complex is available, but crystal structures of isolated C-CaM bound to CyaA-ACD shed light on the molecular mechanism by which this lobe activates the toxin. Previous studies using molecular modeling, biochemical, and biophysical experiments demonstrate that CyaA-ACD’s β-hairpin participates in site-specific interactions with N-CaM. In this study, we utilize nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to probe the molecular association between intact CaM and CyaA-ACD. Our results indicate binding of CyaA-ACD to CaM induces large conformational perturbations mapping to C-CaM, while substantially smaller structural changes are localized primarily to helices I, II, and IV, and the metal-binding sites in N-CaM. Site-specific mutations in CyaA-ACD’s β-hairpin structurally modulate N-CaM, resulting in conformational perturbations in metal binding sites I and II, while no significant structural modifications are observed in C-CaM. Moreover, dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis reveals that mutation of the β-hairpin results in a decreased hydrodynamic radius (R{sub h}) and reduced thermal stability in the mutant complex. Taken

  3. Studies on responsiveness of hepatoma cells to catecholamines. III. Difference between the receptor-adenylate cyclase regulating systems in AH130 cells and cultured normal rat liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanae, F; Matsunaga, T; Miyamoto, K; Koshiura, R

    1986-10-01

    The responsiveness to three beta-adrenergic agonists, isoproterenol (IPN), epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) in AH13O cells was examined compared with that in normal rat liver cells which were cultured for 24 hr after collagenase digestion. As regards to the activation of adenylate cyclase in the cell homogenates, the relative affinity of the three agonists was in order of IPN greater than NE greater than Epi in AH130 cells and IPN greater than Epi greater than NE in cultured normal liver cells. While the efficacies of the three agonists were similar in cultured liver cells, those of NE and Epi were markedly lower than that of IPN in AH13O cells and were increased to the similar level of IPN by pretreatment with phentolamine, but not with prazosin. Clonidine inhibited the activation of adenylate cyclase by IPN in AH13O cells. When cells were preincubated with islet-activating protein (IAP), the activity of adenylate cyclase in the presence or absence of agonist in both cell lines increased. In IAP-treated AH13O cells, the efficacies of NE and Epi became close to that of IPN. Adenylate cyclase in IAP-treated AH13O cells was activated by GTP in a dose-dependent manner, but that in IAP-treated cultured liver cells was not. In the presence of IPN, biphasic (activatory and inhibitory) effects of GTP on the cyclase were observed, and the inhibitory phase was eliminated by the IAP-treatment in both cell lines.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Inhibition of adenylate cyclase by delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in mouse spleen cells: a potential mechanism for cannabinoid-mediated immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, A R; Kessler, F K; Kaminski, N E

    1992-01-01

    The ability of delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC) to modulate adenylate cyclase activity in mouse spleen cells was investigated. These studies were prompted by the recent identification and cloning of a G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptor localized in certain regions of the brain and the potential for a common mechanism between cannabinoid-mediated CNS effects and immunosuppression. Temporal addition studies were initially performed to identify the period of time when spleen cells in culture were most susceptible to the inhibitory effects of delta 9-THC, as measured by the day 5 IgM antibody forming cell response. delta 9-THC was only inhibitory when added to spleen cell cultures during the first 2 hr following antigen sensitization. In light of this time course, adenylate cyclase activity was measured in spleen cells incubated in the presence of 22 microM delta 9-THC for 5 min and subsequently stimulated with forskolin. delta 9-THC treated spleen cells demonstrated a 33% inhibition and a 66% inhibition in intracellular cAMP after a 5 or 15 min stimulation with forskolin, respectively. These studies suggest that inhibition of immune function by delta 9-THC may be mediated through the inhibition of intracellular cAMP early after antigen stimulation.

  5. Differential Effects of Temperature on cAMP-induced Excitation, Adaptation, and Deadaptation of Adenylate and Guanylate Cyclase in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1987-01-01

    Extracellular cAMP induces excitation of adenylate and guanylate cyclase in Dictyostelium discoideum. Continuous stimulation with cAMP leads to adaptation, while cells deadapt upon removal of the cAMP stimulus. Excitation of guanylate cyclase by cAMP has a lag time of ~1 s; excitation of adenylate c

  6. Adenylate Cyclase AcyA Regulates Development, Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Fungal Virulence in Aspergillus flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kunlong; Qin, Qiuping; Liu, Yinghang; Zhang, Limei; Liang, Linlin; Lan, Huahui; Chen, Chihao; You, Yunchao; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Shihua

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is one of the most important opportunistic pathogens of crops and animals. The carcinogenic mycotoxin, aflatoxins produced by this pathogen cause a health problem to human and animals. Since cyclic AMP signaling controls a range of physiological processes, like fungal development and infection when responding to extracellular stimuli in fungal pathogens, in this study, we investigated the function of adenylate cyclase, a core component of cAMP signaling, in aflatoxins biosynthesis and virulence on plant seeds in A. flavus. A gene replacement strategy was used to generate the deletion mutant of acyA that encodes the adenylate cyclase. Severe defects in fungal growth, sporulation and sclerotia formation were observed in the acyA deletion mutant. The defect in radical growth could be partially rescued by exogenous cAMP analog. The acyA mutant was also significantly reduced in aflatoxins production and virulence. Similar to the former studies in other fungi, The acyA mutant showed enhancing tolerance to oxidative stress, but more sensitive to heat stress. Overall, the pleiotropic defects of the acyA deletion mutant indicates that the cAMP-PKA pathway is involved in fungal development, aflatoxins biosynthesis and plant seed invasion in A. flavus. PMID:28066725

  7. Cyclic AMP intoxication of macrophages by a Mycobacterium tuberculosis adenylate cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nisheeth; Lamichhane, Gyanu; Gupta, Radhika; Nolan, Scott; Bishai, William R

    2009-07-02

    With 8.9 million new cases and 1.7 million deaths per year, tuberculosis is a leading global killer that has not been effectively controlled. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, proliferates within host macrophages where it modifies both its intracellular and local tissue environment, resulting in caseous granulomas with incomplete bacterial sterilization. Although infection by various mycobacterial species produces a cyclic AMP burst within macrophages that influences cell signalling, the underlying mechanism for the cAMP burst remains unclear. Here we show that among the 17 adenylate cyclase genes present in M. tuberculosis, at least one (Rv0386) is required for virulence. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Rv0386 adenylate cyclase facilitates delivery of bacterial-derived cAMP into the macrophage cytoplasm. Loss of Rv0386 and the intramacrophage cAMP it delivers results in reductions in TNF-alpha production via the protein kinase A and cAMP response-element-binding protein pathway, decreased immunopathology in animal tissues, and diminished bacterial survival. Direct intoxication of host cells by bacterial-derived cAMP may enable M. tuberculosis to modify both its intracellular and tissue environments to facilitate its long-term survival.

  8. Adenylate cyclase toxin-mediated delivery of the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin into mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, Masaaki; Konda, Toshifumi

    2016-02-01

    The adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) of Bordetella pertussis internalizes its catalytic domain into target cells. ACT can function as a tool for delivering foreign protein antigen moieties into immune effector cells to induce a cytotoxic T lymphocyte response. In this study, we replaced the catalytic domain of ACT with an enzymatically active protein moiety, the S1 (ADP-ribosyltransferase) subunit of pertussis toxin (PT). The S1 moiety was successfully internalized independent of endocytosis into sheep erythrocytes. The introduced polypeptide exhibited ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in CHO cells and induced clustering typical to PT. The results indicate that ACT can act as a vehicle for not only epitopes but also enzymatically active peptides to mammalian cells.

  9. Distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, nitric oxide synthase, and their receptors in human and rat sphenopalatine ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csati, A; Tajti, J; Kuris, A

    2012-01-01

    and VPAC1 immunoreactivity was found in the satellite glial cells of both human and rat. Western blot revealed protein expression of PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2 in rat SPG. The trigeminal-autonomic reflex may be active in migraine attacks. We hypothesized that VIP, PACAP, NOS, PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2 play a role...... in the activation of parasympathetic cranial outflow during migraine attacks....

  10. Calcium influx rescues adenylate cyclase-hemolysin from rapid cell membrane removal and enables phagocyte permeabilization by toxin pores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Fiser

    Full Text Available Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA penetrates the cytoplasmic membrane of phagocytes and employs two distinct conformers to exert its multiple activities. One conformer forms cation-selective pores that permeabilize phagocyte membrane for efflux of cytosolic potassium. The other conformer conducts extracellular calcium ions across cytoplasmic membrane of cells, relocates into lipid rafts, translocates the adenylate cyclase enzyme (AC domain into cells and converts cytosolic ATP to cAMP. We show that the calcium-conducting activity of CyaA controls the path and kinetics of endocytic removal of toxin pores from phagocyte membrane. The enzymatically inactive but calcium-conducting CyaA-AC⁻ toxoid was endocytosed via a clathrin-dependent pathway. In contrast, a doubly mutated (E570K+E581P toxoid, unable to conduct Ca²⁺ into cells, was rapidly internalized by membrane macropinocytosis, unless rescued by Ca²⁺ influx promoted in trans by ionomycin or intact toxoid. Moreover, a fully pore-forming CyaA-ΔAC hemolysin failed to permeabilize phagocytes, unless endocytic removal of its pores from cell membrane was decelerated through Ca²⁺ influx promoted by molecules locked in a Ca²⁺-conducting conformation by the 3D1 antibody. Inhibition of endocytosis also enabled the native B. pertussis-produced CyaA to induce lysis of J774A.1 macrophages at concentrations starting from 100 ng/ml. Hence, by mediating calcium influx into cells, the translocating conformer of CyaA controls the removal of bystander toxin pores from phagocyte membrane. This triggers a positive feedback loop of exacerbated cell permeabilization, where the efflux of cellular potassium yields further decreased toxin pore removal from cell membrane and this further enhances cell permeabilization and potassium efflux.

  11. The effect of adenylate cyclase stimulation on endocochlear potential in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, K; Mori, N; Matsunaga, T

    1990-01-01

    Forskolin, a diterpene extracted from Coleus forskohlii, is potentially an important tool for studying the modulation of ionic currents by cAMP because it stimulates adenylate cyclase in a variety of cells. We studied the effect of forskolin on cochlear potentials and found that its perfusion of the scala vestibuli (SV) to a concentration more than 10(-5) M and the scala tympani (ST) to more than 10(-4) M produced a reversible elevation of the endocochlear potential (EP) in a dose-dependent manner. The cochlear microphonics recorded simultaneously with the EP was not depressed during the EP elevation. A large negative EP was induced by anoxia following the SV perfusion with forskolin (2 X 10(-4) M). The results suggest that the EP elevation produced by forskolin does not result from the decrease in the negative component of EP but from the increase in the positive component of EP.

  12. Adenylate cyclase 5 is required for melanophore and male pattern development in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottler, Verena A; Künstner, Axel; Koch, Iris; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Langenecker, Tobias; Hoffmann, Margarete; Sharma, Eshita; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

    2015-09-01

    Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are colorful fish that have attracted the attention of pigmentation researchers for almost a century. Here, we report that the blond phenotype of the guppy is caused by a spontaneous mutation in the guppy ortholog of adenylate cyclase 5 (adcy5). Using double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, we linked the blond phenotype to a candidate region of 118 kb, in which we subsequently identified a 2-bp deletion in adcy5 that alters splicing and leads to a premature stop codon. We show that adcy5, which affects life span and melanoma growth in mouse, is required for melanophore development and formation of male orange pigmentation traits in the guppy. We find that some components of the male orange pattern are particularly sensitive to loss of Adcy5 function. Our work thus reveals a function for Adcy5 in patterning of fish color ornaments.

  13. Mutation in the β-hairpin of the Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates N-lobe conformation in calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Tzvia I; Goebel, Erich; Hariraju, Dinesh; Finley, Natosha L

    2014-10-10

    Bordetella pertussis, causative agent of whooping cough, produces an adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) that is an important virulence factor. In the host cell, the adenylate cyclase domain of CyaA (CyaA-ACD) is activated upon association with calmodulin (CaM), an EF-hand protein comprised of N- and C-lobes (N-CaM and C-CaM, respectively) connected by a flexible tether. Maximal CyaA-ACD activation is achieved through its binding to both lobes of intact CaM, but the structural mechanisms remain unclear. No high-resolution structure of the intact CaM/CyaA-ACD complex is available, but crystal structures of isolated C-CaM bound to CyaA-ACD shed light on the molecular mechanism by which this lobe activates the toxin. Previous studies using molecular modeling, biochemical, and biophysical experiments demonstrate that CyaA-ACD's β-hairpin participates in site-specific interactions with N-CaM. In this study, we utilize nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to probe the molecular association between intact CaM and CyaA-ACD. Our results indicate binding of CyaA-ACD to CaM induces large conformational perturbations mapping to C-CaM, while substantially smaller structural changes are localized primarily to helices I, II, and IV, and the metal-binding sites in N-CaM. Site-specific mutations in CyaA-ACD's β-hairpin structurally modulate N-CaM, resulting in conformational perturbations in metal binding sites I and II, while no significant structural modifications are observed in C-CaM. Moreover, dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis reveals that mutation of the β-hairpin results in a decreased hydrodynamic radius (Rh) and reduced thermal stability in the mutant complex. Taken together, our data provide new structural insights into the β-hairpin's role in stabilizing interactions between CyaA-ACD and N-CaM.

  14. Adenylate cyclase 5 coordinates the action of ADP, P2Y1, P2Y13 and ATP-gated P2X7 receptors on axonal elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Puerto, Ana; Díaz-Hernández, Juan-Ignacio; Tapia, Mónica; Gomez-Villafuertes, Rosa; Benitez, María José; Zhang, Jin; Miras-Portugal, María Teresa; Wandosell, Francisco; Díaz-Hernández, Miguel; Garrido, Juan José

    2012-01-01

    In adult brains, ionotropic or metabotropic purinergic receptors are widely expressed in neurons and glial cells. They play an essential role in inflammation and neurotransmission in response to purines secreted to the extracellular medium. Recent studies have demonstrated a role for purinergic receptors in proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells although little is known about their role in regulating the initial neuronal development and axon elongation. The objective of our study was to investigate the role of some different types of purinergic receptors, P2Y1, P2Y13 and P2X7, which are activated by ADP or ATP. To study the role and crosstalk of P2Y1, P2Y13 and P2X7 purinergic receptors in axonal elongation, we treated neurons with specific agonists and antagonists, and we nucleofected neurons with expression or shRNA plasmids. ADP and P2Y1-GFP expression improved axonal elongation; conversely, P2Y13 and ATP-gated P2X7 receptors halted axonal elongation. Signaling through each of these receptor types was coordinated by adenylate cyclase 5. In neurons nucleofected with a cAMP FRET biosensor (ICUE3), addition of ADP or Blue Brilliant G, a P2X7 antagonist, increased cAMP levels in the distal region of the axon. Adenylate cyclase 5 inhibition or suppression impaired these cAMP increments. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a crosstalk between two metabotropic and one ionotropic purinergic receptor that regulates cAMP levels through adenylate cyclase 5 and modulates axonal elongation triggered by neurotropic factors and the PI3K-Akt-GSK3 pathway.

  15. PPARgamma-dependent regulation of adenylate cyclase 6 amplifies the stimulatory effect of cAMP on renin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, Michael; Schubert, Thomas; Schreiber, Andrea; Mayer, Sandra; Friedrich, Björn; Artunc, Ferruh; Todorov, Vladimir T

    2010-11-01

    The second messenger cAMP plays an important role in the regulation of renin gene expression. Nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is known to stimulate renin gene transcription acting through PPARγ-binding sequences in renin promoter. We show now that activation of PPARγ by unsaturated fatty acids or thiazolidinediones drastically augments the cAMP-dependent increase of renin mRNA in the human renin-producing cell line Calu-6. The underlying mechanism involves potentiation of agonist-induced cAMP increase and up-regulation of adenylate cyclase 6 (AC6) gene expression. We identified a palindromic element with a 3-bp spacer (Pal3) in AC6 intron 1 (AC6Pal3). AC6Pal3 bound PPARγ and mediated trans-activation by PPARγ agonist. AC6 knockdown decreased basal renin mRNA level and attenuated the maximal PPARγ-dependent stimulation of the cAMP-induced renin gene expression. AC6Pal3 decoy oligonucleotide abrogated the PPARγ-dependent potentiation of cAMP-induced renin gene expression. Treatment of mice with PPARγ agonist increased AC6 mRNA kidney levels. Our data suggest that in addition to its direct effect on renin gene transcription, PPARγ "sensitizes" renin gene to cAMP via trans-activation of AC6 gene. AC6 has been identified as PPARγ target gene with a functional Pal3 sequence.

  16. Amidate prodrugs of 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine as inhibitors of adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmídková, Markéta; Dvoráková, Alexandra; Tloust'ová, Eva; Česnek, Michal; Janeba, Zlatko; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) is the key virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis that facilitates its invasion into the mammalian body. 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine diphosphate (PMEApp), the active metabolite of the antiviral drug bis(POM)PMEA (adefovir dipivoxil), has been shown to inhibit ACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate six novel amidate prodrugs of PMEA, both phenyloxy phosphonamidates and phosphonodiamidates, for their ability to inhibit ACT activity in the J774A.1 macrophage cell line. The two phenyloxy phosphonamidate prodrugs exhibited greater inhibitory activity (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 22 and 46 nM) than the phosphonodiamidates (IC50 = 84 to 3,960 nM). The inhibitory activity of the prodrugs correlated with their lipophilicity and the degree of their hydrolysis into free PMEA in J774A.1 cells. Although the prodrugs did not inhibit ACT as effectively as bis(POM)PMEA (IC50 = 6 nM), they were significantly less cytotoxic. Moreover, they all reduced apoptotic effects of ACT and prevented an ACT-induced elevation of intracellular [Ca(2+)]i. The amidate prodrugs were less susceptible to degradation in Caco-2 cells compared to bis(POM)PMEA, while they exerted good transepithelial permeability in this assay. As a consequence, a large amount of intact amidate prodrug is expected to be available to target macrophages in vivo. This feature makes nontoxic amidate prodrugs attractive candidates for further investigation as novel antimicrobial agents.

  17. Suppression of the humoral immune response by cannabinoids is partially mediated through inhibition of adenylate cyclase by a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein coupled mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, N E; Koh, W S; Yang, K H; Lee, M; Kessler, F K

    1994-11-16

    Cannabinoid compounds, including the major psychoactive component of marihuana, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC), have been widely established as being inhibitory on a broad array of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The presence of cannabinoid receptors has been identified recently on mouse spleen cells, which possess structural and functional characteristics similar to those of the G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptor originally identified in rat brain. These findings, together with those demonstrating that delta 9-THC inhibits adenylate cyclase in splenocytes, strongly suggest that certain aspects of immune inhibition by cannabinoids may be mediated through a cannabinoid receptor-associated mechanism. The objective of the present studies was to determine whether inhibition of adenylate cyclase is relevant to mouse spleen cell immune function and, if so, whether this inhibition is mediated through a Gi-protein coupled mechanism as previously described in neuronal tissue. Spleen cell activation by the phorbol ester phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), plus the calcium ionophore ionomycin, produced a rapid but transient increase in cytosolic cAMP, which was inhibited completely by immunosuppressive concentrations of delta 9-THC (22 microM) and the synthetic bicyclic cannabinoid CP-55940 (5.2 microM), which produced no effect on cell viability. Inhibition by cannabinoids of lymphocyte proliferative responses to PMA plus ionomycin and sheep erythrocyte (sRBC) IgM antibody-forming cell (AFC) response, was abrogated completely by low concentrations of dibutyryl-cAMP (10-100 microM). Inhibition of the sRBC AFC response by both delta 9-THC (22 microM) and CP-55940 (5.2 microM) was also abrogated by preincubation of splenocytes for 24 hr with pertussis toxin (0.1-100 ng/mL). Pertussis toxin pretreatment of spleen cells was also found to directly abrogate cannabinoid inhibition of adenylate cyclase, as measured by forskolin-stimulated accumulation

  18. Overexpression of adenylate cyclase-associated protein 2 is a novel prognostic marker in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masugi, Yohei; Tanese, Keiji; Emoto, Katsura; Yamazaki, Ken; Effendi, Kathryn; Funakoshi, Takeru; Mori, Mariko; Sakamoto, Michiie

    2015-12-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the lethal malignant tumors worldwide. Previously we reported that adenylate cyclase-associated protein 2 (CAP2), which is a well-conserved actin regulator, was overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma; however, CAP2 expression in other clinical cancers remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to clarify the clinicopathological significance of CAP2 overexpression in malignant melanoma. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that many melanoma cells exhibited diffuse cytoplasmic expression of CAP2, whereas no normal melanocytes showed detectable immunostaining for CAP2. A high level of CAP2 expression was seen in 14 of 50 melanomas and was significantly correlated with greater tumor thickness and nodular melanoma subtypes. In addition, a high level of CAP2 expression was associated with poor overall survival in univariate and multivariate analyses. For 13 patients, samples of primary and metastatic melanoma tissue were available: four patients exhibited higher levels of CAP2 expression in metastatic tumor compared to the primary site, whereas no patient showed lower levels of CAP2 expression in metastatic melanomas. Our findings show that CAP2 overexpression is a novel prognostic marker in malignant melanoma and that CAP2 expression seems to increase stepwise during tumor progression, suggesting the involvement of CAP2 in the aggressive behavior of malignant melanoma.

  19. Adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 overexpressed in pancreatic cancers is involved in cancer cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Ken; Takamura, Masaaki; Masugi, Yohei; Mori, Taisuke; Du, Wenlin; Hibi, Taizo; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Ohta, Tsutomu; Ohki, Misao; Hirohashi, Setsuo; Sakamoto, Michiie

    2009-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer has the worst prognosis among cancers due to the difficulty of early diagnosis and its aggressive behavior. To characterize the aggressiveness of pancreatic cancers on gene expression, pancreatic cancer xenografts transplanted into severe combined immunodeficient mice served as a panel for gene-expression profiling. As a result of profiling, the adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) gene was shown to be overexpressed in all of the xenografts. The expression of CAP1 protein in all 73 cases of pancreatic cancer was recognized by immunohistochemical analyses. The ratio of CAP1-positive tumor cells in clinical specimens was correlated with the presence of lymph node metastasis and neural invasion, and also with the poor prognosis of patients. Immunocytochemical analyses in pancreatic cancer cells demonstrated that CAP1 colocalized to the leading edge of lamellipodia with actin. Knockdown of CAP1 by RNA interference resulted in the reduction of lamellipodium formation, motility, and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. This is the first report demonstrating the overexpression of CAP1 in pancreatic cancers and suggesting the involvement of CAP1 in the aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells.

  20. Adenylate Cyclase Type III Is Not a Ubiquitous Marker for All Primary Cilia during Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Maria Cristina; Bénardais, Karelle; Samama, Brigitte; Auger, Cyril; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Ghandour, Said; Boehm, Nelly

    2017-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase type III (AC3) is localized in plasma membrane of neuronal primary cilium and can be used as a marker of this cilium. AC3 has also been detected in some other primary cilia such as those of fibroblasts, synoviocytes or astrocytes. Despite the presence of a cilium in almost all cell types, we show that AC3 is not a common marker of all primary cilia of different human and mouse tissues during development. In peripheral organs, AC3 is present mainly in primary cilia in cells of the mesenchymal lineage (fibroblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblasts-osteocytes, odontoblasts, muscle cells and endothelial cells). In epithelia, the apical cilium of renal and pancreatic tubules and of ductal plate in liver is AC3-negative whereas the cilium of basal cells of stratified epithelia is AC3-positive. Using fibroblasts cell culture, we show that AC3 appears at the plasma membrane of the primary cilium as soon as this organelle develops. The functional significance of AC3 localization at the cilium membrane in some cells but not others has to be investigated in relationship with cell physiology and expression at the cilium plasma membrane of specific upstream receptors. PMID:28122017

  1. Regulation by the quorum sensor from Vibrio indicates a receptor function for the membrane anchors of adenylate cyclases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, Stephanie; Bassler, Jens; Schultz, Joachim E

    2016-02-27

    Adenylate cyclases convert intra- and extracellular stimuli into a second messenger cAMP signal. Many bacterial and most eukaryotic ACs possess membrane anchors with six transmembrane spans. We replaced the anchor of the AC Rv1625c by the quorum-sensing receptor from Vibrio harveyi which has an identical 6TM design and obtained an active, membrane-anchored AC. We show that a canonical class III AC is ligand-regulated in vitro and in vivo. At 10 µM, the cholera-autoinducer CAI-1 stimulates activity 4.8-fold. A sequence based clustering of membrane domains of class III ACs and quorum-sensing receptors established six groups of potential structural and functional similarities. The data support the notion that 6TM AC membrane domains may operate as receptors which directly regulate AC activity as opposed and in addition to the indirect regulation by GPCRs in eukaryotic congeners. This adds a completely novel dimension of potential AC regulation in bacteria and vertebrates.

  2. Stress tolerance of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylate cyclase fil1 (CYR1) mutant depends on Hsp26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Cristina R; Ferreira, Mariana C; Silva, Carol L C; Tanghe, An; Neves, Maria J; Thevelein, Johan M; Rosa, Carlos A; Van Dijck, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Fermentation-induced loss of stress resistance in yeast is an important phenotype from an industrial point of view. It hampers optimal use of frozen dough applications as well as high gravity brewing fermentations because these applications require stress-tolerant yeast strains during active fermentation. Different mutants (e.g. fil1, an adenylate cyclase mutant CYR1(lys1682)) that are affected in this loss of stress resistance have been isolated, but so far the identification of the target genes important for the increased tolerance has failed. Previously we have shown that neither trehalose nor Hsp104 nor STRE-controlled genes are involved in the higher stress tolerance of the fil1 mutant. The contribution of other putative downstream factors of the PKA pathway was investigated and here we show that the small heat-shock protein Hsp26 is required for the high heat stress tolerance of the fil1 mutant, both in stationary phase cells as well as during active fermentation.

  3. Rapid, semi-automated, and inexpensive radioimmunoassay of cAMP: application in GPCR-mediated adenylate cyclase assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin T; Kant, Andrew; Mailman, Richard B

    2009-03-15

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is an important signal transduction second messenger that is commonly used as a functional mirror on the actions of G protein-coupled receptors that can activate or inhibit adenylate cyclases. A radioimmunoassay for cAMP with femtomole sensitivity was first reported by Steiner more than 30 years ago, and there have been several subsequent modifications that have improved this assay in various ways. Here we describe additional improvement to existing methods that markedly improve speed and reduce cost without sacrificing sensitivity, and is also adaptable to analysis of cGMP. The primary antibody is coupled directly to magnetic beads that are then separated from unbound marker using filtration on microplates. This eliminates the need for a secondary antibody, and markedly increases throughput. In addition, we report a simple, reproducible, and inexpensive method to make the radiomarker used for this assay. Although still requiring the use of radioactivity, the resulting method retains a high degree of accuracy and precision, and is suitable for low-cost high throughput screening. Use of aspects of this method can also improve throughput in other radioimmunoassays.

  4. Reduced early and late phase insulin response to glucose in isolated spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) islets: a defective link between glycolysis and adenylate cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesher, R; Abramovitch, E; Cerasi, E

    1989-09-01

    The spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) exhibits low insulin responsiveness to glucose with a nearly absent early phase release. The alternative fuel-secretagogue glyceraldehyde (10 mmol/l) produced a maximal early insulin response in rat islets but failed to affect early response in Acomys; however, it potentiated the late insulin response in both species alike. Glucagon (1.5 mumol/l) potentiated the early insulin response to intermediate (8.3 mmol/l) glucose in rat and Acomys islets by two- and four-fold, respectively. Glucose doubled cyclic AMP levels in rat islets but no significant response was noted in Acomys islets. Isobutylmethylxanthine (0.1 mmol/l) and forskolin (25 mumol/l) caused a significant rise in islet cyclic AMP levels in both types of islets; however, neither agent restored the glucose stimulation of cyclic AMP in spiny mouse islets. Forskolin and isobutylmethylxanthine potentiated early and late phase insulin release in both species; however, neither augmented the early response in the Acomys to the degree observed in rat islets. Thus: (1) A deficient link exists in Acomys between glycolysis and subsequent signals. (2) These islets contain a glucose-insensitive adenylate cyclase. (3) The early insulin response may be potentiated by direct activation of adenylate cyclase. (4) The glucose effects on early and late phase insulin release are probably mediated by distinct pathways. (5) In the spiny mouse the signals mediating the early response are deranged to a greater extent than those activating the late phase insulin release.

  5. Bisamidate Prodrugs of 2-Substituted 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA, adefovir) as Selective Inhibitors of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin from Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Česnek, Michal; Jansa, Petr; Šmídková, Markéta; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena; Dračínský, Martin; Brust, Tarsis F; Pávek, Petr; Trejtnar, František; Watts, Val J; Janeba, Zlatko

    2015-08-01

    Novel small-molecule agents to treat Bordetella pertussis infections are highly desirable, as pertussis (whooping cough) remains a serious health threat worldwide. In this study, a series of 2-substituted derivatives of 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA, adefovir), in their isopropyl ester bis(L-phenylalanine) prodrug form, were designed and synthesized as potent inhibitors of adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) isolated from B. pertussis. The series consists of PMEA analogues bearing either a linear or branched aliphatic chain or a heteroatom at the C2 position of the purine moiety. Compounds with a small C2 substituent showed high potency against ACT without cytotoxic effects as well as good selectivity over human adenylate cyclase isoforms AC1, AC2, and AC5. The most potent ACT inhibitor was found to be the bisamidate prodrug of the 2-fluoro PMEA derivative (IC50 =0.145 μM). Although the bisamidate prodrugs reported herein exhibit overall lower activity than the bis(pivaloyloxymethyl) prodrug (adefovir dipivoxil), their toxicity and plasma stability profiles are superior. Furthermore, the bisamidate prodrug was shown to be more stable in plasma than in macrophage homogenate, indicating that the free phosphonate can be effectively distributed to target tissues, such as the lungs. Thus, ACT inhibitors based on acyclic nucleoside phosphonates may represent a new strategy to treat whooping cough.

  6. Effect of Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Beta Adrenergic ReceptorAdenylate Cyclase System on Surfaces of Peripheral Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ailin; TIAN Yuke; JIN Shiao

    2000-01-01

    The experimental results showed that the level of CAMP, the ratio of cAPM to cGMP,IL-2R expression and IL-2 production in vitro in lymphocytes immediate and 2 weeks after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were significantly lower than those before anesthetics in the patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. These findings suggested that CPB could cause serious damage to adrenergic beta receptor-adenylate cyclase system on circulating lymphocytes surfaces,which might be one of the mechanisms resulting in immunosuppression after open heart surgery with CPB.

  7. The Arabidopsis thalianaK+-uptake permease 7 (AtKUP7) contains a functional cytosolic adenylate cyclase catalytic centre

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Younis, Inas

    2015-11-27

    Adenylate Cyclases (ACs) catalyze the formation of the second messenger cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate (cAMP) from adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP). Although cAMP is increasingly recognized as an important signaling molecule in higher plants, ACs have remained somewhat elusive. Here we used a search motif derived from experimentally tested guanylyl cyclases (GCs), substituted the residues essential for substrate specificity and identified the Arabidopsis thaliana K+-uptake permease 7 (AtKUP7) as one of several candidate ACs. Firstly, we show that a recombinant N-terminal, cytosolic domain of AtKUP71-100 is able to complement the AC-deficient mutant cyaA in Escherichia coli and thus restoring the fermentation of lactose, and secondly, we demonstrate with both enzyme immunoassays and mass spectrometry that a recombinant AtKUP71-100 generates cAMP in vitro.

  8. The circadian neuropeptide PDF signals preferentially through a specific adenylate cyclase isoform AC3 in M pacemakers of Drosophila.

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    Laura B Duvall

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF is essential for normal circadian function in Drosophila. It synchronizes the phases of M pacemakers, while in E pacemakers it decelerates their cycling and supports their amplitude. The PDF receptor (PDF-R is present in both M and subsets of E cells. Activation of PDF-R stimulates cAMP increases in vitro and in M cells in vivo. The present study asks: What is the identity of downstream signaling components that are associated with PDF receptor in specific circadian pacemaker neurons? Using live imaging of intact fly brains and transgenic RNAi, we show that adenylate cyclase AC3 underlies PDF signaling in M cells. Genetic disruptions of AC3 specifically disrupt PDF responses: they do not affect other Gs-coupled GPCR signaling in M cells, they can be rescued, and they do not represent developmental alterations. Knockdown of the Drosophila AKAP-like scaffolding protein Nervy also reduces PDF responses. Flies with AC3 alterations show behavioral syndromes consistent with known roles of M pacemakers as mediated by PDF. Surprisingly, disruption of AC3 does not alter PDF responses in E cells--the PDF-R(+ LNd. Within M pacemakers, PDF-R couples preferentially to a single AC, but PDF-R association with a different AC(s is needed to explain PDF signaling in the E pacemakers. Thus critical pathways of circadian synchronization are mediated by highly specific second messenger components. These findings support a hypothesis that PDF signaling components within target cells are sequestered into "circadian signalosomes," whose compositions differ between E and M pacemaker cell types.

  9. Stability, structural and functional properties of a monomeric, calcium–loaded adenylate cyclase toxin, CyaA, from Bordetella pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannella, Sara E.; Ntsogo Enguéné, Véronique Yvette; Davi, Marilyne; Malosse, Christian; Sotomayor Pérez, Ana Cristina; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Vachette, Patrice; Durand, Dominique; Ladant, Daniel; Chenal, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, secretes an adenylate cyclase toxin, CyaA, which invades eukaryotic cells and alters their physiology by cAMP overproduction. Calcium is an essential cofactor of CyaA, as it is the case for most members of the Repeat-in-ToXins (RTX) family. We show that the calcium-bound, monomeric form of CyaA, hCyaAm, conserves its permeabilization and haemolytic activities, even in a fully calcium-free environment. In contrast, hCyaAm requires sub-millimolar calcium in solution for cell invasion, indicating that free calcium in solution is involved in the CyaA toxin translocation process. We further report the first in solution structural characterization of hCyaAm, as deduced from SAXS, mass spectrometry and hydrodynamic studies. We show that hCyaAm adopts a compact and stable state that can transiently conserve its conformation even in a fully calcium-free environment. Our results therefore suggest that in hCyaAm, the C-terminal RTX-domain is stabilized in a high-affinity calcium-binding state by the N-terminal domains while, conversely, calcium binding to the C-terminal RTX-domain strongly stabilizes the N-terminal regions. Hence, the different regions of hCyaAm appear tightly connected, leading to stabilization effects between domains. The hysteretic behaviour of CyaA in response to calcium is likely shared by other RTX cytolysins. PMID:28186111

  10. Knocking down the expression of adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 inhibits the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xia-Fei; Ni, Qi-Chao; Chen, Jin-Peng; Xu, Jun-Fei; Jiang, Ying; Yang, Shu-Yun; Ma, Jing; Gu, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Hua; Wang, Ying-Ying

    2014-04-01

    Adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) is a conserved protein that was found to be up-regulated in breast cancer and related to the migration of breast cancer. We verified its roles in breast cancer specimens and cell lines. In our results, 71 of 100 specimens of breast cancer showed high levels of CAP1 by immunohistochemistry. Associated with statistical analysis, we saw that CAP1 was related to the grade of breast cancer. In MDA-MB-231, the expression of CAP1 was the highest and by knocking down the expression of CAP1 in MDA-MB-231, its ability for proliferating and migrating apparently decreased and induced changes in morphology, which were related to the arrangement of F-actin. Therefore, CAP1 might be a potential molecular targeted therapy for surgery and immune treatment.

  11. The adenylate cyclase gene MaAC is required for virulence and multi-stress tolerance of Metarhizium acridum

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    Liu Shuyang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi in pest control is mainly affected by various adverse environmental factors, such as heat shock and UV-B radiation, and by responses of the host insect, such as oxidative stress, osmotic stress and fever. In this study, an adenylate cyclase gene (MaAC was cloned from the locust-specific entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium acridum, which is homologous to various fungal adenylate cyclase genes. RNA silencing was adapted to analyze the role of MaAC in virulence and tolerance to adverse environmental and host insect factors. Results Compared with the wild type, the vegetative growth of the RNAi mutant was decreased in PD (potato dextrose medium, Czapek-dox and PDA plates, respectively, demonstrating that MaAC affected vegetative growth. The cAMP levels were also reduced in PD liquid culture, and exogenous cAMP restored the growth of RNAi mutants. These findings suggested that MaAC is involved in cAMP synthesis. The knockdown of MaAC by RNAi led to a reduction in virulence after injection or topical inoculation. Furthermore, the RNAi mutant grew much slower than the wild type in the haemolymph of locust in vitro and in vivo, thus demonstrating that MaAC affects the virulence of M. acridum via fungal growth inside the host locust. A plate assay indicated that the tolerances of the MaAC RNAi mutant under oxidative stress, osmotic stress, heat shock and UV-B radiation was decreased compared with the wild type. Conclusion MaAC is required for virulence and tolerance to oxidative stress, osmotic stress, heat shock and UV-B radiation. MaAC affects fungal virulence via vegetative growth inside the insect and tolerance against oxidative stress, osmotic stress and locust fever.

  12. Subtyping of Salmonella enterica subspecies I using single nucleotide polymorphisms in adenylate cyclase (cyaA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to rapidly identify serotypes of Salmonella enterica subspecies I are of vital importance for protecting the safety of food. To supplement the serotyping method dkgB-linked intergenic sequence ribotyping (ISR), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were characterized within adenylate cyclas...

  13. High expression of adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 accelerates the proliferation, migration and invasion of neural glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhen; Qiu, Xiaojun; Wang, Donglin; Ban, Na; Fan, Shaochen; Chen, Wenjuan; Sun, Jie; Xing, Weikang; Wang, Yunfeng; Cui, Gang

    2016-04-01

    Adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1), a conserved member of cyclase-associated proteins was reported to be associated with the proliferation, migration or invasion of the tumors of pancreas, breast and liver, and was involved in astrocyte proliferation after acute Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). In this study, we sought to investigate the character of CAP1 in the pathological process of human glioma by detecting human glioma specimens and cell lines. 43 of 100 specimens showed high expression of CAP1 via immunohistochemistry. With statistics analysis, we found out the expression level of CAP1 was correlated with the WHO grades of human glioma and was great positively related to Ki-67 (p<0.01). In vitro, silencing CAP1 in U251 and U87MG, the glioma cell lines with the relatively higher expression of CAP1, induced the proliferation of the cells significantly retarded, migration and invasion as well. Obviously, our results indicated that CAP1 participated in the molecular pathological process of glioma indeed, and in a certain sense, CAP1 might be a potential and promising molecular target for glioma diagnosis and therapies in the future.

  14. Photo-dynamics of the BLUF domain containing soluble adenylate cyclase (nPAC) from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

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    Penzkofer, A., E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P. [Institut fuer Biologie/Experimentelle Biophysik, Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin (Germany); Kateriya, Suneel [Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India)

    2011-08-25

    Graphical abstract: The photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (nPAC) from Naegleria gruberi was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and its photo-cycling dynamics was studied by optical absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Highlights: {yields} Photo-activated adenylyl cyclase (nPAC) from Naegleria gruberi NEG-M was expressed. {yields} Photodynamics of BLUF domain in BLUF sensor - cyclase actuator protein was studied. {yields} Photo-excitation caused BLUF photo-cycling and permanent protein re-conformation. {yields} Re-conformed protein enabled photo-induced flavin reduction by proton transfer. {yields} Fluorescence of flavin in dark- and light-adapted state of nPAC was characterized. - Abstract: The amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M comprises a BLUF (blue light sensor using flavin) regulated adenylate cyclase (nPAC). The nPAC gene was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and the photo-dynamics of the nPAC protein was studied by optical absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Blue-light exposure of nPAC caused a typical BLUF-type photo-cycle behavior (spectral absorption red-shift, fluorescence quenching, absorption and fluorescence recovery in the dark). Additionally, time-delayed reversible photo-induced one-electron reduction of fully oxidized flavin (Fl{sub ox}) to semi-reduced flavin (FlH{sup {center_dot}}) occurred. Furthermore, photo-excitation of FlH{sup {center_dot}} caused irreversible electron transfer to fully reduced anionic flavin (FlH{sup -}). A photo-induced electron transfer from Tyr or Trp to flavin (Tyr{sup {center_dot}+}-Fl{sup {center_dot}-} or Trp{sup {center_dot}+}-Fl{sup {center_dot}-} radical ion-pair formation) is thought to cause H-bond restructuring responsible for BLUF-type photo-cycling and permanent protein re-conformation enabling photo-induced flavin reduction by proton transfer. Some photo-degradation of Fl{sub ox} to lumichrome was observed. A model of the photo-dynamics of nPAC is developed.

  15. Calcium, acylation, and molecular confinement favor folding of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase CyaA toxin into a monomeric and cytotoxic form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, Johanna C; Ntsogo Enguéné, V Yvette; Cannella, Sara E; Subrini, Orso; Hessel, Audrey; Debard, Sylvain; Ladant, Daniel; Chenal, Alexandre

    2014-10-31

    The adenylate cyclase (CyaA) toxin, a multidomain protein of 1706 amino acids, is one of the major virulence factors produced by Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. CyaA is able to invade eukaryotic target cells in which it produces high levels of cAMP, thus altering the cellular physiology. Although CyaA has been extensively studied by various cellular and molecular approaches, the structural and functional states of the toxin remain poorly characterized. Indeed, CyaA is a large protein and exhibits a pronounced hydrophobic character, making it prone to aggregation into multimeric forms. As a result, CyaA has usually been extracted and stored in denaturing conditions. Here, we define the experimental conditions allowing CyaA folding into a monomeric and functional species. We found that CyaA forms mainly multimers when refolded by dialysis, dilution, or buffer exchange. However, a significant fraction of monomeric, folded protein could be obtained by exploiting molecular confinement on size exclusion chromatography. Folding of CyaA into a monomeric form was found to be critically dependent upon the presence of calcium and post-translational acylation of the protein. We further show that the monomeric preparation displayed hemolytic and cytotoxic activities suggesting that the monomer is the genuine, physiologically active form of the toxin. We hypothesize that the structural role of the post-translational acylation in CyaA folding may apply to other RTX toxins.

  16. Testosterone regulates levels of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator, adenylate cyclase, and cAMP in the seminal vesicles of orchidectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nur Siti Khadijah; Giribabu, Nelli; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2016-01-15

    Secretions of chloride (Cl(-))- and bicarbonate (HCO3(-))-rich fluid by the seminal vesicles could involve cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), which activity can be stimulated by cAMP generated from the reaction involving adenylate cyclase (AC). In this study, we investigated levels of CFTR, AC, and cAMP in the seminal vesicles under testosterone influence. Orchidectomized adult male rats received 7-day treatment with 125 or 250 μg/kg/day of testosterone with or without flutamide or finasteride. At the end of the treatment, animals were sacrificed and seminal vesicles were harvested for analyses of CFTR and AC protein expression level by Western blotting. Distribution of CFTR and AC in seminal vesicles was observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of cAMP and dihydrotestosterone in seminal vesicle homogenates were measured by ELISA. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator, AC, and cAMP levels increased with increasing doses of testosterone (P seminal vesicle lumen with higher expression levels observed in testosterone-treated rats than in non-treated orchidectomized rats (P seminal vesicle homogenates after treatment with 250 μg/kg/day than with 125 μg/kg/day of testosterone (P seminal vesicles might contribute toward an increase in Cl(-) and HCO3(-) concentrations in the seminal fluid as reported under testosterone influence.

  17. Overexpression of adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 is associated with metastasis of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Min; Song, Xiaolian; Zhang, Guoliang; Peng, Aimei; Li, Xuan; Li, Ming; Liu, Yang; Wang, Changhui

    2013-10-01

    Lung cancer ranks first in both prevalence and mortality rates among all types of cancer. Metastasis is the main cause of treatment failure. Biomarkers are critical to early diagnosis and prediction and monitoring of progressive lesions. Several biomarkers have been identified for lung cancer but none have been routinely used clinically. The present study assessed the diagnostic and prognostic value of cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) for lung cancer. CAP1 mRNA abundance and protein content were determined by real-time PCR and western blot analysis and/or immunostaining in biopsy specimens (24 neoplastic and 6 non-neoplastic) freshly collected at surgical lung resection, in 82 pathologically banked lung cancer specimens and in cultured non-invasive (95-C) and invasive (95-D) lung cancer cells. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to correlate immunoreactive CAP1 signal with cancer type and stage. In vitro cell migration was performed to determine the effect of RNA interference-mediated CAP1 gene silencing on invasiveness of 95-D cells. These analyses collectively demonstrated that: i) both CAP1 mRNA abundance and protein content were significantly higher in neoplastic compared to non-neoplastic specimens and in metastatic compared to non-metastatic specimens but not different between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma; ii) immunoreactive CAP1 signal was significantly stronger in metastatic specimens and 95-D cells compared to non-metastatic specimens and 95-C cells; and iii) RNA interference-mediated CAP1 gene silencing adequately attenuated the invasive capacity of 95-D cells in vitro. These findings suggest that overexpression of CAP1 in lung cancer cells, particularly at the metastatic stage, may have significant clinical implications as a diagnostic/prognostic factor for lung cancer.

  18. Coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase activity in ABC transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Hundeep; Lakatos-Karoly, Andrea; Vogel, Ramona; Nöll, Anne; Tampé, Robert; Glaubitz, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, a superfamily of integral membrane proteins, catalyse the translocation of substrates across the cellular membrane by ATP hydrolysis. Here we demonstrate by nucleotide turnover and binding studies based on 31P solid-state NMR spectroscopy that the ABC exporter and lipid A flippase MsbA can couple ATP hydrolysis to an adenylate kinase activity, where ADP is converted into AMP and ATP. Single-point mutations reveal that both ATPase and adenylate kinase mechanisms are associated with the same conserved motifs of the nucleotide-binding domain. Based on these results, we propose a model for the coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase mechanism, involving the canonical and an additional nucleotide-binding site. We extend these findings to other prokaryotic ABC exporters, namely LmrA and TmrAB, suggesting that the coupled activities are a general feature of ABC exporters. PMID:28004795

  19. ASP-56, a new actin sequestering protein from pig platelets with homology to CAP, an adenylate cyclase-associated protein from yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieselmann, R; Mann, K

    1992-02-24

    A new 56 kDa actin-binding protein (ASP-56) was isolated from pig platelet lysate. In falling ball viscosimetry it caused a reduction in viscosity that could be attributed to a decrease in the concentration of polymeric actin. Fluorescence measurements with NBD-labelled actin showed reduction of polymeric actin, too. These results could be explained by sequestering of actin in a non-polymerizable 1:1 ASP-56/actin complex. Sequencing of about 20 tryptic peptides of ASP-56 and comparison with known sequences revealed about 60% homology to the adenylate cyclase-associated protein (CAP) from yeast.

  20. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins in Hashimoto's thyroiditis measured by radioreceptor assay and adenylate cyclase stimulation and their relationship to HLA-D alleles

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    Bliddal, H. (Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark); Bech, K.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.; Thomsen, M.; Ryder, L.P.; Hansen, J.M.; Siersbaek-Nielsen, K.; Friis, T.

    1982-11-01

    The relationship between thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins, measured by both radioreceptor assay and adenylate cyclase stimulation, and the HLA alleles was studied in 41 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. TSH binding-inhibiting immunoglobulins (TBII) were detected in 9 (22%) patients, and human thyroid adenylate cyclase-stimulating immunoglobulins (HTACS) were found in 21 (51%) patients. Only 2 patients were positive in both assays, and an inverse relationship was observed between TBII and HTACS. In the 21 HTACS-positive patients, HLA-Dw5 was found in 1 subject, compared to 8 of the 20 HTACS-negative patients (P < 0.01), while 4 of the 9 TBII-positive patients had HLA-Dw5 compared to 5 of the 32 TBII-negative subjects (P = 0.09).No significant relations were observed between the presence of HTACS or TBII and HLA-Dw3 or HLA-B8. It is concluded that TBII and HTACS are produced independently in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and that the production of these autoantibodies seems to be related to the HLA-D region in this disease.

  1. Negatively charged residues of the segment linking the enzyme and cytolysin moieties restrict the membrane-permeabilizing capacity of adenylate cyclase toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masin, Jiri; Osickova, Adriana; Sukova, Anna; Fiser, Radovan; Halada, Petr; Bumba, Ladislav; Linhartova, Irena; Osicka, Radim; Sebo, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The whooping cough agent, Bordetella pertussis, secretes an adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) that plays a crucial role in host respiratory tract colonization. CyaA targets CR3-expressing cells and disrupts their bactericidal functions by delivering into their cytosol an adenylate cyclase enzyme that converts intracellular ATP to cAMP. In parallel, the hydrophobic domain of CyaA forms cation-selective pores that permeabilize cell membrane. The invasive AC and pore-forming domains of CyaA are linked by a segment that is unique in the RTX cytolysin family. We used mass spectrometry and circular dichroism to show that the linker segment forms α-helical structures that penetrate into lipid bilayer. Replacement of the positively charged arginine residues, proposed to be involved in target membrane destabilization by the linker segment, reduced the capacity of the toxin to translocate the AC domain across cell membrane. Substitutions of negatively charged residues then revealed that two clusters of negative charges within the linker segment control the size and the propensity of CyaA pore formation, thereby restricting the cell-permeabilizing capacity of CyaA. The ‘AC to Hly-linking segment’ thus appears to account for the smaller size and modest cell-permeabilizing capacity of CyaA pores, as compared to typical RTX hemolysins. PMID:27581058

  2. Optogenetic Modulation of an Adenylate Cyclase in Toxoplasma gondii Demonstrates a Requirement of the Parasite cAMP for Host-Cell Invasion and Stage Differentiation*

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    Hartmann, Anne; Arroyo-Olarte, Ruben Dario; Imkeller, Katharina; Hegemann, Peter; Lucius, Richard; Gupta, Nishith

    2013-01-01

    Successful infection and transmission of the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii depends on its ability to switch between fast-replicating tachyzoite (acute) and quiescent bradyzoite (chronic) stages. Induction of cAMP in the parasitized host cells has been proposed to influence parasite differentiation. It is not known whether the parasite or host cAMP is required to drive this phenomenon. Other putative roles of cAMP for the parasite biology also remain to be identified. Unequivocal research on cAMP-mediated signaling in such intertwined systems also requires a method for an efficient and spatial control of the cAMP pool in the pathogen or in the enclosing host cell. We have resolved these critical concerns by expressing a photoactivated adenylate cyclase that allows light-sensitive control of the parasite or host-cell cAMP. Using this method, we reveal multiple roles of the parasite-derived cAMP in host-cell invasion, stage-specific expression, and asexual differentiation. An optogenetic method provides many desired advantages such as: (i) rapid, transient, and efficient cAMP induction in extracellular/intracellular and acute/chronic stages; (ii) circumvention of the difficulties often faced in cultures, i.e. poor diffusion, premature degradation, steady activation, and/or pleiotropic effects of cAMP agonists and antagonists; (iii) genetically encoded enzyme expression, thus inheritable to the cell progeny; and (iv) conditional and spatiotemporal control of cAMP levels. Importantly, a successful optogenetic application in Toxoplasma also illustrates its wider utility to study cAMP-mediated signaling in other genetically amenable two-organism systems such as in symbiotic and pathogen-host models. PMID:23525100

  3. Adenylate cyclase stimulation and ocular hypertension inhibition by forskolin analogs%佛司可林类似物激动腺苷酸环化酶及抑制兔高眼压探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨为民; 李新华; 陈植和; 聂玲辉; 王伯龄; 沈志强

    2001-01-01

    目的 从滇产毛喉鞘蕊花植物中提取到3个佛司可林类似物,即异佛司可林、去酰基佛司可林、1-乙酰基佛司可林,体外测定它们激动腺苷酸环化酶活性,并观察去酰基佛司可林及1-乙酰基佛司可林对水负荷兔高眼压的影响。 方法 体外测定激动腺苷酸环化酶活性用蛋白质结合放免法、气动式眼压计观察兔眼压。 结果 异佛司可林体外激动腺苷酸环化酶活性与佛司可林相当,去酰基佛司可林稍弱,1-乙酰基佛司可林无活性。1%去酰基佛司可林及1-乙酰基佛司可林滴眼液滴兔眼,能抑制水负荷造成的兔高眼压,抑制率最高分别达6.0%及10.9%,作用持续至少3h。 结论 研究表明异佛司可林及去酰基佛司可林具有体外激动腺苷酸环化酶活性的作用,而去酰基佛司可林及1-乙酰基佛司可林具有抑制水负荷兔高眼压的作用。%ObjectiveForskolin (FSK) analogs,isoforskolin (isoF),deacetylforskolin(deaF),and 1-acetylforskolin(1-aF),extracted from Coleus forskohlii native to Yunnan,were assayed for their adenylate cyclase stimulating activities in vitro and for effects of two analogs on ocular hypertension (OHT) in water-loaded rabbits.MethodsAdenylate cyclase stimulation was determined by protein-binding method of radioimmunoassay,and intraocular pressure was monitored by pneumatonometer.ResultsIt showed that isoforskolin and forskolin stimulated adenylate cyclase in vitro with almost equal activity,deacetylforskolin with milder activity,and 1-acetylforskolin with little activity in vitro.1% deaF and 1-aF suppressed rabbit OHT induced by water-loading for at least 3h,with the maximal inhibitory rates of 6.0,10.9% respectively.ConclusionThis study suggests that two foskolin analogs (isoforskolin,deacetylforskolin) possess adenylate cyclase stimulation activities in vitro;deacetylforskolin and 1

  4. CAP1, an adenylate cyclase-associated protein gene, regulates bud-hypha transitions, filamentous growth, and cyclic AMP levels and is required for virulence of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, Y S; Sundstrom, P

    2001-05-01

    In response to a wide variety of environmental stimuli, the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans exits the budding cycle, producing germ tubes and hyphae concomitant with expression of virulence genes, such as that encoding hyphal wall protein 1 (HWP1). Biochemical studies implicate cyclic AMP (cAMP) increases in promoting bud-hypha transitions, but genetic evidence relating genes that control cAMP levels to bud-hypha transitions has not been reported. Adenylate cyclase-associated proteins (CAPs) of nonpathogenic fungi interact with Ras and adenylate cyclase to increase cAMP levels under specific environmental conditions. To initiate studies on the relationship between cAMP signaling and bud-hypha transitions in C. albicans, we identified, cloned, characterized, and disrupted the C. albicans CAP1 gene. C. albicans strains with inactivated CAP1 budded in conditions that led to germ tube formation in isogenic strains with CAP1. The addition of 10 mM cAMP and dibutyryl cAMP promoted bud-hypha transitions and filamentous growth in the cap1/cap1 mutant in liquid and solid media, respectively, showing clearly that cAMP promotes hypha formation in C. albicans. Increases in cytoplasmic cAMP preceding germ tube emergence in strains having CAP1 were markedly diminished in the budding cap1/cap1 mutant. C. albicans strains with deletions of both alleles of CAP1 were avirulent in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis. The avirulence of a germ tube-deficient cap1/cap1 mutant coupled with the role of Cap1 in regulating cAMP levels shows that the Cap1-mediated cAMP signaling pathway is required for bud-hypha transitions, filamentous growth, and the pathogenesis of candidiasis.

  5. Studies on responsiveness of hepatoma cells to catecholamines. VI. Characteristics of adrenoceptors and adenylate cyclase response in rat ascites hepatoma cells and human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanae, F; Kohei, K; Nomura, M; Miyamoto, K

    1992-06-01

    Alpha 1, alpha 2- and beta-Adrenoceptor densities and catecholamine responsiveness in established hepatoma cells, rat ascites hepatoma AH13, AH66, AH66F, AH109A, AH130 and AH7974 cells and human hepatocellular carcinoma HLF and HepG2 cells, were compared with those in normal rat hepatocytes and Chang liver cells. Alpha 1-Adrenoceptor densities measured by [3H]prazosin bindings were not detected in all hepatoma cell lines. Alpha 2-Adrenoceptor densities measured by [3H]clonidine bindings were also barely detected in hepatoma cell lines except for AH130 cells and HepG2 cells. Regarding beta-adrenoceptor, AH109A, AH130 and AH7974 cells had much more [125I]iodocyanopindolol binding sites than normal rat hepatocytes, although we could not detect the binding in HepG2 cells. Adenylate cyclase of normal rat hepatocyte and Chang liver cells were stimulated by beta 2-adrenergic agonist salbutamol, while the cyclase in hepatoma cells had no beta 2-adrenergic response but a beta 1-type response. These findings indicate that the characteristics of adrenergic response in hepatoma cell lines is very different from that in normal hepatocytes, suggesting a participation in the hepatocarcinogenesis and/or the autonomous proliferation of hepatoma cells.

  6. Ca2+ influx and tyrosine kinases trigger Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT endocytosis. Cell physiology and expression of the CD11b/CD18 integrin major determinants of the entry route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepa B Uribe

    Full Text Available Humans infected with Bordetella pertussis, the whooping cough bacterium, show evidences of impaired host defenses. This pathogenic bacterium produces a unique adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT which enters human phagocytes and catalyzes the unregulated formation of cAMP, hampering important bactericidal functions of these immune cells that eventually cause cell death by apoptosis and/or necrosis. Additionally, ACT permeabilizes cells through pore formation in the target cell membrane. Recently, we demonstrated that ACT is internalised into macrophages together with other membrane components, such as the integrin CD11b/CD18 (CR3, its receptor in these immune cells, and GM1. The goal of this study was to determine whether ACT uptake is restricted to receptor-bearing macrophages or on the contrary may also take place into cells devoid of receptor and gain more insights on the signalling involved. Here, we show that ACT is rapidly eliminated from the cell membrane of either CR3-positive as negative cells, though through different entry routes, which depends in part, on the target cell physiology and characteristics. ACT-induced Ca(2+ influx and activation of non-receptor Tyr kinases into the target cell appear to be common master denominators in the different endocytic strategies activated by this toxin. Very importantly, we show that, upon incubation with ACT, target cells are capable of repairing the cell membrane, which suggests the mounting of an anti-toxin cell repair-response, very likely involving the toxin elimination from the cell surface.

  7. Overexpression of adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 may predict brain metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuan-Shuan; Tan, Min; Lin, Hai-Yan; Xu, Lei; Shen, Chang-Xing; Yuan, Qing; Song, Xiao-Lian; Wang, Chang-Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to establish a biomarker risk model for predicting brain metastasis (BM) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The model comprises 120 cases of NSCLC that were treated and followed up for 4 years. The patients were divided into the BM (n=50) and non-BM (other visceral metastasis and those without recurrence) (n=70) groups. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses were performed in metastatic tissues of NSCLC. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to correlate the immunoreactive cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) signal with BM. Survival analyses were performed by using the Kaplan-Meier method. CAP1 protein content and immunoreactivity were significantly increased in BM specimens compared to other-metastatic specimens. The survival analysis revealed that CAP1 overexpression was significantly associated with survival (P<0.05). The ROC test suggested that the area under the curve was 73.33% (P<0.001; 95% CI, 63.5-83.2%). When P=0.466, the sensitivity and specificity reached 79.5 and 67.1%, respectively. These findings suggested that CAP1 is involved in the BM of NSCLC, and that elevated levels of CAP1 expression may indicate a poor prognosis for patients with BM. The CAP1 molecular model may be useful in the prediction of the risk of BM in NSCLC.

  8. [Differentially expressed genes identified in the main olfactory epithelium of mice with deficiency of adenylate cyclase 3 by using suppression subtractive hybridization approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenlong, Cao; Jiangye, Hao; Yanfen, Zhou; Zhe, Zhang; Zhihua, Ni; Yuanxiang, Hu; Weili, Liu; Yongchao, Li; Daniel, R Storm; Runlin, Z Ma; Zhenshan, Wang

    2014-06-01

    Adenylate cyclase 3 (AC3) is one of the major players in the olfactory signaling within the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of mice. However, we are not ascertained whether deficiency of AC3 will lead to the differential expression of related genes in the MOE. Forward and reverse subtractive libraries were constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) approach, with MOEs from AC3(-/-) and AC3(+/+) mice. These two libraries were primarily screened by Dot blot, differential expressed clones were sequenced and analyzed by bioinformatics, and differential expressed genes were verified by qRT-PCR. A total of 386 differentially expressed clones were picked out after Dot blot. The DNA sequences of 80 clones randomly selected were determined, and 62 clones were identified by blasting in GenBank. We found that 24 up-regulated clones were corresponded to genes of kcnk3, mapk7, megf11, and 38 down-regulated clones were corresponded to tmem88b, c-mip, skp1a, mlycd, etc. Their functions were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) and found to be mainly focused on molecular binding, cell cycle, processes of biology and cells. Five genes (kcnk3, c-mip, mlycd, tmem88b and trappc5) were verified by qRT-PCR with individuals of AC3(+/+) and AC3(-/-) mice. The data indicate that kcnk3 gene is up-regulated significantly, increasing 1.27 folds compared to control mice, whereas c-mip, mlycd, tmem88b and trappc5 are down-regulated significantly, decreasing 20%, 7%, 32% and 29% compared to the AC3(+/+)mice. The functions of these genes are closely related with K(+) channels, cell differentiation, metabolism of fats, membrane transportation, and so on. It is tempting to speculate that these genes might work together with AC3 to orchestrate the olfactory transduction signaling in the MOE.

  9. Y1 receptors for neuropeptide Y are coupled to mobilization of intracellular calcium and inhibition of adenylate cyclase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakerlund, L; Gether, U; Fuhlendorff, J;

    1990-01-01

    Two types of binding sites have previously been described for neuropeptide Y (NPY), called Y1 and Y2 receptors. The intracellular events following Y1 receptor activation was studied in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC. Both NPY and the specific Y1 receptor ligand, [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY, caused...

  10. Allosteric activation of Bordetella pertussis adenylyl cyclase by calmodulin: molecular dynamics and mutagenesis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwa, Edithe; Davi, Marilyne; Chenal, Alexandre; Sotomayor-Pérez, Ana-Cristina; Ladant, Daniel; Malliavin, Thérèse E

    2014-07-25

    Adenylyl cyclase (AC) toxin is an essential toxin that allows Bordetella pertussis to invade eukaryotic cells, where it is activated after binding to calmodulin (CaM). Based on the crystal structure of the AC catalytic domain in complex with the C-terminal half of CaM (C-CaM), our previous molecular dynamics simulations (Selwa, E., Laine, E., and Malliavin, T. (2012) Differential role of calmodulin and calcium ions in the stabilization of the catalytic domain of adenyl cyclase CyaA from Bordetella pertussis. Proteins 80, 1028–1040) suggested that three residues (i.e. Arg(338), Asn(347), and Asp(360)) might be important for stabilizing the AC/CaM interaction. These residues belong to a loop-helix-loop motif at the C-terminal end of AC, which is located at the interface between CaM and the AC catalytic loop. In the present study, we conducted the in silico and in vitro characterization of three AC variants, where one (Asn(347); ACm1A), two (Arg(338) and Asp(360); ACm2A), or three residues (Arg(338), Asn(347), and Asp(360); ACm3A) were substituted with Ala. Biochemical studies showed that the affinities of ACm1A and ACm2A for CaM were not affected significantly, whereas that of ACm3A was reduced dramatically. To understand the effects of these modifications, molecular dynamics simulations were performed based on the modified proteins. The molecular dynamics trajectories recorded for the ACm3AC-CaM complex showed that the calcium-binding loops of C-CaM exhibited large fluctuations, which could be related to the weakened interaction between ACm3A and its activator. Overall, our results suggest that the loop-helix-loop motif at the C-terminal end of AC is crucial during CaM binding for stabilizing the AC catalytic loop in an active configuration.

  11. The crystal structure of the catalytic domain of a eukaryotic guanylate cyclase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marletta Michael A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soluble guanylate cyclases generate cyclic GMP when bound to nitric oxide, thereby linking nitric oxide levels to the control of processes such as vascular homeostasis and neurotransmission. The guanylate cyclase catalytic module, for which no structure has been determined at present, is a class III nucleotide cyclase domain that is also found in mammalian membrane-bound guanylate and adenylate cyclases. Results We have determined the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of a soluble guanylate cyclase from the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at 2.55 Å resolution, and show that it is a dimeric molecule. Conclusion Comparison of the structure of the guanylate cyclase domain with the known structures of adenylate cyclases confirms the close similarity in architecture between these two enzymes, as expected from their sequence similarity. The comparison also suggests that the crystallized guanylate cyclase is in an inactive conformation, and the structure provides indications as to how activation might occur. We demonstrate that the two active sites in the dimer exhibit positive cooperativity, with a Hill coefficient of ~1.5. Positive cooperativity has also been observed in the homodimeric mammalian membrane-bound guanylate cyclases. The structure described here provides a reliable model for functional analysis of mammalian guanylate cyclases, which are closely related in sequence.

  12. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide stimulates renin secretion via activation of PAC1 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hautmann, Matthias; Friis, Ulla G; Desch, Michael

    2007-01-01

    concentration was significantly lower in PAC1-/- compared with their wild-type littermates under control conditions as well as under a low- or high-salt diet and under treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril, whereas no differences in plasma renin concentration between the genotypes......), because PACAP (1-27) applied in concentrations in the physiologic range (10 and 100 pmol/L) did not enhance renin release from isolated kidneys of PAC1 receptor knockout mice (PAC1-/-), whereas it stimulated renin release 1.38- and 2.5-fold in kidneys from wild-type mice. Moreover, plasma renin...... were detectable after water deprivation. These data show that PACAP acting on PAC1 receptors potently stimulates renin release, serving as a tonic enhancer of the renin system in vivo....

  13. Nucleotidyl cyclase activity of particulate guanylyl cyclase A: comparison with particulate guanylyl cyclases E and F, soluble guanylyl cyclase and bacterial adenylyl cyclases CyaA and edema factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Y Beste

    Full Text Available Guanylyl cyclases (GCs regulate many physiological processes by catalyzing the synthesis of the second messenger cGMP. The GC family consists of seven particulate GCs (pGCs and a nitric oxide-activated soluble GC (sGC. Rat sGC α1β1 possesses much broader substrate specificity than previously assumed. Moreover, the exotoxins CyaA from Bordetella pertussis and edema factor (EF from Bacillus anthracis possess nucleotidyl cyclase (NC activity. pGC-A is a natriuretic peptide-activated homodimer with two catalytic sites that act cooperatively. Here, we studied the NC activity of rat pGC-A in membranes of stably transfected HEK293 cells using a highly sensitive and specific HPLC-MS/MS technique. GTP and ITP were effective, and ATP and XTP were only poor, pGC-A substrates. In contrast to sGC, pGC-A did not use CTP and UTP as substrates. pGC-E and pGC-F expressed in bovine rod outer segment membranes used only GTP as substrate. In intact HEK293 cells, pGC-A generated only cGMP. In contrast to pGCs, EF and CyaA showed very broad substrate-specificity. In conclusion, NCs exhibit different substrate-specificities, arguing against substrate-leakiness of enzymes and pointing to distinct physiological functions of cyclic purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.

  14. The intact CFTR protein mediates ATPase rather than adenylate kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjeesingh, Mohabir; Ugwu, Francisca; Stratford, Fiona L L; Huan, Ling-Jun; Li, Canhui; Bear, Christine E

    2008-06-01

    The two NBDs (nucleotide-binding domains) of ABC (ATP-binding-cassette) proteins function in a complex to mediate ATPase activity and this activity has been linked to their regulated transport activity. A similar model has been proposed for CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator), the chloride channel defective in cystic fibrosis, wherein ATP binding and hydrolysis regulate the channel gate. Recently, it was shown that the individual NBDs isolated from CFTR primarily mediate adenylate kinase activity, raising the possibility that this activity may also contribute to gating of the CFTR channel. However, this present study shows that whereas the isolated NBDs exhibit adenylate kinase activity, the full-length purified and reconstituted CFTR protein functions as an ATPase, arguing that the enzymatic activity of the NBDs is dependent on their molecular context and appropriate domain-domain assembly. As expected, the disease-causing mutant bearing a mutation in the ABC signature motif, CFTR-G551D, exhibited a markedly reduced ATPase activity. Furthermore, mutation of the putative catalytic base in CFTR caused a reduction in ATPase activity, with the CFTR-E1371Q mutant supporting a low level of residual activity. Neither of these mutants exhibited detectable adenylate kinase activity. Together, these findings support the concept that the molecular mechanism of action of CFTR is dependent on ATP binding and hydrolysis, and that the structure of prokaryotic ABC ATPases provide a useful template for understanding their mechanism of action.

  15. Pituitary Adenlylate Cyclase Activating Peptide Protects Adult Neural Stem Cells from a Hypoglycaemic milieu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Mansouri

    Full Text Available Hypoglycaemia is a common side-effect of glucose-lowering therapies for type-2 diabetic patients, which may cause cognitive/neurological impairment. Although the effects of hypoglycaemia in the brain have been extensively studied in neurons, how hypoglycaemia impacts the viability of adult neural stem cells (NSCs has been poorly investigated. In addition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of how hypoglycaemia regulates NSCs survival have not been characterized. Recent work others and us have shown that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R agonist Exendin-4 stimulate NSCs survival against glucolipoapoptosis. The aim of this study was to establish an in vitro system where to study the effects of hypoglycaemia on NSC survival. Furthermore, we determine the potential role of PACAP and Exendin-4 in counteracting the effect of hypoglycaemia. A hypoglycaemic in vitro milieu was mimicked by exposing subventricular zone-derived NSC to low levels of glucose. Moreover, we studied the potential involvement of apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress by quantifying protein levels of Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and mRNA levels of CHOP. We show that PACAP via PAC-1 receptor and PKA activation counteracts impaired NSC viability induced by hypoglycaemia. The protective effect induced by PACAP correlated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, Exendin-4 was ineffective. The results show that hypoglycaemia decreases NSC viability and that this effect can be substantially counteracted by PACAP via PAC-1 receptor activation. The data supports a potential therapeutic role of PAC-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of neurological complications, based on neurogenesis impairment by hypoglycaemia.

  16. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide promotes eccrine gland sweat secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, S; Watanabe, J; Ohtaki, H;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sweat secretion is the major function of eccrine sweat glands; when this process is disturbed (paridrosis), serious skin problems can arise. To elucidate the causes of paridrosis, an improved understanding of the regulation, mechanisms and factors underlying sweat production is required...... and several exocrine glands, the effects of PACAP on the process of eccrine sweat secretion have not been examined. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of PACAP on eccrine sweat secretion. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining were used to determine the expression...... and localization of PACAP and its receptors in mouse and human eccrine sweat glands. We injected PACAP subcutaneously into the footpads of mice and used the starch-iodine test to visualize sweat-secreting glands. RESULTS: Immunostaining showed PACAP and PAC1R expression by secretory cells from mouse and human...

  17. Accelerated evolution of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide precursor gene during human origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yin-Qiu; Qian, Ya-Ping; Yang, Su

    2005-01-01

    a strong functional constraint during the course of evolution. However, through comparative sequence analysis, we demonstrated that the PACAP precursor gene underwent an accelerated evolution in the human lineage since the divergence from chimpanzees, and the amino acid substitution rate in humans...... is at least seven times faster than that in other mammal species resulting from strong Darwinian positive selection. Eleven human-specific amino acid changes were identified in the PACAP precursors, which are conserved from murine to African apes. Protein structural analysis suggested that a putative novel...... neuropeptide might have originated during human evolution and functioned in the human brain. Our data suggested that the PACAP precursor gene underwent adaptive changes during human origin and may have contributed to the formation of human cognition. Udgivelsesdato: 2005-Jun...

  18. Adenylate kinase from Streptococcus pneumoniae is essential for growth through its catalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Thanh Thach

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus infection causes more than 1.6 million deaths worldwide. Pneumococcal growth is a prerequisite for its virulence and requires an appropriate supply of cellular energy. Adenylate kinases constitute a major family of enzymes that regulate cellular ATP levels. Some bacterial adenylate kinases (AdKs are known to be critical for growth, but the physiological effects of AdKs in pneumococci have been poorly understood at the molecular level. Here, by crystallographic and functional studies, we report that the catalytic activity of adenylate kinase from S. pneumoniae (SpAdK serotype 2 D39 is essential for growth. We determined the crystal structure of SpAdK in two conformations: ligand-free open form and closed in complex with a two-substrate mimic inhibitor adenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A. Crystallographic analysis of SpAdK reveals Arg-89 as a key active site residue. We generated a conditional expression mutant of pneumococcus in which the expression of the adk gene is tightly regulated by fucose. The expression level of adk correlates with growth rate. Expression of the wild-type adk gene in fucose-inducible strains rescued a growth defect, but expression of the Arg-89 mutation did not. SpAdK increased total cellular ATP levels. Furthermore, lack of functional SpAdK caused a growth defect in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SpAdK is essential for pneumococcal growth in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Ibogaine and noribogaine potentiate the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity by opioid and 5-HT receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, R A; Winter, J C

    1996-12-05

    The effects of the putative anti-addictive compound ibogaine and its principal metabolite, noribogaine, on adenylyl cyclase activity were determined in various areas of the rat brain. Neither compound altered either basal or forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities in the frontal cortex, midbrain or striatum. However, in all three brain areas the addition of ibogaine and noribogaine significantly enhanced inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity by a maximally effective concentration of morphine. Similarly, both compounds also potentiated the inhibition of hippocampal adenylyl cyclase activity by a maximally effective concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Although ibogaine appears to be more potent than noribogaine in augmenting opioid- and 5-HT-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity, both compounds appear to be of comparable efficacy. Neither compound, however, modified the inhibitory action of the muscarinic acetylcholine agonist, carbachol, on adenylyl cyclase activity. The present data indicate that ibogaine and noribogaine cause a selective increase in receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity. This potentiation may be involved in the pharmacological actions of these compounds.

  20. Diazepam inhibits forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in human tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, L P; Wang, J

    1999-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the benzodiazepine agonist, diazepam, suppresses adenylyl cyclase activity in rat brain, via a G protein-coupled benzodiazepine receptor. Since diazepam binding sites are also present in diverse non-neuronal tissues including tumour cells, its effects on adenylyl cyclase activity were examined in membranes from human MCF-7 (breast cancer) and M-6 (melanoma) cells. Diazepam caused a biphasic and concentration-dependent inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in MCF-7 membranes. The first phase of inhibition, at picomolar to nanomolar drug concentrations (EC50=5.7 x 10(-12)M), is similar to the receptor mediated phase observed in the rat brain. At micromolar concentrations of diazepam (EC50= 1.8 x 10(-4)M), the steep decrease in adenylyl cyclase activity may involve a direct action on the enzyme itself, as detected previously in rat brain membranes. Diazepam-induced suppression of adenylyl cyclase activity was also detected in M-6 membranes. However, in contrast to MCF-7 findings, only micromolar concentrations of diazepam (EC50=5.2 x 10(-4)M) inhibited enzyme activity in M-6 membranes. These findings suggest that G protein-coupled benzodiazepine receptors, which mediate inhibition of the adenylyl cyclase-cAMP pathway in the brain, are also expressed in MCF-7 cells.

  1. Long-Term Exposure to High Corticosterone Levels Inducing a Decrease of Adenylate Kinase 1 Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yu'nan; SHEN Jia; SU Hui; HUANG Yufang; XING Dongming; DU Lijun

    2009-01-01

    Corticosterone, a principal glucocorticoid synthesized in the rodent adrenal cortex, can be cumula-tively toxic to hippocampal neurons, the cause of which is not known. The present study determined whether the cytosol adenylate kinase (AK) system was involved in the neuronal damage induced by long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels. We investigated the effects of long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels on AK1 activity, AK1 mRNA expression, and energy levels in cultured hippocampal neurons. The results show that long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels induces a reduction of the cultured hippocampal neuron viability, significantly reduces energy levels, and causes a time-dependant re-duction of the AK1 activity. These findings indicate that changes in the AK system might be the mechanism underlying neuronal damage induced by long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels.

  2. The expression and significance of adenylate cyclase-associated protein 2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma%腺苷酸环化酶相关蛋白2在肝癌组织中的表达及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢艳英; 徐秋霞; 韩双印; 张立达; 白阳秋; 杨玉秀

    2010-01-01

    @@ 有关腺苷酸环化酶相关蛋白(adenylate cyclase-associated protein,CAP)2在肝癌中的生物学作用机制尚不明确.本研究应用逆转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)及免疫组织化学技术检测CAP2在人正常肝脏、肝硬化和肝癌组织中的表达,探讨CAP2在肝癌发生发展过程中的作用.

  3. Adenylate-forming enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, Stefan; Naismith, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Thioesters, amides and esters are common chemical building blocks in a wide array of natural products. The formation of these bonds can be catalyzed in a variety of ways. For chemists, the use of an activating group is a common strategy and adenylate enzymes are exemplars of this approach. Adenylating enzymes activate the otherwise unreactive carboxylic acid by transforming the normal hydroxyl leaving group into adenosine monophosphate. Recently there have been a number of studies of such enzymes and in this review we suggest a new classification scheme. The review highlights the diversity in enzyme fold, active site architecture and metal coordination that has evolved to catalyze this particular reaction. PMID:19836944

  4. Accurate Detection of Adenylation Domain Functions in Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases by an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay System Using Active Site-directed Probes for Adenylation Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Fumihiro; Miyamoto, Kengo; Konno, Sho; Kasai, Shota; Kakeya, Hideaki

    2015-12-18

    A significant gap exists between protein engineering and enzymes used for the biosynthesis of natural products, largely because there is a paucity of strategies that rapidly detect active-site phenotypes of the enzymes with desired activities. Herein, we describe a proof-of-concept study of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system for the adenylation (A) domains in nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) using a combination of active site-directed probes coupled to a 5'-O-N-(aminoacyl)sulfamoyladenosine scaffold with a biotin functionality that immobilizes probe molecules onto a streptavidin-coated solid support. The recombinant NRPSs have a C-terminal His-tag motif that is targeted by an anti-6×His mouse antibody as the primary antibody and a horseradish peroxidase-linked goat antimouse antibody as the secondary antibody. These probes can selectively capture the cognate A domains by ligand-directed targeting. In addition, the ELISA technique detected A domains in the crude cell-free homogenates from the Escherichia coli expression systems. When coupled with a chromogenic substrate, the antibody-based ELISA technique can visualize probe-protein binding interactions, which provides accurate readouts of the A-domain functions in NRPS enzymes. To assess the ELISA-based engineering of the A domains of NRPSs, we reprogramed 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB)-activating enzyme EntE toward salicylic acid (Sal)-activating enzymes and investigated a correlation between binding properties for probe molecules and enzyme catalysts. We generated a mutant of EntE that displayed negligible loss in the kcat/Km value with the noncognate substrate Sal and a corresponding 48-fold decrease in the kcat/Km value with the cognate substrate DHB. The resulting 26-fold switch in substrate specificity was achieved by the replacement of a Ser residue in the active site of EntE with a Cys toward the nonribosomal codes of Sal-activating enzymes. Bringing a laboratory ELISA technique

  5. Dimerization Domain of Retinal Membrane Guanylyl Cyclase 1 (RetGC1) Is an Essential Part of Guanylyl Cyclase-activating Protein (GCAP) Binding Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshenko, Igor V; Olshevskaya, Elena V; Dizhoor, Alexander M

    2015-08-01

    The photoreceptor-specific proteins guanylyl cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) bind and regulate retinal membrane guanylyl cyclase 1 (RetGC1) but not natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA). Study of RetGC1 regulation in vitro and its association with fluorescently tagged GCAP in transfected cells showed that R822P substitution in the cyclase dimerization domain causing congenital early onset blindness disrupted RetGC1 ability to bind GCAP but did not eliminate its affinity for another photoreceptor-specific protein, retinal degeneration 3 (RD3). Likewise, the presence of the NPRA dimerization domain in RetGC1/NPRA chimera specifically disabled binding of GCAPs but not of RD3. In subsequent mapping using hybrid dimerization domains in RetGC1/NPRA chimera, multiple RetGC1-specific residues contributed to GCAP binding by the cyclase, but the region around Met(823) was the most crucial. Either positively or negatively charged residues in that position completely blocked GCAP1 and GCAP2 but not RD3 binding similarly to the disease-causing mutation in the neighboring Arg(822). The specificity of GCAP binding imparted by RetGC1 dimerization domain was not directly related to promoting dimerization of the cyclase. The probability of coiled coil dimer formation computed for RetGC1/NPRA chimeras, even those incapable of binding GCAP, remained high, and functional complementation tests showed that the RetGC1 active site, which requires dimerization of the cyclase, was formed even when Met(823) or Arg(822) was mutated. These results directly demonstrate that the interface for GCAP binding on RetGC1 requires not only the kinase homology region but also directly involves the dimerization domain and especially its portion containing Arg(822) and Met(823).

  6. Simultaneous stimulation of GABA and beta adrenergic receptors stabilizes isotypes of activated adenylyl cyclase heterocomplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robichon Alain

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated how the synthesis of cAMP, stimulated by isoproterenol acting through β-adrenoreceptors and Gs, is strongly amplified by simultaneous incubation with baclofen. Baclofen is an agonist of δ-aminobutyric acid type B receptors [GABAB], known to inhibit adenylyl cyclase via Gi. Because these agents have opposite effects on cAMP levels, the unexpected increase in cAMP synthesis when they are applied simultaneously has been intensively investigated. From previous reports, it appears that cyclase type II contributes most significantly to this phenomenon. Results We found that simultaneous application of isoproterenol and baclofen specifically influences the association/dissociation of molecules involved in the induction and termination of cyclase activity. Beta/gamma from [GABA]B receptor-coupled Gi has a higher affinity for adenylyl cyclase isoform(s when these isoforms are co-associated with Gs. Our data also suggest that, when beta/gamma and Gαs are associated with adenylyl cyclase isoform(s, beta/gamma from [GABA]B receptor-coupled Gi retards the GTPase activity of Gαs from adrenergic receptor. These reciprocal regulations of subunits of the adenylyl cyclase complex might be responsible for the drastic increase of cAMP synthesis in response to the simultaneous signals. Conclusions Simultaneous signals arriving at a particular synapse converge on molecular detectors of coincidence and trigger specific biochemical events. We hypothesize that this phenomenon comes from the complex molecular architectures involved, including scaffolding proteins that make reciprocal interactions between associated molecules possible. The biochemistry of simultaneous signaling is addressed as a key to synaptic function.

  7. H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of noradrenaline release: an investigation into the involvement of Ca2+ and K+ ions, G protein and adenylate cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicker, E; Kathmann, M; Detzner, M; Exner, H J; Göthert, M

    1994-07-01

    The present study was aimed at the identification of mechanisms following the activation of histamine H3 receptors. Mouse brain cortex slices preincubated with 3H-noradrenaline were superfused and the (H3 receptor-mediated) effect of histamine on the electrically evoked tritium overflow was studied under a variety of conditions. The extent of inhibition produced by histamine was inversely related to the frequency of stimulation used to evoke tritium overflow and to the Ca2+ concentration in the superfusion medium. An activator (levcromakalim) and blocker (glibenclamide) of ATP-dependent K+ channels did not affect the electrically evoked tritium overflow and its inhibition by histamine. A blocker of voltage-sensitive K+ channels, tetraethylammonium (TEA), increased the evoked overflow and attenuated the inhibitory effect of histamine. TEA also reduced the inhibitory effect of noradrenaline and prostaglandin E2 on the evoked overflow. When the facilitatory effect of TEA on the evoked overflow was compensated for by reducing the Ca2+ concentration in the superfusion medium, TEA did no longer attenuate the effect of histamine. Exposure of the slices to the SH group-alkylating agent N-ethylmaleimide increased the evoked overflow and attenuated the inhibitory effect of histamine; both effects were counteracted by the SH group-protecting agent dithiothreitol, which, by itself, did not affect the evoked overflow and its inhibition by histamine. Mouse brain cortex membranes were used to study the effect of the H3 receptor agonist R-(-)-alpha-methylhistamine on the basal cAMP accumulation and on the accumulation stimulated by forskolin or noradrenaline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Effects of dopamine on adenylyl cyclase activity and amylase secretion in rat parotid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, S; Amemiya, N; Takemura, H; Ohshika, H

    1995-06-01

    Several previous studies have shown that dopamine causes amylase secretion from rat parotid tissue. However, the mechanism of this dopamine action is still unclear. The present study was designed to characterize dopamine action in rat parotid gland tissue by examining the effects of dopamine on cyclic AMP accumulation, adenylyl cyclase activity, and amylase release. Dopamine significantly enhanced accumulation of cyclic AMP in parotid slices and stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in parotid membrane preparations. It also significantly stimulated amylase release from parotid slices. The stimulatory effects of dopamine on cyclic AMP accumulation, adenylyl cyclase activity, and amylase release were effectively blocked with propranolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, but not by either SCH 23390, a preferential D1 antagonist, or butaclamol, a preferential D2 antagonist. No substantial specific binding sites for D1 receptors were detectable by [3H]SCH 23390 binding in parotid membranes. These results suggest that the stimulatory effect of dopamine on amylase secretion in rat parotid tissue is not mediated through specific D1 dopamine receptors but rather through beta-adrenergic receptors.

  9. Overexpression of guanylate cyclase activating protein 2 in rod photoreceptors in vivo leads to morphological changes at the synaptic ribbon

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia López-del Hoyo; Lucrezia Fazioli; Santiago López-Begines; Laura Fernández-Sánchez; Nicolás Cuenca; Jordi Llorens; Pedro de la Villa; Ana Méndez

    2012-01-01

    Guanylate cyclase activating proteins are EF-hand containing proteins that confer calcium sensitivity to retinal guanylate cyclase at the outer segment discs of photoreceptor cells. By making the rate of cGMP synthesis dependent on the free intracellular calcium levels set by illumination, GCAPs play a fundamental role in the recovery of the light response and light adaptation. The main isoforms GCAP1 and GCAP2 also localize to the synaptic terminal, where their function is not known. Based o...

  10. Plant-activated bacterial receptor adenylate cyclases modulate epidermal infection in the Sinorhizobium meliloti–Medicago symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Chang Fu; Garnerone, Anne-Marie; Mathieu-Demazière, Céline; Masson-Boivin, Catherine; Batut, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Legumes and soil bacteria called rhizobia have coevolved a facultative nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Establishment of the symbiosis requires bacterial entry via root hair infection threads and, in parallel, organogenesis of nodules that subsequently are invaded by bacteria. Tight control of nodulation and infection is required to maintain the mutualistic character of the interaction. Available evidence supports a passive bacterial role in nodulation and infection after the microsymbiont has trig...

  11. Innervation of the rat pineal gland by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-immunoreactive nerve fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, J.

    1999-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, neuropeptide Y, colocalization, trigeminal ganglion, rat (Wistar)......Calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, neuropeptide Y, colocalization, trigeminal ganglion, rat (Wistar)...

  12. Association of yeast adenylyl cyclase with cyclase-associated protein CAP forms a second Ras-binding site which mediates its Ras-dependent activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, F; Okada, T; Kido, M; Sen, H; Tanaka, Y; Tamada, M; Hu, C D; Yamawaki-Kataoka, Y; Kariya, K; Kataoka, T

    2000-01-01

    Posttranslational modification, in particular farnesylation, of Ras is crucial for activation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase (CYR1). Based on the previous observation that association of CYR1 with cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is essential for its activation by posttranslationally modified Ras, we postulated that the associated CAP might contribute to the formation of a Ras-binding site of CYR1, which mediates CYR1 activation, other than the primary Ras-binding site, the leucine-rich repeat domain. Here, we observed a posttranslational modification-dependent association of Ras with a complex between CAP and CYR1 C-terminal region. When CAP mutants defective in Ras signaling but retaining the CYR1-binding activity were isolated by screening of a pool of randomly mutagenized CAP, CYR1 complexed with two of the obtained three mutants failed to be activated efficiently by modified Ras and exhibited a severely impaired ability to bind Ras, providing a genetic evidence for the importance of the physical association with Ras at the second Ras-binding site. On the other hand, CYR1, complexed with the other CAP mutant, failed to be activated by Ras but exhibited a greatly enhanced binding to Ras. Conversely, a Ras mutant E31K, which exhibits a greatly enhanced binding to the CYR1-CAP complex, failed to activate CYR1 efficiently. Thus, the strength of interaction at the second Ras-binding site appears to be a critical determinant of CYR1 regulation by Ras: too-weak and too-strong interactions are both detrimental to CYR1 activation. These results, taken together with those obtained with mammalian Raf, suggest the importance of the second Ras-binding site in effector regulation.

  13. Moonlighting kinases with guanylate cyclase activity can tune regulatory signal networks

    KAUST Repository

    Irving, Helen R.

    2012-02-01

    Guanylate cyclase (GC) catalyzes the formation of cGMP and it is only recently that such enzymes have been characterized in plants. One family of plant GCs contains the GC catalytic center encapsulated within the intracellular kinase domain of leucine rich repeat receptor like kinases such as the phytosulfokine and brassinosteroid receptors. In vitro studies show that both the kinase and GC domain have catalytic activity indicating that these kinase-GCs are examples of moonlighting proteins with dual catalytic function. The natural ligands for both receptors increase intracellular cGMP levels in isolated mesophyll protoplast assays suggesting that the GC activity is functionally relevant. cGMP production may have an autoregulatory role on receptor kinase activity and/or contribute to downstream cell expansion responses. We postulate that the receptors are members of a novel class of receptor kinases that contain functional moonlighting GC domains essential for complex signaling roles.

  14. INVOLVEMENT OF THE Ca2+-PROTEIN KINASE C AND ADENYLATE CYCLACE SIGNAL PATHWAYS IN THE ACTIVATION OF THYMOCYTES IN RESPONSE TO WHOLE-BODY IRRADIATION WITH LOW DOSE X-RAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the molecular mechanism of the stimulatory effect of low dose radiation(LDR) on T cell activation.Methods. Thymocytes from Kunming mice exposed to whole-body irradiation(WBI) with different doses of X-rays were analyzed for the changes in signal molecules of the phospholipase C-phosphatidylinositol biphosphate(PLC-IP2) and G protein-adenylate cyclase(AC) pathways.Results.It was found that[Ca2+]i increased in response to doses within 0.2 Gy which was most marked after 0.075 Gy and the increase was accentuated in the presence of Con A. The changes in CD3 and calcineurin(CN) expression of the thymocytes followed the same pattern as the alterations in [Ca2+]i after LDR. The expression of α,β1 and β2 isoforms of protein kinase C(PKC) was all up-regulated after 0.075 Gy with the increase in PKC-β1 expression being most marked. The cAMP/cGMP ratio and PKA activity of the thymocytes was lowered after low dose radiation and increased after doses above 0.5 Gy in a dose-dependent manner, thus giving rise to J-shaped dose-response curves. The Ca antagonist TMB-8 and cAMP stimulant cholera toxin suppressed the augmented thymocyte proliferation induced by LDR.Conclusion.Data presented in the present paper suggest that activation of the PLC-PIP2 signal pathway and suppression of the AC-cAMP signal pathway are involved in the stimulation of the thymocytes following WBI with low dose X-rays.

  15. ADPase activity of recombinantly expressed thermotolerant ATPases may be caused by copurification of adenylate kinase of Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baoyu; Sysoeva, Tatyana A.; Chowdhury, Saikat; Guo, Liang; Nixon, B.Tracy; (IIT); (Penn)

    2009-10-06

    Except for apyrases, ATPases generally target only the {gamma}-phosphate of a nucleotide. Some non-apyrase ATPases from thermophilic microorganisms are reported to hydrolyze ADP as well as ATP, which has been described as a novel property of the ATPases from extreme thermophiles. Here, we describe an apparent ADP hydrolysis by highly purified preparations of the AAA+ ATPase NtrC1 from an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Aquifex aeolicus. This activity is actually a combination of the activities of the ATPase and contaminating adenylate kinase (AK) from Escherichia coli, which is present at 1/10 000 of the level of the ATPase. AK catalyzes conversion of two molecules of ADP into AMP and ATP, the latter being a substrate for the ATPase. We raise concern that the observed thermotolerance of E. coli AK and its copurification with thermostable proteins by commonly used methods may confound studies of enzymes that specifically catalyze hydrolysis of nucleoside diphosphates or triphosphates. For example, contamination with E. coli AK may be responsible for reported ADPase activities of the ATPase chaperonins from Pyrococcus furiosus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Methanococcus jannaschii and Thermoplasma acidophilum; the ATP/ADP-dependent DNA ligases from Aeropyrum pernix K1 and Staphylothermus marinus; or the reported ATP-dependent activities of ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase of P. furiosus. Purification methods developed to separate NtrC1 ATPase from AK also revealed two distinct forms of the ATPase. One is tightly bound to ADP or GDP and able to bind to Q but not S ion exchange matrixes. The other is nucleotide-free and binds to both Q and S ion exchange matrixes.

  16. Biological Activity of the Alternative Promoters of the Dictyostelium discoideum Adenylyl Cyclase A Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Centeno, Javier; Sastre, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Amoebae of the Dictyostelium discoideum species form multicellular fruiting bodies upon starvation. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is used as intercellular signalling molecule in cell-aggregation, cell differentiation and morphogenesis. This molecule is synthesized by three adenylyl cyclases, one of which, ACA, is required for cell aggregation. The gene coding for ACA (acaA) is transcribed from three different promoters that are active at different developmental stages. Promoter 1 is active during cell-aggregation, promoters 2 and 3 are active in prespore and prestalk tip cells at subsequent developmental stages. The biological relevance of acaA expression from each of the promoters has been studied in this article. The acaA gene was expressed in acaA-mutant cells, that do not aggregate, under control of each of the three acaA promoters. acaA expression under promoter 1 control induced cell aggregation although subsequent development was delayed, very small fruiting bodies were formed and cell differentiation genes were expressed at very low levels. Promoter 2-driven acaA expression induced the formation of small aggregates and small fruiting bodies were formed at the same time as in wild-type strains and differentiation genes were also expressed at lower levels. Expression of acaA from promoter 3 induced aggregates and fruiting bodies formation and their size and the expression of differentiation genes were more similar to that of wild-type cells. Expression of acaA from promoters 1 and 2 in AX4 cells also produced smaller structures. In conclusion, the expression of acaA under control of the aggregation-specific Promoter 1 is able to induce cell aggregation in acaA-mutant strains. Expression from promoters 2 and 3 also recovered aggregation and development although promoter 3 induced a more complete recovery of fruiting body formation.

  17. Hippocampal somatostatin receptors and modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity in histamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puebla, L; Rodríguez-Martín, E; Arilla, E

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) dose of histamine (0.1, 1.0 or 10.0 micrograms) on the hippocampal somatostatin (SS) receptor/effector system in Wistar rats were investigated. In view of the rapid onset of histamine action, the effects of histamine on the somatostatinergic system were studied 2 h after its administration. Hippocampal SS-like immunoreactivity (SSLI) levels were not modified by any of the histamine doses studied. SS-mediated inhibition of basal and forskolin (FK)-stimulated adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity was markedly increased in hippocampal membranes from rats treated with 10 micrograms of histamine (23% +/- 1% vs. 17% +/- 1% and 37% +/- 2% vs. 23% +/- 1%, respectively). In contrast, neither the basal nor the FK-stimulated enzyme activities were affected by histamine administration. The functional activity of the hippocampal guanine-nucleotide binding inhibitory protein (Gi protein), as assessed by the capacity of the stable GTP analogue 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate (Gpp[NH]p) to inhibit FK-stimulated AC activity, was not modified by histamine administration. These data suggest that the increased response of the enzyme to SS was not related to an increased functional activity of Gi proteins. In fact, the increased AC response to SS in hippocampal membranes from histamine (10 micrograms)-treated rats was associated with quantitative changes in the SS receptors. Equilibrium binding data obtained with [125I]Tyr11-SS indicate an increase in the number with specific SS receptors (541 +/- 24 vs. 365 +/- 16 fmol/mg protein, P histamine (10 micrograms)-treated rats as compared to control animals. With the aim of determining if these changes were related to histamine binding to its specific receptor sites, the histaminergic H1 and H2 receptor antagonists mepyramine and cimetidine, respectively, were administered 1 h before histamine injection. The pretreatment with mepyramine or cimetidine induced an increase in the

  18. Induction of sesquiterpene cyclase and suppression of squalene synthetase activities in plant cell cultures treated with fungal elicitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vögeli, U; Chappell, J

    1988-12-01

    Addition of elicitor, cell wall fragments of the fungus Phytophthora parasitica, to tobacco cell suspension cultures (Nicotiana tabacum) resulted in the rapid synthesis and secretion of large amounts of antibiotic sesquiterpenoids. Pulse-labeling experiments with [(14)C]acetate and [(3)H] mevalonate demonstrated that the induction of sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, maximal by 6 to 9 hours after elicitor addition to the cell cultures, was paralleled by a rapid and large decline in the incorporation rate of radioactivity into sterols. Consequently, sterol accumulation was also inhibited upon addition of elicitor to the cell cultures. Sesquiterpene cyclase activity was absent from control cell cultures but induced to a maximum within 10 hours of elicitor addition to the cell cultures. The cyclase activity remained elevated for an additional 30 hours before declining. In contrast, squalene synthetase activity was suppressed to less than 15% of that found in control cells within 7 hours of elicitor addition. Our results suggest that the channeling of isoprenoid intermediates, and especially farnesyl diphosphate, into sesquiterpenoids occurred by a coordinated increase in the sesquiterpene cyclase and a decrease in the squalene synthetase enzyme activities. A reexamination of the data pertaining to the transient induction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity (EC 1.1.1.34) in elicitor-treated cells suggested that, while the reductase activity was necessary for sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, it functioned more to maintain a sufficient level of intermediates between mevalonate and farnesyl diphosphate rather than as a rate limiting step controlling the synthesis rate of any one class of isoprenoids.

  19. The soluble guanylyl cyclase activator bay 58-2667 selectively limits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Irvine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although evidence now suggests cGMP is a negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy, the direct consequences of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC activator BAY 58-2667 on cardiac remodeling, independent of changes in hemodynamic load, has not been investigated. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the NO(•-independent sGC activator BAY 58-2667 inhibits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Concomitant impact of BAY 58-2667 on cardiac fibroblast proliferation, and insights into potential mechanisms of action, were also sought. Results were compared to the sGC stimulator BAY 41-2272. METHODS: Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were incubated with endothelin-1 (ET(1, 60nmol/L in the presence and absence of BAY 41-2272 and BAY 58-2667 (0.01-0.3 µmol/L. Hypertrophic responses and its triggers, as well as cGMP signaling, were determined. The impact of both sGC ligands on basal and stimulated cardiac fibroblast proliferation in vitro was also determined. RESULTS: We now demonstrate that BAY 58-2667 (0.01-0.3 µmol/L elicited concentration-dependent antihypertrophic actions, inhibiting ET(1-mediated increases in cardiomyocyte 2D area and de novo protein synthesis, as well as suppressing ET(1-induced cardiomyocyte superoxide generation. This was accompanied by potent increases in cardiomyocyte cGMP accumulation and activity of its downstream signal, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP, without elevating cardiomyocyte cAMP. In contrast, submicromolar concentrations of BAY 58-2667 had no effect on basal or stimulated cardiac fibroblast proliferation. Indeed, only at concentrations ≥10 µmol/L was inhibition of cardiac fibrosis seen in vitro. The effects of BAY 58-2667 in both cell types were mimicked by BAY 41-2272. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that BAY 58-2667 elicits protective, cardiomyocyte-selective effects in vitro. These actions are associated with sGC activation and are evident in the absence of confounding

  20. A mitochondrial CO2-adenylyl cyclase-cAMP signalosome controls yeast normoxic cytochrome c oxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kenneth C; Liu, Jingjing; Manfredi, Giovanni; Mühlschlegel, Fritz A; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R; Barrientos, Antoni

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondria, the major source of cellular energy in the form of ATP, respond to changes in substrate availability and bioenergetic demands by employing rapid, short-term, metabolic adaptation mechanisms, such as phosphorylation-dependent protein regulation. In mammalian cells, an intramitochondrial CO2-adenylyl cyclase (AC)-cyclic AMP (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway regulates aerobic energy production. One target of this pathway involves phosphorylation of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunit 4-isoform 1 (COX4i1), which modulates COX allosteric regulation by ATP. However, the role of the CO2-sAC-cAMP-PKA signalosome in regulating COX activity and mitochondrial metabolism and its evolutionary conservation remain to be fully established. We show that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, normoxic COX activity measured in the presence of ATP is 55% lower than in the presence of ADP. Moreover, the adenylyl cyclase Cyr1 activity is present in mitochondria, and it contributes to the ATP-mediated regulation of COX through the normoxic subunit Cox5a, homologue of human COX4i1, in a bicarbonate-sensitive manner. Furthermore, we have identified 2 phosphorylation targets in Cox5a (T65 and S43) that modulate its allosteric regulation by ATP. These residues are not conserved in the Cox5b-containing hypoxic enzyme, which is not regulated by ATP. We conclude that across evolution, a CO2-sAC-cAMP-PKA axis regulates normoxic COX activity.

  1. Bifunctional homodimeric triokinase/FMN cyclase: contribution of protein domains to the activities of the human enzyme and molecular dynamics simulation of domain movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Joaquim Rui; Couto, Ana; Cabezas, Alicia; Pinto, Rosa María; Ribeiro, João Meireles; Canales, José; Costas, María Jesús; Cameselle, José Carlos

    2014-04-11

    Mammalian triokinase, which phosphorylates exogenous dihydroxyacetone and fructose-derived glyceraldehyde, is neither molecularly identified nor firmly associated to an encoding gene. Human FMN cyclase, which splits FAD and other ribonucleoside diphosphate-X compounds to ribonucleoside monophosphate and cyclic X-phosphodiester, is identical to a DAK-encoded dihydroxyacetone kinase. This bifunctional protein was identified as triokinase. It was modeled as a homodimer of two-domain (K and L) subunits. Active centers lie between K1 and L2 or K2 and L1: dihydroxyacetone binds K and ATP binds L in different subunits too distant (≈ 14 Å) for phosphoryl transfer. FAD docked to the ATP site with ribityl 4'-OH in a possible near-attack conformation for cyclase activity. Reciprocal inhibition between kinase and cyclase reactants confirmed substrate site locations. The differential roles of protein domains were supported by their individual expression: K was inactive, and L displayed cyclase but not kinase activity. The importance of domain mobility for the kinase activity of dimeric triokinase was highlighted by molecular dynamics simulations: ATP approached dihydroxyacetone at distances below 5 Å in near-attack conformation. Based upon structure, docking, and molecular dynamics simulations, relevant residues were mutated to alanine, and kcat and Km were assayed whenever kinase and/or cyclase activity was conserved. The results supported the roles of Thr(112) (hydrogen bonding of ATP adenine to K in the closed active center), His(221) (covalent anchoring of dihydroxyacetone to K), Asp(401) and Asp(403) (metal coordination to L), and Asp(556) (hydrogen bonding of ATP or FAD ribose to L domain). Interestingly, the His(221) point mutant acted specifically as a cyclase without kinase activity.

  2. Adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide reduces phosphorylation and toxicity of the polyglutamine-expanded androgen receptor in spinobulbar muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Maria Josè; Parodi, Sara; Piol, Diana; Stack, Conor; Chivet, Mathilde; Contestabile, Andrea; Miranda, Helen C; Lievens, Patricia M-J; Espinoza, Stefano; Jochum, Tobias; Rocchi, Anna; Grunseich, Christopher; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Cato, Andrew C B; Lieberman, Andrew P; La Spada, Albert R; Sambataro, Fabio; Fischbeck, Kenneth H; Gozes, Illana; Pennuto, Maria

    2016-12-21

    Spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked neuromuscular disease caused by polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. SBMA belongs to the family of polyQ diseases, which are fatal neurodegenerative disorders mainly caused by protein-mediated toxic gain-of-function mechanisms and characterized by deposition of misfolded proteins in the form of aggregates. The neurotoxicity of the polyQ proteins can be modified by phosphorylation at specific sites, thereby providing the rationale for the development of disease-specific treatments. We sought to identify signaling pathways that modulate polyQ-AR phosphorylation for therapy development. We report that cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) phosphorylates polyQ-AR specifically at Ser(96) Phosphorylation of polyQ-AR by CDK2 increased protein stabilization and toxicity and is negatively regulated by the adenylyl cyclase (AC)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. To translate these findings into therapy, we developed an analog of pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), a potent activator of the AC/PKA pathway. Chronic intranasal administration of the PACAP analog to knock-in SBMA mice reduced Ser(96) phosphorylation, promoted polyQ-AR degradation, and ameliorated disease outcome. These results provide proof of principle that noninvasive therapy based on the use of PACAP analogs is a therapeutic option for SBMA.

  3. Activation of a pertussis-toxin-sensitive guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory protein during desensitization of Dictyostelium discoideum cells to chemotactic signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snaar-Jagalska, B. Ewa; Es, Saskia van; Kesbeke, Fanja; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1991-01-01

    The chemoattractant cAMP induces the activation of adenylate cyclase in Dictyostelium discoideum. Upon prolonged incubation with cAMP, cells become desensitized via two distinct processes: a decrease in the number of available cAMP-binding sites (down regulation) and modification of the receptor (pr

  4. An actin monomer binding activity localizes to the carboxyl-terminal half of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cyclase-associated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, N L; Chen, Z; Horenstein, J; Weber, A; Field, J

    1995-03-10

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase complex contains at least two subunits, a 200-kDa catalytic subunit and a 70-kDa cyclase-associated protein, CAP (also called Srv2p). Genetic studies suggested two roles for CAP, one as a positive regulator of cAMP levels in yeast and a second role as a cytoskeletal regulator. We present evidence showing that CAP sequesters monomeric actin (Kd in the range of 0.5-5 microM), decreasing actin incorporation into actin filaments. Anti-CAP monoclonal antibodies co-immunoprecipitate a protein with a molecular size of about 46 kDa. When CAP was purified from yeast using an anti-CAP monoclonal antibody column, the 46-kDa protein co-purified with a stoichiometry of about 1:1 with CAP. Western blots identified the 46-kDa protein as yeast actin. CAP also bound to muscle actin in vitro in immunoprecipitation assays and falling ball viscometry assays. Experiments with pyrene-labeled actin demonstrated that CAP sequesters actin monomers. The actin monomer binding activity is localized to the carboxyl-terminal half of CAP. Together, these data suggest that yeast CAP regulates the yeast cytoskeleton by sequestering actin monomers.

  5. High adenylyl cyclase activity and in vivo cAMP fluctuations in corals suggest central physiological role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barott, K L; Helman, Y; Haramaty, L; Barron, M E; Hess, K C; Buck, J; Levin, L R; Tresguerres, M

    2013-01-01

    Corals are an ecologically and evolutionarily significant group, providing the framework for coral reef biodiversity while representing one of the most basal of metazoan phyla. However, little is known about fundamental signaling pathways in corals. Here we investigate the dynamics of cAMP, a conserved signaling molecule that can regulate virtually every physiological process. Bioinformatics revealed corals have both transmembrane and soluble adenylyl cyclases (AC). Endogenous cAMP levels in live corals followed a potential diel cycle, as they were higher during the day compared to the middle of the night. Coral homogenates exhibited some of the highest cAMP production rates ever to be recorded in any organism; this activity was inhibited by calcium ions and stimulated by bicarbonate. In contrast, zooxanthellae or mucus had >1000-fold lower AC activity. These results suggest that cAMP is an important regulator of coral physiology, especially in response to light, acid/base disturbances and inorganic carbon levels.

  6. A subnanomolar concentration of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) pre-synaptically modulates glutamatergic transmission in the rat hippocampus acting through acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Valeria; Sardone, Lara Maria; Chisari, Mariangela; Licata, Flora; Li Volsi, Guido; Perciavalle, Vincenzo; Ciranna, Lucia; Costa, Lara

    2017-01-06

    The neuropeptide PACAP modulates synaptic transmission in the hippocampus exerting multiple effects through different receptor subtypes: the underlying mechanisms have not yet been completely elucidated. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) also exerts a well-documented modulation of hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. Since PACAP was shown to stimulate ACh release in the hippocampus, we tested whether PACAP acting through ACh might indirectly modulate glutamate-mediated synaptic transmission at a pre- and/or at a post-synaptic level. Using patch clamp on rat hippocampal slices, we tested PACAP effects on stimulation-evoked AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCsAMPA) in the CA3-CA1 synapse and on spontaneous miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) in CA1 pyramidal neurons. A subnanomolar dose of PACAP (0.5nM) decreased EPSCsAMPA amplitude, enhanced EPSC paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) and reduced mEPSC frequency, indicating a pre-synaptic decrease of glutamate release probability: these effects were abolished by simultaneous blockade of muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors, indicating the involvement of endogenous ACh. The effect of subnanomolar PACAP was abolished by a PAC1 receptor antagonist but not by a VPAC receptor blocker. At a higher concentration (10nM), PACAP inhibited EPSCsAMPA: this effect persisted in the presence of ACh receptor antagonists and did not involve any change in PPF or in mEPSC frequency, thus was not mediated by ACh and was exerted post- synaptically on CA1 pyramidal neurons. We suggest that a high-affinity PAC1 receptor pre-synaptically modulates hippocampal glutamatergic transmission acting through ACh. Therefore, administration of PACAP at very low doses might be envisaged in cognitive diseases with reduced cholinergic transmission.

  7. Neuronal localization of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 in the adrenal medulla and growth-inhibitory effect on chromaffin cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, M; Hannibal, J; Wulff, B S

    1995-01-01

    medulla showed PACAP38 immunoreactivity in a widely distributed network of delicate nerve fibers surrounding the chromaffin cells. In a primary culture system, PACAP38 inhibited growth factor-stimulated DNA synthesis by 90% in neonatal and adult rat chromaffin cells with half-maximal inhibition at 4 and 0...

  8. GABAB and adenosine receptors mediate enhancement of the K+ current, IAHP, by reducing adenylyl cyclase activity in rat CA3 hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, U; Gähwiler, B H

    1994-11-01

    1. Gamma-aminobuturic acid-B (GABAB) and adenosine A1 receptors, which are expressed in hippocampal pyramidal cells, are linked to pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins known to be coupled negatively to the enzyme adenylyl cyclase. This study investigates the electrophysiological consequences of adenylyl cyclase inhibition in response to stimulation of these receptors. 2. Single-electrode voltage-clamp recordings were obtained from CA3 pyramidal cells in rat hippocampal slice cultures in presence of tetrodotoxin. The calcium-dependent potassium current (IAHP), which is very sensitive to intracellular levels of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), was used as an electrophysiological indicator of adenylyl cyclase activity. 3. Application of baclofen (10 microM), a selective agonist at GABAB receptors, or adenosine (50 microM) each resulted in a transient decrease followed by a significant enhancement in the amplitude of evoked IAHP. The initial reduction in amplitude of IAHP probably reflects inadequacies in voltage clamp of electronically distant dendritic sites, due to the shunting caused by concomitant activation of potassium conductance by baclofen/adenosine. Comparable increases in membrane conductance in response to the GABAA agonist, muscimol, caused a similar reduction in IAHP. The enhancement of IAHP is consistent with an inhibition of constitutively active adenylyl cyclase. 4. The receptor mediating the responses to adenosine was identified as belonging to the A1 subtype on the basis of its sensitivity to the selective antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Overexpression of guanylate cyclase activating protein 2 in rod photoreceptors in vivo leads to morphological changes at the synaptic ribbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia López-del Hoyo

    Full Text Available Guanylate cyclase activating proteins are EF-hand containing proteins that confer calcium sensitivity to retinal guanylate cyclase at the outer segment discs of photoreceptor cells. By making the rate of cGMP synthesis dependent on the free intracellular calcium levels set by illumination, GCAPs play a fundamental role in the recovery of the light response and light adaptation. The main isoforms GCAP1 and GCAP2 also localize to the synaptic terminal, where their function is not known. Based on the reported interaction of GCAP2 with Ribeye, the major component of synaptic ribbons, it was proposed that GCAP2 could mediate the synaptic ribbon dynamic changes that happen in response to light. We here present a thorough ultrastructural analysis of rod synaptic terminals in loss-of-function (GCAP1/GCAP2 double knockout and gain-of-function (transgenic overexpression mouse models of GCAP2. Rod synaptic ribbons in GCAPs-/- mice did not differ from wildtype ribbons when mice were raised in constant darkness, indicating that GCAPs are not required for ribbon early assembly or maturation. Transgenic overexpression of GCAP2 in rods led to a shortening of synaptic ribbons, and to a higher than normal percentage of club-shaped and spherical ribbon morphologies. Restoration of GCAP2 expression in the GCAPs-/- background (GCAP2 expression in the absence of endogenous GCAP1 had the striking result of shortening ribbon length to a much higher degree than overexpression of GCAP2 in the wildtype background, as well as reducing the thickness of the outer plexiform layer without affecting the number of rod photoreceptor cells. These results indicate that preservation of the GCAP1 to GCAP2 relative levels is relevant for maintaining the integrity of the synaptic terminal. Our demonstration of GCAP2 immunolocalization at synaptic ribbons at the ultrastructural level would support a role of GCAPs at mediating the effect of light on morphological remodeling changes of

  10. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 CruA (sll0147) encodes lycopene cyclase and requires bound chlorophyll a for activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Shen, Gaozhong; Bryant, Donald A

    2017-03-01

    The genome of the model cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, encodes two paralogs of CruA-type lycopene cyclases, SynPCC7002_A2153 and SynPCC7002_A0043, which are denoted cruA and cruP, respectively. Unlike the wild-type strain, a cruA deletion mutant is light-sensitive, grows slowly, and accumulates lycopene, γ-carotene, and 1-OH-lycopene; however, this strain still produces β-carotene and other carotenoids derived from it. Expression of cruA from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (cruA 6803) in Escherichia coli strains that synthesize either lycopene or γ-carotene did not lead to the synthesis of either γ-carotene or β-carotene, respectively. However, expression of this orthologous cruA 6803 gene (sll0147) in the Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 cruA deletion mutant produced strains with phenotypic properties identical to the wild type. CruA6803 was purified from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 by affinity chromatography, and the purified protein was pale yellow-green due to the presence of bound chlorophyll (Chl) a and β-carotene. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the partly purified protein in the presence of lithium dodecylsulfate at 4 °C confirmed that the protein was yellow-green in color. When purified CruA6803 was assayed in vitro with either lycopene or γ-carotene as substrate, β-carotene was synthesized. These data establish that CruA6803 is a lycopene cyclase and that it requires a bound Chl a molecule for activity. Possible binding sites for Chl a and the potential regulatory role of the Chl a in coordination of Chl and carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  11. Characterization of two unusual guanylyl cyclases from Dictyostelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Jeroen; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    2002-01-01

    Guanylyl cyclase A (GCA) and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) encode GCs in Dictyostelium and have a topology similar to 12-transmembrane and soluble adenylyl cyclase, respectively. We demonstrate that all detectable GC activity is lost in a cell line in which both genes have been inactivated. Cell li

  12. The phytosulfokine (PSK) receptor is capable of guanylate cyclase activity and enabling cyclic GMP-dependent signaling in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Kwezi, Lusisizwe

    2011-04-19

    Phytosulfokines (PSKs) are sulfated pentapeptides that stimulate plant growth and differentiation mediated by the PSK receptor (PSKR1), which is a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase. We identified a putative guanylate cyclase (GC) catalytic center in PSKR1 that is embedded within the kinase domain and hypothesized that the GC works in conjunction with the kinase in downstream PSK signaling. We expressed the recombinant complete kinase (cytoplasmic) domain of AtPSKR1 and show that it has serine/threonine kinase activity using the Ser/Thr peptide 1 as a substrate with an approximate Km of 7.5 μM and Vmax of 1800 nmol min-1 mg-1 of protein. This same recombinant protein also has GC activity in vitro that is dependent on the presence of either Mg2+ or Mn2+. Overexpression of the full-length AtPSKR1 receptor in Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts raised the endogenous basal cGMP levels over 20-fold, indicating that the receptor has GC activity in vivo. In addition, PSK-α itself, but not the non-sulfated backbone, induces rapid increases in cGMP levels in protoplasts. Together these results indicate that the PSKR1 contains dual GC and kinase catalytic activities that operate in vivo and that this receptor constitutes a novel class of enzymes with overlapping catalytic domains. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Catalytically Active Guanylyl Cyclase B Requires Endoplasmic Reticulum-mediated Glycosylation, and Mutations That Inhibit This Process Cause Dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Deborah M; Edmund, Aaron B; Otto, Neil M; Chaffee, Thomas S; Robinson, Jerid W; Potter, Lincoln R

    2016-05-20

    C-type natriuretic peptide activation of guanylyl cyclase B (GC-B), also known as natriuretic peptide receptor B or NPR2, stimulates long bone growth, and missense mutations in GC-B cause dwarfism. Four such mutants (L658F, Y708C, R776W, and G959A) bound (125)I-C-type natriuretic peptide on the surface of cells but failed to synthesize cGMP in membrane GC assays. Immunofluorescence microscopy also indicated that the mutant receptors were on the cell surface. All mutant proteins were dephosphorylated and incompletely glycosylated, but dephosphorylation did not explain the inactivation because the mutations inactivated a "constitutively phosphorylated" enzyme. Tunicamycin inhibition of glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum or mutation of the Asn-24 glycosylation site decreased GC activity, but neither inhibition of glycosylation in the Golgi by N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I gene inactivation nor PNGase F deglycosylation of fully processed GC-B reduced GC activity. We conclude that endoplasmic reticulum-mediated glycosylation is required for the formation of an active catalytic, but not ligand-binding domain, and that mutations that inhibit this process cause dwarfism.

  14. Identification of residues in the heme domain of soluble guanylyl cyclase that are important for basal and stimulated catalytic activity.

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    Padmamalini Baskaran

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide signals through activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC, a heme-containing heterodimer. NO binds to the heme domain located in the N-terminal part of the β subunit of sGC resulting in increased production of cGMP in the catalytic domain located at the C-terminal part of sGC. Little is known about the mechanism by which the NO signaling is propagated from the receptor domain (heme domain to the effector domain (catalytic domain, in particular events subsequent to the breakage of the bond between the heme iron and Histidine 105 (H105 of the β subunit. Our modeling of the heme-binding domain as well as previous homologous heme domain structures in different states point to two regions that could be critical for propagation of the NO activation signal. Structure-based mutational analysis of these regions revealed that residues T110 and R116 in the αF helix-β1 strand, and residues I41 and R40 in the αB-αC loop mediate propagation of activation between the heme domain and the catalytic domain. Biochemical analysis of these heme mutants allows refinement of the map of the residues that are critical for heme stability and propagation of the NO/YC-1 activation signal in sGC.

  15. Integrative Signaling Networks of Membrane Guanylate Cyclases: Biochemistry and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rameshwar K.; Duda, Teresa; Makino, Clint L.

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a historical perspective of cornerstone developments on the biochemistry and physiology of mammalian membrane guanylate cyclases (MGCs), highlighting contributions made by the authors and their collaborators. Upon resolution of early contentious studies, cyclic GMP emerged alongside cyclic AMP, as an important intracellular second messenger for hormonal signaling. However, the two signaling pathways differ in significant ways. In the cyclic AMP pathway, hormone binding to a G protein coupled receptor leads to stimulation or inhibition of an adenylate cyclase, whereas the cyclic GMP pathway dispenses with intermediaries; hormone binds to an MGC to affect its activity. Although the cyclic GMP pathway is direct, it is by no means simple. The modular design of the molecule incorporates regulation by ATP binding and phosphorylation. MGCs can form complexes with Ca2+-sensing subunits that either increase or decrease cyclic GMP synthesis, depending on subunit identity. In some systems, co-expression of two Ca2+ sensors, GCAP1 and S100B with ROS-GC1 confers bimodal signaling marked by increases in cyclic GMP synthesis when intracellular Ca2+ concentration rises or falls. Some MGCs monitor or are modulated by carbon dioxide via its conversion to bicarbonate. One MGC even functions as a thermosensor as well as a chemosensor; activity reaches a maximum with a mild drop in temperature. The complexity afforded by these multiple limbs of operation enables MGC networks to perform transductions traditionally reserved for G protein coupled receptors and Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels and to serve a diverse array of functions, including control over cardiac vasculature, smooth muscle relaxation, blood pressure regulation, cellular growth, sensory transductions, neural plasticity and memory.

  16. Activation of the adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway in endothelial cells exposed to cyclic strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, C. R.; Mills, I.; Du, W.; Kamal, K.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the involvement of the adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway (AC) in endothelial cells (EC) exposed to different levels of mechanical strain. Bovine aortic EC were seeded to confluence on flexible membrane-bottom wells. The membranes were deformed with either 150 mm Hg (average 10% strain) or 37.5 mm Hg (average 6% strain) vacuum at 60 cycles per minute (0.5 s strain; 0.5 s relaxation) for 0-60 min. The results demonstrate that at 10% average strain (but not 6% average strain) there was a 1.5- to 2.2-fold increase in AC, cAMP, and PKA activity by 15 min when compared to unstretched controls. Further studies revealed an increase in cAMP response element binding protein in EC subjected to the 10% average strain (but not 6% average strain). These data support the hypothesis that cyclic strain activates the AC/cAMP/PKA signal transduction pathway in EC which may occur by exceeding a strain threshold and suggest that cyclic strain may stimulate the expression of genes containing cAMP-responsive promoter elements.

  17. Bradykinin activates ADP-ribosyl cyclase in neuroblastoma cells: intracellular concentration decrease in NAD and increase in cyclic ADP-ribose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashida, Haruhiro; Salmina, Alla; Hashii, Minako; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Zhang, Jia-Sheng; Noda, Mami; Zhong, Zen-Guo; Jin, Duo

    2006-09-04

    ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity in the crude membrane fraction of neuroblastomaxglioma NGPM1-27 hybrid cells was measured by monitoring [(3)H] cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) formation from [(3)H] NAD(+). Bradykinin (BK) at 100nM increased ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity by about 2.5-fold. Application of 300nM BK to living NGPM1-27 cells decreased NAD(+) to 78% of the prestimulation level at 30s. In contrast, intracellular cADPR concentrations were increased by 2-3-fold during the period from 30 to 120s after the same treatment. Our results suggest that cADPR is one of the second messengers downstream of B(2) BK receptors.

  18. Isolation, characterization, and primary structure of a base non-specific and adenylic acid preferential ribonuclease with higher specific activity from Trichoderma viride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Y; Watanabe, H; Ohgi, K; Irie, M

    1991-12-01

    In order to elucidate the structure-function relationship of RNases belonging to the RNase T2 family (base non-specific and adenylic acid-preferential RNase), an RNase of this family was purified from Trichoderma viride (RNase Trv) to give three closely adjacent bands with RNase activity on slab-gel electrophoresis in a yield of 20%. The three RNases gave single band with the same mobility on slab-gel electrophoresis after endoglycosidase F digestion. The enzymatic properties including base specificity of RNase Trv were very similar to those of typical T2-family RNases such as RNase T2 from Aspergillus oryzae and RNase M from A. saitoi. The specific activity of RNase Trv towards yeast RNA was about 13-fold higher than that of RNase M. The complete primary structure of RNase Trv was determined by analyses of the peptides generated by digestion of reduced and carboxymethylated RNase Trv with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, lysylendopeptidase and alpha-chymotrypsin. The molecular weight of the protein moiety deduced from the sequence was 25,883. The locations of 10 half-cystine residues were almost superimposable upon those of other RNases of this family. The homologies between RNase Trv and RNase T2, RNase M, and RNase Rh (Rhizopus niveus) were 124, 132, and 92 residues, respectively. The sequences around three histidine residues, His52, His109, and His114, were highly conserved in these 4 RNases.

  19. Changes in Adenylate Nucleotides Concentration and Na+, K+-ATPase Activities in Erythrocytes of Horses in Function of Breed and Sex

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    Maria Suska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the concentrations of ATP, ADP, AMP (HPLC methods, total nucleotide pool (TAN, adenylate energy charge (AEC and Na+, K+-ATPase erythrocytic activities (by Choi's method of horses as a function of breed and sex. The studies were conducted on 54 horses (stallions and mares of different constitution types: breathing constitution (Wielkopolska and Hanoverian breed and digestive constitution (Ardenian breed. Horse erythrocytes, independently of examined breed, present low ATP concentration in comparison to other mammal species while retaining relatively high AEC. Erythrocytes of breathing constitution type horses appear to have a more intensive glucose metabolism and a more efficient energetic metabolism when compared to digestive constitution type horses. The conclusions may be proven by significantly higher ATP concentration, higher TAN and significantly higher AEC in breathing constitution type horses compared to the digestive constitution type. Sex does not significantly influence adenine nucleotides concentration in the erythrocytes of the examined horses, however, stallions have slightly higher values in comparison to mares. A positive correlation was found between Na+, K+, -ATPase activity, ATP, ADP and AMP concentration and TAN in Wielkopolska and Ardenian breeds, which was not confirmed for the Hanoverian breed.

  20. Chronic Activation of Heme Free Guanylate Cyclase Leads to Renal Protection in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats.

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    Linda S Hoffmann

    Full Text Available The nitric oxide (NO/soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC/cyclic guanosine monophasphate (cGMP-signalling pathway is impaired under oxidative stress conditions due to oxidation and subsequent loss of the prosthetic sGC heme group as observed in particular in chronic renal failure. Thus, the pool of heme free sGC is increased under pathological conditions. sGC activators such as cinaciguat selectively activate the heme free form of sGC and target the disease associated enzyme. In this study, a therapeutic effect of long-term activation of heme free sGC by the sGC activator cinaciguat was investigated in an experimental model of salt-sensitive hypertension, a condition that is associated with increased oxidative stress, heme loss from sGC and development of chronic renal failure. For that purpose Dahl/ss rats, which develop severe hypertension upon high salt intake, were fed a high salt diet (8% NaCl containing either placebo or cinaciguat for 21 weeks. Cinaciguat markedly improved survival and ameliorated the salt-induced increase in blood pressure upon treatment with cinaciguat compared to placebo. Renal function was significantly improved in the cinaciguat group compared to the placebo group as indicated by a significantly improved glomerular filtration rate and reduced urinary protein excretion. This was due to anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of the cinaciguat treatment. Taken together, this is the first study showing that long-term activation of heme free sGC leads to renal protection in an experimental model of hypertension and chronic kidney disease. These results underline the promising potential of cinaciguat to treat renal diseases by targeting the disease associated heme free form of sGC.

  1. Alterations in Adenylate Kinase Activity in Human PBMCs after In Vitro Exposure to Electromagnetic Field: Comparison between Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field (ELF) and Therapeutic Application of a Musically Modulated Electromagnetic Field (TAMMEF)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonietta Albanese; Emilio Battisti; Daniela Vannoni; Emilia Aceto; Gianmichele Galassi; Stefania Giglioni; Valentina Tommassini; Nicola Giordano

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of electromagnetic fields on enzymes involved in purine metabolism in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Cells were obtained from 20 volunteers. We tested both low-energy, extremely low frequency (ELF; 100-Hz) electromagnetic fields and the Therapeutic Application of Musically Modulated Electromagnetic Fields (TAMMEFs); the latter is characterized by variable frequencies, intensities, and wave shapes. Adenylate kinase activity was increas...

  2. Pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide inhibits gli1 gene expression and proliferation in primary medulloblastoma derived tumorsphere cultures

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    Dong Hongmei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hedgehog (HH signaling is critical for the expansion of granule neuron precursors (GNPs within the external granular layer (EGL during cerebellar development. Aberrant HH signaling within GNPs is thought to give rise to medulloblastoma (MB - the most commonly-observed form of malignant pediatric brain tumor. Evidence in both invertebrates and vertebrates indicates that cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA antagonizes HH signalling. Receptors specific for the neuropeptide pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP, gene name ADCYAP1 are expressed in GNPs. PACAP has been shown to protect GNPs from apoptosis in vitro, and to interact with HH signaling to regulate GNP proliferation. PACAP/ptch1 double mutant mice exhibit an increased incidence of MB compared to ptch1 mice, indicating that PACAP may regulate HH pathway-mediated MB pathogenesis. Methods Primary MB tumorsphere cultures were prepared from thirteen ptch1+/-/p53+/- double mutant mice and treated with the smoothened (SMO agonist purmorphamine, the SMO antagonist SANT-1, the neuropeptide PACAP, the PKA activator forskolin, and the PKA inhibitor H89. Gene expression of gli1 and [3H]-thymidine incorporation were assessed to determine drug effects on HH pathway activity and proliferation, respectively. PKA activity was determined in cell extracts by Western blotting using a phospho-PKA substrate antibody. Results Primary tumor cells cultured for 1-week under serum-free conditions grew as tumorspheres and were found to express PAC1 receptor transcripts. Gli1 gene expression was significantly reduced by SANT-1, PACAP and forskolin, but was unaffected by purmorphamine. The attenuation of gli1 gene expression by PACAP was reversed by the PKA inhibitor H89, which also blocked PKA activation. Treatment of tumorsphere cultures with PACAP, forskolin, and SANT-1 for 24 or 48 hours reduced proliferation. Conclusions Primary tumorspheres derived from ptch1+/-/p53

  3. The Cyclase-associated protein Cap1 is important for proper regulation of infection-related morphogenesis in Magnaporthe oryzae.

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    Xiaoying Zhou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface recognition and penetration are critical steps in the infection cycle of many plant pathogenic fungi. In Magnaporthe oryzae, cAMP signaling is involved in surface recognition and pathogenesis. Deletion of the MAC1 adenylate cyclase gene affected appressorium formation and plant infection. In this study, we used the affinity purification approach to identify proteins that are associated with Mac1 in vivo. One of the Mac1-interacting proteins is the adenylate cyclase-associated protein named Cap1. CAP genes are well-conserved in phytopathogenic fungi but none of them have been functionally characterized. Deletion of CAP1 blocked the effects of a dominant RAS2 allele and resulted in defects in invasive growth and a reduced intracellular cAMP level. The Δcap1 mutant was defective in germ tube growth, appressorium formation, and formation of typical blast lesions. Cap1-GFP had an actin-like localization pattern, localizing to the apical regions in vegetative hyphae, at the periphery of developing appressoria, and in circular structures at the base of mature appressoria. Interestingly, Cap1, similar to LifeAct, did not localize to the apical regions in invasive hyphae, suggesting that the apical actin cytoskeleton differs between vegetative and invasive hyphae. Domain deletion analysis indicated that the proline-rich region P2 but not the actin-binding domain (AB of Cap1 was responsible for its subcellular localization. Nevertheless, the AB domain of Cap1 must be important for its function because CAP1(ΔAB only partially rescued the Δcap1 mutant. Furthermore, exogenous cAMP induced the formation of appressorium-like structures in non-germinated conidia in CAP1(ΔAB transformants. This novel observation suggested that AB domain deletion may result in overstimulation of appressorium formation by cAMP treatment. Overall, our results indicated that CAP1 is important for the activation of adenylate cyclase, appressorium morphogenesis, and plant

  4. The Cyclase-associated protein Cap1 is important for proper regulation of infection-related morphogenesis in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Guotian; Shaw, Brian; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2012-09-01

    Surface recognition and penetration are critical steps in the infection cycle of many plant pathogenic fungi. In Magnaporthe oryzae, cAMP signaling is involved in surface recognition and pathogenesis. Deletion of the MAC1 adenylate cyclase gene affected appressorium formation and plant infection. In this study, we used the affinity purification approach to identify proteins that are associated with Mac1 in vivo. One of the Mac1-interacting proteins is the adenylate cyclase-associated protein named Cap1. CAP genes are well-conserved in phytopathogenic fungi but none of them have been functionally characterized. Deletion of CAP1 blocked the effects of a dominant RAS2 allele and resulted in defects in invasive growth and a reduced intracellular cAMP level. The Δcap1 mutant was defective in germ tube growth, appressorium formation, and formation of typical blast lesions. Cap1-GFP had an actin-like localization pattern, localizing to the apical regions in vegetative hyphae, at the periphery of developing appressoria, and in circular structures at the base of mature appressoria. Interestingly, Cap1, similar to LifeAct, did not localize to the apical regions in invasive hyphae, suggesting that the apical actin cytoskeleton differs between vegetative and invasive hyphae. Domain deletion analysis indicated that the proline-rich region P2 but not the actin-binding domain (AB) of Cap1 was responsible for its subcellular localization. Nevertheless, the AB domain of Cap1 must be important for its function because CAP1(ΔAB) only partially rescued the Δcap1 mutant. Furthermore, exogenous cAMP induced the formation of appressorium-like structures in non-germinated conidia in CAP1(ΔAB) transformants. This novel observation suggested that AB domain deletion may result in overstimulation of appressorium formation by cAMP treatment. Overall, our results indicated that CAP1 is important for the activation of adenylate cyclase, appressorium morphogenesis, and plant infection in M

  5. [HCO3-]-regulated expression and activity of soluble adenylyl cyclase in corneal endothelial and Calu-3 cells

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    Cui Miao

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bicarbonate activated Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase (sAC is a unique cytoplasmic and nuclear signaling mechanism for the generation of cAMP. HCO3- activates sAC in bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCECs, increasing [cAMP] and stimulating PKA, leading to phosphorylation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane-conductance regulator (CFTR and increased apical Cl- permeability. Here, we examined whether HCO3- may also regulate the expression of sAC and thereby affect the production of cAMP upon activation by HCO3- and the stimulation of CFTR in BCECs. Results RT-competitive PCR indicated that sAC mRNA expression in BCECs is dependent on [HCO3-] and incubation time in HCO3-. Immunoblots showed that 10 and 40 mM HCO3- increased sAC protein expression by 45% and 87%, respectively, relative to cells cultured in the absence of HCO3-. Furthermore, 40 mM HCO3- up-regulated sAC protein expression in Calu-3 cells by 93%. On the other hand, sAC expression in BCECs and Calu-3 cells was unaffected by changes in bath pH or osmolarity. Interestingly, BCECs pre-treated with10 μM adenosine or 10 μM forskolin, which increase cAMP levels, showed decreased sAC mRNA expression by 20% and 30%, respectively. Intracellular cAMP production by sAC paralleled the time and [HCO3-]-dependent expression of sAC. Bicarbonate-induced apical Cl- permeability increased by 78% (P 3-. However for cells cultured in the absence of HCO3-, apical Cl- permeability increased by only 10.3% (P > 0.05. Conclusion HCO3- not only directly activates sAC, but also up-regulates the expression of sAC. These results suggest that active cellular uptake of HCO3- can contribute to the basal level of cellular cAMP in tissues that express sAC.

  6. An aberrant adenylate kinase isoenzyme from the serum of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, M; Okuda, H; Oka, K; Watanabe, T; Ueda, K; Nojima, M; Kuby, S A; Manship, M; Tyler, F H; Ziter, F A

    1981-08-13

    The sera from patients with human Duchenne (X-linked) progressive muscular dystrophy contain elevated adenylate kinase (ATP: AMP phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.4.3) activities, in addition to their characteristically high creatine kinase (ATP; creatine N-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.3.2) activities. By agarose gel electrophoresis of human Duchenne dystrophic serum, the presence of an apparently normal human serum adenylate kinase together with a variant species of adenylate kinase was detected. The latter enzyme species appeared, in its mobility, to be similar to that of the normal human liver-type adenylate kinase. The presence of this aberrant liver-type adenylate kinase could also be demonstrated by characteristic (for the liver type) inhibition patterns with P1,P5-di-(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate, 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) and phosphoenolpyruvate. On the other hand, by inhibition titrations with an anti-muscle-type adenylate kinase, hemolysates from the erythrocytes of several Duchenne and Becker's dystrophics were found to contain approx. 96% muscle-type adenylate kinase and their serum approx. 97% muscle-type adenylate kinase. These same patients contained approx. 89% M-M type creatine kinase in their serum (by inhibition against anti-human muscle-type creatine kinase) indicative of the presence also of M-B plus B-B type active isoenzymes. All of these data can best be explained by the presence of a variant or mutant adenylate kinase isoenzyme in the dystrophic serum. This isoenzyme appears to resemble the liver type in its inhibition patterns with P1,P5-di(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate, 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) and phosphoenolpyruvate, and in its heat stability (compare also the agarose gel electrophoresis pattern); but structurally, it is a muscle type, or derived from a muscle type, as shown immunologically by inhibition reactions with anti-muscle-type adenylate kinase. Whether this is a fetal-type isoenzyme of adenylate kinase will require further

  7. Comparison of soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators and activators in models of cardiovascular disease associated with oxidative stress

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    Melissa H Costell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC, the primary mediator of nitric oxide (NO bioactivity, exists as reduced (NO-sensitive and oxidized (NO-insensitive forms. We tested the hypothesis that the cardiovascular protective effects of NO-insensitive sGC activation would be potentiated under conditions of oxidative stress compared to NO-sensitive sGC stimulation. The cardiovascular effects of the NO-insensitive sGC activator GSK2181236A (a non-depressor dose and a higher dose which lowered mean arterial pressure [MAP] by 5-10mmHg and equi-efficacious doses of the NO-sensitive sGC stimulator BAY 60-4552 were assessed in Sprague Dawley rats during coronary artery ischemia/reperfusion (I/R and spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone rats (SHR-SP on a high salt/fat diet (HSFD. In I/R, neither compound reduced infarct size. In SHR-SP, HSFD increased MAP, urine output, microalbuminuria and mortality, caused left ventricular hypertrophy and impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. The low dose of BAY 60-4552 but not GSK2181236A decreased urine output and mortality. Conversely, the low dose of GSK2181236A attenuated cardiac hypertrophy. The high doses of both compounds similarly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and mortality. In addition, the high dose of BAY 60-4552 reduced urine output, microalbuminuria and MAP. Neither compound improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. In SHR-SP aorta, the vasodilatory responses to the NO-dependent compounds carbachol and sodium nitroprusside were attenuated by HSFD. In contrast, the vasodilatory responses to GSK2181236A and BAY 60-4552 were unaltered by HSFD, indicating that reduced NO-bioavailability and not changes in the sGC oxidative state is responsible for the vascular dysfunction. In summary, GSK2181236A and BAY 60-4552 provide partial benefit against hypertension-induced end organ damage. The differential beneficial effects observed between these compounds could reflect tissue-specific changes in the s

  8. Comparison of soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators and activators in models of cardiovascular disease associated with oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costell, Melissa H; Ancellin, Nicolas; Bernard, Roberta E; Zhao, Shufang; Upson, John J; Morgan, Lisa A; Maniscalco, Kristeen; Olzinski, Alan R; Ballard, Victoria L T; Herry, Kenny; Grondin, Pascal; Dodic, Nerina; Mirguet, Olivier; Bouillot, Anne; Gellibert, Francoise; Coatney, Robert W; Lepore, John J; Jucker, Beat M; Jolivette, Larry J; Willette, Robert N; Schnackenberg, Christine G; Behm, David J

    2012-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), the primary mediator of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity, exists as reduced (NO-sensitive) and oxidized (NO-insensitive) forms. We tested the hypothesis that the cardiovascular protective effects of NO-insensitive sGC activation would be potentiated under conditions of oxidative stress compared to those of NO-sensitive sGC stimulation. The cardiovascular effects of the NO-insensitive sGC activator GSK2181236A [a low, non-depressor dose, and a high dose which lowered mean arterial pressure (MAP) by 5-10 mmHg] and those of equi-efficacious doses of the NO-sensitive sGC stimulator BAY 60-4552 were assessed in (1) Sprague Dawley rats during coronary artery ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and (2) spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone rats (SHR-SP) on a high salt/fat diet (HSFD). In I/R, neither compound reduced infarct size 24 h after reperfusion. In SHR-SP, HSFD increased MAP, urine output, microalbuminuria, and mortality, caused left ventricular hypertrophy with preserved ejection fraction, and impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. The low dose of BAY 60-4552, but not that of GSK2181236A, decreased urine output, and improved survival. Conversely, the low dose of GSK2181236A, but not that of BAY 60-4552, attenuated the development of cardiac hypertrophy. The high doses of both compounds similarly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and improved survival. In addition to these effects, the high dose of BAY 60-4552 reduced urine output and microalbuminuria and attenuated the increase in MAP to a greater extent than did GSK2181236A. Neither compound improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. In SHR-SP isolated aorta, the vasodilatory responses to the NO-dependent compounds carbachol and sodium nitroprusside were attenuated by HSFD. In contrast, the vasodilatory responses to both GSK2181236A and BAY 60-4552 were unaltered by HSFD, indicating that reduced NO-bioavailability and not changes in the oxidative state of sGC is responsible

  9. Effect of association with adenylyl cyclase-associated protein on the interaction of yeast adenylyl cyclase with Ras protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, F; Yamawaki-Kataoka, Y; Yanagihara, C; Tamada, M; Okada, T; Kariya, K; Kataoka, T

    1997-03-01

    Posttranslational modification of Ras protein has been shown to be critical for interaction with its effector molecules, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase. However, the mechanism of its action was unknown. In this study, we used a reconstituted system with purified adenylyl cyclase and Ras proteins carrying various degrees of the modification to show that the posttranslational modification, especially the farnesylation step, is responsible for 5- to 10-fold increase in Ras-dependent activation of adenylyl cyclase activity even though it has no significant effect on their binding affinity. The stimulatory effect of farnesylation is found to depend on the association of adenylyl cyclase with 70-kDa adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP), which was known to be required for proper in vivo response of adenylyl cyclase to Ras protein, by comparing the levels of Ras-dependent activation of purified adenylyl cyclase with and without bound CAP. The region of CAP required for this effect is mapped to its N-terminal segment of 168 amino acid residues, which coincides with the region required for the in vivo effect. Furthermore, the stimulatory effect is successfully reconstituted by in vitro association of CAP with the purified adenylyl cyclase molecule lacking the bound CAP. These results indicate that the association of adenylyl cyclase with CAP is responsible for the stimulatory effect of posttranslational modification of Ras on its activity and that this may be the mechanism underlying its requirement for the proper in vivo cyclic AMP response.

  10. GUANYLYL CYCLASE/NATRIURETIC PEPTIDES RECEPTOR-A SIGNALING ANTAGONIZES PHOSPHOINOSITIDE HYDROLYSIS, Ca2+ RELEASE, AND ACTIVATION OF PROTEIN KINASE C

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    Kailash N Pandey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thus far, three related natriuretic peptides (NPs and three distinct sub-types of cognate NP receptors have been identified and characterized based on the specific ligand binding affinities, guanylyl cyclase activity, and generation of intracellular cGMP. Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP specifically bind and activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA, and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP shows specificity to activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-B (GC-B/NPRB. All three NPs bind to natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPRC, which is also known as clearance or silent receptor. The NPRA is considered the principal biologically active receptor of NP family; however, the molecular signaling mechanisms of NP receptors are not well understood. The activation of NPRA and NPRB produces the intracellular second messenger cGMP, which serves as the major signaling molecule of all three NPs. The activation of NPRB in response to CNP also produces the intracellular cGMP; however, at lower magnitude than that of NPRA, which is activated by ANP and BNP. In addition to enhanced accumulation of intracellular cGMP in response to all three NPs, the levels of cAMP, Ca2+ and inositol triphosphate (IP3 have also been reported to be altered in different cells and tissue types. Interestingly, ANP has been found to lower the concentrations of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3; however, NPRC has been proposed to increase the levels of these metabolic signaling molecules. The mechanistic studies of decreased and/or increased levels of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3 in response to NPs and their receptors have not yet been clearly established. This review focuses on the signaling mechanisms of ANP/NPRA and their biological effects involving an increased level of intracellular accumulation of cGMP and a decreased level of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3 in different cells and tissue systems.

  11. Recurrent adenylation domain replacement in the microcystin synthetase gene cluster

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    Laakso Kati

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microcystins are small cyclic heptapeptide toxins produced by a range of distantly related cyanobacteria. Microcystins are synthesized on large NRPS-PKS enzyme complexes. Many structural variants of microcystins are produced simulatenously. A recombination event between the first module of mcyB (mcyB1 and mcyC in the microcystin synthetase gene cluster is linked to the simultaneous production of microcystin variants in strains of the genus Microcystis. Results Here we undertook a phylogenetic study to investigate the order and timing of recombination between the mcyB1 and mcyC genes in a diverse selection of microcystin producing cyanobacteria. Our results provide support for complex evolutionary processes taking place at the mcyB1 and mcyC adenylation domains which recognize and activate the amino acids found at X and Z positions. We find evidence for recent recombination between mcyB1 and mcyC in strains of the genera Anabaena, Microcystis, and Hapalosiphon. We also find clear evidence for independent adenylation domain conversion of mcyB1 by unrelated peptide synthetase modules in strains of the genera Nostoc and Microcystis. The recombination events replace only the adenylation domain in each case and the condensation domains of mcyB1 and mcyC are not transferred together with the adenylation domain. Our findings demonstrate that the mcyB1 and mcyC adenylation domains are recombination hotspots in the microcystin synthetase gene cluster. Conclusion Recombination is thought to be one of the main mechanisms driving the diversification of NRPSs. However, there is very little information on how recombination takes place in nature. This study demonstrates that functional peptide synthetases are created in nature through transfer of adenylation domains without the concomitant transfer of condensation domains.

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0303 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0303 ref|NP_066939.1| brain adenylate cyclase 1 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q088...28|ADCY1_HUMAN Adenylate cyclase type 1 (Adenylate cyclase type I) (ATP pyrophosphate-lyase 1) (Adenylyl cyclase... 1) (Ca(2+)/calmodulin-activated adenylyl cyclase) gb|EAL23741.1| adenylate cyclase 1 (brain) [Homo sapiens] NP_066939.1 6e-54 57% ...

  13. G-protein-mediated interconversions of cell-surface cAMP receptors and their involvement in excitation and desensitization of guanylate cyclase in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Haastert, P.J.; de Wit, R.J.; Janssens, P.M.; Kesbeke, F.; DeGoede, J.

    1986-05-25

    In Dictyostelium discoideum cells, extracellular cAMP induces the rapid (within 2 s) activation of guanylate cyclase, which is followed by complete desensitization after about 10 s. cAMP binding to these cells is heterogeneous, showing a subclass of fast dissociating sites coupled to adenylate cyclase (A-sites) and a subclass of slowly dissociating sites coupled to guanylate cyclase (B-sites). The kinetics of the B-sites were further investigated on a seconds time scale. Statistical analysis of the association of (/sup 3/H)cAMP to the B-sites and dissociation of the complex revealed that the receptor can exist in three states which interconvert according to the following scheme. cAMP binds to the BF-state (off-rate 2.5 s) which rapidly (t1/2 = 3 s) converts to the BS-state (off-rate 15 s) and subsequently (without a detectable delay) into the BSS-state (off-rate 150 s). In membranes, both the BS- and BSS-states are converted to the BF-state by GTP and GDP, suggesting the involvement of a G-protein. Densensitized cells show a 80% reduction of the formation of the BSS-state, but no reduction of the BF- or BS-state. These data are combined into a model in which the transitions of the B-sites are mediated by a G-protein; activation of the G-protein and guanylate cyclase is associated with the transition of the BS- to the BSS-state of the receptor, whereas desensitization is associated with the inhibition of this transition.

  14. Identification of a novel Arabidopsis thaliana nitric oxide-binding molecule with guanylate cyclase activity in vitro

    KAUST Repository

    Mulaudzi, Takalani

    2011-09-01

    While there is evidence of nitric oxide (NO)-dependent signalling via the second messenger cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP) in plants, guanylate cyclases (GCs), enzymes that catalyse the formation of cGMP from guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP) have until recently remained elusive and none of the candidates identified to-date are NO-dependent. Using both a GC and heme-binding domain specific (H-NOX) search motif, we have identified an Arabidopsis flavin monooxygenase (At1g62580) and shown electrochemically that it binds NO, has a higher affinity for NO than for O 2 and that this molecule can generate cGMP from GTP in vitro in an NO-dependent manner. © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Crystallization of cyclase-associated protein from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Andreas; Hess, Sonja; Noegel, Angelika A; Schleicher, Michael; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2002-10-01

    Cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is a conserved two-domain protein that helps to activate the catalytic activity of adenylyl cyclase in the cyclase-bound state through interaction with Ras, which binds to the cyclase in a different region. With its other domain, CAP can bind monomeric actin and therefore also carries a cytoskeletal function. The protein is thus involved in Ras/cAMP-dependent signal transduction and most likely serves as an adapter protein translocating the adenylyl cyclase complex to the actin cytoskeleton. Crystals belonging to the orthorhombic space group C222, with unit-cell parameters a = 71.2, b = 75.1, c = 162.9 A, have been obtained from Dictyostelium discoideum CAP carrying a C-terminal His tag. A complete native data set extending to 2.2 A resolution was collected from a single crystal using an in-house X-ray system. The asymmetric unit contains one molecule of CAP.

  16. 2'-Phosphate cyclase activity of RtcA: a potential rationale for the operon organization of RtcA with an RNA repair ligase RtcB in Escherichia coli and other bacterial taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ushati; Shuman, Stewart

    2013-10-01

    RNA terminal phosphate cyclase catalyzes the ATP-dependent conversion of a 3'-phosphate RNA end to a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate via covalent enzyme-(histidinyl-Nε)-AMP and RNA(3')pp(5')A intermediates. Here, we report that Escherichia coli RtcA (and its human homolog Rtc1) are capable of cyclizing a 2'-phosphate RNA end in high yield. The rate of 2'-phosphate cyclization by RtcA is five orders of magnitude slower than 3'-phosphate cyclization, notwithstanding that RtcA binds with similar affinity to RNA3'p and RNA2'p substrates. These findings expand the functional repertoire of RNA cyclase and suggest that phosphate geometry during adenylate transfer to RNA is a major factor in the kinetics of cyclization. RtcA is coregulated in an operon with an RNA ligase, RtcB, that splices RNA 5'-OH ends to either 3'-phosphate or 2',3'-cyclic phosphate ends. Our results suggest that RtcA might serve an end healing function in an RNA repair pathway, by converting RNA 2'-phosphates, which cannot be spliced by RtcB, to 2',3'-cyclic phosphates that can be sealed. The rtcBA operon is controlled by the σ(54) coactivator RtcR encoded by an adjacent gene. This operon arrangement is conserved in diverse bacterial taxa, many of which have also incorporated the RNA-binding protein Ro (which is implicated in RNA quality control under stress conditions) as a coregulated component of the operon.

  17. Isoform-targeted regulation of cardiac adenylyl cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2003-01-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to develop strategies for regulating the intracellular cyclic AMP signal pharmacologically, with an intention to establish either new medical therapeutic methods or experimental tools. In the past decades, many pharmacological reagents have been identified that regulate this pathway at the level of the receptor. G protein, adenylyl cyclase, cyclic AMP, protein kinase A and phosphodiesterase. Since the cloning of adenylyl cyclase isoforms during the 1990s, investigators including ourselves have tried to find reagents that regulate the activity of this enzyme directly in an isoform-dependent manner. The ultimate goal of developing such reagents would be to regulate the cyclic AMP signal in an organ-dependent manner. Ourselves and other workers have reported that such reagents may vary from a simple cation to kinases. In a more recent study, using the results from crystallographic studies and computer-assisted drug design programs, we have identified subtype-selective regulators of adenylyl cyclase. Such regulators are mostly based upon forskolin, a diterpene compound obtained from Coleus forskolii, that acts directly on adenylyl cyclase to increase the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. Similarly, novel reagents have been identified that inhibit a specific adenylyl cyclase isoform (e.g. type 5 adenylyl cyclase). Such reagents would potentially provide a new therapeutic strategy to treat hypertension, for example, as well as methods to selectively stimulate or inhibit this adenylyl cyclase isoform, which may be reminiscent of overexpression or knocking out of the cardiac adenylyl cyclase isoform by the use of a pharmacological method.

  18. Structural studies of Schistosoma mansoni adenylate kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, I.A. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Pereira, H.M.; Garrat, R.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP-SC), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Parasitic diseases are a major cause of death in developing countries, however receive little or no attention from pharmaceutical companies for the development of novel therapies. In this respect, the Center for Structural Molecular Biology (CBME) of the Institute of Physics of Sao Carlos (IFSC / USP) has developed expertise in all stages of the development of active compounds against target enzymes from parasitic diseases. The present work focuses on the adenylate kinase enzymes (ADK's) from Schistosoma mansoni. These enzymes are widely distributed and catalyze the reaction of phosphoryl exchange between nucleotides in the reaction 2ADP to ATP + AMP, which is critical for the cells life cycle. Due to the particular property of the reaction catalyzed, the ADK's are recognized as reporters of the cells energetic state, translating small changes in the balance between ATP and ADP into a large change in concentration of AMP. The genome of S. mansoni was recently sequenced by the Sanger Center in England. On performing searches for genes encoding adenylate kinases we found two such genes. The corresponding gene products were named ADK1 (197 residues) and ADK2 (239 residues), and the two sequences share only 28 percent identity. Both have been cloned into the pET-28a(+)vector, expressed in E. coli and purified. Preliminary tests of activity have been performed only for ADK1 showing it to be catalytically active. Crystallization trials were performed for both proteins and thus far, crystals of ADK1 have been obtained which diffract to 2.05 at the LNLS beamline MX2 and the structure solved by molecular replacement. Understanding, at the atomic level, the function of these enzymes may help in the development of specific inhibitors and may provide tools for developing diagnostic tests for schistosomiasis. (author)

  19. Bicarbonate-Regulated Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuttke MS

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC represents a novel form of mammalian adenylyl cyclase structurally, molecularly, and biochemically distinct from the G protein-regulated, transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs. sAC possesses no transmembrane domains and is insensitive to classic modulators of tmACs, such as heterotrimeric G proteins and P site ligands. Thus, sAC defines an independently regulated cAMP signaling system within mammalian cells. sAC is directly stimulated by bicarbonate ion both in vivo in heterologously expressing cells and in vitro using purified protein. sAC appears to be the predominant form of adenylyl cyclase (AC in mammalian sperm, and its direct activation by bicarbonate provides a mechanism for generating the cAMP required to complete the bicarbonate-induced processes necessary for fertilization, including hyperactivated motility, capacitation, and the acrosome reaction. Immunolocalization studies reveal sAC is also abundantly expressed in other tissues which respond to bicarbonate or carbon dioxide levels suggesting it may function as a general bicarbonate/CO(2 sensor throughout the body.

  20. NOC-9, a selective nitric oxide donor, induces flight reactions in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray of rats by activating soluble guanylate cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Andréa Arantes; Aguiar, Daniele Cristina; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira

    2009-08-07

    Previous studies have showed that SIN-1, a nitric oxide (NO) donor, injected into the dorsolateral column of the periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) induces flight reactions. This drug, however, can also produce peroxynitrite, which may interfere in this effect. In addition, it is also unknown if this effect is mediated by local activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). The aims of this study, therefore, were (1) to investigate if NOC-9 (6-(2-Hydroxy-1-methyl-2-nitrosohydrazino)-N-methyl-1-hexanamine), a NO donor that does not produce peroxynitrite, would produce flight reactions after intra-dlPAG administration similar to those induced by SIN-1; (2) to verify if these responses could be prevented by local injection of a selective guanylate cyclase inhibitor (ODQ). Male Wistar rats (n=5-12) with cannulae aimed at the dlPAG received injections of TRIS (pH 10.0, 0.5 microl), NOC-9 (75 and 150 nmol), saline or SIN-1 (200 nmol) and were placed in an open arena for 10 min. In a subsequent experiment animals (n=7-8) were pretreated with ODQ (1 nmol/0.5 microl) before receiving NOC-9 150 nmol. NOC-9 induced a significant dose-dependent increase in flight reactions in the first minute after injection (% of animals displaying flight: vehicle=0%, NOC 75=67%, NOC 150=75%). SIN-1 had a similar effect (100% of animals showing flight) but the effects lasted longer (10 min) than those of NOC-9. The effect of NOC-9 (150 nmol) was prevented by pretreatment with ODQ (% of animals displaying flight: vehicle+NOC 150=71%, ODQ+NOC 150=37%). The results suggest that NO donors injected into the dlPAG induce defensive responses that are not mediated by secondary peroxynitrite production. Moreover, they also indicate that these defensive responses depend on activation of local sGC. The data strengthen the proposal that NO can modulate defensive reactions in the dlPAG.

  1. Aprataxin resolves adenylated RNA–DNA junctions to maintain genome integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumbale, Percy [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Lab. of Structural Biology; Williams, Jessica S. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Lab. of Structural Biology; Schellenberg, Matthew J. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Lab. of Structural Biology; Kunkel, Thomas A. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Lab. of Structural Biology and Lab. of Molecular Genetics; Williams, R. Scott [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Lab. of Structural Biology and Lab. Molecular Genetics

    2013-12-22

    Faithful maintenance and propagation of eukaryotic genomes is ensured by three-step DNA ligation reactions used by ATP-dependent DNA ligases. Paradoxically, when DNA ligases encounter nicked DNA structures with abnormal DNA termini, DNA ligase catalytic activity can generate and/or exacerbate DNA damage through abortive ligation that produces chemically adducted, toxic 5'-adenylated (5'-AMP) DNA lesions. Aprataxin (APTX) reverses DNA adenylation but the context for deadenylation repair is unclear. Here we examine the importance of APTX to RNase-H2-dependent excision repair (RER) of a lesion that is very frequently introduced into DNA, a ribonucleotide. We show that ligases generate adenylated 5' ends containing a ribose characteristic of RNase H2 incision. APTX efficiently repairs adenylated RNA–DNA, and acting in an RNA–DNA damage response (RDDR), promotes cellular survival and prevents S-phase checkpoint activation in budding yeast undergoing RER. Structure–function studies of human APTX–RNA–DNA–AMP–Zn complexes define a mechanism for detecting and reversing adenylation at RNA–DNA junctions. This involves A-form RNA binding, proper protein folding and conformational changes, all of which are affected by heritable APTX mutations in ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 1. Together, these results indicate that accumulation of adenylated RNA–DNA may contribute to neurological disease.

  2. The 70-kilodalton adenylyl cyclase-associated protein is not essential for interaction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase with RAS proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, J; Suzuki, N.; Kataoka, T

    1992-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, adenylyl cyclase is regulated by RAS proteins. We show here that the yeast adenylyl cyclase forms at least two high-molecular-weight complexes, one with the RAS protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activity and the other with the Mn(2+)-dependent activity, which are separable by their size difference. The 70-kDa adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP) existed in the former complex but not in the latter. Missense mutations in conserved motifs of the leuci...

  3. High inorganic triphosphatase activities in bacteria and mammalian cells: identification of the enzymes involved.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Kohn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We recently characterized a specific inorganic triphosphatase (PPPase from Nitrosomonas europaea. This enzyme belongs to the CYTH superfamily of proteins. Many bacterial members of this family are annotated as predicted adenylate cyclases, because one of the founding members is CyaB adenylate cyclase from A. hydrophila. The aim of the present study is to determine whether other members of the CYTH protein family also have a PPPase activity, if there are PPPase activities in animal tissues and what enzymes are responsible for these activities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Recombinant enzymes were expressed and purified as GST- or His-tagged fusion proteins and the enzyme activities were determined by measuring the release of inorganic phosphate. We show that the hitherto uncharacterized E. coli CYTH protein ygiF is a specific PPPase, but it contributes only marginally to the total PPPase activity in this organism, where the main enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of inorganic triphosphate (PPP(i is inorganic pyrophosphatase. We further show that CyaB hydrolyzes PPP(i but this activity is low compared to its adenylate cyclase activity. Finally we demonstrate a high PPPase activity in mammalian and quail tissue, particularly in the brain. We show that this activity is mainly due to Prune, an exopolyphosphatase overexpressed in metastatic tumors where it promotes cell motility. CONCLUSIONS AND GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: We show for the first time that PPPase activities are widespread in bacteria and animals. We identified the enzymes responsible for these activities but we were unable to detect significant amounts of PPP(i in E. coli or brain extracts using ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. The role of these enzymes may be to hydrolyze PPP(i, which could be cytotoxic because of its high affinity for Ca(2+, thereby interfering with Ca(2+ signaling.

  4. Calcium regulation of adenylyl cyclase relevance for endocrine control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, F A

    1997-01-01

    A fundamental process in the hormonal regulation of body functions is the conversion of the intercellular signal into an intracellular signal. The first recognized intracellular messengers mediating the actions of hormones were calcium ions (Ca(2+)) and adenosine 3':5' monophosphate (cAMP), which is synthesized from ATP by adenylyl cyclase. Recent work on the structure of adenylyl cyclases has shown that these enzymes are individually tailored molecular machines controlled by diverse Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms. These include allosteric regulation of enzyme activity through the Ca(2+)-receptor protein calmodulin, apparently direct actions of Ca(2+)on the cyclase catalytic moiety and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation by Ca(2+)-regulated protein kinases and protein phosphatases. This article is a brief review of the recent developments in the area of cyclase control that forecast a major revival of the interest in cAMP-Ca(2+)interactions. (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997;8:7-14).

  5. Oxytocin-induced elevation of ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity, cyclic ADP-ribose or Ca(2+) concentrations is involved in autoregulation of oxytocin secretion in the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, Olga; Liu, Hong-Xiang; Amina, Sarwat; Hashii, Minako; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2010-01-01

    Locally released oxytocin (OT) activates OT receptors (2.1:OXY:1:OT:) in neighboring neurons in the hypothalamus and their terminals in the posterior pituitary, resulting in further OT release, best known in autoregulation occurring during labor or milk ejection in reproductive females. OT also plays a critical role in social behavior of non-reproductive females and even in males in mammals from rodents to humans. Social behavior is disrupted when elevation of free intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and OT secretion are reduced in male and female CD38 knockout mice. Therefore, it is interesting to investigate whether ADP-ribosyl cyclase-dependent signaling is involved in OT-induced OT release for social recognition in males, independent from female reproduction, and to determine its molecular mechanism. Here, we report that ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity was increased by OT in crude membrane preparations of the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary in male mice, and that OT elicited an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in the isolated terminals over a period of 5 min. The increases in cyclase and [Ca(2+)](i) were partially inhibited by nonspecific protein kinase inhibitors and a protein kinase C specific inhibitor, calphostin C. Subsequently, OT-induced OT release was also inhibited by calphostin C to levels inhibited by vasotocin, an OT receptor antagonist, and 8-bromo-cADP-ribose. These results demonstrate that OT receptors are functionally coupled to membrane-bound ADP-ribosyl cyclase and/or CD38 and suggest that cADPR-mediated intracellular calcium signaling is involved in autoregulation of OT release, which is sensitive to protein kinase C, in the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis in male mice.

  6. Soluble guanylyl cyclase-activated cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits arterial smooth muscle cell migration independent of VASP-serine 239 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Andrew W; Martin, Danielle N; Shaver, Patti R; Adderley, Shaquria P; Stone, Joshua D; Joshi, Chintamani N; Francisco, Jake T; Lust, Robert M; Weidner, Douglas A; Shewchuk, Brian M; Tulis, David A

    2016-09-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) accounts for over half of all cardiovascular disease-related deaths. Uncontrolled arterial smooth muscle (ASM) cell migration is a major component of CAD pathogenesis and efforts aimed at attenuating its progression are clinically essential. Cyclic nucleotide signaling has long been studied for its growth-mitigating properties in the setting of CAD and other vascular disorders. Heme-containing soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) synthesizes cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and maintains vascular homeostasis predominantly through cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) signaling. Considering that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can interfere with appropriate sGC signaling by oxidizing the cyclase heme moiety and so are associated with several CVD pathologies, the current study was designed to test the hypothesis that heme-independent sGC activation by BAY 60-2770 (BAY60) maintains cGMP levels despite heme oxidation and inhibits ASM cell migration through phosphorylation of the PKG target and actin-binding vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). First, using the heme oxidant ODQ, cGMP content was potentiated in the presence of BAY60. Using a rat model of arterial growth, BAY60 significantly reduced neointima formation and luminal narrowing compared to vehicle (VEH)-treated controls. In rat ASM cells BAY60 significantly attenuated cell migration, reduced G:F actin, and increased PKG activity and VASP Ser239 phosphorylation (pVASP·S239) compared to VEH controls. Site-directed mutagenesis was then used to generate overexpressing full-length wild type VASP (FL-VASP/WT), VASP Ser239 phosphorylation-mimetic (FL-VASP/239D) and VASP Ser239 phosphorylation-resistant (FL-VASP/239A) ASM cell mutants. Surprisingly, FL-VASP/239D negated the inhibitory effects of FL-VASP/WT and FL-VASP/239A cells on migration. Furthermore, when FL-VASP mutants were treated with BAY60, only the FL-VASP/239D group showed reduced migration compared to its VEH controls

  7. A new and simple method for delivering clamped nitric oxide concentrations in the physiological range: application to activation of guanylyl cyclase-coupled nitric oxide receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Charmaine; Wykes, Victoria; Bellamy, Tomas C; Garthwaite, John

    2003-12-01

    The signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) could engage multiple pathways to influence cellular function. Unraveling their relative biological importance has been difficult because it has not been possible to administer NO under the steady-state conditions that are normally axiomatic for analyzing ligand-receptor interactions and downstream signal transduction. To address this problem, we devised a chemical method for generating constant NO concentrations, derived from balancing NO release from a NONOate donor with NO consumption by a sink. On theoretical grounds, 2-4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (CPTIO) was selected as the sink. The mixture additionally contained urate to convert an unwanted product of the reaction (NO2) into nitrite ions. The method enabled NO concentrations covering the physiological range (0-100 nM) to be formed within approximately 1 s. Moreover, the concentrations were sufficiently stable over at least several minutes to be useful for biological purposes. When applied to the activation of guanylyl cyclase-coupled NO receptors, the method gave an EC50 of 1.7 nM NO for the protein purified from bovine lung, which is lower than estimated previously using a biological NO sink (red blood cells). The corresponding values for the alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1 isoforms were 0.9 nM and 0.5 nM, respectively. The slopes of the concentration-response curves were more shallow than before (Hill coefficient of 1 rather than 2), questioning the need to consider the binding of more than one NO molecule for receptor activation. The discrepancies are ascribable to limitations of the earlier method. Other biological problems can readily be addressed by adaptations of the new method.

  8. The 70-kilodalton adenylyl cyclase-associated protein is not essential for interaction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase with RAS proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Suzuki, N; Kataoka, T

    1992-11-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, adenylyl cyclase is regulated by RAS proteins. We show here that the yeast adenylyl cyclase forms at least two high-molecular-weight complexes, one with the RAS protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activity and the other with the Mn(2+)-dependent activity, which are separable by their size difference. The 70-kDa adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP) existed in the former complex but not in the latter. Missense mutations in conserved motifs of the leucine-rich repeats of the catalytic subunit of adenylyl cyclase abolished the RAS-dependent activity, which was accompanied by formation of a very high molecular weight complex having the Mn(2+)-dependent activity. Contrary to previous results, disruption of the gene encoding CAP did not alter the extent of RAS protein-dependent activation of adenylyl cyclase, while a concomitant decrease in the size of the RAS-responsive complex was observed. These results indicate that CAP is not essential for interaction of the yeast adenylyl cyclase with RAS proteins even though it is an inherent component of the RAS-responsive adenylyl cyclase complex.

  9. Amarogentin, a Secoiridoid Glycoside, Abrogates Platelet Activation through PLCγ2-PKC and MAPK Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Lin Yen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amarogentin, an active principle of Gentiana lutea, possess antitumorigenic, antidiabetic, and antioxidative properties. Activation of platelets is associated with intravascular thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. The present study examined the effects of amarogentin on platelet activation. Amarogentin treatment (15~60 μM inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen, but not thrombin, arachidonic acid, and U46619. Amarogentin inhibited collagen-induced phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLCγ2, protein kinase C (PKC, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs. It also inhibits in vivo thrombus formation in mice. In addition, neither the guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ nor the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 affected the amarogentin-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation, which suggests that amarogentin does not regulate the levels of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. In conclusion, amarogentin prevents platelet activation through the inhibition of PLCγ2-PKC cascade and MAPK pathway. Our findings suggest that amarogentin may offer therapeutic potential for preventing or treating thromboembolic disorders.

  10. The soluble guanylate cyclase activator BAY 58-2667 protects against morbidity and mortality in endotoxic shock by recoupling organ systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Vandendriessche

    Full Text Available Sepsis and septic shock are associated with high mortality rates and the majority of sepsis patients die due to complications of multiple organ failure (MOF. The cyclic GMP (cGMP producing enzyme soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC is crucially involved in the regulation of (microvascular homeostasis, cardiac function and, consequently, organ function. However, it can become inactivated when exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS. The resulting heme-free sGC can be reactivated by the heme- and nitric oxide (NO-independent sGC activator BAY 58-2667 (Cinaciguat. We report that late (+8 h post-treatment with BAY 58-2667 in a mouse model can protect against lethal endotoxic shock. Protection was associated with reduced hypothermia, circulating IL-6 levels, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and mortality. In contrast to BAY 58-2667, the sGC stimulator BAY 41-2272 and the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor Sildenafil did not have any beneficial effect on survival, emphasizing the importance of the selectivity of BAY 58-2667 for diseased vessels and tissues. Hemodynamic parameters (blood pressure and heart rate were decreased, and linear and nonlinear indices of blood pressure variability, reflective for (uncoupling of the communication between the autonomic nervous system and the heart, were improved after late protective treatment with BAY 58-2667. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the pivotal role of the NO/sGC axis in endotoxic shock. Stabilization of sGC function with BAY 58-2667 can prevent mortality when given in the correct treatment window, which probably depends on the dynamics of the heme-free sGC pool, in turn influenced by oxidative stress. We speculate that, considering the central role of sGC signaling in many pathways required for maintenance of (microcirculatory homeostasis, BAY 58-2667 supports organ function by recoupling inter-organ communication pathways.

  11. Activation of haem-oxidized soluble guanylyl cyclase with BAY 60-2770 in human platelets lead to overstimulation of the cyclic GMP signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila B Mendes-Silverio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nitric oxide-independent soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC activators reactivate the haem-oxidized enzyme in vascular diseases. This study was undertaken to investigate the anti-platelet mechanisms of the haem-independent sGC activator BAY 60-2770 in human washed platelets. The hypothesis that sGC oxidation potentiates the anti-platelet activities of BAY 60-2770 has been tested. METHODS: Human washed platelet aggregation and adhesion assays, as well as flow cytometry for α(IIbβ(3 integrin activation and Western blot for α1 and β1 sGC subunits were performed. Intracellular calcium levels were monitored in platelets loaded with a fluorogenic calcium-binding dye (FluoForte. RESULTS: BAY 60-2770 (0.001-10 µM produced significant inhibition of collagen (2 µg/ml- and thrombin (0.1 U/ml-induced platelet aggregation that was markedly potentiated by the sGC inhibitor ODQ (10 µM. In fibrinogen-coated plates, BAY 60-2770 significantly inhibited platelet adhesion, an effect potentiated by ODQ. BAY 60-2770 increased the cGMP levels and reduced the intracellular Ca(2+ levels, both of which were potentiated by ODQ. The cell-permeable cGMP analogue 8-Br-cGMP (100 µM inhibited platelet aggregation and Ca(2+ levels in an ODQ-insensitive manner. The cAMP levels remained unchanged by BAY 60-2770. Collagen- and thrombin-induced α(IIbβ(3 activation was markedly inhibited by BAY 60-2770 that was further inhibited by ODQ. The effects of sodium nitroprusside (3 µM were all prevented by ODQ. Incubation with ODQ (10 µM significantly reduced the protein levels of α1 and β1 sGC subunits, which were prevented by BAY 60-2770. CONCLUSION: The inhibitory effects of BAY 60-2770 on aggregation, adhesion, intracellular Ca(2+ levels and α(IIbβ(3 activation are all potentiated in haem-oxidizing conditions. BAY 60-2770 prevents ODQ-induced decrease in sGC protein levels. BAY 60-2770 could be of therapeutic interest in cardiovascular diseases

  12. Research Influence Biological Active Agents in the Course of Regulation of Functional Activity of Platelets and System of a Haemostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozim N. Khoshimov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the flavonoid pulikarin suppresses activity of an adenylate cyclase and reduces level intracellular [Ca2+], perhaps its effect is connected with inhibition of a gain of cytoplasmatic Ca2+ as at the expense of its entrance outside, and release from intracellular storages. Perhaps, oppression of fluorescence of membrane-bound Ca2+ is connected with inhibition of a pulikarin of release of calcium from intracellular depots. The inhibiting effect of a pulikarin on ADP-induced aggregation of platelets is connected with oppression of a gain of cytoplasmatic concentration of Ca2+ from depot of platelets.

  13. P2 purinergic receptor activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and guanylyl cyclase in the dorsal facial area of the medulla increases blood flow in the common carotid arteries of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Y-W; Leung, Y-M; Lin, N-N; Lee, T J-F; Kuo, J-S; Tung, K-C; Gong, C-L

    2015-02-12

    In the dorsal facial area (DFA) of the medulla, an activation of either P2 purinergic receptor or nitric oxide synthase (NOS) results in the release of glutamate, leading to an increase in blood flow of the common carotid artery (CCA). It is not known whether activation of the P2 receptor by ATP may mediate activation of NOS/guanylyl cyclase to cause glutamate release and/or whether L-Arg (nitric oxide (NO) precursor) may also cause ATP release from any other neuron, to cause an increase in CCA flow. We demonstrated that microinjections of P2 receptor agonists (ATP, α,β-methylene ATP) or NO precursor (L-arginine) into the DFA increased CCA blood flow. The P2-induced CCA blood flow increase was dose-dependently reduced by pretreatment with NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a non-specific NOS inhibitor), 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, a relatively selective neuronal NOS inhibitor) or methylene blue (MB, a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) but not by that with D-NAME (an isomer of L-NAME) or N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine (L-NIO, a potent endothelial NOS inhibitor). Involvement of glutamate release in these responses were substantiated by microdialysis studies, in which perfusions of ATP into the DFA increased the glutamate concentration in dialysates, but co-perfusion of ATP with L-NAME or 7-NI did not. Nevertheless, the arginine-induced CCA blood flow increase was abolished by combined pretreatment of L-NAME and MB, but not affected by pretreatment with a selective P2 receptor antagonist, pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS). In conclusion, ATP activation of the P2 receptor in the DFA induced activation of neuronal NOS/guanylyl cyclase, which causes glutamate release leading to an increase in CCA blood flow. However, arginine activation of neuronal NOS/guanylyl cyclase, which also caused glutamate release and CCA blood flow increase, did not induce activation of P2 receptors. These findings provide important information for drug design and

  14. Pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide and nerve growth factor use the proteasome to rescue nerve growth factor-deprived sympathetic neurons cultured from chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przywara, D A; Kulkarni, J S; Wakade, T D; Leontiev, D V; Wakade, A R

    1998-11-01

    Removal of nerve growth factor (NGF) from sympathetic neurons initiates a neuronal death program and apoptosis. We show that pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) prevents apoptosis in NGF-deprived sympathetic neurons. PACAP (100 nM) added to culture medium at the time of plating failed to support neuronal survival. However, in neurons grown for 2 days with NGF and then deprived of NGF, PACAP prevented cell death for the next 24-48 h. Uptake of [3H]norepinephrine ([3H]NE) was used as an index of survival and decreased >50% in NGF-deprived cultures within 24 h. PACAP (1-100 nM) restored [3H]NE uptake to 92 +/- 8% of that of NGF-supported controls. Depolarization-induced [3H]NE release in neurons rescued by PACAP was the same as that in NGF-supported neurons. PACAP rescue was not mimicked by forskolin or 8-bromo-cyclic AMP and was not blocked by the protein kinase A inhibitor Rp-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate. Mobilization of phosphatidylinositol by muscarine failed to support NGF-deprived neurons. Thus, PACAP may use novel signaling to promote survival of sympathetic neurons. The apoptosis-associated caspase CPP32 activity increased approximately fourfold during 6 h of NGF withdrawal (145 +/- 40 versus 38 +/- 17 nmol of substrate cleaved/min/mg of protein) and returned to even below the control level in NGF-deprived, PACAP-rescued cultures (14 +/- 7 nmol/min/mg of protein). Readdition of NGF or PACAP to NGF-deprived cultures reversed CPP32 activation, and this was blocked by lactacystin, a potent and specific inhibitor of the 20S proteasome, suggesting that NGF and PACAP target CPP32 for destruction by the proteasome. As PACAP is a preganglionic neurotransmitter in autonomic ganglia, we propose a novel function for this transmitter as an apoptotic rescuer of sympathetic neurons when the supply of NGF is compromised.

  15. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Shah, Viral S; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Welsh, Michael J; Randak, Christoph O

    2015-05-29

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl(-) channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia.

  16. Gustatory Habituation in "Drosophila" Relies on "Rutabaga" (Adenylate Cyclase)-Dependent Plasticity of GABAergic Inhibitory Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Pushkar; Rodrigues, Veronica; VijayRaghavan, K.; Ramaswami, Mani

    2012-01-01

    In some situations, animals seem to ignore stimuli which in other contexts elicit a robust response. This attenuation in behavior, which enables animals to ignore a familiar, unreinforced stimulus, is called habituation. Despite the ubiquity of this phenomenon, it is generally poorly understood in terms of the underlying neural circuitry. Hungry…

  17. Adenylate kinase 1 knockout mice have normal thiamine triphosphate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarchikov, Alexander F; Wins, Pierre; Janssen, Edwin; Wieringa, Bé; Grisar, Thierry; Bettendorff, Lucien

    2002-10-21

    Thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) is found at low concentrations in most animal tissues and it may act as a phosphate donor for the phosphorylation of proteins, suggesting a potential role in cell signaling. Two mechanisms have been proposed for the enzymatic synthesis of ThTP. A thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) kinase (ThDP+ATP if ThTP+ADP) has been purified from brewer's yeast and shown to exist in rat liver. However, other data suggest that, at least in skeletal muscle, adenylate kinase 1 (AK1) is responsible for ThTP synthesis. In this study, we show that AK1 knockout mice have normal ThTP levels in skeletal muscle, heart, brain, liver and kidney, demonstrating that AK1 is not responsible for ThTP synthesis in those tissues. We predict that the high ThTP content of particular tissues like the Electrophorus electricus electric organ, or pig and chicken skeletal muscle is more tightly correlated with high ThDP kinase activity or low soluble ThTPase activity than with non-stringent substrate specificity and high activity of adenylate kinase.

  18. Analysis of the function of the 70-kilodalton cyclase-associated protein (CAP) by using mutants of yeast adenylyl cyclase defective in CAP binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Suzuki, N; Nishida, Y; Kataoka, T

    1993-07-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, adenylyl cyclase forms a complex with the 70-kDa cyclase-associated protein (CAP). By in vitro mutagenesis, we assigned a CAP-binding site of adenylyl cyclase to a small segment near its C terminus and created mutants which lost the ability to bind CAP. CAP binding was assessed first by observing the ability of the overproduced C-terminal 150 residues of adenylyl cyclase to sequester CAP, thereby suppressing the heat shock sensitivity of yeast cells bearing the activated RAS2 gene (RAS2Val-19), and then by immunoprecipitability of adenylyl cyclase activity with anti-CAP antibody and by direct measurement of the amount of CAP bound. Yeast cells whose chromosomal adenylyl cyclase genes were replaced by the CAP-nonbinding mutants possessed adenylyl cyclase activity fully responsive to RAS2 protein in vitro. However, they did not exhibit sensitivity to heat shock in the RAS2Val-19 background. When glucose-induced accumulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) was measured in these mutants carrying RAS2Val-19, a rapid transient rise indistinguishable from that of wild-type cells was observed and a high peak level and following persistent elevation of the cAMP concentration characteristic of RAS2Val-19 were abolished. In contrast, in the wild-type RAS2 background, similar cyclase gene replacement did not affect the glucose-induced cAMP response. These results suggest that the association with CAP, although not involved in the in vivo response to the wild-type RAS2 protein, is somehow required for the exaggerated response of adenylyl cyclase to activated RAS2.

  19. The Cyclase-associated Protein CAP as Regulator of Cell Polarity and cAMP Signaling in Dictyostelium

    OpenAIRE

    Noegel, Angelika A; Blau-Wasser, Rosemarie; Sultana, Hameeda; Müller, Rolf; Israel, Lars; Schleicher, Michael; Patel, Hitesh; Weijer, Cornelis J

    2004-01-01

    Cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of the G-actin/F-actin ratio and, in yeast, is involved in regulating the adenylyl cyclase activity. We show that cell polarization, F-actin organization, and phototaxis are altered in a Dictyostelium CAP knockout mutant. Furthermore, in complementation assays we determined the roles of the individual domains in signaling and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. We studied in detail the adenylyl cyclase activity and fo...

  20. General base-general acid catalysis by terpenoid cyclases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Travis A; Christianson, David W

    2016-07-01

    Terpenoid cyclases catalyze the most complex reactions in biology, in that more than half of the substrate carbon atoms often undergo changes in bonding during the course of a multistep cyclization cascade that proceeds through multiple carbocation intermediates. Many cyclization mechanisms require stereospecific deprotonation and reprotonation steps, and most cyclization cascades are terminated by deprotonation to yield an olefin product. The first bacterial terpenoid cyclase to yield a crystal structure was pentalenene synthase from Streptomyces exfoliatus UC5319. This cyclase generates the hydrocarbon precursor of the pentalenolactone family of antibiotics. The structures of pentalenene synthase and other terpenoid cyclases reveal predominantly nonpolar active sites typically lacking amino acid side chains capable of serving general base-general acid functions. What chemical species, then, enables the Brønsted acid-base chemistry required in the catalytic mechanisms of these enzymes? The most likely candidate for such general base-general acid chemistry is the co-product inorganic pyrophosphate. Here, we briefly review biological and nonbiological systems in which phosphate and its derivatives serve general base and general acid functions in catalysis. These examples highlight the fact that the Brønsted acid-base activities of phosphate derivatives are comparable to the Brønsted acid-base activities of amino acid side chains.

  1. Ca2+ signaling by plant Arabidopsis thaliana Pep peptides depends on AtPepR1, a receptor with guanylyl cyclase activity, and cGMP-activated Ca2+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhi; Verma, Rajeev; Gehring, Chris; Yamaguchi, Yube; Zhao, Yichen; Ryan, Clarence A; Berkowitz, Gerald A

    2010-12-01

    A family of peptide signaling molecules (AtPeps) and their plasma membrane receptor AtPepR1 are known to act in pathogen-defense signaling cascades in plants. Little is currently known about the molecular mechanisms that link these signaling peptides and their receptor, a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, to downstream pathogen-defense responses. We identify some cellular activities of these molecules that provide the context for a model for their action in signaling cascades. AtPeps activate plasma membrane inwardly conducting Ca(2+) permeable channels in mesophyll cells, resulting in cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation. This activity is dependent on their receptor as well as a cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGC2). We also show that the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase receptor AtPepR1 has guanylyl cyclase activity, generating cGMP from GTP, and that cGMP can activate CNGC2-dependent cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation. AtPep-dependent expression of pathogen-defense genes (PDF1.2, MPK3, and WRKY33) is mediated by the Ca(2+) signaling pathway associated with AtPep peptides and their receptor. The work presented here indicates that extracellular AtPeps, which can act as danger-associated molecular patterns, signal by interaction with their receptor, AtPepR1, a plasma membrane protein that can generate cGMP. Downstream from AtPep and AtPepR1 in a signaling cascade, the cGMP-activated channel CNGC2 is involved in AtPep- and AtPepR1-dependent inward Ca(2+) conductance and resulting cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation. The signaling cascade initiated by AtPeps leads to expression of pathogen-defense genes in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner.

  2. Ca 2+ signaling by plant Arabidopsis thaliana Pep peptides depends on AtPepR1, a receptor with guanylyl cyclase activity, and cGMP-activated Ca 2+ channels

    KAUST Repository

    Qia, Zhi

    2010-11-18

    A family of peptide signaling molecules (AtPeps) and their plasma membrane receptor AtPepR1 are known to act in pathogendefense signaling cascades in plants. Little is currently known about the molecular mechanisms that link these signaling peptides and their receptor, a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, to downstream pathogen-defense responses. We identify some cellular activities of these molecules that provide the context for a model for their action in signaling cascades. AtPeps activate plasma membrane inwardly conducting Ca 2+ permeable channels in mesophyll cells, resulting in cytosolic Ca 2+ elevation. This activity is dependent on their receptor as well as a cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGC2). We also show that the leucine-rich repeat receptor- like kinase receptor AtPepR1 has guanylyl cyclase activity, generating cGMP from GTP, and that cGMP can activate CNGC2- dependent cytosolic Ca 2+ elevation. AtPep-dependent expression of pathogen-defense genes (PDF1.2, MPK3, and WRKY33) is mediated by the Ca 2+ signaling pathway associated with AtPep peptides and their receptor. The work presented here indicates that extracellular AtPeps, which can act as danger-associated molecular patterns, signal by interaction with their receptor, AtPepR1, a plasma membrane protein that can generate cGMP. Downstream from AtPep and AtPepR1 in a signaling cascade, the cGMP-activated channel CNGC2 is involved in AtPep- and AtPepR1-dependent inward Ca 2+ conductance and resulting cytosolic Ca 2+ elevation. The signaling cascade initiated by AtPeps leads to expression of pathogen- defense genes in a Ca 2+-dependent manner.

  3. Adenylate kinase-independent thiamine triphosphate accumulation under severe energy stress in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wins Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thiamine triphosphate (ThTP exists in most organisms and might play a role in cellular stress responses. In E. coli, ThTP is accumulated in response to amino acid starvation but the mechanism of its synthesis is still a matter of controversy. It has been suggested that ThTP is synthesized by an ATP-dependent specific thiamine diphosphate kinase. However, it is also known that vertebrate adenylate kinase 1 catalyzes ThTP synthesis at a very low rate and it has been postulated that this enzyme is responsible for ThTP synthesis in vivo. Results Here we show that bacterial, as vertebrate adenylate kinases are able to catalyze ThTP synthesis, but at a rate more than 106-fold lower than ATP synthesis. This activity is too low to explain the high rate of ThTP accumulation observed in E. coli during amino acid starvation. Moreover, bacteria from the heat-sensitive CV2 strain accumulate high amounts of ThTP (>50% of total thiamine at 37°C despite complete inactivation of adenylate kinase and a subsequent drop in cellular ATP. Conclusion These results clearly demonstrate that adenylate kinase is not responsible for ThTP synthesis in vivo. Furthermore, they show that E. coli accumulate large amounts of ThTP under severe energy stress when ATP levels are very low, an observation not in favor of an ATP-dependent mechanisms for ThTP synthesis.

  4. [Soluble guanylate cyclase in the molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic action of drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatakova, N V; Severina, I S

    2012-01-01

    The influence of ambroxol--a mucolytic drug--on the activity of human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase and rat lung soluble guanylate cyclase and activation of both enzymes by NO-donors (sodium nitroprusside and Sin-1) were investigated. Ambroxol in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 microM had no effect on the basal activity of both enzymes. Ambroxol inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the sodium nitroprusside-induced human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase and rat lung soluble guanylate cyclase with the IC50 values 3.9 and 2.1 microM, respectively. Ambroxol did not influence the stimulation of both enzymes by protoporphyrin IX. The influence of artemisinin--an antimalarial drug--on human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase activity and the enzyme activation by NO-donors were investigated. Artemisinin (0.1-100 microM) had no effect on the basal activity of the enzyme. Artemisinin inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the sodium nitroprusside-induced activation of human platelet guanylate cyclase with an IC50 value 5.6 microM. Artemisinin (10 microM) also inhibited (by 71 +/- 4.0%) the activation of the enzyme by thiol-dependent NO-donor the derivative of furoxan, 3,4-dicyano-1,2,5-oxadiazolo-2-oxide (10 microM), but did not influence the stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase by protoporphyrin IX. It was concluded that the sygnalling system NO-soluble guanylate cyclase-cGMP is involved in the molecular mechanism of the therapeutic action of ambroxol and artemisinin.

  5. Structure and mechanism of the diterpene cyclase ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köksal, Mustafa; Hu, Huayou; Coates, Robert M.; Peters, Reuben J.; Christianson, David W. (UIUC); (Iowa State); (Penn)

    2011-09-20

    The structure of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase reveals three {alpha}-helical domains ({alpha}, {beta} and {gamma}), as also observed in the related diterpene cyclase taxadiene synthase. However, active sites are located at the interface of the {beta}{gamma} domains in ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase but exclusively in the {alpha} domain of taxadiene synthase. Modular domain architecture in plant diterpene cyclases enables the evolution of alternative active sites and chemical strategies for catalyzing isoprenoid cyclization reactions.

  6. Structure and Mechanism of the Diterpene Cyclase ent-Copalyl Diphosphate Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Mustafa; Hu, Huayou; Coates, Robert M.; Peters, Reuben J.; Christianson, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) reveals three α-helical domains (α, β, γ), as also observed in the related diterpene cyclase taxadiene synthase. However, active sites are located at the interface of the βγ domains in CPS but exclusively in the α domain of taxadiene synthase. Modular domain architecture in plant diterpene cyclases enables the evolution of alternative active sites and chemical strategies for catalyzing isoprenoid cyclization reactions. PMID:21602811

  7. Cyclic AMP activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in PC12 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, M; Peraldi, P; Van Obberghen, E

    1994-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are activated in response to a large variety of extracellular signals, including growth factors, hormones, and neurotransmitters, which activate distinct intracellular signaling pathways. Their activation by the cAMP-dependent pathway, however, has not been...... reported. In rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, we demonstrate here a stimulation of the MAP kinase isozyme extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) following elevation of intracellular cAMP after exposure of the cells to isobutylmethylxanthine, cholera toxin, forskolin, or cAMP-analogues. cAMP acted...... synergistically with phorbol ester, an activator of protein kinase C, in the stimulation of ERK1. In accordance with this observation, the peptide neurotransmitter pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 (PACAP38), which stimulates cAMP production as well as phosphatidylinositol breakdown in PC12...

  8. Asymmetrically acting lycopene beta-cyclases (CrtLm) from non-photosynthetic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, L; Picataggio, S; Rouvière, P E; Cheng, Q

    2004-03-01

    Carotenoids have important functions in photosynthesis, nutrition, and protection against oxidative damage. Some natural carotenoids are asymmetrical molecules that are difficult to produce chemically. Biological production of carotenoids using specific enzymes is a potential alternative to extraction from natural sources. Here we report the isolation of lycopene beta-cyclases that selectively cyclize only one end of lycopene or neurosporene. The crtLm genes encoding the asymmetrically acting lycopene beta-cyclases were isolated from non-photosynthetic bacteria that produced monocyclic carotenoids. Co-expression of these crtLm genes with the crtEIB genes from Pantoea stewartii (responsible for lycopene synthesis) resulted in the production of monocyclic gamma-carotene in Escherichia coli. The asymmetric cyclization activity of CrtLm could be inhibited by the lycopene beta-cyclase inhibitor 2-(4-chlorophenylthio)-triethylamine (CPTA). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that bacterial CrtL-type lycopene beta-cyclases might represent an evolutionary link between the common bacterial CrtY-type of lycopene beta-cyclases and plant lycopene beta- and epsilon-cyclases. These lycopene beta-cyclases may be used for efficient production of high-value asymmetrically cyclized carotenoids.

  9. Identification of a fourth family of lycopene cyclases in photosynthetic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresca, Julia A; Graham, Joel E; Wu, Martin; Eisen, Jonathan A; Bryant, Donald A

    2007-07-10

    A fourth and large family of lycopene cyclases was identified in photosynthetic prokaryotes. The first member of this family, encoded by the cruA gene of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum, was identified in a complementation assay with a lycopene-producing strain of Escherichia coli. Orthologs of cruA are found in all available green sulfur bacterial genomes and in all cyanobacterial genomes that lack genes encoding CrtL- or CrtY-type lycopene cyclases. The cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 has two homologs of CruA, denoted CruA and CruP, and both were shown to have lycopene cyclase activity. Although all characterized lycopene cyclases in plants are CrtL-type proteins, genes orthologous to cruP also occur in plant genomes. The CruA- and CruP-type carotenoid cyclases are members of the FixC dehydrogenase superfamily and are distantly related to CrtL- and CrtY-type lycopene cyclases. Identification of these cyclases fills a major gap in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathways of green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria.

  10. Cytosolic adenylate changes during exercise in prawn muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, M.T. [College de France, 29 - Concarneau (France); Raffin, J.P.; Pichon, R. [Brest Univ., 29 (France)

    1994-11-01

    {sup 31}P NMR and biochemical analysis were used to assess the effect of heavy exercise on cytosolic adenylate levels in Palaemon serratus abdominal muscle. At rest, the MgATP level corresponded to 85.5% of the total ATP content. The cytosolic adenylate concentrations of the prawn muscle are considerably different from that of vertebrates. The percentage of ADP bound to myofilaments was lower in the prawn muscle. Consequently, the level of free cytosolic AMP was greatly higher (thirty fold higher) than in vertebrate muscle. During vigorous work, the concentration of MgATP dropped and the cytosolic AMP accumulated, while the cytosolic adenine nucleotide pool decreased significantly. The phosphorylation potential value and the ATP/ADP ratio, calculated from the cytosolic adenylate, dropped acutely during the whole period of muscular contractions. On the contrary, the adenylate energy charge calculated from the cytosolic adenylate decreased slightly. Therefore, even in muscle displaying no AMP deamination, the adenylate charge is stabilized during exercise by the dynamic changes between cytosolic and bound adenylate species. (author). 21 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. [The influence of two-month treatment with bromocryptine on activity of the adenylyl cyclase signaling system in the myocardium and testes of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, K V; Bondareva, V M; Moyseyuk, I V; Shpakov, A O

    2014-01-01

    One of the common complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) are cardiovascular diseases and dysfunctions of the reproductive system, indicating the urgency of developing new approaches to their correction. Last years for the treatment of DM2 began to use bromocryptine (BC), the agonist of type 2 dopamine receptors, which not only restores the energy metabolism, but also prevents the development of cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanisms and targets of BC action are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of BC treatment on functional activity of adenylyl cyclase signaling system (ACSS) in the myocardium and testes of male rats with DM2, which is caused by high-fat diet and treatment with streptozotocin (25 mg/kg). The treatment with BC (60 days, orally at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg once every two days) was started 90 days after the beginning of high-fat diet. Diabetic rats had an increased body weight, elevated triglycerides level, impaired glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance. The treatment with BC resulted in the restoration of glycometabolic indicators and in the improvement of insulin sensitivity. Adenylyl cyclase (AC) stimulating effects of guanylylimidodiphosphate (GppNHp), relaxin, and agonists of β-adrenergic receptors (β3-AR)--isoproterenol and norepinephrine were decreased in the miocardium of the diabetic rats. The corresponding effects of the β-agonists BRL-37344 and CL-316243 was preserved. The inhibitory effect of somatostatin on forskolin-stimulated AC activity was attenuated, while the inhibitory effect of noradrenaline mediated through α2-AR increased. The treatment with BC resulted in the normalization of the adrenergic signaling in the myocardium and partially restoration of AC effects of relaxin and somatostatin. In the testes of diabetic rats, the basal and stimulated by GppNHp, forskolin, human chorionic gonadotropin and pituitary AC-activating polypeptide AC activity were decreased, and the

  12. A Novel Mechanism for Adenylyl Cyclase Inhibition from the Crystal Structure of its Complex with Catechol Estrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steegborn,C.; Litvin, T.; Hess, K.; Capper, A.; Taussig, R.; Buck, J.; Levin, L.; Wu, H.

    2005-01-01

    Catechol estrogens are steroid metabolites that elicit physiological responses through binding to a variety of cellular targets. We show here that catechol estrogens directly inhibit soluble adenylyl cyclases and the abundant trans-membrane adenylyl cyclases. Catechol estrogen inhibition is non-competitive with respect to the substrate ATP, and we solved the crystal structure of a catechol estrogen bound to a soluble adenylyl cyclase from Spirulina platensis in complex with a substrate analog. The catechol estrogen is bound to a newly identified, conserved hydrophobic patch near the active center but distinct from the ATP-binding cleft. Inhibitor binding leads to a chelating interaction between the catechol estrogen hydroxyl groups and the catalytic magnesium ion, distorting the active site and trapping the enzyme substrate complex in a non-productive conformation. This novel inhibition mechanism likely applies to other adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, and the identified ligand-binding site has important implications for the development of specific adenylyl cyclase inhibitors.

  13. [Biosynthesis of cyclic GMP in plant cells - new insight into guanylate cyclases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeżawska, Brygida; Marciniak, Katarzyna; Szmidt-Jaworska, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic 3',5'-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is involved in many physiological processes in plants. Concentration of this second messenger in plant cell is determined by guanylyl cyclases (GCs) responsible for cGMP synthesis and phosphodiesterases (PDEs) involved in cGMP inactivation. First discovered plant GCs were localized in cytosol, but few years ago a new family of plasma membrane proteins with guanylyl cyclase activity was identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. These proteins belong to the family of a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLK) with extracellular leucine-rich repeat domain, a transmembrane-spanning domain, and an intracellular kinase domain. A novel class of guanylyl cyclases contain the GC catalytic center encapsulated within the intracellular kinase domain. These molecules are different to animal GCs in that the GC catalytic center is nested within the kinase domain. In presented paper we summarized the most recent data concerning plant guanylyl cyclases.

  14. A non-canonical peptide synthetase adenylates 3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid for auriculamide biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Braga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Auriculamide is the first natural product known from the predatory bacterium Herpetosiphon aurantiacus. It is composed of three unusual building blocks, including the non-proteinogenic amino acid 3-chloro-L-tyrosine, the α-hydroxy acid L-isoleucic acid, and a methylmalonyl-CoA-derived ethane unit. A candidate genetic locus for auriculamide biosynthesis was identified and encodes four enzymes. Among them, the non-canonical 199 kDa four-domain nonribosomal peptide synthetase, AulA, is extraordinary in that it features two consecutive adenylation domains. Here, we describe the functional characterization of the recombinantly produced AulA. The observed activation of 3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid by the enzyme supports the hypothesis that it participates in the biosynthesis of auriculamide. An artificially truncated version of AulA that lacks the first adenylation domain activated this substrate like the full-length enzyme which shows that the first adenylation domain is dispensable. Additionally, we provide evidence that the enzyme tolerates structural variation of the substrate. α-Carbon substituents significantly affected the substrate turnover. While all tested aliphatic α-keto acids were accepted by the enzyme and minor differences in chain size and branches did not interfere with the enzymatic activity, molecules with methylene α-carbons led to low turnover. Such enzymatic plasticity is an important attribute to help in the perpetual search for novel molecules and to access a greater structural diversity by mutasynthesis.

  15. Purification and assay of cell-invasive form of calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase from Bordetella pertussis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masure, H.R.; Donovan, M.G.; Storm, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    An invasive form of the CaM-sensitive adenylyl cyclase from Bordetella pertussis can be isolated from bacterial culture supernatants. This isolation is achieved through the use of QAE-Sephadex anion-exchange chromatography. It has been demonstrated that the addition of exogenous Ca{sup 2}{sup +} to the anion-exchange gradient buffers will affect elution from the column and will thereby affect the isolation of invasive adenylyl cyclase. This is probably due to a Ca2(+)-dependent interaction of the catalytic subunit with another component in the culture supernatant. Two peaks of adenylyl cyclase activity are obtained. The Pk1 adenylyl cyclase preparation is able to cause significant increases in intracellular cAMP levels in animal cells. This increase occurs rapidly and in a dose-dependent manner in both N1E-115 mouse neuroblastoma cells and human erythrocytes. The Pk2 adenylyl cyclase has catalytic activity but is not cell invasive. This material can serve, therefore, as a control to ensure that the cAMP which is measured is, indeed, intracellular. A second control is to add exogenous CaM to the Pk1 adenylyl cyclase preparation. The 45-kDa catalytic subunit-CaM complex is not cell invasive. Although the mechanism for membrane translocation of the adenylyl cyclase is unknown, there is evidence that the adenylyl cyclase enters animal cells by a mechanism distinct from receptor-mediated endocytosis. Calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase activity can be removed from preparations of the adenylyl cyclase that have been subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This property of the enzyme has enabled purification of the catalytic subunit to apparent homogeneity. The purified catalytic subunit from culture supernatants has a predicted molecular weight of 45,000. This polypeptide interacts directly with Ca{sup 2}{sup +} and this interaction may be important for its invasion into animal cells.

  16. Intracellular cAMP signaling by soluble adenylyl cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin; Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen

    2011-06-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently identified source of the ubiquitous second messenger cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP). sAC is distinct from the more widely studied source of cAMP, the transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs); its activity is uniquely regulated by bicarbonate anions, and it is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and in cellular organelles. Due to its unique localization and regulation, sAC has various functions in a variety of physiological systems that are distinct from tmACs. In this review, we detail the known functions of sAC, and we reassess commonly held views of cAMP signaling inside cells.

  17. Mechanistic investigations on six bacterial terpene cyclases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Rabe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The products obtained by incubation of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP with six purified bacterial terpene cyclases were characterised by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic methods, allowing for a full structure elucidation. The absolute configurations of four terpenes were determined based on their optical rotary powers. Incubation experiments with 13C-labelled isotopomers of FPP in buffers containing water or deuterium oxide allowed for detailed insights into the cyclisation mechanisms of the bacterial terpene cyclases.

  18. The flagellar adenylate kinases of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, María de los Milagros; Bouvier, León A; Miranda, Mariana R; Pereira, Claudio A

    2015-01-01

    Adenylate kinases (ADK) are key enzymes involved in cell energy management. Trypanosomatids present the highest number of variants in a single cell in comparison with the rest of the living organisms. In this work, we characterized two flagellar ADKs from Trypanosoma cruzi, called TcADK1 and TcADK4, which are also located in the cell cytosol. Interestingly, TcADK1 presents a stage-specific expression. This variant was detected in epimastigotes cells, and was completely absent in trypomastigotes and amastigotes, while TcADK4 is present in the major life cycle stages of T. cruzi. Both variants are also regulated, in opposite ways, along the parasite growth curve suggesting that their expression depends on the intra- and extracellular conditions. Both, TcADK1 and TcADK4 present N-terminal extension that could be responsible for their subcellular localization. The presence of ADK variants in the flagellum would be critical for the provision of energy in a process of high ATP consumption such as cell motility.

  19. Use of adenylate kinase as a solubility tag for high level expression of T4 DNA ligase in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Huang, Anliang; Luo, Dan; Liu, Haipeng; Han, Huzi; Xu, Yang; Liang, Peng

    2015-05-01

    The discovery of T4 DNA ligase in 1960s was pivotal in the spread of molecular biotechnology. The enzyme has become ubiquitous for recombinant DNA routinely practiced in biomedical research around the globe. Great efforts have been made to express and purify T4 DNA ligase to meet the world demand, yet over-expression of soluble T4 DNA ligase in E. coli has been difficult. Here we explore the use of adenylate kinase to enhance T4 DNA ligase expression and its downstream purification. E.coli adenylate kinase, which can be expressed in active form at high level, was fused to the N-terminus of T4 DNA ligase. The resulting His-tagged AK-T4 DNA ligase fusion protein was greatly over-expressed in E. coli, and readily purified to near homogeneity via two purification steps consisting of Blue Sepharose and Ni-NTA chromatography. The purified AK-T4 DNA ligase not only is fully active for DNA ligation, but also can use ADP in addition to ATP as energy source since adenylate kinase converts ADP to ATP and AMP. Thus adenylate kinase may be used as a solubility tag to facilitate recombinant protein expression as well as their downstream purification.

  20. The cyclase-associated protein FgCap1 has both protein kinase A-dependent and -independent functions during deoxynivalenol production and plant infection in Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tao; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Jianhua; Liu, Huiquan; Wang, Chenfang; Xu, Jin-Rong; Jiang, Cong

    2017-01-31

    Fusarium graminearum is a causal agent of wheat scab and a producer of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). The expression of trichothecene biosynthesis (TRI) genes and DON production are mainly regulated by the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) pathway and two pathway-specific transcription factors (TRI6 and TRI10). Interestingly, deletion mutants of TRI6 show reduced expression of several components of cAMP signalling, including the FgCAP1 adenylate-binding protein gene that has not been functionally characterized in F. graminearum. In this study, we show that FgCap1 interacts with Fac1 adenylate cyclase and that deletion of FgCAP1 reduces the intracellular cAMP level and PKA activity. The Fgcap1 deletion mutant is defective in vegetative growth, conidiogenesis and plant infection. It also shows significantly reduced DON production and TRI gene expression, which can be suppressed by exogenous cAMP, indicating a PKA-dependent regulation of DON biosynthesis by FgCap1. The wild-type, but not tri6 mutant, shows increased levels of intracellular cAMP and FgCAP1 expression under DON-producing conditions. Furthermore, the promoter of FgCAP1 contains one putative Tri6-binding site that is important for its function during DON biosynthesis, but is dispensable for hyphal growth, conidiogenesis and pathogenesis. In addition, FgCap1 shows an actin-like localization to the cortical patches at the apical region of hyphal tips. Phosphorylation of FgCap1 at S353 was identified by phosphoproteomics analysis. The S353A mutation in FgCAP1 has no effect on its functions during vegetative growth, conidiation and DON production. However, expression of the FgCAP1(S353A) allele fails to complement the defects of the Fgcap1 mutant in plant infection, indicating the importance of the phosphorylation of FgCap1 at S353 during pathogenesis. Taken together, our results suggest that FgCAP1 is involved in the regulation of DON production via cAMP signalling

  1. Nucleoside triphosphate synthesis catalysed by adenylate kinase is ADP dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoës, Martin; Kilstrup, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    Adenylate kinase (Adk) that catalyses the synthesis of ADP from ATP and AMP has also been shown to perform an ATP dependent phosphorylation of ribo- and deoxynucleoside diphosphates to their corresponding nucleoside triphosphate; ATP+(d)NDPADP+(d)NTP. This reaction, suggested to occur by the tran......Adenylate kinase (Adk) that catalyses the synthesis of ADP from ATP and AMP has also been shown to perform an ATP dependent phosphorylation of ribo- and deoxynucleoside diphosphates to their corresponding nucleoside triphosphate; ATP+(d)NDPADP+(d)NTP. This reaction, suggested to occur...

  2. Molecular Physiology of Membrane Guanylyl Cyclase Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    cGMP controls many cellular functions ranging from growth, viability, and differentiation to contractility, secretion, and ion transport. The mammalian genome encodes seven transmembrane guanylyl cyclases (GCs), GC-A to GC-G, which mainly modulate submembrane cGMP microdomains. These GCs share a unique topology comprising an extracellular domain, a short transmembrane region, and an intracellular COOH-terminal catalytic (cGMP synthesizing) region. GC-A mediates the endocrine effects of atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides regulating arterial blood pressure/volume and energy balance. GC-B is activated by C-type natriuretic peptide, stimulating endochondral ossification in autocrine way. GC-C mediates the paracrine effects of guanylins on intestinal ion transport and epithelial turnover. GC-E and GC-F are expressed in photoreceptor cells of the retina, and their activation by intracellular Ca(2+)-regulated proteins is essential for vision. Finally, in the rodent system two olfactorial GCs, GC-D and GC-G, are activated by low concentrations of CO2and by peptidergic (guanylins) and nonpeptidergic odorants as well as by coolness, which has implications for social behaviors. In the past years advances in human and mouse genetics as well as the development of sensitive biosensors monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of cGMP in living cells have provided novel relevant information about this receptor family. This increased our understanding of the mechanisms of signal transduction, regulation, and (dys)function of the membrane GCs, clarified their relevance for genetic and acquired diseases and, importantly, has revealed novel targets for therapies. The present review aims to illustrate these different features of membrane GCs and the main open questions in this field.

  3. Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Lycopene β-Cyclase from Macrophytic Red Alga Bangia fuscopurpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Jun Cao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene cyclases cyclize the open ends of acyclic lycopene (ψ,ψ-carotene into β- or ε-ionone rings in the crucial bifurcation step of carotenoid biosynthesis. Among all carotenoid constituents, β-carotene (β,β-carotene is found in all photosynthetic organisms, except for purple bacteria and heliobacteria, suggesting a ubiquitous distribution of lycopene β-cyclase activity in these organisms. In this work, we isolated a gene (BfLCYB encoding a lycopene β-cyclase from Bangia fuscopurpurea, a red alga that is considered to be one of the primitive multicellular eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms and accumulates carotenoid constituents with both β- and ε-rings, including β-carotene, zeaxanthin, α-carotene (β,ε-carotene and lutein. Functional complementation in Escherichia coli demonstrated that BfLCYB is able to catalyze cyclization of lycopene into monocyclic γ-carotene (β,ψ-carotene and bicyclic β-carotene, and cyclization of the open end of monocyclic δ-carotene (ε,ψ-carotene to produce α-carotene. No ε-cyclization activity was identified for BfLCYB. Sequence comparison showed that BfLCYB shares conserved domains with other functionally characterized lycopene cyclases from different organisms and belongs to a group of ancient lycopene cyclases. Although B. fuscopurpurea also synthesizes α-carotene and lutein, its enzyme-catalyzing ε-cyclization is still unknown.

  4. Ischemic-LTP in striatal spiny neurons of both direct and indirect pathway requires the activation of D1-like receptors and NO/soluble guanylate cyclase/cGMP transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcangeli, Sara; Tozzi, Alessandro; Tantucci, Michela; Spaccatini, Cristiano; de Iure, Antonio; Costa, Cinzia; Di Filippo, Massimiliano; Picconi, Barbara; Giampà, Carmen; Fusco, Francesca Romana; Amoroso, Salvatore; Calabresi, Paolo

    2013-02-01

    Striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) are highly vulnerable to ischemia. A brief ischemic insult, produced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), can induce ischemic long-term potentiation (i-LTP) of corticostriatal excitatory postsynaptic response. Since nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the pathophysiology of brain ischemia and the dopamine D1/D5-receptors (D1-like-R) are expressed in striatal NOS-positive interneurons, we hypothesized a relation between NOS-positive interneurons and striatal i-LTP, involving D1R activation and NO production. We investigated the mechanisms involved in i-LTP induced by OGD in corticostriatal slices and found that the D1-like-R antagonist SCH-23390 prevented i-LTP in all recorded MSNs. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the induction of i-LTP in both substance P-positive, (putative D1R-expressing) and adenosine A2A-receptor-positive (putative D2R-expressing) MSNs. Furthermore, i-LTP was dependent on a NOS/cGMP pathway since pharmacological blockade of NOS, guanylate-cyclase, or PKG prevented i-LTP. However, these compounds failed to prevent i-LTP in the presence of a NO donor or cGMP analog, respectively. Interestingly, the D1-like-R antagonism failed to prevent i-LTP when intracellular cGMP was pharmacologically increased. We propose that NO, produced by striatal NOS-positive interneurons via the stimulation of D1-like-R located on these cells, is critical for i-LTP induction in the entire population of MSNs involving a cGMP-dependent pathway.

  5. Ser⁄ Thr residues at α3⁄β5 loop of Gαs are important in morphine-induced adenylyl cyclase sensitization but not mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Albert, Paul R.; Dehpour, Ahmad R.; Rahimian, Reza; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Ghahremani, Mohammad H.

    2015-01-01

    The signaling switch of β2-adrenergic and μ1-opioid receptors from stimulatory G-protein (Gαs) to inhibitory G-protein (Gαi) (and vice versa) influences adenylyl cyclase (AC) and extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)1 ⁄ 2 activation. Post-translational modifications, including dephosphorylation of Gαs, enhance opioid receptor coupling to Gαs. In the present study, we substituted the Ser ⁄ Thr residues of Gαs at the α3 ⁄ β5 and α4 ⁄ β6 loops aiming to study the role of Gαs lacking Ser ⁄ Thr phosphorylation with respect to AC sensitization and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Isoproterenol increased the cAMP concentration (EC50 = 22.8 ± 3.4 μM) in Gαs-transfected S49 cyc– cells but not in nontransfected cells. However, there was no significant difference between the Gαs-wild-type (wt) and mutants. Morphine (10 μM) inhibited AC activity more efficiently in cyc– compared to Gαs-wt introduced cells (P < 0.05); however, we did not find a notable difference between Gαs-wt and mutants. Interestingly, Gαs-wt transfected cells showed more sensitization with respect to AC after chronic morphine compared to nontransfected cells (101 ± 12% versus 34 ± 6%; P < 0.001); μ1-opioid receptor interacted with Gαs, and both co-immunoprecipitated after chronic morphine exposure. Furthermore, mutation of T270A and S272A (P < 0.01), as well as T270A, S272A and S261A (P < 0.05), in α3 ⁄ β5, resulted in a higher level of AC supersensitization. ERK1⁄ 2 phosphorylation was rapidly induced by isoproterenol (by 9.5 ± 2.4-fold) and morphine (22 ± 2.2-fold) in Gαs-transfected cells; mutations of α3 ⁄ β5 and α4 ⁄ β6 did not affect the pattern or extent of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. The findings of the present study show that Gαs interacts with the μ1-opioid receptor, and the Ser ⁄ Thr mutation to Ala at the α3 ⁄ β5 loop of Gαs enhances morphine-induced AC sensitization. In addition, Gαs was required for

  6. Nucleoside triphosphate synthesis catalysed by adenylate kinase is ADP dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Martin; Kilstrup, M.

    2005-01-01

    Adenylate kinase (Adk) that catalyses the synthesis of ADP from ATP and AMP has also been shown to perform an ATP dependent phosphorylation of ribo- and deoxynucleoside diphosphates to their corresponding nucleoside triphosphate; ATP + (d)NDP ¿ ADP + (d)NTP. This reaction, suggested to occur...

  7. Role of glutaminyl cyclases in thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehlen, Astrid; Haegele, Monique; Menge, Katja; Gans, Kathrin; Immel, Uta-Dorothee; Hoang-Vu, Cuong; Klonisch, Thomas; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-02-01

    CCL2 is a chemokine known to recruit monocytes/macrophages to sites of inflammation. CCL2 is also associated with tumor progression in several cancer types. Recently, we showed that the N-terminus of CCL2 is modified to a pyroglutamate (pE)-residue by both glutaminyl cyclases (QC (QPCT)) and its isoenzyme (isoQC (QPCTL)). The pE-residue increases stability against N-terminal degradation by aminopeptidases. Here, we report an upregulation of QPCT expression in tissues of patients with thyroid carcinomas compared with goiter tissues, whereas QPCTL was not regulated. In thyroid carcinoma cell lines, QPCT gene expression correlates with the mRNA levels of its substrate CCL2. Both QPCT and CCL2 are regulated in a NF-κB-dependent pathway shown by stimulation with TNFa and IL1b as well as by inhibition with the IKK2 inhibitor and RNAi of p50. In the culture supernatant of thyroid carcinoma cells, equal amounts of pECCL2 and total CCL2 were detected by two ELISAs discriminating between total CCL2 and pECCL2, concluding that all CCL2 is secreted as pECCL2. Activation of the CCL2/CCR2 pathway by recombinant CCL2 increased tumor cell migration of FTC238 cells in scratch assays as well as thyroid carcinoma cell-derived CCL2-induced migration of monocytic THP1 cells. Suppression of CCL2 signaling by CCR2 antagonist, IKK2 inhibitor, and QPCT RNAi reduced FTC238 cell growth measured by WST8 proliferation assays. Our results reveal new evidence for a novel role of QC in thyroid carcinomas and provide an intriguing rationale for the use of QC inhibitors as a means of blocking pECCL2 formation and preventing thyroid cancer metastasis.

  8. Regulation of the activity of protein kinases by endogenous heat stable protein inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigielski, A

    1985-01-01

    Protein kinase activities are regulated by endogenous thermostable protein inhibitors. Type I inhibitor is a protein of MW 22,000-24,000 which inhibits specifically cyclic AMP-(cAMP) dependent protein kinase (APK) as a competitive inhibitor of catalytic subunits of the enzyme. Type I inhibitor activity changes inversely according to the activation of adenylate cyclase and the changes in cAMP content in tissues. It seems that type I inhibitor serves as a factor preventing spontaneous cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in unstimulated cell. The other thermostable protein which inhibits APK activity has been found in Sertoli cell-enriched testis (testis inhibitor). Physiological role of the testis inhibitor is unknown. Type II inhibitor is a protein of MW 15,000 which blocks phosphorylation mediated by cAMP and cyclic GMP (cGMP) dependent (APK and GPK) and cyclic nucleotide independent protein kinases as a competitive inhibitor of substrate proteins. Activity of this inhibitor specifically changes in reciprocal manner to the changes in cGMP content. It seems that type II inhibitor serves as a factor preventing the phosphorylation catalyzed by GPK when cGMP content is low. Stimulation of guanylate cyclase and activation of GPK is followed by a decrease of type II inhibitor activity. This change in relationship between activities of GPK and type II inhibitor allows for effective phosphorylation catalyzed by this enzyme when cGMP content is increased.

  9. An unusual plant triterpene synthase with predominant α-amyrin-producing activity identified by characterizing oxidosqualene cyclases from Malus × domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendolise, Cyril; Yauk, Yar-Khing; Eberhard, Ellen D; Wang, Mindy; Chagne, David; Andre, Christelle; Greenwood, David R; Beuning, Lesley L

    2011-07-01

    The pentacyclic triterpenes, in particular ursolic acid and oleanolic acid and their derivatives, exist abundantly in the plant kingdom, where they are well known for their anti-inflammatory, antitumour and antimicrobial properties. α-Amyrin and β-amyrin are the precursors of ursolic and oleanolic acids, respectively, formed by concerted cyclization of squalene epoxide by a complex synthase reaction. We identified three full-length expressed sequence tag sequences in cDNA libraries constructed from apple (Malus × domestica 'Royal Gala') that were likely to encode triterpene synthases. Two of these expressed sequence tag sequences were essentially identical (> 99% amino acid similarity; MdOSC1 and MdOSC3). MdOSC1 and MdOSC2 were expressed by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and by expression in the yeast Pichia methanolica. The resulting products were analysed by GC and GC-MS. MdOSC1 was shown to be a mixed amyrin synthase (a 5 : 1 ratio of α-amyrin to β-amyrin). MdOSC1 is the only triterpene synthase so far identified in which the level of α-amyrin produced is > 80% of the total product and is, therefore, primarily an α-amyrin synthase. No product was evident for MdOSC2 when expressed either transiently or in yeast, suggesting that this putative triterpene synthase is either encoded by a pseudogene or does not express well in these systems. Transcript expression analysis in Royal Gala indicated that the genes are mostly expressed in apple peel, and that the MdOSC2 expression level was much lower than that of MdOSC1 and MdOSC3 in all the tissues tested. Amyrin content analysis was undertaken by LC-MS, and demonstrated that levels and ratios differ between tissues, but that the true consequence of synthase activity is reflected in the ursolic/oleanolic acid content and in further triterpenoids derived from them. Phylogenetic analysis placed the three triterpene synthase sequences with other triterpene synthases that encoded either

  10. The Central Metabolism Regulator EIIAGlc Switches Salmonella from Growth Arrest to Acute Virulence through Activation of Virulence Factor Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Mazé

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Salmonella to cause disease depends on metabolic activities and virulence factors. Here, we show that a key metabolic protein, EIIAGlc, is absolutely essential for acute infection, but not for Salmonella survival, in a mouse typhoid fever model. Surprisingly, phosphorylation-dependent EIIAGlc functions, including carbohydrate transport and activation of adenylate cyclase for global regulation, do not explain this virulence phenotype. Instead, biochemical studies, in vitro secretion and translocation assays, and in vivo genetic epistasis experiments suggest that EIIAGlc binds to the type three secretion system 2 (TTSS-2 involved in systemic virulence, stabilizes its cytoplasmic part including the crucial TTSS-2 ATPase, and activates virulence factor secretion. This unexpected role of EIIAGlc reveals a striking direct link between central Salmonella metabolism and a crucial virulence mechanism.

  11. Diterpene Cyclases and the Nature of the Isoprene Fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rong; Zhang, Yonghui; Mann, Francis M.; Huang, Cancan; Mukkamala, Dushyant; Hudock, Michael P.; Mead, Matthew; Prisic, Sladjana; Wang, Ke; Lin, Fu-Yang; Chang, Ting-Kai; Peters, Reuben; Oldfield, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The structures and mechanism of action of many terpene cyclases are known, but there are no structures of diterpene cyclases. Here, we propose structural models based on bioinformatics, site-directed mutagenesis, domain swapping, enzyme inhibition and spectroscopy that help explain the nature of diterpene cyclase structure, function, and evolution. Bacterial diterpene cyclases contain ∼20 α-helices and the same conserved “QW” and DxDD motifs as in triterpene cyclases, indicating the presence of a βγ barrel structure. Plant diterpene cyclases have a similar catalytic motif and βγ-domain structure together with a third, α-domain, forming an αβγ structure, and in H+-initiated cyclases, there is an EDxxD-like Mg2+/diphosphate binding motif located in the γ-domain. The results support a new view of terpene cyclase structure and function and suggest evolution from ancient (βγ) bacterial triterpene cyclases to (βγ) bacterial and thence to (αβγ) plant diterpene cyclases. PMID:20602361

  12. Diadenosine Homodinucleotide Products of ADP-ribosyl Cyclases Behave as Modulators of the Purinergic Receptor P2X7*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzone, Santina; Basile, Giovanna; Chothi, Madhu Parakkottil; Nobbio, Lucilla; Usai, Cesare; Jacchetti, Emanuela; Schenone, Angelo; Guse, Andreas H.; Di Virgilio, Francesco; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2010-01-01

    ADP-ribosyl cyclases from both vertebrates and invertebrates were previously shown to produce two isomers of P1,P2 diadenosine 5′,5′"-P1, P2-diphosphate, P18 and P24, from cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and adenine. P18 and P24 are characterized by an unusual N-glycosidic linkage in one of the adenylic mononucleotides (Basile, G., Taglialatela-Scafati, O., Damonte, G., Armirotti, A., Bruzzone, S., Guida, L., Franco, L., Usai, C., Fattorusso, E., De Flora, A., and Zocchi, E. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14509–14514). P24, but not P18, proved to increase the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in HeLa cells and to negatively affect mitochondrial function. Here we show that micromolar P24, but not P18, triggers a slow and sustained influx of extracellular Ca2+ through the opening of the purinergic receptor/channel P2X7. On the other hand, P18 inhibits the Ca2+ influx induced by 0.6 mm ATP in HEK293 cells stably transfected with P2X7, with an IC50 of ∼1 μm. Thus, P18 is devoid of intrinsic P2X7 stimulatory activity and behaves as an ATP antagonist. A P2X7-mediated increase of the basal [Ca2+]i has been demonstrated to negatively affect Schwann cell (SC) function in rats with the inherited, peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A) (Nobbio, L., Sturla, L., Fiorese, F., Usai, C., Basile, G., Moreschi, I., Benvenuto, F., Zocchi, E., De Flora, A., Schenone, A., and Bruzzone S. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 23146–23158). Preincubation of CMT1A SC with 200 nm P18 restored the basal [Ca2+]i to values similar to those recorded in wild-type SC. These results identify P18 as a new P2X7 antagonist, potentially useful in the treatment of CMT1A. PMID:20439466

  13. Diadenosine homodinucleotide products of ADP-ribosyl cyclases behave as modulators of the purinergic receptor P2X7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzone, Santina; Basile, Giovanna; Chothi, Madhu Parakkottil; Nobbio, Lucilla; Usai, Cesare; Jacchetti, Emanuela; Schenone, Angelo; Guse, Andreas H; Di Virgilio, Francesco; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2010-07-02

    ADP-ribosyl cyclases from both vertebrates and invertebrates were previously shown to produce two isomers of P1,P2 diadenosine 5',5'"-P1, P2-diphosphate, P18 and P24, from cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and adenine. P18 and P24 are characterized by an unusual N-glycosidic linkage in one of the adenylic mononucleotides (Basile, G., Taglialatela-Scafati, O., Damonte, G., Armirotti, A., Bruzzone, S., Guida, L., Franco, L., Usai, C., Fattorusso, E., De Flora, A., and Zocchi, E. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14509-14514). P24, but not P18, proved to increase the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in HeLa cells and to negatively affect mitochondrial function. Here we show that micromolar P24, but not P18, triggers a slow and sustained influx of extracellular Ca(2+) through the opening of the purinergic receptor/channel P2X7. On the other hand, P18 inhibits the Ca(2+) influx induced by 0.6 mm ATP in HEK293 cells stably transfected with P2X7, with an IC(50) of approximately 1 mum. Thus, P18 is devoid of intrinsic P2X7 stimulatory activity and behaves as an ATP antagonist. A P2X7-mediated increase of the basal [Ca(2+)](i) has been demonstrated to negatively affect Schwann cell (SC) function in rats with the inherited, peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A) (Nobbio, L., Sturla, L., Fiorese, F., Usai, C., Basile, G., Moreschi, I., Benvenuto, F., Zocchi, E., De Flora, A., Schenone, A., and Bruzzone S. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 23146-23158). Preincubation of CMT1A SC with 200 nm P18 restored the basal [Ca(2+)](i) to values similar to those recorded in wild-type SC. These results identify P18 as a new P2X7 antagonist, potentially useful in the treatment of CMT1A.

  14. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of α-hydroxyacyl-AMS inhibitors of amino acid adenylation enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tony D; Mohandas, Poornima; Chiriac, Maria I; Bythrow, Glennon V; Quadri, Luis E N; Tan, Derek S

    2016-11-01

    Biosynthesis of bacterial natural-product virulence factors is emerging as a promising antibiotic target. Many such natural products are produced by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) from amino acid precursors. To develop selective inhibitors of these pathways, we have previously described aminoacyl-AMS (sulfamoyladenosine) macrocycles that inhibit NRPS amino acid adenylation domains but not mechanistically-related aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. To improve the cell permeability of these inhibitors, we explore herein replacement of the α-amino group with an α-hydroxy group. In both macrocycles and corresponding linear congeners, this leads to decreased biochemical inhibition of the cysteine adenylation domain of the Yersina pestis siderophore synthetase HMWP2, which we attribute to loss of an electrostatic interaction with a conserved active-site aspartate. However, inhibitory activity can be regained by installing a cognate β-thiol moiety in the linear series. This provides a path forward to develop selective, cell-penetrant inhibitors of the biosynthesis of virulence factors to probe their biological functions and potential as therapeutic targets.

  15. Pharmacological profile of the abeorphine 201-678, a potent orally active and long lasting dopamine agonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaton, A.L.; Giger, R.K.A.; Vigouret, J.M.; Enz, A.; Frick, W.; Closse, A.; Markstein, R.

    1986-01-13

    The central dopaminergic effects of an abeorphine derivative 201-678 were compared to those of apomorphine and bromocriptine in different model systems. After oral administration, this compound induced contralateral turning in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine induced nigral lesions and exhibited strong anti-akinetic properties in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine induced hypothalamic lesions. It decreased dopamine metabolism in striatum and cortex, but did not modify noradrenaline and serotonin metabolism in the rat brain. 201-678 counteracted the in vivo increase of tyrosine hydroxylase activity induced by ..gamma..-butyrolactone. In vitro it stimulated DA-sensitive adenylate cyclase and inhibited acetylcholine release from rat striatal slices. This compound had high affinity for /sup 3/H-dopamine and /sup 3/H-clonidine binding sites. These results indicate that 201-678 is a potent, orally active dopamine agonist with a long duration of action. Furthermore it appears more selective than other dopaminergic drugs. 29 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Inhibition of a plant sesquiterpene cyclase by mevinolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vögeli, U; Chappell, J

    1991-07-01

    The specificity of mevinolin as an inhibitor of sterol and sesquiterpene metabolism in tobacco cell suspension cultures was examined. Exogenous mevinolin inhibited [14C]acetate, but not [3H]mevalonate incorporation into free sterols. In contrast, mevinolin inhibited the incorporation of both [14C]acetate and [3H]mevalonate into capsidiol, an extracellular sesquiterpene. Microsomal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase was inhibited greater than 90% by microM mevinolin, while squalene synthetase was insensitive to even 600 microM mevinolin. Sesquiterpene cyclase, the first branch point enzyme specific for sesquiterpene biosynthesis, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by mevinolin with a 50% reduction in activity at 100 microM. Kinetic analysis indicated that the mechanism for inhibition was complex with mevinolin acting as both a competitive and noncompetitive inhibitor. The results suggest that the mevinolin inhibition of [3H]mevalonate incorporation into extracellular sesquiterpenes can, in part, be attributed to a secondary, but specific, site of inhibition, the sesquiterpene cyclase.

  17. beta-Adrenergic agonist activity of a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, J G; Kaveri, S V; Durieu, O; Delavier, C; Hoebeke, J; Strosberg, A D

    1985-03-01

    Hybridoma cells bearing monoclonal antibody against the beta-adrenergic ligand alprenolol were used as an immunogen to raise monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies. Of six anti-idiotypic antibodies, which inhibit ligand binding, three were able to recognize beta-adrenergic receptors. One of them, mAb2B4, an IgM that could be amplified into ascites, binds to the beta-adrenergic catecholamine receptors of intact epidermoid A431 cells and precipitates receptors solubilized from plasma membranes by digitonin. This antibody identifies the beta 2-adrenergic receptor of A431 cells as a single 55-kDa protein and stimulates adenylate cyclase activity. This stimulation is inhibited by the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol.

  18. Effects of activated ACM on expression of signal transducers in cerebral cortical neurons of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Li, Zhengli; Zhu, Changgeng; Li, Zhongyu

    2007-06-01

    To explore the roles of astrocytes in the epileptogenesis, astrocytes and neurons were isolated, purified and cultured in vitro from cerebral cortex of rats. The astrocytes were activated by ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and astrocytic conditioned medium (ACM) was collected to treat neurons for 4, 8 and 12 h. By using Western blot, the expression of calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and adenylate cyclase (AC) was detected in neurons. The results showed that the expression of CaMK II, iNOS and AC was increased significantly in the neurons treated with ACM from 4 h to 12 h (PACM and such signal pathways as NOS-NO-cGMP, Ca2+/CaM-CaMK II and AC-cAMP-PKA might take part in the signal transduction of epileptogenesis.

  19. Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Flavonoid from Hops (Humulus lupulus), Prevents Platelet Activation in Human Platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ye-Ming; Hsieh, Kuo-Hsien; Lu, Wan-Jung; Chou, Hsiu-Chu; Chou, Duen-Suey; Lien, Li-Ming; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Xanthohumol is the principal prenylated flavonoid in the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.). Xanthohumol was found to be a very potent cancer chemopreventive agent through regulation of diverse mechanisms. However, no data are available concerning the effects of xanthohumol on platelet activation. The aim of this paper was to examine the antiplatelet effect of xanthohumol in washed human platelets. In the present paper, xanthohumol exhibited more-potent activity in inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Xanthohumol inhibited platelet activation accompanied by relative [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization, thromboxane A(2) formation, hydroxyl radical (OH(●)) formation, and phospholipase C (PLC)γ2, protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and Akt phosphorylation. Neither SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, nor ODQ, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, reversed the xanthohumol-mediated inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. Furthermore, xanthohumol did not significantly increase nitrate formation in platelets. This study demonstrates for the first time that xanthohumol possesses potent antiplatelet activity which may initially inhibit the PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK, and PLCγ2-PKC cascades, followed by inhibition of the thromboxane A(2) formation, thereby leading to inhibition of [Ca(2+)](i) and finally inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, this novel role of xanthohumol may represent a high therapeutic potential for treatment or prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Flavonoid from Hops (Humulus lupulus, Prevents Platelet Activation in Human Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Ming Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthohumol is the principal prenylated flavonoid in the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.. Xanthohumol was found to be a very potent cancer chemopreventive agent through regulation of diverse mechanisms. However, no data are available concerning the effects of xanthohumol on platelet activation. The aim of this paper was to examine the antiplatelet effect of xanthohumol in washed human platelets. In the present paper, xanthohumol exhibited more-potent activity in inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Xanthohumol inhibited platelet activation accompanied by relative [Ca2+]i mobilization, thromboxane A2 formation, hydroxyl radical (OH● formation, and phospholipase C (PLCγ2, protein kinase C (PKC, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, and Akt phosphorylation. Neither SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, nor ODQ, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, reversed the xanthohumol-mediated inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. Furthermore, xanthohumol did not significantly increase nitrate formation in platelets. This study demonstrates for the first time that xanthohumol possesses potent antiplatelet activity which may initially inhibit the PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK, and PLCγ2-PKC cascades, followed by inhibition of the thromboxane A2 formation, thereby leading to inhibition of [Ca2+]i and finally inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, this novel role of xanthohumol may represent a high therapeutic potential for treatment or prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Purine and pyrimidine nucleosides preserve human astrocytoma cell adenylate energy charge under ischemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Francesco; Giannecchini, Michela; Sgarrella, Francesco; Carta, Maria Caterina; Tozzi, Maria Grazia; Camici, Marcella

    2007-02-01

    The brain depends on both glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for maintenance of ATP pools. Astrocytes play an integral role in brain functions providing trophic supports and energy substrates for neurons. In this paper, we report that human astrocytoma cells (ADF) undergoing ischemic conditions may use both purine and pyrimidine nucleosides as energy source to slow down cellular damage. The cells are subjected to metabolic stress conditions by exclusion of glucose and incubation with oligomycin (an inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation). This treatment brings about a depletion of the ATP pool, with a concomitant increase in the AMP levels, which results in a significant decrease of the adenylate energy charge. The presence of purine nucleosides in the culture medium preserves the adenylate energy charge, and improves cell viability. Besides purine nucleosides, also pyrimidine nucleosides, such as uridine and, to a lesser extent, cytidine, are able to preserve the ATP pool. The determination of lactate in the incubation medium indicates that nucleosides can preserve the ATP pool through anaerobic glycolysis, thus pointing to a relevant role of the phosphorolytic cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond of nucleosides which generates, without energy expense, the phosphorylated pentose, which through the pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis can be converted to energetic intermediates also in the absence of oxygen. In fact, ADF cells possess both purine nucleoside phosphorylase and uridine phosphorylase activities.

  2. Structure of the adenylation domain of NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase from Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungil; Chang, Jeanne S; Griffor, Matt

    2009-11-01

    DNA ligase catalyzes phosphodiester-bond formation between immediately adjacent 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl groups in double-stranded DNA and plays a central role in many cellular and biochemical processes, including DNA replication, repair and recombination. Bacterial NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases have been extensively characterized as potential antibacterial targets because of their essentiality and their structural distinction from human ATP-dependent DNA ligases. The high-resolution structure of the adenylation domain of Staphylococcus aureus NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase establishes the conserved domain architecture with other bacterial adenylation domains. Two apo crystal structures revealed that the active site possesses the preformed NAD(+)-binding pocket and the 'C2 tunnel' lined with hydrophobic residues: Leu80, Phe224, Leu287, Phe295 and Trp302. The C2 tunnel is unique to bacterial DNA ligases and the Leu80 side chain at the mouth of the tunnel points inside the tunnel and forms a narrow funnel in the S. aureus DNA ligase structure. Taken together with other DNA ligase structures, the S. aureus DNA ligase structure provides a basis for a more integrated understanding of substrate recognition and catalysis and will be also be of help in the development of small-molecule inhibitors.

  3. Structure of the adenylation domain of NAD[superscript +]-dependent DNA ligase from Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seungil; Chang, Jeanne S.; Griffor, Matt; Pfizer

    2010-09-17

    DNA ligase catalyzes phosphodiester-bond formation between immediately adjacent 5'-phosphate and 3''-hydroxyl groups in double-stranded DNA and plays a central role in many cellular and biochemical processes, including DNA replication, repair and recombination. Bacterial NAD{sup +}-dependent DNA ligases have been extensively characterized as potential antibacterial targets because of their essentiality and their structural distinction from human ATP-dependent DNA ligases. The high-resolution structure of the adenylation domain of Staphylococcus aureus NAD{sup +}-dependent DNA ligase establishes the conserved domain architecture with other bacterial adenylation domains. Two apo crystal structures revealed that the active site possesses the preformed NAD{sup +}-binding pocket and the 'C2 tunnel' lined with hydrophobic residues: Leu80, Phe224, Leu287, Phe295 and Trp302. The C2 tunnel is unique to bacterial DNA ligases and the Leu80 side chain at the mouth of the tunnel points inside the tunnel and forms a narrow funnel in the S. aureus DNA ligase structure. Taken together with other DNA ligase structures, the S. aureus DNA ligase structure provides a basis for a more integrated understanding of substrate recognition and catalysis and will be also be of help in the development of small-molecule inhibitors.

  4. Comparison of human CAP and CAP2, homologs of the yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, G; Swiston, J; Young, D

    1994-06-01

    We previously reported the identification of human CAP, a protein that is related to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe adenylyl cyclase-associated CAP proteins. The two yeast CAP proteins have similar functions: the N-terminal domains are required for the normal function of adenylyl cyclase, while loss of the C-terminal domains result in morphological and nutritional defects that are unrelated to the cAMP pathways. We have amplified and cloned cDNAs from a human glioblastoma library that encode a second CAP-related protein, CAP2. The human CAP and CAP2 proteins are 64% identical. Expression of either human CAP or CAP2 in S. cerevisiae cap- strains suppresses phenotypes associated with deletion of the C-terminal domain of CAP, but does not restore hyper-activation of adenylyl cyclase by RAS2val19. Similarly, expression of either human CAP or CAP2 in S. pombe cap- strains suppresses the morphological and temperature-sensitive phenotypes associated with deletion of the C-terminal domain of CAP in this yeast. In addition, expression of human CAP, but not CAP2, suppresses the propensity to sporulate due to deletion of the N-terminal domain of CAP in S. pombe. This latter observation suggests that human CAP restores normal adenylyl cyclase activity in S. pombe cap- cells. Thus, functional properties of both N-terminal and C-terminal domains are conserved between the human and S. pombe CAP proteins.

  5. Impairment of adenylyl cyclase signal transduction in mecobalamin-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, S; Watanabe, M; Ikeda, H; Kamada, H; Saito, T; Ohshika, H

    1995-11-30

    This study examined alterations in the beta-adrenoceptor-G5-adenylyl cyclase system in cerebral cortex membranes from vitamin B12-deficient rats fed a diet lacking vitamin B12 (mecobalamin) for 15 weeks. Basal, 5(7)-guanylylimidodiphosphate (GppNHp)-, isoproterenol-, and forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities were significantly reduced in mecobalamin-deficient rats compared with those in control rats. However, no significant differences were observed in the amount and function of G5- estimated by immunoblotting and guanine nucleotide photoaffinity labeling, respectively, or in the densities and the dissociation constants of beta-adrenoceptors, estimated by [125I] pindolol binding, between control and the deficient rats. These results indicate that vitamin B12 deficiency results in the impairment of the coupling among the beta-adrenoceptor, G5- and the catalytic subunit of adenylyl cyclase, and in dysfunction of the catalytic subunit of the enzyme, suggesting that vitamin B12 participates in the regulation of neuronal adenylyl cyclase signal transduction.

  6. The cyclase-associated protein CAP as regulator of cell polarity and cAMP signaling in Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noegel, Angelika A; Blau-Wasser, Rosemarie; Sultana, Hameeda; Müller, Rolf; Israel, Lars; Schleicher, Michael; Patel, Hitesh; Weijer, Cornelis J

    2004-02-01

    Cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of the G-actin/F-actin ratio and, in yeast, is involved in regulating the adenylyl cyclase activity. We show that cell polarization, F-actin organization, and phototaxis are altered in a Dictyostelium CAP knockout mutant. Furthermore, in complementation assays we determined the roles of the individual domains in signaling and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. We studied in detail the adenylyl cyclase activity and found that the mutant cells have normal levels of the aggregation phase-specific adenylyl cyclase and that receptor-mediated activation is intact. However, cAMP relay that is responsible for the generation of propagating cAMP waves that control the chemotactic aggregation of starving Dictyostelium cells was altered, and the cAMP-induced cGMP production was significantly reduced. The data suggest an interaction of CAP with adenylyl cyclase in Dictyostelium and an influence on signaling pathways directly as well as through its function as a regulatory component of the cytoskeleton.

  7. 大鼠三叉神经节垂体腺苷环化酶激活肽免疫反应神经元对松果体的神经支配%Innervation of the rat pineal gland by pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP)-immunoreactive nerve fibres originating in the trigeminal gangluon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 金芳华; 彭华; 何建波

    2002-01-01

    目的证实大鼠松果体的垂体腺苷环化酶激活肽(PACAP)免疫反应神经纤维来源于三叉神经节神经元.方法 采用颞下窝入路切断大鼠眼-上颌神经,存活3d~1周后,观察松果体的PACAP免疫反应神经纤维并计数,与未经手术的对照组动物比较.结果在切断了眼-上颌神经的大鼠,其松果体的PACAP免疫反应神经纤维明显减少.结论大鼠三叉神经节是松果体PACAP能神经纤维的主要来源,该类神经纤维可能参与调节松果体腺细胞分泌褪黑素.

  8. Synthetic genes for human muscle-type adenylate kinase in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Nishikawa, S; Tanaka, T; Uesugi, S; Takenaka, H; Hamada, M; Kuby, S A

    1989-01-01

    An artificial gene coding for the human muscle-type cytosolic adenylate kinase (hAK1) was chemically synthesized and directly expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of trp promoter. The DNA duplex of 596 bp was designed and constructed from 40 oligonucleotide fragments of typically 30 nucleotides in length. Twelve unique restriction sites were fairly evenly spaced in the synthetic gene to facilitate site-specific mutagenesis at any part of this recombinant protein. The genes for mutant hAK1 (Tyr 95----Phe 95, Y95F hAK1; Arg 97----Ala 97, R97A hAK1) were constructed by cassette mutagenesis and utilized restriction sites incorporated in the hAK1 gene. The recombinant hAK1 was purified to homogeneity by a two-step chromatographic procedure with a good yield, and showed the same adenylate kinase activity as that of authentic hAK1. Preliminary kinetic studies show that the enzymatic activity (Vmax app,cor/Et) of Y95F hAK1 was slightly greater than that of recombinant hAK1, whereas R97A hAK1 still possessed approximately 4% of recombinant hAK1 activity. These results suggest that the Arg-97 residue is important but not essential for catalytic activity, and that Tyr-95 can be replaced by phenylalanine without substantial effects on the enzymatic activity. Moreover, preliminary estimates of the apparent kinetic parameters suggest that these residues are not required for MgATP binding, and therefore they do not appear to be part of the MgATP binding site.

  9. The late endosomal HOPS complex anchors active G-protein signaling essential for pathogenesis in magnaporthe oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikrishna Ramanujam

    Full Text Available In Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal ascomycete of the devastating rice blast disease, the conidial germ tube tip must sense and respond to a wide array of requisite cues from the host in order to switch from polarized to isotropic growth, ultimately forming the dome-shaped infection cell known as the appressorium. Although the role for G-protein mediated Cyclic AMP signaling in appressorium formation was first identified almost two decades ago, little is known about the spatio-temporal dynamics of the cascade and how the signal is transmitted through the intracellular network during cell growth and morphogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that the late endosomal compartments, comprising of a PI3P-rich (Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate highly dynamic tubulo-vesicular network, scaffold active MagA/GαS, Rgs1 (a GAP for MagA, Adenylate cyclase and Pth11 (a non-canonical GPCR in the likely absence of AKAP-like anchors during early pathogenic development in M. oryzae. Loss of HOPS component Vps39 and consequently the late endosomal function caused a disruption of adenylate cyclase localization, cAMP signaling and appressorium formation. Remarkably, exogenous cAMP rescued the appressorium formation defects associated with VPS39 deletion in M. oryzae. We propose that sequestration of key G-protein signaling components on dynamic late endosomes and/or endolysosomes, provides an effective molecular means to compartmentalize and control the spatio-temporal activation and rapid downregulation (likely via vacuolar degradation of cAMP signaling amidst changing cellular geometry during pathogenic development in M. oryzae.

  10. Bicarbonate-responsive “soluble” adenylyl cyclase defines a nuclear cAMP microdomain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippin, Jonathan H.; Farrell, Jeanne; Huron, David; Kamenetsky, Margarita; Hess, Kenneth C.; Fischman, Donald A.; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen

    2004-01-01

    Bicarbonate-responsive “soluble” adenylyl cyclase resides, in part, inside the mammalian cell nucleus where it stimulates the activity of nuclear protein kinase A to phosphorylate the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). The existence of this complete and functional, nuclear-localized cAMP pathway establishes that cAMP signals in intracellular microdomains and identifies an alternate pathway leading to CREB activation. PMID:14769862

  11. Bicarbonate-responsive “soluble” adenylyl cyclase defines a nuclear cAMP microdomain

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Bicarbonate-responsive “soluble” adenylyl cyclase resides, in part, inside the mammalian cell nucleus where it stimulates the activity of nuclear protein kinase A to phosphorylate the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). The existence of this complete and functional, nuclear-localized cAMP pathway establishes that cAMP signals in intracellular microdomains and identifies an alternate pathway leading to CREB activation.

  12. Expression of val-12 mutant ras p21 in an IL-3-dependent murine myeloid cell line is associated with loss of serum-dependence and increases in membrane PIP2-specific phospholipase C activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, M T; Boswell, H S; English, D; Gabig, T G

    1991-01-01

    We previously showed that the proliferative response of a serum- and interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent murine myeloid cell line, NFS/N1-H7, was partially inhibited by pertussis toxin as a result of toxin-induced increased adenylate cyclase activity. In the present studies, we examined the role of the phosphoinositide cycle in the proliferative response of these cells and demonstrated that there was no change in PIP (phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate)-specific phospholipase C activity in response to IL-3 alone. However, serum caused a pertussis toxin-insensitive increase in PIP2-specific phospholipase C activity as reflected by decreased cellular levels of 32P-labelled PIP2. Proliferation of a subline selected from val-12-mutant H-ras-transfected NFS-H7 cells, clone E5, was insensitive to pertussis toxin, occurred in the absence of serum but remained serum-stimulatable and absolutely dependent on IL-3. This val-12 mutant ras-expressing cell line showed an increase in 32P-labelled PIP (phosphatidylinositol phosphate) in response to serum whereas the parent cell line did not. Membrane fractions from 32P-labelled ras-transfected cells displayed higher GTP gamma S-, GTP-, or F(-)-stimulated PIP2-specific phospholipase C activity compared to membranes from the parent cell line. Thus serum-dependence and adenylate cyclase-mediated pertussis toxin-sensitivity of the parent cell line was bypassed by val-12 mutant ras p21, possibly as a result of increased PIP2-specific phospholipase C activity.

  13. Enzymatic 13C Labeling and Multidimensional NMR Analysis of Miltiradiene Synthesized by Bifunctional Diterpene Cyclase in Selaginella moellendorffii*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Yoshinori; Ueno, Yohei; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Oogami, Shingo; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Matsumoto, Sadamu; Natsume, Masahiro; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Kawaide, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Diterpenes show diverse chemical structures and various physiological roles. The diversity of diterpene is primarily established by diterpene cyclases that catalyze a cyclization reaction to form the carbon skeleton of cyclic diterpene. Diterpene cyclases are divided into two types, monofunctional and bifunctional cyclases. Bifunctional diterpene cyclases (BDTCs) are involved in hormone and defense compound biosyntheses in bryophytes and gymnosperms, respectively. The BDTCs catalyze the successive two-step type-B (protonation-initiated cyclization) and type-A (ionization-initiated cyclization) reactions of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP). We found that the genome of a lycophyte, Selaginella moellendorffii, contains six BDTC genes with the majority being uncharacterized. The cDNA from S. moellendorffii encoding a BDTC-like enzyme, miltiradiene synthase (SmMDS), was cloned. The recombinant SmMDS converted GGDP to a diterpene hydrocarbon product with a molecular mass of 272 Da. Mutation in the type-B active motif of SmMDS abolished the cyclase activity, whereas (+)-copalyl diphosphate, the reaction intermediate from the conversion of GGDP to the hydrocarbon product, rescued the cyclase activity of the mutant to form a diterpene hydrocarbon. Another mutant lacking type-A activity accumulated copalyl diphosphate as the reaction intermediate. When the diterpene hydrocarbon was enzymatically synthesized from [U-13C6]mevalonate, all carbons were labeled with 13C stable isotope (>99%). The fully 13C-labeled product was subjected to 13C-13C COSY NMR spectroscopic analyses. The direct carbon-carbon connectivities observed in the multidimensional NMR spectra demonstrated that the hydrocarbon product by SmMDS is miltiradiene, a putative biosynthetic precursor of tanshinone identified from the Chinese medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza. Hence, SmMDS functions as a bifunctional miltiradiene synthase in S. moellendorffii. In this study, we demonstrate that one-dimensional and

  14. Neuromodulatory effect of Gαs- or Gαq-coupled G-protein-coupled receptor on NMDA receptor selectively activates the NMDA receptor/Ca2+/calcineurin/cAMP response element-binding protein-regulated transcriptional coactivator 1 pathway to effectively induce brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuchi, Mamoru; Tabuchi, Akiko; Kuwana, Yuki; Watanabe, Shinjiro; Inoue, Minami; Takasaki, Ichiro; Izumi, Hironori; Tanaka, Ayumi; Inoue, Ran; Mori, Hisashi; Komatsu, Hidetoshi; Takemori, Hiroshi; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Bito, Haruhiko; Tsuda, Masaaki

    2015-04-01

    Although coordinated molecular signaling through excitatory and modulatory neurotransmissions is critical for the induction of immediate early genes (IEGs), which lead to effective changes in synaptic plasticity, the intracellular mechanisms responsible remain obscure. Here we measured the expression of IEGs and used bioluminescence imaging to visualize the expression of Bdnf when GPCRs, major neuromodulator receptors, were stimulated. Stimulation of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-specific receptor (PAC1), a Gαs/q-protein-coupled GPCR, with PACAP selectively activated the calcineurin (CN) pathway that is controlled by calcium signals evoked via NMDAR. This signaling pathway then induced the expression of Bdnf and CN-dependent IEGs through the nuclear translocation of CREB-regulated transcriptional coactivator 1 (CRTC1). Intracerebroventricular injection of PACAP and intraperitoneal administration of MK801 in mice demonstrated that functional interactions between PAC1 and NMDAR induced the expression of Bdnf in the brain. Coactivation of NMDAR and PAC1 synergistically induced the expression of Bdnf attributable to selective activation of the CN pathway. This CN pathway-controlled expression of Bdnf was also induced by stimulating other Gαs- or Gαq-coupled GPCRs, such as dopamine D1, adrenaline β, CRF, and neurotensin receptors, either with their cognate agonists or by direct stimulation of the protein kinase A (PKA)/PKC pathway with chemical activators. Thus, the GPCR-induced expression of IEGs in coordination with NMDAR might occur via the selective activation of the CN/CRTC1/CREB pathway under simultaneous excitatory and modulatory synaptic transmissions in neurons if either the Gαs/adenylate cyclase/PKA or Gαq/PLC/PKC-mediated pathway is activated.

  15. Receptor-type guanylate cyclase is required for carbon dioxide sensation by Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallem, Elissa A; Spencer, W Clay; McWhirter, Rebecca D; Zeller, Georg; Henz, Stefan R; Rätsch, Gunnar; Miller, David M; Horvitz, H Robert; Sternberg, Paul W; Ringstad, Niels

    2011-01-04

    CO(2) is both a critical regulator of animal physiology and an important sensory cue for many animals for host detection, food location, and mate finding. The free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans shows CO(2) avoidance behavior, which requires a pair of ciliated sensory neurons, the BAG neurons. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we show that CO(2) specifically activates the BAG neurons and that the CO(2)-sensing function of BAG neurons requires TAX-2/TAX-4 cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels and the receptor-type guanylate cyclase GCY-9. Our results delineate a molecular pathway for CO(2) sensing and suggest that activation of a receptor-type guanylate cyclase is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which animals detect environmental CO(2).

  16. The magnesium-protoporphyrin IX (oxidative) cyclase system. Studies on the mechanism and specificity of the reaction sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C J; Mansfield, K E; Rezzano, I N; Hanamoto, C M; Smith, K M; Castelfranco, P A

    1988-10-15

    Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester cyclase activity was assayed in isolated developing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. var. Beit Alpha) chloroplasts [Chereskin, Wong & Castelfranco (1982) Plant Physiol. 70, 987-993]. The presence of both 6- and 7-methyl esterase activities was detected, which permitted the use of diester porphyrins in a substrate-specificity study. It was found that: (1) the 6-methyl acrylate derivative of Mg-protoporphyrin monomethyl ester was inactive as a substrate for cyclization; (2) only one of the two enantiomers of 6-beta-hydroxy-Mg-protoporphyrin dimethyl ester had detectable activity as a substrate for the cyclase; (3) the 2-vinyl-4-ethyl-6-beta-oxopropionate derivatives of Mg-protoporphyrin mono- or di-methyl ester were approx. 4 times more active as substrates for cyclization than the corresponding divinyl forms; (4) at the level of Mg-protoporphyrin there was no difference in cyclase activity between the 4-vinyl and 4-ethyl substrates; (5) reduction of the side chain of Mg-protoporphyrin in the 2-position from a vinyl to an ethyl resulted in a partial loss of cyclase activity. This work suggests that the original scheme for cyclization proposed by Granick [(1950) Harvey Lect. 44, 220-245] should now be modified by the omission of the 6-methyl acrylate derivative of Mg-protoporphyrin monomethyl ester and the introduction of stereo-specificity at the level of the hydroxylated intermediate.

  17. Human recombinant soluble guanylyl cyclase: expression, purification, and regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. C.; Martin, E.; Murad, F.

    2000-01-01

    The alpha1- and beta1-subunits of human soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) were coexpressed in the Sf9 cells/baculovirus system. In addition to the native enzyme, constructs with hexahistidine tag at the amino and carboxyl termini of each subunit were coexpressed. This permitted the rapid and efficient purification of active recombinant enzyme on a nickel-affinity column. The enzyme has one heme per heterodimer and was readily activated with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside or 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'furyl)-1-benzyl-indazole (YC-1). Sodium nitroprusside and YC-1 treatment potentiated each other in combination and demonstrated a remarkable 2,200-fold stimulation of the human recombinant sGC. The effects were inhibited with 1H-(1,2, 4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1one (ODQ). The kinetics of the recombinant enzyme with respect to GTP was examined. The products of the reaction, cGMP and pyrophosphate, inhibited the enzyme. The extent of inhibition by cGMP depended on the activation state of the enzyme, whereas inhibition by pyrophosphate was not affected by the enzyme state. Both reaction products displayed independent binding and cooperativity with respect to enzyme inhibition. The expression of large quantities of active enzyme will facilitate structural characterization of the protein.

  18. The first structure of a bacterial diterpene cyclase: CotB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Ronja; Görner, Christian; Hirte, Max; Brück, Thomas; Loll, Bernhard

    2014-06-01

    Sesquiterpenes and diterpenes are a diverse class of secondary metabolites that are predominantly derived from plants and some prokaryotes. The properties of these natural products encompass antitumor, antibiotic and even insecticidal activities. Therefore, they are interesting commercial targets for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Owing to their structural complexity, these compounds are more efficiently accessed by metabolic engineering of microbial systems than by chemical synthesis. This work presents the first crystal structure of a bacterial diterpene cyclase, CotB2 from the soil bacterium Streptomyces melanosporofaciens, at 1.64 Å resolution. CotB2 is a diterpene cyclase that catalyzes the cyclization of the linear geranylgeranyl diphosphate to the tricyclic cyclooctat-9-en-7-ol. The subsequent oxidation of cyclooctat-9-en-7-ol by two cytochrome P450 monooxygenases leads to bioactive cyclooctatin. Plasticity residues that decorate the active site of CotB2 have been mutated, resulting in alternative monocyclic, dicyclic and tricyclic compounds that show bioactivity. These new compounds shed new light on diterpene cyclase reaction mechanisms. Furthermore, the product of mutant CotB2(W288G) produced the new antibiotic compound (1R,3E,7E,11S,12S)-3,7,18-dolabellatriene, which acts specifically against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This opens a sustainable route for the industrial-scale production of this bioactive compound.

  19. H2S induces vasoconstriction of rat cerebral arteries via cAMP/adenylyl cyclase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sen; Ping, Na-Na; Cao, Lei; Mi, Yan-Ni; Cao, Yong-Xiao

    2015-12-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), traditionally known for its toxic effects, is now involved in regulating vascular tone. Here we investigated the vasoconstrictive effect of H2S on cerebral artery and the underlying mechanism. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of H2S, concentration-dependently induced vasoconstriction on basilar artery, which was enhanced in the presence of isoprenaline, a β-adrenoceptor agonist or forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator. Administration of NaHS attenuated the vasorelaxant effects of isoprenaline or forskolin. Meanwhile, the NaHS-induced vasoconstriction was diminished in the presence of 8B-cAMP, an analog of cAMP, but was not affected by Bay K-8644, a selective L-type Ca(2+) channel agonist. These results could be explained by the revised effects of NaHS on isoprenaline-induced cAMP elevation and forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity. Additionally, NaHS-induced vasoconstriction was enhanced by removing the endothelium or in the presence of L-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. L-NAME only partially attenuated the effect of NaHS which was given together with forskolin on the pre-contracted artery. In conclusion, H2S induces vasoconstriction of cerebral artery via, at least in part, cAMP/adenylyl cyclase pathway.

  20. Elevation of lutein content in tomato: a biochemical tug-of-war between lycopene cyclases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorio, Giovanni; Yildirim, Arzu; Stigliani, Adriana Lucia; D'Ambrosio, Caterina

    2013-11-01

    Lutein is becoming increasingly important in preventive medicine due to its possible role in maintaining good vision and in preventing age-related maculopathy. Average daily lutein intake in developed countries is often below suggested daily consumption levels, and lutein supplementation could be beneficial. Lutein is also valuable in the food and feed industries and is emerging in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical markets. Currently, lutein is obtained at high cost from marigold petals, and synthesis alternatives are thus desirable. Tomato constitutes a promising starting system for production as it naturally accumulates high levels of lycopene. To develop tomato for lutein synthesis, the tomato Red Setter cultivar was transformed with the tomato lycopene ε-cyclase-encoding gene under the control of a constitutive promoter, and the HighDelta (HD) line, characterised by elevated lutein and δ-carotene content in ripe fruits, was selected. HD was crossed to the transgenic HC line and to RS(B) with the aim of converting all residual fruit δ-carotene to lutein. Fruits of both crosses were enriched in lutein and presented unusual carotenoid profiles. The unique genetic background of the crosses used in this study permitted an unprecedented analysis of the role and regulation of the lycopene cyclase enzymes in tomato. A new defined biochemical index, the relative cyclase activity ratio, was used to discern post-transcriptional regulation of cyclases, and will help in the study of carotenoid biosynthesis in photosynthetic plant species and particularly in those, like tomato, that have been domesticated for the production of food, feed or useful by-products.

  1. Microarray evidence of glutaminyl cyclase gene expression in melanoma: implications for tumor antigen specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillis John

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years encouraging progress has been made in developing vaccine treatments for cancer, particularly with melanoma. However, the overall rate of clinically significant results has remained low. The present research used microarray datasets from previous investigations to examine gene expression patterns in cancer cell lines with the goal of better understanding the tumor microenvironment. Methods Principal Components Analyses with Promax rotational transformations were carried out with 90 cancer cell lines from 3 microarray datasets, which had been made available on the internet as supplementary information from prior publications. Results In each of the analyses a well defined melanoma component was identified that contained a gene coding for the enzyme, glutaminyl cyclase, which was as highly expressed as genes from a variety of well established biomarkers for melanoma, such as MAGE-3 and MART-1, which have frequently been used in clinical trials of melanoma vaccines. Conclusion Since glutaminyl cyclase converts glutamine and glutamic acid into a pyroglutamic form, it may interfere with the tumor destructive process of vaccines using peptides having glutamine or glutamic acid at their N-terminals. Finding ways of inhibiting the activity of glutaminyl cyclase in the tumor microenvironment may help to increase the effectiveness of some melanoma vaccines.

  2. Identification of photoactivated adenylyl cyclases in Naegleria australiensis and BLUF-containing protein in Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Hiro; Sato, Aya; Kita, Ayaka; Kodaira, Ken-Ichi; Iseki, Mineo; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Shibusawa, Mami; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Yagita, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Complete genome sequencing of Naegleria gruberi has revealed that the organism encodes polypeptides similar to photoactivated adenylyl cyclases (PACs). Screening in the N. australiensis genome showed that the organism also encodes polypeptides similar to PACs. Each of the Naegleria proteins consists of a "sensors of blue-light using FAD" domain (BLUF domain) and an adenylyl cyclase domain (AC domain). PAC activity of the Naegleria proteins was assayed by comparing sensitivities of Escherichia coli cells heterologously expressing the proteins to antibiotics in a dark condition and a blue light-irradiated condition. Antibiotics used in the assays were fosfomycin and fosmidomycin. E. coli cells expressing the Naegleria proteins showed increased fosfomycin sensitivity and fosmidomycin sensitivity when incubated under blue light, indicating that the proteins functioned as PACs in the bacterial cells. Analysis of the N. fowleri genome revealed that the organism encodes a protein bearing an amino acid sequence similar to that of BLUF. A plasmid expressing a chimeric protein consisting of the BLUF-like sequence found in N. fowleri and the adenylyl cyclase domain of N. gruberi PAC was constructed to determine whether the BLUF-like sequence functioned as a sensor of blue light. E. coli cells expressing a chimeric protein showed increased fosfomycin sensitivity and fosmidomycin sensitivity when incubated under blue light. These experimental results indicated that the sequence similar to the BLUF domain found in N. fowleri functioned as a sensor of blue light.

  3. Molecular and Functional Characterization of a Trypanosoma cruzi Nuclear Adenylate Kinase Isoform

    OpenAIRE

    María de los Milagros Cámara; Bouvier, León A.; Canepa, Gaspar E.; Mariana R Miranda; Pereira, Claudio A.

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas’ disease, is an early divergent eukaryote in which control of gene expression relies mainly in post-transcriptional mechanisms. Transcription levels are globally up and down regulated during the transition between proliferating and non-proliferating life-cycle stages. In this work we characterized a nuclear adenylate kinase isoform (TcADKn) that is involved in ribosome biogenesis. Nuclear adenylate kinases have been recently described in a fe...

  4. Structural evidence for variable oligomerization of the N-terminal domain of cyclase-associated protein (CAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Adlina Mohd; Hu, Nien-Jen; Wlodawer, Alexander; Hofmann, Andreas

    2005-02-01

    Cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is a highly conserved and widely distributed protein that links the nutritional response signaling to cytoskeleton remodeling. In yeast, CAP is a component of the adenylyl cyclase complex and helps to activate the Ras-mediated catalytic cycle of the cyclase. While the N-terminal domain of CAP (N-CAP) provides a binding site for adenylyl cyclase, the C-terminal domain (C-CAP) possesses actin binding activity. Our attempts to crystallize full-length recombinant CAP from Dictyostelium discoideum resulted in growth of orthorhombic crystals containing only the N-terminal domain (residues 42-227) due to auto-proteolytic cleavage. The structure was solved by molecular replacement with data at 2.2 A resolution. The present crystal structure allows the characterization of a head-to-tail N-CAP dimer in the asymmetric unit and a crystallographic side-to-side dimer. Comparison with previously published structures of N-CAP reveals variable modes of dimerization of this domain, but the presence of a common interface for the side-to-side dimer.

  5. Optimization of ATP synthase function in mitochondria and chloroplasts via the adenylate kinase equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir U Igamberdiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The bulk of ATP synthesis in plants is performed by ATP synthase, the main bioenergetics engine of cells, operating both in mitochondria and in chloroplasts. The reaction mechanism of ATP synthase has been studied in detail for over half a century; however, its optimal performance depends also on the steady delivery of ATP synthase substrates and the removal of its products. For mitochondrial ATP synthase, we analyze here the provision of stable conditions for (i the supply of ADP and Mg2+, supported by adenylate kinase (AK equilibrium in the intermembrane space, (ii the supply of phosphate via membrane transporter in symport with H+, and (iii the conditions of outflow of ATP by adenylate transporter carrying out the exchange of free adenylates. We also show that, in chloroplasts, AK equilibrates adenylates and governs Mg2+ contents in the stroma, optimizing ATP synthase and Calvin cycle operation, and affecting the import of inorganic phosphate in exchange with triose phosphates. It is argued that chemiosmosis is not the sole component of ATP synthase performance, which also depends on AK-mediated equilibrium of adenylates and Mg2+, adenylate transport and phosphate release and supply.

  6. The YHS-Domain of an Adenylyl Cyclase from Mycobacterium phlei Is a Probable Copper-Sensor Module.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Ulrich Linder

    Full Text Available YHS-domains are small protein modules which have been proposed to bind transition-metal ions like the related TRASH-domains. They are found in a variety of enzymes including copper-transporting ATPases and adenylyl cyclases. Here we investigate a class IIIc adenylyl cyclase from Mycobacterium phlei which contains a C-terminal YHS-domain linked to the catalytic domain by a peptide of 8 amino acids. We expressed the isolated catalytic domain and the full-length enzyme in E. coli. The catalytic domain requires millimolar Mn2+ as a cofactor for efficient production of cAMP, is unaffected by low micromolar concentrations of Cu2+ and inhibited by concentrations higher than 10 μM. The full-length enzyme also requires Mn2+ in the absence of an activator. However, 1-10 μM Cu2+ stimulate the M. phlei adenylyl cyclase sixfold when assayed with Mn2+. With Mg2+ as the probable physiological cofactor of the adenylyl cyclase Cu2+ specifically switches the enzyme from an inactive to an active state. Other transition-metal ions do not elicit activity with Mg2+. We favor the view that the YHS-domain of M. phlei adenylyl cyclase acts as a sensor for copper ions and signals elevated levels of the transition-metal via cAMP. By analogy to TRASH-domains binding of Cu2+ probably occurs via one conserved aspartate and three conserved cysteine-residues in the YHS-domain.

  7. Structure of RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase bound to substrate RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Kevin K; Bingman, Craig A; Cheng, Chin L; Phillips, George N; Raines, Ronald T

    2014-10-01

    RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase (RtcA) catalyzes the ATP-dependent cyclization of a 3'-phosphate to form a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate at RNA termini. Cyclization proceeds through RtcA-AMP and RNA(3')pp(5')A covalent intermediates, which are analogous to intermediates formed during catalysis by the tRNA ligase RtcB. Here we present a crystal structure of Pyrococcus horikoshii RtcA in complex with a 3'-phosphate terminated RNA and adenosine in the AMP-binding pocket. Our data reveal that RtcA recognizes substrate RNA by ensuring that the terminal 3'-phosphate makes a large contribution to RNA binding. Furthermore, the RNA 3'-phosphate is poised for in-line attack on the P-N bond that links the phosphorous atom of AMP to N(ε) of His307. Thus, we provide the first insights into RNA 3'-phosphate termini recognition and the mechanism of 3'-phosphate activation by an Rtc enzyme.

  8. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucèia Fàtima Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g. The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  9. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae) Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucèia Fàtima; Caputo, Lucia; Inchausti De Barros, Ingrid Bergman; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-09-03

    The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL) and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g). The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY) expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  10. Enzyme-adenylate structure of a bacterial ATP-dependent DNA ligase with a minimized DNA-binding surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Adele; Rothweiler, Ulli; Leiros, Hanna Kirsti Schrøder

    2014-11-01

    DNA ligases are a structurally diverse class of enzymes which share a common catalytic core and seal breaks in the phosphodiester backbone of double-stranded DNA via an adenylated intermediate. Here, the structure and activity of a recombinantly produced ATP-dependent DNA ligase from the bacterium Psychromonas sp. strain SP041 is described. This minimal-type ligase, like its close homologues, is able to ligate singly nicked double-stranded DNA with high efficiency and to join cohesive-ended and blunt-ended substrates to a more limited extent. The 1.65 Å resolution crystal structure of the enzyme-adenylate complex reveals no unstructured loops or segments, and suggests that this enzyme binds the DNA without requiring full encirclement of the DNA duplex. This is in contrast to previously characterized minimal DNA ligases from viruses, which use flexible loop regions for DNA interaction. The Psychromonas sp. enzyme is the first structure available for the minimal type of bacterial DNA ligases and is the smallest DNA ligase to be crystallized to date.

  11. Conformational dynamics of a ligand-free adenylate kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Deok Song

    Full Text Available Adenylate kinase (AdK is a phosphoryl-transfer enzyme with important physiological functions. Based on a ligand-free open structure and a ligand-bound closed structure solved by crystallography, here we use molecular dynamics simulations to examine the stability and dynamics of AdK conformations in the absence of ligands. We first perform multiple simulations starting from the open or the closed structure, and observe their free evolutions during a simulation time of 100 or 200 nanoseconds. In all seven simulations starting from the open structure, AdK remained stable near the initial conformation. The eight simulations initiated from the closed structure, in contrast, exhibited large variation in the subsequent evolutions, with most (seven undergoing large-scale spontaneous conformational changes and approaching or reaching the open state. To characterize the thermodynamics of the transition, we propose and apply a new sampling method that employs a series of restrained simulations to calculate a one-dimensional free energy along a curved pathway in the high-dimensional conformational space. Our calculated free energy profile features a single minimum at the open conformation, and indicates that the closed state, with a high (∼13 kcal/mol free energy, is not metastable, consistent with the observed behaviors of the unrestrained simulations. Collectively, our simulations suggest that it is energetically unfavorable for the ligand-free AdK to access the closed conformation, and imply that ligand binding may precede the closure of the enzyme.

  12. Computational identification of candidate nucleotide cyclases in higher plants

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze

    2013-09-03

    In higher plants guanylyl cyclases (GCs) and adenylyl cyclases (ACs) cannot be identified using BLAST homology searches based on annotated cyclic nucleotide cyclases (CNCs) of prokaryotes, lower eukaryotes, or animals. The reason is that CNCs are often part of complex multifunctional proteins with different domain organizations and biological functions that are not conserved in higher plants. For this reason, we have developed CNC search strategies based on functionally conserved amino acids in the catalytic center of annotated and/or experimentally confirmed CNCs. Here we detail this method which has led to the identification of >25 novel candidate CNCs in Arabidopsis thaliana, several of which have been experimentally confirmed in vitro and in vivo. We foresee that the application of this method can be used to identify many more members of the growing family of CNCs in higher plants. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  13. Long-term administration of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol desensitizes CB1-, adenosine A1-, and GABAB-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase in mouse cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selley, Dana E; Cassidy, Michael P; Martin, Billy R; Sim-Selley, Laura J

    2004-11-01

    Cannabinoid CB(1) receptors in the cerebellum mediate the inhibitory effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on motor coordination. Intracellular effects of CB(1) receptors include inhibition of adenylyl cyclase via activation of G(i/o) proteins. There is evidence for the convergence of other neuronal receptors, such as adenosine A(1) and GABA(B), with the cannabinoid system on this signaling pathway to influence motor function. Previous studies have shown that brain CB(1) receptors are desensitized and down-regulated by long-term THC treatment, but few studies have examined the effects of long-term THC treatment on downstream effector activity in brain. Therefore, these studies examined the relationship between CB(1), adenosine A(1), and GABA(B) receptors in cerebella of mice undergoing prolonged treatment with vehicle or THC at the level of G protein activation and adenylyl cyclase inhibition. In control cerebella, CB(1) receptors produced less than additive inhibition of adenylyl cyclase with GABA(B) and A(1) receptors, indicating that these receptors are localized on overlapping populations of cells. Long-term THC treatment produced CB(1) receptor down-regulation and desensitization of both cannabinoid agonist-stimulated G protein activation and inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase. However, G protein activation by GABA(B) or A(1) receptors was unaffected. It is noteworthy that heterologous attenuation of GABA(B) and A(1) receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase was observed, even though absolute levels of basal and forskolin- or G(s)-stimulated activity were unchanged. These results indicate that long-term THC administration produces a disruption of inhibitory receptor control of cerebellar adenylyl cyclase and suggest a potential mechanism of cross-tolerance to the motor incoordinating effects of cannabinoid, GABA(B), and A(1) agonists.

  14. Structure, signaling mechanism and regulation of the natriuretic peptide receptor guanylate cyclase.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misono, K. S.; Philo, J. S.; Arakawa, T.; Ogata, C. M.; Qiu, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Young, H. S. (Biosciences Division); (Univ. of Nevada); (Alliance Protein Labs.)

    2011-06-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and the homologous B-type natriuretic peptide are cardiac hormones that dilate blood vessels and stimulate natriuresis and diuresis, thereby lowering blood pressure and blood volume. ANP and B-type natriuretic peptide counterbalance the actions of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and neurohormonal systems, and play a central role in cardiovascular regulation. These activities are mediated by natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA), a single transmembrane segment, guanylyl cyclase (GC)-linked receptor that occurs as a homodimer. Here, we present an overview of the structure, possible chloride-mediated regulation and signaling mechanism of NPRA and other receptor GCs. Earlier, we determined the crystal structures of the NPRA extracellular domain with and without bound ANP. Their structural comparison has revealed a novel ANP-induced rotation mechanism occurring in the juxtamembrane region that apparently triggers transmembrane signal transduction. More recently, the crystal structures of the dimerized catalytic domain of green algae GC Cyg12 and that of cyanobacterium GC Cya2 have been reported. These structures closely resemble that of the adenylyl cyclase catalytic domain, consisting of a C1 and C2 subdomain heterodimer. Adenylyl cyclase is activated by binding of G{sub s}{alpha} to C2 and the ensuing 7{sup o} rotation of C1 around an axis parallel to the central cleft, thereby inducing the heterodimer to adopt a catalytically active conformation. We speculate that, in NPRA, the ANP-induced rotation of the juxtamembrane domains, transmitted across the transmembrane helices, may induce a similar rotation in each of the dimerized GC catalytic domains, leading to the stimulation of the GC catalytic activity.

  15. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the human guanylyl cyclase C receptor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rashna Bhandari; Roy Mathew; K Vijayachandra; Sandhya S Visweswariah

    2000-12-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation events are key components of several cellular signal transduction pathways. This study describes a novel method for identification of substrates for tyrosine kinases. Co-expression of the tyrosine kinase EphB1 with the intracellular domain of guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) in Escherichia coli cells resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of GCC, indicating that GCC is a potential substrate for tyrosine kinases. Indeed, GCC expressed in mammalian cells is tyrosine phosphorylated, suggesting that tyrosine phosphorylation may play a role in regulation of GCC signalling. This is the first demonstration of tyrosine phosphorylation of any member of the family of membrane-associated guanylyl cyclases.

  16. AKAPs and Adenylyl Cyclase in Cardiovascular Physiology and Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendiev, Riad; Dessauer, Carmen W.

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic AMP, generated by adenylyl cyclase (AC), serves as a second messenger in signaling pathways regulating many aspects of cardiac physiology including contraction rate and action potential duration, and in the pathophysiology of hypertrophy and heart failure. A kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) localize the effect of cAMP in space and time by organizing receptors, adenylyl cyclase, protein kinase A and other components of the cAMP cascade into multiprotein complexes. In this review we discuss how interaction of AKAPs with distinct AC isoforms affects cardiovascular physiology. PMID:21978991

  17. Deducing the origin of soluble adenylyl cyclase, a gene lost in multiple lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Jeroen; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    2002-01-01

    The family of eukaryotic adenylyl cyclases consists of a very large group of 12 transmembrane adenylyl cyclases and a very small group of soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). Orthologs of human sAC are present in rat Diclyostelium and bacteria but absent from the completely sequenced genomes of Drosophil

  18. The in vivo effect of VIP, PACAP-38 and PACAP-27 and mRNA expression of their receptors in rat middle meningeal artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boni, L. J.; Ploug, Kenneth Beri; Olesen, Jes;

    2009-01-01

    The parasympathetic nervous system is probably involved in migraine pathogenesis. Its activation releases a mixture of signalling molecules including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), which subsequently stimulate VPAC(1), VPAC(2...

  19. Ectopic expression of cyclase associated protein CAP restores the streaming and aggregation defects of adenylyl cyclase a deficient Dictyostelium discoideum cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana Hameeda; Neelakanta Girish; Rivero Francisco; Blau-Wasser Rosemarie; Schleicher Michael; Noegel Angelika A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cell adhesion, an integral part of D. discoideum development, is important for morphogenesis and regulated gene expression in the multicellular context and is required to trigger cell-differentiation. G-protein linked adenylyl cyclase pathways are crucially involved and a mutant lacking the aggregation specific adenylyl cyclase ACA does not undergo multicellular development. Results Here, we have investigated the role of cyclase-associated protein (CAP), an important regul...

  20. Multilevel control of glucose homeostasis by adenylyl cyclase 8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raoux, Matthieu; Vacher, Pierre; Papin, Julien; Picard, Alexandre; Kostrzewa, Elzbieta; Devin, Anne; Gaitan, Julien; Limon, Isabelle; Kas, Martien J.; Magnan, Christophe; Lang, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Nutrient homeostasis requires integration of signals generated by glucose metabolism and hormones. Expression of the calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclase ADCY8 is regulated by glucose and the enzyme is capable of integrating signals from multiple pathways. It may thus have an importa

  1. Soluble guanylate cyclase : a potential therapeutic target for heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gheorghiade, Mihai; Marti, Catherine N.; Sabbah, Hani N.; Roessig, Lothar; Greene, Stephen J.; Boehm, Michael; Burnett, John C.; Campia, Umberto; Cleland, John G. F.; Collins, Sean P.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Levy, Phillip D.; Metra, Marco; Pitt, Bertram; Ponikowski, Piotr; Sato, Naoki; Voors, Adriaan A.; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Butler, Javed

    2013-01-01

    The number of annual hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) and the mortality rates among patients hospitalized for HF remains unacceptably high. The search continues for safe and effective agents that improve outcomes when added to standard therapy. The nitric oxide (NO)-soluble guanylate cyclase

  2. [Role of the adenyl cyclase system in achieving the immunogenesis-stimulating action of bacterial lipopolysaccharides--pyrogenal and endogenous serum pyrogen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzheksenbaev, O Sh; Selezneva, V P; Loginova, V T

    1976-05-01

    Experiments were conducted on rabbits immunized intraperitoneally with corpuscular typhoid vaccine; the number of antibody-forming cells in the spleen proved to increase after tha administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)--pyropeneal, and endogenous serum pyrogen (EPS) together with theopylline. The data obtained indicated that the adenylcyclase system played a certain role in the mechanism of the stimulating action of LPS and EPS.

  3. A FRET-Based Method for Probing the Conformational Behavior of an Intrinsically Disordered Repeat Domain from Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-22

    ACKNOWLEDGMENT We thank Carol Li for technical help and Elliot Campbell for help with the stopped-flow fluorescence measurements. Dr. Ladant (Institute...387–401. 21. Ringler, P., and Schulz, G. E. (2003) Self-assembly of proteins into designed networks. Science 302, 106–109. 22. Reiersen, H., and Rees

  4. GABAB受体与腺苷酸环化酶偶联环节的脱敏研究%STUDIES ON DESENSITIZATION OF GABAB RECEPTOR COUPLED ADENYLATE CYCLASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞在芳; 程冠军; 胡本荣

    1997-01-01

    将突触体膜与佛波酯(PMA),GABAB受体激动剂巴氯芬(Baclofen,BAL)预孵育一定时间后,BAL对腺苷酸环化酶(AC)基础活性及forskolin刺激的AC活性的抑制率显著降低(脱敏);而forskolin预孵育时,BAL对基础及forskolin刺激的AC活性的抑制率不变,表明GABAB受体与AC偶联环节的脱敏机制涉及蛋白激酶C(PKC)激活,而与蛋白激酶A无关,脱敏时GABAB受体的Kd值增加.本实验提示,可能由于PKC激活导致GABAB受体结构或构象改变,使受体-G蛋白脱偶联而出现脱敏现象.

  5. Stimulation of adenylate cyclase in relation to dopamine-induced long-term enhancement (LTE) of muscarinic depolarization in the rabbit superior cervical ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, S; Kobayashi, H; Libet, B

    1987-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) induction of the long-term enhancement (LTE) of the slow muscarinic depolarizing response to methacholine (MCh), equivalent to the slow EPSP (S-EPSP), was previously found to be mimicked by exogenous cyclic AMP (cAMP) in the rabbit superior cervical ganglion (SCG). DA-induced LTE of the S-EPSP was shown to be depressed by some DA antagonists. We now show that DA (15 microM), its analog, 2-amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (ADTN), and a D2 receptor antagonist, metoclopramide, each can induce both LTE of MCh depolarization and an increase in ganglionic cAMP. Conversely, antagonists of DA-induced LTE also depress DA-induced rises in cAMP; these antagonists include haloperidol (1 microM), both (+) and (-) enantiomers of butaclamol (0.7-7 microM), flupenthixol (1 microM), and (+)-R-8-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine-7-o l (SCH-23390) (7 microM). The selective D2 antagonists sulpiride (10 microM) and domperidone (10 microM) affect neither DA action. Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists (alpha-methyl-norepinephrine and clonidine) produce no LTE; alpha-antagonist dihydroergotamine (35 microM) does not affect either DA action, although it can completely block the hyperpolarizing response to DA or other catecholamines. Beta-antagonist propranolol (5 microM) partially depresses DA-induced rises in cAMP but has no effect on the DA-induced LTE. (Butaclamol and propranolol in combination can completely block the cAMP rise induced by DA.) Beta-agonist isoproterenol can induce appreciable LTE of MCh depolarization, but this LTE is not depressed by propranolol (10 microM). Isoproterenol can elicit a substantial rise in cAMP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. The role of cyclase-associated protein in regulating actin filament dynamics – more than a monomer-sequestration factor

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Shoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is fundamental to a number of cell biological events. A variety of actin-regulatory proteins modulate polymerization and depolymerization of actin and contribute to actin cytoskeletal reorganization. Cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is a conserved actin-monomer-binding protein that has been studied for over 20 years. Early studies have shown that CAP sequesters actin monomers; recent studies, however, have revealed more active roles of CAP in a...

  7. Phosphorylation-independent regulation of the diguanylate cyclase WspR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita De

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental signals that trigger bacterial pathogenesis and biofilm formation are mediated by changes in the level of cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP, a unique eubacterial second messenger. Tight regulation of cellular c-di-GMP concentration is governed by diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases, which are responsible for its production and degradation, respectively. Here, we present the crystal structure of the diguanylate cyclase WspR, a conserved GGDEF domain-containing response regulator in Gram-negative bacteria, bound to c-di-GMP at an inhibitory site. Biochemical analyses revealed that feedback regulation involves the formation of at least three distinct oligomeric states. By switching from an active to a product-inhibited dimer via a tetrameric assembly, WspR utilizes a novel mechanism for modulation of its activity through oligomerization. Moreover, our data suggest that these enzymes can be activated by phosphodiesterases. Thus, in addition to the canonical pathways via phosphorylation of the regulatory domains, both product and enzyme concentration contribute to the coordination of c-di-GMP signaling. A structural comparison reveals resemblance of the oligomeric states to assemblies of GAF domains, widely used regulatory domains in signaling molecules conserved from archaea to mammals, suggesting a similar mechanism of regulation.

  8. G protein β1γ2 subunits purification and their interaction with adenylyl cyclase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Julian; (陈巨莲); NI; Hanxiang; (倪汉祥); SUN; Jingrui; (孙京瑞); WENG; Gezhi

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary study on the interaction of G protein (guanine triphosphate binding pro- tein) β1γ2 subunits and their coupled components in cell signal transduction was conducted in vitro. The insect cell lines, Sf9 (Spodoptera frugiperda) and H5 (Trichoplusia ni) were used to express the recombinant protein Gβ1γ2. The cell membrane containing Gβ1γ2 was isolated through affinity chromatography column with Ni-NTA agarose by FPLC method, and the highly purified protein was obtained. The adenylyl cyclase 2 (AC2) activity assay showed that the purified Gβ1γ2 could significantly stimulate AC2 activity. The interaction of β1γ2 subunits of G protein with the cytoplasmic tail of various mammalian adenylyl cyclases was monitored by BIAcore technology using NTA sensor chip, which relies on the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The experiments showed the direct binding of Gβ1γ2 to the cytoplasmic tail C2 domain of AC2. The specific binding domain of AC2 with Gβ1γ2 was the same as AC2 activity domain which was stimulated by β1γ2.

  9. Inhibition of adenylyl and guanylyl cyclase isoforms by the antiviral drug foscarnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlacek, O; Mitterauer, T; Nanoff, C; Hohenegger, M; Tang, W J; Freissmuth, M; Kleuss, C

    2001-02-02

    The pyrophosphate (PP(i)) analog foscarnet inhibits viral DNA-polymerases and is used to treat cytomegalovirus and human immunodeficiency vius infections. Nucleotide cyclases and DNA-polymerases catalyze analogous reactions, i.e. a phosphodiester bond formation, and have similar topologies in their active sites. Inhibition by foscarnet of adenylyl cyclase isoforms was therefore tested with (i) purified catalytic domains C1 and C2 of types I and VII (IC1 and VIIC1) and of type II (IIC2) and (ii) membrane-bound holoenzymes (from mammalian tissues and types I, II, and V heterologously expressed in Sf9 cell membranes). Foscarnet was more potent than PP(i) in suppressing forskolin-stimulated catalysis by both, IC1/IIC2 and VIIC1/IIC2. Stimulation of VIIC1/IIC2 by Galpha(s) relieved the inhibition by foscarnet but not that by PP(i). The IC(50) of foscarnet on membrane-bound adenylyl cyclases also depended on their mode of regulation. These findings predict that receptor-dependent cAMP formation is sensitive to inhibition by foscarnet in some, but not all, cells. This was verified with two cell lines; foscarnet blocked cAMP accumulation after A(2A)-adenosine receptor stimulation in PC12 but not in HEK-A(2A) cells. Foscarnet also inhibited soluble and, to a lesser extent, particulate guanylyl cylase. Thus, foscarnet interferes with the generation of cyclic nucleotides, an effect which may give rise to clinical side effects. The extent of inhibition varies with the enzyme isoform and with the regulatory input.

  10. Forskolin photoaffinity labels with specificity for adenylyl cyclase and the glucose transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, D.I.; Robbins, J.D.; Ruoho, A.E.; Sutkowski, E.M.; Seamon, K.B. (Division of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-07-15

    Two photolabels, N-(3-(4-azido-3-125I-phenyl)-propionamide)-6- aminoethylcarbamylforskolin(125I-6-AIPP-Fsk) and N-(3-(4-azido-3-125I-phenyl)propionamide)-7-aminoethylcarbamyl-7- desacetylforskolin (125I-7-AIPP-Fsk) were synthesized with specific activities of 2200 Ci/mmol and used to label adenylyl cyclase and the glucose transporter. The affinities of the photolabels for adenylyl cyclase were determined by their inhibition of (3H)forskolin binding to bovine brain membranes. 6-AIPP-Fsk and 7-AIPP-Fsk inhibited (3H)forskolin binding with IC50 values of 15 nM and 200 nM, respectively. 125I-6-AIPP-Fsk labeled a 115-kDa protein in control and GTP {gamma} S-preactivated bovine brain membranes. This labeling was inhibited by forskolin but not by 1,9-dideoxyforskolin or cytochalasin B. 125I-6-AIPP-Fsk labeling of partially purified adenylyl cyclase was inhibited by forskolin but not by 1,9-dideoxyforskolin. 125I-7-AIPP-Fsk specifically labeled a 45-kDa protein and not a 115-kDa protein in control and GTP {gamma} S-preactivated brain membranes. This labeling was inhibited by forskolin, 1,9-dideoxyforskolin, cytochalasin B, and D-glucose but not cytochalasin E or L-glucose. Human erythrocyte membranes were photolyzed with 125I-6-AIPP-Fsk and 125I-7-AIPP-Fsk. 125I-7-AIPP-Fsk, but not 125I-6-AIPP-Fsk, strongly labeled a broad 45-70-kDa band. Forskolin, 7-bromoacetyl-7-desacetylforskolin, 1,9-dideoxyforskolin, cytochalasin B, and D-glucose, but not cytochalasin E or L-glucose, inhibited 125I-7-AIPP-Fsk labeling of the 45-70-kDa band. 125I-6-AIPP-Fsk and 125I-7-AIPP-Fsk are high affinity photolabels with specificity for adenylyl cyclase and the glucose transporter, respectively.

  11. Pharmacological characterization of VIP and PACAP receptors in the human meningeal and coronary artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kayi Y; Baun, Michael; de Vries, René;

    2011-01-01

    We pharmacologically characterized pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides (PACAPs), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the VPAC(1), VPAC(2) and PAC(1) receptors in human meningeal (for their role in migraine) and coronary (for potential side effects) arteries....

  12. A conserved proline-rich region of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cyclase-associated protein binds SH3 domains and modulates cytoskeletal localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, N L; Lila, T; Mintzer, K A; Chen, Z; Pahk, A J; Ren, R; Drubin, D G; Field, J

    1996-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cyclase-associated protein (CAP or Srv2p) is multifunctional. The N-terminal third of CAP binds to adenylyl cyclase and has been implicated in adenylyl cyclase activation in vivo. The widely conserved C-terminal domain of CAP binds to monomeric actin and serves an important cytoskeletal regulatory function in vivo. In addition, all CAP homologs contain a centrally located proline-rich region which has no previously identified function. Recently, SH3 (Src homology 3) domains were shown to bind to proline-rich regions of proteins. Here we report that the proline-rich region of CAP is recognized by the SH3 domains of several proteins, including the yeast actin-associated protein Abp1p. Immunolocalization experiments demonstrate that CAP colocalizes with cortical actin-containing structures in vivo and that a region of CAP containing the SH3 domain binding site is required for this localization. We also demonstrate that the SH3 domain of yeast Abp1p and that of the yeast RAS protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor Cdc25p complex with adenylyl cyclase in vitro. Interestingly, the binding of the Cdc25p SH3 domain is not mediated by CAP and therefore may involve direct binding to adenylyl cyclase or to an unidentified protein which complexes with adenylyl cyclase. We also found that CAP homologous from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and humans bind SH3 domains. The human protein binds most strongly to the SH3 domain from the abl proto-oncogene. These observations identify CAP as an SH3 domain-binding protein and suggest that CAP mediates interactions between SH3 domain proteins and monomeric actin.

  13. Heat-stable enterotoxin receptor/guanylyl cyclase C is an oligomer consisting of functionally distinct subunits, which are non-covalently linked in the intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Vaandrager (Arie); E. van der Wiel; M.L. Hom; L.H. Luthjens; H.R. de Jonge (Hugo)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractGuanylyl cyclase (GC) C is a heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) receptor with a monomeric M(r) of approximately 140,000. We calculated from its hydrodynamic parameters that an active GC-C complex has a M(r) of 393,000, suggesting that GC-C is a trimer under nativ

  14. Coiled-coil interaction of N-terminal 36 residues of cyclase-associated protein with adenylyl cyclase is sufficient for its function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ras pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Y; Shima, F; Sen, H; Tanaka, Y; Yanagihara, C; Yamawaki-Kataoka, Y; Kariya, K; Kataoka, T

    1998-10-23

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, association with the 70-kDa cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is required for proper response of adenylyl cyclase to Ras proteins. We show here that a small segment comprising the N-terminal 36 amino acid residues of CAP is sufficient for association with adenylyl cyclase as well as for its function in the Ras-adenylyl cyclase pathway as assayed by the ability to confer RAS2(Val-19)-dependent heat shock sensitivity to yeast cells. The CAP-binding site of adenylyl cyclase was mapped to a segment of 119 amino acid residues near its C terminus. Both of these regions contained tandem repetitions of a heptad motif alphaXXalphaXXX (where alpha represents a hydrophobic amino acid and X represents any amino acid), suggesting a coiled-coil interaction. When mutants of CAP defective in associating with adenylyl cyclase were isolated by screening of a pool of randomly mutagenized CAP, they were found to carry substitution mutations in one of the key hydrophobic residues in the heptad repeats. Furthermore, mutations of the key hydrophobic residues in the heptad repeats of adenylyl cyclase also resulted in loss of association with CAP. These results indicate the coiled-coil mechanism as a basis of the CAP-adenylyl cyclase interaction.

  15. Skeletal muscle contractile performance and ADP accumulation in adenylate kinase-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hancock, C.R.; Janssen, E.E.W.; Terjung, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    The production of AMP by adenylate kinase (AK) and subsequent deamination by AMP deaminase limits ADP accumulation during conditions of high-energy demand in skeletal muscle. The goal of this study was to investigate the consequences of AK deficiency (-/-) on adenine nucleotide management and whole

  16. Atrial natriuretic factor receptor guanylate cyclase, ANF-RGC, transduces two independent signals, ANF and Ca2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa eDuda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Atrial natriuretic factor receptor guanylate cyclase, ANF-RGC, was the first discovered member of the mammalian membrane guanylate cyclase family. The hallmark feature of the family is that a single protein contains both the site for recognition of the regulatory signal and the ability to transduce it into the production of the second messenger, cyclic GMP. For over two decades, the family has been classified into two subfamilies, the hormone receptor subfamily with ANF-RGC being its paramount member, and the Ca2+ modulated subfamily, which includes the rod outer segment guanylate cyclases, ROS-GC1 and 2, and the olfactory neuroepithelial guanylate cyclase, ONE-GC. ANF-RGC is the receptor and the signal transducer of the most hypotensive hormones, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP. After binding these hormones at the extracellular domain it, at its intracellular domain, signals activation of the C-terminal catalytic module and accelerates the production of cyclic GMP. Cyclic GMP then serves the second messenger role in biological responses of ANF and BNP such as natriuresis, diuresis, vasorelaxation and anti-proliferation. Very recently another modus operandi for ANF-RGC was revealed. Its crux is that ANF-RGC activity is also regulated by Ca2+. The Ca2+ sensor neurocalcin  mediates this signaling mechanism. Strikingly, the Ca2+ and ANF signaling mechanisms employ separate structural motifs of ANF-RGC in modulating its core catalytic domain in accelerating the production of cyclic GMP. In this review the biochemistry and physiology of these mechanisms with emphasis on cardiovascular regulation will be discussed.

  17. Covalent aspartylation of aspartyl-tRNA synthetase from Bakers' yeast by its cognat aspartyl adenylate: identification of the labeled residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejdoub, H.; Kern, D.; Giege, R.; Ebel, J.P.; Boulanger, Y.; Reinbolt, J.

    1987-04-07

    Aspartyl-tRNA synthetase from bakers' yeast gives an unstable complex with the cognate adenylate, which reacts after dissociation with amino acid side chains of the protein. This leads to a covalent incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-aspartic acid into aspartyl-tRNA synthetase via amide or ester bonds formed between the ..cap alpha..-carboxyl group of activated aspartic acid and accessible lysines, serines, and threonines. This property is used to label the peptides at the surface of the enzyme. The main labeled residues have been identified, and their location in the primary structure is discussed in relation to structural properties of aspartyl-tRNA synthetase.

  18. Pharmacological characterization of VIP and PACAP receptors in the human meningeal and coronary artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kayi Y; Baun, Michael; de Vries, René;

    2011-01-01

    We pharmacologically characterized pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides (PACAPs), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the VPAC(1), VPAC(2) and PAC(1) receptors in human meningeal (for their role in migraine) and coronary (for potential side effects) arteries.......We pharmacologically characterized pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides (PACAPs), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the VPAC(1), VPAC(2) and PAC(1) receptors in human meningeal (for their role in migraine) and coronary (for potential side effects) arteries....

  19. Structural and Functional Studies of Fatty Acyl Adenylate Ligases from E. coli and L. pneumophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z Zhang; R Zhou; J Sauder; P Tonge; S Burley; S Swaminathan

    2011-12-31

    Fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) is a new member of a family of adenylate-forming enzymes that were recently discovered in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are similar in sequence to fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) ligases (FACLs). However, while FACLs perform a two-step catalytic reaction, AMP ligation followed by CoA ligation using ATP and CoA as cofactors, FAALs produce only the acyl adenylate and are unable to perform the second step. We report X-ray crystal structures of full-length FAAL from Escherichia coli (EcFAAL) and FAAL from Legionella pneumophila (LpFAAL) bound to acyl adenylate, determined at resolution limits of 3.0 and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. The structures share a larger N-terminal domain and a smaller C-terminal domain, which together resemble the previously determined structures of FAAL and FACL proteins. Our two structures occur in quite different conformations. EcFAAL adopts the adenylate-forming conformation typical of FACLs, whereas LpFAAL exhibits a unique intermediate conformation. Both EcFAAL and LpFAAL have insertion motifs that distinguish them from the FACLs. Structures of EcFAAL and LpFAAL reveal detailed interactions between this insertion motif and the interdomain hinge region and with the C-terminal domain. We suggest that the insertion motifs support sufficient interdomain motions to allow substrate binding and product release during acyl adenylate formation, but they preclude CoA binding, thereby preventing CoA ligation.

  20. Structural and Functional Studies of Fatty Acyl Adenylate Ligases from E. coli and L. pneumophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Swaminathan, S.; Zhou, R.; Sauder, J. M.; Tonge, P. J.; Burley, S. K.

    2011-02-18

    Fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) is a new member of a family of adenylate-forming enzymes that were recently discovered in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are similar in sequence to fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) ligases (FACLs). However, while FACLs perform a two-step catalytic reaction, AMP ligation followed by CoA ligation using ATP and CoA as cofactors, FAALs produce only the acyl adenylate and are unable to perform the second step. We report X-ray crystal structures of full-length FAAL from Escherichia coli (EcFAAL) and FAAL from Legionella pneumophila (LpFAAL) bound to acyl adenylate, determined at resolution limits of 3.0 and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. The structures share a larger N-terminal domain and a smaller C-terminal domain, which together resemble the previously determined structures of FAAL and FACL proteins. Our two structures occur in quite different conformations. EcFAAL adopts the adenylate-forming conformation typical of FACLs, whereas LpFAAL exhibits a unique intermediate conformation. Both EcFAAL and LpFAAL have insertion motifs that distinguish them from the FACLs. Structures of EcFAAL and LpFAAL reveal detailed interactions between this insertion motif and the interdomain hinge region and with the C-terminal domain. We suggest that the insertion motifs support sufficient interdomain motions to allow substrate binding and product release during acyl adenylate formation, but they preclude CoA binding, thereby preventing CoA ligation.

  1. Soluble adenylyl cyclase is an acid-base sensor in epithelial base-secreting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, Jinae N; Tresguerres, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Blood acid-base regulation by specialized epithelia, such as gills and kidney, requires the ability to sense blood acid-base status. Here, we developed primary cultures of ray (Urolophus halleri) gill cells to study mechanisms for acid-base sensing without the interference of whole animal hormonal regulation. Ray gills have abundant base-secreting cells, identified by their noticeable expression of vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (VHA), and also express the evolutionarily conserved acid-base sensor soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). Exposure of cultured cells to extracellular alkalosis (pH 8.0, 40 mM HCO3 (-)) triggered VHA translocation to the cell membrane, similar to previous reports in live animals experiencing blood alkalosis. VHA translocation was dependent on sAC, as it was blocked by the sAC-specific inhibitor KH7. Ray gill base-secreting cells also express transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs); however, tmAC inhibition by 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine did not prevent alkalosis-dependent VHA translocation, and tmAC activation by forskolin reduced the abundance of VHA at the cell membrane. This study demonstrates that sAC is a necessary and sufficient sensor of extracellular alkalosis in ray gill base-secreting cells. In addition, this study indicates that different sources of cAMP differentially modulate cell biology.

  2. Bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase is an essential sensor for acid/base homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin; Parks, Scott K; Salazar, Eric; Levin, Lonny R; Goss, Greg G; Buck, Jochen

    2010-01-05

    pH homeostasis is essential for life, yet it remains unclear how animals sense their systemic acid/base (A/B) status. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is an evolutionary conserved signaling enzyme that produces the second messenger cAMP in response to bicarbonate ions (HCO(3)(-)). We cloned the sAC ortholog from the dogfish, a shark that regulates blood A/B by absorbing and secreting protons (H(+)) and HCO(3)(-) at its gills. Similar to mammalian sAC, dogfish soluble adenylyl cyclase (dfsAC) is activated by HCO(3)(-) and can be inhibited by two structurally and mechanistically distinct small molecule inhibitors. dfsAC is expressed in the gill epithelium, where the subset of base-secreting cells resides. Injection of inhibitors into animals under alkaline stress confirmed that dfsAC is essential for maintaining systemic pH and HCO(3)(-) levels in the whole organism. One of the downstream effects of dfsAC is to promote the insertion of vacuolar proton pumps into the basolateral membrane to absorb H(+) into the blood. sAC orthologs are present throughout metazoans, and mammalian sAC is expressed in A/B regulatory organs, suggesting that systemic A/B sensing via sAC is widespread in the animal kingdom.

  3. Cyclic nucleotides and mitogen-activated protein kinases: regulation of simvastatin in platelet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Ssu-Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins have been widely used to reduce cardiovascular risk. These statins (i.e., simvastatin may exert other effects besides from their cholesterol-lowering actions, including inhibition of platelet activation. Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of coronary heart diseases. Although the inhibitory effect of simvastatin in platelet activation has been studied; the detailed signal transductions by which simvastatin inhibit platelet activation has not yet been completely resolved. Methods The aim of this study was to systematically examine the detailed mechanisms of simvastatin in preventing platelet activation. Platelet aggregation, flow cytometric analysis, immunoblotting, and electron spin resonance studies were used to assess the antiplatelet activity of simvastatin. Results Simvastatin (20-50 μM exhibited more-potent activity of inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen than other agonists (i.e., thrombin. Simvastatin inhibited collagen-stimulated platelet activation accompanied by [Ca2+]i mobilization, thromboxane A2 (TxA2 formation, and phospholipase C (PLCγ2, protein kinase C (PKC, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (i.e., p38 MAPK, JNKs phosphorylation in washed platelets. Simvastatin obviously increased both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels. Simvastatin markedly increased NO release, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP phosphorylation, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression. SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, markedly reversed the simvastatin-mediated inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation, PLCγ2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and simvastatin-mediated stimulatory effects on VASP and eNOS phosphorylation. Conclusion The most important findings of this study demonstrate for the first time that inhibitory effect of simvastatin in platelet activation may involve activation of the cyclic AMP

  4. Engineering of a red-light-activated human cAMP/cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Carlos; Taiber, Sandra; Yeh, Chen-Min; Wittig, Charlotte Helene; Hegemann, Peter; Ryu, Soojin; Wunder, Frank; Möglich, Andreas

    2014-06-17

    Sensory photoreceptors elicit vital physiological adaptations in response to incident light. As light-regulated actuators, photoreceptors underpin optogenetics, which denotes the noninvasive, reversible, and spatiotemporally precise perturbation by light of living cells and organisms. Of particular versatility, naturally occurring photoactivated adenylate cyclases promote the synthesis of the second messenger cAMP under blue light. Here, we have engineered a light-activated phosphodiesterase (LAPD) with complementary light sensitivity and catalytic activity by recombining the photosensor module of Deinococcus radiodurans bacterial phytochrome with the effector module of Homo sapiens phosphodiesterase 2A. Upon red-light absorption, LAPD up-regulates hydrolysis of cAMP and cGMP by up to sixfold, whereas far-red light can be used to down-regulate activity. LAPD also mediates light-activated cAMP and cGMP hydrolysis in eukaryotic cell cultures and in zebrafish embryos; crucially, the biliverdin chromophore of LAPD is available endogenously and does not need to be provided exogenously. LAPD thus establishes a new optogenetic modality that permits light control over diverse cAMP/cGMP-mediated physiological processes. Because red light penetrates tissue more deeply than light of shorter wavelengths, LAPD appears particularly attractive for studies in living organisms.

  5. Prostaglandin E2 negatively regulates AMP-activated protein kinase via protein kinase A signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Koji; Cao, Xia; Yamauchi, Masako; Kozaki, Yasuko; Ishiguro, Naoki; Kambe, Fukushi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated possible involvement of prostaglandin (PG) E2 in regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). When osteoblastic MG63 cells were cultured in serum-deprived media, Thr-172 phosphorylation of AMPK alpha-subunit was markedly increased. Treatment of the cells with PGE2 significantly reduced the phosphorylation. Ser-79 phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a direct target for AMPK, was also reduced by PGE2. On the other hand, PGE2 reciprocally increased Ser-485 phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit that could be associated with inhibition of AMPK activity. These effects of PGE2 were mimicked by PGE2 receptor EP2 and EP4 agonists and forskolin, but not by EP1 and EP3 agonists, and the effects were suppressed by an adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 and a protein kinase A inhibitor H89. Additionally, the PGE2 effects were duplicated in primary calvarial osteoblasts. Together, the present study demonstrates that PGE2 negatively regulates AMPK activity via activation of protein kinase A signaling pathway.

  6. Cyclic nucleotide binding and structural changes in the isolated GAF domain of Anabaena adenylyl cyclase, CyaB2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Hassan Biswas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available GAF domains are a large family of regulatory domains, and a subset are found associated with enzymes involved in cyclic nucleotide (cNMP metabolism such as adenylyl cyclases and phosphodiesterases. CyaB2, an adenylyl cyclase from Anabaena, contains two GAF domains in tandem at the N-terminus and an adenylyl cyclase domain at the C-terminus. Cyclic AMP, but not cGMP, binding to the GAF domains of CyaB2 increases the activity of the cyclase domain leading to enhanced synthesis of cAMP. Here we show that the isolated GAFb domain of CyaB2 can bind both cAMP and cGMP, and enhanced specificity for cAMP is observed only when both the GAFa and the GAFb domains are present in tandem (GAFab domain. In silico docking and mutational analysis identified distinct residues important for interaction with either cAMP or cGMP in the GAFb domain. Structural changes associated with ligand binding to the GAF domains could not be detected by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET experiments. However, amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDXMS experiments provided insights into the structural basis for cAMP-induced allosteric regulation of the GAF domains, and differences in the changes induced by cAMP and cGMP binding to the GAF domain. Thus, our findings could allow the development of molecules that modulate the allosteric regulation by GAF domains present in pharmacologically relevant proteins.

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of a rat homolog of CAP, the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelicof, A; Gatica, J; Gerst, J E

    1993-06-25

    We have isolated a rat cDNA whose expression suppresses the physiological consequences of the chromosomal disruption of CAP, the gene encoding the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast CAP is a bifunctional protein: the NH2 terminus is necessary and sufficient for cellular responsiveness to activated RAS proteins, while the COOH terminus is required for normal cellular morphology and growth control. The rat MCH1 cDNA encodes a protein of 474 amino acids that is 36% identical to S. cerevisiae CAP and is capable of suppressing the loss of the COOH-terminal functions of CAP when expressed in yeast. The MCH1 protein therefore appears to be a structural and functional homolog of the yeast cyclase-associated proteins. Northern analysis of MCH1 gene expression shows it to be constitutively expressed in all cell and tissue types examined. The cloning of a rat homolog of CAP, in addition to the cloning of a human CAP homolog by Matviw et al. (Matviw, H., Yu, G., and Young, D. (1992) Mol. Cell. Biol. 12, 5033-5040), demonstrates that both cyclase-associated proteins and their functions may have evolved with mammalian cells.

  8. Adenylyl cyclase 3/adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) complex mediates the anti-migratory effect of forskolin in pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Sierra N; Graves, Sarai H; Dains-McGahee, Clayton; Friedman, Emilee M; Hassan, Humma; Witkowski, Piotr; Sabbatini, Maria E

    2017-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal human malignancies. A better understanding of the intracellular mechanism of migration and invasion is urgently needed to develop treatment that will suppress metastases and improve overall survival. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) is a second messenger that has shown to regulate migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. The rise of cyclic AMP suppressed migration and invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells. Cyclic AMP is formed from cytosolic ATP by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase (AC). There are ten isoforms of ACs; nine are anchored in the plasma membrane and one is soluble. What remains unknown is the extent to which the expression of transmembrane AC isoforms is both modified in pancreatic cancer and mediates the inhibitory effect of forskolin on cell motility. Using real-time PCR analysis, ADCY3 was found to be highly expressed in pancreatic tumor tissues, resulting in a constitutive increase in cyclic AMP levels. On the other hand, ADCY2 was down-regulated. Migration, invasion, and filopodia formation in two different pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines, HPAC and PANC-1 deficient in AC1 or AC3, were studied. We found that AC3, upon stimulation with forskolin, enhanced cyclic AMP levels and inhibited cell migration and invasion. Unlikely to be due to a cytotoxic effect, the inhibitory effects of forskolin involved the quick formation of AC3/adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1)/G-actin complex, which inhibited filopodia formation and cell motility. Using Western blotting analysis, forskolin, through AC3 activation, caused phosphorylation of CREB, but not ERK. The effect of CREB phosphorylation is likely to be associated with long-term signaling changes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A cytoskeletal localizing domain in the cyclase-associated protein, CAP/Srv2p, regulates access to a distant SH3-binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J; Wang, C; Palmieri, S J; Haarer, B K; Field, J

    1999-07-09

    In the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, adenylyl cyclase consists of a 200-kDa catalytic subunit (CYR1) and a 70-kDa subunit (CAP/SRV2). CAP/Srv2p assists the small G protein Ras to activate adenylyl cyclase. CAP also regulates the cytoskeleton through an actin sequestering activity and is directed to cortical actin patches by a proline-rich SH3-binding site (P2). In this report we analyze the role of the actin cytoskeleton in Ras/cAMP signaling. Two alleles of CAP, L16P(Srv2) and R19T (SupC), first isolated in genetic screens for mutants that attenuate cAMP levels, reduced adenylyl cyclase binding, and cortical actin patch localization. A third mutation, L27F, also failed to localize but showed no loss of either cAMP signaling or adenylyl cyclase binding. However, all three N-terminal mutations reduced CAP-CAP multimer formation and SH3 domain binding, although the SH3-binding site is about 350 amino acids away. Finally, disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with latrunculin-A did not affect the cAMP phenotypes of the hyperactive Ras2(Val19) allele. These data identify a novel region of CAP that controls access to the SH3-binding site and demonstrate that cytoskeletal localization of CAP or an intact cytoskeleton per se is not necessary for cAMP signaling.

  10. Glucose, other secretagogues, and nerve growth factor stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinase in the insulin-secreting beta-cell line, INS-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, M; Sekine, N; Roche, E;

    1995-01-01

    converge to activate 44-kDa mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Thus, glucose-induced insulin secretion was found to be associated with a small stimulatory effect on 44-kDa MAP kinase, which was synergistically enhanced by increased levels of intracellular cAMP and by the hormonal secretagogues...... glucagon-like peptide-1 and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide. Activation of 44-kDa MAP kinase by glucose was dependent on Ca2+ influx and may in part be mediated by MEK-1, a MAP kinase kinase. Stimulation of Ca2+ influx by KCl was in itself sufficient to activate 44-kDa MAP kinase and MEK......-1. Phorbol ester, an activator of protein kinase C, stimulated 44-kDa MAP kinase by both Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent pathways. Nerve growth factor, independently of changes in cytosolic Ca2+, efficiently stimulated 44-kDa MAP kinase without causing insulin release, indicating that activation...

  11. Modulation of GR activity does not affect the in vitro metabolism of cortisol by rainbow trout ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao; Christie, Heather; Leatherland, John

    2014-12-01

    The goal of the study was to determine whether the metabolic clearance of cortisol from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ovarian follicles is affected by the level of ovarian steroidogenesis, and whether it involves the activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Ovarian follicles were incubated in vitro; the adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, was used to stimulate ovarian steroidogenesis, and the modulation of GR activity was brought about using GR agonists (cortisol and dexamethasone) or the GR antagonist, mifepristone (RU486). The follicles were co-incubated with [2, 4, 6, 7 (3)H] cortisol, and the tritium-labelled steroid products were separated by HPLC. In addition, the rates of expression of genes encoding for the two forms of GR (gr1 and gr2) were measured. Cortisone, cortisol sulphate, and cortisone sulphate were the major glucocorticoid products of cortisol metabolism, indicative of the action of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and glucocorticoid sulphotransferase in the follicular cells. There were no effects of RU486 or forskolin on the rates of [(3)H]cortisol metabolism suggesting that cortisol metabolism by ovarian follicles was independent of GR activation, and not influenced by increased activation of gonadal reproductive steroidogenesis.

  12. From endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria: absence of the Arabidopsis ATP antiporter endoplasmic Reticulum Adenylate Transporter1 perturbs photorespiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christiane; Plocharski, Bartolome; Haferkamp, Ilka; Leroch, Michaela; Ewald, Ralph; Bauwe, Hermann; Riemer, Jan; Herrmann, Johannes M; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard

    2013-07-01

    The carrier Endoplasmic Reticulum Adenylate Transporter1 (ER-ANT1) resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and acts as an ATP/ADP antiporter. Mutant plants lacking ER-ANT1 exhibit a dwarf phenotype and their seeds contain reduced protein and lipid contents. In this study, we describe a further surprising metabolic peculiarity of the er-ant1 mutants. Interestingly, Gly levels in leaves are immensely enhanced (26×) when compared with that of wild-type plants. Gly accumulation is caused by significantly decreased mitochondrial glycine decarboxylase (GDC) activity. Reduced GDC activity in mutant plants was attributed to oxidative posttranslational protein modification induced by elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). GDC activity is crucial for photorespiration; accordingly, morphological and physiological defects in er-ant1 plants were nearly completely abolished by application of high environmental CO(2) concentrations. The latter observation demonstrates that the absence of ER-ANT1 activity mainly affects photorespiration (maybe solely GDC), whereas basic cellular metabolism remains largely unchanged. Since ER-ANT1 homologs are restricted to higher plants, it is tempting to speculate that this carrier fulfils a plant-specific function directly or indirectly controlling cellular ROS production. The observation that ER-ANT1 activity is associated with cellular ROS levels reveals an unexpected and critical physiological connection between the ER and other organelles in plants.

  13. Molecular field analysis and 3D-quantitative structure-activity relationship study (MFA 3D-QSAR) unveil novel features of bile acid recognition at TGR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchiarulo, Antonio; Gioiello, Antimo; Thomas, Charles; Massarotti, Alberto; Nuti, Roberto; Rosatelli, Emiliano; Sabbatini, Paola; Schoonjans, Kristina; Auwerx, Johan; Pellicciari, Roberto

    2008-09-01

    Bile acids regulate nongenomic actions through the activation of TGR5, a membrane receptor that is G protein-coupled to the induction of adenylate cyclase. In this work, a training set of 43 bile acid derivatives is used to develop a molecular interaction field analysis (MFA) and a 3D-quantitative structure-activity relationship study (3D-QSAR) of TGR5 agonists. The predictive ability of the resulting model is evaluated using an external set of compounds with known TGR5 activity, and six bile acid derivatives whose unknown TGR5 activity is herein assessed with in vitro luciferase assay of cAMP formation. The results show a good predictive model and indicate a statistically relevant degree of correlation between the TGR5 activity and the molecular interaction fields produced by discrete positions of the bile acid scaffold. This information is instrumental to extend on a quantitative basis the current structure-activity relationships of bile acids as TGR5 modulators and will be fruitful to design new potent and selective agonists of the receptor.

  14. Phentolamine inhibits exocytosis of glucagon by Gi2 protein-dependent activation of calcineurin in rat pancreatic alpha -cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høy, M; Bokvist, K; Xiao-Gang, W; Hansen, J; Juhl, K; Berggren, P O; Buschard, K; Gromada, J

    2001-01-12

    Capacitance measurements were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which imidazoline compounds inhibit glucagon release in rat pancreatic alpha-cells. The imidazoline compound phentolamine reversibly decreased depolarization-evoked exocytosis >80% without affecting the whole-cell Ca(2+) current. During intracellular application through the recording pipette, phentolamine produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the rate of exocytosis (IC(50) = 9.7 microm). Another imidazoline compound, RX871024, exhibited similar effects on exocytosis (IC(50) = 13 microm). These actions were dependent on activation of pertussis toxin-sensitive G(i2) proteins but were not associated with stimulation of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels or adenylate cyclase activity. The inhibitory effect of phentolamine on exocytosis resulted from activation of the protein phosphatase calcineurin and was abolished by cyclosporin A and deltamethrin. Exocytosis was not affected by intracellular application of specific alpha(2), I(1), and I(2) ligands. Phentolamine reduced glucagon release (IC(50) = 1.2 microm) from intact islets by 40%, an effect abolished by pertussis toxin, cyclosporin A, and deltamethrin. These data suggest that imidazoline compounds inhibit glucagon secretion via G(i2)-dependent activation of calcineurin in the pancreatic alpha-cell. The imidazoline binding site is likely to be localized intracellularly and probably closely associated with the secretory granules.

  15. Membrane Guanylyl Cyclase Complexes Shape the Photoresponses of Retinal Rods and Cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hong eWen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrate rods and cones, photon capture by rhodopsin leads to the destruction of cyclic GMP (cGMP and the subsequent closure of cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG ion channels in the outer segment plasma membrane. Replenishment of cGMP and reopening of the channels limit the growth of the photon response and are requisite for its recovery. In different vertebrate retinas, there may be as many as four types of membrane guanylyl cyclases (GCs for cGMP synthesis. Ten neuronal Ca2+ sensor proteins could potentially modulate their activities. The mouse is proving to be an effective model for characterizing the roles of individual components because its relative simplicity can be reduced further by genetic engineering. There are two types of guanylyl cyclase activating proteins (GCAPs and two types of GCs in mouse rods, whereas cones express one type of GCAP and one type of GC. Mutant mouse rods and cones bereft of both GCAPs have large, long lasting photon responses. Thus, GCAPs normally mediate negative feedback tied to the light-induced decline in intracellular Ca2+ that accelerates GC activity to curtail the growth and duration of the photon response. Rods from other mutant mice that express a single GCAP type reveal how the two GCAPs normally work together as a team. Because of its lower Ca2+ affinity, GCAP1 is the first responder that senses the initial decrease in Ca2+ following photon absorption and acts to limit response amplitude. GCAP2, with a higher Ca2+ affinity, is recruited later during the course of the photon response as Ca2+ levels continue to decline further. The main role of GCAP2 is to provide for a timely response recovery and it is particularly important after exposure to very bright light. The multiplicity of GC isozymes and GCAP homologs in the retinas of other vertebrates confers greater flexibility in shaping the photon responses in order to tune visual sensitivity, dynamic range and frequency response.

  16. NMR studies of the AMP-binding site and mechanism of adenylate kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, D.C.; Kuby, S.A.; Mildvan, A.S.

    1987-03-24

    NMR has previously been used to determine the conformation of enzyme-bound MgATP and to locate the MgATP-binding site on adenylate kinase. To determine the conformation and location of the other substrate, AMP, distances have been measured from Cr/sup 3 +/AMPPCP, a linear competitive inhibitor with respect to MgATP, to six protons and to the phosphorus atom of AMP on adenylate kinase, with the paramagnetic probe-T/sub 1/ method. Time-dependent nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) have been used to measure five interproton distances on enzyme-bound AMP. These distances were used to determine the conformation of bound AMP in addition to its position with respect to metal-ATP. Ten intermolecular NOEs, from protons of the enzyme to those of AMP, were detected, indicating the proximity of at least three hydrophobic amino acids to bound AMP. These constraints, together with the conformation of AMP and the intersubstrate distances, were used to position AMP into the X-ray structure of adenylate kinase. The AMP binding site is found to be near Leu-116, Arg-171, Val-173, Val-182, and Leu-190; all of these residues have been found to be invariant in muscle-type rabbit, calf, human, porcine.

  17. Multiforms of mammalian adenylate kinase and its monoclonal antibody against AK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Y; Takenaka, H; Sumida, M; Oka, K; Hamada, M; Kuby, S A

    1990-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the intracellular distribution of the multiforms of the adenylate kinase (AK) isoenzymes in mammalian tissues, to shed some light on their physiological roles, especially in energy metabolism. The adenylate kinase zymograms obtained from isoelectric focusing yielded two typical isoform patterns: (1) with a pI greater than or equal to 9 and 8.6, specific for bovine skeletal muscle, heart, aorta and brain, and (2) with a pI = 7.9 and 7.1, specific for liver and kidney. Pattern (1) was attributed to the cytosolic isoenzyme (AK1) as demonstrated by immunostaining with anti-AK1. Pattern (2) was attributed to the mitochondrial isoenzyme (AK2). These results were largely confirmed by chromatofocusing experiments. The AK1 isoenzyme was partially purified from the cytosol fraction of bovine aortic smooth muscle and had an apparent Mr of 23.5 kilodaltons. Its kinetic features are discussed from a comparative standpoint. Finally, the human serum AK1 isoform was also detected by Western blotting with a monoclonal antibody directed against crystalline porcine muscle AK1. These results are to form the basis of further studies on the 'aberrant' adenylate kinase isoenzyme from the serum of Duchenne muscular dystrophics.

  18. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV inhibitory activity of parotid exudate of Bufo melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allenki Venkatesham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes arises as a result of β-cell failure combined with concomitant insulin resistance. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a gastrointestinal hormone that is released postprandially from the L cells of the gut and exerts a glucose- dependent and direct insulinotropic effect on the pancreatic β cell. Which activate adenylate cyclase and enhances insulin secretion. GLP-1 is rapidly degraded by DPP-IV to GLP-1(9-37 amide following release from gut L cells. GLP-1 directly enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion via an increase in β-cell cAMP. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV is a plasma membrane glycoprotein ectopeptidase. In mammals, DPP-IV was widely expressed on the surface of endothelial and epithelial cells and highest levels in humans have been reported to occur in the intestine, bone marrow and kidney. Inhibiting DPP-IV reduces its rapid degradation of GLP-1, increasing circulating levels of the active hormone in vivo and prolonging its beneficial effects. The IC 50 value of parotid exudate was found to be 9.4 μg/ml. The maximum % inhibition (61.8 was showed at a concentration of 12μg/ml. Parotid exudate through inhibition of DPP-IV, improves glucose tolerance and enhances insulin secretion. DPP-IV inhibitors are a novel class of oral hypoglycemic agents with a potential to improve pancreatic beta cell function and the clinical course of type 2 diabetes.

  19. Coriandrum sativum and Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oils: Chemical Composition and Activity on Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Lucia; Souza, Lucéia Fátima; Alloisio, Susanna; Cornara, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-11-30

    The aims of this study are to determine the chemical composition of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and Coriandrum sativum L. essential oils, to evaluate their cytotoxic effects in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, to investigate whether an alteration of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) and of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression can take part in the molecular mechanisms of the essential oils, and to study their possible neuronal electrophysiological effects. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and studied by GC and GC-MS. In the oils from L. angustifolia and C. sativum, linalool was the main component (33.1% and 67.8%, respectively). SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with different concentrations of essential oils and of linalool. Cell viability and effects on ADCY1 and ERK expression were analyzed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT and Western blotting, respectively. Variation in cellular electrophysiology was studied in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons with a multi-electrode array (MEA)-based approach. The essential oils and linalool revealed different cytotoxic activities. Linalool inhibited ADCY1 and ERK expression. Neuronal networks subjected to L. angustifolia and C. sativum essential oils showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous electrical activity.

  20. Adenylyl Cyclase Signaling in the Developing Chick Heart: The Deranging Effect of Antiarrhythmic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Hejnova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The adenylyl cyclase (AC signaling system plays a crucial role in the regulation of cardiac contractility. Here we analyzed the key components of myocardial AC signaling in the developing chick embryo and assessed the impact of selected β-blocking agents on this system. Application of metoprolol and carvedilol, two commonly used β-blockers, at embryonic day (ED 8 significantly downregulated (by about 40% expression levels of AC5, the dominant cardiac AC isoform, and the amount of Gsα protein at ED9. Activity of AC stimulated by forskolin was also significantly reduced under these conditions. Interestingly, when administered at ED4, these drugs did not produce such profound changes in the myocardial AC signaling system, except for markedly increased expression of Giα protein. These data indicate that β-blocking agents can strongly derange AC signaling during the first half of embryonic heart development.

  1. Reconstitution of a fungal meroterpenoid biosynthesis reveals the involvement of a novel family of terpene cyclases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Takayuki; Tokunaga, Kinya; Matsuda, Yudai; Fujii, Isao; Abe, Ikuro; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Kushiro, Tetsuo

    2010-10-01

    Meroterpenoids are hybrid natural products of both terpenoid and polyketide origin. We identified a biosynthetic gene cluster that is responsible for the production of the meroterpenoid pyripyropene in the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus through reconstituted biosynthesis of up to five steps in a heterologous fungal expression system. The cluster revealed a previously unknown terpene cyclase with an unusual sequence and protein primary structure. The wide occurrence of this sequence in other meroterpenoid and indole-diterpene biosynthetic gene clusters indicates the involvement of these enzymes in the biosynthesis of various terpenoid-bearing metabolites produced by fungi and bacteria. In addition, a novel polyketide synthase that incorporated nicotinyl-CoA as the starter unit and a prenyltransferase, similar to that in ubiquinone biosynthesis, was found to be involved in the pyripyropene biosynthesis. The successful production of a pyripyropene analogue illustrates the catalytic versatility of these enzymes for the production of novel analogues with useful biological activities.

  2. Interaction of retinal guanylate cyclase with the alpha subunit of transducin: potential role in transducin localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Derek H; Nair, K Saidas; Levay, Konstantin; Peshenko, Igor V; Crabb, John W; Dizhoor, Alexander M; Slepak, Vladlen Z

    2009-02-01

    Vertebrate phototransduction is mediated by cGMP, which is generated by retGC (retinal guanylate cyclase) and degraded by cGMP phosphodiesterase. Light stimulates cGMP hydrolysis via the G-protein transducin, which directly binds to and activates phosphodiesterase. Bright light also causes relocalization of transducin from the OS (outer segments) of the rod cells to the inner compartments. In the present study, we show experimental evidence for a previously unknown interaction between G(alphat) (the transducin alpha subunit) and retGC. G(alphat) co-immunoprecipitates with retGC from the retina or from co-transfected COS-7 cells. The retGC-G(alphat) complex is also present in cones. The interaction also occurs in mice lacking RGS9 (regulator of G-protein signalling 9), a protein previously shown to associate with both G(alphat) and retGC. The G(alphat)-retGC interaction is mediated primarily by the kinase homology domain of retGC, which binds GDP-bound G(alphat) stronger than the GTP[S] (GTPgammaS; guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate) form. Neither G(alphat) nor G(betagamma) affect retGC-mediated cGMP synthesis, regardless of the presence of GCAP (guanylate cyclase activating protein) and Ca2+. The rate of light-dependent transducin redistribution from the OS to the inner segments is markedly accelerated in the retGC-1-knockout mice, while the migration of transducin to the OS after the onset of darkness is delayed. Supplementation of permeabilized photoreceptors with cGMP does not affect transducin translocation. Taken together, these results suggest that the protein-protein interaction between G(alphat) and retGC represents a novel mechanism regulating light-dependent translocation of transducin in rod photoreceptors.

  3. New structural forms of a mycobacterial adenylyl cyclase Rv1625c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivanayaga Barathy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rv1625c is one of 16 adenylyl cyclases encoded in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In solution Rv1625c exists predominantly as a monomer, with a small amount of dimer. It has been shown previously that the monomer is active and the dimeric fraction is inactive. Both fractions of wild-type Rv1625c crystallized as head-to-head inactive domain-swapped dimers as opposed to the head-to-tail dimer seen in other functional adenylyl cyclases. About half of the molecule is involved in extensive domain swapping. The strain created by a serine residue located on a hinge loop and the crystallization condition might have led to this unusual domain swapping. The inactivity of the dimeric form of Rv1625c could be explained by the absence of the required catalytic site in the swapped dimer. A single mutant of the enzyme was also generated by changing a phenylalanine predicted to occur at the functional dimer interface to an arginine. This single mutant exists as a dimer in solution but crystallized as a monomer. Analysis of the structure showed that a salt bridge formed between a glutamate residue in the N-terminal segment and the mutated arginine residue hinders dimer formation by pulling the N-terminal region towards the dimer interface. Both structures reported here show a change in the dimerization-arm region which is involved in formation of the functional dimer. It is concluded that the dimerization arm along with other structural elements such as the N-terminal region and certain loops are vital for determining the oligomeric nature of the enzyme, which in turn dictates its activity.

  4. Comparative effect of methioninyl adenylate on the growth of Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enouf, J; Laurence, F; Farrugia, G; Blanchard, P; Robert-Gero, M

    1976-10-11

    The bacteriostatic effect of methioninyl adenylate(MAMP)--a specific inhibitor of the enzyme methionyl-tRNA synthetase--was investigated on Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 0.1 mM of this molecule added to the culture, inhibits the growth of S. typhimurium. The inhibition is specifically reversible by 0.1 mM L-methionine. In the same conditions even 1-2 mM MAMP has a very slight effect on the growth rate of P. aeruginosa and only during the first two generations. The same observation was made with the two other members of the fluorescens group P.fluorescens and P.putida. The growth rate of P. testosteroni with 1 mM MAMP in the medium is similar to the growth rate of P. aeruginosa but the other member of the acidovorans group P. acidovorans is much more affected by the smae concentration of the inhibitor. --P. multivorans is inhibited by MAMP like P. acidovorans but with a somewhat higher yield at the end of the culture. --MAMP has no effect on P. alcaligenes. The possible reasons for the weak bacteriostatic effect of MAMP on P. aeruginosa were investigated. It was established that the inhibitor enters the cells and is not used as a carbon and energy source. The intracellular methionine concentration in S. typhimurium and in P. aeruginosa is about the same and does not increase when bacteria are cultivated with MAMP. The MTS of the two microorganisms is inhibited by MAMP in vitro to about the same extent. Furthermore the tRNAmet from P. aeruginosa are fully acylated after 3 to 4 generations with this compound. Nevertheless MAMP elicits higher MTS activity in P. aeruginosa and in P. acidovorans after 1 h of incubation. The most striking difference between S. typhimurium and P. aeruginosa is that the intra and extracellular level of 5'phosphodiesterase which degrades MAMP is 10-20 fold higher in the second than in the first species.

  5. Novel potent and selective bile acid derivatives as TGR5 agonists: biological screening, structure-activity relationships, and molecular modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Thomas, Charles; Gioiello, Antimo; Une, Mizuho; Hofmann, Alan F; Saladin, Régis; Schoonjans, Kristina; Pellicciari, Roberto; Auwerx, Johan

    2008-03-27

    TGR5, a metabotropic receptor that is G-protein-coupled to the induction of adenylate cyclase, has been recognized as the molecular link connecting bile acids to the control of energy and glucose homeostasis. With the aim of disclosing novel selective modulators of this receptor and at the same time clarifying the molecular basis of TGR5 activation, we report herein the biological screening of a collection of natural occurring bile acids, bile acid derivatives, and some steroid hormones, which has resulted in the discovery of new potent and selective TGR5 ligands. Biological results of the tested collection of compounds were used to extend the structure-activity relationships of TGR5 agonists and to develop a binary classification model of TGR5 activity. This model in particular could unveil some hidden properties shared by the molecular shape of bile acids and steroid hormones that are relevant to TGR5 activation and may hence be used to address the design of novel selective and potent TGR5 agonists.

  6. Functional analysis of the Phycomyces carRA gene encoding the enzymes phytoene synthase and lycopene cyclase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Sanz

    Full Text Available Phycomyces carRA gene encodes a protein with two domains. Domain R is characterized by red carR mutants that accumulate lycopene. Domain A is characterized by white carA mutants that do not accumulate significant amounts of carotenoids. The carRA-encoded protein was identified as the lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase enzyme by sequence homology with other proteins. However, no direct data showing the function of this protein have been reported so far. Different Mucor circinelloides mutants altered at the phytoene synthase, the lycopene cyclase or both activities were transformed with the Phycomyces carRA gene. Fully transcribed carRA mRNA molecules were detected by Northern assays in the transformants and the correct processing of the carRA messenger was verified by RT-PCR. These results showed that Phycomyces carRA gene was correctly expressed in Mucor. Carotenoids analysis in these transformants showed the presence of ß-carotene, absent in the untransformed strains, providing functional evidence that the Phycomyces carRA gene complements the M. circinelloides mutations. Co-transformation of the carRA cDNA in E. coli with different combinations of the carotenoid structural genes from Erwinia uredovora was also performed. Newly formed carotenoids were accumulated showing that the Phycomyces CarRA protein does contain lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase activities. The heterologous expression of the carRA gene and the functional complementation of the mentioned activities are not very efficient in E. coli. However, the simultaneous presence of both carRA and carB gene products from Phycomyces increases the efficiency of these enzymes, presumably due to an interaction mechanism.

  7. Comparative study of hemolytic activity of Bordetella species

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    C N Khobragade

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Bordetella species colonize the respiratory tract of mammals and thereby cause the whooping cough. Most of the species produce adenylate cyclase - a toxin ( hemolysin responsible for increasing intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP levels in mammalian neutrophils and macrophages and as a consequence their phagocytic function get impaired . This study was carried out to isolate species of Bordetella and to study the hemolytic activity of each species on RBCs of sheep, human and poultry at varied culture conditions by altering the temperature, pH and cell age."nMaterials and Methods: Three pathogenic Bordetella species were isolated from fifty suspected whooping cough patients on Bordet-Gengou agar and identified by their biochemical profiles. The hemolytic activity of B. pertussis, B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica was investigated in terms of cell bound and cell free hemolysin on human, poultry and sheep RBCs at variable pH, temperature and cell age in Stainer Scholt broth. The hemolysin activity was also determined qualitatively on blood agar containing different blood samples."nResults: All the species revealed optimum hemolytic activity in pH range 7.5-8.0 (in slight alkaline condition, temperature 37°C and cell age up to 20-24 hrs. The cell bound hemolytic activity was found to be maximum than cell free activity and varied with blood samples of different species. B. pertussis showed maximum hemolytic activity on human red blood cells followed by poultry and sheep RBCs. B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica showed maximum hemolytic activity on sheep and poultry RBCs respectively."nConclusion: The findings of our study revealed that different determinants are involved in host interactions and virulence of Bordetella species.

  8. Relaxin Stimulates cAMP Production in MCF-7 Cells upon Overexpression of Type V Adenylyl Cyclase

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Bao T.; Dessauer, Carmen W.

    2005-01-01

    Relaxin stimulates cAMP production and activation of ERK and PI3K in THP-1 cells. Relaxin also stimulates protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ) translocation to the plasma membrane in a PI3K-dependent manner in THP-1 and MCF-7 cells. However, relaxin did not increase cAMP production in MCF-7 cells. We overexpressed different adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms in MCF-7 cells to examine coupling of endogenous relaxin receptors to cAMP production. Overexpression of types II and IV AC had no effect on cAMP pr...

  9. Stimulation of renin secretion by catecholamines is dependent on adenylyl cyclases 5 and 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldehni, Fadi; Tang, Tong; Madsen, Kirsten; Plattner, Michael; Schreiber, Andrea; Friis, Ulla G; Hammond, H Kirk; Han, Pyung Lim; Schweda, Frank

    2011-03-01

    The sympathetic nervous system stimulates renin release from juxtaglomerular cells via the β-adrenoreceptor-cAMP pathway. Recent in vitro studies have suggested that the calcium-inhibited adenylyl cyclases (ACs) 5 and 6 possess key roles in the control of renin exocytosis. To investigate the relative contribution of AC5 and AC6 to the regulation of renin release in vivo we performed experiments using AC5 and AC6 knockout mice. Male AC5(-/-) mice exhibited normal plasma renin concentrations, renal renin synthesis (mRNA and renin content), urinary volume, and systolic blood pressure. In male AC6(-/-) mice, plasma renin concentration (AC6(-/-): 732 ± 119; AC6 (+/+): 436 ± 78 ng of angiotensin I per hour*mL(-1); Prenin synthesis were stimulated associated with an increased excretion of dilute urine (1.55-fold; Pplasma renin concentration by a single injection of the β-adrenoreceptor agonist isoproterenol (10 mg/kg IP) was significantly attenuated in AC5(-/-) (male: -20%; female: -33%) compared with wild-type mice in vivo. The mitigation of the plasma renin concentration response to isoproterenol was even more pronounced in AC6(-/-) (male: -63%; female: -50% versus AC6(+/+)). Similarly, the effects of isoproterenol, prostaglandin E2, and pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide on renin release from isolated perfused kidneys were attenuated to a higher extent in AC6(-/-) (-51% to -98% versus AC6(+/+)) than in AC5(-/-) (-31% to 46% versus AC5(+/+)). In conclusion, both AC5 and AC6 are involved in the stimulation of renin secretion in vivo, and AC6 is the dominant isoforms in this process.

  10. Guanylyl Cyclase C Hormone Axis at the Intersection of Obesity and Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomain, Erik S; Merlino, Dante J; Pattison, Amanda M; Snook, Adam E; Waldman, Scott A

    2016-09-01

    Obesity has emerged as a principal cause of mortality worldwide, reflecting comorbidities including cancer risk, particularly in colorectum. Although this relationship is established epidemiologically, molecular mechanisms linking colorectal cancer and obesity continue to be refined. Guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C), a membrane-bound guanylyl cyclase expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, binds the paracrine hormones guanylin and uroguanylin, inducing cGMP signaling in colorectum and small intestine, respectively. Guanylin is the most commonly lost gene product in sporadic colorectal cancer, and its universal loss early in transformation silences GUCY2C, a tumor suppressor, disrupting epithelial homeostasis underlying tumorigenesis. In small intestine, eating induces endocrine secretion of uroguanylin, the afferent limb of a novel gut-brain axis that activates hypothalamic GUCY2C-cGMP signaling mediating satiety opposing obesity. Recent studies revealed that diet-induced obesity suppressed guanylin and uroguanylin expression in mice and humans. Hormone loss reflects reversible calorie-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and the associated unfolded protein response, rather than the endocrine, adipokine, or inflammatory milieu of obesity. Loss of intestinal uroguanylin secretion silences the hypothalamic GUCY2C endocrine axis, creating a feed-forward loop contributing to hyperphagia in obesity. Importantly, calorie-induced guanylin loss silences the GUCY2C-cGMP paracrine axis underlying obesity-induced epithelial dysfunction and colorectal tumorigenesis. Indeed, genetically enforced guanylin replacement eliminated diet-induced intestinal tumorigenesis in mice. Taken together, these observations suggest that GUCY2C hormone axes are at the intersection of obesity and colorectal cancer. Moreover, they suggest that hormone replacement that restores GUCY2C signaling may be a novel therapeutic paradigm to prevent both hyperphagia and intestinal tumorigenesis in obesity.

  11. Engineering a minimal G protein to facilitate crystallisation of G protein-coupled receptors in their active conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Byron; Tate, Christopher G

    2016-12-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) modulate cytoplasmic signalling in response to extracellular stimuli, and are important therapeutic targets in a wide range of diseases. Structure determination of GPCRs in all activation states is important to elucidate the precise mechanism of signal transduction and to facilitate optimal drug design. However, due to their inherent instability, crystallisation of GPCRs in complex with cytoplasmic signalling proteins, such as heterotrimeric G proteins and β-arrestins, has proved challenging. Here, we describe the design of a minimal G protein, mini-Gs, which is composed solely of the GTPase domain from the adenylate cyclase stimulating G protein Gs Mini-Gs is a small, soluble protein, which efficiently couples GPCRs in the absence of Gβγ subunits. We engineered mini-Gs, using rational design mutagenesis, to form a stable complex with detergent-solubilised β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR). Mini G proteins induce similar pharmacological and structural changes in GPCRs as heterotrimeric G proteins, but eliminate many of the problems associated with crystallisation of these complexes, specifically their large size, conformational dynamics and instability in detergent. They are therefore novel tools, which will facilitate the biochemical and structural characterisation of GPCRs in their active conformation.

  12. Protein kinase A inhibition facilitates the antitumor activity of xanthohumol, a valosin-containing protein inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikata, Yuki; Yoshimaru, Tetsuro; Komatsu, Masato; Katoh, Hiroto; Sato, Reiko; Kanagaki, Shuhei; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Toyokuni, Shinya; Tashiro, Etsu; Ishikawa, Shumpei; Katagiri, Toyomasa; Imoto, Masaya

    2017-01-25

    Xanthohumol (XN), a simple prenylated chalcone, can be isolated from hops and has the potential to be a cancer chemopreventive agent against several human tumor cell lines. We previously identified valosin-containing protein (VCP) as a target of XN; VCP can also play crucial roles in cancer progression and prognosis. Therefore, we investigated the molecular mechanisms governing the contribution of VCP to the antitumor activity of XN. Several human tumor cell lines were treated with XN to investigate which human tumor cell lines are sensitive to XN. Several cell lines exhibited high sensitivity to XN both in vitro and in vivo. shRNA screening and bioinformatics analysis identified that the inhibition of the adenylate cyclase (AC) pathway synergistically facilitated apoptosis induced by VCP inhibition. These results suggest there is crosstalk between the AC pathway and VCP function, and targeting both VCP and the AC pathway is a potential chemotherapeutic strategy for a subset of tumor cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Crystal Structure of the Signaling Helix Coiled-coil Domain of the b1 Subunit of the Soluble guanylyl Cyclase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, X.; Beuve, A; van den Akker, F

    2010-01-01

    The soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a heterodimeric enzyme that, upon activation by nitric oxide, stimulates the production of the second messenger cGMP. Each sGC subunit harbor four domains three of which are used for heterodimerization: H-NOXA/H-NOBA domain, coiled-coil domain (CC), and catalytic guanylyl cyclase domain. The CC domain has previously been postulated to be part of a larger CC family termed the signaling helix (S-helix) family. Homodimers of sGC have also been observed but are not functionally active yet are likely transient awaiting their intended heterodimeric partner. To investigate the structure of the CC S-helix region, we crystallized and determined the structure of the CC domain of the sGC{beta}1 subunit comprising residues 348-409. The crystal structure was refined to 2.15 {angstrom} resolution. The CC structure of sGC{beta}1 revealed a tetrameric arrangement comprised of a dimer of CC dimers. Each monomer is comprised of a long a-helix, a turn near residue P399, and a short second a-helix. The CC structure also offers insights as to how sGC homodimers are not as stable as (functionally) active heterodimers via a possible role for inter-helix salt-bridge formation. The structure also yielded insights into the residues involved in dimerization. In addition, the CC region is also known to harbor a number of congenital and man-made mutations in both membrane and soluble guanylyl cyclases and those function-affecting mutations have been mapped onto the CC structure. This mutant analysis indicated an importance for not only certain dimerization residue positions, but also an important role for other faces of the CC dimer which might perhaps interact with adjacent domains. Our results also extend beyond guanylyl cyclases as the CC structure is, to our knowledge, the first S-helix structure and serves as a model for all S-helix containing family members.

  14. Crystal structure of the signaling helix coiled-coil domain of the β1 subunit of the soluble guanylyl cyclase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Akker Focco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC is a heterodimeric enzyme that, upon activation by nitric oxide, stimulates the production of the second messenger cGMP. Each sGC subunit harbor four domains three of which are used for heterodimerization: H-NOXA/H-NOBA domain, coiled-coil domain (CC, and catalytic guanylyl cyclase domain. The CC domain has previously been postulated to be part of a larger CC family termed the signaling helix (S-helix family. Homodimers of sGC have also been observed but are not functionally active yet are likely transient awaiting their intended heterodimeric partner. Results To investigate the structure of the CC S-helix region, we crystallized and determined the structure of the CC domain of the sGCβ1 subunit comprising residues 348-409. The crystal structure was refined to 2.15 Å resolution. Conclusions The CC structure of sGCβ1 revealed a tetrameric arrangement comprised of a dimer of CC dimers. Each monomer is comprised of a long a-helix, a turn near residue P399, and a short second a-helix. The CC structure also offers insights as to how sGC homodimers are not as stable as (functionally active heterodimers via a possible role for inter-helix salt-bridge formation. The structure also yielded insights into the residues involved in dimerization. In addition, the CC region is also known to harbor a number of congenital and man-made mutations in both membrane and soluble guanylyl cyclases and those function-affecting mutations have been mapped onto the CC structure. This mutant analysis indicated an importance for not only certain dimerization residue positions, but also an important role for other faces of the CC dimer which might perhaps interact with adjacent domains. Our results also extend beyond guanylyl cyclases as the CC structure is, to our knowledge, the first S-helix structure and serves as a model for all S-helix containing family members.

  15. Molecular cloning, subcellular localization and characterization of two adenylate kinases from cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. KU50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonrueng, Channarong; Tangpranomkorn, Surachat; Yazhisai, Uthaman; Sirikantaramas, Supaart

    2016-10-01

    Adenylate kinase (ADK) is a phosphotransferase that plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. Many isozymes located in different subcellular compartments have been reported. In this study, we focus on the characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta) ADKs. We found 15 ADKs that are publicly available in the African cassava genome database. We cloned two ADKs, namely MeADK1 and MeADK2, which are phylogenetically grouped together with the plastidial ADK in potato. Both MeADK1 and MeADK2 showed 66% identity in the amino acid sequences with plastidial ADK in potato. However, we demonstrated that they are localized to mitochondria using GFP fusions of MeADK1 and MeADK2. The Escherichia coli-produced recombinant MeADK1 and MeADK2 preferred forward reactions that produce ATP. They exhibited similar specific activities. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MeADK1 and MeADK2 in 2-month-old leaves have similar expression patterns under a diurnal light-dark cycle. However, MeADK2 transcripts were expressed at much higher levels than MeADK1 in 5-month-old leaves and roots. Thus, we conclude that MeADK2 might play a vital role in energy homeostasis in cassava mitochondria.

  16. The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor is overexpressed amongst GNAS1 mutation-negative somatotropinomas and drives growth hormone (GH)-promoter activity in GH3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhi, G; Losa, M; Albiger, N; Trivellin, G; Regazzo, D; Scanarini, M; Monteserin-Garcia, J L; Fröhlich, B; Ferasin, S; Terreni, M R; Fassina, A; Vitiello, L; Stalla, G; Mantero, F; Scaroni, C

    2011-07-01

    Somatic mutations in the GNAS1 gene, encoding the α-subunit of the heterotrimeric stimulatory G protein (Gαs), occur in approximately 40% of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary tumours. By altering the adenylate cyclase-cAMP-protein kinase A pathway, they unequivocally give somatotroph cells a growth advantage. Hence, the pathogenesis of somatotropinomas could be linked to anomalies in receptors coupled to the cAMP second-messenger cascade. Among them, the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR) is already known to play a primary role in the impaired cAMP-dependent cortisol secretion in patients affected by food-dependent Cushing's syndrome. In the present study, 43 somatotropinomas and 12 normal pituitary glands were investigated for GIPR expression by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Tumoural specimens were also evaluated for GNAS1 mutational status. The effect of GIPR overexpression on cAMP levels and GH transcription was evaluated in an in vitro model of somatotropinomas, the GH-secreting pituitary cell line GH3. GIPR was expressed at higher levels compared to normal pituitaries in 13 GNAS1 mutation-negative somatotropinomas. GIP stimulated adenylyl cyclase and GH-promoter activity in GIPR-transfected GH3 cells, confirming a correct coupling of GIPR to Gαs. In a proportion of acromegalic patients, GIPR overexpression appeared to be associated with a paradoxical increase in GH after an oral glucose tolerance test. Whether GIPR overexpression in acromegalic patients may be associated with this paradoxical response or more generally involved in the pathogenesis of acromegaly, as suggested by the mutually exclusive high GIPR levels and GNAS1 mutations, remains an open question.

  17. Inferring biological functions of guanylyl cyclases with computational methods

    KAUST Repository

    Alquraishi, May Majed

    2013-09-03

    A number of studies have shown that functionally related genes are often co-expressed and that computational based co-expression analysis can be used to accurately identify functional relationships between genes and by inference, their encoded proteins. Here we describe how a computational based co-expression analysis can be used to link the function of a specific gene of interest to a defined cellular response. Using a worked example we demonstrate how this methodology is used to link the function of the Arabidopsis Wall-Associated Kinase-Like 10 gene, which encodes a functional guanylyl cyclase, to host responses to pathogens. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  18. Adenylyl cyclase type 6 overexpression selectively enhances β-adrenergic and prostacyclin receptor-mediated inhibition of cardiac fibroblast function because of colocalization in lipid rafts

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaoqiu; Thangavel, Muthusamy; Sun, Shu Qiang; Kaminsky, Joseph; Mahautmr, Penden; Stitham, Jeremiah; Hwa, John; Ostrom, Rennolds S.

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts produce and degrade extracellular matrix and are critical in regulating cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy. Fibroblasts are activated by factors such as transforming growth factor β and inhibited by agents that elevate 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. cAMP signal generation and response is known to be compartmentalized in many cell types in part through the colocalization of receptors and specific adenylyl cyclase isoforms in lipid rafts and caveolae. Th...

  19. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L; Barron, Megan E; Roa, Jinae N

    2014-03-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3(-), and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3(-) sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3(-)-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H(+) absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved.

  20. NMR studies of the AMP-binding site and mechanism of adenylate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, D C; Kuby, S A; Mildvan, A S

    1987-03-24

    NMR has previously been used to determine the conformation of enzyme-bound MgATP and to locate the MgATP-binding site on adenylate kinase [Fry, D. C., Kuby, S. A., & Mildvan, A. S. (1985) Biochemistry 24, 4680-4694]. To determine the conformation and location of the other substrate, AMP, distances have been measured from Cr3+AMPPCP, a linear competitive inhibitor with respect to MgATP, to six protons and to the phosphorus atom of AMP on adenylate kinase, with the paramagnetic probe-T1 method. Time-dependent nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) have been used to measure five interproton distances on enzyme-bound AMP. These distances were used to determine the conformation of bound AMP in addition to its position with respect to metal-ATP. Enzyme-bound AMP exhibits a high anti-glycosyl torsional angle (chi = 110 +/- 10 degrees), a 3'-endo,2'-exo ribose pucker (delta = 105 +/- 10 degrees), and gauche-trans orientations about the C4'-C5' bond (gamma = 180 +/- 10 degrees) and the C5'-O5' bond (beta = 170 +/- 20 degrees). The distance from Cr3+ to the phosphorus of AMP is 5.9 +/- 0.3 A, indicating a reaction coordinate distance of approximately 3 A, which is consistent with an associative SN2 mechanism for the phosphoryl transfer. Ten intermolecular NOEs, from protons of the enzyme to those of AMP, were detected, indicating the proximity of at least three hydrophobic amino acids to bound AMP. These constraints, together with the conformation of AMP and the intersubstrate distances, were used to position AMP into the X-ray structure of adenylate kinase. The AMP binding site is found to be near (less than or equal to 4 A from) Leu-116, Arg-171, Val-173, Val-182, and Leu-190; all of these residues have been found to be invariant in muscle-type rabbit, calf, human, porcine [Kuby, S. A., Palmieri, R. H., Frischat, A., Fischer, A. H., Wu, L. H., Maland, L., & Manship, M. (1984) Biochemistry 23, 2393-2399], and chicken adenylate kinase [Kishi, F., Maruyama, M., Tanizawa, Y

  1. The Adenylate-Forming Enzymes AfeA and TmpB Are Involved in Aspergillus nidulans Self-Communication during Asexual Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soid-Raggi, Gabriela; Sánchez, Olivia; Ramos-Balderas, Jose L.; Aguirre, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans asexual sporulation (conidiation) is triggered by different environmental signals and involves the differentiation of specialized structures called conidiophores. The elimination of genes flbA-E, fluG, and tmpA results in a fluffy phenotype characterized by delayed conidiophore development and decreased expression of the conidiation essential gene brlA. While flbA-E encode regulatory proteins, fluG and tmpA encode enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of independent signals needed for normal conidiation. Here we identify afeA and tmpB as new genes encoding members the adenylate-forming enzyme superfamily, whose inactivation cause different fluffy phenotypes and decreased conidiation and brlA expression. AfeA is most similar to unknown function coumarate ligase-like (4CL-Lk) enzymes and consistent with this, a K544N active site modification eliminates AfeA function. TmpB, identified previously as a larger homolog of the oxidoreductase TmpA, contains a NRPS-type adenylation domain. A high degree of synteny in the afeA-tmpA and tmpB regions in the Aspergilli suggests that these genes are part of conserved gene clusters. afeA, tmpA, and tmpB double and triple mutant analysis as well as afeA overexpression experiments indicate that TmpA and AfeA act in the same conidiation pathway, with TmpB acting in a different pathway. Fluorescent protein tagging shows that functional versions of AfeA are localized in lipid bodies and the plasma membrane, while TmpA and TmpB are localized at the plasma membrane. We propose that AfeA participates in the biosynthesis of an acylated compound, either a p-cuomaryl type or a fatty acid compound, which might be oxidized by TmpA and/or TmpB, while TmpB adenylation domain would be involved in the activation of a hydrophobic amino acid, which in turn would be oxidized by the TmpB oxidoreductase domain. Both, AfeA-TmpA and TmpB signals are involved in self-communication and reproduction in A. nidulans. PMID:27047469

  2. The Adenylate-Forming Enzymes AfeA And TmpB Are Involved In Aspergillus nidulans Self-Communication During Asexual Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus eAguirre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus nidulans asexual sporulation (conidiation is triggered by different environmental signals and involves the differentiation of specialized structures called conidiophores. The elimination of genes flbA-E, fluG and tmpA results in a fluffy phenotype characterized by delayed conidiophore development and decreased expression of the conidiation essential gene brlA. While flbA-E encode regulatory proteins, fluG and tmpA encode enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of independent signals needed for normal conidiation. Here we identify afeA and tmpB as new genes encoding members the adenylate-forming enzyme superfamily, whose inactivation cause different fluffy phenotypes and decreased conidiation and brlA expression. AfeA is most similar to unknown function coumarate ligase-like (4CL-Lk enzymes and consistent with this, a K544N active site modification eliminates AfeA function. TmpB, identified previously as a larger homolog of the oxidoreductase TmpA, contains a NRPS-type adenylation domain. A high degree of synteny in the afeA-tmpA and tmpB regions in the Aspergilli suggests that these genes are part of conserved gene clusters. afeA, tmpA and tmpB double and triple mutant analysis as well as afeA overexpression experiments indicate that TmpA and AfeA act in the same conidiation pathway, with TmpB acting in a different pathway. Fluorescent protein tagging shows that functional versions of AfeA are localized in organelle-type lipid bodies and the plasma membrane, while TmpA and TmpB are localized at the plasma membrane. We propose that AfeA participates in the biosynthesis of an acylated compound, either a p-cuomaryl type or a fatty acid compound, which might be oxidized by TmpA and/or TmpB, while TmpB adenylation domain would be involved in the activation of a hydrophobic amino acid, which in turn would be oxidized by the TmpB oxidoreductase domain. Both, AfeA-TmpA and TmpB signals are involved in self-communication and reproduction in A

  3. Protective Mechanisms of S. lycopersicum Aqueous Fraction (Nucleosides and Flavonoids on Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation: In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fuentes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate mechanisms of antiplatelet action of bioactive principle from S. lycopersicum. Aqueous fraction had a high content of nucleosides (adenosine, guanosine, and adenosine 5′-monophosphate by HPLC analysis. Also aqueous fraction presented flavonoids content. Aqueous fraction inhibited platelet activation by 15 ± 6% (P<0.05. Fully spread of human platelets on collagen in the presence of aqueous fraction was inhibited from 15 ± 1 to 9 ± 1 μm2 (P<0.001. After incubation of whole blood with aqueous fraction, the platelet coverage was inhibited by 55 ± 12% (P<0.001. Platelet ATP secretion and aggregation were significantly inhibited by the aqueous fraction. At the same concentrations that aqueous fraction inhibits platelet aggregation, levels of sCD40L significantly decreased and the intraplatelet cAMP levels increased. In addition, SQ22536, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, attenuated the effect of aqueous fraction toward ADP-induced platelet aggregation and intraplatelet level of cAMP. Platelet aggregation ex vivo (human study and thrombosis formation in vivo (murine model were inhibited by aqueous fraction. Finally, aqueous fraction may be used as a functional ingredient adding antiplatelet activities (nucleosides and flavonoids to processed foods.

  4. Bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase is present in the cell cytoplasm and nucleus of multiple shark tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, Jinae N; Tresguerres, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The enzyme soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is directly stimulated by bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) to produce the signaling molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Because sAC and sAC-related enzymes are found throughout phyla from cyanobacteria to mammals and they regulate cell physiology in response to internal and external changes in pH, CO2, and HCO3(-), sAC is deemed an evolutionarily conserved acid-base sensor. Previously, sAC has been reported in dogfish shark and round ray gill cells, where they sense and counteract blood alkalosis by regulating the activity of V-type H(+)- ATPase. Here, we report the presence of sAC protein in gill, rectal gland, cornea, intestine, white muscle, and heart of leopard shark Triakis semifasciata Co-expression of sAC with transmembrane adenylyl cyclases supports the presence of cAMP signaling microdomains. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry on tissue sections, and western blots and cAMP-activity assays on nucleus-enriched fractions demonstrate the presence of sAC protein in and around nuclei. These results suggest that sAC modulates multiple physiological processes in shark cells, including nuclear functions.

  5. Lycopene cyclase paralog CruP protects against reactive oxygen species in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbury, Louis M. T.; Shumskaya, Maria; Tzfadia, Oren; Wu, Shi-Biao; Kennelly, Edward J.; Wurtzel, Eleanore T

    2012-01-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, carotenoids serve essential roles in photosynthesis and photoprotection. A previous report designated CruP as a secondary lycopene cyclase involved in carotenoid biosynthesis [Maresca J, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:11784–11789]. However, we found that cruP KO or cruP overexpression plants do not exhibit correspondingly reduced or increased production of cyclized carotenoids, which would be expected if CruP was a lycopene cyclase. Instead, we show that...

  6. Genetic and biochemical analysis of the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein, cap, in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamukai, M; Gerst, J; Field, J.; Riggs, M.; Rodgers, L; Wigler, M; Young, D

    1992-01-01

    We have identified, cloned, and studied a gene, cap, encoding a protein that is associated with adenylyl cyclase in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This protein shares significant sequence homology with the adenylyl cyclase-associated CAP protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. CAP is a bifunctional protein; the N-terminal domain appears to be involved in cellular responsiveness to RAS, whereas loss of the C-terminal portion is associated with morphological and nutritional...

  7. Choreographing the adenylyl cyclase signalosome: sorting out the partners and the steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, Rennolds S; Bogard, Amy S; Gros, Robert; Feldman, Ross D

    2012-01-01

    Adenylyl cyclases are a ubiquitous family of enzymes and are critical regulators of metabolic and cardiovascular function. Multiple isoforms of the enzyme are expressed in a range of tissues. However, for many processes, the adenylyl cyclase isoforms have been thought of as essentially interchangeable, with their impact more dependent on their common actions to increase intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate content regardless of the isoform involved. It has long been appreciated that each subfamily of isoforms demonstrate a specific pattern of "upstream" regulation, i.e., specific patterns of ion dependence (e.g., calcium-dependence) and specific patterns of regulation by kinases (protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), raf). However, more recent studies have suggested that adenylyl cyclase isoform-selective patterns of signaling are a wide-spread phenomenon. The determinants of these selective signaling patterns relate to a number of factors, including: (1) selective coupling of specific adenylyl cyclase isoforms with specific G protein-coupled receptors, (2) localization of specific adenylyl cyclase isoforms in defined structural domains (AKAP complexes, caveolin/lipid rafts), and (3) selective coupling of adenylyl cyclase isoforms with specific downstream signaling cascades important in regulation of cell growth and contractility. The importance of isoform-specific regulation has now been demonstrated both in mouse models as well as in humans. Adenylyl cyclase has not been viewed as a useful target for therapeutic regulation, given the ubiquitous expression of the enzyme and the perceived high risk of off-target effects. Understanding which isoforms of adenylyl cyclase mediate distinct cellular effects would bring new significance to the development of isoform-specific ligands to regulate discrete cellular actions.

  8. In vitro metacyclogenesis of Trypanosoma cruzi induced by starvation correlates with a transient adenylyl cyclase stimulation as well as with a constitutive upregulation of adenylyl cyclase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Afsaneh; Botelho, Larisse; Britto, Constança; Fragoso, Stenio Perdigão; Umaki, Adriana Castilhos Souza; Goldenberg, Samuel; Bottu, Guy; Salmon, Didier

    2015-01-01

    The Trypanosoma cruzi adenylyl cyclase (AC) multigene family encodes different isoforms (around 15) sharing a variable large N-terminal domain, which is extracellular and receptor-like, followed by a transmembrane helix and a conserved C-terminal catalytic domain. It was proposed that these key enzymes in the cAMP signalling pathway allow the parasite to sense its changing extracellular milieu in order to rapidly adapt to its new environment, which is generally achieved through a differentiation process. One of the critical differentiation events the parasitic protozoan T. cruzi undergoes during its life cycle, known as metacyclogenesis, occurs in the digestive tract of the insect and corresponds to the differentiation from noninfective epimastigotes to infective metacyclic trypomastigote forms. By in vitro monitoring the activity of AC during metacyclogenesis, we showed that both the activity of AC and the intracellular cAMP content follow a similar pattern of transient stimulation in a two-step process, with a first activation peak occurring during the first hours of nutritional stress and a second peak between 6 and 48 h, corresponding to the cellular adhesion. During this differentiation process, a general mechanism of upregulation of AC expression of both mRNA and protein is triggered and in particular for a major subclass of these enzymes that are present in various gene copies commonly associated to the THT gene clusters. Although the scattered genome distribution of these gene copies is rather unusual in trypanosomatids and seems to be a recent acquisition in the evolution of the T. cruzi clade, their encoded product redistributed on the flagellum of the parasite upon differentiation could be important to sense the extracellular milieu.

  9. YC-1 potentiates cAMP-induced CREB activation and nitric oxide production in alveolar macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Tsong-Long, E-mail: htl@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chinese Herbal Medicine Research Team, Healthy Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Tang, Ming-Chi [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Liang-Mou [Department of General Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wen-De; Chung, Pei-Jen; Chang, Ya-Wen; Fang, Yao-Ching [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-04-15

    Alveolar macrophages play significant roles in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory lung diseases. Increases in exhaled nitric oxide (NO) are well documented to reflect disease severity in the airway. In this study, we investigated the effect of 3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole (YC-1), a known activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase, on prostaglandin (PG)E{sub 1} (a stable PGE{sub 2} analogue) and forskolin (a adenylate cyclase activator) induced NO production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in rat alveolar macrophages (NR8383). YC-1 did not directly cause NO production or iNOS expression, but drastically potentiated PGE{sub 1}- or forskolin-induced NO production and iNOS expression in NR8383 alveolar macrophages. Combination treatment with YC-1 and PGE{sub 1} significantly increased phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), but not nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. The combined effect on NO production, iNOS expression, and CREB phosphorylation was reversed by a protein kinase (PK)A inhibitor (H89), suggesting that the potentiating functions were mediated through a cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Consistent with this, cAMP analogues, but not the cGMP analogue, caused NO release, iNOS expression, and CREB activation. YC-1 treatment induced an increase in PGE{sub 1}-induced cAMP formation, which occurred through the inhibition of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. Furthermore, the combination of rolipram (an inhibitor of PDE4), but not milronone (an inhibitor of PDE3), and PGE{sub 1} also triggered NO production and iNOS expression. In summary, YC-1 potentiates PGE{sub 1}-induced NO production and iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages through inhibition of cAMP PDE activity and activation of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. Highlights: ► YC-1 potentiated PGE1-induced iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages. ► The combination of YC-1 and PGE1 increased CREB but not NFκB activation.

  10. Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene beta-cyclase gene that controls fruit colour of papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Luke C; Fanning, Kent; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Holton, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    The colour of papaya fruit flesh is determined largely by the presence of carotenoid pigments. Red-fleshed papaya fruit contain lycopene, whilst this pigment is absent from yellow-fleshed fruit. The conversion of lycopene (red) to beta-carotene (yellow) is catalysed by lycopene beta-cyclase. This present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of two different genes encoding lycopene beta-cyclases (lcy-beta1 and lcy-beta2) from red (Tainung) and yellow (Hybrid 1B) papaya cultivars. A mutation in the lcy-beta2 gene, which inactivates enzyme activity, controls lycopene production in fruit and is responsible for the difference in carotenoid production between red and yellow-fleshed papaya fruit. The expression level of both lcy-beta1 and lcy-beta2 genes is similar and low in leaves, but lcy-beta2 expression increases markedly in ripe fruit. Isolation of the lcy-beta2 gene from papaya, that is preferentially expressed in fruit and is correlated with fruit colour, will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for fruit colour in papaya and should create possibilities for metabolic engineering of carotenoid production in papaya fruit to alter both colour and nutritional properties.

  11. Adenylyl cyclase 2 selectively couples to E prostanoid type 2 receptors, whereas adenylyl cyclase 3 is not receptor-regulated in airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, Amy S; Adris, Piyatilake; Ostrom, Rennolds S

    2012-08-01

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are important regulators of airway smooth muscle function, because β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) agonists stimulate AC activity and cAMP production. We have previously shown in a number of cell types that AC6 selectively couples to βAR and these proteins are coexpressed in lipid rafts. We overexpressed AC2, AC3, and AC6 in mouse bronchial smooth muscle cells (mBSMCs) and human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells by using recombinant adenoviruses and assessed their localization and regulation by various G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). AC3 and AC6 were expressed primarily in caveolin-rich fractions, whereas AC2 expression was excluded from these domains. AC6 expression enhanced cAMP production in response to isoproterenol but did not increase responses to butaprost, reflecting the colocalization of AC6 with β(2)AR but not E prostanoid type 2 receptor (EP(2)R) in lipid raft fractions. AC2 expression enhanced butaprost-stimulated cAMP production but had no effect on the β(2)AR-mediated response. AC3 did not couple to any GPCR tested. Forskolin-induced arborization of mBSMCs was assessed as a functional readout of cAMP signaling. Arborization was enhanced by overexpression of AC6 and AC3, but AC2 had no effect. GPCR-stimulated arborization mirrored the selective coupling observed for cAMP production. With the addition of the phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor rolipram AC2 accelerated forskolin-stimulated arborization. Thus, AC2 selectively couples to EP(2)R, but signals from this complex are limited by PDE4 activity. AC3 does not seem to couple to GPCR in either mBSMCs or HEK-293 cells, so it probably exists in a distinct signaling domain in these cells.

  12. Ghrelin promotes intestinal epithelial cell proliferation through PI3K/Akt pathway and EGFR trans-activation both converging to ERK 1/2 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Talat; Duxbury, Mark; Ashley, Stanley W; Robinson, Malcolm K

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about ghrelin's effects on intestinal epithelial cells even though it is known to be a mitogen for a variety of other cell types. Because ghrelin is released in close proximity to the proliferative compartment of the intestinal tract, we hypothesized that ghrelin may have potent pro-proliferative effect on intestinal epithelial cells as well. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the effects of ghrelin on FHs74Int and Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell lines in vitro. We found that ghrelin has potent dose dependent proliferative effects in both cell lines through a yet to be characterized G protein coupled growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) subtype. Consistent with above findings, cell cycle flowcytometric analyses demonstrated that ghrelin shifts cells from the G1 to S phase and thereby promotes cell cycle progression. Further characterization of subcellular events, suggested that ghrelin mediates its pro-proliferative effect through Adenylate cyclase (AC)-independent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) trans-activation and PI3K-Akt phosphorylation. Both these pathways converge to stimulate MAPK, ERK 1/2 downstream. The role of ghrelin in states where intestinal mucosal injury and rapid mucosal repair occur warrants further investigation.

  13. The type 3 adenylyl cyclase is required for novel object learning and extinction of contextual memory: role of cAMP signaling in primary cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenshan; Phan, Trongha; Storm, Daniel R

    2011-04-13

    Although primary cilia are found on neurons throughout the brain, their physiological function remains elusive. Human ciliopathies are associated with cognition defects, and transgenic mice lacking proteins expressed in primary cilia exhibit defects in learning and memory. Recently, it was reported that mice lacking the G-protein-coupling receptor somatostatin receptor-3 (SSTR3), a protein expressed predominately in the primary cilia of neurons, have defective memory for novel object recognition and lower cAMP levels in the brain. Since SSTR3 is coupled to regulation of adenylyl cyclase, this suggests that adenylyl cyclase activity in primary cilia of CNS neurons may be critical for some forms of learning and memory. Because the type 3 adenylyl cyclase (AC3) is expressed in primary cilia of hippocampal neurons, we examined AC3(-/-) mice for several forms of learning and memory. Here, we report that AC3(-/-) mice show no short-term memory for novel objects and fail to exhibit extinction of contextual fear conditioning. They also show impaired learning and memory for temporally dissociative passive avoidance. Since AC3 is exclusively expressed in primary cilia, we conclude that cAMP signals generated within primary cilia contribute to some forms of learning and memory, including extinction of contextual fear conditioning.

  14. Two separate functions are encoded by the carboxyl-terminal domains of the yeast cyclase-associated protein and its mammalian homologs. Dimerization and actin binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelicof, A; Protopopov, V; David, D; Lin, X Y; Lustgarten, V; Gerst, J E

    1996-07-26

    The yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated protein, CAP, was identified as a component of the RAS-activated cyclase complex. CAP consists of two functional domains separated by a proline-rich region. One domain, which localizes to the amino terminus, mediates RAS signaling through adenylyl cyclase, while a domain at the carboxyl terminus is involved in the regulation of cell growth and morphogenesis. Recently, the carboxyl terminus of yeast CAP was shown to sequester actin, but whether this function has been conserved, and is the sole function of this domain, is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the carboxyl-terminal domains of CAP and CAP homologs have two separate functions. We show that carboxyl-terminals of both yeast CAP and a mammalian CAP homolog, MCH1, bind to actin. We also show that this domain contains a signal for dimerization, allowing both CAP and MCH1 to form homodimers and heterodimers. The properties of actin binding and dimerization are mediated by separate regions on the carboxyl terminus; the last 27 amino acids of CAP being critical for actin binding. Finally, we present evidence that links a segment of the proline-rich region of CAP to its localization in yeast. Together, these results suggest that all three domains of CAP proteins are functional.

  15. Adenylyl cyclase-associated protein Aca1 regulates virulence and differentiation of Cryptococcus neoformans via the cyclic AMP-protein kinase A cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, Yong-Sun; Hicks, Julie K; Giles, Steven S; Cox, Gary M; Heitman, Joseph

    2004-12-01

    The evolutionarily conserved cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway controls cell functions in response to environmental cues in organisms as diverse as yeast and mammals. In the basidiomycetous human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, the cAMP pathway governs virulence and morphological differentiation. Here we identified and characterized adenylyl cyclase-associated protein, Aca1, which functions in parallel with the Galpha subunit Gpa1 to control the adenylyl cyclase (Cac1). Aca1 interacted with the C terminus of Cac1 in the yeast two-hybrid system. By molecular and genetic approaches, Aca1 was shown to play a critical role in mating by regulating cell fusion and filamentous growth in a cAMP-dependent manner. Aca1 also regulates melanin and capsule production via the Cac1-cAMP-protein kinase A pathway. Genetic epistasis studies support models in which Aca1 and Gpa1 are necessary and sufficient components that cooperate to activate adenylyl cyclase. Taken together, these studies further define the cAMP signaling cascade controlling virulence of this ubiquitous human fungal pathogen.

  16. Role of signal transduction crosstalk between adenylyl cyclase and MAP kinase in hippocampus-dependent memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhengui; Storm, Daniel R

    2012-08-16

    One of the intriguing questions in neurobiology is how long-term memory (LTM) traces are established and maintained in the brain. Memory can be divided into at least two temporally and mechanistically distinct forms. Short-term memory (STM) lasts no longer than several hours, while LTM persists for days or longer. A crucial step in the generation of LTM is consolidation, a process in which STM is converted to LTM. Hippocampus-dependent LTM depends on activation of Ca(2+), Erk/MAP kinase (MAPK), and cAMP signaling pathways, as well as de novo gene expression and translation. One of the transcriptional pathways strongly implicated in LTM is the CREB/CRE (calcium, cAMP response element) transcriptional pathway. Interestingly, this transcriptional pathway may also contribute to other forms of neuroplasticity including adaptive responses to drugs. Evidence discussed in this review indicates that activation of the Erk1/2 MAP Kinase (MAPK)/CRE transcriptional pathway during the formation of hippocampus-dependent memory depends on calmodulin (CaM)-stimulated adenylyl cyclases.

  17. Structure of the Class IV Adenylyl Cyclase Reveals a Novel Fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher,D.; Smith, N.; Kim, S.; Heroux, A.; Robinson, H.; Reddy, P.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structure of the class IV adenylyl cyclase (AC) from Yersinia pestis (Yp) is reported at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. The class IV AC fold is distinct from the previously described folds for class II and class III ACs. The dimeric AC-IV folds into an antiparallel eight-stranded barrel whose connectivity has been seen in only three previous structures: yeast RNA triphosphatase and two proteins of unknown function from Pyrococcus furiosus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Eight highly conserved ionic residues E10, E12, K14, R63, K76, K111, D126, and E136 lie in the barrel core and form the likely binding sites for substrate and divalent cations. A phosphate ion is observed bound to R63, K76, K111, and R113 near the center of the conserved cluster. Unlike the AC-II and AC-III active sites that utilize two-Asp motifs for cation binding, the AC-IV active site is relatively enriched in glutamate and features an ExE motif as its most conserved element. Homologs of Y. pestis AC-IV, including human thiamine triphosphatase, span the three kingdoms of life and delineate an ancient family of phosphonucleotide processing enzymes.

  18. Metabolic communication between astrocytes and neurons via bicarbonate-responsive soluble adenylyl cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun B; Gordon, Grant R J; Zhou, Ning; Tai, Chao; Rungta, Ravi L; Martinez, Jennifer; Milner, Teresa A; Ryu, Jae K; McLarnon, James G; Tresguerres, Martin; Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen; MacVicar, Brian A

    2012-09-20

    Astrocytes are proposed to participate in brain energy metabolism by supplying substrates to neurons from their glycogen stores and from glycolysis. However, the molecules involved in metabolic sensing and the molecular pathways responsible for metabolic coupling between different cell types in the brain are not fully understood. Here we show that a recently cloned bicarbonate (HCO₃⁻) sensor, soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC), is highly expressed in astrocytes and becomes activated in response to HCO₃⁻ entry via the electrogenic NaHCO₃ cotransporter (NBC). Activated sAC increases intracellular cAMP levels, causing glycogen breakdown, enhanced glycolysis, and the release of lactate into the extracellular space, which is subsequently taken up by neurons for use as an energy substrate. This process is recruited over a broad physiological range of [K⁺](ext) and also during aglycemic episodes, helping to maintain synaptic function. These data reveal a molecular pathway in astrocytes that is responsible for brain metabolic coupling to neurons.

  19. Regulation of oxidative response and extracellular polysaccharide synthesis by a diadenylate cyclase in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xingqun; Zheng, Xin; Zhou, Xuedong; Zeng, Jumei; Ren, Zhi; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei; Li, Mingyun; Li, Jiyao; Li, Yuqing

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic diadenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) has been implicated in the control of many important bacterial activities. However, the function of this molecule in Streptococcus mutans, the primary aetiological agent of human dental caries, is unknown. In this study, we identified and characterized a diadenylate cyclase, named CdaA, in S. mutans. Furthermore, we showed that in-frame deletion of the cdaA gene in S. mutans causes decreased c-di-AMP levels, increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and increased production of extracellular polysaccharides. Global gene expression profiling revealed that more than 200 genes were significantly upregulated or downregulated (> 2.0-fold) in the cdaA mutant. Interestingly, genes with increased or decreased expression were clustered in cellular polysaccharide biosynthetic processes and oxidoreductase activity respectively. Notably, the expression of several genomic islands, such as GTF-B/C, TnSmu, CRISPR1-Cas and CRISPR2-Cas, was found to be altered in the cdaA mutant, indicating a possible link between these genomic islands and c-di-AMP signalling. Collectively, the results reported here show that CdaA is an important global modulator in S. mutans and is required for optimal growth and environmental adaption. This report also paves the way to unveil further the roles of c-di-AMP signalling networks in the biology and pathogenicity of S. mutans.

  20. A novel role of sesamol in inhibiting NF-κB-mediated signaling in platelet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chao-Chien

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of coronary heart diseases. Our previous studies revealed that sesamol possesses potent antiplatelet activity through increasing cyclic AMP formation. Although platelets are anucleated cells, they also express the transcription factor, NF-κB, that may exert non-genomic functions in platelet activation. Therefore, we further investigated the inhibitory roles of sesamol in NF-κB-mediated platelet function. Methods Platelet aggregation, Fura 2-AM fluorescence, and immunoblotting analysis were used in this study. Results NF-κB signaling events, including IKKβ phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, and p65 phosphorylation, were markedly activated by collagen (1 μg/ml in washed human platelets, and these signaling events were attenuated by sesamol (2.5~25 μM. Furthermore, SQ22536 and ODQ, inhibitors of adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase, respectively, strongly reversed the sesamol (25 μM-mediated inhibitory effects of IKKβ phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, and p65 phosphorylation stimulated by collagen. The protein kinase A (PKA inhibitor, H89, also reversed sesamol-mediated inhibition of IκBα degradation. Moreover, BAY11-7082, an NF-κB inhibitor, abolished IκBα degradation, phospholipase C (PLCγ2 phosphorylation, protein kinase C (PKC activation, [Ca2+]i mobilization, and platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Preincubation of platelets with the inhibitors, SQ22536 and H89, both strongly reversed sesamol-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation and [Ca2+]i mobilization. Conclusions Sesamol activates cAMP-PKA signaling, followed by inhibition of the NF-κB-PLC-PKC cascade, thereby leading to inhibition of [Ca2+]i mobilization and platelet aggregation. Because platelet activation is not only linked to hemostasis, but also has a relevant role in inflammation and metastasis, our data demonstrating that inhibition of NF-κB interferes with platelet function may

  1. Synthesis of arborane triterpenols by a bacterial oxidosqualene cyclase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Amy B.; Wei, Jeremy H.; Gill, Clare C. C.; Giner, José-Luis; Welander, Paula V.

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic triterpenoids are a broad class of polycyclic lipids produced by bacteria and eukaryotes. They are biologically relevant for their roles in cellular physiology, including membrane structure and function, and biochemically relevant for their exquisite enzymatic cyclization mechanism. Cyclic triterpenoids are also geobiologically significant as they are readily preserved in sediments and are used as biomarkers for ancient life throughout Earth's history. Isoarborinol is one such triterpenoid whose only known biological sources are certain angiosperms and whose diagenetic derivatives (arboranes) are often used as indicators of terrestrial input into aquatic environments. However, the occurrence of arborane biomarkers in Permian and Triassic sediments, which predates the accepted origin of angiosperms, suggests that microbial sources of these lipids may also exist. In this study, we identify two isoarborinol-like lipids, eudoraenol and adriaticol, produced by the aerobic marine heterotrophic bacterium Eudoraea adriatica. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that the E. adriatica eudoraenol synthase is an oxidosqualene cyclase homologous to bacterial lanosterol synthases and distinct from plant triterpenoid synthases. Using an Escherichia coli heterologous sterol expression system, we demonstrate that substitution of four amino acid residues in a bacterial lanosterol synthase enabled synthesis of pentacyclic arborinols in addition to tetracyclic sterols. This variant provides valuable mechanistic insight into triterpenoid synthesis and reveals diagnostic amino acid residues to differentiate between sterol and arborinol synthases in genomic and metagenomic datasets. Our data suggest that there may be additional bacterial arborinol producers in marine and freshwater environments that could expand our understanding of these geologically informative lipids.

  2. An extended conformation of calmodulin induces interactions between the structural domains of adenylyl cyclase from Bacillus anthracis to promote catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, C L; Yan, S Z; Sarac, R; Mabuchi, Y; Beckingham, K; Bohm, A; Grabarek, Z; Tang, W J

    2000-11-17

    The edema factor exotoxin produced by Bacillus anthracis is an adenylyl cyclase that is activated by calmodulin (CaM) at resting state calcium concentrations in infected cells. A C-terminal 60-kDa fragment corresponding to the catalytic domain of edema factor (EF3) was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. The N-terminal 43-kDa domain (EF3-N) of EF3, the sole domain of edema factor homologous to adenylyl cyclases from Bordetella pertussis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is highly resistant to protease digestion. The C-terminal 160-amino acid domain (EF3-C) of EF3 is sensitive to proteolysis in the absence of CaM. The addition of CaM protects EF3-C from being digested by proteases. EF3-N and EF3-C were expressed separately, and both fragments were required to reconstitute full CaM-sensitive enzyme activity. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments using a double-labeled CaM molecule were performed and indicated that CaM adopts an extended conformation upon binding to EF3. This contrasts sharply with the compact conformation adopted by CaM upon binding myosin light chain kinase and CaM-dependent protein kinase type II. Mutations in each of the four calcium binding sites of CaM were examined for their effect on EF3 activation. Sites 3 and 4 were found critical for the activation, and neither the N- nor the C-terminal domain of CaM alone was capable of activating EF3. A genetic screen probing loss-of-function mutations of EF3 and site-directed mutations based on the homology of the edema factor family revealed a conserved pair of aspartate residues and an arginine that are important for catalysis. Similar residues are essential for di-metal-mediated catalysis in mammalian adenylyl cyclases and a family of DNA polymerases and nucleotidyltransferases. This suggests that edema factor may utilize a similar catalytic mechanism.

  3. cAMP signaling prevents podocyte apoptosis via activation of protein kinase A and mitochondrial fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Li

    Full Text Available Our previous in vitro studies suggested that cyclic AMP (cAMP signaling prevents adriamycin (ADR and puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN-induced apoptosis in podocytes. As cAMP is an important second messenger and plays a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation and cytoskeleton formation via protein kinase A (PKA or exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac pathways, we sought to determine the role of PKA or Epac signaling in cAMP-mediated protection of podocytes. In the ADR nephrosis model, we found that forskolin, a selective activator of adenylate cyclase, attenuated albuminuria and improved the expression of podocyte marker WT-1. When podocytes were treated with pCPT-cAMP (a selective cAMP/PKA activator, PKA activation was increased in a time-dependent manner and prevented PAN-induced podocyte loss and caspase 3 activation, as well as a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential. We found that PAN and ADR resulted in a decrease in Mfn1 expression and mitochondrial fission in podocytes. pCPT-cAMP restored Mfn1 expression in puromycin or ADR-treated podocytes and induced Drp1 phosphorylation, as well as mitochondrial fusion. Treating podocytes with arachidonic acid resulted in mitochondrial fission, podocyte loss and cleaved caspase 3 production. Arachidonic acid abolished the protective effects of pCPT-cAMP on PAN-treated podocytes. Mdivi, a mitochondrial division inhibitor, prevented PAN-induced cleaved caspase 3 production in podocytes. We conclude that activation of cAMP alleviated murine podocyte caused by ADR. PKA signaling resulted in mitochondrial fusion in podocytes, which at least partially mediated the effects of cAMP.

  4. cAMP signaling prevents podocyte apoptosis via activation of protein kinase A and mitochondrial fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoying; Tao, Hua; Xie, Kewei; Ni, Zhaohui; Yan, Yucheng; Wei, Kai; Chuang, Peter Y; He, John Cijiang; Gu, Leyi

    2014-01-01

    Our previous in vitro studies suggested that cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling prevents adriamycin (ADR) and puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced apoptosis in podocytes. As cAMP is an important second messenger and plays a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation and cytoskeleton formation via protein kinase A (PKA) or exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) pathways, we sought to determine the role of PKA or Epac signaling in cAMP-mediated protection of podocytes. In the ADR nephrosis model, we found that forskolin, a selective activator of adenylate cyclase, attenuated albuminuria and improved the expression of podocyte marker WT-1. When podocytes were treated with pCPT-cAMP (a selective cAMP/PKA activator), PKA activation was increased in a time-dependent manner and prevented PAN-induced podocyte loss and caspase 3 activation, as well as a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential. We found that PAN and ADR resulted in a decrease in Mfn1 expression and mitochondrial fission in podocytes. pCPT-cAMP restored Mfn1 expression in puromycin or ADR-treated podocytes and induced Drp1 phosphorylation, as well as mitochondrial fusion. Treating podocytes with arachidonic acid resulted in mitochondrial fission, podocyte loss and cleaved caspase 3 production. Arachidonic acid abolished the protective effects of pCPT-cAMP on PAN-treated podocytes. Mdivi, a mitochondrial division inhibitor, prevented PAN-induced cleaved caspase 3 production in podocytes. We conclude that activation of cAMP alleviated murine podocyte caused by ADR. PKA signaling resulted in mitochondrial fusion in podocytes, which at least partially mediated the effects of cAMP.

  5. Isolation and Functional Characterization of a Lycopene β-cyclase Gene Promoter from Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Suwen; Zhang, Yin; Zheng, Xiongjie; Zhu, Kaijie; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene β-cyclases are key enzymes located at the branch point of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. However, the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of LCYb1 in citrus with abundant carotenoid accumulation are still unclear. To understand the molecular basis of CsLCYb1 expression, we isolated and functionally characterized the 5' upstream sequences of CsLCYb1 from citrus. The full-length CsLCYb1 promoter and a series of its 5' deletions were fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and transferred into different plants (tomato, Arabidopsis and citrus callus) to test the promoter activities. The results of all transgenic species showed that the 1584 bp upstream region from the translational start site displayed maximal promoter activity, and the minimal promoter containing 746 bp upstream sequences was sufficient for strong basal promoter activity. Furthermore, the CsLCYb1 promoter activity was developmentally and tissue-specially regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis, and it was affected by multiple hormones and environmental cues in transgenic citrus callus under various treatments. Finer deletion analysis identified an enhancer element existing as a tandem repeat in the promoter region between -574 to -513 bp and conferring strong promoter activity. The copy numbers of the enhancer element differed among various citrus species, leading to the development of a derived simple sequence repeat marker to distinguish different species. In conclusion, this study elucidates the expression characteristics of the LCYb1 promoter from citrus and further identifies a novel enhancer element required for the promoter activity. The characterized promoter fragment would be an ideal candidate for genetic engineering and seeking of upstream trans-acting elements.

  6. Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene β-cyclase gene promoter from citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwen Lu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene β-cyclases are key enzymes located at the branch point of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. However, the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of LCYb1 in citrus with abundant carotenoid accumulation are still unclear. To understand the molecular basis of CsLCYb1 expression, we isolated and functionally characterized the 5’ upstream sequences of CsLCYb1 from citrus. The full-length CsLCYb1 promoter and a series of its 5’ deletions were fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS reporter gene and transferred into different plants (tomato, Arabidopsis and citrus callus to test the promoter activities. The results of all transgenic species showed that the 1584 bp upstream region from the translational start site displayed maximal promoter activity, and the minimal promoter containing 746 bp upstream sequences was sufficient for strong basal promoter activity. Furthermore, the CsLCYb1 promoter activity was developmentally and tissue-specially regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis, and it was affected by multiple hormones and environmental cues in transgenic citrus callus under various treatments. Finer deletion analysis identified an enhancer element existing as a tandem repeat in the promoter region between -574 to -513 bp and conferring strong promoter activity. The copy numbers of the enhancer element differed among various citrus species, leading to the development of a derived simple sequence repeat (SSR marker to distinguish different species. In conclusion, this study elucidates the expression characteristics of the LCYb1 promoter from citrus and further identifies a novel enhancer element required for the promoter activity. The characterized promoter fragment would be an ideal candidate for genetic engineering and seeking of upstream trans-acting elements.

  7. Loss of guanylyl cyclase C (GCC signaling leads to dysfunctional intestinal barrier.

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    Xiaonan Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guanylyl Cyclase C (GCC signaling via uroguanylin (UGN and guanylin activation is a critical mediator of intestinal fluid homeostasis, intestinal cell proliferation/apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. As a mechanism for some of these effects, we hypothesized that GCC signaling mediates regulation of intestinal barrier function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Paracellular permeability of intestinal segments was assessed in wild type (WT and GCC deficient (GCC-/- mice with and without lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge, as well as in UGN deficient (UGN-/- mice. IFNγ and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK levels were determined by real time PCR. Expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs, phosphorylation of myosin II regulatory light chain (MLC, and STAT1 activation were examined in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs and intestinal mucosa. The permeability of Caco-2 and HT-29 IEC monolayers, grown on Transwell filters was determined in the absence and presence of GCC RNA interference (RNAi. We found that intestinal permeability was increased in GCC-/- and UGN-/- mice compared to WT, accompanied by increased IFNγ levels, MLCK and STAT1 activation in IECs. LPS challenge promotes greater IFNγ and STAT1 activation in IECs of GCC-/- mice compared to WT mice. Claudin-2 and JAM-A expression were reduced in GCC deficient intestine; the level of phosphorylated MLC in IECs was significantly increased in GCC-/- and UGN-/- mice compared to WT. GCC knockdown induced MLC phosphorylation, increased permeability in IEC monolayers under basal conditions, and enhanced TNFα and IFNγ-induced monolayer hyperpermeability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: GCC signaling plays a protective role in the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier by regulating MLCK activation and TJ disassembly. GCC signaling activation may therefore represent a novel mechanism in maintaining the small bowel barrier in response to injury.

  8. New crystal structures of adenylate kinase from Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 in two conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Trung Thanh; Lee, Sangho

    2014-11-01

    Adenylate kinases (AdKs; EC 2.7.3.4) play a critical role in intercellular homeostasis by the interconversion of ATP and AMP to two ADP molecules. Crystal structures of adenylate kinase from Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 (SpAdK) have recently been determined using ligand-free and inhibitor-bound crystals belonging to space groups P21 and P1, respectively. Here, new crystal structures of SpAdK in ligand-free and inhibitor-bound states determined at 1.96 and 1.65 Å resolution, respectively, are reported. The new ligand-free crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a=73.5, b=54.3, c=62.7 Å, β=118.8°. The new ligand-free structure revealed an open conformation that differed from the previously determined conformation, with an r.m.s.d on Cα atoms of 1.4 Å. The new crystal of the complex with the two-substrate-mimicking inhibitor P1,P5-bis(adenosine-5'-)pentaphosphate (Ap5A) belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a=53.9, b=62.3, c=63.0 Å, α=101.9, β=112.6, γ=89.9°. Despite belonging to the same space group as the previously reported crystal, the new Ap5A-bound crystal contains four molecules in the asymmetric unit, compared with two in the previous crystal, and shows slightly different lattice contacts. These results demonstrate that SpAdK can crystallize promiscuously in different forms and that the open structure is flexible in conformation.

  9. NMr studies of the AMP binding site and mechanism of adenylate kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuby, S.A.; Fry, D.C.; Mildvan, A.S.

    1986-05-01

    The authors recently located by NMR the MgATP binding site on adenylate kinase correcting the proposed location for this site based on X-ray studies of the binding of salicylate. To determine the conformation and location of the other substrate, they have determined distances from Cr/sup 3 +/ AMPPCP to 6 protons and to the phosphorus atom of AMP on adenylate kinase using the paramagnetic-probe-T/sub 1/ method. They have also used time-dependent NOEs to measure five interproton distances on AMP, permitting evaluation of the conformation of enzyme-bound AMP and its position with respect to metal-ATP. Enzyme-bound AMP exhibits a high-anti glycosyl torsional angle (X = 110/sup 0/), a 3'-endo sugar pucker (delta = 105/sup 0/), and a gauche-trans orientation about the C/sub 4/'-C/sub 5/' bond (..gamma.. = 180/sup 0/). The distance from Cr/sup 3 +/ to the phosphorus of AMP is 6.4 +/- 0.3 A, indicating a reaction coordinate distance of greater than or equal to A which is consistent with an associative SN2 mechanism for the phosphoryl transfer. Ten intermolecular NOEs, from protons of the enzyme to those of AMP were detected. These constraints, together with the conformation of AMP and the X-ray structure of the enzyme, suggest proximity (less than or equal to A) of AMP to leu 116, arg 171, val 173, gln 185, thr 188, and asp 191.

  10. cNMP-AMs mimic and dissect bacterial nucleotidyl cyclase toxin effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckert, Ulrike; Grundmann, Manuel; Wolter, Sabine; Schwede, Frank; Rehmann, Holger; Kaever, Volkhard; Kostenis, Evi; Seifert, Roland

    2014-09-05

    In addition to the well-known second messengers cAMP and cGMP, mammalian cells contain the cyclic pyrimidine nucleotides cCMP and cUMP. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin ExoY massively increases cGMP and cUMP in cells, whereas the Bordetella pertussis toxin CyaA increases cAMP and, to a lesser extent, cCMP. To mimic and dissect toxin effects, we synthesized cNMP-acetoxymethylesters as prodrugs. cNMP-AMs rapidly and effectively released the corresponding cNMP in cells. The combination of cGMP-AM plus cUMP-AM mimicked cytotoxicity of ExoY. cUMP-AM and cGMP-AM differentially activated gene expression. Certain cCMP and cUMP effects were independent of the known cNMP effectors protein kinases A and G and guanine nucleotide exchange factor Epac. In conclusion, cNMP-AMs are useful tools to mimic and dissect bacterial nucleotidyl cyclase toxin effects.

  11. Exogenous irritant-induced airway hyperreactivity and inhibition of soluble guanylyl cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosová, Martina; Strapková, Anna; Turcan, Tomás

    2008-10-01

    The majority of nitric oxide (NO) effects in the respiratory system are caused by stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) with subsequent increase of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production. The importance of this mechanism of NO action in airway hyperreactivity (AHR) pathogenesis is unknown. Therefore, the aim of our experiment was to examine the changes of airway reactivity enhanced by toluene vapor exposure in the presence or inhibition of sGC activity in guinea pigs. Animals were treated with a nonspecific sGC inhibitor, methylene blue, in a dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight, administered by intraperitoneal injection 30 min before or after exposure to toluene vapors. The toluene exposure lasted 2 hr in each of 3 consecutive days under in vivo conditions. Thereafter, the tracheal and lung tissue smooth muscle response to cumulative doses of mediators (histamine or acetylcholine) was recorded under in vitro conditions. The exposure to toluene vapors significantly increased the airway reactivity to both mediators in comparison with the healthy animal group. The administration of methylene blue decreased the amplitude of airway smooth muscle contraction in toluene-induced hyperreactivity. The decreases were dependent on the inhibitor doses, on a regimen of administration (before or after toluene inhalation), the level of the respiratory system (trachea, lung), and the bronchoconstrictor mediators. Our results suggest that the interaction between NO and sGC may be important for airway reactivity changes, but other mechanisms of NO action are important in AHR pathogenesis, too.

  12. Functional analysis of the sporulation-specific diadenylate cyclase CdaS in Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cao; Ma, Yang; Wang, Xun; Xie, Yuqun; Ali, Maria K.; He, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a recently discovered bacterial secondary messenger molecule, which is associated with various physiological functions. In the genus Bacillus, the intracellular level and turnover of c-di-AMP are mainly regulated by three diadenylate cyclases (DACs), including DisA, CdaA and CdaS, and two c-di-AMP-specific phosphodiesterases (GdpP and PgpH). In this study, we demonstrated that CdaS protein from B. thuringiensis is a hexameric DAC protein that can convert ATP or ADP to c-di-AMP in vitro and the N-terminal YojJ domain is essential for the DAC activity. Based on the markerless gene knock-out method, we demonstrated that the transcription of cdaS was initiated by the sporulation-specific sigma factor σH and the deletion of cdaS significantly delayed sporulation and parasporal crystal formation. These findings contrast with similar experiments conducted using B. subtilis, wherein transcription of its cdaS was initiated by the sigma factor σG. Deletion of all the three DAC genes from a single strain was unsuccessful, suggesting that c-di-AMP is an indispensable molecule in B. thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicated increased diversity of CdaS in the B. cereus and B. subtilis Bacillus subgroups. In summary, this study identifies important aspects in the regulation of c-di-AMP in the genus Bacillus. PMID:26441857

  13. Ablation of cyclase-associated protein 2 (CAP2) leads to cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peche, Vivek S; Holak, Tad A; Burgute, Bhagyashri D; Kosmas, Kosmas; Kale, Sushant P; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Elhamine, Fatiha; Stehle, Robert; Pfitzer, Gabriele; Nohroudi, Klaus; Addicks, Klaus; Stöckigt, Florian; Schrickel, Jan W; Gallinger, Julia; Schleicher, Michael; Noegel, Angelika A

    2013-02-01

    Cyclase-associated proteins are highly conserved proteins that have a role in the regulation of actin dynamics. Higher eukaryotes have two isoforms, CAP1 and CAP2. To study the in vivo function of CAP2, we generated mice in which the CAP2 gene was inactivated by a gene-trap approach. Mutant mice showed a decrease in body weight and had a decreased survival rate. Further, they developed a severe cardiac defect marked by dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) associated with drastic reduction in basal heart rate and prolongations in atrial and ventricular conduction times. Moreover, CAP2-deficient myofibrils exhibited reduced cooperativity of calcium-regulated force development. At the microscopic level, we observed disarrayed sarcomeres with development of fibrosis. We analyzed CAP2's role in actin assembly and found that it sequesters G-actin and efficiently fragments filaments. This activity resides completely in its WASP homology domain. Thus CAP2 is an essential component of the myocardial sarcomere and is essential for physiological functioning of the cardiac system, and a deficiency leads to DCM and various cardiac defects.

  14. Mapping Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase and Protein Disulfide Isomerase Regions of Interaction.

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    Erin J Heckler

    Full Text Available Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC is a heterodimeric nitric oxide (NO receptor that produces cyclic GMP. This signaling mechanism is a key component in the cardiovascular system. NO binds to heme in the β subunit and stimulates the catalytic conversion of GTP to cGMP several hundred fold. Several endogenous factors have been identified that modulate sGC function in vitro and in vivo. In previous work, we determined that protein disulfide isomerase (PDI interacts with sGC in a redox-dependent manner in vitro and that PDI inhibited NO-stimulated activity in cells. To our knowledge, this was the first report of a physical interaction between sGC and a thiol-redox protein. To characterize this interaction between sGC and PDI, we first identified peptide linkages between sGC and PDI, using a lysine cross-linking reagent and recently developed mass spectrometry analysis. Together with Flag-immunoprecipitation using sGC domain deletions, wild-type (WT and mutated PDI, regions of sGC involved in this interaction were identified. The observed data were further explored with computational modeling to gain insight into the interaction mechanism between sGC and oxidized PDI. Our results indicate that PDI interacts preferentially with the catalytic domain of sGC, thus providing a mechanism for PDI inhibition of sGC. A model in which PDI interacts with either the α or the β catalytic domain is proposed.

  15. Soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators increase sensitivity to cisplatin in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Traci R; Takiar, Vinita; Kumar, Bhavna; Kumar, Pawan; Ben-Jonathan, Nira

    2017-03-28

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an aggressive and often fatal disease. Cisplatin is the most common chemotherapeutic drug in the treatment of HNSCC, but intrinsic and acquired resistance are frequent, and severe side effects occur at high doses. The second messenger cyclic GMP (cGMP) is produced by soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). We previously reported that activation of the cGMP signaling cascade caused apoptosis in HNSCC cells, while others found that this pathway enhances cisplatin efficacy in some cell types. Here we found that sGC stimulators reduced HNSCC cell viability synergistically with cisplatin, and enhanced apoptosis by cisplatin. Moreover, the sGC stimulators effectively reduced viability in cells with acquired cisplatin resistance, and were synergistic with cisplatin. The sGC stimulator BAY 41-2272 reduced expression of the survival proteins EGFR and β-catenin, and increased pro-apoptotic Bax, suggesting a potential mechanism for the anti-tumorigenic effects of these drugs. The sGC stimulator Riociguat is FDA-approved to treat pulmonary hypertension, and others are being studied for therapeutic use in several diseases. These drugs could provide valuable addition or alternative to cisplatin in the treatment of HNSCC.

  16. Functional analysis of the sporulation-specific diadenylate cyclase CdaS in Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao eZheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP is a recently discovered bacterial secondary messenger molecule, which is associated with various physiological functions. In Bacillus, the intracellular level and turnover of c-di-AMP is mainly regulated by three diadenylate cyclases (DACs, including DisA, CdaA and CdaS, and one c-di-AMP-specific phosphodiesterase. In this study, we demonstrated that CdaS protein from B. thuringiensisis is a hexameric DAC protein that can convert ATP or ADP to c-di-AMP in vitro and the N-terminal YojJ domain was essential for the DAC activity. Based on the markerless gene knock-out method, we demonstrated that the transcription of cdaS was initiated by the sporulation-specific sigma factor σH and the deletion of cdaS significantly delayed sporulation and parasporal crystal formation. These findings contrast with similar experiments conducted using B. subtilis, wherein transcription of its cdaS was initiated by the sigma factor σG. Deletion of all the three DAC genes from a single strain was unsuccessful, suggesting that c-di-AMP is an indispensable molecule in B. thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicated increased diversity of CdaS in the B. cereus and B. subtilis Bacillus subgroups. In summary, this study identifies important aspects in the regulation of c-di-AMP in Bacillus.

  17. The Functional State of Hormone-Sensitive Adenylyl Cyclase Signaling System in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander O. Shpakov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM induces a large number of diseases of the nervous, cardiovascular, and some other systems of the organism. One of the main causes of the diseases is the changes in the functional activity of hormonal signaling systems which lead to the alterations and abnormalities of the cellular processes and contribute to triggering and developing many DM complications. The key role in the control of physiological and biochemical processes belongs to the adenylyl cyclase (AC signaling system, sensitive to biogenic amines and polypeptide hormones. The review is devoted to the changes in the GPCR-G protein-AC system in the brain, heart, skeletal muscles, liver, and the adipose tissue in experimental and human DM of the types 1 and 2 and also to the role of the changes in AC signaling in the pathogenesis and etiology of DM and its complications. It is shown that the changes of the functional state of hormone-sensitive AC system are dependent to a large extent on the type and duration of DM and in experimental DM on the model of the disease. The degree of alterations and abnormalities of AC signaling pathways correlates very well with the severity of DM and its complications.

  18. Metabolic engineering of potato tuber carotenoids through tuber-specific silencing of lycopene epsilon cyclase

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    Papacchioli Velia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potato is a major staple food, and modification of its provitamin content is a possible means for alleviating nutritional deficiencies. beta-carotene is the main dietary precursor of vitamin A. Potato tubers contain low levels of carotenoids, composed mainly of the xanthophylls lutein, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, and of xanthophyll esters. None of these carotenoids have provitamin A activity. Results We silenced the first dedicated step in the beta-epsilon- branch of carotenoid biosynthesis, lycopene epsilon cyclase (LCY-e, by introducing, via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, an antisense fragment of this gene under the control of the patatin promoter. Real Time measurements confirmed the tuber-specific silencing of Lcy-e. Antisense tubers showed significant increases in beta-beta-carotenoid levels, with beta-carotene showing the maximum increase (up to 14-fold. Total carotenoids increased up to 2.5-fold. These changes were not accompanied by a decrease in lutein, suggesting that LCY-e is not rate-limiting for lutein accumulation. Tuber-specific changes in expression of several genes in the pathway were observed. Conclusion The data suggest that epsilon-cyclization of lycopene is a key regulatory step in potato tuber carotenogenesis. Upon tuber-specific silencing of the corresponding gene, beta-beta-carotenoid and total carotenoid levels are increased, and expression of several other genes in the pathway is modified.

  19. Opioid and GABAB receptors differentially couple to an adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A downstream effector after chronic morphine treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Elizabeth Bagley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Opioids are intensely addictive, and cessation of their chronic use is associated with a highly aversive withdrawal syndrome. A cellular hallmark of withdrawal is an opioid sensitive protein kinase A-dependent increase in GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1 currents in periaqueductal gray (PAG neurons. Elevated GAT-1 activity directly increases GABAergic neuronal excitability and synaptic GABA release, which will enhance GABAergic inhibition of PAG output neurons. This reduced activity of PAG output neurons to several brain regions, including the hypothalamus and medulla, contributes to many of the PAG-mediated signs of opioid withdrawal. The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen reduces some of the PAG mediated signs of opioid withdrawal. Like the opioid receptors the GABAB receptor is a Gi/Go coupled G-protein coupled receptor. This suggests it could be modulating GAT-1 activity in PAG neurons through its inhibition of the adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A pathway. Opioid modulation of the GAT-1 activity can be detected by changes in the reversal potential of opioid membrane currents. We found that when opioids are reducing the GAT-1 cation conductance and increasing the GIRK conductance the opioid agonist reversal potential is much more negative than Ek. Using this approach for GABAB receptors we show that the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, does not couple to inhibition of GAT-1 currents during opioid withdrawal. It is possible this differential signaling of the two Gi/Go coupled G-protein coupled receptors is due to the strong compartmentalization of the GABAB receptor that does not favor signaling to the adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A/GAT-1 pathway. This highlights the importance of studying the effects of G-protein coupled receptors in native tissue with endogenous G-protein coupled receptors and the full complement of relevant proteins and signaling molecules. This study suggests that baclofen reduces opioid withdrawal symptoms through a non-GAT-1

  20. Identification of olivetolic acid cyclase from Cannabis sativa reveals a unique catalytic route to plant polyketides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Steve J; Stout, Jake M; Liu, Enwu; Boubakir, Zakia; Clark, Shawn M; Page, Jonathan E

    2012-07-31

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids are responsible for the psychoactive and medicinal properties of Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana). The first intermediate in the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway is proposed to be olivetolic acid (OA), an alkylresorcinolic acid that forms the polyketide nucleus of the cannabinoids. OA has been postulated to be synthesized by a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) enzyme, but so far type III PKSs from cannabis have been shown to produce catalytic byproducts instead of OA. We analyzed the transcriptome of glandular trichomes from female cannabis flowers, which are the primary site of cannabinoid biosynthesis, and searched for polyketide cyclase-like enzymes that could assist in OA cyclization. Here, we show that a type III PKS (tetraketide synthase) from cannabis trichomes requires the presence of a polyketide cyclase enzyme, olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC), which catalyzes a C2-C7 intramolecular aldol condensation with carboxylate retention to form OA. OAC is a dimeric α+β barrel (DABB) protein that is structurally similar to polyketide cyclases from Streptomyces species. OAC transcript is present at high levels in glandular trichomes, an expression profile that parallels other cannabinoid pathway enzymes. Our identification of OAC both clarifies the cannabinoid pathway and demonstrates unexpected evolutionary parallels between polyketide biosynthesis in plants and bacteria. In addition, the widespread occurrence of DABB proteins in plants suggests that polyketide cyclases may play an overlooked role in generating plant chemical diversity.

  1. Estradiol rapidly inhibits soluble guanylyl cyclase expression in rat uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumenacker, J. S.; Hyder, S. M.; Murad, F.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports that investigated the regulation of the NO/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway by estrogenic compounds have focused primarily on the levels of NO, NO-producing enzymes, and cGMP in various tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that 17beta-estradiol (E2) regulates the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the NO receptor, sGC, at the mRNA and protein levels in rat uterus. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we found that within 1 h of in vivo E2 administration to rats, sGC mRNA levels begin to diminish. After 3 h, there is a maximal diminution of sGC mRNA expression (sGC alpha(1) 10% and sGC beta(1) 33% of untreated). This effect was blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, indicating that estrogen receptor is required. The effect of E2 also was observed in vitro with incubations of uterine tissue, indicating that the response does not depend on the secondary release of other hormones or factors from other tissues. Puromycin did not block the effect, suggesting the effects occur because of preexisting factors in uterine tissues and do not require new protein synthesis. Using immunoblot analysis, we found that sGC protein levels also were reduced by E2 over a similar time course as the sGC mRNA. We conclude that sGC plays a vital role in the NO/sGC/cGMP regulatory pathway during conditions of elevated estrogen levels in the rat uterus as a result of the reduction of sGC expression.

  2. Inhibition of the hyperpolarization-activated current (if) of rabbit SA node myocytes by niflumic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accili, E A; DiFrancesco, D

    1996-03-01

    The effects of the amphiphilic substance niflumic acid (NFA) were examined in myocytes isolated from the sino-atrial node of the rabbit heart. NFA (50 and 500 microM), for 30-60 s, produced a reversible negative chronotropic effect by reducing the rate of diastolic depolarization, suggesting an inhibitory effect on the hyperpolarization-activated pacemaker current (if). NFA (from 0.05 to 500 microM) inhibited if by modifying the current kinetics, without alteration of the conductance. This was shown by evidence indicating that: (1) NFA inhibited if during hyperpolarizing pulses to the mid-point of if activation but not at fully activating voltages; (2) the slope and reversal potential of the fully activated current/voltage (I/V) relation were not altered by NFA, indicating no change in slope conductance or ion selectivity; and (3) hyperpolarizing ramp protocols confirmed the lack of action of 50 microM NFA on the fully activated current and a shift of approximately -8 mV. Although similar to inhibition by acetylcholine (ACh), inhibition by NFA was only partly additive with the action of ACh and was not altered by atropine or pertussis toxin, both of which eliminated the action of ACh. The effect of NFA was present after stimulation of adenylate cyclase by forskolin and after inhibition of phosphodiesterase by isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX). In cell-attached patch measurements, NFA applied externally did not affect if measured in the patch. Finally, application of NFA to the cytoplasmic side of excised patches did not alter the current in the absence or presence of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). These results suggest an external, membrane-delimited action of NFA on if.

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-11-0020 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-11-0020 ref|NP_001107.2| adenylate cyclase 9 [Homo sapiens] sp|O60503|ADCY9_HUMAN Adenylate cyclas...e type 9 (Adenylate cyclase type IX) (ATP pyrophosphate-lyase 9) (Adenylyl cyclase ...9) gb|AAK29464.1| adenylate cyclase type 9 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY21237.1| adenylyl cyclase type 9 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|EAW85331.1| adenylate cyclase 9, isoform CRA_a [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW85332.1| adenylate cyclase... 9, isoform CRA_a [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI51208.1| Adenylate cyclase 9 [Homo sapiens] NP_001107.2 0.0 63% ...

  4. Therapeutically targeting guanylate cyclase-C: computational modeling of plecanatide, a uroguanylin analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancale, Andrea; Shailubhai, Kunwar; Ferla, Salvatore; Ricci, Antonio; Bassetto, Marcella; Jacob, Gary S

    2017-04-01

    Plecanatide is a recently developed guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) agonist and the first uroguanylin analog designed to treat chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). GC-C receptors are found across the length of the intestines and are thought to play a key role in fluid regulation and electrolyte balance. Ligands of the GC-C receptor include endogenous agonists, uroguanylin and guanylin, as well as diarrheagenic, Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxins (ST). Plecanatide mimics uroguanylin in its 2 disulfide-bond structure and in its ability to activate GC-Cs in a pH-dependent manner, a feature associated with the presence of acid-sensing residues (Asp2 and Glu3). Linaclotide, a synthetic analog of STh (a 19 amino acid member of ST family), contains the enterotoxin's key structural elements, including the presence of three disulfide bonds. Linaclotide, like STh, activates GC-Cs in a pH-independent manner due to the absence of pH-sensing residues. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations compared the stability of plecanatide and linaclotide to STh. Three-dimensional structures of plecanatide at various protonation states (pH 2.0, 5.0, and 7.0) were simulated with GROMACS software. Deviations from ideal binding conformations were quantified using root mean square deviation values. Simulations of linaclotide revealed a rigid conformer most similar to STh. Plecanatide simulations retained the flexible, pH-dependent structure of uroguanylin. The most active conformers of plecanatide were found at pH 5.0, which is the pH found in the proximal small intestine. GC-C receptor activation in this region would stimulate intraluminal fluid secretion, potentially relieving symptoms associated with CIC and IBS-C.

  5. Identification of a cyclase-associated protein (CAP) homologue in Dictyostelium discoideum and characterization of its interaction with actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottwald, U; Brokamp, R; Karakesisoglou, I; Schleicher, M; Noegel, A A

    1996-02-01

    In search for novel actin binding proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum we have isolated a cDNA clone coding for a protein of approximately 50 kDa that is highly homologous to the class of adenylyl cyclase-associated proteins (CAP). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the amino-terminal part of CAP is involved in the regulation of the adenylyl cyclase whereas the loss of the carboxyl-terminal domain results in morphological and nutritional defects. To study the interaction of Dictyostelium CAP with actin, the complete protein and its amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal domains were expressed in Escherichia coli and used in actin binding assays. CAP sequestered actin in a Ca2+ independent way. This activity was localized to the carboxyl-terminal domain. CAP and its carboxyl-terminal domain led to a fluorescence enhancement of pyrene-labeled G-actin up to 50% indicating a direct interaction, whereas the amino-terminal domain did not enhance. In polymerization as well as in viscometric assays the ability of the carboxyl-terminal domain to sequester actin and to prevent F-actin formation was approximately two times higher than that of intact CAP. The sequestering activity of full length CAP could be inhibited by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), whereas the activity of the carboxyl-terminal domain alone was not influenced, suggesting that the amino-terminal half of the protein is required for the PIP2 modulation of the CAP function. In profilin-minus cells the CAP concentration is increased by approximately 73%, indicating that CAP may compensate some profilin functions in vivo. In migrating D. discoideum cells CAP was enriched at anterior and posterior plasma membrane regions. Only a weak staining of the cytoplasm was observed. In chemotactically stimulated cells the protein was very prominent in leading fronts. The data suggest an involvement of D. discoideum CAP in microfilament reorganization near the plasma membrane in a PIP2-regulated manner.

  6. Genetical control and linkage relationships of isozyme markers in sugar beet (B. vulgaris L.) : 1. Isocitrate dehydrogenase, adenylate kinase, phosphoglucomutase, glucose phosphate isomerase and cathodal peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smed, E; Van Geyt, J P; Oleo, M

    1989-07-01

    Five isozyme systems were genetically investigated. The different separation techniques, the developmental expression and the use as marker system in sugar beet genetics and breeding is discussed. Isocitrate dehydrogenase was controlled by two genes. The gene products form inter- as well as intralocus dimers, even with the gene products of the Icd gene in B. procumbens and B. patellaris. Adenylate kinase was controlled by one gene. Three different allelic forms were detected, which were active as monomeric proteins. Glucose phosphate isomerase showed two zones of activity. One zone was polymorphic. Three allelic variants, active as dimers, were found. Phosphoglucomutase also showed two major zones of activity. One zone was polymorphic and coded for monomeric enzymes. Two allelic forms were found in the accessions studied. The cathodal peroxidase system was controlled by two independent genes, of which only one was polymorphic. The gene products are active as monomers. Linkage was found between red hypocotyl color (R) and Icd 2. Pgm 1, Gpi 2, Ak 1 and the Icd 2-R linkage group segregated independently.

  7. Rho signaling in Entamoeba histolytica modulates actomyosin-dependent activities stimulated during invasive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Barraza, Janusz; Zamudio-Meza, Horacio; Franco, Elizabeth; del Carmen Domínguez-Robles, M; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; Meza, Isaura

    2006-03-01

    Interaction of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites with target cells and substrates activates signaling pathways in the parasite. Phosphorylation cascades triggered by phospho-inositide and adenyl-cyclase-dependent pathways modulate reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton to form structures that facilitate adhesion. In contrast, little is known about participation of Rho proteins and Rho signaling in actin rearrangements. We report here the in vivo expression of at least one Rho protein in trophozoites, whose activation induced actin reorganization and actin-myosin interaction. Antibodies to EhRhoA1 recombinant protein mainly localized Rho in the cytosol of nonactivated amoebae, but it was translocated to vesicular membranes and to some extent to the plasma membrane after treatment with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a specific agonist of Rho activation. Activated Rho was identified in LPA-treated trophozoites. LPA induced striking polymerization of actin into distinct dynamic structures. Disorganization of these structures by inhibition of Rho effector, Rho-kinase (ROCK), and by ML-7, an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase dependent phosphorylation of myosin light chain, suggested that the actin structures also contained myosin. LPA stimulated concanavalin-A-mediated formation of caps, chemotaxis, invasion of extracellular matrix substrates, and erythrophagocytosis, but not binding to fibronectin. ROCK inhibition impaired LPA-stimulated functions and to some extent adhesion to fibronectin. Similar results were obtained with ML-7. These data suggest the presence and operation of Rho-signaling pathways in E. histolytica, that together with other, already described, signaling routes modulate actomyosin-dependent motile processes, particularly stimulated during invasive behavior.

  8. Both A1 and A2a purine receptors regulate striatal acetylcholine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S J; James, S; Reddington, M; Richardson, P J

    1990-07-01

    The receptors responsible for the adenosine-mediated control of acetylcholine release from immunoaffinity-purified rat striatal cholinergic nerve terminals have been characterized. The relative affinities of three analogues for the inhibitory receptor were (R)-phenylisopropyladenosine greater than cyclohexyladenosine greater than N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), with binding being dependent of the presence of Mg2+ and inhibited by 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p] and adenosine receptor antagonists. Adenosine A1 receptor agonists inhibited forskolin-stimulated cholinergic adenylate cyclase activity, with an IC50 of 0.5 nM for (R)-phenylisopropyladenosine and 500 nM for (S)-phenylisopropyladenosine. A1 agonists inhibited acetylcholine release at concentrations approximately 10% of those required to inhibit the cholinergic adenylate cyclase. High concentrations (1 microM) of adenosine A1 agonists were less effective in inhibiting both adenylate cyclase and acetylcholine release, due to the presence of a lower affinity stimulatory A2 receptor. Blockade of the A1 receptor with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine revealed a half-maximal stimulation by NECA of the adenylate cyclase at 10 nM, and of acetylcholine release at approximately 100 nM. NECA-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity copurified with choline acetyltransferase in the preparation of the cholinergic nerve terminals, suggesting that the striatal A2 receptor is localized to cholinergic neurones. The possible role of feedback inhibitory and stimulatory receptors on cholinergic nerve terminals is discussed.

  9. Multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclases and cytochrome P450involved in the biosynthesis of apple fruit triterpenic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Andre, Christelle; Legay, Sylvain; Deleruelle, Amélie; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels; Punter, Matthew; Brendolise, Cyril; M.Cooney, Janine; Lateur, Marc; Hausman, Jean-François; Larondelle, Yvan; A.Laing, William

    2016-01-01

    Summary Apple (Malus × domestica) accumulates bioactive ursane‐, oleanane‐, and lupane‐type triterpenes in its fruit cuticle, but their biosynthetic pathway is still poorly understood. We used a homology‐based approach to identify and functionally characterize two new oxidosqualene cyclases (MdOSC4 and MdOSC5) and one cytochrome P450 (CYP716A175). The gene expression patterns of these enzymes and of previously described oxidosqualene cyclases were further studied in 20 apple cultivars with co...

  10. Identification of a fourth family of lycopene cyclases in photosynthetic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Maresca, Julia A.; Graham, Joel E.; Wu, Martin; Eisen, Jonathan A; Bryant, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    A fourth and large family of lycopene cyclases was identified in photosynthetic prokaryotes. The first member of this family, encoded by the cruA gene of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum, was identified in a complementation assay with a lycopene-producing strain of Escherichia coli. Orthologs of cruA are found in all available green sulfur bacterial genomes and in all cyanobacterial genomes that lack genes encoding CrtL- or CrtY-type lycopene cyclases. The cyanobacterium Synechoc...

  11. A cost-effective method for Illumina small RNA-Seq library preparation using T4 RNA ligase 1 adenylated adapters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yun-Ru

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep sequencing is a powerful tool for novel small RNA discovery. Illumina small RNA sequencing library preparation requires a pre-adenylated 3’ end adapter containing a 5’,5’-adenyl pyrophosphoryl moiety. In the absence of ATP, this adapter can be ligated to the 3’ hydroxyl group of small RNA, while RNA self-ligation and concatenation are repressed. Pre-adenylated adapters are one of the most essential and costly components required for library preparation, and few are commercially available. Results We demonstrate that DNA oligo with 5’ phosphate and 3’ amine groups can be enzymatically adenylated by T4 RNA ligase 1 to generate customized pre-adenylated adapters. We have constructed and sequenced a small RNA library for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum using the T4 RNA ligase 1 adenylated adapter. Conclusion We provide an efficient and low-cost method for small RNA sequencing library preparation, which takes two days to complete and costs around $20 per library. This protocol has been tested in several plant species for small RNA sequencing including sweet potato, pepper, watermelon, and cowpea, and could be readily applied to any RNA samples.

  12. Multiple lineage specific expansions within the guanylyl cyclase gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Halloran Damien M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guanylyl cyclases (GCs are responsible for the production of the secondary messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate, which plays important roles in a variety of physiological responses such as vision, olfaction, muscle contraction, homeostatic regulation, cardiovascular and nervous function. There are two types of GCs in animals, soluble (sGCs which are found ubiquitously in cell cytoplasm, and receptor (rGC forms which span cell membranes. The complete genomes of several vertebrate and invertebrate species are now available. These data provide a platform to investigate the evolution of GCs across a diverse range of animal phyla. Results In this analysis we located GC genes from a broad spectrum of vertebrate and invertebrate animals and reconstructed molecular phylogenies for both sGC and rGC proteins. The most notable features of the resulting phylogenies are the number of lineage specific rGC and sGC expansions that have occurred during metazoan evolution. Among these expansions is a large nematode specific rGC clade comprising 21 genes in C. elegans alone; a vertebrate specific expansion in the natriuretic receptors GC-A and GC-B; a vertebrate specific expansion in the guanylyl GC-C receptors, an echinoderm specific expansion in the sperm rGC genes and a nematode specific sGC clade. Our phylogenetic reconstruction also shows the existence of a basal group of nitric oxide (NO insensitive insect and nematode sGCs which are regulated by O2. This suggests that the primordial eukaryotes probably utilized sGC as an O2 sensor, with the ligand specificity of sGC later switching to NO which provides a very effective local cell-to-cell signalling system. Phylogenetic analysis of the sGC and bacterial heme nitric oxide/oxygen binding protein domain supports the hypothesis that this domain originated from a cyanobacterial source. Conclusion The most salient feature of our phylogenies is the number of lineage specific expansions

  13. A High Throughput Screening Assay for Anti-Mycobacterial Small Molecules Based on Adenylate Kinase Release as a Reporter of Cell Lysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Forbes

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is well-established to be one of the most important bacterial pathogens for which new antimicrobial therapies are needed. Herein, we describe the development of a high throughput screening assay for the identification of molecules that are bactericidal against Mycobacteria. The assay utilizes the release of the intracellular enzyme adenylate kinase into the culture medium as a reporter of mycobacterial cell death. We demonstrate that the assay is selective for mycobactericidal molecules and detects anti-mycobacterial activity at concentrations below the minimum inhibitory concentration of many molecules. Thus, the AK assay is more sensitive than traditional growth assays. We have validated the AK assay in the HTS setting using the Mtb surrogate organism M. smegmatis and libraries of FDA approved drugs as well as a commercially available Diversity set. The screen of the FDA-approved library demonstrated that the AK assay is able to identify the vast majority of drugs with known mycobactericidal activity. Importantly, our screen of the Diversity set revealed that the increased sensitivity of the AK assay increases the ability of M. smegmatis-based screens to detect molecules with relatively poor activity against M. smegmatis but good to excellent activity against Mtb.

  14. The Src kinase Yes is activated in pancreatic acinar cells by gastrointestinal hormones/neurotransmitters, but not pancreatic growth factors, which stimulate its association with numerous other signaling molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Veronica; Nuche-Berenguer, Bernardo; Jensen, R T

    2012-08-01

    For growth factors, cytokines, G-protein-coupled receptors and numerous other stimuli, the Src Family of kinases (SFK) play a central signaling role. SFKs also play an important role in pancreatic acinar cell function including metabolism, secretion, endocytosis, growth and cytoskeletal integrity, although the specific SFKs involved are not fully known. In the present study we used specific antibodies for the SFK, Yes, to determine its presence, activation by pancreatic secretagogues or growth factors, and interaction with cellular signaling cascades mediated by CCK in which Yes participates in to cause acinar cell responses. Yes was identified in acini and secretagogues known to activate phospholipase C (PLC) [CCK, carbachol, bombesin] as well as post-receptor stimulants activating PKC [TPA] or mobilizing cellular calcium [thapsigargin/calcium ionophore (A23187)] each activated Yes. Secretin, which activates adenylate cyclase did not stimulate Yes, nor did pancreatic growth factors. CCK activation of Yes required both high- and low-affinity CCK(1)-receptor states. TPA-/CCK-stimulated Yes activation was completely inhibited by thapsigargin and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X. CCK/TPA stimulated the association of Yes with focal adhesion kinases (Pyk2, FAK) and its autophosphorylated forms (pY397FAK, pY402Pyk2). Moreover, CCK/TPA stimulated Yes interacted with a number of other signaling proteins, including Shc, PKD, p130(Cas), PI3K and PTEN. This study demonstrates that in rat pancreatic acini, the SFK member Yes is expressed and activated by CCK and other gastrointestinal hormones/neurotransmitters. Because its activation results in the direct activation of many cellular signaling cascades that have been shown to mediate CCK's effect in acinar cell function our results suggest that it is one of the important pancreatic SFKs mediating these effects.

  15. Nitroxyl (HNO stimulates soluble guanylyl cyclase to suppress cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and superoxide generation.

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    Eliane Q Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New therapeutic targets for cardiac hypertrophy, an independent risk factor for heart failure and death, are essential. HNO is a novel redox sibling of NO• attracting considerable attention for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, eliciting cGMP-dependent vasodilatation yet cGMP-independent positive inotropy. The impact of HNO on cardiac hypertrophy (which is negatively regulated by cGMP however has not been investigated. METHODS: Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were incubated with angiotensin II (Ang II in the presence and absence of the HNO donor Angeli's salt (sodium trioxodinitrate or B-type natriuretic peptide, BNP (all 1 µmol/L. Hypertrophic responses and its triggers, as well as cGMP signaling, were determined. RESULTS: We now demonstrate that Angeli's salt inhibits Ang II-induced hypertrophic responses in cardiomyocytes, including increases in cardiomyocyte size, de novo protein synthesis and β-myosin heavy chain expression. Angeli's salt also suppresses Ang II induction of key triggers of the cardiomyocyte hypertrophic response, including NADPH oxidase (on both Nox2 expression and superoxide generation, as well as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK. The antihypertrophic, superoxide-suppressing and cGMP-elevating effects of Angeli's salt were mimicked by BNP. We also demonstrate that the effects of Angeli's salt are specifically mediated by HNO (with no role for NO• or nitrite, with subsequent activation of cardiomyocyte soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC and cGMP signaling (on both cGMP-dependent protein kinase, cGK-I and phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, VASP. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that HNO prevents cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and that cGMP-dependent NADPH oxidase suppression contributes to these antihypertrophic actions. HNO donors may thus represent innovative pharmacotherapy for cardiac hypertrophy.

  16. Ectopic expression of cyclase associated protein CAP restores the streaming and aggregation defects of adenylyl cyclase a deficient Dictyostelium discoideum cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Hameeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell adhesion, an integral part of D. discoideum development, is important for morphogenesis and regulated gene expression in the multicellular context and is required to trigger cell-differentiation. G-protein linked adenylyl cyclase pathways are crucially involved and a mutant lacking the aggregation specific adenylyl cyclase ACA does not undergo multicellular development. Results Here, we have investigated the role of cyclase-associated protein (CAP, an important regulator of cell polarity and F-actin/G-actin ratio in the aca- mutant. We show that ectopic expression of GFP-CAP improves cell polarization, streaming and aggregation in aca- cells, but it fails to completely restore development. Our studies indicate a requirement of CAP in the ACA dependent signal transduction for progression of the development of unicellular amoebae into multicellular structures. The reduced expression of the cell adhesion molecule DdCAD1 together with csA is responsible for the defects in aca- cells to initiate multicellular development. Early development was restored by the expression of GFP-CAP that enhanced the DdCAD1 transcript levels and to a lesser extent the csA mRNA levels. Conclusions Collectively, our data shows a novel role of CAP in regulating cell adhesion mechanisms during development that might be envisioned to unravel the functions of mammalian CAP during animal embryogenesis.

  17. Structure of the adenylation-peptidyl carrier protein didomain of the Microcystis aeruginosa microcystin synthetase McyG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-Feng; Dai, Ya-Nan; Zhou, Kang; Jiang, Yong-Liang; Ren, Yan-Min; Chen, Yuxing; Zhou, Cong-Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Microcystins, which are the most common cause of hepatotoxicity associated with cyanobacterial water blooms, are assembled in vivo on a large multienzyme complex via a mixed nonribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthetase (NRPS/PKS). The biosynthesis of microcystin in Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 starts with the enzyme McyG, which contains an adenylation-peptidyl carrier protein (A-PCP) didomain for loading the starter unit to assemble the side chain of an Adda residue. However, the catalytic mechanism remains unclear. Here, the 2.45 Å resolution crystal structure of the McyG A-PCP didomain complexed with the catalytic intermediate L-phenylalanyl-adenylate (L-Phe-AMP) is reported. Each asymmetric unit contains two protein molecules, one of which consists of the A-PCP didomain and the other of which comprises only the A domain. Structural analyses suggest that Val227 is likely to be critical for the selection of hydrophobic substrates. Moreover, two distinct interfaces demonstrating variable crosstalk between the PCP domain and the A domain were observed. A catalytic cycle for the adenylation and peptide transfer of the A-PCP didomain is proposed.

  18. Inhibition of transducin activation and guanosine triphosphatase activity by aluminum ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J L; Hubbard, C M; Litman, B J; Macdonald, T L

    1989-01-05

    Aluminum ion perturbs the activity of a number of physiologically important enzymes, including members of a family of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins). G-proteins couple cellular receptor proteins to a variety of effector enzymes (including adenylate cyclase, phospholipase C, and the rod photoreceptor phosphodiesterase). We show herein that subnanomolar concentrations of free aluminum ion, produced in a carefully defined and kinetically stable manner through the buffering of total aluminum at 0.1-1.0 mM with calculated ratios of chelating agents, inhibit both the receptor-mediated activation and the self-inactivating GTPase activity of the rod photoreceptor G-protein, Gv. In the presence of 4 X 10(-10) M free aluminum ion, GTPase activity is inhibited from about 25-60% as the magnesium ion concentration is reduced from 10(-3) to about 5 X 10(-5) M. The principal effect of aluminum ion upon Gv is to inhibit receptor catalyzed nucleotide exchange. Binding of the GTP analog 5'-guanylyl imidodiphosphate can be reduced by as much as 90% by aluminum ion following subsaturating rhodopsin stimulation. Aluminum ion can produce either competitive or mixed noncompetitive inhibition of rhodopsin-catalyzed Gv activation and GTPase activity, as a function of whether Gv undergoes single (competitive), or multiple (mixed noncompetitive) nucleotide exchanges. The rod photoreceptor phosphodiesterase is only slightly inhibited by similar aluminum ion activities. Light- and Gv-coupled phosphodiesterase activation exhibits both a lower maximum rate of cyclic guanosine monophosphate hydrolysis and a slower inactivation in the presence of aluminum ion activities from about 10(-12) - 10(-10) M. These data suggest that intracellular free aluminum ion concentrations in the subnanomolar range could markedly affect the ability of cells to transduce extracellular signals. Interestingly, the combination of Al3+ and F- to produce the fluoro-aluminate species (AlFx) also inhibits

  19. Doxycycline exerted neuroprotective activity by enhancing the activation of neuropeptide GPCR PAC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongjie; Zheng, Lijun; Cui, Yue; Zhang, Huahua; Ye, Heng

    2016-04-01

    Doxycycline has significant neuroprotective effect with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activity. We found for the first time that doxycycline specially promoted the proliferation of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with high expression of neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) preferring G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), PACAP receptor 1(PAC1) and induced the internalization of PAC1 tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) indicating doxycycline interacted with PAC1. The homology modeling of PAC1 and molecular docking of doxycycline with PAC1 showed the theoretical binding of doxycycline to PAC1 at the site where PACAP(30-37) recognized. The competition binding assay and PAC1 site-specific mutation of Asp116, which formed two hydrogen bonds with Dox, confirmed the binding of doxycycline to PAC1 imitating PACAP(30-37). Doxycycline (100 ng/mL) significantly promoted the proliferative activities of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and oligopeptide HSDGIF responsible for the activation of PAC1 in PAC1-CHO cells, indicating that doxycycline facilitated the binding and the activation of PAC1 imitating PACAP(28-38). In Neuro2a cells with endogenous expression of PAC1 and its ligands, doxycycline not only promoted the proliferation of Neuro2a cells but also protected the cells from scopolamine induced apoptosis, which was inhibited by cAMP-PKA signal pathway inhibitor H-89, PAC1 shRNA or PACAP antagonist PACAP(6-38). The in vivo study showed long-term treatment with doxycycline (100ug/kg) had significant effect against scopolamine induced amnesia, and the synergetic anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effect of doxycycline with VIP was more efficient than doxycycline alone or VIP alone, indicating doxycycline enhanced the activation of PAC1 in vivo effectively. Furthermore, doxycycline analogue minocycline also had similar theoretically binding site on PAC1 to doxycycline and displayed corresponding

  20. Crystal structure and functional analysis of the glutaminyl cyclase from Xanthomonas campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Lin; Wang, Yu-Ruei; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Chia, Cho-Yun; Huang, Kai-Fa; Wang, Andrew H-J

    2010-08-20

    Glutaminyl cyclases (QCs) (EC 2.3.2.5) catalyze the formation of pyroglutamate (pGlu) at the N-terminus of many proteins and peptides, a critical step for the maturation of these bioactive molecules. Proteins having QC activity have been identified in animals and plants, but not in bacteria. Here, we report the first bacterial QC from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris (Xc). The crystal structure of the enzyme was solved and refined to 1.44-A resolution. The structure shows a five-bladed beta-propeller and exhibits a scaffold similar to that of papaya QC (pQC), but with some sequence deletions and conformational changes. In contrast to the pQC structure, the active site of XcQC has a wider substrate-binding pocket, but its accessibility is modulated by a protruding loop acting as a flap. Enzyme activity analyses showed that the wild-type XcQC possesses only 3% QC activity compared to that of pQC. Superposition of those two structures revealed that an active-site glutamine residue in pQC is substituted by a glutamate (Glu(45)) in XcQC, although position 45 is a glutamine in most bacterial QC sequences. The E45Q mutation increased the QC activity by an order of magnitude, but the mutation E45A led to a drop in the enzyme activity, indicating the critical catalytic role of this residue. Further mutagenesis studies support the catalytic role of Glu(89) as proposed previously and confirm the importance of several conserved amino acids around the substrate-binding pocket. XcQC was shown to be weakly resistant to guanidine hydrochloride, extreme pH, and heat denaturations, in contrast to the extremely high stability of pQC, despite their similar scaffold. On the basis of structure comparison, the low stability of XcQC may be attributed to the absence of both a disulfide linkage and some hydrogen bonds in the closure of beta-propeller structure. These results significantly improve our understanding of the catalytic mechanism and extreme stability of type I QCs

  1. Soluble guanylyl cyclase is involved in PDT-induced injury of crayfish glial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, V. D.; Uzdensky, A. B.

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a potential tool for selective destruction of malignant brain tumors. However, not only malignant but also healthy neurons and glial cells may be damaged during PDT. Nitric oxide is an important modulator of cell viability and intercellular neuroglial communications. NO have been already shown to participate in PDT-induced injury of neurons and glial cells. As soluble guanylyl cyclase is the only known receptor for NO, we have studied the possible role of soluble guanylyl cyclase in the regulation of survival and death of neurons and surrounding glial cells under photo-oxidative stress induced by photodynamic treatment (PDT). The crayfish stretch receptor consisting of a single identified sensory neuron enveloped by glial cells is a simple but informative model object. It was photosensitized with alumophthalocyanine photosens (10 nM) and irradiated with a laser diode (670 nm, 0.4 W/cm2). Using inhibitory analysis we have shown that during PDT soluble guanylyl cyclase, probably, has proapoptotic and antinecrotic effect on the glial cells of the isolated crayfish stretch receptor. Proapoptotic effect of soluble guanylyl cyclase could be mediated by protein kinase G (PKG). Thus, the involvement of NO/sGC/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway in PDT-induced apoptosis of glial cells was indirectly demonstrated.

  2. A novel Myb homolog initiates Dictyostelium development by induction of adenylyl cyclase expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuka, Hideshi; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1998-01-01

    Dictyostelium development is induced by starvation. The adenylyl cyclase gene ACA is one of the first genes expressed upon starvation. ACA produces extracellular cAMP that induces chemotaxis, aggregation, and differentiation in neighboring cells. Using insertional mutagenesis we have isolated a muta

  3. Pharmacological stimulation of type 5 adenylyl cyclase stabilizes heart rate under both microgravity and hypergravity induced by parabolic flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yunzhe; Tsunematsu, Takashi; Jiao, Qibin; Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Mototani, Yasumasa; Shiozawa, Kouichi; Jin, Meihua; Cai, Wenqian; Jin, Hui-Ling; Fujita, Takayuki; Ichikawa, Yasuhiro; Suita, Kenji; Kurotani, Reiko; Yokoyama, Utako; Sato, Motohiko; Iwatsubo, Kousaku; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Okumura, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that type 5 adenylyl cyclase (AC5) functions in autonomic regulation in the heart. Based on that work, we hypothesized that pharmacological modulation of AC5 activity could regulate the autonomic control of the heart rate under micro- and hypergravity. To test this hypothesis, we selected the approach of activating AC5 activity in mice with a selective AC5 activator (NKH477) or inhibitor (vidarabine) and examining heart rate variability during parabolic flight. The standard deviation of normal R-R intervals, a marker of total autonomic variability, was significantly greater under micro- and hypergravity in the vidarabine group, while there were no significant changes in the NKH477 group, suggesting that autonomic regulation was unstable in the vidarabine group. The ratio of low frequency and high frequency (HF) in heart rate variability analysis, a marker of sympathetic activity, became significantly decreased under micro- and hypergravity in the NKH477 group, while there was no such decrease in the vidarabine group. Normalized HF, a marker of parasympathetic activity, became significantly greater under micro- and hypergravity in the NKH477 group. In contrast, there was no such increase in the vidarabine group. This study is the first to indicate that pharmacological modulation of AC5 activity under micro- and hypergravity could be useful to regulate the autonomic control of the heart rate.

  4. Inhibition of a cAMP-dependent Ca-activated K conductance by forskolin prolongs Ca action potential duration in lamprey sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, M D; Wickelgren, W O

    1990-06-04

    Intracellular recordings from primary mechanosensory neurons (dorsal cells) of the lamprey spinal cord were made to test the membrane effects of forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase in these cells. At a concentration of 50 microM, forskolin was found to have a pronounced broadening effect on calcium action potentials (Ca APs) produced in the presence of voltage-activated K channel blockers (TEA, 3,4-DAP). Forskolin had no effect on passive membrane properties of the cells, such as resting potential or input resistance. Nor did it affect delayed rectification or Na APs and thus appeared not to block voltage-activated K channels. Forskolin's effect was evident only when a significant Ca component to the AP was present. It appeared not to increase the conductance of the Ca channel since its action was accompanied by a decrease in membrane conductance during the Ca AP, indicating instead an inhibition of a repolarizing Ca-activated conductance, other than a Ca-activated Cl conductance. The prolongation of Ca APs by forskolin, barium or the neurotransmitter GABA were all correlated in voltage-clamp with a decrease in outward current. Under the conductions used here, the major outward conductance in dorsal cells is a Ca-activated K conductance (gK(Ca]28, and it is concluded that the most probable mode of action for forskolin is via a cyclic AMP-mediated inhibition of this conductance. GABA has also been shown to prolong Ca APs in lamprey dorsal cells by inhibiting a repolarizing gK(Ca)28. Thus, the action of this transmitter may be mediated by an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP.

  5. Adenylate nucleotide levels and energy charge in Arthrobacter crystallopoietes during growth and starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leps, W T; Ensign, J C

    1979-07-01

    The adenylate nucleotide concentrations, based on internal water space, were determined in cells of Arthrobacter crystallopoietes during growth and starvation and the energy charge of the cells was calculated. The energy charge of spherical cells rose during the first 10 h of growth, then remained nearly constant for as long as 20 h into the stationary phase. The energy charge of rod-shaped cells rose during the first 4 h of growth, then remained constant during subsequent growth and decreased in the stationary growth phase. Both spherical and rod-shaped cells excreted adenosine monophosphate but not adenosine triphosphate or adenosine diphosphate during starvation. The intracellular energy charge of spherical cells declined during the initial 10 h and then remained constant for 1 week of starvation at a value of 0.78. The intracellular energy charge of rod-shaped cells declined during the first 24 h of starvation, remained constant for the next 80 h, then decreased to a value of 0.73 after a total of 168 h starvation. Both cell forms remained more than 90% viable during this time. Addition of a carbon and energy source to starving cells resulted in an increase in the ATP concentration and as a result the energy charge increased to the smae levels as found during growth.

  6. Riboswitch control of induction of aminoglycoside resistance acetyl and adenyl-transferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weizhi; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhang, Jun; Jia, Xu; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Wenxia; Jiang, Hengyi; Chen, Dongrong; Murchie, Alastair I H

    2013-08-01

    The acquisition of antibiotic resistance by human pathogens poses a significant threat to public health. The mechanisms that control the proliferation and expression of antibiotic resistance genes are not yet completely understood. The aminoglycosides are a historically important class of antibiotics that were introduced in the 1940s. Aminoglycoside resistance is conferred most commonly through enzymatic modification of the drug or enzymatic modification of the target rRNA through methylation or through the overexpression of efflux pumps. In our recent paper, we reported that expression of the aminoglycoside resistance genes encoding the aminoglycoside acetyl transferase (AAC) and aminoglycoside adenyl transferase (AAD) enzymes was controlled by an aminoglycoside-sensing riboswitch RNA. This riboswitch is embedded in the leader RNA of the aac/aad genes and is associated with the integron cassette system. The leader RNA can sense and bind specific aminoglycosides such that the binding causes a structural transition in the leader RNA, which leads to the induction of aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance. Specific aminoglycosides induce reporter gene expression mediated by the leader RNA. Aminoglycoside RNA binding was measured directly and, aminoglycoside-induced changes in RNA structure monitored by chemical probing. UV cross-linking and mutational analysis identified potential aminoglycoside binding sites on the RNA.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of 18 passerines based on Adenylate Kinase Intron 5 sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hui-yan; YU Hui-xin; BAI Su-ying; MA Yu-kun

    2008-01-01

    The 18 species of bird studied originally are known to belong to muscicapids, robins and sylviids of passerines, but some disputations are always present in their classification systems. In this experiment, phylogenetic relationships of 18 species of passerines were studied using Adenylate Kinase Intron 5 (AK5) sequences and DNA techniques. Through sequences analysis in comparison with each other, phylogenetic tree figures of 18 species of passerines were constructed using Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Maximum-Parsimony (MP) methods . The results showed that sylviids should be listed as an independent family, while robins and flycatchers should be listed into Muscicapidae. Since the phylogenetic relationships between long-tailed tits and old world warblers are closer than that between long-tailed tits and parids, the long-tailed tits should be independent of paridae and be categorized into aegithalidae. Muscicapidae and Paridae are known to be two monophylitic families, but Sylviidae is not a monophyletic group. AK5 sequences had better efficacy in resolving close relationships of interspecies among intrageneric groups.

  8. Adenylate kinase 2 (AK2 promotes cell proliferation in insect development

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    Chen Ru-Ping

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adenylate kinase 2 (AK2 is a phosphotransferase that catalyzes the reversible reaction 2ADP(GDP ↔ ATP(GTP + AMP and influences cellular energy homeostasis. However, the role of AK2 in regulating cell proliferation remains unclear because AK2 has been reported to be involved in either cell proliferation or cell apoptosis in different cell types of various organisms. Results This study reports AK2 promotion of cell proliferation using the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera and its epidermal cell line HaEpi as models. Western blot analysis indicates that AK2 constitutively expresses in various tissues during larval development. Immunocytochemistry analysis indicates that AK2 localizes in the mitochondria. The recombinant expressed AK2 in E. coli promotes cell growth and viability of HaEpi cell line by 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. AK2 knockdown in larvae by RNA interference causes larval growth defects, including body weight decrease and development delay. AK2 knockdown in larvae also decreases the number of circulating haemocytes. The mechanism for such effects might be the suppression of gene transcription involved in insect development caused by AK2 knockdown. Conclusion These results show that AK2 regulates cell growth, viability, and proliferation in insect growth and development.

  9. On the Roles of Substrate Binding and Hinge Unfolding in Conformational Changes of Adenylate Kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brokaw, Jason B.; Chu, Jhih-wei

    2010-11-17

    We characterized the conformational change of adenylate kinase (AK) between open and closed forms by conducting five all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations, each of 100 ns duration. Different initial structures and substrate binding configurations were used to probe the pathways of AK conformational change in explicit solvent, and no bias potential was applied. A complete closed-to-open and a partial open-to-closed transition were observed, demonstrating the direct impact of substrate-mediated interactions on shifting protein conformation. The sampled configurations suggest two possible pathways for connecting the open and closed structures of AK, affirming the prediction made based on available x-ray structures and earlier works of coarse-grained modeling. The trajectories of the all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations revealed the complexity of protein dynamics and the coupling between different domains during conformational change. Calculations of solvent density and density fluctuations surrounding AK did not show prominent variation during the transition between closed and open forms. Finally, we characterized the effects of local unfolding of an important hinge near Pro177 on the closed-to-open transition of AK and identified a novel mechanism by which hinge unfolding modulates protein conformational change. The local unfolding of Pro177 hinge induces alternative tertiary contacts that stabilize the closed structure and prevent the opening transition.

  10. The energy profiles of atomic conformational transition intermediates of adenylate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yaping; Yang, Lei; Kloczkowski, Andrzej; Jernigan, Robert L

    2009-11-15

    The elastic network interpolation (ENI) (Kim et al., Biophys J 2002;83:1620-1630) is a computationally efficient and physically realistic method to generate conformational transition intermediates between two forms of a given protein. However it can be asked whether these calculated conformations provide good representatives for these intermediates. In this study, we use ENI to generate conformational transition intermediates between the open form and the closed form of adenylate kinase (AK). Based on C(alpha)-only intermediates, we construct atomic intermediates by grafting all the atoms of known AK structures onto the C(alpha) atoms and then perform CHARMM energy minimization to remove steric conflicts and optimize these intermediate structures. We compare the energy profiles for all intermediates from both the CHARMM force-field and from knowledge-based energy functions. We find that the CHARMM energies can successfully capture the two energy minima representing the open AK and closed AK forms, while the energies computed from the knowledge-based energy functions can detect the local energy minimum representing the closed AK form and show some general features of the transition pathway with a somewhat similar energy profile as the CHARMM energies. The combinatorial extension structural alignment (Shindyalov et al., 1998;11:739-747) and the k-means clustering algorithm are then used to show that known PDB structures closely resemble computed intermediates along the transition pathway.

  11. Structure and function of adenylate kinase isozymes in normal humans and muscular dystrophy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, M; Takenaka, H; Fukumoto, K; Fukamachi, S; Yamaguchi, T; Sumida, M; Shiosaka, T; Kurokawa, Y; Okuda, H; Kuby, S A

    1987-01-01

    Two isozymes of adenylate kinase from human Duchenne muscular dystrophy serum, one of which was an aberrant form specific to DMD patients, were separated by Blue Sepharose CL-6B affinity chromatography. The separated aberrant form possessed a molecular weight of 98,000 +/- 1,500, whereas the normal serum isozyme had a weight of 87,000 +/- 1,600, as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gel filtration, and sedimentation equilibrium. The sedimentation coefficients were 5.8 S and 5.6 S for the aberrant form and the normal form, respectively. Both serum isozymes are tetramers. The subunit size of the aberrant isozyme (Mr = 24,700) was very similar to that of the normal human liver isozyme, and the subunit size of the normal isozyme (Mr = 21,700) was very similar to that of the normal human muscle enzyme. The amino acid composition of the normal serum isozyme was similar to that of the muscle-type enzyme, and that of the aberrant isozyme was similar to that of the liver enzyme, with some exceptions in both cases.

  12. Influence of sampling, storage, processing and optimal experimental conditions on adenylate energy charge in penaeid shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robles-Romo Arlett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenylate energy charge (AEC has been used as a practical index of the physiological status and health in several disciplines, such as ecotoxicology and aquaculture. This study standardizes several procedures for AEC determination in penaeid shrimp that are very sensitive to sampling. We concluded that shrimp can be frozen in liquid nitrogen and then stored at -76°C for up to two years for further analysis, or freshly dissected and immediately homogenized in acid. Other cooling procedures, such as immersion in cold water or placing shrimp on ice for 15 min resulted in 50% and 73% decreases in ATP levels, and 9-fold and 10-fold increases in IMP levels, respectively. Optimal values of AEC (0.9 were obtained in shrimp recently transferred from ponds to indoor conditions, but decreased to 0.77 after one month in indoor tanks when stocked at high densities; the AEC re-established to 0.85 when the shrimps were transferred to optimal conditions (lower density and dark tanks. While the levels of arginine phosphate followed the same pattern, its levels did not fully re-establish. Comparison of different devices for sample homogenization indicated that a cryogenic ball mill mixer is the more suitable procedure.

  13. Mutation in Mg-Protoporphyrin IX Monomethyl Ester Cyclase Decreases Photosynthesis Capacity in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuexia; Huang, Rongfeng; Quan, Ruidang

    2017-01-01

    In photosynthesis, the pigments chlorophyll a/b absorb light energy to convert to chemical energy in chloroplasts. Though most enzymes of chlorophyll biosynthesis from glutamyl-tRNA to chlorophyll a/b have been identified, the exact composition and regulation of the multimeric enzyme Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester cyclase (MPEC) is largely unknown. In this study, we isolated a rice pale-green leaf mutant m167 with yellow-green leaf phenotype across the whole lifespan. Chlorophyll content decreases 43–51% and the granal stacks of chloroplasts becomes thinner in m167. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, including Fv/Fm (the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII) and quantum yield of PSII (Y(II)), were lower in m167 than those in wild type plants (WT), and photosynthesis rate decreases 40% in leaves of m167 mutant compared with WT plants, which lead to yield reduction in m167. Genetic analysis revealed that yellow-green leaf phenotype of m167 is controlled by a single recessive genetic locus. By positional cloning, a single mutated locus, G286A (Alanine 96 to Threonine in protein), was found in the coding sequence of LOC_Os01g17170 (Rice Copper Response Defect 1, OsCRD1), encoding a putative subunit of MPEC. Expression profile analysis demonstrated that OsCRD1 is mainly expressed in green tissues of rice. Sequence alignment analysis of CRD1 indicated that Alanine 96 is very conserved in all green plants and photosynthetic bacteria. OsCRD1 protein mainly locates in chloroplast and the point mutation A96T in OsCRD1 does not change its location. Therefore, Alanine96 of OsCRD1 might be fundamental for MPEC activity, mutation of which leads to deficiency in chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast development and decreases photosynthetic capacity in rice. PMID:28129387

  14. The plant natriuretic peptide receptor is a guanylyl cyclase and enables cGMP-dependent signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Turek, Ilona

    2016-03-05

    The functional homologues of vertebrate natriuretic peptides (NPs), the plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs), are a novel class of peptidic hormones that signal via guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) and systemically affect plant salt and water balance and responses to biotrophic plant pathogens. Although there is increasing understanding of the complex roles of PNPs in plant responses at the systems level, little is known about the underlying signaling mechanisms. Here we report isolation and identification of a novel Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) protein that directly interacts with A. thaliana PNP, AtPNP-A. In vitro binding studies revealed that the Arabidopsis AtPNP-A binds specifically to the LRR protein, termed AtPNP-R1, and the active region of AtPNP-A is sufficient for the interaction to occur. Importantly, the cytosolic part of the AtPNP-R1, much like in some vertebrate NP receptors, harbors a catalytic center diagnostic for guanylyl cyclases and the recombinant AtPNP-R1 is capable of catalyzing the conversion of guanosine triphosphate to cGMP. In addition, we show that AtPNP-A causes rapid increases of cGMP levels in wild type (WT) leaf tissue while this response is significantly reduced in the atpnp-r1 mutants. AtPNP-A also causes cGMP-dependent net water uptake into WT protoplasts, and hence volume increases, whereas responses of the protoplasts from the receptor mutant are impaired. Taken together, our results suggest that the identified LRR protein is an AtPNP-A receptor essential for the PNP-dependent regulation of ion and water homeostasis in plants and that PNP- and vertebrate NP-receptors and their signaling mechanisms share surprising similarities. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  15. Altered collecting duct adenylyl cyclase content in collecting duct endothelin-1 knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohan Donald E

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelin-1 (ET-1 inhibition of vasopressin (AVP-stimulated water reabsorption by the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD is associated with reduced cAMP accumulation. To determine the effect of ET-1 deficiency, AVP-stimulated cAMP responsiveness was assessed in IMCD from mice with collecting duct-specific deletion of ET-1 (CD ET-1 KO and from control animals. Methods Cyclic AMP production, adenylyl cyclase (AC mRNA, and AC protein were measured in acutely isolated IMCD. Results CD ET-1 KO IMCD had enhanced AVP-stimulated cAMP accumulation. Inhibition of calcium-stimulated AC using BAPTA did not prevent enhanced AVP responsiveness in CD ET-1 KO IMCD. Factors known to be modified by ET-1, including nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase metabolites, and superoxide did not affect the increased AVP responsiveness of CD ET-1 KO IMCD. Differential V2 receptor or G-protein activity was not involved since CD ET-1 KO IMCD had increased cAMP accumulation in response to forskolin and/or cholera toxin. CD ET-1 KO did not affect mRNA or protein levels of AC3, one of the major known collecting duct AC isoforms. However, the other known major collecting duct AC isoform (AC5/6 did have increased protein levels in CD ET-1 KO IMCD, although AC5 (weak signal and 6 mRNA levels were unchanged. Conclusion ET-1 deficiency increases IMCD AC5/6 content, an effect that may synergize with acute ET-1 inhibition of AVP-stimulated cAMP accumulation.

  16. Characterization and Inhibition of a Class II Diterpene Cyclase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Francis M.; Prisic, Sladjana; Hu, Huayou; Xu, Meimei; Coates, Robert M.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a widespread and devastating human pathogen, whose ability to infiltrate macrophage host cells from the human immune system is an active area of investigation. We have recently reported the discovery of a novel diterpene from M. tuberculosis, edaxadiene, whose ability to arrest phagosomal maturation in isolation presumably contributes to this critical process in M. tuberculosis infections. (Mann, F. M., Xu, M., Chen, X., Fulton, D. B., Russell, D. G., and Peters, R. J. (2009) J. Am. Chem. Soc., in press). Here, we present characterization of the class II diterpene cyclase that catalyzes the committed step in edaxadiene biosynthesis, i.e. the previously identified halimadienyl-diphosphate synthase (HPS; EC 5.5.1.16). Intriguingly, our kinetic analysis suggests a potential biochemical regulatory mechanism that triggers edaxadiene production upon phagosomal engulfment. Furthermore, we report characterization of potential HPS inhibitors: specifically, two related transition state analogs (15-aza-14,15-dihydrogeranylgeranyl diphosphate (7a) and 15-aza-14,15-dihydrogeranylgeranyl thiolodiphosphate (7b)) that exhibit very tight binding. Although arguably not suitable for clinical use, these nevertheless provide a basis for pharmaceutical design against this intriguing biosynthetic pathway. Finally, we provide evidence indicating that this pathway exists only in M. tuberculosis and is not functional in the closely related Mycobacterium bovis because of an inactivating frameshift in the HPS-encoding gene. Thus, we hypothesize that the inability to produce edaxadiene may be a contributing factor in the decreased infectivity and/or virulence of M. bovis relative to M. tuberculosis in humans. PMID:19574210

  17. Cloning and functional characterization of three branch point oxidosqualene cyclases from Withania somnifera (L.) dunal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Niha; Rana, Satiander; Razdan, Sumeer; Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Hussain, Aashiq; Dhar, Rekha S; Vaishnavi, Samantha; Hamid, Abid; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K

    2014-06-13

    Oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs) positioned at a key metabolic subdividing junction execute indispensable enzymatic cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene for varied triterpenoid biosynthesis. Such branch points present favorable gene targets for redirecting metabolic flux toward specific secondary metabolites. However, detailed information regarding the candidate OSCs covering different branches and their regulation is necessary for the desired genetic manipulation. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to characterize members of OSC superfamily from Withania somnifera (Ws), a medicinal plant of immense repute known to synthesize a large array of biologically active steroidal lactone triterpenoids called withanolides. Three full-length OSC cDNAs, β-amyrin synthase (WsOSC/BS), lupeol synthase (WsOSC/LS), and cycloartenol synthase (WsOSC/CS), having open reading frames of 2289, 2268, and 2277 bp, were isolated. Heterologous expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, LC-MS analyses, and kinetic studies confirmed their monofunctionality. The three WsOSCs were found to be spatially regulated at transcriptional level with WsOSC/CS being maximally expressed in leaf tissue. Promoter analysis of three WsOSCs genes resulted in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements. Further, transcript profiling under methyl jasmonate, gibberellic acid, and yeast extract elicitations displayed differential transcriptional regulation of each of the OSCs. Changes were also observed in mRNA levels under elicitations and further substantiated with protein expression levels by Western blotting. Negative regulation by yeast extract resulted in significant increase in withanolide content. Empirical evidence suggests that repression of competitive branch OSCs like WsOSC/BS and WsOSC/LS possibly leads to diversion of substrate pool toward WsOSC/CS for increased withanolide production.

  18. Inhibition of Bacterial Toxin Activity by the Nuclear Stain, DRAQ5™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Joshua N; Koufos, Evan; Brown, Angela C

    2016-08-01

    The repeats-in-toxin family of toxins includes proteins produced by Gram negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli (α-hemolysin), Bordetella pertussis (adenylate cyclase toxin), and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (LtxA), which contribute to the pathogenesis of these organisms by killing host cells. In the case of LtxA produced by A. actinomycetemcomitans, white blood cells are targeted, allowing the bacteria to avoid clearance by the host immune system. In its association with target cells, LtxA binds to a receptor, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, as well as membrane lipids and cholesterol, before being internalized via a lysosomal-mediated pathway. The motivation for this project comes from our discovery that DRAQ5™, a membrane-permeable nuclear stain, prevents the internalization of LtxA in a Jurkat T cell line. We hypothesized that DRAQ5™, in crossing the plasma membrane, alters the properties of the membrane to inhibit LtxA internalization. To investigate how DRAQ5™ interacts with the lipid membrane to prevent LtxA internalization, we used studied DRAQ5™-mediated membrane changes in model membranes using a variety of techniques, including differential scanning calorimetry and fluorescence spectroscopy. Our results suggest that DRAQ5™ inhibits the activity of LtxA by decreasing the fluidity of the cellular lipid membrane, which decreases LtxA binding. These results present an interesting possible anti-virulence strategy; by altering bacterial toxin activity by modifying membrane fluidity, it may be possible to inhibit the pathogenicity of A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  19. Distinct Roles of Soluble and Transmembrane Adenylyl Cyclases in the Regulation of Flagellar Motility in Ciona Sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogiku Shiba

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Adenylyl cyclase (AC is a key enzyme that synthesizes cyclic AMP (cAMP at the onset of the signaling pathway to activate sperm motility. Here, we showed that both transmembrane AC (tmAC and soluble AC (sAC are distinctly involved in the regulation of sperm motility in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. A tmAC inhibitor blocked both cAMP synthesis and the activation of sperm motility induced by the egg factor sperm activating and attracting factor (SAAF, as well as those induced by theophylline, an inhibitor of phoshodiesterase. It also significantly inhibited cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of a set of proteins at motility activation. On the other hand, a sAC inhibitor does not affect on SAAF-induced transient increase of cAMP, motility activation or protein phosphorylation, but it reduced swimming velocity to half in theophylline-induced sperm. A sAC inhibitor KH-7 induced circular swimming trajectory with smaller diameter and significantly suppressed chemotaxis of sperm to SAAF. These results suggest that tmAC is involved in the basic mechanism for motility activation through cAMP-dependent protein phosphorylation, whereas sAC plays distinct roles in increase of flagellar beat frequency and in the Ca2+-dependent chemotactic movement of sperm.

  20. Activation of GPR4 by acidosis increases endothelial cell adhesion through the cAMP/Epac pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishe Chen

    Full Text Available Endothelium-leukocyte interaction is critical for inflammatory responses. Whereas the tissue microenvironments are often acidic at inflammatory sites, the mechanisms by which cells respond to acidosis are not well understood. Using molecular, cellular and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that activation of GPR4, a proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor, by isocapnic acidosis increases the adhesiveness of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs that express GPR4 endogenously. Acidosis in combination with GPR4 overexpression further augments HUVEC adhesion with U937 monocytes. In contrast, overexpression of a G protein signaling-defective DRY motif mutant (R115A of GPR4 does not elicit any increase of HUVEC adhesion, indicating the requirement of G protein signaling. Downregulation of GPR4 expression by RNA interference reduces the acidosis-induced HUVEC adhesion. To delineate downstream pathways, we show that inhibition of adenylate cyclase by inhibitors, 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA or SQ 22536, attenuates acidosis/GPR4-induced HUVEC adhesion. Consistently, treatment with a cAMP analog or a G(i signaling inhibitor increases HUVEC adhesiveness, suggesting a role of the G(s/cAMP signaling in this process. We further show that the cAMP downstream effector Epac is important for acidosis/GPR4-induced cell adhesion. Moreover, activation of GPR4 by acidosis increases the expression of vascular adhesion molecules E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, which are functionally involved in acidosis/GPR4-mediated HUVEC adhesion. Similarly, hypercapnic acidosis can also activate GPR4 to stimulate HUVEC adhesion molecule expression and adhesiveness. These results suggest that acidosis/GPR4 signaling regulates endothelial cell adhesion mainly through the G(s/cAMP/Epac pathway and may play a role in the inflammatory response of vascular endothelial cells.

  1. Synergy and antagonism of active constituents of ADAPT-232 on transcriptional level of metabolic regulation of isolated neuroglial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander George Panossian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling was performed on the human neuroglial cell line T98G after treatment with adaptogen ADAPT-232 and its constituents – extracts of Eleutherococcus senticosus root, Schisandra chinensis berry, and Rhodiola rosea root as well as several constituents individually, namely, eleutheroside E, schizandrin B, salidroside, triandrin, and tyrosol. A common feature for all tested adaptogens was their effect on G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR signaling pathways, i.e. cAMP, phospholipase C and phosphatidylinositol signal transduction pathways. Adaptogens may reduce the cAMP level in brain cells by downregulation of adenylate cyclase gene ADC2Y and upregulation of phosphodiestherase gene PDE4D that is essential for energy homeostasis as well as for switching from catabolic to anabolic states and vice versa. All tested adaptogens up-regulated the PLCB1 gene, which encodes phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks, key players for the regulation of NF-B-mediated defense responses. Other common targets of adaptogens included genes encoding ERα estrogen receptor(2.9-22.6 fold down-regulation, cholesterol ester transfer protein (5.1-10.6 fold down-regulation, heat shock protein Hsp70 (3.0-45.0 fold up-regulation, serpin peptidase inhibitor (neuroserpin, and 5-HT3 receptor of serotonin (2.2-6.6 fold down-regulation. These findings can be reconciled with the observed beneficial effects of adaptogens in behavioral, mental and aging-associated disorders. Combining two or more active substances in one mixture significantly changes deregulated genes profiles: synergetic interactions result in activation of genes that none of the individual substances affected, while antagonistic interactions result in suppression some genes activated by individual substances. Merging of deregulated genes array profiles and intracellular networks is specific to the new substance with unique pharmacological

  2. Two Lycopene β-Cyclases Genes from Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Encode Enzymes With Different Functional Efifciency During the Conversion of Lycopene-to-Provitamin A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-cheng; ZHOU Wen-jing; XU Qiang; TAO Neng-guo; YE Jun-li; GUO Fei; XU Juan; DENG Xiu-xin

    2013-01-01

    Citrus fruits are rich in carotenoids. In the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, lycopene β-cyclase (LCYb, EC:1.14.-.-) is a key regulatory enzyme in the catalysis of lycopene to β-carotene, an important dietary precursor of vitamin A for human nutrition. Two closely related lycopeneβ-cyclase cDNAs, designated CsLCYb1 and CsLCYb2, were isolated from the pulp of orange fruits (Citrus sinensis). The expression level of CsLCYb genes is lower in the lfavedo and juice sacs of a lycopene-accumulating genotype Cara Cara than that in common genotype Washington, and this might be correlated with lycopene accumulation in Cara Cara fruit. The CsLCYb1 efifciently converted lycopene into the bicyclicβ-carotene in an Escherichia coli expression system, but the CsLCYb2 exhibited a lower enzyme activity and converted lycopene into theβ-carotene and the monocyclic γ-carotene. In tomato transformation studies, expression of CsLCYb1 under the control of the caulilfower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S constitutive promoter resulted in a virtually complete conversion of lycopene intoβ-carotene, and the ripe fruits displayed a bright orange colour. However, the CsLCYb2 transgenic tomato plants did not show an altered fruit colour during development and maturation. In fruits of the CsLCYb1 transgenic plants, most of the lycopene was converted intoβ-carotene with provitamin A levels reaching about 700 µg g-1 DW. Unexpectedly, most transgenic tomatoes showed a reduction in total carotenoid accumulation, and this is consistent with the decrease in expression of endogenous carotenogenic genes in transgenic fruits. Collectively, these results suggested that the cloned CsLCYb1 and CsLCYb2 genes encoded two functional lycopene β-cyclases with different catalytic efifciency, and they may have potential for metabolite engineering toward altering pigmentation and enhancing nutritional value of food crops.

  3. Mutations in Escherichia coli that relieve catabolite repression of tryptophanase synthesis. Tryptophanase promoter-like mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D F; Yudkin, M D

    1976-01-01

    From a strain lacking adenyl cyclase and the catabolite-sensitive gene activator protein, two mutants were isolated that can synthesize tryptophanase. Each mutation is extremely closely linked to the tryptophanase structural gene. The mutations differ from one another in the rate of synthesis of tryptophanase that they permit in the genetic background in which they were isolated; they differ from one another and also from the wild type in the maximum rate of synthesis of tryptophanase that they permit in a genetic background with intact adenyl cyclase and catabolite-sensitive gene activator protein. Both mutations appear to lie in the tryptophanase promoter.

  4. Studies on adenosine triphosphate transphosphorylases. Human isoenzymes of adenylate kinase: isolation and physicochemical comparison of the crystalline human ATP-AMP transphosphorylases from muscle and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, S A; Fleming, G; Frischat, A; Cress, M C; Hamada, M

    1983-02-10

    Procedures are described for the isolation, in crystalline form, of the adenylate kinases from autopsy samples of human muscle and from human liver. Weight average molecular weights were determined by sedimentation equilibrium to be 22,000 (+/- 700) and 25,450 (+/- 160) for the human muscle and liver isoenzymes, respectively. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, their molecular weights were estimated to be 21,700 and 26,500 for the muscle and liver enzymes, respectively. Both isoenzymes are accordingly monomeric proteins in their native state. Amino acid analyses are reported here for the normal human liver, calf liver, and rabbit liver adenylate kinases and compared with the normal human muscle, calf muscle, and rabbit muscle myokinases. The liver types as a group and the muscle types as a group show a great deal of homology, but some distinct differences are evident between the liver and muscle enzyme groups, especially in the number of residues of His, Pro, half-cystine, and the presence of tryptophan in the liver enzymes. The normal human liver adenylate kinase, as isolated in this report, has proved to be similar in its properties, if not identical, to the adenylate kinase isolated directly from human liver mitochondria (Hamada, M., Sumida, M., Okuda, H., Watanabe, T., Nojima, M., and Kuby, S. A. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 13120-13128). Therefore, the liver-type adenylate kinase may be considered a mitochondrial type.

  5. 百日咳杆菌腺苷酸环化酶毒素基因的克隆及原核表达%Cloning and Prokaryotic Expression of Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase Toxin Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石碧珠; 张华捷; 孟民杰; 张庶民

    2010-01-01

    目的 克隆百日咳杆菌腺苷酸环化酶毒素(CyaA,ACT)基因,表达并纯化重组CyaA蛋白.方法 从百日咳杆菌CS株的基因组DNA中PCR扩增CyaA编码基因,克隆人载体pET30a,构建重组原核表达质粒pET30a/cyaA,转化感受态大肠杆菌BL21(DE3),IPTG诱导表达.表达的重组蛋白经8 mol/L尿素变性、透析复性、DEAE阴离子交换柱纯化后,采用Western blot法鉴定其反应原性.结果 重组原核表达质粒pET30a/cyaA经PCR、双酶切及测序证明构建正确;表达的重组蛋白主要以包涵体形式存在,表达量约占菌体总蛋白的20%;纯化的重组蛋白纯度达90%左右,可与全细胞百日咳疫苗和无细胞百日咳疫苗免疫血清结合.结论 已成功克隆了百日咳杆菌cyaA基因,并在大肠杆菌中表达了重组CyaA蛋白,为进一步开展CyaA的应用研究奠定了基础.

  6. Combinatorial effects of genistein and sex-steroids on the level of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), adenylate cyclase (AC) and cAMP in the cervix of ovariectomised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Naguib; Ismail, Nurain; Muniandy, Sekaran; Korla, Praveen Kumar; Giribabu, Nelli

    2015-12-01

    The combinatorial effects of genistein and estrogen (E) or estrogen plus progesterone (E+P) on CFTR, AC and cAMP levels in cervix were investigated. Ovariectomised adult female rats received 50 or 100mg/kg/day genistein with E or E followed by E+P [E+(E+P)] for seven consecutive days. Cervixes were harvested and analyzed for CFTR mRNA levels by Real-time PCR. Distribution of AC and CFTR proteins in endocervix were observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of cAMP were measured by enzyme-immunoassay. Molecular docking predicted interaction between genistein and AC. Our results indicate that levels of CFTR, AC and cAMP in cervix of rats receiving genistein plus E were higher than E-only treatment (pCFTR, AC and cAMP in cervix of E and E+(E+P)-treated rats by genistein could affect the cervical secretory function which could influence the female reproductive processes.

  7. 希金斯炭疽菌腺苷酸环化酶相关蛋白生物信息学分析%Bioinformatics analysis of adenylate cyclase associated protein in Colletotrichum higginsianum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩长志

    2014-01-01

    [目的]希金斯炭疽菌可引起菜心、萝卜等十字花科植物的炭疽病,给经济产生巨大损失.目前,炭疽病菌对苯并咪唑类杀菌剂所产生的抗性问题引起了学者广泛关注,有待于开发新的作用靶标的化学药剂.腺苷酸环化酶(AC)在G蛋白信号传导途径上发挥着重要作用.[方法]基于酿酒酵母中Srv2序列,通过Blastp比对及关键词搜索,并利用SMART进行保守结构域分析,同时,通过对该菌中AC相关蛋白序列进行理化性质、信号肽、跨膜结构域等分析.[结果]明确该菌含有2个与Srv2同源的AC相关蛋白CgCap1、CgCap2,就理化性质、二级结构等特征方面而言,CgCap1、CgCap2与Srv2有着较大的差异.此外,通过对Srv2与CgCap1、CgCap2及其同源序列进行比对分析,发现CgCap1、CgCap2序列分别与其同源序列及Srv2的C端、N端具有较大的相似性,推测上述序列分别为希金斯炭疽菌AC的C端和N端.[结论]该研究为深入开展该菌AC的研究打下坚实的理论基础.

  8. Bioinformatics Analysis of Adenylate Cyclase (AC)in Col letotrichum graminicola%禾谷炭疽菌腺苷酸环化酶的生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩长志

    2014-01-01

    The typical AC sequence was compared with on-line C.protein databank by Blastp comparison,then the bioinformatics of conserved domain,physicochemical property,cell signal peptide, structure of transmembrane domain and secondary structure was analyzed by SMART and the genetic relationships between typical AC sequence in C.graminicola and the homologous sequence of other species were compared to provide a reference for development and utilization of new medicines with drug target of C.graminicola.The results showed that CgCap1in C.graminicola is a homologous protein with Srv2 in S. cerevisiae.CgCap 1 located in the plasma membrane with conserved CARP domain and isoeletric point with 5~6 range belongs to the sequence of hydrophily,instable protein and without signal peptide.The proportion of βfold is low in the secondary structure.The genetic relationship between CgCap 1 and Colletoreichum is close.%为了给禾谷炭疽菌新靶标药物的研究开发提供参考,以酿酒酵母的典型腺苷酸环化酶(AC)序列为基础,利用炭疽菌属蛋白数据库在线对其进行 Blastp 比对及关键词搜索,通过 SMART 对该菌典型AC 蛋白的保守结构域、理化性质、细胞信号肽、跨膜区结构以及二级结构等生物信息学进行分析,同时比较禾谷炭疽菌中典型 AC 氨基酸序列与其他物种同源序列的遗传关系。结果表明:禾谷炭疽菌中存在一个与酿酒酵母 Srv2同源的序列,命名为 CgCap1腺苷酸环化酶蛋白,该酶蛋白包含有530个氨基酸,基因序列长1906 bp 具有保守 CARP 结构域,等电点蛋白在5~6范围,属亲水性、不稳定蛋白,不含信号肽序列,定位于质膜上,二级结构中的β折叠所占比例较低,与同属于炭疽菌属真菌胶孢炭疽菌、西瓜炭疽菌的亲缘关系较近。

  9. ePAT: a simple method to tag adenylated RNA to measure poly(A)-tail length and other 3' RACE applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänicke, Amrei; Vancuylenberg, John; Boag, Peter R; Traven, Ana; Beilharz, Traude H

    2012-06-01

    The addition of a poly(A)-tail to the 3' termini of RNA molecules influences stability, nuclear export, and efficiency of translation. In the cytoplasm, dynamic changes in the length of the poly(A)-tail have long been recognized as reflective of the switch between translational silence and activation. Thus, measurement of the poly(A)-tail associated with any given mRNA at steady-state can serve as a surrogate readout of its translation-state. Here, we describe a simple new method to 3'-tag adenylated RNA in total RNA samples using the intrinsic property of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I to extend an RNA primer using a DNA template. This tag can serve as an anchor for cDNA synthesis and subsequent gene-specific PCR to assess poly(A)-tail length. We call this method extension Poly(A) Test (ePAT). The ePAT approach is as efficient as traditional Ligation-Mediated Poly(A) Test (LM-PAT) assays, avoids problems of internal priming associated with oligo-dT-based methods, and allows for the accurate analysis of both the poly(A)-tail length and alternate 3' UTR usage in 3' RACE applications.

  10. Comparative analysis of oligonucleotide primers for high-throughput screening of genes encoding adenylation domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases in actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakal, Tomas; Goo, Kian-Sim; Najmanova, Lucie; Plhackova, Kamila; Kadlcik, Stanislav; Ulanova, Dana

    2015-11-01

    In the biosynthesis of diverse natural bioactive products the adenylation domains (ADs) of nonribosomal peptide synthetases select specific precursors from the cellular pool and activate them for further incorporation into the scaffold of the final compound. Therefore, the drug discovery programs employing PCR-based screening studies of microbial collections or metagenomic libraries often use AD-coding genes as markers of relevant biosynthetic gene clusters. However, due to significant sequence diversity of ADs, the conventional approach using only one primer pair in a single screening experiment could be insufficient for maximal coverage of AD abundance. In this study, the widely used primer pair A3F/A7R was compared with the newly designed aa194F/aa413R one by 454 pyrosequencing of two sets of actinomycete strains from highly dissimilar environments: subseafloor sediments and forest soil. Individually, none of the primer pairs was able to cover the overall diversity of ADs. However, due to slightly shifted specificity of the primer pairs, the total number and diversity of identified ADs were noticeably extended when both primer pairs were used in a single assay. Additionally, the efficiency of AD detection by different primer combinations was confirmed on the model of Salinispora tropica genomic DNA of known sequence.

  11. Realtime (31)P NMR Investigation on the Catalytic Behavior of the Enzyme Adenylate kinase in the Matrix of a Switchable Ionic Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogne, Per; Sparrman, Tobias; Anugwom, Ikenna; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka; Wolf-Watz, Magnus

    2015-11-01

    The integration of highly efficient enzymatic catalysis with the solvation properties of ionic liquids for an environmentally friendly and efficient use of raw materials such as wood requires fundamental knowledge about the influence of relevant ionic liquids on enzymes. Switchable ionic liquids (SIL) are promising candidates for implementation of enzymatic treatments of raw materials. One industrially interesting SIL is constituted by monoethanol amine (MEA) and 1,8-diazabicyclo-[5.4.0]-undec-7-ene (DBU) formed with sulfur dioxide (SO2) as the coupling media (DBU-SO2-MEASIL). It has the ability to solubilize the matrix of lignocellulosic biomass while leaving the cellulose backbone intact. Using a novel (31)P NMR-based real-time assay we show that this SIL is compatible with enzymatic catalysis because a model enzyme, adenylate kinase, retains its activity in up to at least 25 wt % of DBU-SO2-MEASIL. Thus this SIL appears suitable for, for example, enzymatic degradation of hemicellulose.

  12. The cyclic-di-GMP diguanylate cyclase CdgA has a role in biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide production in Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Mata, Alberto; López-Lara, Lilia I; Xiqui-Vázquez, Ma Luisa; Jijón-Moreno, Saúl; Romero-Osorio, Angelica; Baca, Beatriz E

    2016-04-01

    In bacteria, proteins containing GGDEF domains are involved in production of the second messenger c-di-GMP. Here we report that the cdgA gene encoding diguanylate cyclase A (CdgA) is involved in biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7. Biofilm quantification using crystal violet staining revealed that inactivation of cdgA decreased biofilm formation. In addition, confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of green-fluorescent protein-labeled bacteria showed that, during static growth, the biofilms had differential levels of development: bacteria harboring a cdgA mutation exhibited biofilms with considerably reduced thickness compared with those of the wild-type Sp7 strain. Moreover, DNA-specific staining and treatment with DNase I, and epifluorescence studies demonstrated that extracellular DNA and EPS are components of the biofilm matrix in Azospirillum. After expression and purification of the CdgA protein, diguanylate cyclase activity was detected. The enzymatic activity of CdgA-producing cyclic c-di-GMP was determined using GTP as a substrate and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD(+)) and Mg(2)(+) as cofactors. Together, our results revealed that A. brasilense possesses a functional c-di-GMP biosynthesis pathway.

  13. ATP potentiates competitive inhibition of guanylyl cyclase A and B by the staurosporine analog, Gö6976: reciprocal regulation of ATP and GTP binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jerid W; Potter, Lincoln R

    2011-09-30

    Natriuretic peptides and ATP activate and Gö6976 inhibits guanylyl cyclase (GC)-A and GC-B. Here, the mechanism of inhibition was determined. Gö6976 progressively increased the Michaelis-Menten constant and decreased the Hill coefficient without reducing the maximal velocity of GC-A and GC-B. In the presence of 1 mm ATP, the K(i) was 1 μm for both enzymes. Inhibition of GC-B was minimal in the absence of ATP, and 1 mm ATP increased the inhibition 4-fold. In a reciprocal manner, 10 μm Gö6976 increased the potency of ATP for GC-B 4-fold. In contrast to a recent study (Duda, T., Yadav, P., and Sharma, R. K. (2010) FEBS J. 277, 2550-2553), neither staurosporine nor Gö6976 activated GC-A or GC-B. This is the first study to show that Gö6976 reduces GTP binding and the first demonstration of a competitive inhibitor of a receptor guanylyl cyclase. We conclude that Gö6976 reduces GTP binding to the catalytic site of GC-A and GC-B and that ATP increases the magnitude of the inhibition.

  14. Srv2/cyclase-associated protein forms hexameric shurikens that directly catalyze actin filament severing by cofilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Faisal; Breitsprecher, Dennis; Little, Kristin; Sharov, Grigory; Sokolova, Olga; Goode, Bruce L

    2013-01-01

    Actin filament severing is critical for the dynamic turnover of cellular actin networks. Cofilin severs filaments, but additional factors may be required to increase severing efficiency in vivo. Srv2/cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is a widely expressed protein with a role in binding and recycling actin monomers ascribed to domains in its C-terminus (C-Srv2). In this paper, we report a new biochemical and cellular function for Srv2/CAP in directly catalyzing cofilin-mediated severing of filaments. This function is mediated by its N-terminal half (N-Srv2), and is physically and genetically separable from C-Srv2 activities. Using dual-color total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we determined that N-Srv2 stimulates filament disassembly by increasing the frequency of cofilin-mediated severing without affecting cofilin binding to filaments. Structural analysis shows that N-Srv2 forms novel hexameric star-shaped structures, and disrupting oligomerization impairs N-Srv2 activities and in vivo function. Further, genetic analysis shows that the combined activities of N-Srv2 and Aip1 are essential in vivo. These observations define a novel mechanism by which the combined activities of cofilin and Srv2/CAP lead to enhanced filament severing and support an emerging view that actin disassembly is controlled not by cofilin alone, but by a more complex set of factors working in concert.

  15. Identification of the chlE gene encoding oxygen-independent Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester cyclase in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Kaori; Minamizaki, Kei; Fujita, Yuichi

    2015-08-07

    The fifth ring (E-ring) of chlorophyll (Chl) a is produced by Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (MPE) cyclase. There are two evolutionarily unrelated MPE cyclases: oxygen-independent (BchE) and oxygen-dependent (ChlA/AcsF) MPE cyclases. Although ChlA is the sole MPE cyclase in Synechocystis PCC 6803, it is yet unclear whether BchE exists in cyanobacteria. A BLAST search suggests that only few cyanobacteria possess bchE. Here, we report that two bchE candidate genes from Cyanothece strains PCC 7425 and PCC 7822 restore the photosyntheti