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Sample records for adenosine receptor ligands

  1. Characteristic molecular vibrations of adenosine receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Hyun Keun; Yang, Jin-San; Joung, Je-Gun; Zhang, Byoung-Tak; Oh, S June

    2015-02-13

    Although the regulation of membrane receptor activation is known to be crucial for molecular signal transduction, the molecular mechanism underlying receptor activation is not fully elucidated. Here we study the physicochemical nature of membrane receptor behavior by investigating the characteristic molecular vibrations of receptor ligands using computational chemistry and informatics methods. By using information gain, t-tests, and support vector machines, we have identified highly informative features of adenosine receptor (AdoR) ligand and corresponding functional amino acid residues such as Asn (6.55) of AdoR that has informative significance and is indispensable for ligand recognition of AdoRs. These findings may provide new perspectives and insights into the fundamental mechanism of class A G protein-coupled receptor activation. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A2A adenosine receptor ligand binding and signalling is allosterically modulated by adenosine deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Eduard; Pérez-Capote, Kamil; Moreno, Estefanía; Barkešová, Jana; Mallol, Josefa; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I

    2011-05-01

    A2ARs (adenosine A2A receptors) are highly enriched in the striatum, which is the main motor control CNS (central nervous system) area. BRET (bioluminescence resonance energy transfer) assays showed that A2AR homomers may act as cell-surface ADA (adenosine deaminase; EC 3.5.4.4)-binding proteins. ADA binding affected the quaternary structure of A2ARs present on the cell surface. ADA binding to adenosine A2ARs increased both agonist and antagonist affinity on ligand binding to striatal membranes where these proteins are co-expressed. ADA also increased receptor-mediated ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) phosphorylation. Collectively, the results of the present study show that ADA, apart from regulating the concentration of extracellular adenosine, may behave as an allosteric modulator that markedly enhances ligand affinity and receptor function. This powerful regulation may have implications for the physiology and pharmacology of neuronal A2ARs.

  3. AMP and adenosine are both ligands for adenosine 2B receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holien, Jessica K; Seibt, Benjamin; Roberts, Veena; Salvaris, Evelyn; Parker, Michael W; Cowan, Peter J; Dwyer, Karen M

    2018-01-15

    Adenosine is considered the canonical ligand for the adenosine 2B receptor (A 2B R). A 2B R is upregulated following kidney ischemia augmenting post ischemic blood flow and limiting tubular injury. In this context the beneficial effect of A 2B R signaling has been attributed to an increase in the pericellular concentration of adenosine. However, following renal ischemia both kidney adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine levels are substantially increased. Using computational modeling and calcium mobilization assays, we investigated whether AMP could also be a ligand for A 2B R. The computational modeling suggested that AMP interacts with more favorable energy to A 2B R compared with adenosine. Furthermore, AMPαS, a non-hydrolyzable form of AMP, increased calcium uptake by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the human A 2B R, indicating preferential signaling via the G q pathway. Therefore, a putative AMP-A 2B R interaction is supported by the computational modeling data and the biological results suggest this interaction involves preferential G q activation. These data provide further insights into the role of purinergic signaling in the pathophysiology of renal IRI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-ribose ligands for the human adenosine A1 receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaasse, Elisabeth Cornelia

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes new, non-ribose ligands for the human Adenosine A1 Receptor (hA1R). An introduction to the four adenosine receptors subtypes, their history and cloning, occurrence, functioning, trafficking and therapeutic potential is given in Chapter 1. The process of desensitization and

  5. Human Adenosine A2A Receptor: Molecular Mechanism of Ligand Binding and Activation

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    Byron Carpenter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine receptors (ARs comprise the P1 class of purinergic receptors and belong to the largest family of integral membrane proteins in the human genome, the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. ARs are classified into four subtypes, A1, A2A, A2B, and A3, which are all activated by extracellular adenosine, and play central roles in a broad range of physiological processes, including sleep regulation, angiogenesis and modulation of the immune system. ARs are potential therapeutic targets in a variety of pathophysiological conditions, including sleep disorders, cancer, and dementia, which has made them important targets for structural biology. Over a decade of research and innovation has culminated with the publication of more than 30 crystal structures of the human adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR, making it one of the best structurally characterized GPCRs at the atomic level. In this review we analyze the structural data reported for A2AR that described for the first time the binding of mode of antagonists, including newly developed drug candidates, synthetic and endogenous agonists, sodium ions and an engineered G protein. These structures have revealed the key conformational changes induced upon agonist and G protein binding that are central to signal transduction by A2AR, and have highlighted both similarities and differences in the activation mechanism of this receptor compared to other class A GPCRs. Finally, comparison of A2AR with the recently solved structures of A1R has provided the first structural insight into the molecular determinants of ligand binding specificity in different AR subtypes.

  6. Kinetic Aspects of the Interaction between Ligand and G Protein-Coupled Receptor: The Case of the Adenosine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dong; Heitman, Laura H; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2017-01-11

    Ligand-receptor binding kinetics is an emerging topic in the drug research community. Over the past years, medicinal chemistry approaches from a kinetic perspective have been increasingly applied to G protein-coupled receptors including the adenosine receptors (AR), which are involved in a plethora of physiological and pathological conditions. The study of ligand-AR binding kinetics offers room for detailed structure-kinetics relationships next to more traditional structure-activity relationships. Their combination may facilitate the triage of candidate compounds in hit-to-lead campaigns. Furthermore, kinetic studies also help in understanding AR allosterism. Allosteric modulation may yield a change in the activity and conformation of a receptor resulting from the binding of a compound at a site distinct from where the endogenous agonist adenosine binds. Hence, in this Review, we summarize available data and evidence for the binding kinetics of orthosteric and allosteric AR ligands. We hope this Review will raise awareness to consider the kinetic aspects of drug-target interactions on both ARs and other drug targets.

  7. C-nucleoside analogues of furanfurin as ligands to A1 adenosine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, P; Cappellacci, L; Marchetti, S; Martini, C; Costa, B; Varani, K; Borea, P A; Grifantini, M

    2000-09-01

    Furanfurin (2-beta-D-ribofuranosylfuran-4-carboxamide) derivatives and analogues were synthesized and their affinity for adenosine receptors was determined. The agonistic behavior of furanfurin against A1 receptors is preserved only when the furan ring is substituted with isosteric pentatomic ring systems such as oxazole, thiazole or thiophene, and the carboxamide group is unsubstituted. Replacement of the hydrogen atoms of the carboxamide group with alkyl, cycloalkyl or arylalkyl groups generates compounds endowed with moderate antagonistic activity.

  8. Potential Therapeutic Applications of Adenosine A2A Receptor Ligands and Opportunities for A2A Receptor Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Khanapur, Shivashankar; Tsukada, Hideo; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Luurtsema, Gert; de Vries, Erik F. J.; Elsinga, Philip H.

    Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are highly expressed in the human striatum, and at lower densities in the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and cells of the immune system. Antagonists of these receptors are potentially useful for the treatment of motor fluctuations, epilepsy, postischemic brain

  9. Determination of Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonist and Antagonist Pharmacology Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Implications for Ligand Screening and Functional Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gregory D.; Valant, Celine; Dowell, Simon J.; Mijaljica, Dalibor; Devenish, Rodney J.; Scammells, Peter J.; Sexton, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a convenient system for coupling heterologous G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to the pheromone response pathway to facilitate empirical ligand screening and/or GPCR mutagenesis studies. However, few studies have applied this system to define GPCR-G protein-coupling preferences and furnish information on ligand affinities, efficacies, and functional selectivity. We thus used different S. cerevisiae strains, each expressing a specific human Gα/yeast Gpa1 protein chimera, and determined the pharmacology of various ligands of the coexpressed human adenosine A1 receptor. These assays, in conjunction with the application of quantitative models of agonism and antagonism, revealed that (−)-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine was a high-efficacy agonist that selectively coupled to Gpa/1Gαo, Gpa1/Gαi1/2, and Gpa1/Gαi3, whereas the novel compound, 5′-deoxy-N6-(endo-norborn-2-yl)-5′-(2-fluorophenylthio)adenosine (VCP-189), was a lower-efficacy agonist that selectively coupled to Gpa1/Gαi proteins; the latter finding suggested that VCP-189 might be functionally selective. The affinity of the antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, was also determined at the various strains. Subsequent experiments performed in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary cells monitoring cAMP formation/inhibition, intracellular calcium mobilization, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 or 35S-labeled guanosine 5′-(γ-thio)triphosphate binding, were in general agreement with the yeast data regarding agonist efficacy estimation and antagonist affinity estimation, but revealed that the apparent functional selectivity of VCP-189 could be explained by differences in stimulus-response coupling between yeast and mammalian cells. Our results suggest that this yeast system is a useful tool for quantifying ligand affinity and relative efficacy, but it may lack the sensitivity required to detect functional selectivity of

  10. Structure-Activity Relationships of Truncated C2- or C8-Substituted Adenosine Derivatives as Dual Acting A2A and A3 Adenosine Receptor Ligands

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    Hou, Xiyan; Majik, Mahesh S.; Kim, Kyunglim; Pyee, Yuna; Lee, Yoonji; Alexander, Varughese; Chung, Hwa-Jin; Lee, Hyuk Woo; Chandra, Girish; Lee, Jin Hee; Park, Seul-gi; Choi, Won Jun; Kim, Hea Ok; Phan, Khai; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Choi, Sun; Lee, Sang Kook; Jeong, Lak Shin

    2011-01-01

    Truncated N6-substituted-4′-oxo- and 4′-thioadenosine derivatives with C2 or C8 substitution were studied as dual acting A2A and A3 adenosine receptor (AR) ligands. The lithiation-mediated stannyl transfer and palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reactions were utilized for functionalization of the C2 position of 6-chloropurine nucleosides. An unsubstituted 6-amino group and a hydrophobic C2 substituent were required for high affinity at the hA2AAR, but hydrophobic C8 substitution abolished binding at the hA2AAR. However, most of synthesized compounds displayed medium to high binding affinity at the hA3AR, regardless of C2 or C8 substitution, and low efficacy in a functional cAMP assay. Several compounds tended to be full hA2AAR agonists. C2 substitution probed geometrically through hA2AAR-docking, was important for binding in order of hexynyl > hexenyl > hexanyl. Compound 4g was the most potent ligand acting dually as hA2AAR agonist and hA3AR antagonist, which might be useful for treatment of asthma or other inflammatory diseases. PMID:22142423

  11. Adenosine receptor neurobiology: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Lee, Chien-fei; Chern, Yijuang

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside that is distributed ubiquitously throughout the body as a metabolic intermediary. In the brain, adenosine functions as an important upstream neuromodulator of a broad spectrum of neurotransmitters, receptors, and signaling pathways. By acting through four G-protein-coupled receptors, adenosine contributes critically to homeostasis and neuromodulatory control of a variety of normal and abnormal brain functions, ranging from synaptic plasticity, to cognition, to sleep, to motor activity to neuroinflammation, and cell death. This review begun with an overview of the gene and genome structure and the expression pattern of adenosine receptors (ARs). We feature several new developments over the past decade in our understanding of AR functions in the brain, with special focus on the identification and characterization of canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways of ARs. We provide an update on functional insights from complementary genetic-knockout and pharmacological studies on the AR control of various brain functions. We also highlight several novel and recent developments of AR neurobiology, including (i) recent breakthrough in high resolution of three-dimension structure of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) in several functional status, (ii) receptor-receptor heterodimerization, (iii) AR function in glial cells, and (iv) the druggability of AR. We concluded the review with the contention that these new developments extend and strengthen the support for A1 and A2ARs in brain as therapeutic targets for neurologic and psychiatric diseases. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ribose-modified nucleosides as ligands for adenosine receptors: synthesis, conformational analysis, and biological evaluation of 1'-C-methyl adenosine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellacci, Loredana; Barboni, Grazia; Palmieri, Micaela; Pasqualini, Michela; Grifantini, Mario; Costa, Barbara; Martini, Claudia; Franchetti, Palmarisa

    2002-03-14

    1'-C-Methyl analogues of adenosine and selective adenosine A(1) receptor agonists, such as N-[(1R)-1-methyl-2-phenylethyl]adenosine ((R)-PIA) and N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine, were synthesized to further investigate the subdomain that binds the ribose moiety. Binding affinities of these new compounds at A(1) and A(2A) receptors in rat brain membranes and at A(3) in rat testis membranes were determined and compared. It was found that the 1'-C-methyl modification in adenosine resulted in a decrease of affinity, particularly at A(1) and A(2A) receptors. When this modification was combined with N(6) substitutions with groups that induce high potency and selectivity at A(1) receptors, the high affinity was in part restored and the selectivity was increased. The most potent compound proved to be the 1'-C-methyl analogue of (R)-PIA with a K(i) of 23 nM for the displacement of [(3)H]CHA binding from rat brain A(1) receptors and a > 435-fold selectivity over A(2A) receptors. In functional assays, these compounds inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase with IC(50) values ranging from 0.065 to 3.4 microM, acting as full agonists. Conformational analysis based on vicinal protonminus signproton J-coupling constants and molecular mechanics calculations using the MM2 force field proved that the methyl group on C1' in adenosine has a pronounced impact on the furanose conformation by driving its conformational equilibrium toward the north, gamma+, syn form.

  13. Structural Mapping of Adenosine Receptor Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespers, Willem; Schiedel, Anke C; Heitman, Laura H

    2018-01-01

    The four adenosine receptors (ARs), A1, A2A, A2B, and A3, constitute a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with exceptional foundations for structure-based ligand design. The vast amount of mutagenesis data, accumulated in the literature since the 1990s, has been recently supplemente...

  14. AMP is an adenosine A1 receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittiner, Joseph E; Korboukh, Ilia; Hull-Ryde, Emily A; Jin, Jian; Janzen, William P; Frye, Stephen V; Zylka, Mark J

    2012-02-17

    Numerous receptors for ATP, ADP, and adenosine exist; however, it is currently unknown whether a receptor for the related nucleotide adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) exists. Using a novel cell-based assay to visualize adenosine receptor activation in real time, we found that AMP and a non-hydrolyzable AMP analog (deoxyadenosine 5'-monophosphonate, ACP) directly activated the adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1)R). In contrast, AMP only activated the adenosine A(2B) receptor (A(2B)R) after hydrolysis to adenosine by ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) or prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, ACPP). Adenosine and AMP were equipotent human A(1)R agonists in our real-time assay and in a cAMP accumulation assay. ACP also depressed cAMP levels in mouse cortical neurons through activation of endogenous A(1)R. Non-selective purinergic receptor antagonists (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid and suramin) did not block adenosine- or AMP-evoked activation. Moreover, mutation of His-251 in the human A(1)R ligand binding pocket reduced AMP potency without affecting adenosine potency. In contrast, mutation of a different binding pocket residue (His-278) eliminated responses to AMP and to adenosine. Taken together, our study indicates that the physiologically relevant nucleotide AMP is a full agonist of A(1)R. In addition, our study suggests that some of the physiological effects of AMP may be direct, and not indirect through ectonucleotidases that hydrolyze this nucleotide to adenosine.

  15. Molecular vibration-activity relationship in the agonism of adenosine receptors.

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    Chee, Hyun Keun; Oh, S June

    2013-12-01

    The molecular vibration-activity relationship in the receptor-ligand interaction of adenosine receptors was investigated by structure similarity, molecular vibration, and hierarchical clustering in a dataset of 46 ligands of adenosine receptors. The resulting dendrogram was compared with those of another kind of fingerprint or descriptor. The dendrogram result produced by corralled intensity of molecular vibrational frequency outperformed four other analyses in the current study of adenosine receptor agonism and antagonism. The tree that was produced by clustering analysis of molecular vibration patterns showed its potential for the functional classification of adenosine receptor ligands.

  16. Molecular Vibration-Activity Relationship in the Agonism of Adenosine Receptors

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    Hyun Keun Chee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The molecular vibration-activity relationship in the receptor-ligand interaction of adenosine receptors was investigated by structure similarity, molecular vibration, and hierarchical clustering in a dataset of 46 ligands of adenosine receptors. The resulting dendrogram was compared with those of another kind of fingerprint or descriptor. The dendrogram result produced by corralled intensity of molecular vibrational frequency outperformed four other analyses in the current study of adenosine receptor agonism and antagonism. The tree that was produced by clustering analysis of molecular vibration patterns showed its potential for the functional classification of adenosine receptor ligands.

  17. Pharmacological characterisation and inhibitory effects of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(6-amino-2-{[(1S)-2-hydroxy-1-(phenylmethyl)ethyl]amino}-9H-purin-9-yl)-5-(2-ethyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)tetrahydro-3,4-furandiol, a novel ligand that demonstrates both adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist and adenosine A(3) receptor antagonist activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Nicola; Butchers, Peter R; Cousins, Rick; Coates, Jill; Edgar, Emma V; Morrison, Val; Sheehan, Michael J; Reeves, Julian; Wilson, David J

    2007-06-14

    The pharmacological properties of the novel ligand, (2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(6-amino-2-{[(1S)-2-hydroxy-1-(phenylmethyl)ethyl]amino}-9H-purin-9-yl)-5-(2-ethyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)tetrahydro-3,4-furandiol (I), at the human adenosine receptors were investigated using Chinese hamster ovary cell lines recombinantly expressing these receptors. Functional studies were performed using a cyclic AMP-coupled reporter gene system. Binding studies were performed using membranes from these cells. The effects of ligand (I) were also determined on functional responses of human neutrophils and eosinophils. Ligand (I) had a high affinity for the adenosine A(2A) receptor (pKi 7.8+/-0.2) and was a potent agonist at this receptor (pEC(50) 9.0+/-0.2). Ligand (I) had a similar affinity for the adenosine A(3) receptor (pKi 7.8+/-0.1) but displayed no agonist activity, acting instead as a competitive antagonist (pA(2) 8.3+/-0.04). Ligand (I) had lower affinity for adenosine A(1) and A(2B) receptors (pKireceptors (pEC(50) 7.1 at both receptors). Ligand (I) was a potent inhibitor of the generation of reactive oxygen species from human neutrophils and eosinophils (pEC(50) 9.7+/-0.1 and 9.4+/-0.2 respectively). The inhibitory effect of ligand (I) on the release of reactive oxygen species from neutrophils was antagonised competitively by the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist 9-chloro-2-(2-furanyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-amine (CGS15943) with a pA(2) value (10.03+/-0.44) consistent with an effect on adenosine A(2A) receptors. Ligand (I) also inhibited the release of granule proteins from neutrophils and eosinophils (pEC(50) 8.7 and 8.9 respectively), albeit less potently than as an inhibitor of reactive oxygen species generation. In summary, ligand (I) is a potent and selective agonist for the adenosine A(2A) receptor and a competitive antagonist at the adenosine A(3) receptor. Ligand (I) has potent anti-inflammatory effects on human

  18. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS and Adenosine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Sebastião

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present review we discuss the potential involvement of adenosinergic signaling, in particular the role of adenosine receptors, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Though the literature on this topic is not abundant, the information so far available on adenosine receptors in animal models of ALS highlights the interest to continue to explore the role of these receptors in this neurodegenerative disease. Indeed, all motor neurons affected in ALS are responsive to adenosine receptor ligands but interestingly, there are alterations in pre-symptomatic or early symptomatic stages that mirror those in advanced disease stages. Information starts to emerge pointing toward a beneficial role of A2A receptors (A2AR, most probably at early disease states, and a detrimental role of caffeine, in clear contrast with what occurs in other neurodegenerative diseases. However, some evidence also exists on a beneficial action of A2AR antagonists. It may happen that there are time windows where A2AR prove beneficial and others where their blockade is required. Furthermore, the same changes may not occur simultaneously at the different synapses. In line with this, it is not fully understood if ALS is a dying back disease or if it propagates in a centrifugal way. It thus seems crucial to understand how motor neuron dysfunction occurs, how adenosine receptors are involved in those dysfunctions and whether the early changes in purinergic signaling are compensatory or triggers for the disease. Getting this information is crucial before starting the design of purinergic based strategies to halt or delay disease progression.

  19. Molecular Vibration-Activity Relationship in the Agonism of Adenosine Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Chee, Hyun Keun; Oh, S. June

    2013-01-01

    The molecular vibration-activity relationship in the receptor-ligand interaction of adenosine receptors was investigated by structure similarity, molecular vibration, and hierarchical clustering in a dataset of 46 ligands of adenosine receptors. The resulting dendrogram was compared with those of another kind of fingerprint or descriptor. The dendrogram result produced by corralled intensity of molecular vibrational frequency outperformed four other analyses in the current study of adenosine ...

  20. AMP Is an Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonist*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittiner, Joseph E.; Korboukh, Ilia; Hull-Ryde, Emily A.; Jin, Jian; Janzen, William P.; Frye, Stephen V.; Zylka, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous receptors for ATP, ADP, and adenosine exist; however, it is currently unknown whether a receptor for the related nucleotide adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP) exists. Using a novel cell-based assay to visualize adenosine receptor activation in real time, we found that AMP and a non-hydrolyzable AMP analog (deoxyadenosine 5′-monophosphonate, ACP) directly activated the adenosine A1 receptor (A1R). In contrast, AMP only activated the adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR) after hydrolysis to adenosine by ecto-5′-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) or prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, ACPP). Adenosine and AMP were equipotent human A1R agonists in our real-time assay and in a cAMP accumulation assay. ACP also depressed cAMP levels in mouse cortical neurons through activation of endogenous A1R. Non-selective purinergic receptor antagonists (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulfonic acid and suramin) did not block adenosine- or AMP-evoked activation. Moreover, mutation of His-251 in the human A1R ligand binding pocket reduced AMP potency without affecting adenosine potency. In contrast, mutation of a different binding pocket residue (His-278) eliminated responses to AMP and to adenosine. Taken together, our study indicates that the physiologically relevant nucleotide AMP is a full agonist of A1R. In addition, our study suggests that some of the physiological effects of AMP may be direct, and not indirect through ectonucleotidases that hydrolyze this nucleotide to adenosine. PMID:22215671

  1. Role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzman, S.G.; Mante, S.; Minneman, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Caffeine is a competitive antagonist at adenosine receptors. Receptor up-regulation during chronic drug treatment has been proposed to be the mechanism of tolerance to the behavioral stimulant effects of caffeine. This study reassessed the role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance. Separate groups of rats were given scheduled access to drinking bottles containing plain tap water or a 0.1% solution of caffeine. Daily drug intake averaged 60-75 mg/kg and resulted in complete tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity, which could not be surmounted by increasing the dose of caffeine. 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (0.001-1.0 mg/kg) dose dependently decreased the locomotor activity of caffeine-tolerant rats and their water-treated controls but was 8-fold more potent in the latter group. Caffeine (1.0-10 mg/kg) injected concurrently with 5-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine antagonized the decreases in locomotor activity comparably in both groups. Apparent pA2 values for tolerant and control rats also were comparable: 5.05 and 5.11. Thus, the adenosine-antagonist activity of caffeine was undiminished in tolerant rats. The effects of chronic caffeine administration on parameters of adenosine receptor binding and function were measured in cerebral cortex. There were no differences between brain tissue from control and caffeine-treated rats in number and affinity of adenosine binding sites or in receptor-mediated increases (A2 adenosine receptor) and decreases (A1 adenosine receptor) in cAMP accumulation. These results are consistent with theoretical arguments that changes in receptor density should not affect the potency of a competitive antagonist. Experimental evidence and theoretical considerations indicate that up-regulation of adenosine receptors is not the mechanism of tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity

  2. Adenosine A(2A) receptor dynamics studied with the novel fluorescent agonist Alexa488-APEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Frank; Klutz, Athena M; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Fredholm, Bertil B; Schulte, Gunnar

    2008-08-20

    G protein-coupled receptors, such as the adenosine A(2A) receptor, are dynamic proteins, which undergo agonist-dependent redistribution from the cell surface to intracellular membranous compartments, such as endosomes. In order to study the kinetics of adenosine A(2A) receptor redistribution in living cells, we synthesized a novel fluorescent agonist, Alexa488-APEC. Alexa488-APEC binds to adenosine A(2A) (K(i)=149+/-27 nM) as well as A(3) receptors (K(i)=240+/-160 nM) but not to adenosine A(1) receptors. Further, we characterized the dose-dependent increase in Alexa488-APEC-induced cAMP production as well as cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein phosphorylation, verifying the ligand's functionality at adenosine A(2A) but not A(2B) receptors. In live-cell imaging studies, Alexa488-APEC-induced adenosine A(2A) receptor internalization, which was blocked by the competitive reversible antagonist ZM 241385 and hyperosmolaric sucrose. Further, internalized adenosine A(2A) receptors co-localized with clathrin and Rab5, indicating that agonist stimulation promotes adenosine A(2A) receptor uptake through a clathrin-dependent mechanism to Rab5-positive endosomes. The basic characterization of Alexa488-APEC described here showed that it provides a useful tool for tracing adenosine A(2A) receptors in vitro.

  3. Mast cell adenosine receptors function: a focus on the A3 adenosine receptor and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam eRudich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine is a metabolite, which has long been implicated in a variety of inflammatory processes. Inhaled adenosine provokes bronchoconstriction in asthmatics or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients, but not in non-asthmatics. This hyper responsiveness to adenosine appears to be mediated by mast cell activation. These observations have marked the receptor that mediates the bronchoconstrictor effect of adenosine on mast cells, as an attractive drug candidate. Four subtypes (A1, A2a, A2b and A3 of adenosine receptors have been cloned and shown to display distinct tissue distributions and functions. Animal models have firmly established the ultimate role of the A3 adenosine receptor (A3R in mediating hyper responsiveness to adenosine in mast cells, although the influence of the A2b adenosine receptor was confirmed as well. In contrast, studies of the A3R in humans have been controversial. In this review, we summarize data on the role of different adenosine receptors in mast cell regulation of inflammation and pathology, with a focus on the common and distinct functions of the A3R in rodent and human mast cells. The relevance of mouse studies to the human is discussed.

  4. Therapeutic androgen receptor ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, George F.; Sui, Zhihua

    2003-01-01

    In the past several years, the concept of tissue-selective nuclear receptor ligands has emerged. This concept has come to fruition with estrogens, with the successful marketing of drugs such as raloxifene. The discovery of raloxifene and other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) has raised the possibility of generating selective compounds for other pathways, including androgens (that is, selective androgen receptor modulators, or SARMs). PMID:16604181

  5. Partial separation of platelet and placental adenosine receptors from adenosine A2-like binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolnierowicz, S.; Work, C.; Hutchison, K.; Fox, I.H.

    1990-01-01

    The ubiquitous adenosine A2-like binding protein obscures the binding properties of adenosine receptors assayed with 5'-N-[ 3 H]ethylcarboxamidoadenosine [( 3 H]NECA). To solve this problem, we developed a rapid and simple method to separate adenosine receptors from the adenosine A2-like binding protein. Human platelet and placental membranes were solubilized with 1% 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate. The soluble platelet extract was precipitated with polyethylene glycol and the fraction enriched in adenosine receptors was isolated from the precipitate by differential centrifugation. The adenosine A2-like binding protein was removed from the soluble placental extract with hydroxylapatite and adenosine receptors were precipitated with polyethylene glycol. The specificity of the [ 3 H]NECA binding is typical of an adenosine A2 receptor for platelets and an adenosine A1 receptor for placenta. This method leads to enrichment of adenosine A2 receptors for platelets and adenosine A1 receptors for placenta. This provides a useful preparation technique for pharmacologic studies of adenosine receptors

  6. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular modeling of ribose-modified adenosine analogues as adenosine receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellacci, Loredana; Franchetti, Palmarisa; Pasqualini, Michela; Petrelli, Riccardo; Vita, Patrizia; Lavecchia, Antonio; Novellino, Ettore; Costa, Barbara; Martini, Claudia; Klotz, Karl-Norbert; Grifantini, Mario

    2005-03-10

    A number of 3'-C-methyl analogues of selective adenosine receptor agonists such as CPA, CHA, CCPA, 2'-Me-CCPA, NECA, and IB-MECA was synthesized to further investigate the subdomain of the receptor that binds the ribose moiety of the ligands. Affinity data at A(1), A(2A), and A(3) receptors in bovine brain membranes showed that the 3'-C-modification in adenosine resulted in a decrease of the affinity at all three receptor subtypes. When this modification was combined with N(6)-substitution with groups that induce high potency and selectivity at A(1) receptor, the affinity and selectivity were increased. However, all 3'-C-methyl derivatives proved to be very less active than the corresponding 2'-C-methyl analogues. The most active compound was found to be 3'-Me-CPA which displayed a K(i) value of 0.35 microM at A(1) receptor and a selectivity for A(1) vs A(2A) and A(3) receptors higher than 28-fold. 2'-Me-CCPA was confirmed to be the most selective, high affinity agonist so far known also at human A(1) receptor with a K(i) value of 3.3 nM and 2903- and 341-fold selective vs human A(2A) and A(3) receptors, respectively. In functional assay, 3'-Me-CPA, 3'-Me-CCPA, and 2-Cl-3'-Me-IB-MECA inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity with IC(50) values ranging from 0.3 to 4.9 microM, acting as full agonists. A rhodopsin-based model of the bovine A(1)AR was built to rationalize the higher affinity and selectivity of 2'-C-methyl derivatives of N(6)-substituted-adenosine compared to that of 3'-C-methyl analogues. In the docking exploration, it was found that 2'-Me-CCPA was able to form a number of interactions with several polar residues in the transmembrane helices TM-3, TM-6, and TM-7 of bA(1)AR which were not preserved in the molecular dynamics simulation of 3'-Me-CCPA/bA(1)AR complex.

  7. Molecular Evidence of Adenosine Deaminase Linking Adenosine A2A Receptor and CD26 Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Moreno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that acts in all living systems as a homeostatic network regulator through many pathways, which are adenosine receptor (AR-dependent and -independent. From a metabolic point of view, adenosine deaminase (ADA is an essential protein in the regulation of the total intracellular and extracellular adenosine in a tissue. In addition to its cytosolic localization, ADA is also expressed as an ecto-enzyme on the surface of different cells. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26 and some ARs act as binding proteins for extracellular ADA in humans. Since CD26 and ARs interact with ADA at opposite sites, we have investigated if ADA can function as a cell-to-cell communication molecule by bridging the anchoring molecules CD26 and A2AR present on the surfaces of the interacting cells. By combining site-directed mutagenesis of ADA amino acids involved in binding to A2AR and a modification of the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET technique that allows detection of interactions between two proteins expressed in different cell populations with low steric hindrance (NanoBRET, we show direct evidence of the specific formation of trimeric complexes CD26-ADA-A2AR involving two cells. By dynamic mass redistribution assays and ligand binding experiments, we also demonstrate that A2AR-NanoLuc fusion proteins are functional. The existence of this ternary complex is in good agreement with the hypothesis that ADA could bridge T-cells (expressing CD26 and dendritic cells (expressing A2AR. This is a new metabolic function for ecto-ADA that, being a single chain protein, it has been considered as an example of moonlighting protein, because it performs more than one functional role (as a catalyst, a costimulator, an allosteric modulator and a cell-to-cell connector without partitioning these functions in different subunits.

  8. Radiosynthesis of a novel potential adenosine A{sub 3} receptor ligand, 5-ethyl 2,4-diethyl-3-((2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)sulfanylcarbonyl)-6-phenylpyridine-5-carboxylate ([{sup 18}F]FE rate at SUPPY:2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeusler, D. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Dept. of Pharmaceutical Tech. and Biopharmaceutics, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Mitterhauser, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Dept. of Pharmaceutical Tech. and Biopharmaceutics, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Hospital Pharmacy of the General Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Mien, L.K. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Dept. of Pharmaceutical Tech. and Biopharmaceutics, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Shanab, K.; Spreitzer, H. [Dept. of Drug and Natural Product Synthesis, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Lanzenberger, R.R [Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Schirmer, E. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Dept. of Drug and Natural Product Synthesis, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Ungersboeck, J.; Wadsak, W. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Nics, L. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Dept. of Nutritional Sciences, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Viernstein, H. [Dept. of Pharmaceutical Tech. and Biopharmaceutics, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Dudezak, R.; Kletter, K. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    Since, to date very limited information on the distribution and function of the adenosine A{sub 3} receptor is available, the development of suitable radioligands is needed. Recently, we introduced [{sup 18}F]FE rate at SUPPY (5-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl) 2,4-diethyl-3-(ethylsulfanylcarbonyl)-6-phenylpyridine-5-carboxylate) as the first PET-ligand for the A3R. Regarding the metabolic profile - this class of dialkylpyridines comprises two ester functions within one molecule, one carboxylic and one thiocarboxylic - one could expect carboxylesterases significantly contributing to cleavage and degradation. Therefore, our aim was the development of [{sup 18}F]FE rate at SUPPY:2 (5-ethyl 2,4-diethyl-3-((2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)sulfanylcarbonyl)-6-phenylpyridine-5-carboxylate), the functional isomer containing the label at the thiocarboxylic moiety. For satisfactory yields in high scale radiosyntheses, a reaction temperature of 75 C has to be applied for at least 20 min using 20 mg/mL of precursor. So far, 6 complete high-scale radiosyntheses were performed. Starting from an average of 51.2 {+-} 21.8 GBq (mean{+-}SD) [{sup 18}F]fluoride, 5.8 {+-} 4.1 GBq of formulated [{sup 18}F]FE rate at SUPPY:2 (12.0{+-}5.4%, based on [{sup 18}F]fluoride, not corrected for decay) were prepared in 75 {+-} 8 min. (orig.)

  9. Progress towards novel adenosine receptor therapeutics gleaned from the recent patent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Neil J; Fozard, John R

    2010-08-01

    The principle of treating disease with selective adenosine receptor ligands has been demonstrated with drugs on the market, while the lesser understood receptor subtypes are still being probed with new and drug-like pharmaceutical tools. The field of adenosine receptor research is, therefore, highly important as an emerging and proven point of intervention in disease. From 2008 to 2009, > 120 primary patent applications have claimed adenosine receptor ligands, which we analyze by applicant and target. Particularly significant disclosures are described in detail, paying particular attention to the biological data marshalled to support the case. The first published disclosure of new compounds, compound uses or drug targets is often in the patent literature, which can be difficult to trawl, interpret and verify as it is not subject to peer review. We have critically reviewed this area and share our conclusions regarding progress, trends and identification of early tool compounds or compounds of potential clinical significance ahead of peer-reviewed publication. Adenosine receptor research is a thriving field with continuing claims of exciting new compounds with high specificity and intriguing examples of new uses for such ligands.

  10. Glutamate receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandt, Mette; Johansen, Tommy N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Homologation and substitution on the carbon backbone of (S)-glutamic acid [(S)-Glu, 1], as well as absolute stereochemistry, are structural parameters of key importance for the pharmacological profile of (S)-Glu receptor ligands. We describe a series of methyl-substituted 2-aminoadipic acid (AA...... or slightly lower potencies than (S)-AA [e.g., EC(50) = 76 microM for (2S,4S)-4-methyl-AA (5a) as compared to EC(50) = 35 microM for (S)-AA]. The position of the methyl substituent had a profound effect on the observed pharmacology, whereas the absolute stereochemistry at the methylated carbon atom had a very......) analogs, and the synthesis, stereochemistry, and enantiopharmacology of 3-methyl-AA (4a-d), 4-methyl-AA (5a-d), 5-methyl-AA (6a-d), and (E)-Delta(4)-5-methyl-AA (7a and 7b) are reported. The compounds were resolved using chiral HPLC and the configurational assignments of the enantiomers were based on X...

  11. Ligand-guided receptor optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katritch, Vsevolod; Rueda, Manuel; Abagyan, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    Receptor models generated by homology or even obtained by crystallography often have their binding pockets suboptimal for ligand docking and virtual screening applications due to insufficient accuracy or induced fit bias. Knowledge of previously discovered receptor ligands provides key information that can be used for improving docking and screening performance of the receptor. Here, we present a comprehensive ligand-guided receptor optimization (LiBERO) algorithm that exploits ligand information for selecting the best performing protein models from an ensemble. The energetically feasible protein conformers are generated through normal mode analysis and Monte Carlo conformational sampling. The algorithm allows iteration of the conformer generation and selection steps until convergence of a specially developed fitness function which quantifies the conformer's ability to select known ligands from decoys in a small-scale virtual screening test. Because of the requirement for a large number of computationally intensive docking calculations, the automated algorithm has been implemented to use Linux clusters allowing easy parallel scaling. Here, we will discuss the setup of LiBERO calculations, selection of parameters, and a range of possible uses of the algorithm which has already proven itself in several practical applications to binding pocket optimization and prospective virtual ligand screening.

  12. A2A receptor ligands: past, present and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementina, Manera; Giuseppe, Saccomanni

    2010-01-01

    The adenosine A(2A) receptor is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and mediates multiple physiological effects of adenosine, both at the central nervous system and at peripheral tissues. Increasing evidence relates the A(2A) receptor with several pathological conditions such as neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation, pharmacological stress, and wound healing renewing the interest in A(2A) receptor agonists and antagonists as promising leads for drugs. However some of them initially tested in clinical trials presented several side effects, short half-life, lower solubility, and in some cases a lack of effects, perhaps attributable to receptor desensitization or to low receptor density in the targeted tissue. For these reasons it is evident that additional rational chemical modifications of the existing A(2A) receptor ligands to improve their affinity/selectivity and bioavailability as well as further studies to get new template for A(2A)AR ligands are necessary. The purpose of this review is to analyze and summarize the past and the present aspects related to the medicinal chemistry of A(2A) receptor ligands. Moreover their current and possible therapeutic applications have been also highlighted.

  13. Adenosine receptor agonists modulate visceral hyperalgesia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Chong-Il; Park, Hyo Jin; Gebhart, G F

    2008-06-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous modulator of nociception. Its role in visceral nociception, particularly in visceral hyperalgesia, has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of adenosine receptor agonists in a model of visceral hyperalgesia. The visceromotor response (VMR) in rats to colorectal distension (CRD; 80 mmHg, 20 seconds) was quantified by electromyographic recordings from the abdominal musculature. Three hours after the intracolonic administration of zymosan (25 mg/mL, 1 mL), VMRs to CRD were measured before and after either subcutaneous or intrathecal administration of an adenosine receptor agonist. Subcutaneous injection of 5'-N-ethylcarboxyamidoadenosine (NECA; an A1 and A2 receptor agonist), R(-)-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine (R-PIA; a selective A1 receptor agonist), or CGS-21680 hydrochloride (a selective A2a receptor agonist) dose-dependently (10-100 mg/kg) attenuated the VMR to CRD, although hindlimb weakness occurred at the higher doses tested. Intrathecal administration of NECA or R-PIA dose-dependently (0.1-1.0 microg/kg) decreased the VMR, whereas CGS-21680 hydrochloride was ineffective over the same concentration range. Higher intrathecal doses of the A1/A2 receptor agonist NECA produced motor weakness. Adenosine receptor agonists are antihyperalgesic, but also produce motor weakness at high doses. However, activation of the spinal A1 receptor significantly attenuates the VMR to CRD without producing motor weakness.

  14. Modulation of G protein-coupled adenosine receptors by strategically functionalized agonists and antagonists immobilized on gold nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasekara, P. Suresh; Phan, Khai; Tosh, Dilip K.; Kumar, T. Santhosh; Moss, Steven M.; Zhang, Guofeng; Barchi, Joseph J.; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) allow the tuning of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties by active or passive targeting of drugs for cancer and other diseases. We have functionalized gold nanoparticles by tethering specific ligands, agonists and antagonists, of adenosine receptors (ARs) to the gold surface as models for cell surface interactions with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The AuNP conjugates with chain-extended AR ligands alone (PEGylated nucleosides and nonnucleosides, an...

  15. AMPA receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Mellor, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPAR), subtype of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (IGRs), mediate fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS), and are involved in many neurological disorders, as well as being a key player...

  16. Radioiodinated ligands for dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.F.

    1994-01-01

    The dopamine receptor system is important for normal brain function; it is also the apparent action site for various neuroleptic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia and other metal disorders. In the past few years radioiodinated ligands for single photon emission tomography (SPECT) have been successfully developed and tested in humans: [ 123 I]TISCH for D1 dopamine receptors; [ 123 I]IBZM, epidepride, IBF and FIDA2, four iodobenzamide derivatives, for D2/D3 dopamine receptors. In addition, [ 123 I]β-CIT (RTI-55) and IPT, cocaine derivatives, for the dopamine reuptake site are potentially useful for diagnosis of loss of dopamine neurons. The first iodinated ligand, (R)trans-7-OH-PIPAT, for D3 dopamine receptors, was synthesized and characterized with cloned cell lines (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9) expressing the D2 and D3 dopamine receptors and with rat basal forebrain membrane preparations. Most of the known iodobenzamides displayed similar potency in binding to both D2 and D3 dopamine receptors expressed in the cell lines. Initial studies appear to suggest that by fine tuning the structures it may be possible to develop agents specific for D2 and D3 dopamine receptors. It is important to investigate D2/D3 selectivity for this series of potent ligands

  17. Adenosine Receptor Heteromers and their Integrative Role in Striatal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Ferré

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the functional role of adenosine receptor heteromers, we review a series of new concepts that should modify our classical views of neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS. Neurotransmitter receptors cannot be considered as single functional units anymore. Heteromerization of neurotransmitter receptors confers functional entities that possess different biochemical characteristics with respect to the individual components of the heteromer. Some of these characteristics can be used as a “biochemical fingerprint” to identify neurotransmitter receptor heteromers in the CNS. This is exemplified by changes in binding characteristics that are dependent on coactivation of the receptor units of different adenosine receptor heteromers. Neurotransmitter receptor heteromers can act as “processors” of computations that modulate cell signaling, sometimes critically involved in the control of pre- and postsynaptic neurotransmission. For instance, the adenosine A1-A2A receptor heteromer acts as a concentration-dependent switch that controls striatal glutamatergic neurotransmission. Neurotransmitter receptor heteromers play a particularly important integrative role in the “local module” (the minimal portion of one or more neurons and/or one or more glial cells that operates as an independent integrative unit, where they act as processors mediating computations that convey information from diverse volume-transmitted signals. For instance, the adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor heteromers work as integrators of two different neurotransmitters in the striatal spine module.

  18. Mechanism of A2 adenosine receptor activation. I. Blockade of A2 adenosine receptors by photoaffinity labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, M.J.; Klotz, K.N.; Schwabe, U.

    1991-01-01

    It has previously been shown that covalent incorporation of the photoreactive adenosine derivative (R)-2-azido-N6-p-hydroxy-phenylisopropyladenosine [(R)-AHPIA] into the A1 adenosine receptor of intact fat cells leads to a persistent activation of this receptor, resulting in a reduction of cellular cAMP levels. In contrast, covalent incorporation of (R)-AHPIA into human platelet membranes, which contain only stimulatory A2 adenosine receptors, reduces adenylate cyclase stimulation via these receptors. This effect of (R)-AHPIA is specific for the A2 receptor and can be prevented by the adenosine receptor antagonist theophylline. Binding studies indicate that up to 90% of A2 receptors can be blocked by photoincorporation of (R)-AHPIA. However, the remaining 10-20% of A2 receptors are sufficient to mediate an adenylate cyclase stimulation of up to 50% of the control value. Similarly, the activation via these 10-20% of receptors occurs with a half-life that is only 2 times longer than that in control membranes. This indicates the presence of a receptor reserve, with respect to both the extent and the rate of adenylate cyclase stimulation. These observations require a modification of the models of receptor-adenylate cyclase coupling

  19. Activation of Adenylyl Cyclase Causes Stimulation of Adenosine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pleli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Signaling of Gs protein-coupled receptors (GsPCRs is accomplished by stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, causing an increase of the intracellular cAMP concentration, activation of the intracellular cAMP effectors protein kinase A (PKA and Epac, and an efflux of cAMP, the function of which is still unclear. Methods: Activation of adenylyl cyclase by GsPCR agonists or cholera toxin was monitored by measurement of the intracellular cAMP concentration by ELISA, anti-phospho-PKA substrate motif phosphorylation by immunoblotting, and an Epac-FRET assay in the presence and absence of adenosine receptor antagonists or ecto-nucleotide phosphodiesterase/pyrophosphatase2 (eNPP2 inhibitors. The production of AMP from cAMP by recombinant eNPP2 was measured by HPLC. Extracellular adenosine was determined by LC-MS/MS, extracellular ATP by luciferase and LC-MS/MS. The expression of eNPP isoenzymes 1-3 was examined by RT-PCR. The expression of multidrug resistance protein 4 was suppressed by siRNA. Results: Here we show that the activation of GsPCRs and the GsPCRs-independent activation of Gs proteins and adenylyl cyclase by cholera toxin induce stimulation of cell surface adenosine receptors (A2A or A2B adenosine receptors. In PC12 cells stimulation of adenylyl cyclase by GsPCR or cholera toxin caused activation of A2A adenosine receptors by an autocrine signaling pathway involving cAMP efflux through multidrug resistance protein 4 and hydrolysis of released cAMP to AMP by eNPP2. In contrast, in PC3 cells cholera toxin- and GsPCR-induced stimulation of adenylyl cyclase resulted in the activation of A2B adenosine receptors. Conclusion: Our findings show that stimulation of adenylyl cyclase causes a remarkable activation of cell surface adenosine receptors.

  20. The role of glial adenosine receptors in neural resilience and the neurobiology of mood disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, D; Biber, K

    2005-01-01

    Adenosine receptors were classified into A(1)- and A(2)-receptors in the laboratory of Bernd Hamprecht more than 25 years ago. Adenosine receptors are instrumental to the neurotrophic effects of glia cells. Both microglia and astrocytes release after stimulation via adenosine receptors factors that

  1. Investigating real-time activation of adenosine receptors by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yimei; Yang, Hongqin; Zheng, Liqin; Chen, Jiangxu; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2013-02-01

    Adenosine receptors play important roles in many physiological and pathological processes, for example regulating myocardial oxygen consumption and the release of neurotransmitters. The activations of adenosine receptors have been studied by some kinds of techniques, such as western blot, immunohistochemistry, etc. However, these techniques cannot reveal the dynamical response of adenosine receptors under stimulation. In this paper, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique was introduced to study the real-time activation of adenosine receptors by monitoring the dynamics of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level. The results showed that there were significant differences between adenosine receptors on real-time responses under stimulation. Moreover, the dynamics of cAMP level demonstrated that competition between adenosine receptors existed. Taken together, our study indicates that monitoring the dynamics of cAMP level using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique could be one potential approach to investigate the mechanism of competitions between adenosine receptors.

  2. Equilibrium and kinetic selectivity profiling on the human adenosine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dong; Dijksteel, Gabrielle S; van Duijl, Tirsa; Heezen, Maxime; Heitman, Laura H; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2016-04-01

    Classical evaluation of target selectivity is usually undertaken by measuring the binding affinity of lead compounds against a number of potential targets under equilibrium conditions, without considering the kinetics of the ligand-receptor interaction. In the present study we propose a combined strategy including both equilibrium- and kinetics-based selectivity profiling. The adenosine receptor (AR) was chosen as a prototypical drug target. Six in-house AR antagonists were evaluated in a radioligand displacement assay for their affinity and in a competition association assay for their binding kinetics on three AR subtypes. One of the compounds with a promising kinetic selectivity profile was also examined in a [(35)S]-GTPγS binding assay for functional activity. We found that XAC and LUF5964 were kinetically more selective for the A1R and A3R, respectively, although they are non-selective in terms of their affinity. In comparison, LUF5967 displayed a strong equilibrium-based selectivity for the A1R over the A2AR, yet its kinetic selectivity thereon was less pronounced. In a GTPγS assay, LUF5964 exhibited insurmountable antagonism on the A3R while having a surmountable effect on the A1R, consistent with its kinetic selectivity profile. This study provides evidence that equilibrium and kinetic selectivity profiling can both be important in the early phases of the drug discovery process. Our proposed combinational strategy could be considered for future medicinal chemistry efforts and aid the design and discovery of different or even better leads for clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. PET imaging of adenosine A2A receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Xiaoyun

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and evaluation of [11C]preladenant as a novel radioligand for in vivo imaging of adenosine A2A receptors in the brain with positron-emission tomography (PET). The 11C-labeled drug [11C]preladenant was produced with high radiochemical yield and specific activity.

  4. Molecular mechanism of allosteric modulation at GPCRs: insight from a binding kinetics study at the human A1 adenosine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dong; Venhorst, Suzanne N; Massink, Arnault; van Veldhoven, Jacobus P D; Vauquelin, Georges; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Heitman, Laura H

    2014-12-01

    Many GPCRs can be allosterically modulated by small-molecule ligands. This modulation is best understood in terms of the kinetics of the ligand-receptor interaction. However, many current kinetic assays require at least the (radio)labelling of the orthosteric ligand, which is impractical for studying a range of ligands. Here, we describe the application of a so-called competition association assay at the adenosine A1 receptor for this purpose. We used a competition association assay to examine the binding kinetics of several unlabelled orthosteric agonists of the A1 receptor in the absence or presence of two allosteric modulators. We also tested three bitopic ligands, in which an orthosteric and an allosteric pharmacophore were covalently linked with different spacer lengths. The relevance of the competition association assay for the binding kinetics of the bitopic ligands was also explored by analysing simulated data. The binding kinetics of an unlabelled orthosteric ligand were affected by the addition of an allosteric modulator and such effects were probe- and concentration-dependent. Covalently linking the orthosteric and allosteric pharmacophores into one bitopic molecule had a substantial effect on the overall on- or off-rate. The competition association assay is a useful tool for exploring the allosteric modulation of the human adenosine A1 receptor. This assay may have general applicability to study allosteric modulation at other GPCRs as well. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. The Role of Adenosine Receptors in Psychostimulant Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Ballesteros-Yáñez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine receptors (AR are a family of G-protein coupled receptors, comprised of four members, named A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptors, found widely distributed in almost all human body tissues and organs. To date, they are known to participate in a large variety of physiopathological responses, which include vasodilation, pain, and inflammation. In particular, in the central nervous system (CNS, adenosine acts as a neuromodulator, exerting different functions depending on the type of AR and consequent cellular signaling involved. In terms of molecular pathways and second messengers involved, A1 and A3 receptors inhibit adenylyl cyclase (AC, through Gi/o proteins, while A2A and A2B receptors stimulate it through Gs proteins. In the CNS, A1 receptors are widely distributed in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum, A2A receptors are localized mainly in the striatum and olfactory bulb, while A2B and A3 receptors are found at low levels of expression. In addition, AR are able to form heteromers, both among themselves (e.g., A1/A2A, as well as with other subtypes (e.g., A2A/D2, opening a whole range of possibilities in the field of the pharmacology of AR. Nowadays, we know that adenosine, by acting on adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, is known to antagonistically modulate dopaminergic neurotransmission and therefore reward systems, being A1 receptors colocalized in heteromeric complexes with D1 receptors, and A2A receptors with D2 receptors. This review documents the present state of knowledge of the contribution of AR, particularly A1 and A2A, to psychostimulants-mediated effects, including locomotor activity, discrimination, seeking and reward, and discuss their therapeutic relevance to psychostimulant addiction. Studies presented in this review reinforce the potential of A1 agonists as an effective strategy to counteract psychostimulant-induced effects. Furthermore, different experimental data support the hypothesis that A2A/D2 heterodimers are

  6. Radiosynthesis of the adenosine A{sub 3} receptor ligand 5-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl) 2,4-diethyl-3-(ethylsulfanylcarbonyl)-6-phenylpyridine-5-carboxylate ([{sup 18}F]FE rate at SUPPY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsak, W. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Mien, L.K. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Dept. of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Shanab, K.; Spreitzer, H. [Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Weber, K.; Schmidt, B.; Haeusler, D. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Dept. of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Sindelar, K.M.; Ettlinger, D.E.; Dudczak, R.; Kletter, K. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Keppler, B.K.; Viernstein, H. [Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Mitterhauser, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Dept. of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Hospital Pharmacy of the General Hospital of Vienna (Austria)

    2008-07-01

    Since to date very limited information on the distribution and function of the adenosine A{sub 3} receptor is available, the development of a suitable radioligand is needed. Such a selective radioligand can then be used for quantitative autoradiography, preclinical studies in animals and subsequent human PET applications. Recently, a promising candidate compound, 5-(2-fluoroethyl) 2,4-diethyl-3-(ethylsulfanylcarbonyl)-6-phenylpyridine-5-carboxylate (FE rate at SUPPY), has been presented. The successful preparation of a suitable labelling precursor and the evaluation and optimization of the radiosynthesis of [{sup 18}F]FE rate at SUPPY is presented herewith. For satisfactory yields, a reaction temperature of 75 C has to be applied for at least 20 min using 8-10 mg of precursor. Until now, 15 complete high-scale radiosyntheses were performed. Starting from an average of 51 {+-} 12 GBq (average {+-}SD; range: 30-67 GBq) [{sup 18}F]fluoride, 9.4 {+-} 3.6 GBq of formulated [{sup 18}F]FE rate at SUPPY (32.3 {+-} 12.4%, based on [{sup 18}F]fluoride, corrected for decay) were prepared in < 105 min. (orig.)

  7. 8-Azaxanthine derivatives as antagonists of adenosine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, P; Messini, L; Cappellacci, L; Grifantini, M; Lucacchini, A; Martini, C; Senatore, G

    1994-09-02

    A series of 1,3-dimethyl- and 1,3-dipropyl-8-azaxanthines, substituted at the N8 or N7 position with substituents which usually increase the affinity of the xanthines for the adenosine receptors, was synthesized and studied in radioligand binding experiments. The substitution of CH with N at the 8-position of both theophylline and caffeine dramatically reduced the affinity, as demonstrated by the fact that 8-azatheophylline and 8-azacaffeine were inert. The introduction of a methyl group at 8-position of 8-azatheophylline restored the antagonistic activity at A2 receptors, while a 8-cycloalkyl substituent increased the affinity for both receptor subtypes. A more favorable effect on affinity was produced by the substitution of the 7-methyl group in 8-azacaffeine with cycloalkyl groups. 7-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethyl-8-azaxanthine was 3 times more potent than caffeine at A1 receptors and 6 times less active at A2 receptors. On the contrary, the 7-cyclohexyl-1,3-dimethyl-8-azaxanthine was more potent than caffeine at A2 receptors. The substitution of 1- and 3-methyl groups with propyl in both 7- and 8-substituted 8-azatheophylline increased remarkably the affinity for A1 receptors. The 7-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropyl-8-azaxanthine appears to be one of the most potent and selective among 7-alkyl-substituted xanthines at A1 receptors so far known. Because the 8-aza analogues of 8-substituted 1,3-dialkylxanthine were in any case less active than the corresponding xanthine derivatives, it was confirmed that the hydrogen atom at the 7-position of xanthines plays an important role in the binding to adenosine receptors.

  8. AMP-guided tumour-specific nanoparticle delivery via adenosine A1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Tongcheng; Li, Na; Han, Fajun; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Yuanxing; Liu, Qin

    2016-03-01

    Active targeting-ligands have been increasingly used to functionalize nanoparticles for tumour-specific clinical applications. Here we utilize nucleotide adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) as a novel ligand to functionalize polymer-based fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) for tumour-targeted imaging. We demonstrate that AMP-conjugated NPs (NPs-AMP) efficiently bind to and are following internalized into colon cancer cell CW-2 and breast cancer cell MDA-MB-468 in vitro. RNA interference and inhibitor assays reveal that the targeting effects mainly rely on the specific binding of AMP to adenosine A1 receptor (A1R), which is greatly up-regulated in cancer cells than in matched normal cells. More importantly, NPs-AMP specifically accumulate in the tumour site of colon and breast tumour xenografts and are further internalized into the tumour cells in vivo via tail vein injection, confirming that the high in vitro specificity of AMP can be successfully translated into the in vivo efficacy. Furthermore, NPs-AMP exhibit an active tumour-targeting behaviour in various colon and breast cancer cells, which is positively related to the up-regulation level of A1R in cancer cells, suggesting that AMP potentially suits for more extensive A1R-overexpressing cancer models. This work establishes AMP to be a novel tumour-targeting ligand and provides a promising strategy for future diagnostic or therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adenosine receptor antagonist and augmented vasodilation during hypoxic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Darren P; Madery, Brandon D; Pike, Tasha L; Eisenach, John H; Dietz, Niki M; Joyner, Michael J; Wilkins, Brad W

    2009-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that adenosine contributes to augmented skeletal muscle vasodilation during hypoxic exercise. In separate protocols, subjects performed incremental rhythmic forearm exercise (10% and 20% of maximum) during normoxia and normocapnic hypoxia (80% arterial O2 saturation). In protocol 1 (n = 8), subjects received an intra-arterial administration of saline (control) and aminophylline (adenosine receptor antagonist). In protocol 2 (n = 10), subjects received intra-arterial phentolamine (alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist) and combined phentolamine and aminophylline administration. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC; in ml x min(-1).100 mmHg(-1)) was calculated from forearm blood flow (in ml/min) and blood pressure (in mmHg). In protocol 1, the change in FVC (DeltaFVC; change from normoxic baseline) during hypoxic exercise with saline was 172 +/- 29 and 314 +/- 34 ml x min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1) (10% and 20%, respectively). Aminophylline administration did not affect DeltaFVC during hypoxic exercise at 10% (190 +/- 29 ml x min(-1)x100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.4) or 20% (287 +/- 48 ml x min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.3). In protocol 2, DeltaFVC due to hypoxic exercise with phentolamine infusion was 313 +/- 30 and 453 +/- 41 ml x min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1) (10% and 20% respectively). DeltaFVC was similar at 10% (352 +/- 39 ml min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.8) and 20% (528 +/- 45 ml x min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.2) hypoxic exercise with combined phentolamine and aminophylline. In contrast, DeltaFVC to exogenous adenosine was reduced by aminophylline administration in both protocols (P < 0.05 for both). These observations suggest that adenosine receptor activation is not obligatory for the augmented hyperemia during hypoxic exercise in humans.

  10. Allosteric mechanisms within the adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Sergi; Bonaventura, Jordi; Tomasi, Dardo; Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefanía; Cortés, Antonio; Lluís, Carme; Casadó, Vicent; Volkow, Nora D.

    2017-01-01

    The structure constituted by a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) homodimer and a G protein provides a main functional unit and oligomeric entities can be viewed as multiples of dimers. For GPCR heteromers, experimental evidence supports a tetrameric structure, comprised of two different homodimers, each able to signal with its preferred G protein. GPCR homomers and heteromers can act as the conduit of allosteric interactions between orthosteric ligands. The well-known agonist/agonist allosteric interaction in the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromer, by which A2AR agonists decrease the affinity of D2R agonists, gave the first rationale for the use of A2AR antagonists in Parkinson’s disease. We review new pharmacological findings that can be explained in the frame of a tetrameric structure of the A2AR-D2R heteromer: first, ligand-independent allosteric modulations by the D2R that result in changes of the binding properties of A2AR ligands; second, differential modulation of the intrinsic efficacy of D2R ligands for G protein-dependent and independent signaling; third, the canonical antagonistic Gs-Gi interaction within the frame of the heteromer; and fourth, the ability of A2AR antagonists, including caffeine, to also exert the same allosteric modulations of D2R ligands than A2AR agonists, while A2AR agonists and antagonists counteract each other’s effects. These findings can have important clinical implications when evaluating the use of A2AR antagonists. They also call for the need of monitoring caffeine intake when evaluating the effect of D2R ligands, when used as therapeutic agents in neuropsychiatric disorders or as probes in imaging studies. PMID:26051403

  11. Structure-Based Design, Synthesis, and In Vivo Antinociceptive Effects of Selective A1Adenosine Receptor Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Scortichini, Mirko; Belardo, Carmela; Boccella, Serena; Luongo, Livio; Capone, Fabio; Kachler, Sonja; Vita, Patrizia; Del Bello, Fabio; Maione, Sabatino; Lavecchia, Antonio; Klotz, Karl-Norbert; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2018-01-11

    Our previous work discovered that combining the appropriate 5'- and N 6 -substitution in adenosine derivatives leads to the highly selective human A 1 adenosine receptor (hA 1 AR) agonists or highly potent dual hA 1 AR agonists and hA 3 AR antagonists. In order to explore novel dual adenosine receptor ligands, a series of N 6 -substituted-5'-pyrazolyl-adenosine and 2-chloro-adenosine derivatives were synthesized and assayed in vitro at all ARs. The N 6 -(±)-endo-norbornyl derivative 12 was the most potent and selective at A 1 AR and effective as an analgesic in formalin test in mice, but none of the 5'-pyrazolyl series compounds showed a dual behavior at hA 1 and hA 3 AR. Molecular modeling studies rationalized the structure-activity relationships and the selectivity profiles of the new series of A 1 AR agonists. Interestingly, an unexpected inverted binding mode of the N 6 -tetrahydrofuranyl derivative 14 was hypothesized to explain its low affinity at A 1 AR.

  12. Structural Probing and Molecular Modeling of the A₃ Adenosine Receptor: A Focus on Agonist Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancetta, Antonella; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2017-03-11

    Adenosine is an endogenous modulator exerting its functions through the activation of four adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes, termed A₁, A 2A , A 2B and A₃, which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. The human A₃AR (hA₃AR) subtype is implicated in several cytoprotective functions. Therefore, hA₃AR modulators, and in particular agonists, are sought for their potential application as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and cardioprotective agents. Structure-based molecular modeling techniques have been applied over the years to rationalize the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of newly emerged A₃AR ligands, guide the subsequent lead optimization, and interpret site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) data from a molecular perspective. In this review, we showcase selected modeling-based and guided strategies that were applied to elucidate the binding of agonists to the A₃AR and discuss the challenges associated with an accurate prediction of the receptor extracellular vestibule through homology modeling from the available X-ray templates.

  13. Structural Probing and Molecular Modeling of the A3 Adenosine Receptor: A Focus on Agonist Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancetta, Antonella; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous modulator exerting its functions through the activation of four adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes, termed A1, A2A, A2B and A3, which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. The human A3AR (hA3AR) subtype is implicated in several cytoprotective functions. Therefore, hA3AR modulators, and in particular agonists, are sought for their potential application as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and cardioprotective agents. Structure-based molecular modeling techniques have been applied over the years to rationalize the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of newly emerged A3AR ligands, guide the subsequent lead optimization, and interpret site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) data from a molecular perspective. In this review, we showcase selected modeling-based and guided strategies that were applied to elucidate the binding of agonists to the A3AR and discuss the challenges associated with an accurate prediction of the receptor extracellular vestibule through homology modeling from the available X-ray templates. PMID:28287473

  14. Structural Probing and Molecular Modeling of the A3 Adenosine Receptor: A Focus on Agonist Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Ciancetta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine is an endogenous modulator exerting its functions through the activation of four adenosine receptor (AR subtypes, termed A1, A2A, A2B and A3, which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR superfamily. The human A3AR (hA3AR subtype is implicated in several cytoprotective functions. Therefore, hA3AR modulators, and in particular agonists, are sought for their potential application as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and cardioprotective agents. Structure-based molecular modeling techniques have been applied over the years to rationalize the structure–activity relationships (SARs of newly emerged A3AR ligands, guide the subsequent lead optimization, and interpret site-directed mutagenesis (SDM data from a molecular perspective. In this review, we showcase selected modeling-based and guided strategies that were applied to elucidate the binding of agonists to the A3AR and discuss the challenges associated with an accurate prediction of the receptor extracellular vestibule through homology modeling from the available X-ray templates.

  15. Elevated Adenosine Induces Placental DNA Hypomethylation Independent of A2B Receptor Signaling in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Aji; Wu, Hongyu; Iriyama, Takayuki; Zhang, Yujin; Sun, Kaiqi; Song, Anren; Liu, Hong; Peng, Zhangzhe; Tang, Lili; Lee, Minjung; Huang, Yun; Ni, Xin; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2017-07-01

    Preeclampsia is a prevalent pregnancy hypertensive disease with both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Emerging evidence indicates that global placental DNA hypomethylation is observed in patients with preeclampsia and is linked to altered gene expression and disease development. However, the molecular basis underlying placental epigenetic changes in preeclampsia remains unclear. Using 2 independent experimental models of preeclampsia, adenosine deaminase-deficient mice and a pathogenic autoantibody-induced mouse model of preeclampsia, we demonstrate that elevated placental adenosine not only induces hallmark features of preeclampsia but also causes placental DNA hypomethylation. The use of genetic approaches to express an adenosine deaminase minigene specifically in placentas, or adenosine deaminase enzyme replacement therapy, restored placental adenosine to normal levels, attenuated preeclampsia features, and abolished placental DNA hypomethylation in adenosine deaminase-deficient mice. Genetic deletion of CD73 (an ectonucleotidase that converts AMP to adenosine) prevented the elevation of placental adenosine in the autoantibody-induced preeclampsia mouse model and ameliorated preeclampsia features and placental DNA hypomethylation. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that elevated placental adenosine-mediated DNA hypomethylation predominantly occurs in spongiotrophoblasts and labyrinthine trophoblasts and that this effect is independent of A2B adenosine receptor activation in both preeclampsia models. Extending our mouse findings to humans, we used cultured human trophoblasts to demonstrate that adenosine functions intracellularly and induces DNA hypomethylation without A2B adenosine receptor activation. Altogether, both mouse and human studies reveal novel mechanisms underlying placental DNA hypomethylation and potential therapeutic approaches for preeclampsia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Adenosine A2A Receptor Modulates the Activity of Globus Pallidus Neurons in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ling Diao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The globus pallidus is a central nucleus in the basal ganglia motor control circuit. Morphological studies have revealed the expression of adenosine A2A receptors in the globus pallidus. To determine the modulation of adenosine A2A receptors on the activity of pallidal neurons in both normal and parkinsonian rats, in vivo electrophysiological and behavioral tests were performed in the present study. The extracellular single unit recordings showed that micro-pressure administration of adenosine A2A receptor agonist, CGS21680, regulated the pallidal firing activity. GABAergic neurotransmission was involved in CGS21680-induced modulation of pallidal neurons via a PKA pathway. Furthermore, application of two adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, KW6002 or SCH442416, mainly increased the spontaneous firing of pallidal neurons, suggesting that endogenous adenosine system modulates the activity of pallidal neurons through adenosine A2A receptors. Finally, elevated body swing test (EBST showed that intrapallidal microinjection of adenosine A2A receptor agonist/antagonist induced ipsilateral/contralateral-biased swing, respectively. In addition, the electrophysiological and behavioral findings also revealed that activation of dopamine D2 receptors by quinpirole strengthened KW6002/SCH442416-induced excitation of pallidal activity. Co-application of quinpirole with KW6002 or SCH442416 alleviated biased swing in hemi-parkinsonian rats. Based on the present findings, we concluded that pallidal adenosine A2A receptors may be potentially useful in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  17. DMPD: Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17056121 Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. Hasko ...G, Pacher P, Deitch EA, Vizi ES. Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Feb;113(2):264-75. Epub 2006 Sep 14. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Shapi...ng of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. PubmedID 17056121 Title Shapi

  18. Lack of adenosine A(3) receptors causes defects in mouse peripheral blood parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Dušek, L.; Hoferová, Zuzana; Komůrková, Denisa

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2014), s. 509-514 ISSN 1573-9538 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0128 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Adenosine A(3) receptor * Adenosine A(3) receptor knockout mice * Hematopoiesis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.886, year: 2014

  19. A3 Adenosine Receptor Allosteric Modulator Induces an Anti-Inflammatory Effect: In Vivo Studies and Molecular Mechanism of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Cohen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR is overexpressed in inflammatory cells and in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals with inflammatory conditions. Agonists to the A3AR are known to induce specific anti-inflammatory effects upon chronic treatment. LUF6000 is an allosteric compound known to modulate the A3AR and render the endogenous ligand adenosine to bind to the receptor with higher affinity. The advantage of allosteric modulators is their capability to target specifically areas where adenosine levels are increased such as inflammatory and tumor sites, whereas normal body cells and tissues are refractory to the allosteric modulators due to low adenosine levels. LUF6000 administration induced anti-inflammatory effect in 3 experimental animal models of rat adjuvant induced arthritis, monoiodoacetate induced osteoarthritis, and concanavalin A induced liver inflammation in mice. The molecular mechanism of action points to deregulation of signaling proteins including PI3K, IKK, IκB, Jak-2, and STAT-1, resulting in decreased levels of NF-κB, known to mediate inflammatory effects. Moreover, LUF6000 induced a slight stimulatory effect on the number of normal white blood cells and neutrophils. The anti-inflammatory effect of LUF6000, mechanism of action, and the differential effects on inflammatory and normal cells position this allosteric modulator as an attractive and unique drug candidate.

  20. Autoradiographic visualization of A 1-adenosine receptors in brain and peripheral tissues of rat and guinea pig using 125I-HPIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.G.; Lohse, M.J.; Jones, C.R.; Palacios, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A 1 -adenosine receptors were identified in sections of rat brain and guinea pig kidney with the radioiodinated agonist 1 25I-N 6 -p-hydroxyphenylisopropyladenosine ( 1 25I-HPIA) using in vitro autoradiography. The affinities of adenosine receptor ligands in competing with 1 25I-HPIA binding to tissue sections were in good agreement with those found in membranes and indicate that the binding site represents an A 1 pattern of [ 3 H]N 6 -cyclohexyladenosine ([ 3 H]CHA) binding sites determined previously, with highest densities in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus, the cerebellar cortex, some thalamic nuclei and certain layers of the cerebral cortex. In the guinea pig kidney 1 25I-HPIA labelled longitudinal structures in the medulla. This study demonstrates that 1 25I-HPIA allows the autoradiographic detection of A-1 adenosine receptors in the brain and peripheral organs and has the advantage of short exposure times (author)

  1. Structure-Based Screening of Uncharted Chemical Space for Atypical Adenosine Receptor Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, David; Chakraborty, Saibal; Warnick, Eugene; Crane, Steven; Gao, Zhan-Guo; O'Connor, Robert; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Carlsson, Jens

    2016-10-21

    Small molecule screening libraries cover only a small fraction of the astronomical number of possible drug-like compounds, limiting the success of ligand discovery efforts. Computational screening of virtual libraries representing unexplored chemical space could potentially bridge this gap. Drug development for adenosine receptors (ARs) as targets for inflammation and cardiovascular diseases has been hampered by the paucity of agonist scaffolds. To identify novel AR agonists, a virtual library of synthetically tractable nucleosides with alternative bases was generated and structure-based virtual screening guided selection of compounds for synthesis. Pharmacological assays were carried out at three AR subtypes for 13 ribosides. Nine compounds displayed significant activity at the ARs, and several of these represented atypical agonist scaffolds. The discovered ligands also provided insights into receptor activation and revealed unknown interactions of endogenous and clinical compounds with the ARs. The results demonstrate that virtual compound databases provide access to bioactive matter from regions of chemical space that are sparsely populated in commercial libraries, an approach transferrable to numerous drug targets.

  2. Adenosine A2A receptors and A2A receptor heteromers as key players in striatal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi eFerre

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A very significant density of adenosine adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs is present in the striatum, where they are preferentially localized postsynaptically in striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (MSNs. In this localization A2ARs establish reciprocal antagonistic interactions with dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs. In one type of interaction, A2AR and D2R are forming heteromers and, by means of an allosteric interaction, A2AR counteracts D2R-mediated inhibitory modulation of the effects of NMDA receptor stimulation in the striato-pallidal neuron. This interaction is probably mostly responsible for the locomotor depressant and activating effects of A2AR agonist and antagonists, respectively. The second type of interaction involves A2AR and D2R that do not form heteromers and takes place at the level of adenylyl-cyclase (AC. Due to a strong tonic effect of endogenous dopamine on striatal D2R, this interaction keeps A2AR from signaling through AC. However, under conditions of dopamine depletion or with blockade of D2R, A2AR-mediated AC activation is unleashed with an increased gene expression and activity of the striato-pallidal neuron and with a consequent motor depression. This interaction is probably the main mechanism responsible for the locomotor depression induced by D2R antagonists. Finally, striatal A2ARs are also localized presynaptically, in cortico-striatal glutamatergic terminals that contact the striato-nigral MSN. These presynaptic A2ARs heteromerize with A1 receptors (A1Rs and their activation facilitates glutamate release. These three different types of A2ARs can be pharmacologically dissected by their ability to bind ligands with different affinity and can therefore provide selective targets for drug development in different basal ganglia disorders.

  3. Caffeine, Adenosine Receptors and Estrogen in Toxin Models of Parkinson's Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwarzschild, Michael A; Xu, Kui

    2008-01-01

    Continued progress has been made toward each of the Specific Aims (SAs) 1 and 2 (SA 3 completed) of our research project, Caffeine, adenosine receptors and estrogen in toxin models of Parkinson's disease...

  4. Modulation of G protein-coupled adenosine receptors by strategically functionalized agonists and antagonists immobilized on gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, P Suresh; Phan, Khai; Tosh, Dilip K; Kumar, T Santhosh; Moss, Steven M; Zhang, Guofeng; Barchi, Joseph J; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2013-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) allow the tuning of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties by active or passive targeting of drugs for cancer and other diseases. We have functionalized gold nanoparticles by tethering specific ligands, agonists and antagonists, of adenosine receptors (ARs) to the gold surface as models for cell surface interactions with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The AuNP conjugates with chain-extended AR ligands alone (PEGylated nucleosides and nonnucleosides, anchored to the Au via thioctic acid) were found to be insoluble in water due to hydrophobic entities in the ligand. Therefore, we added a second, biologically inactive pendant moiety to increase the water solubility, consisting of a PEGylated chain terminating in a carboxylic or phosphate group. The purity and stability of the immobilized biologically active ligand were examined by ultrafiltration and HPLC. Pharmacological receptor binding studies on these GPCR ligand-derivatized AuNPs (2-5 nm in diameter), performed using membranes of mammalian cells stably expressing human A1, A2A, and A3ARs, showed that the desired selectivity was retained with K(i) values (nanomolar) of A3AR agonist 21b and A2AAR antagonists 24 and 26a of 14 (A3), 34 (A2A), and 69 (A2A), respectively. The corresponding monomers displayed K i values of 37, 61, and 1,420 nM, respectively. In conclusion, we have synthesized stable, water-soluble AuNP derivatives of tethered A3 and A2AAR ligands that retain the biological properties of their monomeric ligands and are intended for therapeutic and imaging applications. This is the first prototypical application to gold carriers of small molecule (nonpeptide) GPCR ligands, which are under investigation for treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  5. Modulation of innate immunity by adenosine receptor stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, B.P.C.; Riksen, N.P.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Smits, P.; Pickkers, P.

    2011-01-01

    In the past decades, increased concentrations of the signaling molecule adenosine have been shown to play an important role in the prevention of tissue damage evoked by several stressful circumstances. During systemic inflammation, the circulating adenosine concentration increases rapidly, even up

  6. Influence of the adenosine A1 receptor on blood pressure regulation and renin release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Russell D.; Thorén, Peter; Steege, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the role of adenosine A1 receptors in regulating blood pressure in conscious mice. Adenosine A1-receptor knockout (A1R-/-) mice and their wild-type (A1R+/+) littermates were placed on standardized normal-salt (NS), high-salt (HS), or salt-deficient (SD......) diets for a minimum of 10 days before telemetric blood pressure and urinary excretion measurements in metabolic cages. On the NS diet, daytime and nighttime mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was 7-10 mmHg higher in A1R-/- than in A1R+/+ mice. HS diet did not affect the MAP in A1R-/- mice....... The elevated plasma renin concentrations found in the A1R-/- mice could also result in increased blood pressure. Our results confirm that adenosine, acting through the adenosine A1 receptor, plays an important role in regulating blood pressure, renin release, and sodium excretion....

  7. 5'-C-Ethyl-tetrazolyl-N(6)-substituted adenosine and 2-chloro-adenosine derivatives as highly potent dual acting A1 adenosine receptor agonists and A3 adenosine receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Torquati, Ilaria; Kachler, Sonja; Luongo, Livio; Maione, Sabatino; Franchetti, Palmarisa; Grifantini, Mario; Novellino, Ettore; Lavecchia, Antonio; Klotz, Karl-Norbert; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2015-03-12

    A series of N(6)-substituted-5'-C-(2-ethyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-adenosine and 2-chloro-adenosine derivatives was synthesized as novel, highly potent dual acting hA1AR agonists and hA3AR antagonists, potentially useful in the treatment of glaucoma and other diseases. The best affinity and selectivity profiles were achieved by N(6)-substitution with a 2-fluoro-4-chloro-phenyl- or a methyl- group. Through an in silico receptor-driven approach, the molecular bases of the hA1- and hA3AR recognition and activation of this series of 5'-C-ethyl-tetrazolyl derivatives were explained.

  8. The role of muscarinic receptors in the beneficial effects of adenosine against myocardial reperfusion injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Sun

    Full Text Available Adenosine, a catabolite of ATP, displays a wide variety of effects in the heart including regulation of cardiac response to myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. Nonetheless, the precise mechanism of adenosine-induced cardioprotection is still elusive. Isolated Sprague-Dawley rat hearts underwent 30 min global ischemia and 120 min reperfusion using a Langendorff apparatus. Both adenosine and acetylcholine treatment recovered the post-reperfusion cardiac function associated with adenosine and muscarinic receptors activation. Simultaneous administration of adenosine and acetylcholine failed to exert any additive protective effect, suggesting a shared mechanism between the two. Our data further revealed a cross-talk between the adenosine and acetylcholine receptor signaling in reperfused rat hearts. Interestingly, the selective M(2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist methoctramine significantly attenuated the cardioprotective effect of adenosine. In addition, treatment with adenosine upregulated the expression and the maximal binding capacity of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, which were inhibited by the selective A(1 adenosine receptor antagonist 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME. These data suggested a possible functional coupling between the adenosine and muscarinic receptors behind the observed cardioprotection. Furthermore, nitric oxide was found involved in triggering the response to each of the two receptor agonist. In summary, there may be a cross-talk between the adenosine and muscarinic receptors in ischemic/reperfused myocardium with nitric oxide synthase might serve as the distal converging point. In addition, adenosine contributes to the invigorating effect of adenosine on muscarinic receptor thereby prompting to regulation of cardiac function. These findings argue for a potentially novel mechanism behind the adenosine

  9. Adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors in mouse prefrontal cortex modulate acetylcholine release and behavioral arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dort, Christa J; Baghdoyan, Helen A; Lydic, Ralph

    2009-01-21

    During prolonged intervals of wakefulness, brain adenosine levels rise within the basal forebrain and cortex. The view that adenosine promotes sleep is supported by the corollary that N-methylated xanthines such as caffeine increase brain and behavioral arousal by blocking adenosine receptors. The four subtypes of adenosine receptors are distributed heterogeneously throughout the brain, yet the neurotransmitter systems and brain regions through which adenosine receptor blockade causes arousal are incompletely understood. This study tested the hypothesis that adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors in the prefrontal cortex contribute to the regulation of behavioral and cortical arousal. Dependent measures included acetylcholine (ACh) release in the prefrontal cortex, cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) power, and time to waking after anesthesia. Sleep and wakefulness were also quantified after microinjecting an adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist into the prefrontal cortex. The results showed that adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors in the prefrontal cortex modulate cortical ACh release, behavioral arousal, EEG delta power, and sleep. Additional dual microdialysis studies revealed that ACh release in the pontine reticular formation is significantly altered by dialysis delivery of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists to the prefrontal cortex. These data, and early brain transection studies demonstrating that the forebrain is not needed for sleep cycle generation, suggest that the prefrontal cortex modulates EEG and behavioral arousal via descending input to the pontine brainstem. The results provide novel evidence that adenosine A(1) receptors within the prefrontal cortex comprise part of a descending system that inhibits wakefulness.

  10. Ligand specificity of nuclear hormone receptors: sifting through promiscuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Noa

    2007-11-27

    The superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors includes transcription factors that play key roles in regulating multiple biological functions during embryonic development and in adult tissues, as well as in many disease states. The quintessential characteristic of nuclear receptors, and the basis for the name of the family, is that their transcriptional activities can be regulated by small molecules, usually comprised of hydrophobic compounds. However, the endogenous ligands for approximately half of the members of the nuclear receptor family are unknown, and these receptors are thus designated as "orphan receptors". One class of orphan receptors encompasses receptors that display a broad ligand selectivity; i.e., they can promiscuously bind to and may be activated by multiple ligands. This characteristic complicates the identification of physiologically meaningful ligands that activate these receptors in vivo. Here, we discuss a few examples of promiscuous receptors and outline strategies that may be employed in shedding light on the nature of bona fide ligands for such receptors.

  11. Medicinal chemistry of adenosine, P2Y and P2X receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Kenneth A; Müller, Christa E

    2016-05-01

    Pharmacological tool compounds are now available to define action at the adenosine (ARs), P2Y and P2X receptors. We present a selection of the most commonly used agents to study purines in the nervous system. Some of these compounds, including A1 and A3 AR agonists, P2Y1R and P2Y12R antagonists, and P2X3, P2X4 and P2X7 antagonists, are potentially of clinical use in treatment of disorders of the nervous system, such as chronic pain, neurodegeneration and brain injury. Agonists of the A2AAR and P2Y2R are already used clinically, P2Y12R antagonists are widely used antithrombotics and an antagonist of the A2AAR is approved in Japan for treating Parkinson's disease. The selectivity defined for some of the previously introduced compounds has been revised with updated pharmacological characterization, for example, various AR agonists and antagonists were deemed A1AR or A3AR selective based on human data, but species differences indicated a reduction in selectivity ratios in other species. Also, many of the P2R ligands still lack bioavailability due to charged groups or hydrolytic (either enzymatic or chemical) instability. X-ray crystallographic structures of AR and P2YRs have shifted the mode of ligand discovery to structure-based approaches rather than previous empirical approaches. The X-ray structures can be utilized either for in silico screening of chemically diverse libraries for the discovery of novel ligands or for enhancement of the properties of known ligands by chemical modification. Although X-ray structures of the zebrafish P2X4R have been reported, there is scant structural information about ligand recognition in these trimeric ion channels. In summary, there are definitive, selective agonists and antagonists for all of the ARs and some of the P2YRs; while the pharmacochemistry of P2XRs is still in nascent stages. The therapeutic potential of selectively modulating these receptors is continuing to gain interest in such fields as cancer, inflammation, pain

  12. A novel chemogenomics analysis of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and their ligands: a potential strategy for receptor de-orphanization

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    Emmerich Michael TM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs represent a family of well-characterized drug targets with significant therapeutic value. Phylogenetic classifications may help to understand the characteristics of individual GPCRs and their subtypes. Previous phylogenetic classifications were all based on the sequences of receptors, adding only minor information about the ligand binding properties of the receptors. In this work, we compare a sequence-based classification of receptors to a ligand-based classification of the same group of receptors, and evaluate the potential to use sequence relatedness as a predictor for ligand interactions thus aiding the quest for ligands of orphan receptors. Results We present a classification of GPCRs that is purely based on their ligands, complementing sequence-based phylogenetic classifications of these receptors. Targets were hierarchically classified into phylogenetic trees, for both sequence space and ligand (substructure space. The overall organization of the sequence-based tree and substructure-based tree was similar; in particular, the adenosine receptors cluster together as well as most peptide receptor subtypes (e.g. opioid, somatostatin and adrenoceptor subtypes. In ligand space, the prostanoid and cannabinoid receptors are more distant from the other targets, whereas the tachykinin receptors, the oxytocin receptor, and serotonin receptors are closer to the other targets, which is indicative for ligand promiscuity. In 93% of the receptors studied, de-orphanization of a simulated orphan receptor using the ligands of related receptors performed better than random (AUC > 0.5 and for 35% of receptors de-orphanization performance was good (AUC > 0.7. Conclusions We constructed a phylogenetic classification of GPCRs that is solely based on the ligands of these receptors. The similarities and differences with traditional sequence-based classifications were investigated: our ligand

  13. Essential Control of the Function of the Striatopallidal Neuron by Pre-coupled Complexes of Adenosine A2A-Dopamine D2 Receptor Heterotetramers and Adenylyl Cyclase

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    Sergi Ferré

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The central adenosine system and adenosine receptors play a fundamental role in the modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. This is mostly achieved by the strategic co-localization of different adenosine and dopamine receptor subtypes in the two populations of striatal efferent neurons, striatonigral and striatopallidal, that give rise to the direct and indirect striatal efferent pathways, respectively. With optogenetic techniques it has been possible to dissect a differential role of the direct and indirect pathways in mediating “Go” responses upon exposure to reward-related stimuli and “NoGo” responses upon exposure to non-rewarded or aversive-related stimuli, respectively, which depends on their different connecting output structures and their differential expression of dopamine and adenosine receptor subtypes. The striatopallidal neuron selectively expresses dopamine D2 receptors (D2R and adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR, and numerous experiments using multiple genetic and pharmacological in vitro, in situ and in vivo approaches, demonstrate they can form A2AR-D2R heteromers. It was initially assumed that different pharmacological interactions between dopamine and adenosine receptor ligands indicated the existence of different subpopulations of A2AR and D2R in the striatopallidal neuron. However, as elaborated in the present essay, most evidence now indicates that all interactions can be explained with a predominant population of striatal A2AR-D2R heteromers forming complexes with adenylyl cyclase subtype 5 (AC5. The A2AR-D2R heteromer has a tetrameric structure, with two homodimers, which allows not only multiple allosteric interactions between different orthosteric ligands, agonists, and antagonists, but also the canonical Gs-Gi antagonistic interaction at the level of AC5. We present a model of the function of the A2AR-D2R heterotetramer-AC5 complex, which acts as an integrative device of adenosine and dopamine signals that

  14. Metformin prevents myocardial reperfusion injury by activating the adenosine receptor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paiva, M.; Riksen, N.P.; Davidson, S.M.; Hausenloy, D.J.; Monteiro, P.; Goncalves, L.; Providencia, L.; Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.; Smits, P.; Mocanu, M.M.; Yellon, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Metformin improves cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with other glucose-lowering drugs. Experimental studies have shown that metformin can increase the intracellular concentration of adenosine monophosphate, which is a major determinant of the intracellular formation

  15. Ligand-directed trafficking of receptor stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    2014-12-01

    GPCRs are seven transmembrane-spanning receptors that convey specific extracellular stimuli to intracellular signalling. They represent the largest family of cell surface proteins that are therapeutically targeted. According to the traditional two-state model of receptor theory, GPCRs were considered as operating in equilibrium between two functional conformations, an active (R*) and inactive (R) state. Thus, it was assumed that a GPCR can exist either in an "off" or "on" conformation causing either no activation or equal activation of all its signalling pathways. Over the past several years it has become evident that this model is too simple and that GPCR signalling is far more complex. Different studies have presented a multistate model of receptor activation in which ligand-specific receptor conformations are able to differentiate between distinct signalling partners. Recent data show that beside G proteins numerous other proteins, such as β-arrestins and kinases, may interact with GPCRs and activate intracellular signalling pathways. GPCR activation may therefore involve receptor desensitization, coupling to multiple G proteins, Gα or Gβγ signalling, and pathway activation that is independent of G proteins. This latter effect leads to agonist "functional selectivity" (also called ligand-directed receptor trafficking, stimulus trafficking, biased agonism, biased signalling), and agonist intervention with functional selectivity may improve the therapy. Many commercially available drugs with beneficial efficacy also show various undesirable side effects. Further studies of biased signalling might facilitate our understanding of the side effects of current drugs and take us to new avenues to efficiently design pathway-specific medications. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. Adenosine enhances sweet taste through A2B receptors in the taste bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Pereira, Elizabeth; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2012-01-04

    Mammalian taste buds use ATP as a neurotransmitter. Taste Receptor (type II) cells secrete ATP via gap junction hemichannels into the narrow extracellular spaces within a taste bud. This ATP excites primary sensory afferent fibers and also stimulates neighboring taste bud cells. Here we show that extracellular ATP is enzymatically degraded to adenosine within mouse vallate taste buds and that this nucleoside acts as an autocrine neuromodulator to selectively enhance sweet taste. In Receptor cells in a lingual slice preparation, Ca(2+) mobilization evoked by focally applied artificial sweeteners was significantly enhanced by adenosine (50 μM). Adenosine had no effect on bitter or umami taste responses, and the nucleoside did not affect Presynaptic (type III) taste cells. We also used biosensor cells to measure transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Adenosine (5 μM) enhanced ATP release evoked by sweet but not bitter taste stimuli. Using single-cell reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR on isolated vallate taste cells, we show that many Receptor cells express the adenosine receptor, Adora2b, while Presynaptic (type III) and Glial-like (type I) cells seldom do. Furthermore, Adora2b receptors are significantly associated with expression of the sweet taste receptor subunit, Tas1r2. Adenosine is generated during taste stimulation mainly by the action of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase, NT5E, and to a lesser extent, prostatic acid phosphatase. Both these ecto-nucleotidases are expressed by Presynaptic cells, as shown by single-cell RT-PCR, enzyme histochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Our findings suggest that ATP released during taste reception is degraded to adenosine to exert positive modulation particularly on sweet taste.

  17. Autoradiographic localization of adenosine receptors in rat brain using [3H]cyclohexyladenosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.R.; Synder, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Adenosine (A1) receptor binding sites have been localized in rat brain by an in vitro light microscopic autoradiographic method. The binding of [ 3 H]N6-cyclohexyladenosine to slide-mounted rat brain tissue sections has the characteristics of A1 receptors. It is saturable with high affinity and has appropriate pharmacology and stereospecificity. The highest densities of adenosine receptors occur in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, the molecular and polymorphic layers of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus, the medial geniculate body, certain thalamic nuclei, and the lateral septum. High densities also are observed in certain layers of the cerebral cortex, the piriform cortex, the caudate-putamen, the nucleus accumbens, and the granule cell layer of the cerebellum. Most white matter areas, as well as certain gray matter areas, such as the hypothalamus, have negligible receptor concentrations. These localizations suggest possible central nervous system sites of action of adenosine

  18. Complex formation and functional interaction between adenosine A1 receptor and type-1 metabotropic glutamate receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Kamikubo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The adenosine A1 receptor (A1R is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR for adenosine, a ubiquitous neuromodulator, and thus regulates neuronal excitability, as well as arousal and sensitivity to pain. In addition, we have previously described a new mode of action for A1R: in cerebellar Purkinje cells, its activation attenuates neuronal responses to glutamate, as mediated by the type-1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1. mGluR1 is also a GPCR, and elicits such responses as long-term depression of the postsynaptic response to glutamate, a cellular basis for cerebellar motor learning. Here, we explore in greater detail the interaction between A1R and mGluR1 using non-neuronal cells. Co-immunoprecipitation and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET analysis reveal that A1R and mGluR1 form a complex. Furthermore, we found that mGluR1 activation inhibits A1R signaling, as measured by changes in intracellular cAMP. These findings demonstrate that A1R and mGluR1 have the intrinsic ability to form a heteromeric complex and mutually modulate signaling. This interaction may represent a new form of intriguing GPCR-mediated cellular responses.

  19. REDUCTION OF ADENOSINE-A1-RECEPTORS IN THE PERFORANT PATHWAY TERMINAL ZONE IN ALZHEIMER HIPPOCAMPUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JAARSMA, D; SEBENS, JB; KORF, J

    1991-01-01

    The cells of origin of the perforant pathway are destroyed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In rat the adenosine A1-receptors are specifically localized on the perforant path terminals in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. In the present study the density of A1-receptors in the hippocampus of

  20. Adenosine Receptor Stimulation Improves Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis in a Rat Model

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    Gabriele Pizzino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO is a secondary cause of bone loss. Bisphosphonates approved for GIO, might induce jaw osteonecrosis; thus additional therapeutics are required. Adenosine receptor agonists are positive regulators of bone remodeling, thus the efficacy of adenosine receptor stimulation for treating GIO was tested. In a preventive study GIO was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by methylprednisolone (MP for 60 days. Animals were randomly assigned to receive polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN, an adenosine A2 receptor agonist, or PDRN and DMPX (3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, an A2 antagonist, or vehicle (0.9% NaCl. Another set of animals was used for a treatment study, following the 60 days of MP-induction rats were randomized to receive (for additional 60 days PDRN, or PDRN and DMPX (an adenosine A2 receptor antagonist, or zoledronate (as control for gold standard treatment, or vehicle. Control animals were administered with vehicle for either 60 or 120 days. Femurs were analyzed after treatments for histology, imaging, and breaking strength analysis. MP treatment induced severe bone loss, the concomitant use of PDRN prevented the developing of osteoporosis. In rats treated for 120 days, PDRN restored bone architecture and bone strength; increased b-ALP, osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin and stimulated the Wnt canonical and non-canonical pathway. Zoledronate reduced bone resorption and ameliorated the histological features, without significant effects on bone formation. Our results suggest that adenosine receptor stimulation might be useful for preventing and treating GIO.

  1. Novel ligands for the human adenosine A1 receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Lisa Chung Wai

    2005-01-01

    This research describes the quest to create 'super-caffeines', substances that only produce the desired effects of caffeine, and unlike caffeine, substances that should only have to be taken in measured, minute, controlled amounts to achieve these effects. Unless particular steps are taken to avoid

  2. Autoradiographic localization of adenosine A1 receptors in rat brain using [3H]XCC, a functionalized congener of 1,3-dipropylxanthine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, M.J.; Williams, M.; Jacobson, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiography was used to visualize the anatomical distribution of adenosine receptors labeled by the carboxylic acid congener of 1,3-dipropylxanthine, [ 3 Hi](8-(p-carbonxymethyloxy) phenyl-1,3 dipropylxanthine)([ 3 H]XCC) in rat brain. [ 3 H]XCC was observed to specifically bind to rat brain sagittal sections in a heterogenous pattern. Saturation experiments revealed that [ 3 H]XCC binds with nanomolar affinity to 20μm frozen tissue sections with the highest binding densities occurring in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Both the binding characteristics and regional receptor distribution obtained with [ 3 H]XCC demonstrate the potential usefulness of this new ligand in the study of adenosine A 1 receptors. 13 refs. (Author)

  3. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists and Parkinson's disease: state of the art and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simola, N; Morelli, M; Pinna, A

    2008-01-01

    Adenosine A(2A) receptors present in the central nervous system have been implicated in the modulation of motor functions. Accordingly, adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists currently constitute an attractive non-dopaminergic option for use in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). The highly enriched distributions of adenosine A(2A) receptors in striatopallidal neurons, and their ability to form functional heteromeric complexes with dopamine D(2) and metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 receptors, render A(2A) receptor antagonists of particular interest in the modulation of motor behavior, whilst at the same time displaying a low predisposition to inducing non-motor side effects. Furthermore, adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists appear to exert a marked efficacy on PD tremor and in reducing the progress of underlying neurodegeneration and maladaptive neuroplasticity that complicates standard dopamine replacement treatments in PD. Finally, recent evidence has illustrated an improvement of cognitive function as well as enhancement of attention in rodents following administration of A(2A) receptor antagonists. This article is aimed at examining preclinical studies describing these findings as well as reports from clinical trials, in order to provide a comprehensive review of the evidence suggesting that this class of drugs may represent an advance in the treatment of PD.

  4. Estrogen stimulates adenosine receptor expression subtypes in human breast cancer MCF-7 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadi, Azam; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Panjehpour, Mojtaba

    2018-02-01

    Estrogen is a steroid hormone that plays a key role in the development and regulation of reproductive system. It has been shown that estrogen is related to breast cancer development through binding to its receptors. In order to uncover the estrogen effects on adenosine receptor expression, estrogen-positive MCF-7 cells were used to treat with agonist and antagonist of estrogen and then the mRNA expression of adenosine receptor subtypes were evaluated. Estrogen-positive MCF-7 cells were treated with various concentrations of 17β estradiol (E2) as an estrogen agonist, and ICI 182,780 as an estrogen antagonist. The gene expression of adenosine receptor subtypes were detected by real time RT-PCR. The results of MTT assay showed that E2 increased cell viability in a dose dependent manner. The expression pattern of all adenosine receptor subtypes are as follow; A2b > A1 > A2a > A3 in untreated MCF-7 cells. Obtained results showed that E2 incubation at 0.001-0.01 μM led to up-regulation of A1ARs, A2aARs and A3ARs dose dependently. E2 at 0.001 μM also had no significant effect on A2bARs expression but, at higher doses induced a considerable decrease in mRNA A2bARs expression. Treatment with antagonist confirmed that up-regulation of these receptors is mediated by estrogen receptor. Taken together, our results indicate that treatment of MCF-7 cells with E2 led to up-regulation of adenosine receptors. However, these effects were partially restored by treatment with antagonist suggesting that such effects are mediated by estrogen receptors.

  5. Novel Somatostatin Receptor Ligands Therapies for Acromegaly

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    Rosa Maria Paragliola

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is considered the treatment of choice in acromegaly, but patients with persistent disease after surgery or in whom surgery cannot be considered require medical therapy. Somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs octreotide (OCT, lanreotide, and the more recently approved pasireotide, characterized by a broader receptor ligand binding profile, are considered the mainstay in the medical management of acromegaly. However, in the attempt to offer a more efficacious and better tolerated medical approach, recent research has been aimed to override some limitations related to the use of currently approved drugs and novel SRLs therapies, with potential attractive features, have been proposed. These include both new formulation of older molecules and new molecules. Novel OCT formulations are aimed in particular to improve patients’ compliance and to reduce injection discomfort. They include an investigational ready-to-use subcutaneous depot OCT formulation (CAM2029, delivered via prefilled syringes and oral OCT that uses a “transient permeability enhancer” technology, which allows for OCT oral absorption. Another new delivery system is a long-lasting OCT implant (VP-003, which provide stable doses of OCT throughout a period of several months. Finally, a new SRL DG3173 (somatoprim seems to be more selective for GH secretion, suggesting possible advantages in the presence of hyperglycemia or diabetes. How much these innovations will actually be beneficial to acromegaly patients in real clinical practice remains to be seen.

  6. Substrate coated with receptor and labelled ligand for assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Improvements in the procedures for assaying ligands are described. The assay consists of a polystyrene tube on which receptors are present for both the ligand to be assayed and a radioactively labelled form of the ligand. The receptors on the bottom portion of the tube are also coated with labelled ligands, thus eliminating the necessity for separate addition of the labelled ligand and sample during an assay. Examples of ligands to which this method is applicable include polypeptides, nucleotides, nucleosides and proteins. Specific examples are given in which the ligand to be assayed is digoxin, the labelled form of the ligand is 3-0-succinyl digoxyigenin tyrosine ( 125 I) and the receptor is digoxin antibody. (U.K.)

  7. Adenosine A2A Receptors Modulate Acute Injury and Neuroinflammation in Brain Ischemia

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    Felicita Pedata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular concentration of adenosine in the brain increases dramatically during ischemia. Adenosine A2A receptor is expressed in neurons and glial cells and in inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and granulocytes. Recently, adenosine A2A receptor emerged as a potential therapeutic attractive target in ischemia. Ischemia is a multifactorial pathology characterized by different events evolving in the time. After ischemia the early massive increase of extracellular glutamate is followed by activation of resident immune cells, that is, microglia, and production or activation of inflammation mediators. Proinflammatory cytokines, which upregulate cell adhesion molecules, exert an important role in promoting recruitment of leukocytes that in turn promote expansion of the inflammatory response in ischemic tissue. Protracted neuroinflammation is now recognized as the predominant mechanism of secondary brain injury progression. A2A receptors present on central cells and on blood cells account for important effects depending on the time-related evolution of the pathological condition. Evidence suggests that A2A receptor antagonists provide early protection via centrally mediated control of excessive excitotoxicity, while A2A receptor agonists provide protracted protection by controlling massive blood cell infiltration in the hours and days after ischemia. Focus on inflammatory responses provides for adenosine A2A receptor agonists a wide therapeutic time-window of hours and even days after stroke.

  8. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kataoka

    Full Text Available In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3 on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate, but not anterior (fungiform, palate taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  9. Adenosine receptors and muscarinic receptors cooperate in acetylcholine release modulation in the neuromuscular synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santafe, M M; Priego, M; Obis, T; Garcia, N; Tomàs, M; Lanuza, M A; Tomàs, J

    2015-07-01

    Adenosine receptors (ARs) are present in the motor terminals at the mouse neuromuscular junction. ARs and the presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) share the functional control of the neuromuscular junction. We analysed their mutual interaction in transmitter release modulation. In electrophysiological experiments with unaltered synaptic transmission (muscles paralysed by blocking the voltage-dependent sodium channel of the muscle cells with μ-conotoxin GIIIB), we found that: (i) a collaborative action between different AR subtypes reduced synaptic depression at a moderate activity level (40 Hz); (ii) at high activity levels (100 Hz), endogenous adenosine production in the synaptic cleft was sufficient to reduce depression through A1 -type receptors (A1 Rs) and A2 A-type receptors (A2 A Rs); (iii) when the non-metabolizable 2-chloroadenosine (CADO) agonist was used, both the quantal content and depression were reduced; (iv) the protective effect of CADO on depression was mediated by A1 Rs, whereas A2 A Rs seemed to modulate A1 Rs; (v) ARs and mAChRs absolutely depended upon each other for the modulation of evoked and spontaneous acetylcholine release in basal conditions and in experimental conditions with CADO stimulation; (vi) the purinergic and muscarinic mechanisms cooperated in the control of depression by sharing a common pathway although the purinergic control was more powerful than the muscarinic control; and (vii) the imbalance of the ARs created by using subtype-selective and non-selective inhibitory and stimulatory agents uncoupled protein kinase C from evoked transmitter release. In summary, ARs (A1 Rs, A2 A Rs) and mAChRs (M1 , M2 ) cooperated in the control of activity-dependent synaptic depression and may share a common protein kinase C pathway. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Identification of the A2 adenosine receptor binding subunit by photoaffinity crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrington, W.W.; Jacobson, K.A.; Hutchison, A.J.; Williams, M.; Stiles, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    A high-affinity iodinated agonist radioligand for the A2 adenosine receptor has been synthesized to facilitate studies of the A2 adenosine receptor binding subunit. The radioligand 125I-labeled PAPA-APEC (125I-labeled 2-[4-(2-[2-[(4- aminophenyl)methylcarbonylamino]ethylaminocarbonyl]- ethyl)phenyl]ethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine) was synthesized and found to bind to the A2 adenosine receptor in bovine striatal membranes with high affinity (Kd = 1.5 nM) and A2 receptor selectivity. Competitive binding studies reveal the appropriate A2 receptor pharmacologic potency order with 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) greater than (-)-N6-[(R)-1-methyl- 2-phenylethyl]adenosine (R-PIA) greater than (+)-N6-[(S)-1-methyl-2- phenylethyl]adenosine (S-PIA). Adenylate cyclase assays, in human platelet membranes, demonstrate a dose-dependent stimulation of cAMP production. PAPA-APEC (1 microM) produces a 43% increase in cAMP production, which is essentially the same degree of increase produced by 5'-N- ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (the prototypic A2 receptor agonist). These findings combined with the observed guanine nucleotide-mediated decrease in binding suggest that PAPA-APEC is a full A2 agonist. The A2 receptor binding subunit was identified by photoaffinity-crosslinking studies using 125I-labeled PAPA-APEC and the heterobifunctional crosslinking agent N-succinimidyl 6-(4'-azido-2'-nitrophenylamino)hexanoate (SANPAH). After covalent incorporation, a single specifically radiolabeled protein with an apparent molecular mass of 45 kDa was observed on NaDodSO4/PAGE/autoradiography. Incorporation of 125I-labeled PAPA-APEC into this polypeptide is blocked by agonists and antagonists with the expected potency for A2 receptors and is decreased in the presence of 10(-4) M guanosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate

  11. Adenosine A2A receptor hyperexpression in patients with severe SIRS after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbaul, François; Bénard, Frédéric; Giorgi, Roch; Youlet, By; Carrega, Louis; Zouher, Ibrahim; Mercier, Laurence; Gérolami, Victoria; Bénas, Vincent; Blayac, Dorothée; Gariboldi, Vlad; Collart, Frédéric; Guieu, Régis

    2008-08-01

    Adenosine (ADO) is an endogenous nucleoside, which has been involved in blood pressure failure during severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome (severe SIRS) after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Adenosine acts via its receptor subtypes, namely A1, A2A, A2B, or A3. Because A2A receptors are implicated in vascular tone, their expression might contribute to severe SIRS. We compared adenosine plasma levels (APLs) and A2A ADO receptor expression (ie, B, K, and mRNA amount) in patients with or without postoperative SIRS. : This was a prospective comparative observational study. Forty-four patients who underwent cardiac surgery involving CPB. Ten healthy subjects served as controls. Among the patients, 11 presented operative vasoplegia and postoperative SIRS (named complicated patients) and 33 were without vasoplegia or SIRS (named uncomplicated patients). Adenosine plasma levels, K, B, and mRNA amount (mean +/- SD) were measured on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Adenosine plasma levels, B, and K were significantly higher in complicated patients than in uncomplicated patients (APLs: 2.7 +/- 1.0 vs 1.0 +/- 0.5 micromol l, P SIRS after CPB.

  12. Adenosine inhibits neutrophil vascular endothelial growth factor release and transendothelial migration via A2B receptor activation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wakai, A

    2012-02-03

    The effects of adenosine on neutrophil (polymorphonuclear neutrophils; PMN)-directed changes in vascular permeability are poorly characterized. This study investigated whether adenosine modulates activated PMN vascular endothelial growth factor (vascular permeability factor; VEGF) release and transendothelial migration. PMN activated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, 10 ng\\/mL) were incubated with adenosine and its receptor-specific analogues. Culture supernatants were assayed for VEGF. PMN transendothelial migration across human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers was assessed in vitro. Adhesion molecule receptor expression was assessed flow cytometrically. Adenosine and some of its receptor-specific analogues dose-dependently inhibited activated PMN VEGF release. The rank order of potency was consistent with the affinity profile of human A2B receptors. The inhibitory effect of adenosine was reversed by 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, an A2 receptor antagonist. Adenosine (100 microM) or the A2B receptor agonist 5\\'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA, 100 microM) significantly reduced PMN transendothelial migration. However, expression of activated PMN beta2 integrins and HUVEC ICAM-1 were not significantly altered by adenosine or NECA. Adenosine attenuates human PMN VEGF release and transendothelial migration via the A2B receptor. This provides a novel target for the modulation of PMN-directed vascular hyperpermeability in conditions such as the capillary leak syndrome.

  13. NCS-1 associates with adenosine A2A receptors and modulates receptor function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eNavarro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR signalling by local changes in intracellular calcium concentration is an established function of Calmodulin which is known to interact with many GPCRs. Less is known about the functional role of the closely related neuronal EF-hand Ca2+-sensor proteins that frequently associate with calmodulin targets with different functional outcome. In the present study we aimed to investigate if a target of calmodulin – the A2A adenosine receptor, is able to associate with two other neuronal calcium binding proteins, namely NCS-1 and caldendrin. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and co-immunoprecipitation experiments we show the existence of A2A - NCS-1 complexes in living cells whereas caldendrin did not associate with A2A receptors under the conditions tested. Interestingly, NCS-1 binding modulated downstream A2A receptor intracellular signalling in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Taken together this study provides further evidence that neuronal Ca2+-sensor proteins play an important role in modulation of GPCR signalling.

  14. Adenosine A2A receptor binding profile of two antagonists, ST1535 and KW6002: consideration on the presence of atypical adenosine A2A binding sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Riccioni

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine A2A receptors seem to exist in typical (more in striatum and atypical (more in hippocampus and cortex subtypes. In the present study, we investigated the affinity of two adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, ST1535 [2 butyl -9-methyl-8-(2H-1,2,3-triazol 2-yl-9H-purin-6-xylamine] and KW6002 [(E-1,3-diethyl-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl-7-methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6,dione] to the “typical” and “atypical” A2A binding sites. Affinity was determined by radioligand competition experiments in membranes from rat striatum and hippocampus. Displacement of the adenosine analog [3H]CGS21680 [2-p-(2-carboxyethylphenethyl-amino-5’-N-ethylcarbox-amidoadenosine] was evaluated in the absence or in the presence of either CSC [8-(3-chlorostyryl-caffeine], an adenosine A2A antagonist that pharmacologically isolates atypical binding sites, or DPCPX (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist that pharmacologically isolates typical binding site. ZM241385 [84-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl [1,2,4]-triazol[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-yl amino]ethyl phenol] and SCH58261 [(5-amino-7-(β-phenylethyl-2-(8-furylpyrazolo(4,3-e-1,2,4-triazolo(1,5-c pyrimidine], two other adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, which were reported to differently bind to atypical and typical A2A receptors, were used as reference compounds. ST1535, KW6002, ZM241385 and SCH58261 displaced [3H]CGS21680 with higher affinity in striatum than in hippocampus. In hippocampus, no typical adenosine A2A binding was detected, and ST1535 was the only compound that occupied atypical A2A adenosine receptors. Present data are explained in terms of heteromeric association among adenosine A2A, A2B and A1 receptors, rather than with the presence of atypical A2A receptor subtype.

  15. Hematopoiesis in 5-Fluorouracil-Treated Adenosine A(3) Receptor Knock-Out Mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Dušek, L.; Hoferová, Zuzana; Komůrková, Denisa

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2 (2015), s. 255-262 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Adenosine A(3) receptor knock-out mice * Hematopoiesis * 5-fluorouracil-induced hematotoxicity Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2015

  16. Attenuated renovascular constrictor responses to angiotensin II in adenosine 1 receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B; Hashimoto, Seiji; Briggs, Josie

    2003-01-01

    In the present experiments we examined the renovascular constrictor effects of ANG II in the chronic and complete absence of A1 adenosine receptors (A1AR) using mice with targeted deletion of the A1AR gene. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was not different between A1AR +/+ and A1AR -/- mice unde...

  17. Adenosine activates brown adipose tissue and recruits beige adipocytes via A2A receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnad, Thorsten; Scheibler, Saskia; von Kügelgen, Ivar

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized in energy expenditure, making it a potential target for anti-obesity therapies. Following exposure to cold, BAT is activated by the sympathetic nervous system with concomitant release of catecholamines and activation of β-adrenergic receptors. Because BAT...... therapies based on cold exposure or β-adrenergic agonists are clinically not feasible, alternative strategies must be explored. Purinergic co-transmission might be involved in sympathetic control of BAT and previous studies reported inhibitory effects of the purinergic transmitter adenosine in BAT from...... receptor is the most abundant adenosine receptor in human and murine BAT. Pharmacological blockade or genetic loss of A2A receptors in mice causes a decrease in BAT-dependent thermogenesis, whereas treatment with A2A agonists significantly increases energy expenditure. Moreover, pharmacological stimulation...

  18. Adenosine A1 receptor inhibits postnatal neurogenesis and sustains astrogliogenesis from the subventricular zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Muñoz, Monica; Matute, Carlos; Cavaliere, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    We previously demonstrated that activation of ATP P2X receptors during oxygen and glucose deprivation inhibits neuroblast migration and in vitro neurogenesis from the subventricular zone (SVZ). Here, we have studied the effects of adenosine, the natural end-product of ATP hydrolysis, in modulating neurogenesis and gliogenesis from the SVZ. We provide immunochemical, molecular and pharmacological evidence that adenosine via A1 receptors reduces neuronal differentiation of neurosphere cultures generated from postnatal SVZ. Furthermore, activation of A1 receptors induces downregulation of genes related to neurogenesis as demonstrated by gene expression analysis. Specifically, we found that A1 receptors trigger a signaling cascade that, through the release of IL10, turns on the Bmp2/SMAD pathway. Furthermore, activating A1 receptors in SVZ-neural progenitor cells inhibits neurogenesis and stimulates astrogliogenesis as assayed in vitro in neurosphere cultures and in vivo in the olfactory bulb. Together, these data indicate that adenosine acting at A1 receptors negatively regulates adult neurogenesis while promoting astrogliogenesis, and that this feature may be relevant to pathological conditions whereby purines are profusely released. GLIA 2016;64:1465-1478. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Sleep deprivation increases A1 adenosine receptor density in the rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Elmenhorst, David; Basheer, Radhika; McCarley, Robert W.; Bauer, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Adenosine, increasing after sleep deprivation and acting via the A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR), is likely a key factor in the homeostatic control of sleep. This study examines the impact of sleep deprivation on A1AR density in different parts of the rat brain with [3H]CPFPX autoradiography. Binding of [3H]CPFPX was significantly increased in parietal cortex (PAR) (7%), thalamus (11%) and caudate-putamen (9%) after 24 h of sleep deprivation compared to a control group with an undisturbed circad...

  20. Activation of nicotinic ACh receptors with alpha4 subunits induces adenosine release at the rat carotid body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Sílvia V; Monteiro, Emília C

    2006-04-01

    The effect of ACh on the release of adenosine was studied in rat whole carotid bodies, and the nicotinic ACh receptors involved in the stimulation of this release were characterized. ACh and nicotinic ACh receptor agonists, cytisine, DMPP and nicotine, caused a concentration-dependent increase in adenosine production during normoxia, with nicotine being more potent and efficient in stimulating adenosine release from rat CB than cytisine and DMPP. D-Tubocurarine, mecamylamine, DHbetaE and alpha-bungarotoxin, nicotinic ACh receptor antagonists, caused a concentration-dependent reduction in the release of adenosine evoked by hypoxia. The rank order of potency for nicotinic ACh receptor antagonists that inhibit adenosine release was DHbetaE>mecamylamine>D-tubocurarine>alpha-bungarotoxin. The effect of the endogenous agonist, ACh, which was mimicked by nicotine, was antagonized by DHbetaE, a selective nicotinic receptor antagonist. The ecto-5'-nucleotidase inhibitor AOPCP produces a 72% inhibition in the release of adenosine from CB evoked by nicotine. Taken together, these data indicate that ACh induced the production of adenosine, mainly from extracellular ATP catabolism at the CB through a mechanism that involves the activation of nicotinic receptors with alpha4 and beta2 receptor subunits.

  1. Adenosine receptors in rat and human pancreatic ducts stimulate chloride transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Hede, Susanne; Hansen, Mette

    2007-01-01

    adenocarcinoma lines showed that they express A(1), A(2A), A(2B), and A(3) receptors. Real-time PCR revealed relatively low messenger RNA levels of adenosine receptors compared to beta-actin; the rank order for the receptors was A(2A) > A(2B) >/= A(3) >> A(1) for rat pancreas and A(2B) > A(2A) >> A(3) >/= A(1......) for duct cell lines. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings on rat pancreatic ducts showed that, in about half of the recordings, adenosine depolarized the membrane voltage, and this was because of the opening of Cl(-) channels. Using a Cl(-)-sensitive fluorophore and single-cell imaging on duct cell lines...

  2. Agonist action of adenosine triphosphates at the human P2Y1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R K; Boyer, J L; Schachter, J B; Nicholas, R A; Harden, T K

    1998-12-01

    The agonist selectivity for adenosine di- and triphosphates was determined for the human P2Y1 receptor stably expressed in human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells and was studied under conditions in which nucleotide metabolism was both minimized and assessed. Cells were grown at low density on glass coverslips, encased in a flow-through chamber, and continuously superfused with medium, and Ca2+ responses to nucleotides were quantified. Superfusion with high performance liquid chromatographically purified ADP, ATP, 2-methylthio-ADP, and 2-methylthio-ATP resulted in rapid Ca2+ responses, with EC50 values of 10 +/- 5, 304 +/- 51, 2 +/- 1, and 116 +/- 50 nM, respectively. Similar peak responses were observed with maximal concentrations of these four agonists and with the hydrolysis-resistant adenine nucleoside triphosphate adenosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate). No conversion of [3H]ATP to [3H]ADP occurred under these conditions. Similar full agonist activities of ATP, 2-methylthio-ATP, and ADP were observed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, which natively express the P2Y1 receptor. In contrast to these results, Leon et al. [FEBS Lett 403:26-30 (1997)] and Hechler et al. [Mol Pharmacol 53:727-733 (1998)] recently reported that, whereas ADP and 2-methylthio-ADP were agonists, ATP and 2-methylthio-ATP were weak antagonists in studies of the human P2Y1 receptor expressed in human Jurkat cells. To assess whether differences in the degree of receptor reserve might explain this discrepancy of results, P2Y1 receptor-expressing 1321N1 cells were incubated for 24 hr with adenosine-5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate), with the goal of down-regulating the level of functional receptors. Pretreatment with adenosine-5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) resulted in a 10-fold rightward shift in the concentration-effect curve for ADP; in contrast, the agonist activity of ATP was completely abolished. Taken together, our results indicate that adenosine di- and triphosphates are agonists at the human P2Y1 receptor

  3. The adenosine A2B receptor is involved in anion secretion in human pancreatic duct Capan-1 epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, M.; Inagaki, A.; Novak, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine modulates a wide variety of biological processes via adenosine receptors. In the exocrine pancreas, adenosine regulates transepithelial anion secretion in duct cells and is considered to play a role in acini-to-duct signaling. To identify the functional adenosine receptors and Cl...... by CFTRinh-172, a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel inhibitor. The adenosine A2B receptor agonist, BAY 60-6583, increased Isc and whole-cell Cl− currents through CFTR Cl− channels, whereas the A2A receptor agonist, CGS 21680, had negligible effects. The A2B receptor....... These results demonstrate that luminal adenosine regulates anion secretion by activating CFTR Cl− channels via adenosine A2B receptors on the luminal membranes of Capan-1 cells. The present study endorses that purinergic signaling is important in the regulation of pancreatic secretion....

  4. Structural basis for ligand recognition of incretin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underwood, Christina Rye; Parthier, Christoph; Reedtz-Runge, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor and the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor are homologous G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Incretin receptor agonists stimulate the synthesis and secretion of insulin from pancreatic β-cells and are therefore promising agents...... appear to be the main driving force for ligand binding to the ECD of incretin receptors. Obviously, the-still missing-structures of full-length incretin receptors are required to construct a complete picture of receptor function at the molecular level. However, the progress made recently in structural...

  5. Epibatidine-derivatives: ligands for the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westera, G.; Patt, J.T.; Jankowski, K.; Bertrand, D.; Spang, J.; Schubiger, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    Epibatidine, isolated from the Ecuadorian frog Epipedobates tricolar, has been synthesized. 11 C-N-methyl derivate is investigated as useful nicotinergic receptor ligand by electrophysiological methods and in vivo mice experiments. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs

  6. GIRK channel activation via adenosine or muscarinic receptors has similar effects on rat atrial electrophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Liang, Bo; Skibsbye, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K+ channels (GIRK) are important in the regulation of heart rate and atrial electrophysiology. GIRK channels are activated by G protein-coupled receptors, including muscarinic M2 receptors and adenosine A1 receptors. The aim of this study was to characterize....... The coapplication of TTQ reversed the CPA and ACh-induced effects. When TTQ was applied without exogenous receptor activator, both APD90 and ERP were prolonged and RMP was depolarized, confirming a basal activity of the GIRK current. The results reveal that activation of A1 and M2 receptors has a profound and equal...... effect on the electrophysiology in rat atrium. This effect is to a major extent mediated through GIRK channels. Furthermore, these results support the notion that atrial GIRK currents from healthy hearts have a basal component and additional activation can be mediated via at least 2 different receptor...

  7. Two disparate ligand binding sites in the human P2Y1 receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Zhang, Kaihua; Kiselev, Evgeny; Crane, Steven; Wang, Jiang; Paoletta, Silvia; Yi, Cuiying; Ma, Limin; Zhang, Wenru; Han, Gye Won; Liu, Hong; Cherezov, Vadim; Katritch, Vsevolod; Jiang, Hualiang; Stevens, Raymond C.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Zhao, Qiang; Wu, Beili

    2015-01-01

    In response to adenosine 5′-diphosphate, the P2Y1 receptor (P2Y1R) facilitates platelet aggregation, and thus serves as an important antithrombotic drug target. Here we report the crystal structures of the human P2Y1R in complex with a nucleotide antagonist MRS2500 at 2.7Å resolution, and with a non-nucleotide antagonist BPTU at 2.2Å resolution. The structures reveal two distinct ligand binding sites, providing atomic details of P2Y1R’s unique ligand binding modes. MRS2500 recognizes a binding site within the seven transmembrane bundle of P2Y1R, which, however, is different in shape and location from the nucleotide binding site in previously determined P2Y12R structure. BPTU binds to an allosteric pocket on the external receptor interface with the lipid bilayer, making it the first structurally characterized selective G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligand located entirely outside of the helical bundle. These high-resolution insights into P2Y1R should enable discovery of new orthosteric and allosteric antithrombotic drugs with reduced adverse effects. PMID:25822790

  8. Downregulation of the Adenosine A2b Receptor by RNA Interference Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Hong-Jun; Chai, Fu-Lu; Wang, De-Sheng; Dou, Ke-Feng

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the biological effect of adenosine A2b receptor (A2bR) on the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2, three A2bR siRNA constructs were transiently transfected into HepG2 cells. The results showed that A2bR siRNA reduced the levels of A2bR mRNA and protein. In order to further detect the function of A2bR, we established a stable hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) expressing siRNA targeting the adenosine A2b receptor. Targeted RNAi significantly inhibited tumor ce...

  9. Interactions between Calmodulin, Adenosine A2A, and Dopamine D2 Receptors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Aymerich, Marisol S.; Marcellino, Daniel; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I.; Agnati, Luigi; Woods, Amina S.; Fuxe, Kjell; Lluís, Carmen; Lanciego, Jose Luis; Ferré, Sergi; Franco, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The Ca2+-binding protein calmodulin (CaM) has been shown to bind directly to cytoplasmic domains of some G protein-coupled receptors, including the dopamine D2 receptor. CaM binds to the N-terminal portion of the long third intracellular loop of the D2 receptor, within an Arg-rich epitope that is also involved in the binding to Gi/o proteins and to the adenosine A2A receptor, with the formation of A2A-D2 receptor heteromers. In the present work, by using proteomics and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) techniques, we provide evidence for the binding of CaM to the A2A receptor. By using BRET and sequential resonance energy transfer techniques, evidence was obtained for CaM-A2A-D2 receptor oligomerization. BRET competition experiments indicated that, in the A2A-D2 receptor heteromer, CaM binds preferentially to a proximal C terminus epitope of the A2A receptor. Furthermore, Ca2+ was found to induce conformational changes in the CaM-A2A-D2 receptor oligomer and to selectively modulate A2A and D2 receptor-mediated MAPK signaling in the A2A-D2 receptor heteromer. These results may have implications for basal ganglia disorders, since A2A-D2 receptor heteromers are being considered as a target for anti-parkinsonian agents. PMID:19632986

  10. Caffeine, Adenosine Receptors and Estrogen in Toxin Models of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-30

    van Calker, D., Muller, M., Hamprecht, B., 1979. Adenosine regulates via two different types of receptors, the accumulation of cyclic AMP in cultured...calcium/calmodulin­ dependent protein kinase type II/IV; cAMP, cyclic AMP ; CREB, cAMP response element-binding protein; Kþ, potassium channel; DARPP-32...patients. Neurology, 52, 1916. Kulisevsky, J., Barbanoj, M., Gironell, A., Antonijoan, R., Casas , M., & Pascual-Sedano, B. (2002). A double-blind

  11. Role of Adenosine Receptor A2A in Traumatic Optic Neuropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    transient focal ischemia in mice. J. Neurosci. 19, 9192–9200. Collis, M.G., Hourani, S.M., 1993. Adenosine receptor subtypes. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 14...4 INTRODUCTION Traumatic optic nerve injury is commonly seen in motor vehicle accidents , assaults, and in the theater of war... ischemia , which in turn leads to neuronal cell death (El-Remessy et al., 2006). Under these conditions, normally quiescent microglial cells become

  12. Exploiting ligand-protein conjugates to monitor ligand-receptor interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohito Haruki

    Full Text Available We introduce three assays for analyzing ligand-receptor interactions based on the specific conjugation of ligands to SNAP-tag fusion proteins. Conjugation of ligands to different SNAP-tag fusions permits the validation of suspected interactions in cell extracts and fixed cells as well as the establishment of high-throughput assays. The different assays allow the analysis of strong and weak interactions. Conversion of ligands into SNAP-tag substrates thus provides access to a powerful toolbox for the analysis of their interactions with proteins.

  13. The neuronal Ca(2+) -binding protein 2 (NECAB2) interacts with the adenosine A(2A) receptor and modulates the cell surface expression and function of the receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Laia; Luján, Rafael; Lluís, Carme; Burgueño, Javier; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Franco, Rafael; Ciruela, Francisco

    2007-09-01

    Heptaspanning membrane also known as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) do interact with a variety of intracellular proteins whose function is regulate receptor traffic and/or signaling. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, NECAB2, a neuronal calcium binding protein, was identified as a binding partner for the adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) interacting with its C-terminal domain. Co-localization, co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments showed a close and specific interaction between A(2A)R and NECAB2 in both transfected HEK-293 cells and also in rat striatum. Immunoelectron microscopy detection of NECAB2 and A(2A)R in the rat striatopallidal structures indicated that both proteins are co-distributed in the same glutamatergic nerve terminals. The interaction of NECAB2 with A(2A)R modulated the cell surface expression, the ligand-dependent internalization and the receptor-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway. Overall, these results show that A(2A)R interacts with NECAB2 in striatal neurones co-expressing the two proteins and that the interaction is relevant for A(2A)R function.

  14. Competitive antagonism of AMPA receptors by ligands of different classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogner, Anders; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Liljefors, Tommy

    2003-01-01

    that ATPO and DNQX stabilize an open form of the ligand-binding core by different sets of interactions. Computational techniques are used to quantify the differences between these two ligands and to map the binding site. The isoxazole moiety of ATPO acts primarily as a spacer, and other scaffolds could......-(phosphonomethoxy)-4-isoxazolyl]propionic acid (ATPO) in complex with the ligand-binding core of the receptor. Comparison with the only previous structure of the ligand-binding core in complex with an antagonist, 6,7-dinitro-2,3-quinoxalinedione (DNQX) (Armstrong, N.; Gouaux, E. Neuron 2000, 28, 165-181), reveals...

  15. Mast cell degranulation following adenosine A3 receptor activation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozard, J R; Pfannkuche, H J; Schuurman, H J

    1996-03-18

    The present studies were carried out to provide further evidence for the hypothesis that the hypotensive response to adenosine A3 receptor activation in the anaesthetized rat involves mediator release from mast cells. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and given just supramaximal hypotensive doses of either the non-selective A3 receptor agonist, N6(-2)-(4-aminophenyl)ethyladenosine (APNEA: 100 micrograms/kg, preceded by the A1/A2 receptor antagonist, 8-p-(sulphophenyl)theophylline, to "isolate' the A3 receptor-mediated component of the response), the mast cell degranulating agent, compound 48/80 (300 micrograms/kg) or the vehicle for APNEA, intravenously. Blood was withdrawn from a carotid artery between 2 and 10 min after the injection and plasma and serum histamine concentrations measured. Samples of connective tissue (surrounding the abdominal musculature), thymus, mesenteric lymph node, kidney, skin and diaphragm were removed for histological analysis. The plasma and serum histamine concentrations were markedly and significantly higher in the APNEA- or compound 48/80-treated animals compared to vehicle-treated controls. Consistent with this, a substantially greater proportion of mast cells was seen to be undergoing degranulation in all tissues removed from animals treated with APNEA or compound 48/80 compared to those from rats treated with vehicle. Thus, adenosine A3 receptor activation results in rapid mast cell degranulation in the anaesthetized rat. The data provide further evidence of a key role for the mast cell in adenosine A3 receptor-mediated hypotension in this species.

  16. Binding of the Antagonist Caffeine to the Human Adenosine Receptor hA2AR in Nearly Physiological Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruyin Cao

    Full Text Available Lipid composition may significantly affect membrane proteins function, yet its impact on the protein structural determinants is not well understood. Here we present a comparative molecular dynamics (MD study of the human adenosine receptor type 2A (hA(2AR in complex with caffeine--a system of high neuro-pharmacological relevance--within different membrane types. These are POPC, mixed POPC/POPE and cholesterol-rich membranes. 0.8-μs MD simulations unambiguously show that the helical folding of the amphipathic helix 8 depends on membrane contents. Most importantly, the distinct cholesterol binding into the cleft between helix 1 and 2 stabilizes a specific caffeine-binding pose against others visited during the simulation. Hence, cholesterol presence (~33%-50% in synaptic membrane in central nervous system, often neglected in X-ray determination of membrane proteins, affects the population of the ligand binding poses. We conclude that including a correct description of neuronal membranes may be very important for computer-aided design of ligands targeting hA(2AR and possibly other GPCRs.

  17. The A1 adenosine receptor as a new player in microglia physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, L; Guida, F; Imperatore, R; Napolitano, F; Gatta, L; Cristino, L; Giordano, C; Siniscalco, D; Di Marzo, V; Bellini, G; Petrelli, R; Cappellacci, L; Usiello, A; de Novellis, V; Rossi, F; Maione, S

    2014-01-01

    The purinergic system is highly involved in the regulation of microglial physiological processes. In addition to the accepted roles for the P2 X4,7 and P2 Y12 receptors activated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate, respectively, recent evidence suggests a role for the adenosine A2A receptor in microglial cytoskeletal rearrangements. However, the expression and function of adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) in microglia is still unclear. Several reports have demonstrated possible expression of A1AR in microglia, but a new study has refuted such evidence. In this study, we investigated the presence and function of A1AR in microglia using biomolecular techniques, live microscopy, live calcium imaging, and in vivo electrophysiological approaches. The aim of this study was to clarify the expression of A1AR in microglia and to highlight its possible roles. We found that microglia express A1AR and that it is highly upregulated upon ATP treatment. Moreover, we observed that selective stimulation of A1AR inhibits the morphological activation of microglia, possibly by suppressing the Ca(2+) influx induced by ATP treatment. Finally, we recorded the spontaneous and evoked activity of spinal nociceptive-specific neuron before and after application of resting or ATP-treated microglia, with or without preincubation with a selective A1AR agonist. We found that the microglial cells, pretreated with the A1AR agonist, exhibit lower capability to facilitate the nociceptive neurons, as compared with the cells treated with ATP alone. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnussat, N; Almeida, A S; Marques, D M; Nunes, F; Chenet, G C; Botton, P H S; Mioranzza, S; Loss, C M; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2015-08-01

    Caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) prevents memory deficits in aging and Alzheimer's disease, an effect mimicked by adenosine A2 A receptor, but not A1 receptor, antagonists. Hence, we investigated the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on memory performance and scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. We determined whether A2 A receptors are necessary for the emergence of memory impairments induced by scopolamine and whether A2 A receptor activation triggers memory deficits in naïve mice, using three tests to assess short-term memory, namely the object recognition task, inhibitory avoidance and modified Y-maze. Scopolamine (1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) impaired short-term memory performance in all three tests and this scopolamine-induced amnesia was prevented by the A2 A receptor antagonist (SCH 58261, 0.1-1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) and by the A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX, 0.2-5.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.), except in the modified Y-maze where only SCH58261 was effective. Both antagonists were devoid of effects on memory or locomotion in naïve rats. Notably, the activation of A2 A receptors with CGS 21680 (0.1-0.5 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) before the training session was sufficient to trigger memory impairment in the three tests in naïve mice, and this effect was prevented by SCH 58261 (1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.). Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of CGS 21680 (50 nmol) also impaired recognition memory in the object recognition task. These results show that A2 A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment and further suggest that A1 receptors might also be selectively engaged to control the cholinergic-driven memory impairment. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Adenosine A2A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment in adult mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnussat, N; Almeida, A S; Marques, D M; Nunes, F; Chenet, G C; Botton, P H S; Mioranzza, S; Loss, C M; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) prevents memory deficits in aging and Alzheimer’s disease, an effect mimicked by adenosine A2A receptor, but not A1 receptor, antagonists. Hence, we investigated the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on memory performance and scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Experimental Approach We determined whether A2A receptors are necessary for the emergence of memory impairments induced by scopolamine and whether A2A receptor activation triggers memory deficits in naïve mice, using three tests to assess short-term memory, namely the object recognition task, inhibitory avoidance and modified Y-maze. Key Results Scopolamine (1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.) impaired short-term memory performance in all three tests and this scopolamine-induced amnesia was prevented by the A2A receptor antagonist (SCH 58261, 0.1–1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.) and by the A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX, 0.2–5.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.), except in the modified Y-maze where only SCH58261 was effective. Both antagonists were devoid of effects on memory or locomotion in naïve rats. Notably, the activation of A2A receptors with CGS 21680 (0.1–0.5 mg·kg−1, i.p.) before the training session was sufficient to trigger memory impairment in the three tests in naïve mice, and this effect was prevented by SCH 58261 (1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.). Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of CGS 21680 (50 nmol) also impaired recognition memory in the object recognition task. Conclusions and Implications These results show that A2A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment and further suggest that A1 receptors might also be selectively engaged to control the cholinergic-driven memory impairment. PMID:25939452

  20. Ligand-biased ensemble receptor docking (LigBEnD): a hybrid ligand/receptor structure-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Polo C.-H.; Abagyan, Ruben; Totrov, Maxim

    2018-01-01

    Ligand docking to flexible protein molecules can be efficiently carried out through ensemble docking to multiple protein conformations, either from experimental X-ray structures or from in silico simulations. The success of ensemble docking often requires the careful selection of complementary protein conformations, through docking and scoring of known co-crystallized ligands. False positives, in which a ligand in a wrong pose achieves a better docking score than that of native pose, arise as additional protein conformations are added. In the current study, we developed a new ligand-biased ensemble receptor docking method and composite scoring function which combine the use of ligand-based atomic property field (APF) method with receptor structure-based docking. This method helps us to correctly dock 30 out of 36 ligands presented by the D3R docking challenge. For the six mis-docked ligands, the cognate receptor structures prove to be too different from the 40 available experimental Pocketome conformations used for docking and could be identified only by receptor sampling beyond experimentally explored conformational subspace.

  1. Sleep deprivation increases A(1) adenosine receptor density in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmenhorst, David; Basheer, Radhika; McCarley, Robert W; Bauer, Andreas

    2009-03-03

    Adenosine, increasing after sleep deprivation and acting via the A(1) adenosine receptor (A(1)AR), is likely a key factor in the homeostatic control of sleep. This study examines the impact of sleep deprivation on A(1)AR density in different parts of the rat brain with [(3)H]CPFPX autoradiography. Binding of [(3)H]CPFPX was significantly increased in parietal cortex (PAR) (7%), thalamus (11%) and caudate-putamen (9%) after 24 h of sleep deprivation compared to a control group with an undisturbed circadian sleep-wake rhythm. Sleep deprivation of 12 h changed receptor density regionally between -5% and +9% (motor cortex (M1), statistically significant) compared to the circadian control group. These results suggest cerebral A(1)ARs are involved in effects of sleep deprivation and the regulation of sleep. The increase of A(1)AR density could serve the purpose of not only maintaining the responsiveness to increased adenosine levels but also amplifying the effect of sleep deprivation and is in line with a sleep-induced homoeostatic reorganization at the synaptic level.

  2. Kinetic analysis of antagonist-occupied adenosine-A3 receptors within membrane microdomains of individual cells provides evidence of receptor dimerization and allosterism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corriden, Ross; Kilpatrick, Laura E; Kellam, Barrie; Briddon, Stephen J; Hill, Stephen J

    2014-10-01

    In our previous work, using a fluorescent adenosine-A3 receptor (A3AR) agonist and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), we demonstrated high-affinity labeling of the active receptor (R*) conformation. In the current study, we used a fluorescent A3AR antagonist (CA200645) to study the binding characteristics of antagonist-occupied inactive receptor (R) conformations in membrane microdomains of individual cells. FCS analysis of CA200645-occupied A3ARs revealed 2 species, τD2 and τD3, that diffused at 2.29 ± 0.35 and 0.09 ± 0.03 μm(2)/s, respectively. FCS analysis of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged A3AR exhibited a single diffusing species (0.105 μm(2)/s). The binding of CA200645 to τD3 was antagonized by nanomolar concentrations of the A3 antagonist MRS 1220, but not by the agonist NECA (up to 300 nM), consistent with labeling of R. CA200645 normally dissociated slowly from the A3AR, but inclusion of xanthine amine congener (XAC) or VUF 5455 during washout markedly accelerated the reduction in the number of particles exhibiting τD3 characteristics. It is notable that this effect was accompanied by a significant increase in the number of particles with τD2 diffusion. These data show that FCS analysis of ligand-occupied receptors provides a unique means of monitoring ligand A3AR residence times that are significantly reduced as a consequence of allosteric interaction across the dimer interface © FASEB.

  3. Adenosine A(1) Receptors in the Central Nervous System : Their Functions in Health and Disease, and Possible Elucidation by PET Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, S.; Elsinga, P. H.; Ishiwata, K.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.; van Waarde, A.

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine is a neuromodulator with several functions in the central nervous system (CNS), such as inhibition of neuronal activity in many signaling pathways. Most of the sedating, anxiolytic, seizure-inhibiting and protective actions of adenosine are mediated by adenosine A(1) receptors (A(1)R) on

  4. A3 Adenosine Receptors Modulate Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1a Expression in Human A375 Melanoma Cells

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    Stefania Merighi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 is a key regulator of genes crucial to many aspects of cancer biology. The purine nucleoside, adenosine, accumulates within many tissues under hypoxic conditions, including that of tumors. Because the levels of both HIF-1 and adenosine are elevated within the hypoxic environment of solid tumors, we investigated whether adenosine may regulate HIF-1. Here we show that, under hypoxic conditions (< 2% 02, adenosine upregulates HIF-1α protein expression in a dose-dependent and timedependent manner, exclusively through the A3 receptor subtype. The response to adenosine was generated at the cell surface because the inhibition of A3 receptor expression, by using small interfering RNA, abolished nucleoside effects. A3 receptor stimulation in hypoxia also increases angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2 protein accumulation through the induction of HIF-1α. In particular, we found that A3 receptor stimulation activates p44/p42 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, which are required for A3-induced increase of HIF-1a and Ang-2. Collectively, these results suggest a cooperation between hypoxic and adenosine signals that ultimately may lead to the increase in HIF-1-mediated effects in cancer cells.

  5. Adenosine Receptors As Drug Targets for Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

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    Allan K. N. Alencar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a clinical condition characterized by pulmonary arterial remodeling and vasoconstriction, which promote chronic vessel obstruction and elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance. Long-term right ventricular (RV overload leads to RV dysfunction and failure, which are the main determinants of life expectancy in PAH subjects. Therapeutic options for PAH remain limited, despite the introduction of prostacyclin analogs, endothelin receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, and soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulators within the last 15 years. Through addressing the pulmonary endothelial and smooth muscle cell dysfunctions associated with PAH, these interventions delay disease progression but do not offer a cure. Emerging approaches to improve treatment efficacy have focused on beneficial actions to both the pulmonary vasculature and myocardium, and several new targets have been investigated and validated in experimental PAH models. Herein, we review the effects of adenosine and adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 on the cardiovascular system, focusing on the A2A receptor as a pharmacological target. This receptor induces pulmonary vascular and heart protection in experimental models, specifically models of PAH. Targeting the A2A receptor could potentially serve as a novel and efficient approach for treating PAH and concomitant RV failure. A2A receptor activation induces pulmonary endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, smooth muscle cell hyperpolarization, and vasodilation, with important antiproliferative activities through the inhibition of collagen deposition and vessel wall remodeling in the pulmonary arterioles. The pleiotropic potential of A2A receptor activation is highlighted by its additional expression in the heart tissue, where it participates in the regulation of intracellular calcium handling and maintenance of heart chamber structure and function. In this way, the activation of A2A

  6. Adenosine Receptors As Drug Targets for Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Allan K N; Montes, Guilherme C; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Sudo, Roberto T; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a clinical condition characterized by pulmonary arterial remodeling and vasoconstriction, which promote chronic vessel obstruction and elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance. Long-term right ventricular (RV) overload leads to RV dysfunction and failure, which are the main determinants of life expectancy in PAH subjects. Therapeutic options for PAH remain limited, despite the introduction of prostacyclin analogs, endothelin receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, and soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulators within the last 15 years. Through addressing the pulmonary endothelial and smooth muscle cell dysfunctions associated with PAH, these interventions delay disease progression but do not offer a cure. Emerging approaches to improve treatment efficacy have focused on beneficial actions to both the pulmonary vasculature and myocardium, and several new targets have been investigated and validated in experimental PAH models. Herein, we review the effects of adenosine and adenosine receptors (A 1 , A 2A , A 2B , and A 3 ) on the cardiovascular system, focusing on the A 2A receptor as a pharmacological target. This receptor induces pulmonary vascular and heart protection in experimental models, specifically models of PAH. Targeting the A 2A receptor could potentially serve as a novel and efficient approach for treating PAH and concomitant RV failure. A 2A receptor activation induces pulmonary endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, smooth muscle cell hyperpolarization, and vasodilation, with important antiproliferative activities through the inhibition of collagen deposition and vessel wall remodeling in the pulmonary arterioles. The pleiotropic potential of A 2A receptor activation is highlighted by its additional expression in the heart tissue, where it participates in the regulation of intracellular calcium handling and maintenance of heart chamber structure and function. In this way, the activation of A 2A

  7. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) Dendrimer Conjugates of Clickable Agonists of the A3 Adenosine Receptor and Coactivation of the P2Y14 Receptor by a Tethered Nucleotide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosh, Dilip, K. [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health; Yoo, Lena S. [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health; Chinn, Moshe [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Barrett, Matthew O. [University of North Carolina School of Medicine; Fricks, Ingrid P. [University of North Carolina School of Medicine; Harden, T. Kendall [University of North Carolina School of Medicine; Jacobson, Kenneth A. [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health

    2010-01-01

    We previously synthesized a series of potent and selective A{sub 3} adenosine receptor (AR) agonists (North-methanocarba nucleoside 5{prime}-uronamides) containing dialkyne groups on extended adenine C2 substituents. We coupled the distal alkyne of a 2-octadiynyl nucleoside by Cu(I)-catalyzed 'click' chemistry to azide-derivatized G4 (fourth-generation) PAMAM dendrimers to form triazoles. A{sub 3}AR activation was preserved in these multivalent conjugates, which bound with apparent Ki of 0.1-0.3 nM. They were substituted with nucleoside moieties, solely or in combination with water-solubilizing carboxylic acid groups derived from hexynoic acid. A comparison with various amide-linked dendrimers showed that triazole-linked conjugates displayed selectivity and enhanced A{sub 3}AR affinity. We prepared a PAMAM dendrimer containing equiproportioned peripheral azido and amino groups for conjugation of multiple ligands. A bifunctional conjugate activated both A{sub 3} and P2Y{sub 14} receptors (via amide-linked uridine-5{prime}-diphosphoglucuronic acid), with selectivity in comparison to other ARs and P2Y receptors. This is the first example of targeting two different GPCRs with the same dendrimer conjugate, which is intended for activation of heteromeric GPCR aggregates. Synergistic effects of activating multiple GPCRs with a single dendrimer conjugate might be useful in disease treatment.

  8. Adenosine A2A Receptor Deletion Blocks the Beneficial Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri in Regulatory T-Deficient Scurfy Mice

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    Baokun He

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a functional Foxp3 transcription factor and regulatory T (Treg cells causes lethal, CD4+ T cell-driven autoimmune diseases in scurfy (SF mice and humans. Recent studies have shown that adenosine A2A receptor activation limits inflammation and tissue damage, thereby playing an anti-inflammatory role. However, the role of the adenosine A2A receptor in the development of disease in SF mice remains unclear. Using a genetic approach, we found that adenosine A2A receptor deletion in SF mice (SF⋅A2A-/- does not affect early life events, the development of a lymphoproliferative disorder, or hyper-production of pro-inflammatory cytokines seen in the Treg-deficiency state. As shown previously, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 treatment prolonged survival and reduced multiorgan inflammation in SF mice. In marked contrast, A2A receptor deletion completely blocked these beneficial effects of L. reuteri in SF mice. Altogether, these results suggest that although absence of the adenosine A2A receptor does not affect the development of disease in SF mice, it plays a critical role in the immunomodulation by L. reuteri in Treg-deficiency disease. The adenosine A2A receptor and its activation may have a role in treating other Treg dysfunction-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  9. Adenosine A2A Receptor Deletion Blocks the Beneficial Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri in Regulatory T-Deficient Scurfy Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Baokun; Hoang, Thomas K.; Tran, Dat Q.; Rhoads, Jon Marc; Liu, Yuying

    2017-01-01

    The lack of a functional Foxp3 transcription factor and regulatory T (Treg) cells causes lethal, CD4+ T cell-driven autoimmune diseases in scurfy (SF) mice and humans. Recent studies have shown that adenosine A2A receptor activation limits inflammation and tissue damage, thereby playing an anti-inflammatory role. However, the role of the adenosine A2A receptor in the development of disease in SF mice remains unclear. Using a genetic approach, we found that adenosine A2A receptor deletion in SF mice (SF⋅A2A-/-) does not affect early life events, the development of a lymphoproliferative disorder, or hyper-production of pro-inflammatory cytokines seen in the Treg-deficiency state. As shown previously, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 treatment prolonged survival and reduced multiorgan inflammation in SF mice. In marked contrast, A2A receptor deletion completely blocked these beneficial effects of L. reuteri in SF mice. Altogether, these results suggest that although absence of the adenosine A2A receptor does not affect the development of disease in SF mice, it plays a critical role in the immunomodulation by L. reuteri in Treg-deficiency disease. The adenosine A2A receptor and its activation may have a role in treating other Treg dysfunction-mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:29270168

  10. Reduced adenosine A2a receptor-mediated efferent arteriolar vasodilation contributes to diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Patrik; Hansell, Peter; Palm, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased risk for development of kidney disease, and an increased glomerular filtration rate is an early indication of altered kidney function. Here we determine whether reduced adenosine A2a receptor-mediated vasodilation of the efferent arteriole contributes to the increased glomerular filtration rate in diabetes. The glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, and proximal tubular stop flow pressure were investigated in control and streptozotocin-diabetic rats during baseline and after administration of the adenosine A2a receptor antagonist ZM241385 or the adenosine A2a receptor agonist CGS21680. The diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration was reduced by 24% following A2a receptor stimulation but was unaffected by A2a receptor inhibition. Contrarily, glomerular filtration rate in controls increased by 22% after A2a receptor inhibition and was unaffected by A2a stimulation. The increased glomerular filtration rate after A2a receptor inhibition in controls and decreased glomerular filtration rate after A2a receptor activation in diabetics were caused by increased and decreased stop flow pressure, respectively. None of the interventions affected renal blood flow. Thus, the normal adenosine A2a receptor-mediated tonic vasodilation of efferent arterioles is abolished in the diabetic kidney. This causes increased efferent arteriolar resistance resulting in increased filtration fraction and hyperfiltration.

  11. Regulation of cyclic AMP formation in cultures of human foetal astrocytes by beta 2-adrenergic and adenosine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, M D; Freshney, R I; Ball, S G; Vaughan, P F

    1989-09-01

    Two cell cultures, NEP2 and NEM2, isolated from human foetal brain have been maintained through several passages and found to express some properties of astrocytes. Both cell cultures contain adenylate cyclase stimulated by catecholamines with a potency order of isoprenaline greater than adrenaline greater than salbutamol much greater than noradrenaline, which is consistent with the presence of beta 2-adrenergic receptors. This study reports that the beta 2-adrenergic-selective antagonist ICI 118,551 is approximately 1,000 times more potent at inhibiting isoprenaline stimulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation in both NEP2 and NEM2 than the beta 1-adrenergic-selective antagonist practolol. This observation confirms the presence of beta 2-adrenergic receptors in these cell cultures. The formation of cAMP in NEP2 is also stimulated by 5'-(N-ethylcarboxamido)adenosine (NECA) more potently than by either adenosine or N6-(L-phenylisopropyl)adenosine (L-PIA), which suggests that this foetal astrocyte expresses adenosine A2 receptors. Furthermore, L-PIA and NECA inhibit isoprenaline stimulation of cAMP formation, a result suggesting the presence of adenosine A1 receptors on NEP2. The presence of A1 receptors is confirmed by the observation that the A1-selective antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine reverses the inhibition of isoprenaline stimulation of cAMP formation by L-PIA and NECA. Additional evidence that NEP2 expresses adenosine receptors linked to the adenylate cyclase-inhibitory GTP-binding protein is provided by the finding that pretreatment of these cells with pertussis toxin reverses the adenosine inhibition of cAMP formation stimulated by either isoprenaline or forskolin.

  12. The effect of cannabidiol on ischemia/reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias: the role of adenosine A1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonca, Ersöz; Darıcı, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoid with anti-inflammatory activity mediated by enhancing adenosine signaling. As the adenosine A1 receptor activation confers protection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced ventricular arrhythmias, we hypothesized that CBD may have antiarrhythmic effect through the activation of adenosine A1 receptor. Cannabidiol has recently been shown to suppress ischemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias. We aimed to research the effect of CBD on the incidence and the duration of I/R-induced ventricular arrhythmias and to investigate the role of adenosine A1 receptor activation in the possible antiarrhythmic effect of CBD. Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion was induced in anesthetized male rats by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 6 minutes and by loosening the bond at the coronary artery, respectively. Cannabidiol alone was given in a dose of 50 µg/kg, 10 minutes prior to coronary artery occlusion and coadministrated with adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) in a dose of 100 µg/kg, 15 minutes prior to coronary artery occlusion to investigate whether the antiarrhythmic effect of CBD is modified by the activation of adenosine A1 receptors. The experimental groups were as follows: (1) vehicle control (n = 10), (2) CBD (n = 9), (3) DPCPX (n = 7), and (4) CBD + DPCPX group (n = 7). Cannabidiol treatment significantly decreased the incidence and the duration of ventricular tachycardia, total length of arrhythmias, and the arrhythmia scores compared to control during the reperfusion period. The DPCPX treatment alone did not affect the incidence and the duration of any type of arrhythmias. However, DPCPX aborted the antiarrhythmic effect of CBD when it was combined with it. The present results demonstrated that CBD has an antiarrhythmic effect against I/R-induced arrhythmias, and the antiarrhythmic effect of CBD may be mediated through the activation of adenosine

  13. Adenosine A1 Receptors in Mouse Pontine Reticular Formation Depress Breathing, Increase Anesthesia Recovery Time, and Decrease Acetylcholine Release

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    Gettys, George C.; Liu, Fang; Kimlin, Ed; Baghdoyan, Helen A.; Lydic, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical and preclinical data demonstrate the analgesic actions of adenosine. Central administration of adenosine agonists, however, suppresses arousal and breathing by poorly understood mechanisms. This study tested the two-tailed hypothesis that adenosine A1 receptors in the pontine reticular formation (PRF) of C57BL/6J mice modulate breathing, behavioral arousal, and PRF acetylcholine release. Methods Three sets of experiments used 51 mice. First, breathing was measured by plethysmography after PRF microinjection of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-sulfophenyl adenosine (SPA) or saline. Second, mice were anesthetized with isoflurane and time to recovery of righting response (RoRR) was quantified after PRF microinjection of SPA or saline. Third, acetylcholine release in the PRF was measured before and during microdialysis delivery of SPA, the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX), or SPA and DPCPX. Results First, SPA significantly decreased respiratory rate (−18%), tidal volume (−12%) and minute ventilation (−16%). Second, SPA concentration accounted for 76% of the variance in RoRR. Third, SPA concentration accounted for a significant amount of the variance in acetylcholine release (52%), RoRR (98%), and breathing rate (86%). DPCPX alone caused a concentration-dependent increase in acetylcholine, decrease in RoRR, and decrease in breathing rate. Coadministration of SPA and DPCPX blocked the SPA-induced decrease in acetylcholine and increase in RoRR. Conclusions Endogenous adenosine acting at adenosine A1 receptors in the PRF modulates breathing, behavioral arousal, and acetylcholine release. The results support the interpretation that an adenosinergic-cholinergic interaction within the PRF comprises one neurochemical mechanism underlying the wakefulness stimulus for breathing. PMID:23263018

  14. Adenosine A(1) receptors in mouse pontine reticular formation depress breathing, increase anesthesia recovery time, and decrease acetylcholine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettys, George C; Liu, Fang; Kimlin, Ed; Baghdoyan, Helen A; Lydic, Ralph

    2013-02-01

    Clinical and preclinical data demonstrate the analgesic actions of adenosine. Central administration of adenosine agonists, however, suppresses arousal and breathing by poorly understood mechanisms. This study tested the two-tailed hypothesis that adenosine A1 receptors in the pontine reticular formation (PRF) of C57BL/6J mice modulate breathing, behavioral arousal, and PRF acetylcholine release. Three sets of experiments used 51 mice. First, breathing was measured by plethysmography after PRF microinjection of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N-sulfophenyl adenosine (SPA) or saline. Second, mice were anesthetized with isoflurane and the time to recovery of righting response (RoRR) was quantified after a PRF microinjection of SPA or saline. Third, acetylcholine release in the PRF was measured before and during microdialysis delivery of SPA, the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 1, 3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine, or SPA and 1, 3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine. First, SPA significantly decreased respiratory rate (-18%), tidal volume (-12%), and minute ventilation (-16%). Second, SPA concentration accounted for 76% of the variance in RoRR. Third, SPA concentration accounted for a significant amount of the variance in acetylcholine release (52%), RoRR (98%), and breathing rate (86%). 1, 3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine alone caused a concentration-dependent increase in acetylcholine, a decrease in RoRR, and a decrease in breathing rate. Coadministration of SPA and 1, 3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine blocked the SPA-induced decrease in acetylcholine and increase in RoRR. Endogenous adenosine acting at adenosine A1 receptors in the PRF modulates breathing, behavioral arousal, and acetylcholine release. The results support the interpretation that an adenosinergic-cholinergic interaction within the PRF comprises one neurochemical mechanism underlying the wakefulness stimulus for breathing.

  15. Ligands of histamine receptors modulate acid-sensing ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shteinikov, V Y; Korosteleva, A S; Tikhonova, T B; Potapieva, N N; Tikhonov, D B

    2017-09-02

    Recently we found that synthetic compounds containing amino group linked to hydrophobic or aromatic moiety are potent modulators of the proton-gated channels (ASICs). These structures have clear similarity with ligands of histamine receptors. We have also demonstrated that histamine potentiates homomeric ASIC1a by shifting its activation dependence to less acidic conditions. In the present work the action of a series of histamine receptors ligands on recombinant ASIC1a and ASIC2a was characterized. Two types of action were found for ASIC1a. 1-methylhistamine, N-alpha-methylhistamine, dimaprit and thioperamide caused significant potentiation, which was pH-dependent and voltage-independent. The H4R antagonist A943931 caused inhibition, which is likely due to voltage-dependent pore block. ASIC2a were virtually insensitive to the drugs tested. We conclude that ligands of histamine receptors should also be considered as ASIC modulators. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Crystal structure of the adenosine A 2A receptor bound to an antagonist reveals a potential allosteric pocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Bingfa; Bachhawat, Priti; Chu, Matthew Ling-Hon; Wood, Martyn; Ceska, Tom; Sands, Zara A.; Mercier, Joel; Lebon, Florence; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Kobilka, Brian K. (Stanford-MED); (ConfometRx); (UCB Pharma)

    2017-02-06

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has long been implicated in cardiovascular disorders. As more selective A2AR ligands are being identified, its roles in other disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, are starting to emerge, and A2AR antagonists are important drug candidates for nondopaminergic anti-Parkinson treatment. Here we report the crystal structure of A2A receptor bound to compound 1 (Cmpd-1), a novel A2AR/N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) dual antagonist and potential anti-Parkinson candidate compound, at 3.5 Å resolution. The A2A receptor with a cytochrome b562-RIL (BRIL) fusion (A2AR–BRIL) in the intracellular loop 3 (ICL3) was crystallized in detergent micelles using vapor-phase diffusion. Whereas A2AR–BRIL bound to the antagonist ZM241385 has previously been crystallized in lipidic cubic phase (LCP), structural differences in the Cmpd-1–bound A2AR–BRIL prevented formation of the lattice observed with the ZM241385–bound receptor. The crystals grew with a type II crystal lattice in contrast to the typical type I packing seen from membrane protein structures crystallized in LCP. Cmpd-1 binds in a position that overlaps with the native ligand adenosine, but its methoxyphenyl group extends to an exosite not previously observed in other A2AR structures. Structural analysis revealed that Cmpd-1 binding results in the unique conformations of two tyrosine residues, Tyr91.35 and Tyr2717.36, which are critical for the formation of the exosite. The structure reveals insights into antagonist binding that are not observed in other A2AR structures, highlighting flexibility in the binding pocket that may facilitate the development of A2AR-selective compounds for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

  17. Basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated levels of cAMP are reduced in lymphocytes from alcoholic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, I.; Wrubel, B.; Estrin, W.; Gordon, A.

    1987-01-01

    Alcoholism causes serious neurologic disease that may be due, in part, to the ability of ethanol to interact with neural cell membranes and change neuronal function. Adenosine receptors are membrane-bound proteins that appear to mediate some of the effects of ethanol in the brain. Human lymphocytes also have adenosine receptors, and their activation causes increases in cAMP levels. To test the hypothesis that basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP levels in lymphocytes might be abnormal in alcoholism, the authors studied lymphocytes from 10 alcoholic subjects, 10 age- and sex-matched normal individuals, and 10 patients with nonalcoholic liver disease. Basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP levels were reduced 75% in lymphocytes from alcoholic subjects. Also, there was a 76% reduction in ethanol stimulation of cAMP accumulation in lymphocytes from alcoholics. Similar results were demonstrable in isolated T cells. Unlike other laboratory tests examined, these measurements appeared to distinguish alcoholics from normal subjects and from patients with nonalcoholic liver disease. Reduced basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated levels of cAMP in lymphocytes from alcoholics may reflect a change in cell membranes due either to chronic alcohol abuse or to a genetic predisposition unique to alcoholic subjects

  18. Cordycepin Increases Nonrapid Eye Movement Sleep via Adenosine Receptors in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin (3′-deoxyadenosine is a naturally occurring adenosine analogue and one of the bioactive constituents isolated from Cordyceps militaris/Cordyceps sinensis, species of the fungal genus Cordyceps. It has traditionally been a prized Chinese folk medicine for the human well-being. Because of similarity of chemical structure of adenosine, cordycepin has been focused on the diverse effects of the central nervous systems (CNSs, like sleep regulation. Therefore, this study was undertaken to know whether cordycepin increases the natural sleep in rats, and its effect is mediated by adenosine receptors (ARs. Sleep was recorded using electroencephalogram (EEG for 4 hours after oral administration of cordycepin in rats. Sleep architecture and EEG power spectra were analyzed. Cordycepin reduced sleep-wake cycles and increased nonrapid eye movement (NREM sleep. Interestingly, cordycepin increased θ (theta waves power density during NREM sleep. In addition, the protein levels of AR subtypes (A1, A2A, and A2B were increased after the administration of cordycepin, especially in the rat hypothalamus which plays an important role in sleep regulation. Therefore, we suggest that cordycepin increases theta waves power density during NREM sleep via nonspecific AR in rats. In addition, this experiment can provide basic evidence that cordycepin may be helpful for sleep-disturbed subjects.

  19. Cordycepin Increases Nonrapid Eye Movement Sleep via Adenosine Receptors in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenzhen; Lee, Chung-Il; Shah, Vikash Kumar; Oh, Eun-Hye; Han, Jin-Yi; Bae, Jae-Ryong; Lee, Kinam; Chong, Myong-Soo; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2013-01-01

    Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) is a naturally occurring adenosine analogue and one of the bioactive constituents isolated from Cordyceps militaris/Cordyceps sinensis, species of the fungal genus Cordyceps. It has traditionally been a prized Chinese folk medicine for the human well-being. Because of similarity of chemical structure of adenosine, cordycepin has been focused on the diverse effects of the central nervous systems (CNSs), like sleep regulation. Therefore, this study was undertaken to know whether cordycepin increases the natural sleep in rats, and its effect is mediated by adenosine receptors (ARs). Sleep was recorded using electroencephalogram (EEG) for 4 hours after oral administration of cordycepin in rats. Sleep architecture and EEG power spectra were analyzed. Cordycepin reduced sleep-wake cycles and increased nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Interestingly, cordycepin increased θ (theta) waves power density during NREM sleep. In addition, the protein levels of AR subtypes (A1, A2A, and A2B) were increased after the administration of cordycepin, especially in the rat hypothalamus which plays an important role in sleep regulation. Therefore, we suggest that cordycepin increases theta waves power density during NREM sleep via nonspecific AR in rats. In addition, this experiment can provide basic evidence that cordycepin may be helpful for sleep-disturbed subjects.

  20. Recovery sleep after extended wakefulness restores elevated A1adenosine receptor availability in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmenhorst, David; Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Hennecke, Eva; Kroll, Tina; Matusch, Andreas; Aeschbach, Daniel; Bauer, Andreas

    2017-04-18

    Adenosine and functional A 1 adenosine receptor (A 1 AR) availability are supposed to mediate sleep-wake regulation and cognitive performance. We hypothesized that cerebral A 1 AR availability after an extended wake period decreases to a well-rested state after recovery sleep. [ 18 F]CPFPX positron emission tomography was used to quantify A 1 AR availability in 15 healthy male adults after 52 h of sleep deprivation and following 14 h of recovery sleep. Data were additionally compared with A 1 AR values after 8 h of baseline sleep from an earlier dataset. Polysomnography, cognitive performance, and sleepiness were monitored. Recovery from sleep deprivation was associated with a decrease in A 1 AR availability in several brain regions, ranging from 11% (insula) to 14% (striatum). A 1 AR availabilities after recovery did not differ from baseline sleep in the control group. The degree of performance impairment, sleepiness, and homeostatic sleep-pressure response to sleep deprivation correlated negatively with the decrease in A 1 AR availability. Sleep deprivation resulted in a higher A 1 AR availability in the human brain. The increase that was observed after 52 h of wakefulness was restored to control levels during a 14-h recovery sleep episode. Individuals with a large increase in A 1 AR availability were more resilient to sleep-loss effects than those with a subtle increase. This pattern implies that differences in endogenous adenosine and A 1 AR availability might be causal for individual responses to sleep loss.

  1. Adenosine receptors as markers of brain iron deficiency: Implications for Restless Legs Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, César; Gulyani, Seema; Ruiqian, Wan; Bonaventura, Jordi; Cutler, Roy; Pearson, Virginia; Allen, Richard P.; Earley, Christopher J.; Mattson, Mark P.; Ferré, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Deficits of sensorimotor integration with periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) and hyperarousal and sleep disturbances in Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) constitute two pathophysiologically distinct but interrelated clinical phenomena, which seem to depend mostly on alterations in dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, respectively. Brain iron deficiency is considered as a main pathogenetic mechanism in RLS. Rodents with brain iron deficiency represent a valuable pathophysiological model of RLS, although they do not display motor disturbances. Nevertheless, they develop the main neurochemical dopaminergic changes found in RLS, such as decrease in striatal dopamine D2 receptor density. On the other hand, brain iron deficient mice exhibit the characteristic pattern of hyperarousal in RLS, providing a tool to find the link between brain iron deficiency and sleep disturbances in RLS. The present study provides evidence for a role of the endogenous sleep-promoting factor adenosine. Three different experimental preparations, long-term (22 weeks) severe or moderate iron-deficient (ID) diets (3- or 7-ppm iron diet) in mice and short-term (3 weeks) severe ID diet (3-ppm iron diet) in rats, demonstrated a significant downregulation (Western blotting in mouse and radioligand binding saturation experiments in rat brain tissue) of adenosine A1 receptors (A1R) in the cortex and striatum, concomitant to striatal D2R downregulation. On the other hand, the previously reported upregulation of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) was only observed with severe ID in both mice and rats. The results suggest a key role for A1R downregulation in the PLMS and hyperarousal in RLS. PMID:27600688

  2. Adenosine receptors as markers of brain iron deficiency: Implications for Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, César; Gulyani, Seema; Ruiqian, Wan; Bonaventura, Jordi; Cutler, Roy; Pearson, Virginia; Allen, Richard P; Earley, Christopher J; Mattson, Mark P; Ferré, Sergi

    2016-12-01

    Deficits of sensorimotor integration with periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) and hyperarousal and sleep disturbances in Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) constitute two pathophysiologically distinct but interrelated clinical phenomena, which seem to depend mostly on alterations in dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, respectively. Brain iron deficiency is considered as a main pathogenetic mechanism in RLS. Rodents with brain iron deficiency represent a valuable pathophysiological model of RLS, although they do not display motor disturbances. Nevertheless, they develop the main neurochemical dopaminergic changes found in RLS, such as decrease in striatal dopamine D 2 receptor density. On the other hand, brain iron deficient mice exhibit the characteristic pattern of hyperarousal in RLS, providing a tool to find the link between brain iron deficiency and sleep disturbances in RLS. The present study provides evidence for a role of the endogenous sleep-promoting factor adenosine. Three different experimental preparations, long-term (22 weeks) severe or moderate iron-deficient (ID) diets (3- or 7-ppm iron diet) in mice and short-term (3 weeks) severe ID diet (3-ppm iron diet) in rats, demonstrated a significant downregulation (Western blotting in mouse and radioligand binding saturation experiments in rat brain tissue) of adenosine A 1 receptors (A1R) in the cortex and striatum, concomitant to striatal D2R downregulation. On the other hand, the previously reported upregulation of adenosine A 2A receptors (A2AR) was only observed with severe ID in both mice and rats. The results suggest a key role for A1R downregulation in the PLMS and hyperarousal in RLS. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Caffeine May Reduce Perceived Sweet Taste in Humans, Supporting Evidence That Adenosine Receptors Modulate Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Ezen; Picket, Benjamin; Dando, Robin

    2017-09-01

    Multiple recent reports have detailed the presence of adenosine receptors in sweet sensitive taste cells of mice. These receptors are activated by endogenous adenosine in the plasma to enhance sweet signals within the taste bud, before reporting to the primary afferent. As we commonly consume caffeine, a powerful antagonist for such receptors, in our daily lives, an intriguing question we sought to answer was whether the caffeine we habitually consume in coffee can inhibit the perception of sweet taste in humans. 107 panelists were randomly assigned to 2 groups, sampling decaffeinated coffee supplemented with either 200 mg of caffeine, about the level found in a strong cup of coffee, or an equally bitter concentration of quinine. Participants subsequently performed sensory testing, with the session repeated in the alternative condition in a second session on a separate day. Panelists rated both the sweetened coffee itself and subsequent sucrose solutions as less sweet in the caffeine condition, despite the treatment having no effect on bitter, sour, salty, or umami perception. Panelists were also unable to discern whether they had consumed the caffeinated or noncaffeinated coffee, with ratings of alertness increased equally, but no significant improvement in reaction times, highlighting coffee's powerful placebo effect. This work validates earlier observations in rodents in a human population. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. The effects of caffeine on sleep in Drosophila require PKA activity, but not the adenosine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mark N; Ho, Karen; Crocker, Amanda; Yue, Zhifeng; Koh, Kyunghee; Sehgal, Amita

    2009-09-02

    Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed stimulants in the world and has been proposed to promote wakefulness by antagonizing function of the adenosine A2A receptor. Here, we show that chronic administration of caffeine reduces and fragments sleep in Drosophila and also lengthens circadian period. To identify the mechanisms underlying these effects of caffeine, we first generated mutants of the only known adenosine receptor in flies (dAdoR), which by sequence is most similar to the mammalian A2A receptor. Mutants lacking dAdoR have normal amounts of baseline sleep, as well as normal homeostatic responses to sleep deprivation. Surprisingly, these mutants respond normally to caffeine. On the other hand, the effects of caffeine on sleep and circadian rhythms are mimicked by a potent phosphodiesterase inhibitor, IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine). Using in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging, we find that caffeine induces widespread increase in cAMP levels throughout the brain. Finally, the effects of caffeine on sleep are blocked in flies that have reduced neuronal PKA activity. We suggest that chronic administration of caffeine promotes wakefulness in Drosophila, at least in part, by inhibiting cAMP phosphodiesterase activity.

  5. Chemokine-Ligands/Receptors: Multiplayers in Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Knerlich-Lukoschus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI results in complex posttraumatic sequelae affecting the whole neuraxis. Due to its involvement in varied neuromodulatory processes, the chemokine-ligand/receptor-network is a key element of secondary lesion cascades induced by SCI. This review will provide a synopsis of chemokine-ligand/receptor-expression along the whole neuraxis after traumatic spinal cord (sc insults on basis of recent in vivo and in vitro findings in a SCI paradigm of thoracic force-defined impact lesions (Infinite Horizon Impactor in adult rats. Analyses of chemokine-ligand/receptor-expression at defined time points after sc lesion of different severity grades or sham operation revealed that these inflammatory mediators are induced in distinct anatomical sc regions and in thalamic nuclei, periaqueductal grey, and hippocampal structures in the brain. Cellular and anatomical expression profiles together with colocalization/expression of neural stem/progenitor cell markers in adult sc stem cells niches or with pain-related receptors and mediators in dorsal horns, dorsal columns, and pain-processing brain areas support the notion that chemokines are involved in distinct cascades underlying clinical posttraumatic impairments and syndromes. These aspects and their implication in concepts of tailored SCI treatment are reviewed in the context of the recent literature on chemokine-ligand/receptor involvement in complex secondary lesion cascades.

  6. The importance of the adenosine A(2A) receptor-dopamine D(2) receptor interaction in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, M; Zaniewska, M; Frankowska, M; Wydra, K; Fuxe, K

    2012-01-01

    Drug addiction is a serious brain disorder with somatic, psychological, psychiatric, socio-economic and legal implications in the developed world. Illegal (e.g., psychostimulants, opioids, cannabinoids) and legal (alcohol, nicotine) drugs of abuse create a complex behavioral pattern composed of drug intake, withdrawal, seeking and relapse. One of the hallmarks of drugs that are abused by humans is that they have different mechanisms of action to increase dopamine (DA) neurotransmission within the mesolimbic circuitry of the brain and indirectly activate DA receptors. Among the DA receptors, D(2) receptors are linked to drug abuse and addiction because their function has been proven to be correlated with drug reinforcement and relapses. The recognition that D(2) receptors exist not only as homomers but also can form heteromers, such as with the adenosine (A)(2A) receptor, that are pharmacologically and functionally distinct from their constituent receptors, has significantly expanded the range of potential drug targets and provided new avenues for drug design in the search for novel drug addiction therapies. The aim of this review is to bring current focus on A(2A) receptors, their physiology and pharmacology in the central nervous system, and to discuss the therapeutic relevance of these receptors to drug addiction. We concentrate on the contribution of A(2A) receptors to the effects of different classes of drugs of abuse examined in preclinical behavioral experiments carried out with pharmacological and genetic tools. The consequences of chronic drug treatment on A(2A) receptor-assigned functions in preclinical studies are also presented. Finally, the neurochemical mechanism of the interaction between A(2A) receptors and drugs of abuse in the context of the heteromeric A(2A)-D(2) receptor complex is discussed. Taken together, a significant amount of experimental analyses provide evidence that targeting A(2A) receptors may offer innovative translational strategies

  7. Structural and Functional Diversity of Estrogen Receptor Ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Farooq, Amjad

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen receptors, comprised of ERα and ERβ isoforms in mammals, act as ligand-modulated transcription factors and orchestrate a plethora of cellular functions from sexual development and reproduction to metabolic homeostasis. Herein, I revisit the structural basis of the binding of ERα to DNA and estradiol in light of the recent discoveries and emerging trends in the field of nuclear receptors. A particular emphasis of this review is on the chemical and structural diversity of an ever-incre...

  8. Novel retinoic acid receptor ligands in Xenopus embryos.

    OpenAIRE

    Blumberg, B; Bolado, J; Derguini, F; Craig, A G; Moreno, T A; Chakravarti, D; Heyman, R A; Buck, J; Evans, R M

    1996-01-01

    Retinoids are a large family of natural and synthetic compounds related to vitamin A that have pleiotropic effects on body physiology, reproduction, immunity, and embryonic development. The diverse activities of retinoids are primarily mediated by two families of nuclear retinoic acid receptors, the RARs and RXRs. Retinoic acids are thought to be the only natural ligands for these receptors and are widely assumed to be the active principle of vitamin A. However, during an unbiased, bioactivit...

  9. Adenosine-Induced Atrial Fibrillation: Localized Reentrant Drivers in Lateral Right Atria due to Heterogeneous Expression of Adenosine A1 Receptors and GIRK4 Subunits in the Human Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Csepe, Thomas A; Hansen, Brian J; Sul, Lidiya V; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha; Zakharkin, Stanislav O; Zhao, Jichao; Guha, Avirup; Van Wagoner, David R; Kilic, Ahmet; Mohler, Peter J; Janssen, Paul M L; Biesiadecki, Brandon J; Hummel, John D; Weiss, Raul; Fedorov, Vadim V

    2016-08-09

    Adenosine provokes atrial fibrillation (AF) with a higher activation frequency in right atria (RA) versus left atria (LA) in patients, but the underlying molecular and functional substrates are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that adenosine-induced AF is driven by localized reentry in RA areas with highest expression of adenosine A1 receptor and its downstream GIRK (G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels) channels (IK,Ado). We applied biatrial optical mapping and immunoblot mapping of various atrial regions to reveal the mechanism of adenosine-induced AF in explanted failing and nonfailing human hearts (n=37). Optical mapping of coronary-perfused atria (n=24) revealed that adenosine perfusion (10-100 µmol/L) produced more significant shortening of action potential durations in RA (from 290±45 to 239±41 ms, 17.3±10.4%; Phearts, adenosine induced AF (317±116 s) that, when sustained (≥2 minutes), was primarily maintained by 1 to 2 localized reentrant drivers in lateral RA. Tertiapin (10-100 nmol/L), a selective GIRK channel blocker, counteracted adenosine-induced action potential duration shortening and prevented AF induction. Immunoblotting showed that the superior/middle lateral RA had significantly higher adenosine A1 receptor (2.7±1.7-fold; Phuman heart, leading to significantly greater RA versus LA repolarization sensitivity in response to adenosine. Sustained adenosine-induced AF is maintained by reentrant drivers localized in lateral RA regions with the highest adenosine A1 receptor/GIRK4 expression. Selective atrial GIRK channel blockade may effectively treat AF during conditions with increased endogenous adenosine. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Differential effects of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist adenosine amine congener on renal, femoral and carotid vascular conductance in preterm fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Lindsea C; Tummers, Leonie; Jensen, Ellen C; Barrett, Carolyn J; Malpas, Simon C; Gunn, Alistair J; Bennet, Laura

    2008-11-01

    1. Adenosine A(1) receptor activation is critical for endogenous neuroprotection from hypoxia-ischaemia, raising the possibility that treatment with A(1) receptor agonists may be an effective physiological protection strategy for vulnerable preterm infants. However, the A(1) receptor can mediate unwanted systemic effects, including vasoconstriction of the afferent glomerular arteriole. There is limited information on whether this occurs at doses that improve cerebral perfusion in the immature brain. 2. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether infusion of the selective A(1) receptor agonist adenosine amine congener (ADAC) is associated with reduced renal perfusion in chronically instrumented preterm (0.7 gestation) fetal sheep. In the present study, ADAC was given in successive doses of 2.5, 5.0 and 15.0 microg, 45 min apart. 3. Treatment with ADAC was associated with a marked reduction in renal vascular conductance (and blood flow), whereas carotid conductance was increased and there was no significant effect on femoral conductance. In contrast with the stable effects of increasing ADAC dose on vascular conductance, there was a significant dose-related fall in fetal heart rate and blood pressure. 4. In conclusion, these short-term data support the concern that A(1) receptor agonist infusion can selectively impair renal perfusion, even at low doses.

  11. The Parathyroid Hormone Family of Ligands and Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian G. D'Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The PTH family of ligands and receptors have a wide range of vital functions from calcium homeostasis to tissue and bone development from the embryo to adult. This family has undergone whole genome duplication events predating vertebrate evolution, indicating more primitive and ancient functions other than skeletal development. The N-terminal region of the ligands, have been widely studied by biophysical and functional analysis, resulting in the discovery of key characteristics essential for ligand-receptor activation being elucidated. Multi-substituted amino acid analogs with differential binding affinities and either antagonistic or agonistic signalling potencies have been created based on these findings allowing for improvement on potential therapies affected by the PTH system in skeletal and embryonic development. The PTH family has diversely evolved to cover a wide range of pivotal pathways crucial to growth and development throughout all animal life.

  12. A response calculus for immobilized T cell receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Menné, C; Mariuzza, R A

    2001-01-01

    To address the molecular mechanism of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, we have formulated a model for T cell activation, termed the 2D-affinity model, in which the density of TCR on the T cell surface, the density of ligand on the presenting surface, and their corresponding two-dimensional affini...

  13. 2'-C-Methyl analogues of selective adenosine receptor agonists: synthesis and binding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, P; Cappellacci, L; Marchetti, S; Trincavelli, L; Martini, C; Mazzoni, M R; Lucacchini, A; Grifantini, M

    1998-05-07

    2'-C-Methyl analogues of selective adenosine receptor agonists such as (R)-PIA, CPA, CCPA, NECA, and IB-MECA were synthesized in order to further investigate the subdomain that binds the ribose moiety. Binding affinities of these new compounds at A1 and A2A receptors in bovine brain membranes and at A3 in rat testis membranes were determined and compared. It was found that the 2'-C-methyl modification resulted in a decrease of the affinity, particularly at A2A and A3 receptors. When such modification was combined with N6-substitutions with groups which induce high potency and selectivity at A1 receptors, the high affinity was retained and the selectivity was increased. Thus, 2-chloro-2'-C-methyl-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (2'-Me-CCPA), which displayed a Ki value of 1.8 nM at A1 receptors, was selective for A1 vs A2A and A3 receptors by 2166- and 2777-fold, respectively, resulting in one of the most potent and A1-selective agonists so far known. In functional assay, this compound inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity with an IC50 value of 13.1 nM, acting as a full agonist.

  14. Modeling of ligand binding to dopamine D2 receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostopovici-Halip Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dopaminic receptors have been for long time the major targets for developing new small molecules with high affinity and selectivity to treat psychiatric disorders, neurodegeneration, drug abuse, and other therapeutic areas. In the absence of a 3D structure for the human D2 dopamine (HDD2 receptor, the efforts for discovery and design of new potential drugs rely on comparative models generation, docking and pharmacophore development studies. To get a better understanding of the HDD2 receptor binding site and the ligand-receptor interactions a homology model of HDD2 receptor based on the X-ray structure of β2-adrenergic receptor has been built and used to dock a set of partial agonists of HDD2 receptor. The main characteristics of the binding mode for the HDD2 partial agonists set are given by the ligand particular folding and a complex network of contacts represented by stacking interactions, salt bridge and hydrogen bond formation. The characterization of the partial agonist binding mode at HDD2 receptor provide the needed information to generate pharmacophore models which represent essential information in the future virtual screening studies in order to identify new potential HDD2 partial agonists.

  15. Effect of adenosine1-receptor blockade on renin release from rabbit isolated perfused juxtaglomerular apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihprecht, H; Lorenz, J N; Schnermann, J

    1990-01-01

    Adenosine has been proposed to act within the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) as a mediator of the inhibition of renin secretion produced by a high NaCl concentration at the macula densa. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of the adenosine1 (A1)-receptor blocker 8-cyclopentyl-1......,3-dipropylxanthine (CPX) on renin release from single isolated rabbit JGAs with macula densa perfused. The A1-receptor agonist, N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), applied in the bathing solution at 10(-7) M, was found to inhibit renin secretion, an effect that was completely blocked by adding CPX (10(-5) M) to the bath....... Applied to the lumen, 10(-5) M CPX produced a modest stimulation of renin secretion rates suppressed by a high NaCl concentration at the macula densa (P less than 0.05). The effect of changing luminal NaCl concentration on renin secretion rate was examined in the presence of CPX (10(-7) and 10(-5) M...

  16. Entropic Control of Receptor Recycling Using Engineered Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroot, Andre C M; Busch, David J; Hayden, Carl C; Mihelic, Samuel A; Alpar, Aaron T; Behar, Marcelo; Stachowiak, Jeanne C

    2018-03-27

    Receptor internalization by endocytosis regulates diverse cellular processes, from the rate of nutrient uptake to the timescale of essential signaling events. The established view is that internalization is tightly controlled by specific protein-binding interactions. However, recent work suggests that physical aspects of receptors influence the process in ways that cannot be explained by biochemistry alone. Specifically, work from several groups suggests that increasing the steric bulk of receptors may inhibit their uptake by multiple types of trafficking vesicles. How do biochemical and biophysical factors work together to control internalization? Here, we show that receptor uptake is well described by a thermodynamic trade-off between receptor-vesicle binding energy and the entropic cost of confining receptors within endocytic vesicles. Specifically, using large ligands to acutely increase the size of engineered variants of the transferrin receptor, we demonstrate that an increase in the steric bulk of a receptor dramatically decreases its probability of uptake by clathrin-coated structures. Further, in agreement with a simple thermodynamic analysis, all data collapse onto a single trend relating fractional occupancy of the endocytic structure to fractional occupancy of the surrounding plasma membrane, independent of receptor size. This fundamental scaling law provides a simple tool for predicting the impact of receptor expression level, steric bulk, and the size of endocytic structures on receptor uptake. More broadly, this work suggests that bulky ligands could be used to drive the accumulation of specific receptors at the plasma membrane surface, providing a biophysical tool for targeted modulation of signaling and metabolism from outside the cell. Copyright © 2018 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The macrophage A2B adenosine receptor regulates tissue insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary Johnston-Cox

    Full Text Available High fat diet (HFD-induced type 2 diabetes continues to be an epidemic with significant risk for various pathologies. Previously, we identified the A2b adenosine receptor (A2bAR, an established regulator of inflammation, as a regulator of HFD-induced insulin resistance. In particular, HFD was associated with vast upregulation of liver A2bAR in control mice, and while mice lacking this receptor showed augmented liver inflammation and tissue insulin resistance. As the A2bAR is expressed in different tissues, here, we provide the first lead to cellular mechanism by demonstrating that the receptor's influence on tissue insulin sensitivity is mediated via its expression in macrophages. This was shown using a newly generated transgenic mouse model expressing the A2bAR gene in the macrophage lineage on an otherwise A2bAR null background. Reinstatement of macrophage A2bAR expression in A2bAR null mice fed HFD restored insulin tolerance and tissue insulin signaling to the level of control mice. The molecular mechanism for this effect involves A2bAR-mediated changes in cyclic adenosine monophosphate in macrophages, reducing the expression and release of inflammatory cytokines, which downregulate insulin receptor-2. Thus, our results illustrate that macrophage A2bAR signaling is needed and sufficient for relaying the protective effect of the A2bAR against HFD-induced tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in mice.

  18. A2A adenosine receptor antagonism enhances synaptic and motor effects of cocaine via CB1 cannabinoid receptor activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Tozzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cocaine increases the level of endogenous dopamine (DA in the striatum by blocking the DA transporter. Endogenous DA modulates glutamatergic inputs to striatal neurons and this modulation influences motor activity. Since D2 DA and A2A-adenosine receptors (A2A-Rs have antagonistic effects on striatal neurons, drugs targeting adenosine receptors such as caffeine-like compounds, could enhance psychomotor stimulant effects of cocaine. In this study, we analyzed the electrophysiological effects of cocaine and A2A-Rs antagonists in striatal slices and the motor effects produced by this pharmacological modulation in rodents. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Concomitant administration of cocaine and A2A-Rs antagonists reduced glutamatergic synaptic transmission in striatal spiny neurons while these drugs failed to produce this effect when given in isolation. This inhibitory effect was dependent on the activation of D2-like receptors and the release of endocannabinoids since it was prevented by L-sulpiride and reduced by a CB1 receptor antagonist. Combined application of cocaine and A2A-R antagonists also reduced the firing frequency of striatal cholinergic interneurons suggesting that changes in cholinergic tone might contribute to this synaptic modulation. Finally, A2A-Rs antagonists, in the presence of a sub-threshold dose of cocaine, enhanced locomotion and, in line with the electrophysiological experiments, this enhanced activity required activation of D2-like and CB1 receptors. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides a possible synaptic mechanism explaining how caffeine-like compounds could enhance psychomotor stimulant effects of cocaine.

  19. Evolution of ligand specificity in vertebrate corticosteroid receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deitcher David L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corticosteroid receptors include mineralocorticoid (MR and glucocorticoid (GR receptors. Teleost fishes have a single MR and duplicate GRs that show variable sensitivities to mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids. How these receptors compare functionally to tetrapod MR and GR, and the evolutionary significance of maintaining two GRs, remains unclear. Results We used up to seven steroids (including aldosterone, cortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone [DOC] to compare the ligand specificity of the ligand binding domains of corticosteroid receptors between a mammal (Mus musculus and the midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus, a teleost model for steroid regulation of neural and behavioral plasticity. Variation in mineralocorticoid sensitivity was considered in a broader phylogenetic context by examining the aldosterone sensitivity of MR and GRs from the distantly related daffodil cichlid (Neolamprologus pulcher, another teleost model for neurobehavioral plasticity. Both teleost species had a single MR and duplicate GRs. All MRs were sensitive to DOC, consistent with the hypothesis that DOC was the initial ligand of the ancestral MR. Variation in GR steroid-specificity corresponds to nine identified amino acid residue substitutions rather than phylogenetic relationships based on receptor sequences. Conclusion The mineralocorticoid sensitivity of duplicate GRs in teleosts is highly labile in the context of their evolutionary phylogeny, a property that likely led to neo-functionalization and maintenance of two GRs.

  20. Adenosine A2B Receptors: An Optional Target for the Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teita Asano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder, with the characteristic symptoms of chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habits (diarrhea, constipation, or both. IBS is a highly prevalent condition, which negatively affects quality of life and is a significant burden on global healthcare costs. Although many pharmacological medicines have been proposed to treat IBS, including those targeting receptors, channels, and chemical mediators related to visceral hypersensitivity, successful pharmacotherapy for the disease has not been established. Visceral hypersensitivity plays an important role in IBS pathogenesis. Immune activation is observed in diarrhea-predominant patients with IBS and contributes to the development of visceral hypersensitivity. Adenosine is a chemical mediator that regulates many physiological processes, including inflammation and nociception. Among its receptors, the adenosine A2B receptor regulates intestinal secretion, motor function, and the immune response. We recently demonstrated that the adenosine A2B receptor is involved in visceral hypersensitivity in animal models of IBS. In this review, we discuss the possibility of the adenosine A2B receptor as a novel therapeutic target for IBS.

  1. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Azdad, Karima; Rea, William; Moreno, Estefanía; Brugarolas, Marc; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Volkow, Nora D; Schiffmann, Serge N; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-07-07

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain.

  2. DMPD: Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15178705 Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. Tsan MF, Gao B. J Leukoc Biol. ...2004 Sep;76(3):514-9. Epub 2004 Jun 3. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Endogenous ligands of Toll-like re...ceptors. PubmedID 15178705 Title Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. Authors Tsan MF, Gao B. Publicat

  3. Steroid receptors and their ligands: effects on male gamete functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca

    2014-11-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Overexpression of adenosine A2A receptors in rats: effects on depression, locomotion and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana E Coelho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR are a sub-type of receptors enriched in basal ganglia, activated by the neuromodulator adenosine, which interact with dopamine D2 receptors. Although this reciprocal antagonistic interaction is well established in motor function, the outcome in dopamine-related behaviors remains uncertain, in particular in depression and anxiety. We have demonstrated an upsurge of A2AR associated to aging and chronic stress. Furthermore, Alzheimer’s disease patients present A2AR accumulation in cortical areas together with depressive signs. We now tested the impact of overexpressing A2AR in forebrain neurons on dopamine related behavior, namely depression. Adult male rats overexpressing human A2AR under the control of CaMKII promoter [Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR] and aged-matched wild-types (WT of the same strain (Sprague-Dawley were studied. The forced swimming test (FST, sucrose preference test (SPT and the open-field test (OFT were performed to evaluate behavioral despair, anhedonia, locomotion and anxiety. Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR animals spent more time floating and less time swimming in the FST and presented a decreased sucrose preference at 48h in the SPT. They also covered higher distances in the OFT and spent more time in the central zone than the WT. The results indicate that Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR rats exhibit depressive-like behavior, hyperlocomotion and altered exploratory behavior. This A2AR overexpression may explain the depressive signs found in aging, chronic stress and Alzheimer’s disease.

  5. Overexpression of Adenosine A2A Receptors in Rats: Effects on Depression, Locomotion, and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Joana E.; Alves, Pedro; Canas, Paula M.; Valadas, Jorge S.; Shmidt, Tatiana; Batalha, Vânia L.; Ferreira, Diana G.; Ribeiro, Joaquim A.; Bader, Michael; Cunha, Rodrigo A.; do Couto, Frederico Simões; Lopes, Luísa V.

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) are a sub-type of receptors enriched in basal ganglia, activated by the neuromodulator adenosine, which interact with dopamine D2 receptors. Although this reciprocal antagonistic interaction is well-established in motor function, the outcome in dopamine-related behaviors remains uncertain, in particular in depression and anxiety. We have demonstrated an upsurge of A2AR associated to aging and chronic stress. Furthermore, Alzheimer’s disease patients present A2AR accumulation in cortical areas together with depressive signs. We now tested the impact of overexpressing A2AR in forebrain neurons on dopamine-related behavior, namely depression. Adult male rats overexpressing human A2AR under the control of CaMKII promoter [Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR)] and aged-matched wild-types (WT) of the same strain (Sprague-Dawley) were studied. The forced swimming test (FST), sucrose preference test (SPT), and the open-field test (OFT) were performed to evaluate behavioral despair, anhedonia, locomotion, and anxiety. Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR) animals spent more time floating and less time swimming in the FST and presented a decreased sucrose preference at 48 h in the SPT. They also covered higher distances in the OFT and spent more time in the central zone than the WT. The results indicate that Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR) rats exhibit depressive-like behavior, hyperlocomotion, and altered exploratory behavior. This A2AR overexpression may explain the depressive signs found in aging, chronic stress, and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24982640

  6. Involvement of adenosine A2A receptors in depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Koji; Kobayashi, Minoru; Kanda, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    When administered to normal healthy patients, a nonselective adenosine A1/A2A antagonist, caffeine, tended to improve anxiety and depression at low doses and to exacerbate anxiety at high doses. Caffeine also appears to enhance anxiety-related symptoms in patients with panic disorder, and A2A receptor-deficient mice have been reported to exhibit higher anxiety-like behaviors, as well as a lower incidence of depression-like behaviors. Some selective A2A antagonists were reported to ameliorate anxiety-like behaviors in rodents, while others did not affect these behaviors. In addition, most A2A antagonists showed inhibitory effects on depression-like behaviors. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between A2A receptor antagonists and anxiety and depression remain unclear at the present time, although many studies have produced hypotheses. Given that a selective A2A receptor antagonist has recently become available for use in humans, research on the role of A2A receptors in the treatment of mental illness should progress in the near future. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M B; Fuxe, K; Werge, T

    2002-01-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 has shown effects similar to dopamine antagonists in behavioural assays in rats predictive for antipsychotic activity, without induction of extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS). In the present study, we examined whether this functional dopamine antagonism...

  8. Adenosine 2A receptor agonism: A single intrathecal administration attenuates motor paralysis in experimental autoimmune encephalopathy in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loram, L.C.; Strand, K.A.; Taylor, F.R.; Sloane, E.; van Dam, A.M.; Rieger, J.; Maier, S.F.; Watkins, L.R.

    2015-01-01

    A single intrathecal dose of adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) agonist was previously reported to produce a multi-week reversal of allodynia in two different models of neuropathic pain in addition to downregulating glial activation markers in the spinal cord. We aimed to determine whether a

  9. Effects of adenosine A3 receptor agonist on bone marrow granulocytic system in 5-fluorouracil-treated mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Vacek, Antonín; Holá, Jiřina; Znojil, V.; Weiterová, Lenka; Štreitová, Denisa

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 538, - (2006), s. 163-167 ISSN 0014-2999 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/06/0015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : adenosine A3 receptor * granulopoiesis * mouse Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.522, year: 2006

  10. Homeostatic action of adenosine A(3) and A(1) receptor agonists on proliferation of hematopoietic precursor cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Znojil, V.; Holá, Jiřina; Štreitová, Denisa; Vacek, Antonín

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 233, č. 7 (2008), s. 897-900 ISSN 1535-3702 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/06/0015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : adenosine receptors * hematopoiesis * cell proliferation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.202, year: 2008

  11. A1 not A2A adenosine receptors play a role in cortical epileptic afterdischarges in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 11 (2014), s. 1329-1336 ISSN 0300-9564 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11015 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : adenosine receptors * epileptic afterdischarges * cerebral cortex * ontogeny * rat Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.402, year: 2014

  12. IB-MECA, an Adenosine A(3) Receptor Agonist, Does Not Influence Survival of Lethally gamma-Irradiated Mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Dušek, L.; Hoferová, Zuzana; Komůrková, Denisa

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2012), s. 649-654 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0158; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0128 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Mouse * IB-MECA * Adenosine A(3) receptor agonist Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.531, year: 2012

  13. Synthesis and Properties of a New Water-Soluble Prodrug of the Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonist MSX-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa E. Müller

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The compound L-valine-3-{8-[(E-2-[3-methoxyphenylethenyl]-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthine-3-yl}propyl ester hydrochloride (MSX-4 was synthesized as an aminoacid ester prodrug of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-2. It was found to bestable in artificial gastric acid, but readily cleaved by pig liver esterase.

  14. ATP induced vasodilatation and purinergic receptors in the human leg: roles of nitric oxide, prostaglandins and adenosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Bune, Laurids

    2009-01-01

    Plasma adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is thought to contribute to the local regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow. Intravascular ATP infusion can induce profound limb muscle vasodilatation, but the purinergic receptors and downstream signals involved in this response remain unclear. This study...

  15. Combined pharmacological therapy of the acute radiation disease using a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor and an adenosine A(3) receptor agonist

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Dušek, L.; Hoferová, Zuzana; Komůrková, Denisa

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2014), s. 642-646 ISSN 1895-104X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0128 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Hematopoiesis * Cyclooxygenase inhibition * Adenosine receptor agonist Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.710, year: 2014

  16. High salt diet exacerbates vascular contraction in the absence of adenosine A₂A receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Isha; Zeldin, Darryl C; Ledent, Catherine; Mustafa, Jamal S; Falck, John R; Nayeem, Mohammed A

    2014-05-01

    High salt (4% NaCl, HS) diet modulates adenosine-induced vascular response through adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)AR). Evidence suggests that A(2A)AR stimulates cyp450-epoxygenases, leading to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) generation. The aim of this study was to understand the vascular reactivity to HS and underlying signaling mechanism in the presence or absence of A(2A)AR. Therefore, we hypothesized that HS enhances adenosine-induced relaxation through EETs in A(2A)AR⁺/⁺, but exaggerates contraction in A(2A)AR⁻/⁻. Organ bath and Western blot experiments were conducted in HS and normal salt (NS, 0.18% NaCl)-fed A(2A)AR⁺/⁺ and A(2A)AR⁻/⁻ mice aorta. HS produced concentration-dependent relaxation to non-selective adenosine analog, NECA in A(2A)AR⁺/⁺, whereas contraction was observed in A(2A)AR⁻/⁻ mice and this was attenuated by A₁AR antagonist (DPCPX). CGS 21680 (selective A(2A)AR agonist) enhanced relaxation in HS-A(2A)AR⁺/⁺ versus NS-A(2A)AR⁺/⁺, which was blocked by EETs antagonist (14,15-EEZE). Compared with NS, HS significantly upregulated the expression of vasodilators A(2A)AR and cyp2c29, whereas vasoconstrictors A₁AR and cyp4a in A(2A)AR⁺/⁺ were downregulated. In A(2A)AR⁻/⁻ mice, however, HS significantly downregulated the expression of cyp2c29, whereas A₁AR and cyp4a were upregulated compared with A(2A)AR⁺/⁺ mice. Hence, our data suggest that in A(2A)AR⁺/⁺, HS enhances A(2A)AR-induced relaxation through increased cyp-expoxygenases-derived EETs and decreased A₁AR levels, whereas in A(2A)AR⁻/⁻, HS exaggerates contraction through decreased cyp-epoxygenases and increased A₁AR levels.

  17. Ligand-independent recruitment of steroid receptor coactivators to estrogen receptor by cyclin D1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, R.M.L.; Buckle, R.S.; Hijmans, E.M.; Loomans, C.J.M.; Bernards, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) is an important regulator of growth and differentiation of breast epithelium. Transactivation by ER depends on a leucine-rich motif, which constitutes a ligand-regulated binding site for steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs). Cyclin D1 is frequently amplified in breast

  18. Role of Microglia Adenosine A2A Receptors in Retinal and Brain Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Ana R.; Baptista, Filipa I.; Santos, Paulo F.; Cristóvão, Gonçalo; Ambrósio, António F.; Cunha, Rodrigo A.; Gomes, Catarina A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroinflammation mediated by microglial cells in the brain has been commonly associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Whether this microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is cause or consequence of neurodegeneration is still a matter of controversy. However, it is unequivocal that chronic neuroinflammation plays a role in disease progression and halting that process represents a potential therapeutic strategy. The neuromodulator adenosine emerges as a promising targeting candidate based on its ability to regulate microglial proliferation, chemotaxis, and reactivity through the activation of its G protein coupled A2A receptor (A2AR). This is in striking agreement with the ability of A2AR blockade to control several brain diseases. Retinal degenerative diseases have been also associated with microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, but the role of A2AR has been scarcely explored. This review aims to compare inflammatory features of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases with glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy, discussing the therapeutic potential of A2AR in these degenerative conditions. PMID:25132733

  19. Optimizing Ligand Efficiency of Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handlon, Anthony L; Schaller, Lee T; Leesnitzer, Lisa M; Merrihew, Raymond V; Poole, Chuck; Ulrich, John C; Wilson, Joseph W; Cadilla, Rodolfo; Turnbull, Philip

    2016-01-14

    A series of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) containing the 1-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol core have been optimized for androgen receptor (AR) potency and drug-like properties. We have taken advantage of the lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) parameter as a guide to interpret the effect of structural changes on AR activity. Over the course of optimization efforts the LLE increased over 3 log units leading to a SARM 43 with nanomolar potency, good aqueous kinetic solubility (>700 μM), and high oral bioavailability in rats (83%).

  20. Peptide ligand recognition by G protein-coupled receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E Krumm

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The past few years have seen spectacular progress in the structure determination of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. We now have structural representatives from classes A, B, C, and F. Within the rhodopsin-like class A, most structures belong to the α group, whereas fewer GPCR structures are available from the β, γ, and δ groups, which include peptide GPCRs such as the receptors for neurotensin (β group, opioids, chemokines (γ group, and protease-activated receptors (δ group. Structural information on peptide GPCRs is restricted to complexes with non-peptidic drug-like antagonists with the exception of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 that has been crystallized in the presence of a cyclic peptide antagonist. Notably, the neurotensin receptor (NTSR1 is to date the only peptide GPCR whose structure has been solved in the presence of a peptide agonist. Although limited in number, the current peptide GPCR structures reveal great diversity in shape and electrostatic properties of the ligand binding pockets, features that play key roles in the discrimination of ligands. Here, we review these aspects of peptide GPCRs in view of possible models for peptide agonist binding.

  1. Adenosine A3 Receptor Suppresses Prostate Cancer Metastasis by Inhibiting NADPH Oxidase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvesh Jajoo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed and second most lethal malignancy in men, due mainly to a lack of effective treatment for the metastatic disease. A number of recent studies have shown that activation of the purine nucleoside receptor, adenosine A3 receptor (A3AR, attenuates proliferation of melanoma, colon, and prostate cancer cells. In the present study, we determined whether activation of the A3AR reduces the ability of prostate cancer cells to migrate in vitro and metastasize in vivo. Using severe combined immunodeficient mice, we show that proliferation and metastasis of AT6.1 rat prostate cancer cells were decreased by the administration of A3AR agonist N6-(3-iodobenzyl adenosine-5′-N-methyluronamide. In vitro studies show that activation of A3AR decreased high basal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase activity present in these cells, along with the expression of Rac1 and p47phox subunits of this enzyme. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity by the dominant-negative RacN17 or short interfering (siRNA against p47phox reduced both the generation of reactive oxygen species and the invasion of these cells on Matrigel. In addition, we show that membrane association of p47phox and activation of NADPH oxidase is dependent on the activity of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. We also provide evidence that A3AR inhibits ERK1/2 activity in prostate cancer cells through inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A. We conclude that activation of the A3AR in prostate cancer cells reduces protein kinase A-mediated stimulation of ERK1/2, leading to reduced NADPH oxidase activity and cancer cell invasiveness.

  2. Triazoloquinazolines as Human A3 Adenosine Receptor Antagonists: A QSAR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Sil Lee

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple linear regression analysis was performed on the quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR of the triazoloquinazoline adenosine antagonists for human A3receptors. The data set used for the QSAR analysis encompassed the activities of 33triazoloquinazoline derivatives and 72 physicochemical descriptors. A template moleculewas derived using the known molecular structure for one of the compounds when bound tothe human A2B receptor, in which the amide bond was in a cis-conformation. All the testcompounds were aligned to the template molecule. In order to identify a reasonable QSARequation to describe the data set, we developed a multiple linear regression program thatexamined every possible combination of descriptors. The QSAR equation derived from thisanalysis indicates that the spatial and electronic effects is greater than that of hydrophobiceffects in binding of the antagonists to the human A3 receptor. It also predicts that a largesterimol length parameter is advantageous to activity, whereas large sterimol widthparameters and fractional positive partial surface areas are nonadvatageous.

  3. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.deamicis@unical.it

    2014-11-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens

  4. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens

  5. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXIX. Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertwee, R G; Howlett, A C; Abood, M E

    2010-01-01

    There are at least two types of cannabinoid receptors (CB(1) and CB(2)). Ligands activating these G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) include the phytocannabinoid ¿(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, numerous synthetic compounds, and endogenous compounds known as endocannabinoids. Cannabinoid receptor...

  6. Structural basis of ligand interaction with atypical chemokine receptor 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Martin; Wang, Liwen; van Gils, Noortje; Stephens, Bryan S.; Zhang, Penglie; Schall, Thomas J.; Yang, Sichun; Abagyan, Ruben; Chance, Mark R.; Kufareva, Irina; Handel, Tracy M.

    2017-01-18

    Chemokines drive cell migration through their interactions with seven-transmembrane (7TM) chemokine receptors on cell surfaces. The atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3) binds chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12 and signals exclusively through β-arrestin-mediated pathways, without activating canonical G-protein signalling. This receptor is upregulated in numerous cancers making it a potential drug target. Here we collected over 100 distinct structural probes from radiolytic footprinting, disulfide trapping, and mutagenesis to map the structures of ACKR3:CXCL12 and ACKR3:small-molecule complexes, including dynamic regions that proved unresolvable by X-ray crystallography in homologous receptors. The data are integrated with molecular modelling to produce complete and cohesive experimentally driven models that confirm and expand on the existing knowledge of the architecture of receptor:chemokine and receptor:small-molecule complexes. Additionally, we detected and characterized ligand-induced conformational changes in the transmembrane and intracellular regions of ACKR3 that elucidate fundamental structural elements of agonism in this atypical receptor.

  7. Molecular Dynamics Methodologies for Probing Cannabinoid Ligand/Receptor Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Diane L.; Hurst, Dow P.; Shore, Derek M.; Pitman, Mike C.; Reggio, Patricia H.

    2018-01-01

    The cannabinoid type 1 and 2 G-protein-coupled receptors are currently important pharmacological targets with significant drug discovery potential. These receptors have been shown to display functional selectivity or biased agonism, a property currently thought to have substantial therapeutic potential. Although recent advances in crystallization techniques have provided a wealth of structural information about this important class of membrane-embedded proteins, these structures lack dynamical information. In order to fully understand the interplay of structure and function for this important class of proteins, complementary techniques that address the dynamical aspects of their function are required such as NMR as well as a variety of other spectroscopies. Complimentary to these experimental approaches is molecular dynamics, which has been effectively used to help unravel, at the atomic level, the dynamics of ligand binding and activation of these membrane-bound receptors. Here, we discuss and present several representative examples of the application of molecular dynamics simulations to the understanding of the signatures of ligand-binding and -biased signaling at the cannabinoid type 1 and 2 receptors. PMID:28750815

  8. Mapping adenosine A1 receptors in the cat brain by positron emission tomography with [11C]MPDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yuhei; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Kiyosawa, Motohiro; Nariai, Tadashi; Oda, Keiichi; Toyama, Hinako; Suzuki, Fumio; Ono, Kenichirou; Senda, Michio

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the potential of [ 11 C]MPDX as a radioligand for mapping adenosine A 1 receptors in comparison with previously proposed [ 11 C]KF15372 in cat brain by PET. Two tracers showed the same brain distribution. Brain uptake of [ 11 C]MPDX (Ki=4.2 nM) was much higher and washed out faster than that of [ 11 C]KF15372 (Ki=3.0 nM), and was blocked by carrier-loading or displaced with an A 1 antagonist. The regional A 1 receptor distribution evaluated with kinetic analysis is consistent with that previously measured in vitro. [ 11 C]MPDX PET has a potential for mapping adenosine A 1 receptors in brain

  9. PET imaging to measure therapy-related occupancy and disease-induced changes of expression of adenosine A1 receptors in the rodent brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Souman

    2014-01-01

    Rol van adenosine A1 receptor in de vroege fase van encefalitis Adenosine A1 receptoren (A1R) spelen een belangrijke rol bij de bescherming van hersencellen tijdens de vroege fase van hersenontsteking (encefalitis) bij ratten en mogelijk ook bij mensen. Dat concludeert Souman Paul in zijn

  10. Increased Signaling via Adenosine A(1) Receptors, Sleep Deprivation, Imipramine, and Ketamine Inhibit Depressive-like Behavior via Induction of Homer1a

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serchov, Tsvetan; Clement, Hans-Willi; Schwarz, Martin K.; Iasevoli, Felice; Tosh, Dilip K.; Idzko, Marco; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Normann, Claus; Biber, Knut; van Calker, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is among the most commonly diagnosed disabling mental diseases. Several non-pharmacological treatments of depression upregulate adenosine concentration and/or adenosine A(1) receptors (A(1)R) in the brain. To test whether enhanced A(1)R signaling mediates antidepressant

  11. Control of estrogen receptor ligand binding by Hsp90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliss, A E; Benzeno, S; Rao, J; Caplan, A J

    2000-04-01

    The molecular chaperone Hsp90 interacts with unliganded steroid hormone receptors and regulates their activity. We have analyzed the function of yeast and mammalian Hsp90 in regulating the ability of the human estrogen receptor (ER) to bind ligands in vivo and in vitro. Using the yeast system, we show that the ER expressed in several different hsp82 mutant strains binds reduced amounts of the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol compared to the wild type. This defect in hormone binding occurs without any significant change in the steady state levels of ER protein. To analyze the role of mammalian Hsp90, we synthesized the human ER in rabbit reticulocyte lysates containing geldanamycin, an Hsp90 inhibitor. At low concentrations of geldanamycin we observed reduced levels of hormone binding by the ER. At higher concentrations, we found reduced synthesis of the receptor. These data indicate that Hsp90 functions to maintain the ER in a high affinity hormone-binding conformation.

  12. Effects of tianeptine on onset time of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice: possible role of adenosine A1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzbay, Tayfun I; Kayir, Hakan; Ceyhan, Mert

    2007-02-01

    Depression is a common psychiatric problem in epileptic patients. Thus, it is important that an antidepressant agent has anticonvulsant activity. This study was organized to investigate the effects of tianeptine, an atypical antidepressant, on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure in mice. A possible contribution of adenosine receptors was also evaluated. Adult male Swiss-Webster mice (25-35 g) were subjects. PTZ (80 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to mice 30 min after tianeptine (2.5-80 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline administration. The onset times of 'first myoclonic jerk' (FMJ) and 'generalized clonic seizures' (GCS) were recorded. Duration of 600 s was taken as a cutoff time in calculation of the onset time of the seizures. To evaluate the contribution of adenosine receptors in the effect of tianeptine, a nonspecific adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine, a specific A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), a specific A2A receptor antagonist 8-(3-chlorostyryl) caffeine (CSC) or their vehicles were administered to the mice 15 min before tianeptine (80 mg/kg) or saline treatments. Tianeptine (40 and 80 mg/kg) pretreatment significantly delayed the onset time of FMJ and GCS. Caffeine (10-60 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently blocked the retarding effect of tianeptine (80 mg/kg) on the onset times of FMJ and GCS. DPCPX (20 mg/kg) but not CSC (1-8 mg/kg) blocked the effect of tianeptine (80 mg/kg) on FMJ. Our results suggest that tianeptine delayed the onset time of PTZ-induced seizures via adenosine A1 receptors in mice. Thus, this drug may be a useful choice for epileptic patients with depression.

  13. Selective adenosine A2A receptor agonists and antagonists protect against spinal cord injury through peripheral and central effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito Emanuela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Permanent functional deficits following spinal cord injury (SCI arise both from mechanical injury and from secondary tissue reactions involving inflammation. Enhanced release of adenosine and glutamate soon after SCI represents a component in the sequelae that may be responsible for resulting functional deficits. The role of adenosine A2A receptor in central ischemia/trauma is still to be elucidated. In our previous studies we have demonstrated that the adenosine A2A receptor-selective agonist CGS21680, systemically administered after SCI, protects from tissue damage, locomotor dysfunction and different inflammatory readouts. In this work we studied the effect of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SCH58261, systemically administered after SCI, on the same parameters. We investigated the hypothesis that the main action mechanism of agonists and antagonists is at peripheral or central sites. Methods Spinal trauma was induced by extradural compression of SC exposed via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy in mouse. Three drug-dosing protocols were utilized: a short-term systemic administration by intraperitoneal injection, a chronic administration via osmotic minipump, and direct injection into the spinal cord. Results SCH58261, systemically administered (0.01 mg/kg intraperitoneal. 1, 6 and 10 hours after SCI, reduced demyelination and levels of TNF-α, Fas-L, PAR, Bax expression and activation of JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK 24 hours after SCI. Chronic SCH58261 administration, by mini-osmotic pump delivery for 10 days, improved the neurological deficit up to 10 days after SCI. Adenosine A2A receptors are physiologically expressed in the spinal cord by astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes. Soon after SCI (24 hours, these receptors showed enhanced expression in neurons. Both the A2A agonist and antagonist, administered intraperitoneally, reduced expression of the A2A receptor, ruling out the possibility that the

  14. Striatal Pre- and Postsynaptic Profile of Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, César; Beaumont, Vahri; Goldberg, Steven R.; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Franco, Rafael; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I.; Ferré, Sergi

    2011-01-01

    Striatal adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are highly expressed in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the indirect efferent pathway, where they heteromerize with dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs). A2ARs are also localized presynaptically in cortico-striatal glutamatergic terminals contacting MSNs of the direct efferent pathway, where they heteromerize with adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs). It has been hypothesized that postsynaptic A2AR antagonists should be useful in Parkinson's disease, while presynaptic A2AR antagonists could be beneficial in dyskinetic disorders, such as Huntington's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorders and drug addiction. The aim or this work was to determine whether selective A2AR antagonists may be subdivided according to a preferential pre- versus postsynaptic mechanism of action. The potency at blocking the motor output and striatal glutamate release induced by cortical electrical stimulation and the potency at inducing locomotor activation were used as in vivo measures of pre- and postsynaptic activities, respectively. SCH-442416 and KW-6002 showed a significant preferential pre- and postsynaptic profile, respectively, while the other tested compounds (MSX-2, SCH-420814, ZM-241385 and SCH-58261) showed no clear preference. Radioligand-binding experiments were performed in cells expressing A2AR-D2R and A1R-A2AR heteromers to determine possible differences in the affinity of these compounds for different A2AR heteromers. Heteromerization played a key role in the presynaptic profile of SCH-442416, since it bound with much less affinity to A2AR when co-expressed with D2R than with A1R. KW-6002 showed the best relative affinity for A2AR co-expressed with D2R than co-expressed with A1R, which can at least partially explain the postsynaptic profile of this compound. Also, the in vitro pharmacological profile of MSX-2, SCH-420814, ZM-241385 and SCH-58261 was is in accordance with their mixed pre- and postsynaptic profile. On the basis of their preferential

  15. Striatal pre- and postsynaptic profile of adenosine A(2A receptor antagonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Orru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Striatal adenosine A(2A receptors (A(2ARs are highly expressed in medium spiny neurons (MSNs of the indirect efferent pathway, where they heteromerize with dopamine D(2 receptors (D(2Rs. A(2ARs are also localized presynaptically in cortico-striatal glutamatergic terminals contacting MSNs of the direct efferent pathway, where they heteromerize with adenosine A(1 receptors (A(1Rs. It has been hypothesized that postsynaptic A(2AR antagonists should be useful in Parkinson's disease, while presynaptic A(2AR antagonists could be beneficial in dyskinetic disorders, such as Huntington's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorders and drug addiction. The aim or this work was to determine whether selective A(2AR antagonists may be subdivided according to a preferential pre- versus postsynaptic mechanism of action. The potency at blocking the motor output and striatal glutamate release induced by cortical electrical stimulation and the potency at inducing locomotor activation were used as in vivo measures of pre- and postsynaptic activities, respectively. SCH-442416 and KW-6002 showed a significant preferential pre- and postsynaptic profile, respectively, while the other tested compounds (MSX-2, SCH-420814, ZM-241385 and SCH-58261 showed no clear preference. Radioligand-binding experiments were performed in cells expressing A(2AR-D(2R and A(1R-A(2AR heteromers to determine possible differences in the affinity of these compounds for different A(2AR heteromers. Heteromerization played a key role in the presynaptic profile of SCH-442416, since it bound with much less affinity to A(2AR when co-expressed with D(2R than with A(1R. KW-6002 showed the best relative affinity for A(2AR co-expressed with D(2R than co-expressed with A(1R, which can at least partially explain the postsynaptic profile of this compound. Also, the in vitro pharmacological profile of MSX-2, SCH-420814, ZM-241385 and SCH-58261 was is in accordance with their mixed pre- and postsynaptic profile

  16. Anti-nociceptive properties of the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol in mice: role of A1 adenosine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, AP; Böhmer, AE; Antunes, C; Schallenberger, C; Porciúncula, LO; Elisabetsky, E; Lara, DR; Souza, DO

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Allopurinol is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme xanthine oxidase, used primarily in the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. It is well known that purines exert multiple effects on pain transmission. We hypothesized that the inhibition of xanthine oxidase by allopurinol, thereby reducing purine degradation, could be a valid strategy to enhance purinergic activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-nociceptive profile of allopurinol on chemical and thermal pain models in mice. Experimental approach Mice received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of vehicle (Tween 10%) or allopurinol (10–400 mg kg−1). Anti-nociceptive effects were measured with intraplantar capsaicin, intraplantar glutamate, tail-flick or hot-plate tests. Key results Allopurinol presented dose-dependent anti-nociceptive effects in all models. The opioid antagonist naloxone did not affect these anti-nociceptive effects. The non-selective adenosine-receptor antagonist caffeine and the selective A1 adenosine-receptor antagonist, DPCPX, but not the selective A2A adenosine-receptor antagonist, SCH58261, completely prevented allopurinol-induced anti-nociception. No obvious motor deficits were produced by allopurinol, at doses up to 200 mg kg−1. Allopurinol also caused an increase in cerebrospinal fluid levels of purines, including the nucleosides adenosine and guanosine, and decreased cerebrospinal fluid concentration of uric acid. Conclusions and implications Allopurinol-induced anti-nociception may be related to adenosine accumulation. Allopurinol is an old and extensively used compound and seems to be well tolerated with no obvious central nervous system toxic effects at high doses. This drug may be useful to treat pain syndromes in humans. PMID:19133997

  17. 2-n-Butyl-9-methyl-8-[1,2,3]triazol-2-yl-9H-purin-6-ylamine and analogues as A2A adenosine receptor antagonists. Design, synthesis, and pharmacological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Patrizia; Tinti, Maria Ornella; Carminati, Paolo; Castorina, Massimo; Di Cesare, Maria Assunta; Di Serio, Stefano; Gallo, Grazia; Ghirardi, Orlando; Giorgi, Fabrizio; Giorgi, Luca; Piersanti, Giovanni; Bartoccini, Francesca; Tarzia, Giorgio

    2005-11-03

    Two types of adenosine receptor ligands were designed, i.e., 9H-purine and 1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridines, to obtain selective A(2A) antagonists, and we report here their synthesis and binding affinities for the four adenosine receptor subtypes A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3). The design was carried out on the basis of the molecular modeling of a number of potent adenosine receptor antagonists described in the literature. Three compounds (25b-d) showed an interesting affinity and selectivity for the A(2A) subtype. One of them, i.e., ST1535 (2-n-butyl-9-methyl-8-[1,2,3]triazol-2-yl-9H-purin-6-ylamine, 25b) (K(i) A(2A) = 6.6 nM, K(i) A(1)/A(2A) = 12; K(i) A(2B)/A(2A) = 58; K(i) A(3)/A(2A) > 160), was selected for in vivo study and shown to induce a dose-related increase in locomotor activity, suggestive of an A(2A) antagonist type of activity.

  18. Key modulatory role of presynaptic adenosine A2A receptors in cortical neurotransmission to the striatal direct pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, César; Luján, Rafael; Uchigashima, Motokazu; Simoes, Ana Patrícia; Lerner, Talia N; Borycz, Janusz; Kachroo, Anil; Canas, Paula M; Orru, Marco; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Rosin, Diane L; Kreitzer, Anatol C; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Watanabe, Masahiko; Ferré, Sergi

    2009-11-18

    Basal ganglia processing results from a balanced activation of direct and indirect striatal efferent pathways, which are controlled by dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, respectively. Adenosine A2A receptors are considered novel antiparkinsonian targets, based on their selective postsynaptic localization in the indirect pathway, where they modulate D2 receptor function. The present study provides evidence for the existence of an additional, functionally significant, segregation of A2A receptors at the presynaptic level. Using integrated anatomical, electrophysiological, and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that presynaptic A2A receptors are preferentially localized in cortical glutamatergic terminals that contact striatal neurons of the direct pathway, where they exert a selective modulation of corticostriatal neurotransmission. Presynaptic striatal A2A receptors could provide a new target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  19. Key Modulatory Role of Presynaptic Adenosine A2A Receptors in Cortical Neurotransmission to the Striatal Direct Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Quiroz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia processing results from a balanced activation of direct and indirect striatal efferent pathways, which are controlled by dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, respectively. Adenosine A2A receptors are considered novel antiparkinsonian targets, based on their selective postsynaptic localization in the indirect pathway, where they modulate D2 receptor function. The present study provides evidence for the existence of an additional, functionally significant, segregation of A2A receptors at the presynaptic level. Using integrated anatomical, electrophysiological, and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that presynaptic A2A receptors are preferentially localized in cortical glutamatergic terminals that contact striatal neurons of the direct pathway, where they exert a selective modulation of corticostriatal neurotransmission. Presynaptic striatal A2A receptors could provide a new target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  20. Hide and seek: a comparative autoradiographic in vitro investigation of the adenosine A3 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeusler, D.; Fuchshuber, F.; Girschele, F.; Hacker, M.; Wadsak, W.; Mitterhauser, Markus [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Grassinger, L. [University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Department of Biomedical Analytics, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Hoerleinsberger, W.J. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); University of Vienna, Cognitive Science Research Platform, Vienna (Austria); Hoeftberger, R.; Leisser, I. [Medical University of Vienna, Institute of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Shanab, K.; Spreitzer, H. [University of Vienna, Department of Drug and Natural Product Synthesis, Vienna (Austria); Gerdenitsch, W. [Medical University of Vienna, Institute of Biomedicinal Research, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-05-01

    Since the adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) is considered to be of high clinical importance in the diagnosis and treatment of ischaemic conditions (heart and brain), glaucoma, asthma, arthritis, cancer and inflammation, a suitable and selective A3R PET tracer such as [{sup 18}F]FE rate at SUPPY would be of high clinical value for clinicians as well as patients. A3R was discovered in the late 1990s, but there is still little known regarding its distribution in the CNS and periphery. Hence, in autoradiographic experiments the distribution of A3R in human brain and rat tissues was investigated and the specific binding of the A3R antagonist FE rate at SUPPY and MRS1523 compared. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) experiments were also performed to validate the autoradiographic findings. For autoradiographic competition experiments human post-mortem brain and rat tissues were incubated with [{sup 125}I]AB-MECA and highly selective compounds to block the other adenosine receptor subtypes. Additionally, IHC was performed with an A3 antibody. Specific A3R binding of MRS1523 and FE rate at SUPPY was found in all rat peripheral tissues examined with the highest amounts in the spleen (44.0 % and 46.4 %), lung (44.5 % and 45.0 %), heart (39.9 % and 42.9 %) and testes (27.4 % and 29.5 %, respectively). Low amounts of A3R were found in rat brain tissues (5.9 % and 5.6 %, respectively) and human brain tissues (thalamus 8.0 % and 9.1 %, putamen 7.8 % and 8.2 %, cerebellum 6.0 % and 7.8 %, hippocampus 5.7 % and 5.6 %, caudate nucleus 4.9 % and 6.4 %, cortex 4.9 % and 6.3 %, respectively). The outcome of the A3 antibody staining experiments complemented the results of the autoradiographic experiments. The presence of A3R protein was verified in central and peripheral tissues by autoradiography and IHC. The specificity and selectivity of FE rate at SUPPY was confirmed by direct comparison with MRS1523, providing further evidence that [{sup 18}F]FE rate at SUPPY may be a suitable A3 PET

  1. Progress on the application of ligand receptor binding assays in radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xue; Qian Jinping; Kong Aiying; Zhu Lin

    2010-01-01

    Receptor binding assay is an important drug screening method, which can quickly and inexpensively study the interactions between the targeted receptor and the potential ligands in vitro and provide the information of the relative binding affinity of ligand-receptor. The imaging of many radiopharmaceuticals is based on highly selective radioligand-receptor binding. The technique plays an important role in the design and screening of receptor-targeting radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)

  2. Preclinical studies on [{sup 11}C]MPDX for mapping adenosine A{sub 1} receptors by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwata, Kiichi; Kimura, Yuichi; Oda, Keiichi; Kawamura, Kazunori; Ishii, Kenji; Senda, Michio [Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Gerontology (Japan). Positron Medical Center; Nariai, Tadashi; Wakabayashi, Shinichi [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Shimada, Junichi [Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Pharmaceutical Research Inst.

    2002-09-01

    In previous in vivo studies with mice, rats and cats, we have demonstrated that [{sup 11}C]MPDX ([1-methyl-{sup 11}C]8-dicyclopropylmethyl-1-methyl-3-propylxanthine) is a potential radioligand for mapping adenosine A{sub 1} receptors of the brain by positron emission tomography (PET). In the present study, we performed a preclinical study. The radiation absorbed-dose by [{sup 11}C]MPDX in humans estimated from the tissue distribution in mice was low enough for clinical use, and the acute toxicity and mutagenicity of MPDX were not found. The monkey brain was clearly visualized by PET with [{sup 11}C]MPDX. We have concluded that [{sup 11}C]MPDX is suitable for mapping adenosine A{sub 1} receptors in the human brain by PET. (author)

  3. The adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M B; Fuxe, K; Werge, T

    2002-01-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 has shown effects similar to dopamine antagonists in behavioural assays in rats predictive for antipsychotic activity, without induction of extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS). In the present study, we examined whether this functional dopamine antagonism......-induced behaviours (unrest, stereotypies, arousal) were unaffected. EPS were not observed at any dose. At 0.05 mg/kg CGS 21680 produced vomiting. The two lower doses did not produce observable side-effects. Though the differential effect on amphetamine- and apomorphine-induced behaviours is intriguing, CGS 21680...... showed a functional anti-dopaminergic effect in Cebus apella monkeys without production of EPS. This further substantiates that adenosine A2A receptor agonists may have potential as antipsychotics with atypical profiles....

  4. Adenosine and dialysis hypotension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, CMF

    In this issue, Imai et al. report the results of a double-blind placebo-controlled study on the effect of an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, FK352, on the incidence of dialysis hypotension in hypotension-prone patients. This Commentary discusses the use of selective adenosine A1 receptor

  5. Early Cessation of Adenosine Diphosphate Receptor Inhibitors Among Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients Treated With Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil L; Ju, Christine; Anstrom, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    treated with percutaneous coronary intervention discharged alive on ADPri therapy from 233 United States TRANSLATE-ACS study (Treatment With Adenosine Diphosphate Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After Acute Coronary Syndrome) participating hospitals...... ADPri cessation included physician-recommended discontinuation (54%), as well as patient self-discontinuation, because of cost (19%), medication side effects (9%), and procedural interruption (10%). Using a time-dependent covariate model, early cessation of ADPri therapy was associated with increased...

  6. Effects of stable adenosine receptor agonists on bone marrow haematopoietic cells as inferred from the cytotoxic action of 5-fluorouracil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Milan; Hofer, Michal; Vacek, Antonín; Znojil, V.; Pipalová, I.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2004), s. 549-556 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/02/0423; GA AV ČR IBS5004009; GA AV ČR KSK5011112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : adenosine receptor agonists * hematopoiesis * 5-fluorouracil Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2004

  7. Effects of caffeine on behavioral and inflammatory changes elicited by copper in zebrafish larvae: Role of adenosine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fernanda Fernandes; Leite, Carlos Eduardo; Kist, Luiza Wilges; de Oliveira, Giovanna Medeiros; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Campos, Maria Martha; Morrone, Fernanda Bueno

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of caffeine in the behavioral and inflammatory alterations caused by copper in zebrafish larvae, attempting to correlate these changes with the modulation of adenosine receptors. To perform a survival curve, 7dpf larvae were exposed to 10μM CuSO 4 , combined to different concentrations of caffeine (100μM, 500μM and 1mM) for up to 24h. The treatment with copper showed lower survival rates only when combined with 500μM and 1mM of caffeine. We selected 4 and 24h as treatment time-points. The behavior evaluation was done by analyzing the traveled distance, the number of entries in the center, and the length of permanence in the center and the periphery of the well. The exposure to 10μM CuSO 4 plus 500μM caffeine at 4 and 24h changed the behavioral parameters. To study the inflammatory effects of caffeine, we assessed the PGE 2 levels by using UHPLC-MS/MS, and TNF, COX-2, IL-6 and IL-10 gene expression by RT-qPCR. The expression of adenosine receptors was also evaluated with RT-qPCR. When combined to copper, caffeine altered inflammatory markers depending on the time of exposure. Adenosine receptors expression was significantly increased, especially after 4h exposure to copper and caffeine together or separately. Our results demonstrated that caffeine enhances the inflammation induced by copper by decreasing animal survival, altering inflammatory markers and promoting behavioral changes in zebrafish larvae. We also conclude that alterations in adenosine receptors are related to those effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ligand-induced internalization of the type 1 cholecystokinin receptor independent of recognized signaling activity

    OpenAIRE

    Cawston, Erin E.; Harikumar, Kaleeckal G.; Miller, Laurence J.

    2011-01-01

    Receptor ligands, identified as antagonists, based on the absence of stimulation of signaling, can rarely stimulate receptor internalization. d-Tyr-Gly-[(Nle28,31,d-Trp30)CCK-26–32]-2-phenylethyl ester (d-Trp-OPE) is such a ligand that binds to the cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor and stimulates internalization. Here, the molecular basis of this trafficking event is explored, with the assumption that ligand binding initiates conformational change, exposing an epitope to direct endocytosis. Liga...

  9. Dopamine D1 and adenosine A1 receptors form functionally interacting heteromeric complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginés, Silvia; Hillion, Joëlle; Torvinen, Maria; Le Crom, Stèphane; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I.; Rondin, Sofia; Lew, Jow Y.; Watson, Stanley; Zoli, Michele; Agnati, Luigi Francesco; Vernier, Philippe; Lluis, Carmen; Ferré, Sergi; Fuxe, Kjell; Franco, Rafael

    2000-01-01

    The possible molecular basis for the previously described antagonistic interactions between adenosine A1 receptors (A1R) and dopamine D1 receptors (D1R) in the brain have been studied in mouse fibroblast Ltk− cells cotransfected with human A1R and D1R cDNAs or with human A1R and dopamine D2 receptor (long-form) (D2R) cDNAs and in cortical neurons in culture. A1R and D1R, but not A1R and D2R, were found to coimmunoprecipitate in cotransfected fibroblasts. This selective A1R/D1R heteromerization disappeared after pretreatment with the D1R agonist, but not after combined pretreatment with D1R and A1R agonists. A high degree of A1R and D1R colocalization, demonstrated in double immunofluorescence experiments with confocal laser microscopy, was found in both cotransfected fibroblast cells and cortical neurons in culture. On the other hand, a low degree of A1R and D2R colocalization was observed in cotransfected fibroblasts. Pretreatment with the A1R agonist caused coclustering (coaggregation) of A1R and D1R, which was blocked by combined pretreatment with the D1R and A1R agonists in both fibroblast cells and in cortical neurons in culture. Combined pretreatment with D1R and A1R agonists, but not with either one alone, substantially reduced the D1R agonist-induced accumulation of cAMP. The A1R/D1R heteromerization may be one molecular basis for the demonstrated antagonistic modulation of A1R of D1R receptor signaling in the brain. The persistence of A1R/D1R heteromerization seems to be essential for the blockade of A1R agonist-induced A1R/D1R coclustering and for the desensitization of the D1R agonist-induced cAMP accumulation seen on combined pretreatment with D1R and A1R agonists, which indicates a potential role of A1R/D1R heteromers also in desensitization mechanisms and receptor trafficking. PMID:10890919

  10. Hypothermia in mouse is caused by adenosine A1 and A3 receptor agonists and AMP via three distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Jesse Lea; Jain, Shalini; Gizewski, Elizabeth; Wan, Tina C; Tosh, Dilip K; Xiao, Cuiying; Auchampach, John A; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L

    2017-03-01

    Small mammals have the ability to enter torpor, a hypothermic, hypometabolic state, allowing impressive energy conservation. Administration of adenosine or adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) can trigger a hypothermic, torpor-like state. We investigated the mechanisms for hypothermia using telemetric monitoring of body temperature in wild type and receptor knock out (Adora1 -/- , Adora3 -/- ) mice. Confirming prior data, stimulation of the A 3 adenosine receptor (AR) induced hypothermia via peripheral mast cell degranulation, histamine release, and activation of central histamine H 1 receptors. In contrast, A 1 AR agonists and AMP both acted centrally to cause hypothermia. Commonly used, selective A 1 AR agonists, including N 6 -cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), N 6 -cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), and MRS5474, caused hypothermia via both A 1 AR and A 3 AR when given intraperitoneally. Intracerebroventricular dosing, low peripheral doses of Cl-ENBA [(±)-5'-chloro-5'-deoxy-N 6 -endo-norbornyladenosine], or using Adora3 -/- mice allowed selective stimulation of A 1 AR. AMP-stimulated hypothermia can occur independently of A 1 AR, A 3 AR, and mast cells. A 1 AR and A 3 AR agonists and AMP cause regulated hypothermia that was characterized by a drop in total energy expenditure, physical inactivity, and preference for cooler environmental temperatures, indicating a reduced body temperature set point. Neither A 1 AR nor A 3 AR was required for fasting-induced torpor. A 1 AR and A 3 AR agonists and AMP trigger regulated hypothermia via three distinct mechanisms. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Cholesterol 27-hydroxylase but not apolipoprotein apoE contributes to A2A adenosine receptor stimulated reverse cholesterol transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Taiese Crystal; Parathath, Saj; Tian, Heather; Reiss, Allison; Chan, Edwin; Fisher, Edward A; Cronstein, Bruce N

    2012-02-01

    Movement of free cholesterol between the cellular compartment and acceptor is governed by cholesterol gradients that are determined by several enzymes and reverse cholesterol transport proteins. We have previously demonstrated that adenosine A(2A) receptors inhibit foam cell formation and stimulate production of cholesterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1), an enzyme involved in the conversion of cholesterol to oxysterols. We therefore asked whether the effect of adenosine A(2A) receptors on foam cell formation in vitro is mediated by CYP27A1 or apoE, a carrier for cholesterol in the serum. We found that specific lentiviral siRNA infection markedly reduced apoE or 27-hydroxylase mRNA in THP-1 cells. Despite diminished apoE expression (p CYP27A1 KD cells (4 ± 2%; pCYP27A1 KD cells but reduced efflux in apoE KD cells. These results demonstrate that adenosine A(2A) receptor occupancy diminishes foam cell formation by increasing expression and function of CYP27A1.

  12. Anticonvulsant effect of AMP by direct activation of adenosine A1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzi, Mirko; Coppi, Elisabetta; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Chiarugi, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    Purinergic neurotransmission mediated by adenosine (Ado) type 1 receptors (A1Rs) plays pivotal roles in negative modulation of epileptic seizures, and Ado is thought to be a key endogenous anticonvulsant. Recent evidence, however, indicates that AMP, the metabolic precursor of Ado, also activate A1Rs. Here, we evaluated the antiepileptic effects of AMP adopting in vitro and in vivo models of epilepsy. We report that AMP reversed the increase in population spike (PS) amplitude and the decrease in PS latency induced by a Mg(2+)-free extracellular solution in CA1 neurons of mouse hippocampal slices. The AMP effects were inhibited by the A1R antagonist DPCPX, but not prevented by inhibiting conversion of AMP into Ado, indicating that AMP inhibited per se sustained hippocampal excitatory neurotransmission by directly activating A1Rs. AMP also reduced seizure severity and mortality in a model of audiogenic convulsion. Of note, the anticonvulsant effects of AMP were potentiated by preventing its conversion into Ado and inhibited by DPCPX. When tested in a model of kainate-induced seizure, AMP prolonged latency of convulsions but had no effects on seizure severity and mortality. Data provide the first evidence that AMP is an endogenous anticonvulsant acting at A1Rs. © 2013.

  13. Control and function of the homeostatic sleep response by adenosine A1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorness, Theresa E; Kelly, Christine L; Gao, Tianshu; Poffenberger, Virginia; Greene, Robert W

    2009-02-04

    During sleep, the mammalian CNS undergoes widespread, synchronized slow-wave activity (SWA) that directly varies with previous waking duration (Borbély, 1982; Dijk et al., 1990). When sleep is restricted, an enhanced SWA response follows in the next sleep period. The enhancement of SWA is associated with improved cognitive performance (Huber et al., 2004), but it is unclear either how the SWA is enhanced or whether SWA is needed to maintain normal cognitive performance. A conditional, CNS knock-out of the adenosine receptor, AdoA(1)R gene, shows selective attenuation of the SWA rebound response to restricted sleep, but sleep duration is not affected. During sleep restriction, wild phenotype animals express a rebound SWA response and maintain cognitive performance in a working memory task. However, the knock-out animals not only show a reduced rebound SWA response but they also fail to maintain normal cognitive function, although this function is normal when sleep is not restricted. Thus, AdoA(1)R activation is needed for normal rebound SWA, and when the SWA rebound is reduced, there is a failure to maintain working memory function, suggesting a functional role for SWA homeostasis.

  14. Adenosine A1 receptors promote vasa vasorum endothelial cell barrier integrity via Gi and Akt-dependent actin cytoskeleton remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddaramappa Nagavedi Umapathy

    Full Text Available In a neonatal model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, a dramatic pulmonary artery adventitial thickening, accumulation of inflammatory cells in the adventitial compartment, and angiogenic expansion of the vasa vasorum microcirculatory network are observed. These pathophysiological responses suggest that rapidly proliferating vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVEC may exhibit increased permeability for circulating blood cells and macromolecules. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these observations remain unexplored. Some reports implicated extracellular adenosine in the regulation of vascular permeability under hypoxic and inflammatory conditions. Thus, we aimed to determine the role of adenosine in barrier regulation of VVEC isolated from the pulmonary arteries of normoxic (VVEC-Co or chronically hypoxic (VVEC-Hyp neonatal calves.We demonstrate via a transendothelial electrical resistance measurement that exogenous adenosine significantly enhanced the barrier function in VVEC-Co and, to a lesser extent, in VVEC-Hyp. Our data from a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction show that both VVEC-Co and VVEC-Hyp express all four adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3, with the highest expression level of A1 receptors (A1Rs. However, A1R expression was significantly lower in VVEC-Hyp compared to VVEC-Co. By using an A1R-specific agonist/antagonist and siRNA, we demonstrate that A1Rs are mostly responsible for adenosine-induced enhancement in barrier function. Adenosine-induced barrier integrity enhancement was attenuated by pretreatment of VVEC with pertussis toxin and GSK690693 or LY294002, suggesting the involvement of Gi proteins and the PI3K-Akt pathway. Moreover, we reveal a critical role of actin cytoskeleton in VVEC barrier regulation by using specific inhibitors of actin and microtubule polymerization. Further, we show that adenosine pretreatment blocked the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF

  15. Adenosine A1 Receptors Promote Vasa Vasorum Endothelial Cell Barrier Integrity via Gi and Akt-Dependent Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddaramappa Umapathy, Nagavedi; Kaczmarek, Elzbieta; Fatteh, Nooreen; Burns, Nana; Lucas, Rudolf; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Verin, Alexander D.; Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia V.

    2013-01-01

    Background In a neonatal model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, a dramatic pulmonary artery adventitial thickening, accumulation of inflammatory cells in the adventitial compartment, and angiogenic expansion of the vasa vasorum microcirculatory network are observed. These pathophysiological responses suggest that rapidly proliferating vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVEC) may exhibit increased permeability for circulating blood cells and macromolecules. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these observations remain unexplored. Some reports implicated extracellular adenosine in the regulation of vascular permeability under hypoxic and inflammatory conditions. Thus, we aimed to determine the role of adenosine in barrier regulation of VVEC isolated from the pulmonary arteries of normoxic (VVEC-Co) or chronically hypoxic (VVEC-Hyp) neonatal calves. Principal Findings We demonstrate via a transendothelial electrical resistance measurement that exogenous adenosine significantly enhanced the barrier function in VVEC-Co and, to a lesser extent, in VVEC-Hyp. Our data from a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction show that both VVEC-Co and VVEC-Hyp express all four adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3), with the highest expression level of A1 receptors (A1Rs). However, A1R expression was significantly lower in VVEC-Hyp compared to VVEC-Co. By using an A1R-specific agonist/antagonist and siRNA, we demonstrate that A1Rs are mostly responsible for adenosine-induced enhancement in barrier function. Adenosine-induced barrier integrity enhancement was attenuated by pretreatment of VVEC with pertussis toxin and GSK690693 or LY294002, suggesting the involvement of Gi proteins and the PI3K-Akt pathway. Moreover, we reveal a critical role of actin cytoskeleton in VVEC barrier regulation by using specific inhibitors of actin and microtubule polymerization. Further, we show that adenosine pretreatment blocked the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF

  16. Ligand and structure-based methodologies for the prediction of the activity of G protein-coupled receptor ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzi, Stefano; Tikhonova, Irina G.; Harden, T. Kendall; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2009-11-01

    Accurate in silico models for the quantitative prediction of the activity of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligands would greatly facilitate the process of drug discovery and development. Several methodologies have been developed based on the properties of the ligands, the direct study of the receptor-ligand interactions, or a combination of both approaches. Ligand-based three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR) techniques, not requiring knowledge of the receptor structure, have been historically the first to be applied to the prediction of the activity of GPCR ligands. They are generally endowed with robustness and good ranking ability; however they are highly dependent on training sets. Structure-based techniques generally do not provide the level of accuracy necessary to yield meaningful rankings when applied to GPCR homology models. However, they are essentially independent from training sets and have a sufficient level of accuracy to allow an effective discrimination between binders and nonbinders, thus qualifying as viable lead discovery tools. The combination of ligand and structure-based methodologies in the form of receptor-based 3D-QSAR and ligand and structure-based consensus models results in robust and accurate quantitative predictions. The contribution of the structure-based component to these combined approaches is expected to become more substantial and effective in the future, as more sophisticated scoring functions are developed and more detailed structural information on GPCRs is gathered.

  17. Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors and their Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajik N.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Natural killer (NK cells are a subset of lymphocytes comprising around 10% of total lymphocytes in peripheral blood. Due to their role in the innate response, NK cells provide a ‘first line of defense’ against infectious agents and cancer and are also thought to play a role in autoimmunity. The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR are regulatory surface molecules, found on NK cells and on a subset of T lymphocytes. The genes for KIR are present on chromosome 19 in the leukocyte receptor complex and show a major difference for both the type and number of KIR genes present among different ethnic groups. They have been divided into two groups of 2D or 3D, depending on the number of external immunoglobulin domains. The presence of a long cytoplasmic tail with two immune tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM allows the transduction of inhibitory signals and characterizes the inhibitory KIRs (2DL and 3DL, whereas the presence of short cytoplasmic tails corresponds to the activating KIR receptors (2DS and 3DS.These polymorphic receptors interact with specific motifs on human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I molecules, modulate NK cytolytic activity. Some KIRs are known to interact with HLA-C molecules of target cells, HLA-Bw4 molecules and HLA-A3/11. For some KIRs the corresponding ligands are still unknown.

  18. Involvement of direct inhibition of NMDA receptors in the effects of sigma-receptor ligands on glutamate neurotoxicity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, H; Hashino, A; Kume, T; Katsuki, H; Kaneko, S; Akaike, A

    2000-09-15

    This study was performed to examine the roles of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor/phencyclidine (PCP) channel complex in the protective effects of sigma-receptor ligands against glutamate neurotoxicity in cultured cortical neurons derived from fetal rats. A 1-h exposure of cultures to glutamate caused a marked loss of viability, as determined by Trypan blue exclusion. This acute neurotoxicity of glutamate was prevented by NMDA receptor antagonists. Expression of sigma(1) receptor mRNA in cortical cultures was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). sigma Receptor ligands with affinity for NMDA receptor channels including the PCP site, such as (+)-N-allylnormetazocine ((+)-SKF10,047), haloperidol, and R(-)-N-(3-phenyl-1-propyl)-1-phenyl-2-aminopropane ((-)-PPAP), prevented glutamate neurotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, other sigma-receptor ligands without affinity for NMDA receptors, such as carbetapentane and R(+)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-propylpiperidine ((+)-3-PPP), did not show neuroprotective effects. Putative endogenous sigma receptor ligands such as pregnenolone, progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone did not affect glutamate neurotoxicity. The protective effects of (+)-SKF10,047, haloperidol, and (-)-PPAP were not affected by the sigma(1) receptor antagonist rimcazole. These results suggested that a direct interaction with NMDA receptors but not with sigma receptors plays a crucial role in the neuroprotective effects of sigma receptor ligands with affinity for NMDA receptors.

  19. Inosine Released from Dying or Dead Cells Stimulates Cell Proliferation via Adenosine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin; Chaurio, Ricardo A; Maueröder, Christian; Derer, Anja; Rauh, Manfred; Kost, Andriy; Liu, Yi; Mo, Xianming; Hueber, Axel; Bilyy, Rostyslav; Herrmann, Martin; Zhao, Yi; Muñoz, Luis E

    2017-01-01

    Many antitumor therapies induce apoptotic cell death in order to cause tumor regression. Paradoxically, apoptotic cells are also known to promote wound healing, cell proliferation, and tumor cell repopulation in multicellular organisms. We aimed to characterize the nature of the regenerative signals concentrated in the micromilieu of dead and dying cells. Cultures of viable melanoma B16F10 cells, mouse fibroblasts, and primary human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in the presence of dead and dying cells, their supernatants (SNs), or purified agonists and antagonists were used to evaluate the stimulation of proliferation. Viable cell quantification was performed by either flow cytometry of harvested cells or by crystal violet staining of adherent cells. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry of cell SNs were deployed to identify the nature of growth-promoting factors. Coimplantation of living cells in the presence of SNs collected from dead and dying cells and specific agonists was used to evaluate tumor growth in vivo . The stimulation of proliferation of few surviving cells by bystander dead cells was confirmed for melanoma cells, mouse fibroblasts, and primary FLS. We found that small soluble molecules present in the protein-free fraction of SNs of dead and dying cells were responsible for the promotion of proliferation. The nucleoside inosine released by dead and dying cells acting via adenosine receptors was identified as putative inducer of proliferation of surviving tumor cells after irradiation and heat treatment. Inosine released by dead and dying cells mediates tumor cell proliferation via purinergic receptors. Therapeutic strategies surmounting this pathway may help to reduce the rate of recurrence after radio- and chemotherapy.

  20. ADENOSINE RECEPTOR STIMULATION BY POLYDEOXYRIBONUCLEOTIDE IMPROVES TISSUE REPAIR AND SYMPTOMOLOGY IN EXPERIMENTAL COLITIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pallio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the adenosine receptor pathway has been demonstrated to be effective in improving tissue remodelling and blunting the inflammatory response. Active colitis is characterized by an intense inflammatory reaction resulting in extensive tissue damage. Symptomatic improvement requires both control of the inflammatory process and repair and remodelling of damaged tissues. We investigated the ability of an A2A receptor agonist, polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN, to restore tissue structural integrity in two experimental colitis models using male Sprague-Dawley rats. In the first model, colitis was induced with a single intra-colonic instillation of dinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (DNBS, 25mg diluted in 0.8ml 50% ethanol. After 6 hrs, animals were randomized to receive either PDRN (8mg/kg/i.p., or PDRN + the A2A antagonist (DMPX; 10mg/kg/i.p., or vehicle (0.8 ml saline solution daily. In the second model, dextran sodium sulphate (DSS was dissolved in drinking water at a concentration of 8%. Control animals received standard drinking water. After 24 hrs animals were randomized to receive PDRN or PDRN+DMPX as described above. Rats were sacrificed 7 days after receiving DNBS or 5 days after DSS. In both experimental models of colitis, PDRN ameliorated the clinical symptoms and weight loss associated with disease as well as promoted the histological repair of damaged tissues. Moreover, PDRN reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines, myeloperoxydase activity, and malondialdheyde. All these effects were abolished by the concomitant administration of the A2a antagonist DMPX. Our study suggests that PDRN may represent a promising treatment for improving tissue repair during inflammatory bowel diseases.

  1. Biased ligands at G-protein-coupled receptors: promise and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violin, Jonathan D; Crombie, Aimee L; Soergel, David G; Lark, Michael W

    2014-07-01

    Drug discovery targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is no longer limited to seeking agonists or antagonists to stimulate or block cellular responses associated with a particular receptor. GPCRs are now known to support a diversity of pharmacological profiles, a concept broadly referred to as functional selectivity. In particular, the concept of ligand bias, whereby a ligand stabilizes subsets of receptor conformations to engender novel pharmacological profiles, has recently gained increasing prominence. This review discusses how biased ligands may deliver safer, better tolerated, and more efficacious drugs, and highlights several biased ligands that are in clinical development. Biased ligands targeting the angiotensin II type 1 receptor and the μ opioid receptor illustrate the translation of the biased ligand concept from basic biology to clinical drug development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation and characterization of coronary endothelial and smooth muscle cells from A1 adenosine receptor-knockout mice

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Bunyen; Ansari, Habib R.; Oldenburg, Peter J.; Schnermann, J.; Mustafa, S. Jamal

    2005-01-01

    Mice have been used widely in in vivo and in vitro cardiovascular research. The availability of knockout mice provides further clues to the physiological significance of specific receptor subtypes. Adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR)-knockout (A1KO) mice and their wild-type (A1WT) controls were employed in this investigation. The heart and aortic arch were carefully removed and retroinfused with enzyme solution (1 mg/ml collagenase type I, 0.5 mg/ml soybean trypsin inhibitor, 3% BSA, and 2% antibiot...

  3. Characterization of melanocortin receptor ligands on cloned brain melanocortin receptors and on grooming behavior in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Adan, R.A.H.; Szklarczyk, A.W.; Oosterom, J.; Brakkee, J.H.; Nijenhuis, W.A.; Schaaper, W.M.; Meloen, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Since the melanocortin MC3 and melanocortin MC4 receptors are the main melanocortin receptor subtypes expressed in rat brain, we characterized the activity and affinity of nine melanocortin receptor ligands using these receptors in vitro, as well as their activity in a well-defined

  4. Methodical Challenges and a Possible Resolution in the Assessment of Receptor Reserve for Adenosine, an Agonist with Short Half-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsuga, Judit; Erdei, Tamas; Szabó, Katalin; Lampe, Nora; Papp, Csaba; Pinter, Akos; Szentmiklosi, Andras Jozsef; Juhasz, Bela; Szilvássy, Zoltán; Gesztelyi, Rudolf

    2017-05-19

    The term receptor reserve, first introduced and used in the traditional receptor theory, is an integrative measure of response-inducing ability of the interaction between an agonist and a receptor system (consisting of a receptor and its downstream signaling). The underlying phenomenon, i.e., stimulation of a submaximal fraction of receptors can apparently elicit the maximal effect (in certain cases), provides an opportunity to assess the receptor reserve. However, determining receptor reserve is challenging for agonists with short half-lives, such as adenosine. Although adenosine metabolism can be inhibited several ways (in order to prevent the rapid elimination of adenosine administered to construct concentration-effect (E/c) curves for the determination), the consequent accumulation of endogenous adenosine biases the results. To address this problem, we previously proposed a method, by means of which this bias can be mathematically corrected (utilizing a traditional receptor theory-independent approach). In the present investigation, we have offered in silico validation of this method by simulating E/c curves with the use of the operational model of agonism and then by evaluating them using our method. We have found that our method is suitable to reliably assess the receptor reserve for adenosine in our recently published experimental setting, suggesting that it may be capable for a qualitative determination of receptor reserve for rapidly eliminating agonists in general. In addition, we have disclosed a possible interference between FSCPX (8-cyclopentyl- N³ -[3-(4-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyloxy)propyl]- N ¹-propylxanthine), an irreversible A₁ adenosine receptor antagonist, and NBTI (S-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine), a nucleoside transport inhibitor, i.e., FSCPX may blunt the effect of NBTI.

  5. Methodical Challenges and a Possible Resolution in the Assessment of Receptor Reserve for Adenosine, an Agonist with Short Half-Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Zsuga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The term receptor reserve, first introduced and used in the traditional receptor theory, is an integrative measure of response-inducing ability of the interaction between an agonist and a receptor system (consisting of a receptor and its downstream signaling. The underlying phenomenon, i.e., stimulation of a submaximal fraction of receptors can apparently elicit the maximal effect (in certain cases, provides an opportunity to assess the receptor reserve. However, determining receptor reserve is challenging for agonists with short half-lives, such as adenosine. Although adenosine metabolism can be inhibited several ways (in order to prevent the rapid elimination of adenosine administered to construct concentration–effect (E/c curves for the determination, the consequent accumulation of endogenous adenosine biases the results. To address this problem, we previously proposed a method, by means of which this bias can be mathematically corrected (utilizing a traditional receptor theory-independent approach. In the present investigation, we have offered in silico validation of this method by simulating E/c curves with the use of the operational model of agonism and then by evaluating them using our method. We have found that our method is suitable to reliably assess the receptor reserve for adenosine in our recently published experimental setting, suggesting that it may be capable for a qualitative determination of receptor reserve for rapidly eliminating agonists in general. In addition, we have disclosed a possible interference between FSCPX (8-cyclopentyl-N3-[3-(4-(fluorosulfonylbenzoyloxypropyl]-N1-propylxanthine, an irreversible A1 adenosine receptor antagonist, and NBTI (S-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl-6-thioinosine, a nucleoside transport inhibitor, i.e., FSCPX may blunt the effect of NBTI.

  6. GDNF control of the glutamatergic cortico-striatal pathway requires tonic activation of adenosine A2A Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Catarina A.R.V.; Simões, Patrícia F.; Canas, Paula M.; Quiroz, César; Sebastião, Ana M.; Ferré, Sergi; Cunha, Rodrigo A.; Ribeiro, Joaquim A.

    2009-01-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) affords neuroprotection in Parkinson’s disease in accordance with its ability to bolster nigrostriatal innervation. We previously found that GDNF facilitates dopamine release in a manner dependent on adenosine A2A receptor activation. Since motor dysfunction also involves modifications of striatal glutamatergic innervation, we now tested if GDNF and its receptor system, Ret (rearranged during transfection) and GFRα1 (GDNF family receptor alpha 1) controlled the cortico-striatal glutamatergic pathway in an A2A receptor-dependent manner. GDNF (10 ng/ml) enhanced (by ≈13%) glutamate release from rat striatal nerve endings, an effect potentiated (up to ≈ 30%) by the A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 (10 nM) and prevented by the A2A receptor antagonist, SCH 58261 (50 nM). Triple immunocytochemical studies revealed that Ret and GFRα1 were located in 50% of rat striatal glutamatergic terminals (immunopositive for vesicular glutamate transporters-1/2), where they were found to be co-located with A2A receptors. Activation of the glutamatergic system upon in vivo electrical stimulation of the rat cortico-striatal input induced striatal Ret phosphoprylation that was prevented by pre-treatment with the A2A receptor antagonist, MSX-3 (3 mg/kg). The results provide the first functional and morphological evidence that GDNF controls cortico-striatal glutamatergic pathways in a manner largely dependent on the co-activation of adenosine A2A receptors. PMID:19141075

  7. Singular Location and Signaling Profile of Adenosine A2A-Cannabinoid CB1Receptor Heteromers in the Dorsal Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Estefanía; Chiarlone, Anna; Medrano, Mireia; Puigdellívol, Mar; Bibic, Lucka; Howell, Lesley A; Resel, Eva; Puente, Nagore; Casarejos, María J; Perucho, Juan; Botta, Joaquín; Suelves, Nuria; Ciruela, Francisco; Ginés, Silvia; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Casadó, Vicent; Grandes, Pedro; Lutz, Beat; Monory, Krisztina; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carmen; McCormick, Peter J; Guzmán, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    The dorsal striatum is a key node for many neurobiological processes such as motor activity, cognitive functions, and affective processes. The proper functioning of striatal neurons relies critically on metabotropic receptors. Specifically, the main adenosine and endocannabinoid receptors present in the striatum, ie, adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) and cannabinoid CB 1 receptor (CB 1 R), are of pivotal importance in the control of neuronal excitability. Facilitatory and inhibitory functional interactions between striatal A 2A R and CB 1 R have been reported, and evidence supports that this cross-talk may rely, at least in part, on the formation of A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromeric complexes. However, the specific location and properties of these heteromers have remained largely unknown. Here, by using techniques that allowed a precise visualization of the heteromers in situ in combination with sophisticated genetically modified animal models, together with biochemical and pharmacological approaches, we provide a high-resolution expression map and a detailed functional characterization of A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromers in the dorsal striatum. Specifically, our data unveil that the A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromer (i) is essentially absent from corticostriatal projections and striatonigral neurons, and, instead, is largely present in striatopallidal neurons, (ii) displays a striking G protein-coupled signaling profile, where co-stimulation of both receptors leads to strongly reduced downstream signaling, and (iii) undergoes an unprecedented dysfunction in Huntington's disease, an archetypal disease that affects striatal neurons. Altogether, our findings may open a new conceptual framework to understand the role of coordinated adenosine-endocannabinoid signaling in the indirect striatal pathway, which may be relevant in motor function and neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Residues within the Transmembrane Domain of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Involved in Ligand Binding and Receptor Activation: Modelling the Ligand-Bound Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopman, K.; Wallis, R.; Robb, G.; Brown, A. J. H.; Wilkinson, G. F.; Timms, D.

    2011-01-01

    The C-terminal regions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) bind to the N terminus of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), facilitating interaction of the ligand N terminus with the receptor transmembrane domain. In contrast, the agonist exendin-4 relies less on the transmembrane domain, and truncated antagonist analogs (e.g. exendin 9–39) may interact solely with the receptor N terminus. Here we used mutagenesis to explore the role of residues highly conserved in the predicted transmembrane helices of mammalian GLP-1Rs and conserved in family B G protein coupled receptors in ligand binding and GLP-1R activation. By iteration using information from the mutagenesis, along with the available crystal structure of the receptor N terminus and a model of the active opsin transmembrane domain, we developed a structural receptor model with GLP-1 bound and used this to better understand consequences of mutations. Mutation at Y152 [transmembrane helix (TM) 1], R190 (TM2), Y235 (TM3), H363 (TM6), and E364 (TM6) produced similar reductions in affinity for GLP-1 and exendin 9–39. In contrast, other mutations either preferentially [K197 (TM2), Q234 (TM3), and W284 (extracellular loop 2)] or solely [D198 (TM2) and R310 (TM5)] reduced GLP-1 affinity. Reduced agonist affinity was always associated with reduced potency. However, reductions in potency exceeded reductions in agonist affinity for K197A, W284A, and R310A, while H363A was uncoupled from cAMP generation, highlighting critical roles of these residues in translating binding to activation. Data show important roles in ligand binding and receptor activation of conserved residues within the transmembrane domain of the GLP-1R. The receptor structural model provides insight into the roles of these residues. PMID:21868452

  9. Adenosine and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsoso, Rocío; Farías, Marcelo; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Pardo, Fabián; Chiarello, Delia I; Toledo, Fernando; Leiva, Andrea; Mate, Alfonso; Vázquez, Carmen M; Sobrevia, Luis

    2017-06-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside with pleiotropic effects in different physiological processes including circulation, renal blood flow, immune function, or glucose homeostasis. Changes in adenosine membrane transporters, adenosine receptors, and corresponding intracellular signalling network associate with development of pathologies of pregnancy, including preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality affecting 3-5% of pregnancies. Since the proposed mechanisms of preeclampsia development include adenosine-dependent biological effects, adenosine membrane transporters and receptors, and the associated signalling mechanisms might play a role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Preeclampsia associates with increased adenosine concentration in the maternal blood and placental tissue, likely due to local hypoxia and ischemia (although not directly demonstrated), microthrombosis, increased catecholamine release, and platelet activation. In addition, abnormal expression and function of equilibrative nucleoside transporters is described in foetoplacental tissues from preeclampsia; however, the role of adenosine receptors in the aetiology of this disease is not well understood. Adenosine receptors activation may be related to abnormal trophoblast invasion, angiogenesis, and ischemia/reperfusion mechanisms in the placenta from preeclampsia. These mechanisms may explain only a low fraction of the associated abnormal transformation of spiral arteries in preeclampsia, triggering cellular stress and inflammatory mediators release from the placenta to the maternal circulation. Although increased adenosine concentration in preeclampsia may be a compensatory or adaptive mechanism favouring placental angiogenesis, a poor angiogenic state is found in preeclampsia. Thus, preeclampsia-associated complications might affect the cell response to adenosine due to altered expression and activity of adenosine receptors, membrane transporters

  10. Quantitative Prediction of Multivalent Ligand-Receptor Binding Affinities for Influenza, Cholera, and Anthrax Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Susanne; Netz, Roland R

    2018-03-05

    Multivalency achieves strong, yet reversible binding by the simultaneous formation of multiple weak bonds. It is a key interaction principle in biology and promising for the synthesis of high-affinity inhibitors of pathogens. We present a molecular model for the binding affinity of synthetic multivalent ligands onto multivalent receptors consisting of n receptor units arranged on a regular polygon. Ligands consist of a geometrically matching rigid polygonal core to which monovalent ligand units are attached via flexible linker polymers, closely mimicking existing experimental designs. The calculated binding affinities quantitatively agree with experimental studies for cholera toxin ( n = 5) and anthrax receptor ( n = 7) and allow to predict optimal core size and optimal linker length. Maximal binding affinity is achieved for a core that matches the receptor size and for linkers that have an equilibrium end-to-end distance that is slightly longer than the geometric separation between ligand core and receptor sites. Linkers that are longer than optimal are greatly preferable compared to shorter linkers. The angular steric restriction between ligand unit and linker polymer is shown to be a key parameter. We construct an enhancement diagram that quantifies the multivalent binding affinity compared to monovalent ligands. We conclude that multivalent ligands against influenza viral hemagglutinin ( n = 3), cholera toxin ( n = 5), and anthrax receptor ( n = 7) can outperform monovalent ligands only for a monovalent ligand affinity that exceeds a core-size dependent threshold value. Thus, multivalent drug design needs to balance core size, linker length, as well as monovalent ligand unit affinity.

  11. The future of type 1 cannabinoid receptor allosteric ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Laprairie, Robert B

    2018-02-01

    Allosteric modulation of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) holds great therapeutic potential. This is because allosteric modulators do not possess intrinsic efficacy, but instead augment (positive allosteric modulation) or diminish (negative allosteric modulation) the receptor's response to endogenous ligand. Consequently, CB1R allosteric modulators have an effect ceiling which allows for the tempering of CB1R signaling without the desensitization, tolerance, dependence, and psychoactivity associated with orthosteric compounds. Pain, movement disorders, epilepsy, obesity are all potential therapeutic targets for CB1R allosteric modulation. Several challenges exist for the development of CB1R allosteric modulators, such as receptor subtype specificity, translation to in vivo systems, and mixed allosteric/agonist/inverse agonist activity. Despite these challenges, elucidation of crystal structures of CB1R and compound design based on structure-activity relationships will advance the field. In this review, we will cover recent progress for CB1R allosteric modulators and discuss the future promise of this research.

  12. Flow Cytometry-Based Bead-Binding Assay for Measuring Receptor Ligand Specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprokholt, Joris K.; Hertoghs, Nina; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we describe a fluorescent bead-binding assay, which is an efficient and feasible method to measure interaction between ligands and receptors on cells. In principle, any ligand can be coated on fluorescent beads either directly or via antibodies. Binding between ligand-coated beads

  13. Computational approaches to modeling receptor flexibility upon ligand binding: Application to interfacially activated enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wade, R.C.; Sobolev, V.; Ortiz, A.R. .

    1998-01-01

    Receptors generally undergo conformational change upon ligand binding. We describe how fairly simple techniques may be used in docking and design studies to account for some of the changes in the conformations of proteins on ligand binding. Simulations of protein-ligand interactions that give...

  14. Identification of VDR Antagonists among Nuclear Receptor Ligands Using Virtual Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Teske

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we described the development of two virtual screens to identify new vitamin D receptor (VDR antagonists among nuclear receptor (NR ligands. Therefore, a database of 14330 nuclear receptor ligands and their NR affinities was assembled using the online available “Binding Database.” Two different virtual screens were carried out in conjunction with a reported VDR crystal structure applying a stringent and less stringent pharmacophore model to filter docked NR ligand conformations. The pharmacophore models were based on the spatial orientation of the hydroxyl functionalities of VDR's natural ligands 1,25(OH2D3 and 25(OH2D3. The first virtual screen identified 32 NR ligands with a calculated free energy of VDR binding of more than -6.0 kJ/mol. All but nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA are VDR ligands, which inhibited the interaction between VDR and coactivator peptide SRC2-3 with an IC50 value of 15.8 μM. The second screen identified 162 NR ligands with a calculated free energy of VDR binding of more than -6.0 kJ/mol. More than half of these ligands were developed to bind VDR followed by ERα/β ligands (26%, TRα/β ligands (7%, and LxRα/β ligands (7%. The binding between VDR and ERα ligand H6036 as well as TRα/β ligand triiodothyronine and a homoserine analog thereof was confirmed by fluorescence polarization.

  15. BDNF prevents NMDA-induced toxicity in models of Huntington's disease: the effects are genotype specific and adenosine A2A receptor is involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, Alberto; Pepponi, Rita; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Ferrante, Antonella; Chiodi, Valentina; Popoli, Patrizia

    2013-04-01

    NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity is thought to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD). The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is also highly involved in HD and whose effects are modulated by adenosine A2 ARs, influences the activity and expression of striatal NMDA receptors. In electrophysiology experiments, we investigated the role of BDNF toward NMDA-induced effects in HD models, and the possible involvement of A2ARs. In corticostriatal slices from wild-type mice and age-matched symptomatic R6/2 mice (a model of HD), NMDA application (75 μM) induced a transient or a permanent (i.e., toxic) reduction of field potential amplitude, respectively. BDNF (10 ng/mL) potentiated NMDA effects in wild-type, while it protected from NMDA toxicity in R6/2 mice. Both effects of BDNF were prevented by A2 AR blockade. The protective effect of BDNF against NMDA-induced toxicity was reproduced in a cellular model of HD. These findings may have very important implications for the neuroprotective potential of BDNF and A2 AR ligands in HD. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  16. Characterization and ligand identification of a membrane progesterone receptor in fungi: existence of a novel PAQR in Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Velazquez, Waleska; Gonzalez-Mendez, Ricardo; Rodriguez-del Valle, Nuri

    2012-09-07

    Adaptive responses in fungi result from the interaction of membrane receptors and extracellular ligands. Many different classes of receptors have been described in eukaryotic cells. Recently a new family of receptors classified as belonging to the progesterone-adiponectin receptor (PAQR) family has been identified. These receptors have the seven transmembrane domains characteristic of G-protein coupled receptors, but their activity has not been associated directly to G proteins. They share sequence similarity to the eubacterial hemolysin III proteins. A new receptor, SsPAQR1 (Sporothrix schenckii progesterone-adiponectinQ receptor1), was identified as interacting with Sporothrix schenckii G protein alpha subunit SSG-2 in a yeast two-hybrid assay. The receptor was identified as a member of the PAQR family. The cDNA sequence revealed a predicted ORF of 1542 bp encoding a 514 amino acids protein with a calculated molecular weight of 57.8 kDa. Protein domain analysis of SsPAQR1 showed the 7 transmembrane domains (TM) characteristic of G protein coupled receptors and the presence of the distinctive motifs that characterize PAQRs. A yeast-based assay specific for PAQRs identified progesterone as the agonist. S. schenckii yeast cells exposed to progesterone (0.50 mM) showed an increase in intracellular levels of 3', 5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) within the first min of incubation with the hormone. Different progesterone concentrations were tested for their effect on the growth of the fungus. Cultures incubated at 35°C did not grow at concentrations of progesterone of 0.05 mM or higher. Cultures incubated at 25°C grew at all concentrations tested (0.01 mM-0.50 mM) with growth decreasing gradually with the increase in progesterone concentration. This work describes a receptor associated with a G protein alpha subunit in S. schenckii belonging to the PAQR family. Progesterone was identified as the ligand. Exposure to progesterone increased the levels of cAMP in

  17. Locomotor activation by theacrine, a purine alkaloid structurally similar to caffeine: involvement of adenosine and dopamine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduccia, Allison A; Wang, Yuanyuan; Simms, Jeffrey A; Yi, Henry Y; Li, Rui; Bjeldanes, Leonard; Ye, Chuangxing; Bartlett, Selena E

    2012-08-01

    Purine compounds, such as caffeine, have many health-promoting properties and have proven to be beneficial in treating a number of different conditions. Theacrine, a purine alkaloid structurally similar to caffeine and abundantly present in Camellia kucha, has recently become of interest as a potential therapeutic compound. In the present study, theacrine was tested using a rodent behavioral model to investigate the effects of the drug on locomotor activity. Long Evans rats were injected with theacrine (24 or 48 mg/kg, i.p.) and activity levels were measured. Results showed that the highest dose of theacrine (48 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased locomotor activity compared to control animals and activity remained elevated throughout the duration of the session. To test for the involvement of adenosine receptors underlying theacrine's motor-activating properties, rats were administered a cocktail of the adenosine A₁ agonist, N⁶-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) and A(2A) receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS-21680; 0.2 mg/kg, i.p.). Pre-treatment with theacrine significantly attenuated the motor depression induced by the adenosine receptor agonists, indicating that theacrine is likely acting as an adenosine receptor antagonist. Next, we examined the role of DA D₁ and D₂ receptor antagonism on theacrine-induced hyperlocomotion. Both antagonists, D₁R SCH23390 (0.1 or 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) and D₂R eticlopride (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.), significantly reduced theacrine-stimulated activity indicating that this behavioral response, at least in part, is mediated by DA receptors. In order to investigate the brain region where theacrine may be acting, the drug (10 or 20 μg) was infused bilaterally into nucleus accumbens (NAc). Theacrine enhanced activity levels in a dose-dependent manner, implicating a role of the NAc in modulating theacrine's effects on locomotion. In addition, theacrine did not induce locomotor

  18. Imaging of a glioma using peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starosta-Rubinstein, S.; Ciliax, B.J.; Penney, J.B.; McKeever, P.; Young, A.B.

    1987-02-01

    Two types of benzodiazepine receptors have been demonstrated in mammalian tissues, one which is localized on neuronal elements in brain and the other, on glial cells and in peripheral tissues such as kidney. In vivo administration of /sup 3/H-labeled PK 11195 (1-(2-chlorophenyl-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinoline carboxamide) or (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam with 5 mg of clonazepam per kg to rats with intracranial C6 gliomas resulted in high levels of tritiated-drug binding to the tumor as shown by quantitative autoradiography. Pharmacological studies indicated that the bound drugs labeled the peripheral benzodiazepine binding site. Binding to the peripheral benzodiazepine site was confirmed primarily to malignant cells with little binding to adjacent normal brain tissue or to necrotic tissue. Tumor cell binding was completely inhibited by preadministration of the peripheral benzodiazepine blocking agent PK 11195 at 5 mg/kg. The centrally selective benzodiazepine ligand clonazepam had no effect on PK 11195 binding to the tumor cells. When binding to other tumor cell lines grown in nude mice and nude athymic rats was evaluated, little or no peripheral benzodiazepine binding was detected on human pheochromocytoma (RN1) and neuroblastoma (SK-N-MC, SK-N-SH) tumor cells, respectively. However, high densities of peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites were observed on tumors derived from a human glioma cell line (ATCC HTB 14, U-87 MG). The presence of high concentrations of specific peripheral benzodiazepine receptors on glial tumors suggests that human primary central nervous system tumors could be imaged and diagnosed using peripheral benzodiazepine ligands labeled with positron- or gamma-emitting isotopes.

  19. Perinatal caffeine, acting on maternal adenosine A(1 receptors, causes long-lasting behavioral changes in mouse offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Björklund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are lingering concerns about caffeine consumption during pregnancy or the early postnatal period, partly because there may be long-lasting behavioral changes after caffeine exposure early in life. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that pregnant wild type (WT mice given modest doses of caffeine (0.3 g/l in drinking water gave birth to offspring that as adults exhibited increased locomotor activity in an open field. The offspring also responded to cocaine challenge with greater locomotor activity than mice not perinatally exposed to caffeine. We performed the same behavioral experiments on mice heterozygous for adenosine A(1 receptor gene (A(1RHz. In these mice signaling via adenosine A(1 receptors is reduced to about the same degree as after modest consumption of caffeine. A(1RHz mice had a behavioral profile similar to WT mice perinatally exposed to caffeine. Furthermore, it appeared that the mother's genotype, not offspring's, was critical for behavioral changes in adult offspring. Thus, if the mother partially lacked A(1 receptors the offspring displayed more hyperactivity and responded more strongly to cocaine stimulation as adults than did mice of a WT mother, regardless of their genotype. This indicates that long-term behavioral alterations in the offspring result from the maternal effect of caffeine, and not a direct effect on fetus. WT offspring from WT mother but having a A(1R Hz grandmother preserved higher locomotor response to cocaine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest that perinatal caffeine, by acting on adenosine A(1 receptors in the mother, causes long-lasting behavioral changes in the offspring that even manifest themselves in the second generation.

  20. Development of radioiodinated receptor ligands for cerebral single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; McPherson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    In the last decade the use of radiolabeled ligands for the imaging of cerebral receptors by emission computed tomography (ECT) has seen rapid growth. The opportunity to routinely perform cerebral single photon emission tomography (SPET) with iodine-123-labeled ligands depends on the availability of receptor ligands into which iodine can be introduced without decreasing the required high target receptor specificity. The use of iodine-123-labeled receptor-specific ligands also depends on the availability of high purity iodine-123 at reasonable costs and the necessary imaging instrumentation. In this paper, the development and current stage of evaluation of various iodine-123-labeled ligands for SPET imaging of dopaminergic, serotonergic and muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptor classes are discussed

  1. New 2-heterocyclyl-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-one derivatives as potent and selective human A3 adenosine receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Preti, Delia; Zaid, Abdel Naser; Saponaro, Giulia; Tabrizi, Mojgan Aghazadeh; Baraldi, Stefania; Romagnoli, Romeo; Moorman, Allan R; Varani, Katia; Cosconati, Sandro; Di Maro, Salvatore; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore; Borea, Pier Andrea

    2011-07-28

    A series of 4-allyl/benzyl-7,8-dihydro-8-methyl/ethyl-2-[(substituted)isoxazol/pyrazol-3/5-yl]-1H-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5(4H)-ones has been synthesized and evaluated in radioligand binding assays to determine their affinities at the human A(1), A(2A), and A(3) adenosine receptors. Efficacy at the hA(2B) AR and antagonism of selected ligands at the hA(3) AR were also assessed through cAMP experiments. All of the synthesized molecules exhibited high affinity at the hA(3) AR (K(i) values ranging from 1.46 to 44.8 nM), as well as remarkable selectivity versus A(1), A(2A), and A(2B) AR subtypes. Compound (R)-4-allyl-8-ethyl-7,8-dihydro-2-(3-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-1H-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5(4H)-one (R-33) was found to be the most potent and selective ligand of the series (K(i) hA(3) = 1.46 nM, K(i) hA(2A)/K(i) hA(3) > 3425; IC(50) hA(2B)/K(i) hA(3) > 3425; K(i) hA(1)/K(i) hA(3) = 1729). Molecular modeling studies were helpful in rationalizing the available structure-activity relationships along with the selectivity profiles of the new series of ligands.

  2. Key amino acid residue in Melanocortin-1 receptor (melanocyte α-MSH receptor) for ligand selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingkui; Chen, Min; Ventro, George; Harmon, Carroll M

    2017-10-15

    The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) is a subtype of the melanocortin receptor family and NDP-α-MSH is a non-selective agonist for MC1R. The core sequence of NDP-α-MSH, His-Phe-Arg-Trp, is important for ligand binding and biological activities at the melanocortin receptor subtypes (MCRs). A recent study indicates that Trp 9 in NDP-α-MSH plays an important role in ligand selectivity. Deletion of Trp 9 in NDP-α-MSH (des-Trp 9 -NDP-α-MSH) resulted in loss of agonist activity at MC4R, although remains agonist activity at MC1R. The molecular basis for this receptor ligand selectivity is unknown. In this study we examined what region of the MC1R is responsible for des-NDP-α-MSH selectivity. Our results indicate that (1) substitution of TM3 of MC4R with the corresponding region of MC1R switches des-Trp 9 -NDP-α-MSH from no activity to agonist; (2) des-Trp 9 -NDP-α-MSH exhibits agonistic activity at the L133M mutation of the MC4R; and (3) substitution of non-conserved amino acid residue M128 in TM3 of MC1R significantly reduced des-Trp 9 -NDP-α-MSH agonist activity. Our results demonstrate that amino acid residue 128 in TM3 of MC1R, or amino acid residue L133 in TM3 of the MC4R, play crucial roles in ligand des-Trp 9 -NDP-α-MSH selectivity at MC1R or MC4R. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of separate receptors for adenosine and adenosine 5'-triphosphate in causing relaxations of the isolated taenia of the guinea-pig caecum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spedding, M; Weetman, D F

    1976-01-01

    1 The mechanisms by which adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine relax the taenia caecum preparation of the guineapig have been studied. ATP and ADP produced similar effects which were qualitatively different from those of AMP and adenosine. 2 2-2'Pyridylisatogen tosylate (PIT: 50 muM for 30 min) blocked the effects of ATP and ADP, but exhibited weak activity against AMP and failed to antagonize the effects of adenosine. The action of PIT was unaffected by the inclusion of dipyridamole (2muM) in the bathing fluid. 3 There was a significant correlation between the sensitivity of individual preparations to ATP or ADP and the blocking potency of PIT. 4 The presence of adenosine in the bathing fluid (2 mM for greater than 30 min) desensitized the taenia to subsequent applications of adenosine. The effects of ATP were increased by this procedure. 5 The results indicate that ATP and adenosine relax the taenia by different mechanisms. PMID:938799

  4. The Quantum Nature of Drug-Receptor Interactions: Deuteration Changes Binding Affinities for Histamine Receptor Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kržan, Mojca; Vianello, Robert; Maršavelski, Aleksandra; Repič, Matej; Zakšek, Maja; Kotnik, Kristina; Fijan, Estera; Mavri, Janez

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report a combined experimental and computational study concerning the effects of deuteration on the binding of histamine and two other histaminergic agonists to 3H-tiotidine-labeled histamine H2 receptor in neonatal rat astrocytes. Binding affinities were measured by displacing radiolabeled tiotidine from H2 receptor binding sites present on cultured neonatal rat astrocytes. Quantum-chemical calculations were performed by employing the empirical quantization of nuclear motion within a cluster model of the receptor binding site extracted from the homology model of the entire H2 receptor. Structure of H2 receptor built by homology modelling is attached in the supporting information (S1 Table) Experiments clearly demonstrate that deuteration affects the binding by increasing the affinity for histamine and reducing it for 2-methylhistamine, while basically leaving it unchanged for 4-methylhistamine. Ab initio quantum-chemical calculations on the cluster system extracted from the homology H2 model along with the implicit quantization of the acidic N-H and O-H bonds demonstrate that these changes in the binding can be rationalized by the altered strength of the hydrogen bonding upon deuteration known as the Ubbelohde effect. Our computational analysis also reveals a new mechanism of histamine binding, which underlines an important role of Tyr250 residue. The present work is, to our best knowledge, the first study of nuclear quantum effects on ligand receptor binding. The ligand H/D substitution is relevant for therapy in the context of perdeuterated and thus more stable drugs that are expected to enter therapeutic practice in the near future. Moreover, presented approach may contribute towards understanding receptor activation, while a distant goal remains in silico discrimination between agonists and antagonists based on the receptor structure.

  5. Ligand Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Growth in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Miyoshi; Sussman, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Growth and development of multicellular organisms are coordinately regulated by various signaling pathways involving the communication of inter- and intracellular components. To form the appropriate body patterns, cellular growth and development are modulated by either stimulating or inhibiting these pathways. Hormones and second messengers help to mediate the initiation and/or interaction of the various signaling pathways in all complex multicellular eukaryotes. In plants, hormones include small organic molecules, as well as larger peptides and small proteins, which, as in animals, act as ligands and interact with receptor proteins to trigger rapid biochemical changes and induce the intracellular transcriptional and long-term physiological responses. During the past two decades, the availability of genetic and genomic resources in the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, has greatly helped in the discovery of plant hormone receptors and the components of signal transduction pathways and mechanisms used by these immobile but highly complex organisms. Recently, it has been shown that two of the most important plant hormones, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA), act through signaling pathways that have not yet been recognized in animals. For example, auxins stimulate cell elongation by bringing negatively acting transcriptional repressor proteins to the proteasome to be degraded, thus unleashing the gene expression program required for increasing cell size. The "dormancy" inducing hormone, ABA, binds to soluble receptor proteins and inhibits a specific class of protein phosphatases (PP2C), which activates phosphorylation signaling leading to transcriptional changes needed for the desiccation of the seeds prior to entering dormancy. While these two hormone receptors have no known animal counterparts, there are also many similarities between animal and plant signaling pathways. For example, in plants, the largest single gene family in the genome is the protein kinase

  6. Argos inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor signalling by ligand sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daryl E; Nappi, Valerie M; Reeves, Gregory T; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y; Lemmon, Mark A

    2004-08-26

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has critical functions in development and in many human cancers. During development, the spatial extent of EGFR signalling is regulated by feedback loops comprising both well-understood activators and less well-characterized inhibitors. In Drosophila melanogaster the secreted protein Argos functions as the only known extracellular inhibitor of EGFR, with clearly identified roles in multiple stages of development. Argos is only expressed when the Drosophila EGFR (DER) is activated at high levels, and downregulates further DER signalling. Although there is ample genetic evidence that Argos inhibits DER activation, the biochemical mechanism has not been established. Here we show that Argos inhibits DER signalling without interacting directly with the receptor, but instead by sequestering the DER-activating ligand Spitz. Argos binds tightly to the EGF motif of Spitz and forms a 1:1 (Spitz:Argos) complex that does not bind DER in vitro or at the cell surface. Our results provide an insight into the mechanism of Argos function, and suggest new strategies for EGFR inhibitor design.

  7. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: location of the ligand binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulme, E.; Wheatley, M.; Curtis, C.; Birdsall, N.

    1987-01-01

    The key to understanding the pharmacological specificity of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR's) is the location within the receptor sequence of the amino acid residues responsible for ligand binding. To approach this problem, they have purified mAChR's from rat brain to homogeneity by sequential ion-exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography and molecular weight fractionation. Following labelling of the binding site with an alkylating affinity label, 3 H-propylbenzilycholine mustard aziridinium ion ( 3 H-PrBCM), the mAChR was digested with a lysine-specific endoproteinase, and a ladder of peptides of increasing molecular weight, each containing the glycosylated N-terminus, isolated by chromatography on wheat-germ agglutinin sepharose. The pattern of labelling showed that a residue in the peptides containing transmembrane helices 2 and/or 3 of the mAChR was alkylated. The linkage was cleaved by 1 M hydroxylamine, showing that 3 H-PrBCM was attached to an acidic residue, whose properties strongly suggested it to be embedded in a hydrophobic intramembrane region of the mAChR. Examination of the cloned sequence of the mAChR reveals several candidate residues, the most likely of which is homologous to an aspartic acid residue thought to protonate the retinal Schiff's base in the congeneric protein rhodopsin

  8. Acetylcholine receptors and cholinergic ligands: biochemical and genetic aspects in Torpedo californica and Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    This study evaluates the biochemical and genetic aspects of the acetylcholine receptor proteins and cholinergic ligands in Drosophila melanogaster and Torpedo californica. Included are (1) a comparative study of nicotinic ligand-induced cation release from acetylcholine receptors isolated from Torpedo californica and from Drosophila melanogaster, (2) solution studies of the cholinergic ligands, nikethamide and ethamivan, aimed at measuring internal molecular rotational barriers in solvents of different polarity; and (3) the isolation and characterization of the gene(s) for the acetylcholine receptor in Drosophila melasogaster. Acetylcholine receptor proteins isolated from Drosphila melanogaster heads were found to behave kinetically similar (with regards to cholinergic ligand-induced 155 Eu: 3+ displacement from prelabeled proteins) to receptor proteins isolated from Torpedo californica electric tissue, providing additional biochemical evidence for the existence of a Drosophila acetylcholine receptor

  9. Domain interplay in the urokinase receptor. Requirement for the third domain in high affinity ligand binding and demonstration of ligand contact sites in distinct receptor domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Ronne, E; Dano, K

    1996-01-01

    The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a membrane protein comprised of three extracellular domains. In order to study the importance of this domain organization in the ligand-binding process of the receptor we subjected a recombinant, soluble uPAR (suPAR) to specific proteolytic...

  10. Presynaptic adenosine receptor-mediated regulation of diverse thalamocortical short-term plasticity in the mouse whisker pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni eFerrati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Short-term synaptic plasticity (STP sets the sensitivity of a synapse to incoming activity and determines the temporal patterns that it best transmits. In driver thalamocortical (TC synaptic populations, STP is dominated by depression during stimulation from rest. However, during ongoing stimulation, lemniscal TC connections onto layer 4 neurons in mouse barrel cortex express variable STP. Each synapse responds to input trains with a distinct pattern of depression or facilitation around its mean steady-state response. As a result, in common with other synaptic populations, lemniscal TC synapses express diverse rather than uniform dynamics, allowing for a rich representation of temporally varying stimuli. Here we show that this STP diversity is regulated presynaptically. Presynaptic adenosine receptors of the A1R type, but not kainate receptors, modulate STP behavior. Blocking the receptors does not eliminate diversity, indicating that diversity is related to heterogeneous expression of multiple mechanisms in the pathway from presynaptic calcium influx to neurotransmitter release.

  11. Histamine receptor 2 modifies dendritic cell responses to microbial ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Remo; Ferstl, Ruth; Konieczna, Patrycja; Ziegler, Mario; Simon, Tunde; Rugeles, Tulia Mateus; Mailand, Susanne; Watanabe, Takeshi; Lauener, Roger; Akdis, Cezmi A; O'Mahony, Liam

    2013-07-01

    The induction of tolerance and protective immunity to microbes is significantly influenced by host- and microbiota-derived metabolites, such as histamine. We sought to identify the molecular mechanisms for histamine-mediated modulation of pattern recognition receptor signaling. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs), myeloid dendritic cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were examined. Cytokine secretion, gene expression, and transcription factor activation were measured after stimulation with microbial ligands and histamine. Histamine receptor 2 (H₂R)-deficient mice, histamine receptors, and their signaling pathways were investigated. Histamine suppressed MDDC chemokine and proinflammatory cytokine secretion, nuclear factor κB and activator protein 1 activation, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, and T(H)1 polarization of naive lymphocytes, whereas IL-10 secretion was enhanced in response to LPS and Pam3Cys. Histamine also suppressed LPS-induced myeloid dendritic cell TNF-α secretion and suppressed CpG-induced plasmacytoid dendritic cell IFN-α gene expression. H₂R signaling through cyclic AMP and exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP was required for the histamine effect on LPS-induced MDDC responses. Lactobacillus rhamnosus, which secretes histamine, significantly suppressed Peyer patch IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-12, TNF-α, and GM-CSF secretion in wild-type but not H₂R-deficient animals. Both host- and microbiota-derived histamine significantly alter the innate immune response to microbes through H₂R. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Revisiting the Quinoxalinedione scaffold in the Construction of New Ligands for the Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demmer, Charles Sylvain; Rombach, David; Liu, Na

    2017-01-01

    of the study of 44 new analogs are compound 2m being a high affinity ligand for native AMPA receptors (IC50= 0.48 µM), analogs 2e,f,h,k,v all displayed selectivity for native NMDA receptors, compounds 2s,t,u are selective ligand for the GluK1 receptor. Most interestingly compound 2w was shown to be a GluK3...

  13. N6-Cycloalkyl- and N6-bicycloalkyl-C5'(C2')-modified adenosine derivatives as high-affinity and selective agonists at the human A1 adenosine receptor with antinociceptive effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, Palmarisa; Cappellacci, Loredana; Vita, Patrizia; Petrelli, Riccardo; Lavecchia, Antonio; Kachler, Sonja; Klotz, Karl-Norbert; Marabese, Ida; Luongo, Livio; Maione, Sabatino; Grifantini, Mario

    2009-04-23

    To further investigate new potent and selective human A(1) adenosine receptor agonists, we have synthesized a series of 5'-chloro-5'-deoxy- and 5'-(2-fluorophenylthio)-5'-deoxy-N(6)-cycloalkyl(bicycloalkyl)-substituted adenosine and 2'-C-methyladenosine derivatives. These compounds were evaluated for affinity and efficacy at human A(1), A(2A), A(2B), and A(3) adenosine receptors. In the series of N(6)-cyclopentyl- and N(6)-(endo-norborn-2-yl)adenosine derivatives, 5'-chloro-5'-deoxy-CPA (1) and 5'-chloro-5'-deoxy-(+/-)-ENBA (3) displayed the highest affinity in the subnanomolar range and relevant selectivity for hA(1) vs the other human receptor subtypes. The higher affinity and selectivity of 5'-chloro-5'-deoxyribonucleoside derivatives 1 and 3 for hA(1) AR vs hA(3) AR compared to that of the parent 5'-hydroxy compounds CPA and (+/-)-ENBA was rationalized by a molecular modeling analysis. 5'-Chloro-5'-deoxy-(+/-)-ENBA, evaluated for analgesic activity in the formalin test in mice, was found to inhibit the first or the second phases of the nocifensive response induced by intrapaw injection of formalin at doses ranging between 1 and 2 mg/kg i.p.

  14. Structure-Based Scaffold Repurposing for G Protein-Coupled Receptors: Transformation of Adenosine Derivatives into 5HT2B/5HT2CSerotonin Receptor Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, Dilip K; Ciancetta, Antonella; Warnick, Eugene; Crane, Steven; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2016-12-22

    Adenosine derivatives developed to activate adenosine receptors (ARs) revealed micromolar activity at serotonin 5HT 2B and 5HT 2C receptors (5HTRs). We explored the structure-activity relationship at 5HT 2 Rs and modeled receptor interactions in order to optimize affinity and simultaneously reduce AR affinity. Depending on N 6 substitution, small 5'-alkylamide modification maintained 5HT 2B R affinity, which was enhanced upon ribose substitution with rigid bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane (North (N)-methanocarba), e.g., N 6 -dicyclopropylmethyl 4'-CH 2 OH derivative 14 (K i 11 nM). 5'-Methylamide 23 was 170-fold selective as antagonist for 5HT 2B R vs 5HT 2C R. 5'-Methyl 25 and ethyl 26 esters potently antagonized 5HT 2 Rs with moderate selectivity in comparison to ARs; related 6-N,N-dimethylamino analogue 30 was 5HT 2 R-selective. 5' position flexibility of substitution was indicated in 5HT 2B R docking. Both 5'-ester and 5'-amide derivatives displayed in vivo t 1/2 of 3-4 h. Thus, we used G protein-coupled receptor modeling to repurpose nucleoside scaffolds in favor of binding at nonpurine receptors as novel 5HT 2 R antagonists, with potential for cardioprotection, liver protection, or central nervous system activity.

  15. Complex Relationship between Ligand Binding and Dimerization in the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Bessman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR plays pivotal roles in development and is mutated or overexpressed in several cancers. Despite recent advances, the complex allosteric regulation of EGFR remains incompletely understood. Through efforts to understand why the negative cooperativity observed for intact EGFR is lost in studies of its isolated extracellular region (ECR, we uncovered unexpected relationships between ligand binding and receptor dimerization. The two processes appear to compete. Surprisingly, dimerization does not enhance ligand binding (although ligand binding promotes dimerization. We further show that simply forcing EGFR ECRs into preformed dimers without ligand yields ill-defined, heterogeneous structures. Finally, we demonstrate that extracellular EGFR-activating mutations in glioblastoma enhance ligand-binding affinity without directly promoting EGFR dimerization, suggesting that these oncogenic mutations alter the allosteric linkage between dimerization and ligand binding. Our findings have important implications for understanding how EGFR and its relatives are activated by specific ligands and pathological mutations.

  16. Insulin-Increased L-Arginine Transport Requires A2A Adenosine Receptors Activation in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Westermeier, Francisco; Salomón, Carlos; González, Marcelo; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sobrevia, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine causes vasodilation of human placenta vasculature by increasing the transport of arginine via cationic amino acid transporters 1 (hCAT-1). This process involves the activation of A2A adenosine receptors (A2AAR) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Insulin increases hCAT-1 activity and expression in HUVECs, and A2AAR stimulation increases insulin sensitivity in subjects with insulin resistance. However, whether A2AAR plays a role in insulin-mediated increase in L-arginine transport in HUVECs is unknown. To determine this, we first assayed the kinetics of saturable L-arginine transport (1 minute, 37°C) in the absence or presence of nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI, 10 µmol/L, adenosine transport inhibitor) and/or adenosine receptors agonist/antagonists. We also determined hCAT-1 protein and mRNA expression levels (Western blots and quantitative PCR), and SLC7A1 (for hCAT-1) reporter promoter activity. Insulin and NBTI increased the extracellular adenosine concentration, the maximal velocity for L-arginine transport without altering the apparent K m for L-arginine transport, hCAT-1 protein and mRNA expression levels, and SLC7A1 transcriptional activity. An A2AAR antagonist ZM-241385 blocked these effects. ZM241385 inhibited SLC7A1 reporter transcriptional activity to the same extent in cells transfected with pGL3-hCAT-1−1606 or pGL3-hCAT-1−650 constructs in the presence of NBTI + insulin. However, SLC7A1 reporter activity was increased by NBTI only in cells transfected with pGL3-hCAT-1−1606, and the ZM-241385 sensitive fraction of the NBTI response was similar in the absence or in the presence of insulin. Thus, insulin modulation of hCAT-1 expression and activity requires functional A2AAR in HUVECs, a mechanism that may be applicable to diseases associated with fetal insulin resistance, such as gestational diabetes. PMID:22844517

  17. Insulin-increased L-arginine transport requires A(2A adenosine receptors activation in human umbilical vein endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Guzmán-Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Adenosine causes vasodilation of human placenta vasculature by increasing the transport of arginine via cationic amino acid transporters 1 (hCAT-1. This process involves the activation of A(2A adenosine receptors (A(2AAR in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Insulin increases hCAT-1 activity and expression in HUVECs, and A(2AAR stimulation increases insulin sensitivity in subjects with insulin resistance. However, whether A(2AAR plays a role in insulin-mediated increase in L-arginine transport in HUVECs is unknown. To determine this, we first assayed the kinetics of saturable L-arginine transport (1 minute, 37°C in the absence or presence of nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI, 10 µmol/L, adenosine transport inhibitor and/or adenosine receptors agonist/antagonists. We also determined hCAT-1 protein and mRNA expression levels (Western blots and quantitative PCR, and SLC7A1 (for hCAT-1 reporter promoter activity. Insulin and NBTI increased the extracellular adenosine concentration, the maximal velocity for L-arginine transport without altering the apparent K(m for L-arginine transport, hCAT-1 protein and mRNA expression levels, and SLC7A1 transcriptional activity. An A2AAR antagonist ZM-241385 blocked these effects. ZM241385 inhibited SLC7A1 reporter transcriptional activity to the same extent in cells transfected with pGL3-hCAT-1(-1606 or pGL3-hCAT-1(-650 constructs in the presence of NBTI + insulin. However, SLC7A1 reporter activity was increased by NBTI only in cells transfected with pGL3-hCAT-1(-1606, and the ZM-241385 sensitive fraction of the NBTI response was similar in the absence or in the presence of insulin. Thus, insulin modulation of hCAT-1 expression and activity requires functional A(2AAR in HUVECs, a mechanism that may be applicable to diseases associated with fetal insulin resistance, such as gestational diabetes.

  18. Adenosine A1 receptor antagonist mitigates deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis and spatial reference memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, G; Ray, K; Sahu, S; Roy, K; Jain, V; Wadhwa, M; Panjwani, U; Kishore, K; Singh, S B

    2016-11-19

    Sleep deprivation (SD) upsurges intracellular levels of adenosine, impairs adult neuronal cell proliferation (NCP) and cognition while caffeine, a non-selective adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) antagonist improves cognition and adult NCP during SD. We examined the selective antagonistic effects of adenosine A1R using 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (8-CPT) on impairment of spatial reference memory and adult NCP during 48h SD. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were sleep deprived for 48h, using an automatic cage vibrating stimulus based on animal activity. Spatial reference memory was tested as a measure of cognitive performance employing Morris Water Maze. Rats were given 8-CPT dissolved in 50% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), twice daily (10mg/kg, i.p.) along with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (50mg/kg/day, i.p.). The rats treated with 8-CPT showed significantly short mean latency and path-length to reach the platform compared to the SD rats. Consistent with these findings, 8-CPT-treated group was found to have significantly increased the number of BrdU, Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX) positive cells. However, no significant difference was seen in NeuN expression in the Dentate Gyrus (DG). Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) expression in the DG and CA1 region was observed to decrease significantly after SD and be rescued by 8-CPT treatment. Furthermore, latency to reach platform showed a negative correlation with number of BrdU, DCX type-1 cells and BDNF expression in DG. Thus, it may be concluded that treatment with 8-CPT, an adenosine A1R antagonist during SD mitigates SD induced decline in spatial reference memory and adult NCP possibly via up regulation of BDNF levels in DG and CA1 regions. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential ligand-binding residues in rat olfactory receptors identified by correlated mutation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M. S.; Oliveira, L.; Vriend, G.; Shepherd, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    A family of G-protein-coupled receptors is believed to mediate the recognition of odor molecules. In order to identify potential ligand-binding residues, we have applied correlated mutation analysis to receptor sequences from the rat. This method identifies pairs of sequence positions where residues remain conserved or mutate in tandem, thereby suggesting structural or functional importance. The analysis supported molecular modeling studies in suggesting several residues in positions that were consistent with ligand-binding function. Two of these positions, dominated by histidine residues, may play important roles in ligand binding and could confer broad specificity to mammalian odor receptors. The presence of positive (overdominant) selection at some of the identified positions provides additional evidence for roles in ligand binding. Higher-order groups of correlated residues were also observed. Each group may interact with an individual ligand determinant, and combinations of these groups may provide a multi-dimensional mechanism for receptor diversity.

  20. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor ligand interactions: structural cross talk between ligands and the extracellular domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham M West

    Full Text Available Activation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R in pancreatic β-cells potentiates insulin production and is a current therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Like other class B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, the GLP-1R contains an N-terminal extracellular ligand binding domain. N-terminal truncations on the peptide agonist generate antagonists capable of binding to the extracellular domain, but not capable of activating full length receptor. The main objective of this study was to use Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX to identify how the amide hydrogen bonding network of peptide ligands and the extracellular domain of GLP-1R (nGLP-1R were altered by binding interactions and to then use this platform to validate direct binding events for putative GLP-1R small molecule ligands. The HDX studies presented here for two glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R peptide ligands indicates that the antagonist exendin-4[9-39] is significantly destabilized in the presence of nonionic detergents as compared to the agonist exendin-4. Furthermore, HDX can detect stabilization of exendin-4 and exendin-4[9-39] hydrogen bonding networks at the N-terminal helix [Val19 to Lys27] upon binding to the N-terminal extracellular domain of GLP-1R (nGLP-1R. In addition we show hydrogen bonding network stabilization on nGLP-1R in response to ligand binding, and validate direct binding events with the extracellular domain of the receptor for putative GLP-1R small molecule ligands.

  1. Adenosine A1 receptors in human sleep regulation studied by electroencephalography (EEG) and positron emission tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissler, E.

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is an essential physiological process. However, the functions of sleep and the endogenous mechanisms involved in sleep regulation are only partially understood. Convergent lines of evidence support the hypothesis that the build-up of sleep propensity during wakefulness and its decline during sleep are associated with alterations in brain adenosine levels and adenosine receptor concentrations. The non-selective A 1 and A 2A adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine stimulates alertness and is known to attenuate changes in the waking and sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) typically observed after prolonged waking. Several findings point to an important function of the adenosine A 1 receptor (A 1 AR) in the modulation of vigilance states. The A 1 AR is densely expressed in brain regions involved in sleep regulation, and pharmacological manipulations affecting the A 1 AR were shown to influence sleep propensity and sleep depth. However, an involvement of the A 2A adenosine receptor (A 2A AR) is also assumed. The distinct functions of the A 1 and A 2A receptor subtypes in sleep-wake regulation and in mediating the effects of caffeine have not been identified so far. The selective adenosine A 1 receptor antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-3-(3- 18 Ffluoropropyl)- 1-propylxanthine ( 18 F-CPFPX), offers the opportunity to get further insights into adenosinergic mechanisms by in vivo imaging of the A 1 AR subtype with positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this thesis was to elucidate the role of adenosine A 1 receptors in human sleep regulation, combining 18 F-CPFPX PET brain imaging and EEG recordings, the gold standard in sleep research. It was hypothesized that sleep deprivation would induce adenosine accumulation and/or changes in A 1 AR density. Thus, the question was addressed whether these effects of prolonged wakefulness can be visualized by altered 18 F-CPFPX binding. Moreover, it was investigated whether radioligand uptake might be influenced by caffeine, since

  2. Lumbar sympathectomy reduces vascular permeability, possibly through decreased adenosine receptor A2a expression in the hind plantar skin of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhifang; Liu, Yishu; Zhu, Lulu; Tang, Jianbing; Huang, Wenhua; Cheng, Biao

    2018-01-01

    The effect of lumbar sympathectomy for the treatment of lower limb ischemia remains a matter of controversy. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to lumbar sympathectomy, after which Evans blue dye was injected into the hind plantar skin. Extravasation of dye was measured and compared with rats undergoing sham operation. Hind plantar skin was processed for HE staining, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot. In sympathectomized rats, blue stained areas in hind plantar skin and concentrations of Evans blue were significantly less than that of sham sympathectomy (control) rats, both 2 weeks and 3 months after surgery. Expression of prostaglandin E2, bradykinin, bradykinin B2 receptor, and adenosine triphosphate were not significantly different between the sympathectomized and control groups. Adenosine receptor A2a expression was significantly reduced in the sympathectomized group both 2 weeks and 3 months after surgery. Vascular permeability in the hind plantar skin of rats decreases following lumbar sympathectomy, possibly via reduced expression of adenosine receptor A2a.

  3. Role of adenosine A2A receptor signaling in the nicotine-evoked attenuation of reflex cardiac sympathetic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M.; El-gowilly, Sahar M.; Fouda, Mohamed A.; Saad, Evan I.

    2011-01-01

    Baroreflex dysfunction contributes to increased cardiovascular risk in cigarette smokers. Given the importance of adenosinergic pathways in baroreflex control, the hypothesis was tested that defective central adenosinergic modulation of cardiac autonomic activity mediates the nicotine-baroreflex interaction. Baroreflex curves relating changes in heart rate (HR) to increases or decreases in blood pressure (BP) evoked by i.v. doses (1-16 μg/kg) of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively, were constructed in conscious rats; slopes of the curves were taken as measures of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Nicotine (25 and 100 μg/kg i.v.) dose-dependently reduced BRS SNP in contrast to no effect on BRS PE . BRS SNP was also attenuated after intracisternal (i.c.) administration of nicotine. Similar reductions in BRS SNP were observed in rats pretreated with atropine or propranolol. The combined treatment with nicotine and atropine produced additive inhibitory effects on BRS, an effect that was not demonstrated upon concurrent exposure to nicotine and propranolol. BRS SNP was reduced in preparations treated with i.c. 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT, nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist), 8-(3-Chlorostyryl) caffeine (CSC, A 2A antagonist), or VUF5574 (A 3 antagonist). In contrast, BRS SNP was preserved after blockade of A 1 (DPCPX) or A 2B (alloxazine) receptors or inhibition of adenosine uptake by dipyridamole. CSC or 8-PT abrogated the BRS SNP depressant effect of nicotine whereas other adenosinergic antagonists were without effect. Together, nicotine preferentially impairs reflex tachycardia via disruption of adenosine A 2A receptor-mediated facilitation of reflex cardiac sympathoexcitation. Clinically, the attenuation by nicotine of compensatory sympathoexcitation may be detrimental in conditions such as hypothalamic defense response, posture changes, and ventricular rhythms. - Research highlights: → The role of central adenosinergic sites in

  4. Application of NMR screening techniques for observing ligand binding with a protein receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotakahara, Sakurako; Furihata, Kazuo; Tashiro, Mitsuru

    2005-01-01

    Water ligand observed via gradient spectroscopy (WaterLOGSY), saturation transfer difference and NOE pumping NMR techniques were used to identify ligand binding with a receptor. Although these experiments were originally designed to observe ligands in complexes, their application is limited by the affinity of ligands towards target molecules. Here the improved WaterLOGSY pulse sequence was developed by incorporating the double pulsed field gradient spin-echo and gradient-tailored excitation WATERGATE sequences. The efficiency of these ligand-observed NMR screening techniques was investigated using the ribonuclease T1-inhibitor system. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. 1,2,3-triazolyl amino acids as AMPA receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Nathan J.; Pedersen, Daniel Sejer; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The central nervous system glutamate receptors are an important target for drug discovery. Herein we report initial investigations into the synthesis and glutamate receptor activity of 1,2,3-triazolyl amino acids. Two compounds were found to be selective AMPA receptor ligands, which warrant further...

  6. Preparation and first evaluation of [{sup 18}F]FE-SUPPY: a new PET tracer for the adenosine A{sub 3} receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsak, Wolfgang [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]|[Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry, Univ. of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mien, Leonhard-Key [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]|[Dept. of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Univ. of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]|[Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Univ. of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Shanab, Karem [Dept. of Drug and Natural Product Synthesis, Faculty of Life Sciences, Univ. of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Ettlinger, Dagmar E. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Haeusler, Daniela [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]|[Dept. of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Univ. of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Sindelar, Karoline [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Lanzenberger, Rupert R. [Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Univ. of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Spreitzer, Helmut [Dept. of Drug and Natural Product Synthesis, Faculty of Life Sciences, Univ. of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Viernstein, Helmut [Dept. of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Univ. of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Keppler, Bernhard K. [Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry, Univ. of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Dudczak, Robert; Kletter, Kurt [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mitterhauser, Markus [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]|[Dept. of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Univ. of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]|[Hospital Pharmacy of the General Hospital of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: markus.mitterhouser@meduniwien.ac.at

    2008-01-15

    Introduction: Changes of the adenosine A{sub 3} receptor subtype (A3AR) expression have been shown in a variety of pathologies, especially neurological and affective disorders, cardiac diseases and oncological and inflammation processes. Recently, 5-(2-fluoroethyl) 2,4-diethyl-3-(ethylsulfanylcarbonyl)-6-phenylpyridine-5-carboxylate (FE-SUPPY) was presented as a high-affinity ligand for the A3AR with good selectivity. Our aims were the development of a suitable labeling precursor, the establishment of a reliable radiosynthesis for the fluorine-18-labeled analogue [{sup 18}F]FE-SUPPY and a first evaluation of [{sup 18}F]FE-SUPPY in rats. Methods: [{sup 18}F]FE-SUPPY was prepared in a feasible and reliable manner by radiofluorination of the corresponding tosylated precursor. Biodistribution was carried out in rats, and organs were removed and counted. Autoradiography was performed on rat brain slices in the presence or absence of 2-Cl-IB-MECA. Results: Overall yields and radiochemical purity were sufficient for further preclinical and clinical applications. The uptake pattern of [{sup 18}F]FE-SUPPY found in rats mainly followed the described mRNA distribution pattern of the A3AR. Specific uptake in brain was demonstrated by blocking with a selective A3AR agonist. Conclusion: We conclude that [{sup 18}F]FE-SUPPY has the potential to serve as the first positron emission tomography tracer for the A3AR.

  7. Structural determinants for selective recognition of peptide ligands for endothelin receptor subtypes ETA and ETB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lättig, Jens; Oksche, Alexander; Beyermann, Michael; Rosenthal, Walter; Krause, Gerd

    2009-07-01

    The molecular basis for recognition of peptide ligands endothelin-1, -2 and -3 in endothelin receptors is poorly understood. Especially the origin of ligand selectivity for ET(A) or ET(B) is not clearly resolved. We derived sequence-structure-function relationships of peptides and receptors from mutational data and homology modeling. Our major findings are the dissection of peptide ligands into four epitopes and the delineation of four complementary structural portions on receptor side explaining ligand recognition in both endothelin receptor subtypes. In addition, structural determinants for ligand selectivity could be described. As a result, we could improve the selectivity of BQ3020 about 10-fold by a single amino acid substitution, validating our hypothesis for ligand selectivity caused by different entrances to the receptors' transmembrane binding sites. A narrow tunnel shape in ET(A) is restrictive for a selected group of peptide ligands' N-termini, whereas a broad funnel-shaped entrance in ET(B) accepts a variety of different shapes and properties of ligands.

  8. Synthetic adenosine receptor agonists modulate murine haematopoiesis: a study employing the cytotoxic action of 5-fluorouracil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Vacek, Antonín; Znojil, V.; Pipalová, I.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 5, Suppl. 2 (2004), s. S65 ISSN 1466-4860. [Congress of the European Hematology Association /9./. 10.06.2004-13.06.2004, Geneva] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/02/0423 Keywords : 5-fluorouracil * haematopoiesis * adenosine Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  9. Erythropoiesis- and Thrombopoiesis-Characterizing Parameters in Adenosine A(3) Receptor Knock-Out Mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Dušek, L.; Hoferová, Zuzana; Weiterová, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 3 (2013), s. 305-311 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0128 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : ELEVATING EXTRACELLULAR ADENOSINE * COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR * HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2013

  10. Mutual inactivation of Notch receptors and ligands facilitates developmental patterning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sprinzak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental patterning requires juxtacrine signaling in order to tightly coordinate the fates of neighboring cells. Recent work has shown that Notch and Delta, the canonical metazoan juxtacrine signaling receptor and ligand, mutually inactivate each other in the same cell. This cis-interaction generates mutually exclusive sending and receiving states in individual cells. It generally remains unclear, however, how this mutual inactivation and the resulting switching behavior can impact developmental patterning circuits. Here we address this question using mathematical modeling in the context of two canonical pattern formation processes: boundary formation and lateral inhibition. For boundary formation, in a model motivated by Drosophila wing vein patterning, we find that mutual inactivation allows sharp boundary formation across a broader range of parameters than models lacking mutual inactivation. This model with mutual inactivation also exhibits robustness to correlated gene expression perturbations. For lateral inhibition, we find that mutual inactivation speeds up patterning dynamics, relieves the need for cooperative regulatory interactions, and expands the range of parameter values that permit pattern formation, compared to canonical models. Furthermore, mutual inactivation enables a simple lateral inhibition circuit architecture which requires only a single downstream regulatory step. Both model systems show how mutual inactivation can facilitate robust fine-grained patterning processes that would be difficult to implement without it, by encoding a difference-promoting feedback within the signaling system itself. Together, these results provide a framework for analysis of more complex Notch-dependent developmental systems.

  11. Monitoring ligand-receptor interactions by photonic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeney, Sylvia; Mor, Flavio; Forro, Laszlo; Koszali, Roland; Moy, Vincent T

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a method for the acquisition of single molecule force measurements of ligand-receptor interactions using the photonic force microscope (PFM). Biotin-functionalized beads, manipulated with an optical trap, and a streptavidin-functionalized coverslip were used to measure the effect of different pulling forces on the lifetime of individual streptavidin-biotin complexes. By optimizing the design of the optical trap and selection of the appropriate bead size, pulling forces in excess of 50 pN were achieved. Based on the amplitude of three-dimensional (3D) thermal position fluctuations of the attached bead, we were able to select for a bead-coverslip interaction that was mediated by a single streptavidin-biotin complex. Moreover, the developed experimental system was greatly accelerated by automation of data acquisition and analysis. In force-dependent kinetic measurements carried out between streptavidin and biotin, we observed that the streptavidin-biotin complex exhibited properties of a catch bond, with the lifetime increasing tenfold when the pulling force increased from 10 to 20 pN. We also show that silica beads were more appropriate than polystyrene beads for the force measurements, as tethers, longer than 200 nm, could be extracted from polystyrene beads.

  12. Influence of the adenosine A1 receptor on blood pressure regulation and renin release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Russell D.; Thorén, Peter; Steege, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the role of adenosine A1 receptors in regulating blood pressure in conscious mice. Adenosine A1-receptor knockout (A1R-/-) mice and their wild-type (A1R+/+) littermates were placed on standardized normal-salt (NS), high-salt (HS), or salt-deficient (SD...... renin levels decreased with increased salt intake in both genotypes, the A1R-/- mice had an approximately twofold higher plasma renin concentration on all diets compared with A1R+/+ mice. Sodium excretion was elevated in the A1R-/- compared with the A1R+/+ mice on the NS diet. There was no difference...... in sodium excretion between the two genotypes on the HS diet. Even on the SD diet, A1R-/- mice had an increased sodium excretion compared with A1R+/+ mice. An abolished tubuloglomerular feedback response and reduced tubular reabsorption can account for the elevated salt excretion found in A1R-/- animals...

  13. Adenosine A(2A) receptor gene (ADORA2A) variants may increase autistic symptoms and anxiety in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Christine M; Agelopoulos, Konstantin; Huy, Ellen; Rothermundt, Matthias; Krakowitzky, Petra; Meyer, Jobst; Deckert, Jürgen; von Gontard, Alexander; Hohoff, Christa

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are heterogeneous disorders presenting with increased rates of anxiety. The adenosine A(2A) receptor gene (ADORA2A) is associated with panic disorder and is located on chromosome 22q11.23. Its gene product, the adenosine A(2A) receptor, is strongly expressed in the caudate nucleus, which also is involved in ASD. As autistic symptoms are increased in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and large 22q11.2 deletions and duplications have been observed in ASD individuals, in this study, 98 individuals with ASD and 234 control individuals were genotyped for eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ADORA2A. Nominal association with the disorder was observed for rs2236624-CC, and phenotypic variability in ASD symptoms was influenced by rs3761422, rs5751876 and rs35320474. In addition, association of ADORA2A variants with anxiety was replicated for individuals with ASD. Findings point toward a possible mediating role of ADORA2A variants on phenotypic expression in ASD that need to be replicated in a larger sample.

  14. Pharmacophore modeling improves virtual screening for novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Stephanie N.; Garcia, Zulma; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Bevan, David R.

    2015-05-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear hormone receptor involved in regulating various metabolic and immune processes. The PPAR family of receptors possesses a large binding cavity that imparts promiscuity of ligand binding not common to other nuclear receptors. This feature increases the challenge of using computational methods to identify PPAR ligands that will dock favorably into a structural model. Utilizing both ligand- and structure-based pharmacophore methods, we sought to improve agonist prediction by grouping ligands according to pharmacophore features, and pairing models derived from these features with receptor structures for docking. For 22 of the 33 receptor structures evaluated we observed an increase in true positive rate (TPR) when screening was restricted to compounds sharing molecular features found in rosiglitazone. A combination of structure models used for docking resulted in a higher TPR (40 %) when compared to docking with a single structure model (marketed drug database verified the predictive ability of the selected structure models. This study highlights the steps necessary to improve screening for PPARγ ligands using multiple structure models, ligand-based pharmacophore data, evaluation of protein-ligand interactions, and comparison of docking datasets. The unique combination of methods presented here holds potential for more efficient screening of compounds with unknown affinity for PPARγ that could serve as candidates for therapeutic development.

  15. Multiple pathways of sigma(1) receptor ligand uptakes into primary cultured neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H; Karasawa, J; Sagi, N; Takahashi, S; Horikomi, K; Okuyama, S; Nukada, T; Sora, I; Yamamoto, T

    2001-08-03

    Although many antipsychotics have affinities for sigma receptors, the transportation pathway of exogenous sigma(1) receptor ligands to intracellular type-1 sigma receptors are not fully understood. In this study, sigma(1) receptor ligand uptakes were studied using primary cultured neuronal cells. [(3)H](+)-pentazocine and [(3)H](R)-(+)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-[4-(2-methoxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl]methyl-2-pyrrolidinone L-tartrate (MS-377), used as a selective sigma(1) receptor ligands, were taken up in a time-, energy- and temperature-dependent manner, suggesting that active transport mechanisms were involved in their uptakes. sigma(1) receptor ligands taken up into primary cultured neuronal cells were not restricted to agonists, but also concerned antagonists. The uptakes of these ligands were mainly Na(+)-independent. Kinetic analysis of [(3)H](+)-pentazocine and [(3)H]MS-377 uptake showed K(m) values (microM) of 0.27 and 0.32, and V(max) values (pmol/mg protein/min) of 17.4 and 9.4, respectively. Although both ligands were incorporated, the pharmacological properties of these two ligands were different. Uptake of [(3)H](+)-pentazocine was inhibited in the range 0.4-7.1 microM by all the sigma(1) receptor ligands used, including N,N-dipropyl-2-[4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylethoxy)phenyl]ethylamine monohydrochloride (NE-100), a selective sigma(1) receptor ligand. In contrast, the inhibition of [(3)H]MS-377 uptake was potently inhibited by haloperidol, characterized by supersensitivity (IC(50), approximately 2 nM) and was inhibited by NE-100 with low sensitivity (IC(50), 4.5 microM). Moreover, kinetic analysis revealed that NE-100 inhibited [(3)H]MS-377 uptake in a noncompetitive manner, suggesting that NE-100 acted at a site different from the uptake sites of [(3)H]MS-377. These findings suggest that there are at least two uptake pathways for sigma(1) receptor ligands in primary cultured neuronal cells (i.e. a haloperidol-sensitive pathway and another, unclear, pathway). In

  16. Challenges predicting ligand-receptor interactions of promiscuous proteins: the nuclear receptor PXR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Ekins

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation of some genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification and apoptosis is performed via the human pregnane X receptor (PXR which in turn is activated by structurally diverse agonists including steroid hormones. Activation of PXR has the potential to initiate adverse effects, altering drug pharmacokinetics or perturbing physiological processes. Reliable computational prediction of PXR agonists would be valuable for pharmaceutical and toxicological research. There has been limited success with structure-based modeling approaches to predict human PXR activators. Slightly better success has been achieved with ligand-based modeling methods including quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR analysis, pharmacophore modeling and machine learning. In this study, we present a comprehensive analysis focused on prediction of 115 steroids for ligand binding activity towards human PXR. Six crystal structures were used as templates for docking and ligand-based modeling approaches (two-, three-, four- and five-dimensional analyses. The best success at external prediction was achieved with 5D-QSAR. Bayesian models with FCFP_6 descriptors were validated after leaving a large percentage of the dataset out and using an external test set. Docking of ligands to the PXR structure co-crystallized with hyperforin had the best statistics for this method. Sulfated steroids (which are activators were consistently predicted as non-activators while, poorly predicted steroids were docked in a reverse mode compared to 5alpha-androstan-3beta-ol. Modeling of human PXR represents a complex challenge by virtue of the large, flexible ligand-binding cavity. This study emphasizes this aspect, illustrating modest success using the largest quantitative data set to date and multiple modeling approaches.

  17. Kidney branching morphogenesis under the control of a ligand-receptor-based Turing mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshykau, Denis; Iber, Dagmar

    2013-08-01

    The main signalling proteins that control early kidney branching have been defined. Yet the underlying mechanism is still elusive. We have previously shown that a Schnakenberg-type Turing mechanism can recapitulate the branching and protein expression patterns in wild-type and mutant lungs, but it is unclear whether this mechanism would extend to other branched organs that are regulated by other proteins. Here, we show that the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-RET regulatory interaction gives rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing model that reproduces the observed budding of the ureteric bud from the Wolffian duct, its invasion into the mesenchyme and the observed branching pattern. The model also recapitulates all relevant protein expression patterns in wild-type and mutant mice. The lung and kidney models are both based on a particular receptor-ligand interaction and require (1) cooperative binding of ligand and receptor, (2) a lower diffusion coefficient for the receptor than for the ligand and (3) an increase in the receptor concentration in response to receptor-ligand binding (by enhanced transcription, more recycling or similar). These conditions are met also by other receptor-ligand systems. We propose that ligand-receptor-based Turing patterns represent a general mechanism to control branching morphogenesis and other developmental processes.

  18. Segregation of receptor-ligand complexes in cell adhesion zones: Phase diagrams and role of thermal membrane roughness

    OpenAIRE

    Rozycki, Bartosz; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    The adhesion zone of immune cells, the 'immunological synapse', exhibits characteristic domains of receptor-ligand complexes. The domain formation is likely caused by a length difference of the receptor-ligand complexes, and has been investigated in experiments in which T cells adhere to supported membranes with anchored ligands. For supported membranes with two types of anchored ligands, MHCp and ICAM1, that bind to the receptors TCR and LFA1 in the cell membrane, the coexistence of domains ...

  19. The mammalian tachykinin ligand-receptor system: an emerging target for central neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Nick; Chadwick, Wayne; Park, Sung-Soo; Wang, Liyun; Zhou, Yu; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart

    2010-11-01

    Our understanding of the complex signaling neurophysiology of the central nervous system has facilitated the exploration of potential novel receptor-ligand system targets for disorders of this most complex organ. In recent years, many relatively neglected receptor-ligand systems have been re-evaluated with respect to their ability to potently modulate discrete tracts in the central nervous system. One such system is the tachykinin (previously neurokinin) system. The multiple heptahelical G protein-coupled receptors and neuropeptide ligands that comprise this system may be significantly involved in more central nervous systems actions than previously thought, including sleep disorders, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and Machado-Joseph disease. The development of our understanding of the role of the tachykinin receptor-ligand system in higher order central functions is likely to allow the creation of more specific and selective tachykinin-related neurotherapeutics.

  20. Ligands, cell-based models, and readouts required for Toll-like receptor action.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dellacasagrande, Jerome

    2012-02-01

    This chapter details the tools that are available to study Toll-like receptor (TLR) biology in vitro. This includes ligands, host cells, and readouts. The use of modified TLRs to circumvent some technical problems is also discussed.

  1. Role of the T cell receptor ligand affinity in T cell activation by bacterial superantigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Geisler, C; Buus, S

    2001-01-01

    Similar to native peptide/MHC ligands, bacterial superantigens have been found to bind with low affinity to the T cell receptor (TCR). It has been hypothesized that low ligand affinity is required to allow optimal TCR signaling. To test this, we generated variants of Staphylococcus enterotoxin C3...

  2. Expression and Purification of Functional Ligand-binding Domains of T1R3 Taste Receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie,Y.; Hobbs, J.; Vigues, S.; Olson, W.; Conn, G.; Munger, S.

    2006-01-01

    Chemosensory receptors, including odor, taste, and vomeronasal receptors, comprise the largest group of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the mammalian genome. However, little is known about the molecular determinants that are critical for the detection and discrimination of ligands by most of these receptors. This dearth of understanding is due in part to difficulties in preparing functional receptors suitable for biochemical and biophysical analyses. Here we describe in detail two strategies for the expression and purification of the ligand-binding domain of T1R taste receptors, which are constituents of the sweet and umami taste receptors. These class C GPCRs contain a large extracellular N-terminal domain (NTD) that is the site of interaction with most ligands and that is amenable to expression as a separate polypeptide in heterologous cells. The NTD of mouse T1R3 was expressed as two distinct fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and purified by column chromatography. Spectroscopic analysis of the purified NTD proteins shows them to be properly folded and capable of binding ligands. This methodology should not only facilitate the characterization of T1R ligand interactions but may also be useful for dissecting the function of other class C GPCRs such as the large family of orphan V2R vomeronasal receptors.

  3. 5'-Carbamoyl derivatives of 2'-C-methyl-purine nucleosides as selective A1 adenosine receptor agonists: affinity, efficacy, and selectivity for A1 receptor from different species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellacci, Loredana; Franchetti, Palmarisa; Vita, Patrizia; Petrelli, Riccardo; Lavecchia, Antonio; Costa, Barbara; Spinetti, Francesca; Martini, Claudia; Klotz, Karl-Norbert; Grifantini, Mario

    2008-01-01

    A series of 5'-carbamoyl and 5'-thionocarbamoyl derivatives of 2'-C-methyl analogues of the A(1) adenosine receptor (A(1)AR) full agonists N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), 2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA), N(6)-[3-(R)-tetrahydrofuranyl]adenosine (tecadenoson), and 2-chloro analogue (2-Cl-tecadenoson) was synthesized and evaluated for their affinity for adenosine receptor subtypes from bovine, porcine, and human species. In the N(6)-cyclopentylamino series, the 5'-substituted derivatives showed a reduced affinity at the bovine A(1)AR compared to the parent compounds; however, the selectivity for A(1) versus A(2A) receptor was retained or increased. The corresponding N(6)-3-(R)-tetrahydrofuranylamino analogues displayed a very low affinity toward the bovine A(1)AR. The 5'-methylthionocarbamoyl derivative of 2'-Me-CCPA showed the best affinity at porcine A(1)AR with a K(i) value of 13 nM. At human AR subtypes tecadenoson derivatives showed 2.3- to 5-fold lower affinity at A(1)AR and very low affinity at the other subtypes (A(2A), A(2B), and A(3)) compared to the corresponding N(6)-cyclopentyl analogues. The 5'-carbamoyl and 5'-thionocarbamoyl derivatives of 2'-Me-CCPA 3, 4, 7 and tecadenoson derivative 12 were found to be partial A(1) agonists at the porcine receptor. Docking studies explained the lower affinity of N(6)-3-(R)-tetrahydrofuranyl-substituted compounds at bovine A(1)AR compared to that of N(6)-cyclopentyl analogues, showing that the oxygen of the tetrahydrofuranyl ring establishes unfavorable electrostatic interactions with the CO oxygen of Asn254. The low binding affinity of the 2'-C-methyl-N(6)-3-(R)-tetrahydrofuranyl adenosine analogues at human A(1)AR may be ascribed to the presence of unfavorable interactions between the hydrophilic tetrahydrofuranyl ring and the surrounding hydrophobic residues Leu250 (TM6) and Ile274 (TM7).

  4. Adenosine Receptor Activation in the “Trigger” Limb of Remote Pre-Conditioning Mediates Human Endothelial Conditioning and Release of Circulating Cardioprotective Factor(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Contractor, MBChB, DPhil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote ischemic pre-conditioning (rIPC has emerged as a potential mechanism to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury. Clinical data, however, have been mixed, and its physiological basis remains unclear, although it appears to involve release of circulating factor(s and/or neural pathways. Here, the authors demonstrate that adenosine receptor activation is an important step in initiating human pre-conditioning; that pre-conditioning liberates circulating cardioprotective factor(s; and that exogenous adenosine infusion is able to recapitulate release of this factor. However, blockade of adenosine receptors in ischemic tissue does not block the protection afforded by pre-conditioning. These data have important implications for defining the physiology of human pre-conditioning and its translation to future clinical trials.

  5. Role of Adenosine Receptor A2A in Traumatic Optic Neuropathies (Addendum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    provides seizure suppression in various models of epilepsy (Ugarkar et al., 2000); 3) inhibition of AK in hippocampal slicesincreases endogenous...Diabetes 2003;52:506–11. Boison D. Adenosine kinase, epilepsy and stroke: mechanisms and therapies. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2006;27:652–8. Bong GW...Remessy AB, Al-ShabraweyM, Khalifa Y, Tsai NT, Caldwell RB, Liou GI. Neuroprotective and blood–retinal barrier-preserving effects of cannabidiol in

  6. Internalization Mechanisms of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor after Activation with Different Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lasse; Grandal, Michael Vibo; Knudsen, Stine Louise Jeppe; van Deurs, Bo; Grøvdal, Lene Melsæther

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates normal growth and differentiation, but dysregulation of the receptor or one of the EGFR ligands is involved in the pathogenesis of many cancers. There are eight ligands for EGFR, however most of the research into trafficking of the receptor after ligand activation focuses on the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α). For a long time it was believed that clathrin-mediated endocytosis was the major pathway for internalization of the receptor, but recent work suggests that different pathways exist. Here we show that clathrin ablation completely inhibits internalization of EGF- and TGF-α-stimulated receptor, however the inhibition of receptor internalization in cells treated with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) or betacellulin (BTC) was only partial. In contrast, clathrin knockdown fully inhibits EGFR degradation after all ligands tested. Furthermore, inhibition of dynamin function blocked EGFR internalization after stimulation with all ligands. Knocking out a number of clathrin-independent dynamin-dependent pathways of internalization had no effect on the ligand-induced endocytosis of the EGFR. We suggest that EGF and TGF-α lead to EGFR endocytosis mainly via the clathrin-mediated pathway. Furthermore, we suggest that HB-EGF and BTC also lead to EGFR endocytosis via a clathrin-mediated pathway, but can additionally use an unidentified internalization pathway or better recruit the small amount of clathrin remaining after clathrin knockdown. PMID:23472148

  7. Internalization mechanisms of the epidermal growth factor receptor after activation with different ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Henriksen

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR regulates normal growth and differentiation, but dysregulation of the receptor or one of the EGFR ligands is involved in the pathogenesis of many cancers. There are eight ligands for EGFR, however most of the research into trafficking of the receptor after ligand activation focuses on the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α. For a long time it was believed that clathrin-mediated endocytosis was the major pathway for internalization of the receptor, but recent work suggests that different pathways exist. Here we show that clathrin ablation completely inhibits internalization of EGF- and TGF-α-stimulated receptor, however the inhibition of receptor internalization in cells treated with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF or betacellulin (BTC was only partial. In contrast, clathrin knockdown fully inhibits EGFR degradation after all ligands tested. Furthermore, inhibition of dynamin function blocked EGFR internalization after stimulation with all ligands. Knocking out a number of clathrin-independent dynamin-dependent pathways of internalization had no effect on the ligand-induced endocytosis of the EGFR. We suggest that EGF and TGF-α lead to EGFR endocytosis mainly via the clathrin-mediated pathway. Furthermore, we suggest that HB-EGF and BTC also lead to EGFR endocytosis via a clathrin-mediated pathway, but can additionally use an unidentified internalization pathway or better recruit the small amount of clathrin remaining after clathrin knockdown.

  8. A ligand channel through the G protein coupled receptor opsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W Hildebrand

    Full Text Available The G protein coupled receptor rhodopsin contains a pocket within its seven-transmembrane helix (TM structure, which bears the inactivating 11-cis-retinal bound by a protonated Schiff-base to Lys296 in TM7. Light-induced 11-cis-/all-trans-isomerization leads to the Schiff-base deprotonated active Meta II intermediate. With Meta II decay, the Schiff-base bond is hydrolyzed, all-trans-retinal is released from the pocket, and the apoprotein opsin reloaded with new 11-cis-retinal. The crystal structure of opsin in its active Ops* conformation provides the basis for computational modeling of retinal release and uptake. The ligand-free 7TM bundle of opsin opens into the hydrophobic membrane layer through openings A (between TM1 and 7, and B (between TM5 and 6, respectively. Using skeleton search and molecular docking, we find a continuous channel through the protein that connects these two openings and comprises in its central part the retinal binding pocket. The channel traverses the receptor over a distance of ca. 70 A and is between 11.6 and 3.2 A wide. Both openings are lined with aromatic residues, while the central part is highly polar. Four constrictions within the channel are so narrow that they must stretch to allow passage of the retinal beta-ionone-ring. Constrictions are at openings A and B, respectively, and at Trp265 and Lys296 within the retinal pocket. The lysine enforces a 90 degrees elbow-like kink in the channel which limits retinal passage. With a favorable Lys side chain conformation, 11-cis-retinal can take the turn, whereas passage of the all-trans isomer would require more global conformational changes. We discuss possible scenarios for the uptake of 11-cis- and release of all-trans-retinal. If the uptake gate of 11-cis-retinal is assigned to opening B, all-trans is likely to leave through the same gate. The unidirectional passage proposed previously requires uptake of 11-cis-retinal through A and release of photolyzed all

  9. DMPD: Toll-like receptors, Notch ligands, and cytokines drive the chronicity of lunginflammation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18073395 Toll-like receptors, Notch ligands, and cytokines drive the chronicity of ...2007 Dec;4(8):635-41. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors, Notch ligands, and cytokines d...ors, Notch ligands, and cytokines drive the chronicity of lunginflammation. Authors Raymond T, Schaller M, H

  10. Endogenous ligands for C-type lectin receptors: the true regulators of immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vallejo, Juan J; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2009-07-01

    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) have long been known as pattern-recognition receptors implicated in the recognition of pathogens by the innate immune system. However, evidence is accumulating that many CLRs are also able to recognize endogenous 'self' ligands and that this recognition event often plays an important role in immune homeostasis. In the present review, we focus on the human and mouse CLRs for which endogenous ligands have been described. Special attention is given to the signaling events initiated upon recognition of the self ligand and the regulation of glycosylation as a switch modulating CLR recognition, and therefore, immune homeostasis.

  11. Selective Activation of Adenosine A2A Receptors on Immune Cells by a CD73-Dependent Prodrug Suppresses Joint Inflammation in Experimental Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flogel, U.; Burghoff, S.; Lent, P.L.E.M. van; Temme, S.; Galbarz, L.; Ding, Z.; El-Tayeb, A.; Huels, S.; Bonner, F.; Borg, N. van den; Jacoby, C.; Muller, C.E.; Berg, W.B. van den; Schrader, J.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) agonists are both highly effective anti-inflammatory agents and potent vasodilators. To separate these two activities, we have synthesized phosphorylated A(2A)R agonists (prodrugs) that require the presence of ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) to become activated. In the

  12. Anticonvulsant action of 2-chloroadenosine against pentetrazol-induced seizures in immature rats is due to activation of A1 adenosine receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 11 (2010), s. 1269-1277 ISSN 0300-9564 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR9184 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adenosine receptors * anticonvulsant action * immature rats Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.597, year: 2010

  13. Greater adenosine A2A receptor densities in cardiac and skeletal muscle in endurance-trained men: a [11C]TMSX PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Masaki; Kimura, Yuichi; Tokizawa, Ken; Ishii, Kenji; Oda, Keiichi; Sasaki, Toru; Nakamura, Yoshio; Muraoka, Isao; Ishiwata, Kiichi

    2005-01-01

    We examined the densities of adenosine A 2A receptors in cardiac and skeletal muscles between untrained and endurance-trained subjects using positron emission tomography (PET) and [7-methyl- 11 C]-(E)-8-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl)-1,3,7-trimethylxanthine ([ 11 C]TMSX), a newly developed radioligand for mapping adenosine A 2A receptors. Five untrained and five endurance-trained subjects participated in this study. The density of adenosine A 2A receptors was evaluated as the distribution volume of [ 11 C]TMSX in cardiac and triceps brachii muscles in the resting state using PET. The distribution volume of [ 11 C]TMSX in the myocardium was significantly greater than in the triceps brachii muscle in both groups. Further, distribution volumes [ 11 C]TMSX in the trained subjects were significantly grater than those in untrained subjects (myocardium, 3.6±0.3 vs. 3.1±0.4 ml g -1 ; triceps brachii muscle, 1.7±0.3 vs. 1.2±0.2 ml g -1 , respectively). These results indicate that the densities of adenosine A 2A receptors in the cardiac and skeletal muscles are greater in the endurance-trained men than in the untrained men

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of disubstituted N6- cyclopentyladenine analogues: The search for a neutral antagonist with high affinity for the adenosine A1 receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligt, R.A.F. de; Klein, P.A.M. van der; Frijtag Drabbe Künzel, J.K. von; Lorenzen, A.; El Maate, F.A.; Fujikawa, S.; Westhoven, R. van; Hoven, T. van den; Brussee, J.; Ijzerman, A.P.

    2004-01-01

    Novel 3,8- and 8,9-disubstituted N6-cyclopentyladenine derivatives were synthesised in moderate overall yield from 6-chloropurine. The derivatives were made in an attempt to find a new neutral antagonist with high affinity for adenosine A1 receptors. N6-Cyclopentyl-9- methyladenine (N-0840) was used

  15. Activation of adenosine A3 receptors supports hematopoiesis-stimulating effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in sublethally irradiated mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Šefc, L.; Dušek, L.; Vacek, Antonín; Holá, Jiřina; Hoferová, Zuzana; Štreitová, Denisa

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 8 (2010), s. 649-656 ISSN 0955-3002 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : ionising radiation * hematopoiesis * adenosine A3 receptors Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.861, year: 2010

  16. Delta/Notch-Like EGF-Related Receptor (DNER Is Not a Notch Ligand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Greene

    Full Text Available Delta/Notch-like EGF-related receptor (DNER has been reported to act as a Notch ligand, despite lacking a Delta/Serrate/Lag (DSL binding domain common to all other known ligands. The established Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (DLL1, but not DNER, activated Notch1 in a luciferase assay, prevented the differentiation of myoblasts through Notch signaling, and bound Notch-fc in a cell-based assay. DNER is not a Notch ligand and its true function remains unknown.

  17. Adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression and the effects of systemic theophylline administration on respiratory function 4 months after C2 hemisection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantwi, Kwaku D; Basura, Gregory J; Goshgarian, Harry G

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that in an animal model of acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), respiratory function can be restored by theophylline. We also have shown that respiratory recovery occurs spontaneously after prolonged postinjury survival periods when a hemidiaphragm is paralyzed by an ipsilateral upper cervical (C2) spinal cord hemisection. Theophylline mediates functional recovery by central nervous system adenosine A1 receptor antagonism; however, it is unclear whether adenosine receptors are altered after prolonged postinjury periods and whether theophylline can further enhance restored respiratory function that occurs spontaneously. To assess putative effects of systemic theophylline administration on further enhancing spontaneous respiratory muscle recovery 4 months after C2 hemisection in rats and to determine whether adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression is altered in these animals. Electrophysiologic assessment of respiratory activity in the phrenic nerves was conducted in C2 hemisected rats 4 months after hemisection under standardized conditions. Immediately thereafter, rats were killed and the cervical spinal cords were prepared for adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression by in situ hybridization. Spontaneous recovery of respiratory activity in the ipsilateral phrenic nerve was detected in a majority (15/20) of C2 hemisected animals and amounted to 44.06% +/- 2.38% when expressed as a percentage of activity in the homolateral phrenic nerve in noninjured animals. At the optimal dosage used in the acute studies, theophylline (15 mg/kg) did not enhance, but rather unexpectedly blocked, recovered respiratory activity in 4 out of 5 animals tested. At dosages of 5 mg/kg and 2.5 mg/kg, the drug blocked recovered respiratory activity in 3 out of 4 and 3 out of 5 animals tested, respectively. Quantitative analysis of adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression did not reveal a significant difference between experimental animals

  18. Adenosine receptors regulate gap junction coupling of the human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells hCMEC/D3 by Ca2+influx through cyclic nucleotide-gated channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Almke; Bintig, Willem; Begandt, Daniela; Klett, Anne; Siller, Ina G; Gregor, Carola; Schaarschmidt, Frank; Weksler, Babette; Romero, Ignacio; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Hell, Stefan W; Ngezahayo, Anaclet

    2017-04-15

    Gap junction channels are essential for the formation and regulation of physiological units in tissues by allowing the lateral cell-to-cell diffusion of ions, metabolites and second messengers. Stimulation of the adenosine receptor subtype A 2B increases the gap junction coupling in the human blood-brain barrier endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. Although the increased gap junction coupling is cAMP-dependent, neither the protein kinase A nor the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP were involved in this increase. We found that cAMP activates cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels and thereby induces a Ca 2+ influx, which leads to the increase in gap junction coupling. The report identifies CNG channels as a possible physiological link between adenosine receptors and the regulation of gap junction channels in endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. The human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 was used to characterize the physiological link between adenosine receptors and the gap junction coupling in endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. Expressed adenosine receptor subtypes and connexin (Cx) isoforms were identified by RT-PCR. Scrape loading/dye transfer was used to evaluate the impact of the A 2A and A 2B adenosine receptor subtype agonist 2-phenylaminoadenosine (2-PAA) on the gap junction coupling. We found that 2-PAA stimulated cAMP synthesis and enhanced gap junction coupling in a concentration-dependent manner. This enhancement was accompanied by an increase in gap junction plaques formed by Cx43. Inhibition of protein kinase A did not affect the 2-PAA-related enhancement of gap junction coupling. In contrast, the cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel inhibitor l-cis-diltiazem, as well as the chelation of intracellular Ca 2+ with BAPTA, or the absence of external Ca 2+ , suppressed the 2-PAA-related enhancement of gap junction coupling. Moreover, we observed a 2-PAA-dependent activation of CNG channels by a combination of

  19. Internalization mechanisms of the epidermal growth factor receptor after activation with different ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse; Grandal, Michael Vibo; Knudsen, Stine Louise Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    after ligand activation focuses on the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α). For a long time it was believed that clathrin-mediated endocytosis was the major pathway for internalization of the receptor, but recent work suggests that different pathways exist....... Here we show that clathrin ablation completely inhibits internalization of EGF- and TGF-α-stimulated receptor, however the inhibition of receptor internalization in cells treated with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) or betacellulin (BTC) was only partial. In contrast, clathrin knockdown...... fully inhibits EGFR degradation after all ligands tested. Furthermore, inhibition of dynamin function blocked EGFR internalization after stimulation with all ligands. Knocking out a number of clathrin-independent dynamin-dependent pathways of internalization had no effect on the ligand...

  20. Revealing a steroid receptor ligand as a unique PPAR[gamma] agonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shengchen; Han, Ying; Shi, Yuzhe; Rong, Hui; Zheng, Songyang; Jin, Shikan; Lin, Shu-Yong; Lin, Sheng-Cai; Li, Yong (Pitt); (Xiamen)

    2012-06-28

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and is a molecular target for anti-diabetic drugs. We report here the identification of a steroid receptor ligand, RU-486, as an unexpected PPAR{gamma} agonist, thereby uncovering a novel signaling route for this steroid drug. Similar to rosiglitazone, RU-486 modulates the expression of key PPAR{gamma} target genes and promotes adipocyte differentiation, but with a lower adipogenic activity. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis for a unique binding mode for RU-486 in the PPAR{gamma} ligand-binding pocket with distinctive properties and epitopes, providing the molecular mechanisms for the discrimination of RU-486 from thiazolidinediones (TZDs) drugs. Our findings together indicate that steroid compounds may represent an alternative approach for designing non-TZD PPAR{gamma} ligands in the treatment of insulin resistance.

  1. Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters mediate chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 secretion from reactive astrocytes: relevance to multiple sclerosis pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, G.; Mizee, M.R.; van Horssen, J.; Reijerkerk, A.; Witte, M.E.; Drexhage, J.A.R.; van der Pol, SM; Van Het Hof, B; Scheffer, G.L.; Scheper, R.J.; Dijkstra, C.D.; van der Valk, P.; de Vries, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette efflux transporters are highly expressed at the blood-brain barrier and actively hinder passage of harmful compounds, thereby maintaining brain homoeostasis. Since, adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters drive cellular exclusion of potential

  2. The role of endogenous epidermal growth factor receptor ligands in mediating corneal epithelial homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joanne L; Phelps, Eric D; Doll, Mark A; Schaal, Shlomit; Ceresa, Brian P

    2014-05-01

    To provide a comprehensive study of the biological role and therapeutic potential of six endogenous epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands in corneal epithelial homeostasis. Kinetic analysis and dose response curves were performed by using in vitro and in vivo wound-healing assays. Biochemical assays were used to determine receptor expression and activity. Human tears were collected and quantitatively analyzed by multianalyte profiling for endogenous EGFR ligands. Epidermal growth factor receptor ligands improved wound closure and activated EGFR, but betacellulin (BTC) was the most efficacious promoter of wound healing in vitro. In contrast, only epidermal growth factor (EGF) promoted wound healing in vivo. Human tears from 25 healthy individuals showed EGFR ligands at these average concentrations: EGF at 2053 ± 312.4 pg/mL, BTC at 207 ± 39.4 pg/mL, heparin-binding EGF at 44 ± 5.8 pg/mL, amphiregulin at 509 ± 28.8 pg/mL, transforming growth factor-α at 84 ± 19 pg/mL, and epiregulin at 52 ± 15 pg/mL. Under unwounded conditions, only EGF was present at concentrations near the ligand's Kd for the receptor, indicating it is the primary mediator of corneal epithelial homeostasis. Other ligands were present but at concentrations 11- to 7500-fold less their Kd, preventing significant ligand binding. Further, the high levels of EGF and its predicted binding preclude receptor occupancy by exogenous ligand and can explain the discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo data. Therefore, therapeutic use of EGFR ligands may be unpredictable and impractical.

  3. Ligand binding and micro-switches in 7TM receptor structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Rie; Frimurer, Thomas M; Holst, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    The past couple of years have seen several novel X-ray structures of 7 transmembrane (7TM) receptors in complex with antagonists and even with a peptide fragment of a G protein. These structures demonstrate that the main ligand-binding pocket in 7TM receptors is like a funnel with a partial 'lid...

  4. Potential applications for sigma receptor ligands in cancer diagnosis and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Rybczynska, Anna A.; Kuzhuppilly Ramakrishnan, Nisha; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Elsinga, Philip H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.

    2015-01-01

    Sigma receptors (sigma-1 and sigma-2) represent two independent classes of proteins. Their endogenous ligands may include the hallucinogen N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and sphingolipid-derived amines which interact with sigma-1 receptors, besides steroid hormones (e.g., progesterone) which bind to

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of peptide and nucleic acid based Toll-like receptor ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weterings, Josephus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are receptors that continuously scour their direct surroundings for pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of bacterial, viral or fungal origin. TLRs can be found at cells that play a role in the immune system. Binding of the TLR with its corresponding ligand

  6. QSAR of adenosine receptor antagonists. Part 3: Exploring physicochemical requirements for selective binding of 1,2,4-triazolo[5,1-i]purine derivatives with human adenosine A3 receptor subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kunal; Leonard, J Thomas; Sengupta, Chandana

    2004-07-16

    Considering potential of selective adenosine A3 receptor antagonists in the development of prospective therapeutic agents, an attempt has been made to explore selectivity requirements of 1,2,4-triazolo[5,1-i]purine derivatives for binding with cloned human adenosine A3 receptor subtype. In this study, partition coefficient (logP) values of the molecules (calculated by Crippen's fragmentation method) and Wang-Ford charges of the common atoms of the triazolopurine nucleus (calculated from molecular electrostatic potential surface of energy minimized geometry using AM1 technique) were used as independent variables along with suitable dummy parameters. The best equation describing A3 binding affinity [n=29, Q2=0.796, Ra2=0.853, R2=0.874, R=0.935, s=0.342, F=41.5 (df 4,24), SDEP=0.396] showed parabolic relation with logP (optimum value being 4.134). Further, it was found that an aromatic substituent conjugated with the triazole nucleus should be present at R2 position for A3 binding affinity. Again, high negative charges on N2 and N4 are conducive to the binding affinity. While exploring selectivity requirements of the compounds for binding with A3 receptor over that with A2A receptor, the selectivity relation [n=23, Q2=0.909, Ra2=0.918, R2=0.933, R=0.966, s=0.401, F=62.4 (df 4,18), SDEP=0.412] showed that an aromatic R2 substituent conjugated with the triazole nucleus contributes significantly to the selectivity. Again, presence of a 4-substituted-phenyl ring (except 4-OH-phenyl and 4-CH3-phenyl) at R2 position also increases selectivity. Further, charge difference between N2 and N11 (negative charge on the former should be higher and that on the latter should be less) contributes significantly to the selectivity. In addition, negative charge on N7 is conducive while presence of substituents like propyl, butyl, pentyl or phenyl at R1 position is detrimental for the A3 selectivity.

  7. Caffeine acts through neuronal adenosine A2A receptors to prevent mood and memory dysfunction triggered by chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaster, Manuella P; Machado, Nuno J; Silva, Henrique B; Nunes, Ana; Ardais, Ana Paula; Santana, Magda; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Chen, Jiang Fan; Tomé, Ângelo R; Agostinho, Paula; Canas, Paula M; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2015-06-23

    The consumption of caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist) correlates inversely with depression and memory deterioration, and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonists emerge as candidate therapeutic targets because they control aberrant synaptic plasticity and afford neuroprotection. Therefore we tested the ability of A2AR to control the behavioral, electrophysiological, and neurochemical modifications caused by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), which alters hippocampal circuits, dampens mood and memory performance, and enhances susceptibility to depression. CUS for 3 wk in adult mice induced anxiogenic and helpless-like behavior and decreased memory performance. These behavioral changes were accompanied by synaptic alterations, typified by a decrease in synaptic plasticity and a reduced density of synaptic proteins (synaptosomal-associated protein 25, syntaxin, and vesicular glutamate transporter type 1), together with an increased density of A2AR in glutamatergic terminals in the hippocampus. Except for anxiety, for which results were mixed, CUS-induced behavioral and synaptic alterations were prevented by (i) caffeine (1 g/L in the drinking water, starting 3 wk before and continued throughout CUS); (ii) the selective A2AR antagonist KW6002 (3 mg/kg, p.o.); (iii) global A2AR deletion; and (iv) selective A2AR deletion in forebrain neurons. Notably, A2AR blockade was not only prophylactic but also therapeutically efficacious, because a 3-wk treatment with the A2AR antagonist SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the mood and synaptic dysfunction caused by CUS. These results herald a key role for synaptic A2AR in the control of chronic stress-induced modifications and suggest A2AR as candidate targets to alleviate the consequences of chronic stress on brain function.

  8. Modeling multivalent ligand-receptor interactions with steric constraints on configurations of cell surface receptor aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monine, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Posner, Richard [TRANSLATION GENOMICS RESAEARCH INSTITUTE; Savage, Paul [BYU; Faeder, James [UNIV OF PITTSBURGH; Hlavacek, William S [UNM

    2008-01-01

    Signal transduction generally involves multivalent protein-protein interactions, which can produce various protein complexes and post-translational modifications. The reaction networks that characterize these interactions tend to be so large as to challenge conventional simulation procedures. To address this challenge, a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method has been developed that can take advantage of a model specification in terms of reaction rules for molecular interactions. A set of rules implicitly defines the reactions that can occur as a result of the interactions represented by the rules. With the rule-based KMC method, explicit generation of the underlying chemical reaction network implied by rules is avoided. Here, we apply and extend this method to characterize the interactions of a trivalent ligand with a bivalent cell-surface receptor. This system is also studied experimentally. We consider the following kinetic models: an equivalent-site model, an extension of this model, which takes into account steric constraints on the configurations of receptor aggregates, and finally, a model that accounts for cyclic receptor aggregates. Simulation results for the equivalent-site model are consistent with an equilibrium continuum model. Using these models, we investigate the effects of steric constraints and the formation of cyclic aggregates on the kinetics and equilibria of small and large aggregate formation and the percolation phase transition that occurs in this system.

  9. PET and Hormone Receptor Ligands in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gemignani, Mary

    2006-01-01

    .... To investigate this further, this project's objectives are: To evaluate the use of estrogen-like ligands labeled with positron emitters in preoperatively determining the ER status of breast cancer using PET...

  10. Ligand-specific allosteric regulation of coactivator functions of androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sung Hee; Ohgi, Kenneth A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Welsbie, Derek; Chen, Charlie; Sawyers, Charles L.; Rose, David W.; Rosenfeld, Michael G.

    2006-01-01

    The androgen receptor not only mediates prostate development but also serves as a key regulator of primary prostatic cancer growth. Although initially responsive to selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), which cause recruitment of the nuclear receptor–corepressor (N-CoR) complex, resistance invariably occurs, perhaps in response to inflammatory signals. Here we report that dismissal of nuclear receptor–corepressor complexes by specific signals or androgen receptor overexpression results in recruitment of many of the cohorts of coactivator complexes that permits SARMs and natural ligands to function as agonists. SARM-bound androgen receptors appear to exhibit failure to recruit specific components of the coactivators generally bound by liganded nuclear receptors, including cAMP response element-binding protein (CBP)/p300 or coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) to the SARM-bound androgen receptor, although still causing transcriptional activation of androgen receptor target genes. SARM-bound androgen receptors use distinct LXXLL (L, leucine; X, any amino acid) helices in the p160 nuclear receptor interaction domains that may impose selective allosteric effects, providing a component of the molecular basis of differential responses to different classes of ligands by androgen receptor. PMID:16492776

  11. Adenosine A2A Receptor Up-Regulates Retinal Wave Frequency via Starburst Amacrine Cells in the Developing Rat Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pin-Chien; Hsiao, Yu-Tien; Kao, Shao-Yen; Chen, Ching-Feng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Chiang, Chung-Wei; Lee, Chien-fei; Lu, Juu-Chin; Chern, Yijuang; Wang, Chih-Tien

    2014-01-01

    Background Developing retinas display retinal waves, the patterned spontaneous activity essential for circuit refinement. During the first postnatal week in rodents, retinal waves are mediated by synaptic transmission between starburst amacrine cells (SACs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The neuromodulator adenosine is essential for the generation of retinal waves. However, the cellular basis underlying adenosine's regulation of retinal waves remains elusive. Here, we investigated whether and how the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) regulates retinal waves and whether A2AR regulation of retinal waves acts via presynaptic SACs. Methodology/Principal Findings We showed that A2AR was expressed in the inner plexiform layer and ganglion cell layer of the developing rat retina. Knockdown of A2AR decreased the frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ transients, suggesting that endogenous A2AR may up-regulate wave frequency. To investigate whether A2AR acts via presynaptic SACs, we targeted gene expression to SACs by the metabotropic glutamate receptor type II promoter. Ca2+ transient frequency was increased by expressing wild-type A2AR (A2AR-WT) in SACs, suggesting that A2AR may up-regulate retinal waves via presynaptic SACs. Subsequent patch-clamp recordings on RGCs revealed that presynaptic A2AR-WT increased the frequency of wave-associated postsynaptic currents (PSCs) or depolarizations compared to the control, without changing the RGC's excitability, membrane potentials, or PSC charge. These findings suggest that presynaptic A2AR may not affect the membrane properties of postsynaptic RGCs. In contrast, by expressing the C-terminal truncated A2AR mutant (A2AR-ΔC) in SACs, the wave frequency was reduced compared to the A2AR-WT, but was similar to the control, suggesting that the full-length A2AR in SACs is required for A2AR up-regulation of retinal waves. Conclusions/Significance A2AR up-regulates the frequency of retinal waves via presynaptic SACs, requiring its full

  12. Adenosine A(2A) receptor up-regulates retinal wave frequency via starburst amacrine cells in the developing rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pin-Chien; Hsiao, Yu-Tien; Kao, Shao-Yen; Chen, Ching-Feng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Chiang, Chung-Wei; Lee, Chien-Fei; Lu, Juu-Chin; Chern, Yijuang; Wang, Chih-Tien

    2014-01-01

    Developing retinas display retinal waves, the patterned spontaneous activity essential for circuit refinement. During the first postnatal week in rodents, retinal waves are mediated by synaptic transmission between starburst amacrine cells (SACs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The neuromodulator adenosine is essential for the generation of retinal waves. However, the cellular basis underlying adenosine's regulation of retinal waves remains elusive. Here, we investigated whether and how the adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) regulates retinal waves and whether A(2A)R regulation of retinal waves acts via presynaptic SACs. We showed that A(2A)R was expressed in the inner plexiform layer and ganglion cell layer of the developing rat retina. Knockdown of A(2A)R decreased the frequency of spontaneous Ca²⁺ transients, suggesting that endogenous A(2A)R may up-regulate wave frequency. To investigate whether A(2A)R acts via presynaptic SACs, we targeted gene expression to SACs by the metabotropic glutamate receptor type II promoter. Ca²⁺ transient frequency was increased by expressing wild-type A(2A)R (A2AR-WT) in SACs, suggesting that A(2A)R may up-regulate retinal waves via presynaptic SACs. Subsequent patch-clamp recordings on RGCs revealed that presynaptic A(2A)R-WT increased the frequency of wave-associated postsynaptic currents (PSCs) or depolarizations compared to the control, without changing the RGC's excitability, membrane potentials, or PSC charge. These findings suggest that presynaptic A(2A)R may not affect the membrane properties of postsynaptic RGCs. In contrast, by expressing the C-terminal truncated A(2A)R mutant (A(2A)R-ΔC) in SACs, the wave frequency was reduced compared to the A(2A)R-WT, but was similar to the control, suggesting that the full-length A(2A)R in SACs is required for A(2A)R up-regulation of retinal waves. A(2A)R up-regulates the frequency of retinal waves via presynaptic SACs, requiring its full-length protein structure. Thus, by

  13. Adenosine A(2A receptor up-regulates retinal wave frequency via starburst amacrine cells in the developing rat retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Chien Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developing retinas display retinal waves, the patterned spontaneous activity essential for circuit refinement. During the first postnatal week in rodents, retinal waves are mediated by synaptic transmission between starburst amacrine cells (SACs and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. The neuromodulator adenosine is essential for the generation of retinal waves. However, the cellular basis underlying adenosine's regulation of retinal waves remains elusive. Here, we investigated whether and how the adenosine A(2A receptor (A(2AR regulates retinal waves and whether A(2AR regulation of retinal waves acts via presynaptic SACs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We showed that A(2AR was expressed in the inner plexiform layer and ganglion cell layer of the developing rat retina. Knockdown of A(2AR decreased the frequency of spontaneous Ca²⁺ transients, suggesting that endogenous A(2AR may up-regulate wave frequency. To investigate whether A(2AR acts via presynaptic SACs, we targeted gene expression to SACs by the metabotropic glutamate receptor type II promoter. Ca²⁺ transient frequency was increased by expressing wild-type A(2AR (A2AR-WT in SACs, suggesting that A(2AR may up-regulate retinal waves via presynaptic SACs. Subsequent patch-clamp recordings on RGCs revealed that presynaptic A(2AR-WT increased the frequency of wave-associated postsynaptic currents (PSCs or depolarizations compared to the control, without changing the RGC's excitability, membrane potentials, or PSC charge. These findings suggest that presynaptic A(2AR may not affect the membrane properties of postsynaptic RGCs. In contrast, by expressing the C-terminal truncated A(2AR mutant (A(2AR-ΔC in SACs, the wave frequency was reduced compared to the A(2AR-WT, but was similar to the control, suggesting that the full-length A(2AR in SACs is required for A(2AR up-regulation of retinal waves. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A(2AR up-regulates the frequency of retinal waves via

  14. Exploring an interaction of adenosine A2A receptor variability with coffee and tea intake in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, E K; Lu, Z Y; Fook-Chong, S M C; Tan, E; Shen, H; Chua, E; Yih, Y; Teo, Y Y; Zhao, Y

    2006-09-05

    Caffeine is an adenosine receptor A1 and A2A receptor antagonist and a putative functional genetic variant of the A2A receptor (2592C > Tins) mediates caffeine-induced anxiety. Here we investigated the potential interaction of this A2A genetic variant with the quantity of coffee and tea intake and their relationship with the risk of PD. A total of 441 subjects consisting of 222 PD and 219 race, gender and age matched controls were included. A multivariate analysis of the variables including the 2592C > Tins A2A genotypes, age of onset, gender, and the quantity of tea and coffee intake, interaction of the A2A genotypes with coffee intake, interaction of A2A genotypes with tea intake demonstrated the quantity of coffee intake to be significantly associated with PD (P coffee and tea intake in modulating the risk of PD. The dose dependent protective effect of coffee intake in PD was independent of the 2592C > Tins A2A genotype suggesting that the pharmacogenetic action of caffeine in PD may be mediated differently from other caffeine-induced neurologic syndromes.

  15. Presynaptic Adenosine Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Diverse Thalamocortical Short-Term Plasticity in the Mouse Whisker Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrati, Giovanni; Martini, Francisco J.; Maravall, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Short-term synaptic plasticity (STP) sets the sensitivity of a synapse to incoming activity and determines the temporal patterns that it best transmits. In “driver” thalamocortical (TC) synaptic populations, STP is dominated by depression during stimulation from rest. However, during ongoing stimulation, lemniscal TC connections onto layer 4 neurons in mouse barrel cortex express variable STP. Each synapse responds to input trains with a distinct pattern of depression or facilitation around its mean steady-state response. As a result, in common with other synaptic populations, lemniscal TC synapses express diverse rather than uniform dynamics, allowing for a rich representation of temporally varying stimuli. Here, we show that this STP diversity is regulated presynaptically. Presynaptic adenosine receptors of the A1R type, but not kainate receptors (KARs), modulate STP behavior. Blocking the receptors does not eliminate diversity, indicating that diversity is related to heterogeneous expression of multiple mechanisms in the pathway from presynaptic calcium influx to neurotransmitter release. PMID:26941610

  16. Changing the insulin receptor to possess insulin-like growth factor I ligand specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, A.S.; Kjeldsen, T.; Wiberg, F.C.; Christensen, P.M.; Rasmussen, J.S.; Norris, K.; Moeller, K.B.; Moeller, N.P.H.

    1990-01-01

    To examine the role of the N-terminal part of the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor and insulin receptor in determining ligand specificity, the authors prepared an expression vector encoding a hybrid receptor where exon 1 (encoding the signal peptide and seven amino acids of the α-subunit), exon 2, and exon 3 of the insulin receptor were replaced with the corresponding IGF-I receptor cDNA (938 nucleotides). To allow direct quantitative comparison of the binding capabilities of this hybrid receptor with those of the human IGF-I receptor and the insulin receptor, all three receptors were expressed in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells as soluble molecules and partially purified before characterization. The hybrid IGF-I/insulin receptor bound IGF-I with an affinity comparable to that of the wild-type IGF-I receptor. In contrast, the hybrid receptor no longer displayed high-affinity binding of insulin. These results directly demonstrate that it is possible to change the specificity of the insulin receptor to that of the IGF-I receptor and, furthermore, that the binding specificity for IGF-I is encoded within the nucleotide sequence from 135 to 938 of the IGF-I receptor cDNA. Since the hybrid receptor only bound insulin with low affinity, the insulin binding region is likely to be located within exons 2 and 3 of the insulin receptor

  17. Changing the insulin receptor to possess insulin-like growth factor I ligand specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, A.S.; Kjeldsen, T.; Wiberg, F.C.; Christensen, P.M.; Rasmussen, J.S.; Norris, K.; Moeller, K.B.; Moeller, N.P.H. (Biopharmaceuticals Div., Bagsvaerd (Denmark))

    1990-08-14

    To examine the role of the N-terminal part of the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor and insulin receptor in determining ligand specificity, the authors prepared an expression vector encoding a hybrid receptor where exon 1 (encoding the signal peptide and seven amino acids of the {alpha}-subunit), exon 2, and exon 3 of the insulin receptor were replaced with the corresponding IGF-I receptor cDNA (938 nucleotides). To allow direct quantitative comparison of the binding capabilities of this hybrid receptor with those of the human IGF-I receptor and the insulin receptor, all three receptors were expressed in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells as soluble molecules and partially purified before characterization. The hybrid IGF-I/insulin receptor bound IGF-I with an affinity comparable to that of the wild-type IGF-I receptor. In contrast, the hybrid receptor no longer displayed high-affinity binding of insulin. These results directly demonstrate that it is possible to change the specificity of the insulin receptor to that of the IGF-I receptor and, furthermore, that the binding specificity for IGF-I is encoded within the nucleotide sequence from 135 to 938 of the IGF-I receptor cDNA. Since the hybrid receptor only bound insulin with low affinity, the insulin binding region is likely to be located within exons 2 and 3 of the insulin receptor.

  18. Myeloperoxidase formation of PAF receptor ligands induces PAF receptor-dependent kidney injury during ethanol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Nagy, Laura E; McIntyre, Thomas M

    2015-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) induction and oxidative metabolism of ethanol in hepatocytes inflame and damage liver. Chronic ethanol ingestion also induces kidney dysfunction, which is associated with mortality from alcoholic hepatitis. Whether the kidney is directly affected by ethanol or is secondary to liver damage is not established. We found that CYP2E1 was induced in kidney tubules of mice chronically ingesting a modified Lieber-deCarli liquid ethanol diet. Phospholipids of kidney tubules were oxidized and fragmented in ethanol-fed mice with accumulation of azelaoyl phosphatidylcholine (Az-PC), a nonbiosynthetic product formed only by oxidative truncation of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine. Az-PC stimulates the inflammatory PAF receptor (PTAFR) abundantly expressed by neutrophils and kidney tubules, and inflammatory cells and myeloperoxidase-containing neutrophils accumulated in the kidneys of ethanol-fed mice after significant hysteresis. Decreased kidney filtration and induction of the acute kidney injury biomarker KIM-1 in tubules temporally correlated with leukocyte infiltration. Genetic ablation of PTAFR reduced accumulation of PTAFR ligands and reduced leukocyte infiltration into kidneys. Loss of this receptor in PTAFR(-/-) mice also suppressed oxidative damage and kidney dysfunction without affecting CYP2E1 induction. Neutrophilic inflammation was responsible for ethanol-induced kidney damage, because loss of neutrophil myeloperoxidase in MPO(-/-) mice was similarly protective. We conclude that ethanol catabolism in renal tubules results in a self-perpetuating cycle of CYP2E1 induction, local PTAFR ligand formation, and neutrophil infiltration and activation that leads to myeloperoxidase-dependent oxidation and damage to kidney function. Hepatocytes do not express PTAFR, so this oxidative cycle is a local response to ethanol catabolism in the kidney. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Theoretical investigation of interaction between the set of ligands and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Prytkova, T. R.; Shmygin, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are neuron receptor proteins that provide a transmission of nerve impulse through the synapses. They are composed of a pentametric assembly of five homologous subunits (5 α7 subunits for α7nAChR, for example), oriented around the central pore. These receptors might be found in the chemical synapses of central and peripheral nervous system, and also in the neuromuscular synapses. Transmembrane domain of the one of such receptors constitutes ion channel. The conductive properties of ion channel strongly depend on the receptor conformation changes in the response of binding with some molecule, f.e. acetylcholine. Investigation of interaction between ligands and acetylcholine receptor is important for drug design. In this work we investigate theoretically the interaction between the set of different ligands (such as vanillin, thymoquinone, etc.) and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (primarily with subunit of the α7nAChR) by different methods and packages (AutodockVina, GROMACS, KVAZAR, HARLEM, VMD). We calculate interaction energy between different ligands in the subunit using molecular dynamics. On the base of obtained calculation results and using molecular docking we found an optimal location of different ligands in the subunit.

  20. Ligand binding affinity and changes in the lateral diffusion of receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Aleem; Zhu, Qiaochu; Smith, Emily A

    2016-12-01

    The effect of ligand on the lateral diffusion of receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), a receptor involved in numerous pathological conditions, remains unknown. Single particle tracking experiments that use quantum dots specifically bound to hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged RAGE (HA-RAGE) are reported to elucidate the effect of ligand binding on HA-RAGE diffusion in GM07373 cell membranes. The ligand used in these studies is methylglyoxal modified-bovine serum albumin (MGO-BSA) containing advanced glycation end products modifications. The binding affinity between soluble RAGE and MGO-BSA increases by 1.8 to 9.7-fold as the percent primary amine modification increases from 24 to 74% and with increasing negative charge on the MGO-BSA. Ligand incubation affects the HA-RAGE diffusion coefficient, the radius of confinement, and duration of confinement. There is, however, no correlation between MGO-BSA ligand binding affinity with soluble RAGE and the extent of the changes in HA-RAGE lateral diffusion. The ligand induced changes to HA-RAGE lateral diffusion do not occur when cholesterol is depleted from the cell membrane, indicating the mechanism for ligand-induced changes to HA-RAGE diffusion is cholesterol dependent. The results presented here serve as a first step in unraveling how ligand influences RAGE lateral diffusion. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Activation of Adenosine Receptor A2A Increases HSC Proliferation and Inhibits Death and Senescence by Down-regulation of p53 and Rb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kaimul eAhsan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: During fibrosis hepatic stellate cells (HSC undergo activation, proliferation and senescence but the regulation of these important processes is poorly understood. The adenosine A2A receptor (A2A is known to be present on HSC, and its activation results in liver fibrosis. In this study, we tested if A2A has a role in the regulation of HSC proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, and the relevant molecular mechanism.Methods: The ability of adenosine to regulate p53 and Rb protein levels, proliferation, apoptosis and senescence was tested in the human HSC cell line LX-2 and rat primary HSC.Results: Adenosine receptor activation down-regulates p53 and Rb protein levels, increases BrdU incorporation and increases cell survival in LX-2 cells and in primary rat HSC. These effects of NECA were reproduced by an adenosine A2A receptor specific agonist (CGS21680 and blocked by a specific antagonist (ZM241385. By day twenty-one of culture primary rat HSC entered senescence and expressed -gal which was significantly inhibited by NECA. Furthermore, NECA induced down regulation of p53 and Rb and Rac1, and decreased phosphorylation of p44-42 MAP Kinase in LX-2 cells and primary rat HSC. These effects were reproduced by the cAMP analog 8-Bromo-cAMP, and the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin, and were blocked by PKA inhibitors.Conclusions: These results demonstrate that A2A receptor regulates a number of HSC fate decisions and induces greater HSC proliferation, reduces apoptosis and senescence by decreasing p53 and Rb through cAMP-PKA/Rac1/p38 MAPK pathway. This provides a mechanism for adenosine induced HSC regulation and liver fibrosis.

  2. The Effects of the Adenosine Receptor Antagonists on the Reverse of Cardiovascular Toxic Effects Induced by Citalopram In-Vivo Rat Model of Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müjgan Büyükdeligöz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that requires routine cardiac monitoring to prevent a toxic dose. Prolongation of the QT interval has been observed in acute citalopram poisoning. Our previous experimental study showed that citalopram may be lead to QT prolongation by stimulating adenosine A1 receptors without affecting the release of adenosine. Aims: We examined the effects of adenosine receptor antagonists in reversing the cardiovascular toxic effects induced by citalopram in rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Rats were divided into three groups randomly (n=7 for each group. Sodium cromoglycate (20 mg/kg was administered to all rats to inhibit adenosine A3 receptor mast cell activation. Citalopram toxicity was achieved by citalopram infusion (4 mg/kg/min for 20 minutes. After citalopram infusion, in the control group (Group 1, rats were given an infusion of dextrose solution for 60 minutes. In treatment groups, the selective adenosine A1 antagonist DPCPX (Group 2, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, 20 μg/kg/min or the selective A2a antagonist CSC (Group 3, 8-(3-chlorostyrylcaffeine, 24 μg/kg/min was infused for 60 minutes. Mean arterial pressure (MAP, heart rate (HR, QRS duration and QT interval measurements were followed during the experiment period. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison tests. Results: Citalopram infusion reduced MAP and HR and prolonged the QT interval. It did not cause any significant difference in QRS duration in any group. When compared to the control group, DPCPX after citalopram infusion shortened the prolongation of the QT interval after 40, 50 and 60 minutes (p<0.01. DPCPX infusion shortened the prolongation of the QT interval at 60 minutes compared with the CSC group (p<0.05. CSC infusion shortened the prolongation of the QT at 60 minutes compared with the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: DPCPX improved QT

  3. Multivalent ligand-receptor-mediated interaction of small filled vesicles with a cellular membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2017-07-01

    The ligand-receptor-mediated contacts of small sub-100-nm-sized lipid vesicles (or nanoparticles) with the cellular membrane are of interest in the contexts of cell-to-cell communication, endocytosis of membrane-coated virions, and drug (RNA) delivery. In all these cases, the interior of vesicles is filled by biologically relevant content. Despite the diversity of such systems, the corresponding ligand-receptor interaction possesses universal features. One of them is that the vesicle-membrane contacts can be accompanied by the redistribution of ligands and receptors between the contact and contact-free regions. In particular, the concentrations of ligands and receptors may become appreciably higher in the contact regions and their composition may there be different compared to that in the suspended state in the solution. A statistical model presented herein describes the corresponding distribution of various ligands and receptors and allows one to calculate the related change of the free energy with variation of the vesicle-engulfment extent. The results obtained are used to clarify the necessary conditions for the vesicle-assisted pathway of drug delivery.

  4. Caffeine and a selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist induce sensitization and cross-sensitization behavior associated with increased striatal dopamine in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Chih W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caffeine, a nonselective adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonist, is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world. Evidence demonstrates that caffeine and selective adenosine A2A antagonists interact with the neuronal systems involved in drug reinforcement, locomotor sensitization, and therapeutic effect in Parkinson's disease (PD. Evidence also indicates that low doses of caffeine and a selective adenosine A2A antagonist SCH58261 elicit locomotor stimulation whereas high doses of these drugs exert locomotor inhibition. Since these behavioral and therapeutic effects are mediated by the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways which project to the striatum, we hypothesize that low doses of caffeine and SCH58261 may modulate the functions of dopaminergic neurons in the striatum. Methods In this study, we evaluated the neuroadaptations in the striatum by using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantitate the concentrations of striatal dopamine and its metabolites, dihydroxylphenylacetic acid (DOPAC and homovanilic acid (HVA, and using immunoblotting to measure the level of phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH at Ser31, following chronic caffeine and SCH58261 sensitization in mice. Moreover, to validate further that the behavior sensitization of caffeine is through antagonism at the adenosine A2A receptor, we also evaluate whether chronic pretreatment with a selective adenosine A2A antagonist SCH58261 or a selective adenosine A1 antagonist DPCPX can sensitize the locomotor stimulating effects of caffeine. Results Chronic treatments with low dose caffeine (10 mg/kg or SCH58261 (2 mg/kg increased the concentrations of dopamine, DOPAC and HVA, concomitant with increased TH phosphorylation at Ser31 and consequently enhanced TH activity in the striatal tissues in both caffeine- and SCH58261-sensitized mice. In addition, chronic caffeine or SCH58261 administration induced

  5. Identification of Receptor Ligands and Receptor Subtypes Using Antagonists in a Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Cell Biosensor Separation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Harvey A.; Orwar, Owe; Scheller, Richard H.; Zare, Richard N.

    1995-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis system with single-cell biosensors as a detector has been used to separate and identify ligands in complex biological samples. The power of this procedure was significantly increased by introducing antagonists that inhibited the cellular response from selected ligand-receptor interactions. The single-cell biosensor was based on the ligand-receptor binding and G-protein-mediated signal transduction pathways in PC12 and NG108-15 cell lines. Receptor activation was measured as increases in cytosolic free calcium ion concentration by using fluorescence microscopy with the intracellular calcium ion indicator fluo-3 acetoxymethyl ester. Specifically, a mixture of bradykinin (BK) and acetylcholine (ACh) was fractionated and the components were identified by inhibiting the cellular response with icatibant (HOE 140), a selective antagonist to the BK B_2 receptor subtype (B_2BK), and atropine, an antagonist to muscarinic ACh receptor subtypes. Structurally related forms of BK were also identified based on inhibiting B_2BK receptors. Applications of this technique include identification of endogenous BK in a lysate of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Hep G2) and screening for bioactivity of BK degradation products in human blood plasma. The data demonstrate that the use of antagonists with a single-cell biosensor separation system aids identification of separated components and receptor subtypes.

  6. Endogenous activation of adenosine A1 receptors promotes post-ischemic electrocortical burst suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, A; Ciocan, D; Constantinescu, A O

    2009-01-01

    and 5-min GCI and bi-exponential after 10-min GCI. The BS recovery was progressively delayed with the duration of ischemia. Administration of the A1R antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX, 1.25 mg/kg i.p.) accelerated the post-ischemic BS recovery for all GCI durations. Following the 10......-min GCI the effect of DPCPX was only apparent on the initial fast decay of the BS ratio. These data suggest that endogenous adenosine release promotes BS patterns during reperfusion following transient cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, the endogenous A1R activation may be the primary underlying cause...... of post-ischemic BS patterns following brief ischemic episodes. It is likely that synaptic depression by post-ischemic A1R activation functionally disrupts the connectivity within the cortical networks to an extent that promotes BS patterns....

  7. Synergistic antidepressant-like effect of the joint administration of caffeine and NMDA receptor ligands in the forced swim test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefko, Anna; Szopa, Aleksandra; Wlaź, Aleksandra; Wośko, Sylwia; Wlaź, Piotr; Poleszak, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    The optimal treatment of depressed patients remains one of the most important challenges concerning depression. The identification of the best treatment strategies and development of new, safer, and more effective agents are crucial. The glutamatergic system seems to be a promising drug target, and consequently the use of the NMDA receptor ligands, particularly in co-administration with other substances exerting the antidepressant activity, has emerged among the new ideas. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on the performance of mice treated with various NMDA modulators in the forced swim test. We demonstrated a significant interaction between caffeine (5 mg/kg) and the following NMDA receptor ligands: MK-801 (an antagonist binding in the ion channel, 0.05 mg/kg), CGP 37849 (an antagonist of the glutamate site, 0.312 mg/kg), L-701,324 (an antagonist of the glycine site, 1 mg/kg), and D-cycloserine (a high-efficacy partial agonist of the glycine site, 2.5 mg/kg), while the interaction between caffeine and the inorganic modulators, i.e., Zn(2+) (2.5 mg/kg) and Mg(2+) (10 mg/kg), was not considered as significant. Based on the obtained results, the simultaneous blockage of the adenosine and NMDA receptors may be a promising target in the development of new antidepressants.

  8. A Prospective Cross-Screening Study on G Protein-Coupled Receptors: Lessons Learned in Virtual Compound Library Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, M.P.A.; Roumen, L.; van der Horst, E.; Lane, J.R.; Vischer, H.F.; van Offenbeek, J.; de Vries, H.; Verhoeven, S.; Show, K.Y.; Verkaar, F.; Beukers, M.W.; McGuire, R; Leurs, R.; IJzerman, A.P.; de Vlieg, J; de Esch, I.J.P.; Zaman, G.J.; Klomp, J.P.G; Bender, A.; de Graaf, C.

    2012-01-01

    We present the systematic prospective evaluation of a protein-based and a ligand-based virtual screening platform against a set of three G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): the β-2 adrenoreceptor (ADRB2), the adenosine A

  9. Chronic methamphetamine treatment induces oxytocin receptor up-regulation in the amygdala and hypothalamus via an adenosine A2A receptor-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanos, Panos; Wright, Sherie R; Georgiou, Polymnia; Yoo, Ji Hoon; Ledent, Catherine; Hourani, Susanna M; Kitchen, Ian; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle; Bailey, Alexis

    2014-04-01

    There is mounting evidence that the neuropeptide oxytocin is a possible candidate for the treatment of drug addiction. Oxytocin was shown to reduce methamphetamine self-administration, conditioned place-preference, hyperactivity and reinstatement in rodents, highlighting its potential for the management of methamphetamine addiction. Thus, we hypothesised that the central endogenous oxytocinergic system is dysregulated following chronic methamphetamine administration. We tested this hypothesis by examining the effect of chronic methamphetamine administration on oxytocin receptor density in mice brains with the use of quantitative receptor autoradiographic binding. Saline (4ml/kg/day, i.p.) or methamphetamine (1mg/kg/day, i.p.) was administered daily for 10 days to male, CD1 mice. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of oxytocin receptors was carried out with the use of [(125)I]-vasotocin in brain sections of these animals. Chronic methamphetamine administration induced a region specific upregulation of oxytocin receptor density in the amygdala and hypothalamus, but not in the nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen. As there is evidence suggesting an involvement of central adenosine A2A receptors on central endogenous oxytocinergic function, we investigated whether these methamphetamine-induced oxytocinergic neuroadaptations are mediated via an A2A receptor-dependent mechanism. To test this hypothesis, autoradiographic oxytocin receptor binding was carried out in brain sections of male CD1 mice lacking A2A receptors which were chronically treated with methamphetamine (1mg/kg/day, i.p. for 10 days) or saline. Similar to wild-type animals, chronic methamphetamine administration induced a region-specific upregulation of oxytocin receptor binding in the amygdala and hypothalamus of A2A receptor knockout mice and no genotype effect was observed. These results indicate that chronic methamphetamine use can induce profound neuroadaptations of the oxytocinergic receptor

  10. Mapping receptor-ligand interactions with synthetic peptide arrays: exploring the structure and function of membrane receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmer, Rudolf; Kretzschmar, Ines; Tapia, Victor

    2012-04-01

    Development of synthetic peptide array technology started in the early 1990s. The technique originally developed by Ronald Frank has become a powerful tool for high throughput approaches in biology and chemistry mapping protein interaction sites. In this review we focus on peptide arrays applied to investigate receptor-ligand interactions, such as peroxisomal membrane receptor proteins, the maltose importer machinery and receptor proteins recognizing short linear motifs of their partners. We present several systematic sets of peptide arrays useful for mapping protein-protein- or receptor-ligand binding sites. Besides a more technical description of the peptide array preparation we discuss in detail the reliability and improvement of mapping protein-protein interactions by synthetic peptide arrays. At least proteomic approaches for mapping protein-protein interactions by peptide arrays are shown especially for the case of protein interaction domains. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of A2A Adenosine Receptor Signaling in Cancer Cells Proliferation by the Novel Antagonist TP455

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Gessi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several evidences indicate that the ubiquitous nucleoside adenosine, acting through A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptor (AR subtypes, plays crucial roles in tumor development. Adenosine has contrasting effects on cell proliferation depending on the engagement of different receptor subtypes in various tumors. The involvement of A2AARs in human A375 melanoma, as well as in human A549 lung and rat MRMT1 breast carcinoma proliferation has been evaluated in view of the availability of a novel A2AAR antagonist, with high affinity and selectivity, named as 2-(2-furanyl-N5-(2-methoxybenzyl[1,3]thiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine-5,7-diammine (TP455. Specifically, the signaling pathways triggered in the cancer cells of different origin and the antagonist effect of TP455 were investigated. The A2AAR protein expression was evaluated through receptor binding assays. Furthermore, the effect of A2AAR activation on cell proliferation at 24, 48 and 72 hours was studied. The selective A2AAR agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethylphenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS21680, concentration-dependently induced cell proliferation in A375, A549, and MRMT1 cancer cells and the effect was potently antagonized by the A2AAR antagonist TP455, as well as by the reference A2AAR blocker 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethylphenol (ZM241385. As for the signaling pathway recruited in this response we demonstrated that, by using the specific inhibitors of signal transduction pathways, the effect of A2AAR stimulation was induced through phospholipase C (PLC and protein kinase C-delta (PKC-δ. In addition, we evaluated, through the AlphaScreen SureFire phospho(p protein assay, the kinases enrolled by A2AAR to stimulate cell proliferation and we found the involvement of protein kinase B (AKT, extracellular regulated kinases (ERK1/2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs. Indeed, we demonstrated that the CGS21680 stimulatory effect on kinases was

  12. ALK receptor activation, ligands and therapeutic targeting in glioblastoma and in other cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellstein, Anton

    2012-01-01

    The intracellular anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fragment shows striking homology with members of the insulin receptor family and was initially identified as an oncogenic fusion protein resulting from a translocation in lymphoma and more recently in a range of cancers. The full-length ALK transmembrane receptor of ~220 kDa was identified based on this initial work. This tyrosine kinase receptor and its ligands, the growth factors pleiotrophin (PTN) and midkine (MK) are highly expressed during development of the nervous system and other organs. Each of these genes has been implicated in malignant progression of different tumor types and shown to alter phenotypes as well as signal transduction in cultured normal and tumor cells. Beyond its role in cancer, the ALK receptor pathway is thought to contribute to nervous system development, function, and repair, as well as metabolic homeostasis and the maintenance of tissue regeneration. ALK receptor activity in cancer can be up-regulated by amplification, overexpression, ligand binding, mutations in the intracellular domain of the receptor and by activity of the receptor tyrosine phosphatase PTPRz. Here we discuss the evidence for ligand control of ALK activity as well as the potential prognostic and therapeutic implications from gene expression and functional studies. An analysis of 18 published gene expression data sets from different cancers shows that overexpression of ALK, its smaller homolog LTK (leukocyte tyrosine kinase) and the ligands PTN and MK in cancer tissues from patients correlate significantly with worse course and outcome of the disease. This observation together with preclinical functional studies suggests that this pathway could be a valid therapeutic target for which complementary targeting strategies with small molecule kinase inhibitors as well as antibodies to ligands or the receptors may be used.

  13. Neuropeptide Receptor Ligands for the Treatment of Schizophrenia: Focus on Neurotensin and Tachykinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Guy

    2015-01-01

    There is a wealth of evidence that various neuropeptides and their receptor ligands modulate schizophrenia- related behaviors in preclinical animal models, suggesting that neuropeptide systems may represent potential novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of schizophrenia. In particular, neurotensin and tachykinins have been the subject of significant research efforts, generating compelling preclinical data in the schizophrenia field. However, clinical studies with notably selective tachykinin NK3 receptor antagonists in schizophrenia have been disappointing, and they were unable to confirm the promising therapeutic potential from animal studies, thereby questioning the therapeutic utility of these compounds for this condition. This article reviews preclinical and clinical findings on ligands for neurotensin and tachykinin receptors in schizophrenia, and provides possible explanations for the failure so far to develop small-molecule neuropeptide ligands for the treatment of schizophrenia.

  14. Adenosine A2A receptor-dependent proliferation of pulmonary endothelial cells is mediated through calcium mobilization, PI3-kinase and ERK1/2 pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Schaack, Jerome B.; White, Carl W.; Ahmad, Shama

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A 2A receptor-induced pulmonary endothelial growth is mediated by PI3K and ERK1/2. •Cytosolic calcium mobilization is also critical for pulmonary endothelial growth. •Effectors of A 2A receptor, like tyrosine kinases and cAMP increase PI3K/Akt signaling. •Activation of A 2A receptor can contribute to vascular remodeling. -- Abstract: Hypoxia and HIF-2α-dependent A 2A receptor expression and activation increase proliferation of human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). This study was undertaken to investigate the signaling mechanisms that mediate the proliferative effects of A 2A receptor. A 2A receptor-mediated proliferation of HLMVECs was inhibited by intracellular calcium chelation, and by specific inhibitors of ERK1/2 and PI3-kinase (PI3K). The adenosine A 2A receptor agonist CGS21680 caused intracellular calcium mobilization in controls and, to a greater extent, in A 2A receptor-overexpressing HLMVECs. Adenoviral-mediated A 2A receptor overexpression as well as receptor activation by CGS21680 caused increased PI3K activity and Akt phosphorylation. Cells overexpressing A 2A receptor also manifested enhanced ERK1/2 phosphorylation upon CGS21680 treatment. A 2A receptor activation also caused enhanced cAMP production. Likewise, treatment with 8Br-cAMP increased PI3K activity. Hence A 2A receptor-mediated cAMP production and PI3K and Akt phosphorylation are potential mediators of the A 2A -mediated proliferative response of HLMVECs. Cytosolic calcium mobilization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation are other critical effectors of HLMVEC proliferation and growth. These studies underscore the importance of adenosine A 2A receptor in activation of survival and proliferative pathways in pulmonary endothelial cells that are mediated through PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways

  15. Resetting microbiota by Lactobacillus reuteri inhibits T reg deficiency–induced autoimmunity via adenosine A2A receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thomas K.; Tian, Xiangjun; Luo, Meng; Zhou, Jain; Tatevian, Nina; Molina, Jose G.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Gomez, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory T (T reg) cell deficiency causes lethal, CD4+ T cell–driven autoimmune diseases. Stem cell transplantation is used to treat these diseases, but this procedure is limited by the availability of a suitable donor. The intestinal microbiota drives host immune homeostasis by regulating the differentiation and expansion of T reg, Th1, and Th2 cells. It is currently unclear if T reg cell deficiency–mediated autoimmune disorders can be treated by targeting the enteric microbiota. Here, we demonstrate that Foxp3+ T reg cell deficiency results in gut microbial dysbiosis and autoimmunity over the lifespan of scurfy (SF) mouse. Remodeling microbiota with Lactobacillus reuteri prolonged survival and reduced multiorgan inflammation in SF mice. L. reuteri changed the metabolomic profile disrupted by T reg cell deficiency, and a major effect was to restore levels of the purine metabolite inosine. Feeding inosine itself prolonged life and inhibited multiorgan inflammation by reducing Th1/Th2 cells and their associated cytokines. Mechanistically, the inhibition of inosine on the differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cells in vitro depended on adenosine A2A receptors, which were also required for the efficacy of inosine and of L. reuteri in vivo. These results reveal that the microbiota–inosine–A2A receptor axis might represent a potential avenue for combatting autoimmune diseases mediated by T reg cell dysfunction. PMID:27994068

  16. Muscarinic receptors as model targets and antitargets for structure-based ligand discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Andrew C; Weiss, Dahlia R; Rossi, Mario; Hu, Jianxin; Hu, Kelly; Eitel, Katrin; Gmeiner, Peter; Wess, Jürgen; Kobilka, Brian K; Shoichet, Brian K

    2013-10-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate virtually all aspects of human physiology and represent an important class of therapeutic drug targets. Many GPCR-targeted drugs resemble endogenous agonists, often resulting in poor selectivity among receptor subtypes and restricted pharmacologic profiles. The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor family exemplifies these problems; thousands of ligands are known, but few are receptor subtype-selective and nearly all are cationic in nature. Using structure-based docking against the M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors, we screened 3.1 million molecules for ligands with new physical properties, chemotypes, and receptor subtype selectivities. Of 19 docking-prioritized molecules tested against the M2 subtype, 11 had substantial activity and 8 represented new chemotypes. Intriguingly, two were uncharged ligands with low micromolar to high nanomolar Ki values, an observation with few precedents among aminergic GPCRs. To exploit a single amino-acid substitution among the binding pockets between the M2 and M3 receptors, we selected molecules predicted by docking to bind to the M3 and but not the M2 receptor. Of 16 molecules tested, 8 bound to the M3 receptor. Whereas selectivity remained modest for most of these, one was a partial agonist at the M3 receptor without measurable M2 agonism. Consistent with this activity, this compound stimulated insulin release from a mouse β-cell line. These results support the ability of structure-based discovery to identify new ligands with unexplored chemotypes and physical properties, leading to new biologic functions, even in an area as heavily explored as muscarinic pharmacology.

  17. Ligand-specific regulation of the extracellular surface of a G-protein-coupled receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bokoch, Michael P; Zou, Yaozhong; Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup

    2010-01-01

    extending from the orthosteric ligand-binding site in the transmembrane core to the cytoplasmic G-protein-coupling domains. In contrast, the extracellular surface (ECS) of GPCRs is remarkably diverse and is therefore an ideal target for the discovery of subtype-selective drugs. However, little is known...... about the functional role of the ECS in receptor activation, or about conformational coupling of this surface to the native ligand-binding pocket. Here we use NMR spectroscopy to investigate ligand-specific conformational changes around a central structural feature in the ECS of the beta(2) adrenergic...

  18. Photoaffinity ligand for dopamine D2 receptors: azidoclebopride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niznik, H.B.; Guan, J.H.; Neumeyer, J.L.; Seeman, P.

    1985-01-01

    In order to label D2 dopamine receptors selectively and covalently by means of a photosensitive compound, azidoclebopride was synthesized directly from clebopride. The dissociation constant (KD) of clebopride for the D2 dopamine receptor (canine brain striatum) was 1.5 nM, while that for azidoclebopride was 21 nM. The affinities of both clebopride and azidoclebopride were markedly reduced in the absence of sodium chloride. In the presence of ultraviolet light, azidoclebopride inactivated D2 dopamine receptors irreversibly, as indicated by the inability of the receptors to bind [ 3 H]spiperone. Maximal photoinactivation of about 60% of the D2 dopamine receptors occurred at 1 microM azidoclebopride; 30% of the receptors were inactivated at 80 nM azidoclebopride (pseudo-IC50). Dopamine agonists selectively protected the D2 receptors from being inactivated by azidoclebopride, the order of potency being (-)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than apomorphine greater than (+/-)-6,7-dihydroxy-2-aminotetralin greater than (+)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than dopamine greater than noradrenaline greater than serotonin. Similarly, dopaminergic antagonists prevented the photoinactivation of D2 receptors by azidoclebopride with the following order of potency: spiperone greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than haloperidol greater than clebopride greater than (-)-sulpiride greater than (-)-butaclamol

  19. Segregation of receptor-ligand complexes in cell adhesion zones: phase diagrams and the role of thermal membrane roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różycki, B.; Lipowsky, R.; Weikl, T. R.

    2010-09-01

    The adhesion zone of immune cells, the 'immunological synapse', exhibits characteristic domains of receptor-ligand complexes. The domain formation is probably caused by a length difference of the receptor-ligand complexes, and has been investigated in experiments in which T cells adhere to supported membranes with anchored ligands. For supported membranes with two types of anchored ligands, MHCp and ICAM1, which bind to the T-cell receptor (TCR) and the receptor LFA1 in the cell membrane, the coexistence of domains of the TCR-MHCp and LFA1-ICAM1 complexes in the cell adhesion zone has been observed for a wide range of ligand concentrations and affinities. For supported membranes with long and short ligands that bind to the same cell receptor CD2, in contrast, domain coexistence has been observed for a quite narrow ratio of ligand concentrations. In this paper, we determine detailed phase diagrams for cells adhering to supported membranes with a statistical-physical model of cell adhesion. We find a characteristic difference between the adhesion scenarios in which two types of ligands in a supported membrane bind (i) to the same cell receptor or (ii) to two different cell receptors, which helps us to explain the experimental observations. Our phase diagrams fully include thermal shape fluctuations of the cell membranes on nanometer scales, which lead to a critical point for the domain formation and to a cooperative binding of the receptors and ligands.

  20. Genomic organization, annotation, and ligand-receptor inferences of chicken chemokines and chemokine receptor genes based on comparative genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Sing-Hoi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemokines and their receptors play important roles in host defense, organogenesis, hematopoiesis, and neuronal communication. Forty-two chemokines and 19 cognate receptors have been found in the human genome. Prior to this report, only 11 chicken chemokines and 7 receptors had been reported. The objectives of this study were to systematically identify chicken chemokines and their cognate receptor genes in the chicken genome and to annotate these genes and ligand-receptor binding by a comparative genomics approach. Results Twenty-three chemokine and 14 chemokine receptor genes were identified in the chicken genome. All of the chicken chemokines contained a conserved CC, CXC, CX3C, or XC motif, whereas all the chemokine receptors had seven conserved transmembrane helices, four extracellular domains with a conserved cysteine, and a conserved DRYLAIV sequence in the second intracellular domain. The number of coding exons in these genes and the syntenies are highly conserved between human, mouse, and chicken although the amino acid sequence homologies are generally low between mammalian and chicken chemokines. Chicken genes were named with the systematic nomenclature used in humans and mice based on phylogeny, synteny, and sequence homology. Conclusion The independent nomenclature of chicken chemokines and chemokine receptors suggests that the chicken may have ligand-receptor pairings similar to mammals. All identified chicken chemokines and their cognate receptors were identified in the chicken genome except CCR9, whose ligand was not identified in this study. The organization of these genes suggests that there were a substantial number of these genes present before divergence between aves and mammals and more gene duplications of CC, CXC, CCR, and CXCR subfamilies in mammals than in aves after the divergence.

  1. Somatostatin receptors ligands in radionuclide diagnosis and therapy in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholewinski, W.; Tarkowska, A.

    2002-01-01

    Various tumors, referred to as either neuroendocrine or non-neuroendocrine, express a high number of somatostatin receptors. The presence of these receptors has been shown to be of clinical importance since radio-labeled somatostatin analogues have been used for tumor diagnosis and radiotherapy while non-radioactive analogues are applied for the treatment of tumour-associated symptoms. Recently, five different types of human somatostatin receptors have been identified and named sst1-sst5. Each sst is the product of single gene and the expression of receptor subtypes has been reported to be dependent on the origin and type of tumor. A great majority of studies on sst receptors are based on molecular in vitro identification methods such as the very sensitive RY-PCR technique. A majority of tumors predominantly express the sst2 receptor subtype while only few express other subtypes alone.The introduction of labeled somatostatin analogues, more resistant to degradation than somatostatin itself, enabled in vivo visualization of tumors with high expression of somatostatin receptors. Recently many new stable somatostatin analogues, such as octreotide, lanreotide, vapreotide and depreotide have been introduced as diagnostic tracers. Pharmacological studies have shown a high affinity of somatostatin to all receptor subtypes, whereas somatostatin analogues bind to different subtypes with different affinity. The first studies used radioiodinated octreotide as the radioligand. Presently, indium-labeled octreotide is considered the golden standard. However new technetium-labeled analogues have been already used in clinical investigations. High expression of somatostatin receptors presented by certain tumors can be used for a receptor-mediated radiotherapy. Such therapy with high doses of indium-labeled analogues or with yttrium-labeled somatostatin analogues has been reported to be a promising method of treatment not only in case of neuroendocrine tumors. (author)

  2. Modulation of gene expression of adenosine and metabotropic glutamate receptors in rat's neuronal cells exposed to L-glutamate and [60]fullerene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giust, Davide; Da Ros, Tatiana; Martín, Mairena; Albasanz, José Luis

    2014-08-01

    L-Glutamate (L-Glu) has been often associated not only to fundamental physiological roles, as learning and memory, but also to neuronal cell death and the genesis and development of important neurodegenerative diseases. Herein we studied the variation in the adenosine and metabotropic glutamate receptors expression induced by L-Glu treatment in rat's cortical neurons. The possibility to have structural alteration of the cells induced by L-Glu (100 nM, 1 and 10 microM) has been addressed, studying the modulation of microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP-2) and neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NEFH), natively associated proteins to the dendritic shape maintenance. Results showed that the proposed treatments were not destabilizing the cells, so the L-Glu concentrations were acceptable to investigate fluctuation in receptors expression, which were studied by RT-PCR. Interestingly, C60 fullerene derivative t3ss elicited a protective effect against glutamate toxicity, as demonstrated by MTT assay. In addition, t3ss compound exerted a different effect on the adenosine and metabotropic glutamate receptors analyzed. Interestingly, A(2A) and mGlu1 mRNAs were significantly decreased in conditions were t3ss neuroprotected cortical neurons from L-Glu toxicity. In summary, t3ss protects neurons from glutamate toxicity in a process that appears to be associated with the modulation of the gene expression of adenosine and metabotropic glutamate receptors.

  3. Muscarinic, adenosine and tropomyosin-related kinase B receptors modulate the neuromuscular developmental synapse elimination process

    OpenAIRE

    Nadal Magriñà, Laura

    2017-01-01

    El desarrollo del sistema nervioso periférico implica una inicial exuberante producción de neuronas y, una posterior reducción dependiente de actividad del número de sinapsis en las uniones neuromusculares (NMJ). Este proceso se denomina eliminación sináptica. Al final de la segunda semana postnatal, cada fibra muscular esta inervadas por una solo motoneurona. Los receptores muscarínicos de acetilcolina (mAChR), los receptores de adenosina (AR) y el receptor quinasa de tropomiosina B (TrkB) p...

  4. Activation of P2Y6 Receptors Facilitates Nonneuronal Adenosine Triphosphate and Acetylcholine Release from Urothelium with the Lamina Propria of Men with Bladder Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Isabel; Ferreirinha, Fátima; Magalhães-Cardoso, Maria Teresa; Silva-Ramos, Miguel; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo

    2015-10-01

    Deregulation of purinergic bladder signaling may contribute to persistent detrusor overactivity in patients with bladder outlet obstruction. Activation of uridine diphosphate sensitive P2Y6 receptors increases voiding frequency in rats indirectly by releasing adenosine triphosphate from the urothelium. To our knowledge this mechanism has never been tested in the human bladder. We examined the role of the uridine diphosphate sensitive P2Y6 receptor on tetrodotoxin insensitive nonneuronal adenosine triphosphate and [(3)H]acetylcholine release from the human urothelium with the lamina propria of control organ donors and patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The adenosine triphosphate-to-[(3)H]acetylcholine ratio was fivefold higher in mucosal urothelium/lamina propria strips from benign prostatic hyperplasia patients than control men. The selective P2Y6 receptor agonist PSB0474 (100 nM) augmented by a similar amount adenosine triphosphate and [(3)H]acetylcholine release from mucosal urothelium/lamina propria strips from both groups of individuals. The facilitatory effect of PSB0474 was prevented by MRS2578 (50 nM) and by carbenoxolone (10 μM), which block P2Y6 receptor and pannexin-1 hemichannels, respectively. Blockade of P2X3 (and/or P2X2/3) receptors with A317491 (100 nM) also attenuated release facilitation by PSB0474 in control men but not in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Immunolocalization studies showed that P2Y6, P2X2 and P2X3 receptors were present in choline acetyltransferase positive urothelial cells. In contrast to P2Y6 staining, choline acetyltransferase, P2X2 and P2X3 immunoreactivity decreased in the urothelium of benign prostatic hyperplasia patients. Activation of P2Y6 receptor amplifies mucosal adenosine triphosphate release underlying bladder overactivity in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Therefore, we propose selective P2Y6 receptor blockade as a novel therapeutic strategy to control persistent storage symptoms in

  5. The molecular basis of ligand interaction at free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Brian D; Shimpukade, Bharat; Milligan, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    The long-chain fatty acid receptor FFA4 (previously GPR120) is receiving substantial interest as a novel target for the treatment of metabolic and inflammatory disease. This study examines for the first time the detailed mode of binding of both long-chain fatty acid and synthetic agonist ligands...... at FFA4 by integrating molecular modeling, receptor mutagenesis, and ligand structure-activity relationship approaches in an iterative format. In doing so, residues required for binding of fatty acid and synthetic agonists to FFA4 have been identified. This has allowed for the refinement of a well...

  6. DEPENDENCE OF PPAR LIGAND-INDUCED MAPK SIGNALING ON EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR TRANSACTIVATION HEPARIN-BINDING EGF CLEAVAGE MEDIATES ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR PHOSPHORYLATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that function as ligand-activated transcription factors regulating lipid metabolism and homeostasis. In addition to their ability to regulate PPAR-mediated gene transcription, PPARalpha and gamma li...

  7. Caffeine and adenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Sebastião, Ana M

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine causes most of its biological effects via antagonizing all types of adenosine receptors (ARs): A1, A2A, A3, and A2B and, as does adenosine, exerts effects on neurons and glial cells of all brain areas. In consequence, caffeine, when acting as an AR antagonist, is doing the opposite of activation of adenosine receptors due to removal of endogenous adenosinergic tonus. Besides AR antagonism, xanthines, including caffeine, have other biological actions: they inhibit phosphodiesterases (PDEs) (e.g., PDE1, PDE4, PDE5), promote calcium release from intracellular stores, and interfere with GABA-A receptors. Caffeine, through antagonism of ARs, affects brain functions such as sleep, cognition, learning, and memory, and modifies brain dysfunctions and diseases: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Epilepsy, Pain/Migraine, Depression, Schizophrenia. In conclusion, targeting approaches that involve ARs will enhance the possibilities to correct brain dysfunctions, via the universally consumed substance that is caffeine.

  8. Purine molecules as hypnogenic factors role of adenosine, ATP, and caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Muñoz, M; Salín-Pascual, R

    2010-12-01

    Purines are ubiquitous molecules with important roles in the regulation of metabolic networks and signal transduction events. In the central nervous system, adenosine and ATP modulate the sleep-wake cycle, acting as ligands of specific transmembrane receptors and as allosteric effectors of key intracellular enzymes for brain energy expenditure. Two types of adenosine receptors seem to be relevant to the sleep function, A1 and A2A. Caffeine, an antagonist of adenosine receptors, has been used as a tool in some of the studies reviewed in the present chapter. Possible changes in adenosine functioning due to the aging process have been observed in animal models and abnormalities in the adenosine system could also explain primary insomnia or the reduced amount of delta sleep and increased sensitivity to caffeine in some subjects with sleep deficits. Caffeine is a methylated-derivate of xanthine with profound effects on the onset and quality of sleep episodes. This purine acts principally as an antagonist of the A2A receptors. Adenosine and ATP in the nervous system are the bridge between metabolic activity, recovery function, and purinergic transmission that underlies the daily wake-sleep cycle in mammals. Modulators of purine actions have the potential to alleviate insomnia and other sleep disorders based on their physiopathological role during the sleep process.

  9. Therapeutic Potential of 5-HT2C Receptor Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanna H. Jensen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin 2C receptors are G protein-coupled receptors expressed by GABAergic, glutamatergic, and dopaminergic neurons. Anatomically, they are present in various brain regions, including cortical areas, hippocampus, ventral midbrain, striatum, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, and amygdala. A large body of evidence supports a critical role of serotonin 2C receptors in mediating the interaction between serotonergic and dopaminergic systems, which is at the basis of their proposed involvement in the regulation of mood, affective behavior, and memory. In addition, their expression in specific neuronal populations in the hypothalamus would be critical for their role in the regulation of feeding behavior. Modulation of these receptors has therefore been proposed to be of interest in the search for novel pharmacological strategies for the treatment of various pathological conditions, including schizophrenia and mood disorders, as well as obesity. More precisely, blockade of serotonin 2C receptors has been suggested to provide antidepressant and anxiolytic benefit, while stimulation of these receptors may offer therapeutic benefit for the treatment of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia and obesity. In addition, modulation of serotonin 2C receptors may offer cognitive-enhancing potential, albeit still a matter of debate. In the present review, the most compelling evidence from the literature is presented and tentative hypotheses with respect to existing controversies are outlined.

  10. Characterization of the adenosine receptor in cultured embryonic chick atrial myocytes: Coupling to modulation of contractility and adenylate cyclase activity and identification by direct radioligand binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    Adenosine receptors in a spontaneously contracting atrial myocyte culture from 14-day chick embryos were characterized by radioligand binding studies and by examining the involvement of G-protein in coupling these receptors to a high-affinity state and to the adenylate cyclase and the myocyte contractility. Binding of the antagonist radioligand [3H]-8-cyclopentyl-1,3-diproylxanthine ([3H]CPX) was rapid, reversible and saturable and was to a homogeneous population of sites with a Kd value of 2.1 +/- 0.2 nM and an apparent maximum binding of 26.2 +/- 3 fmol/mg of protein (n = 10, +/- S.E.). Guanyl-5-yl-(beta, gamma-imido)diphosphate had no effect on either the Kd or the maximum binding and CPX reversed the N6-R-phenyl-2-propyladenosine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and contractility, indicating that [3H] CPX is an antagonist radioligand. Competition curves for [3H] CPX binding by a series of reference adenosine agonists were consistent with labeling of an A1 adenosine receptor and were better fit by a two-site model than by a one-site model. ADP-ribosylation of the G-protein by the endogenous NAD+ in the presence of pertussis toxin shifted the competition curves from bi to monophasic with Ki values similar to those of the KL observed in the absence of prior pertussis intoxication. The adenosine agonists were capable of inhibiting both the adenylate cyclase activity and myocyte contractility in either the absence or the presence of isoproterenol. The A1 adenosine receptor-selective antagonist CPX reversed these agonist effects. The order of ability of the reference adenosine receptor agonists in causing these inhibitory effects was similar to the order of potency of the same agonists in inhibiting the specific [3H]CPX binding (N6-R-phenyl-2-propyladenosine greater than N6-S-phenyl-2-propyladenosine or N-ethyladenosine-5'-uronic acid)

  11. Heart Failure Therapeutics on the Basis of a Biased Ligand of the Angiotensin-2 Type 1 Receptor Rationale and Design of the BLAST-AHF Study (Biased Ligand of the Angiotensin Receptor Study in Acute Heart Failure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felker, G. Michael; Butler, Javed; Collins, Sean P.; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth A.; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Levy, Phillip D.; Metra, Marco; Ponikowski, Piotr; Soergel, David G.; Teerlink, John R.; Violin, Jonathan D.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Pang, Peter S.

    The BLAST-AHF (Biased Ligand of the Angiotensin Receptor Study in Acute Heart Failure) study is designed to test the efficacy and safety of TRV027, a novel biased ligand of the angiotensin-2 type 1 receptor, in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). AHF remains a major public health problem, and

  12. Divergent Label-free Cell Phenotypic Pharmacology of Ligands at the Overexpressed β2-Adrenergic Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrie, Ann M.; Sun, Haiyan; Zaytseva, Natalya; Fang, Ye

    2014-01-01

    We present subclone sensitive cell phenotypic pharmacology of ligands at the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) stably expressed in HEK-293 cells. The parental cell line was transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged β2-AR. Four stable subclones were established and used to profile a library of sixty-nine AR ligands. Dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) profiling resulted in a pharmacological activity map suggesting that HEK293 endogenously expresses functional Gi-coupled α2-AR and Gs-coupled β2-AR, and the label-free cell phenotypic activity of AR ligands are subclone dependent. Pathway deconvolution revealed that the DMR of epinephrine is originated mostly from the remodeling of actin microfilaments and adhesion complexes, to less extent from the microtubule networks and receptor trafficking, and certain agonists displayed different efficacy towards the cAMP-Epac pathway. We demonstrate that receptor signaling and ligand pharmacology is sensitive to the receptor expression level, and the organization of the receptor and its signaling circuitry.

  13. Ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptor ligands. Synthesis and pharmacology of a new amino acid AMPA antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U; Sløk, F A; Stensbøl, T B

    2000-01-01

    We have previously described the potent and selective (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor agonist, (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (ACPA), and the AMPA receptor antagonist (RS)-2-amino-3-[3-(carboxymethoxy)-5-methyl-4......-isoxazolyl]propionic acid (AMOA). Using these AMPA receptor ligands as leads, a series of compounds have been developed as tools for further elucidation of the structural requirements for activation and blockade of AMPA receptors. The synthesized compounds have been tested for activity at ionotropic...... excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors using receptor binding and electrophysiological techniques, and for activity at metabotropic EAA receptors using second messenger assays. Compounds 1 and 4 were essentially inactive. (RS)-2-Amino-3-[3-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl]propionic acid (ACMP, 2...

  14. Adenosine A2A receptor blockade Prevents Rotenone-Induced Motor Impairment in a Rat Model of Parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Fathalla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological studies implicate the blockade of adenosine receptorsas an effective strategy for reducing Parkinson's disease (PD symptoms. The objective of this study is to elucidate the possible protective effects of ZM241385 and 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, two selective A2Aand A1 receptor antagonists, on a rotenone rat model of PD. Rats were split into four groups: vehicle control (1 ml/kg/48 h, rotenone(1.5 mg/kg/48 h, s.c., ZM241385 (3.3 mg/kg/day, i.p and 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (5 mg/kg/day, i.p. After that, animals were subjected to behavioral (stride length and grid walking and biochemical (measuring concentration of dopamine levels using high performance liquid chromatography. In the rotenone group, rats displayed a reduced motor activity and disturbed movement coordination in the behavioral tests and a decreased dopamine concentration as foundby high performance liquid chromatography. The effect of rotenone was partially preventedin the ZM241385 group, but not with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine administration. The administration of ZM241385 has led toan improvement improved of motor function and movement coordination (a partial increase of stride length and partial decrease in the number of foot slips and an increase in dopamine concentration in the rotenone-injected rats. However, the 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine and rotenone groups were not significantly different. These results indicate that selective A2Areceptor blockade by ZM241385, but not A1receptor blockadeby 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, may treat PD motor symptoms. This reinforces the potential use of A2A receptor antagonists as a treatment strategy for PD patients.. This may provide a more selective treatment strategy for PD patients.

  15. PET imaging of adenosine A(1) receptors with (11)C-MPDX as an indicator of severe cerebral ischemic insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariai, Tadashi; Shimada, Yuhei; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Nagaoka, Tsukasa; Shimada, Junichi; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Ono, Ken-Ichiro; Ohno, Kikuo; Hirakawa, Kimiyoshi; Senda, Michio

    2003-11-01

    We examined whether measurement of the adenosine A(1) receptor (A1-R) with PET can predict the severity of ischemic brain damage using an occlusion and reperfusion model of the cat middle cerebral artery (MCA) and [1-methyl-(11)C]8-dicyclopropylmethyl-1-methyl-3-propylxanthine (MPDX), a positron-emitting radioligand developed at our institution. Eighteen adult cats underwent PET measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF), A1-R, central benzodiazepine receptor (BDZ-R), and glucose metabolism with (15)O-labeled water, MPDX, (11)C-flumazenil (FMZ), and (18)F-FDG, respectively. The right MCAs of 13 cats were transiently occluded via a transorbital approach with microvascular clips. CBF was measured before occlusion of MCA, during occlusion, and immediately after reperfusion. After CBF measurement, A1-R, BDZ-R, and (18)F-FDG uptake were serially measured in the order listed. Two months later, the degree of ischemic damage was evaluated by T2-weighted MR images obtained with an animal MRI system and by analysis of histologic specimens. Five cats that received no operations were used as controls. The cats that underwent occlusion were divided into 3 groups: cats that did not survive the first day because of severe neurologic and systemic conditions (n = 4), cats that survived and had infarcted lesions in both the cortex and the striatum (n = 3), and cats that survived and had infarcted lesions only in the striatum (n = 6). CBF during occlusion of the MCA was significantly lower in all 3 ischemic groups than in the control group, but there was no significant difference among the ischemic groups. Right-to-left ratios of CBF and (18)F-FDG uptake did not significantly differ among the groups. MPDX binding and FMZ binding were significantly lower in the groups with severe ischemic insult than in the groups with little to no insult. The degree of decreased MPDX binding to A1-Rs after reperfusion was a sensitive predictor of severe ischemic insult. MPDX PET has good potential to

  16. Adenosine A1 Receptor Protects Against Cisplatin Ototoxicity by Suppressing the NOX3/STAT1 Inflammatory Pathway in the Cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tejbeer; Borse, Vikrant; Sheth, Sandeep; Sheehan, Kelly; Ghosh, Sumana; Tupal, Srinivasan; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Mukherjea, Debashree; Rybak, Leonard P.

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is a commonly used antineoplastic agent that produces ototoxicity that is mediated in part by increasing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the NOX3 NADPH oxidase pathway in the cochlea. Recent studies implicate ROS generation in mediating inflammatory and apoptotic processes and hearing loss by activating signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1). In this study, we show that the adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) protects against cisplatin ototoxicity by suppressing an inflammatory response initiated by ROS generation via NOX3 NADPH oxidase, leading to inhibition of STAT1. Trans-tympanic administration of the A1AR agonist R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) inhibited cisplatin-induced ototoxicity, as measured by auditory brainstem responses and scanning electron microscopy in male Wistar rats. This was associated with reduced NOX3 expression, STAT1 activation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, and apoptosis in the cochlea. In vitro studies in UB/OC-1 cells, an organ of Corti immortalized cell line, showed that R-PIA reduced cisplatin-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 Ser727 (but not Tyr701) and STAT1 luciferase activity by suppressing the ERK1/2, p38, and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. R-PIA also decreased the expression of STAT1 target genes, such as TNF-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and reduced cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. These data suggest that the A1AR provides otoprotection by suppressing NOX3 and inflammation in the cochlea and could serve as an ideal target for otoprotective drug therapy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of solid tumors. Its use results in significant and permanent hearing loss, for which no US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment is currently available. In this study, we targeted the cochlear adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) by trans-tympanic injections of the agonist R

  17. Doubling the Size of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Ligand Binding Pocket by Deacylcortivazol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suino-Powell, Kelly; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Chenghai; Tao, Yong-guang; Tolbert, W. David; Simons, Jr., S. Stoney; Xu, H. Eric (NIH)

    2010-03-08

    A common feature of nuclear receptor ligand binding domains (LBD) is a helical sandwich fold that nests a ligand binding pocket within the bottom half of the domain. Here we report that the ligand pocket of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) can be continuously extended into the top half of the LBD by binding to deacylcortivazol (DAC), an extremely potent glucocorticoid. It has been puzzling for decades why DAC, which contains a phenylpyrazole replacement at the conserved 3-ketone of steroid hormones that are normally required for activation of their cognate receptors, is a potent GR activator. The crystal structure of the GR LBD bound to DAC and the fourth LXXLL motif of steroid receptor coactivator 1 reveals that the GR ligand binding pocket is expanded to a size of 1,070 {angstrom}{sup 3}, effectively doubling the size of the GR dexamethasone-binding pocket of 540 {angstrom}{sup 3} and yet leaving the structure of the coactivator binding site intact. DAC occupies only {approx}50% of the space of the pocket but makes intricate interactions with the receptor around the phenylpyrazole group that accounts for the high-affinity binding of DAC. The dramatic expansion of the DAC-binding pocket thus highlights the conformational adaptability of GR to ligand binding. The new structure also allows docking of various nonsteroidal ligands that cannot be fitted into the previous structures, thus providing a new rational template for drug discovery of steroidal and nonsteroidal glucocorticoids that can be specifically designed to reach the unoccupied space of the expanded pocket.

  18. Preliminary Molecular Dynamic Simulations of the Estrogen Receptor Alpha Ligand Binding Domain from Antagonist to Apo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian E. Roitberg

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptors (ER are known as nuclear receptors. They exist in the cytoplasm of human cells and serves as a DNA binding transcription factor that regulates gene expression. However the estrogen receptor also has additional functions independent of DNA binding. The human estrogen receptor comes in two forms, alpha and beta. This work focuses on the alpha form of the estrogen receptor. The ERα is found in breast cancer cells, ovarian stroma cells, endometrium, and the hypothalamus. It has been suggested that exposure to DDE, a metabolite of DDT, and other pesticides causes conformational changes in the estrogen receptor. Before examining these factors, this work examines the protein unfolding from the antagonist form found in the 3ERT PDB crystal structure. The 3ERT PDB crystal structure has the estrogen receptor bound to the cancer drug 4-hydroxytamoxifen. The 4-hydroxytamoxifen ligand was extracted before the simulation, resulting in new conformational freedom due to absence of van der Waals contacts between the ligand and the receptor. The conformational changes that result expose the binding clef of the co peptide beside Helix 12 of the receptor forming an apo conformation. Two key conformations in the loops at either end of the H12 are produced resulting in the antagonist to apo conformation transformation. The results were produced over a 42ns Molecular Dynamics simulation using the AMBER FF99SB force field.

  19. Nucleus accumbens neurotransmission and effort-related choice behavior in food motivation: effects of drugs acting on dopamine, adenosine, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Eric J; Randall, Patrick A; Podurgiel, Samantha; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D

    2013-11-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Although nucleus accumbens (NAc) DA depletions or antagonism leave aspects of appetite and primary food motivation intact, rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. Previous work showed that adenosine A2A antagonists can reverse the effects of DA D2 antagonists on effort-related choice, and that stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors produces behavioral effects that are similar to those induced by DA antagonism. The present review summarizes the literature on the role of NAc DA and adenosine in effort-related processes, and also presents original data on the effects of local stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in NAc core. Local injections of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine directly into NAc core produces shifts in effort-related choice behavior similar to those induced by DA antagonism or A2A receptor stimulation, decreasing lever pressing but increasing chow intake in rats responding on a concurrent fixed ratio/chow feeding choice task. In contrast, injections into a neostriatal control site dorsal to the NAc were ineffective. The actions of pilocarpine on this task were attenuated by co-administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine. Thus, drugs that act on DA, adenosine A2A, and muscarinic receptors regulate effort-related choice behavior, which may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia that can be observed in depression and other disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Activation of adenosine A3 receptors potentiates stimulatory effects of IL-3, SCF, and GM-CSF on mouse granulocyte-macrophage hematopoietic progenitor cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Vacek, Antonín; Pospíšil, Milan; Holá, Jiřina; Štreitová, Denisa; Znojil, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2009), s. 247-252 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/06/0015; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : hematopoiesis * adenosine A3 receptor agonist * hematopoietic growth factors Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.430, year: 2009

  1. 2-Phenylimidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones: structure-activity relationships and characterization of potent and selective inverse agonists at Human A3 adenosine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozola, Vita; Thorand, Mark; Diekmann, Martina; Qurishi, Ramatullah; Schumacher, Britta; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Müller, Christa E

    2003-02-06

    Structure-activity relationships of 2-phenyl-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones as ligands for human A(3) adenosine receptors (ARs) were investigated. An ethyl group in the 8-position of the imidazoline ring of 4-methyl-2-phenyl-imidazopurinone leading to chiral compounds was found to increase affinity for human A(3) ARs by several thousand-fold. Propyl substitution instead of methyl at N4 decreased A(3) affinity but increased A(1) affinity leading to potent A(1)-selective AR antagonists. The most potent A(1) antagonist of the present series was (S)-8-ethyl-2-phenyl-4-propyl-4,5,7,8-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-one (S-3) exhibiting a K(i) value of 7.4 nM at rat A(1) ARs and greater than 100-fold selectivity versus rat A(2A) and human A(3) ARs. At human A(1) ARs 2-phenylimidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones were generally less potent and therefore less A(1)-selective (S-3: K(i)=98 nM). 2-, 3-, or 4-Mono-chlorination of the 2-phenyl ring reduced A(3) affinity but led to an increase in affinity for A(1) ARs, whereas di- (3,4-dichloro) or polychlorination (2,3,5-trichloro) increased A(3) affinity. The most potent and selective A(3) antagonist of the present series was the trichlorophenyl derivative (R)-8-ethyl-4-methyl-2-(2,3,5-trichlorophenyl)-4,5,7,8-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-one (R-8) exhibiting a subnanomolar K(i) value at human A(3) ARs and greater than 800-fold selectivity versus the other AR subtypes. Methylation of 4-alkyl-2-phenyl-substituted imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones led exclusively to the N9-methyl derivatives, which exhibited largely reduced AR affinities as compared to the unmethylated compounds. [35S]GTP gamma S binding studies of the most potent 2-phenyl-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones at membranes of Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the human A(3) AR revealed that the compounds were inverse agonists at A(3) receptors under standard test conditions. Due to their high A(3) affinity, selectivity, and relatively high water-solubility, 2-phenyl-imidazo[2,1-i

  2. Nuclear receptor ligand-binding domains: reduction of helix H12 dynamics to favour crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahoum, Virginie; Lipski, Alexandra; Quillard, Fabien; Guichou, Jean-François [INSERM, U554, 34090 Montpellier (France); Université de Montpellier, CNRS, UMR5048, Centre de Biochimie Structurale (CBS), 34090 Montpellier (France); Boublik, Yvan [CNRS, UMR5237, Centre de Recherche de Biochimie Macromoléculaire (CRBM), 34293 Montpellier (France); Pérez, Efrèn [Universidade de Vigo, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Química, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Germain, Pierre [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch CEDEX (France); Lera, Angel R. de [Universidade de Vigo, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Química, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Bourguet, William, E-mail: bourguet@cbs.cnrs.fr [INSERM, U554, 34090 Montpellier (France); Université de Montpellier, CNRS, UMR5048, Centre de Biochimie Structurale (CBS), 34090 Montpellier (France)

    2008-07-01

    Attempts have been made to crystallize the ligand-binding domain of the human retinoid X receptor in complex with a variety of newly synthesized ligands. An inverse correlation was observed between the ‘crystallizability’ and the structural dynamics of the various receptor–ligand complexes. Crystallization trials of the human retinoid X receptor α ligand-binding domain (RXRα LBD) in complex with various ligands have been carried out. Using fluorescence anisotropy, it has been found that when compared with agonists these small-molecule effectors enhance the dynamics of the RXRα LBD C-terminal helix H12. In some cases, the mobility of this helix could be dramatically reduced by the addition of a 13-residue co-activator fragment (CoA). In keeping with these observations, crystals have been obtained of the corresponding ternary RXRα LBD–ligand–CoA complexes. In contrast, attempts to crystallize complexes with a highly mobile H12 remained unsuccessful. These experimental observations substantiate the previously recognized role of co-regulator fragments in facilitating the crystallization of nuclear receptor LBDs.

  3. Comparison of the Effects of Adenosine A1 Receptors Activity in CA1 Region of the Hippocampus on Entorhinal Cortex and Amygdala Kindled Seizures in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Heidarianpour

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: In the CNS, adenosine is known to suppress repetitive neuronal Firing, suggesting a role as an endogenous modifier of seizures. Indeed, intracerebral adenosine concentrations rise acutely during seizure activity and are thought to be responsible for terminating seizures and establishing a period of post-ictal refractoriness. However, it is unclear whether this suppression results from a general depression of brain excitability or through action on particular sites critical for the control of after discharge generation and/or seizure development and propagation. In this regard, comparison of the effects of adenosine A1 receptors of CA1 (region of the ‎hippocampus on entorhinal cortex and amygdala kindled seizures was ‎investigated in this study. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, Animals were kindled by daily electrical stimulation of amygdale (group A or entorhinal cortex (group B. In the fully kindled animals, N6-‎cyclohexyladenosine (CHA;1 and 10 M; a selective adenosine A1 receptor ‎agonist and 1,3-dimethyl-8-cyclohexylxanthine(CPT;1 ‎µ‎M; a selective ‎adenosine A1 receptors antagonist were microinfused bilaterally into the CA1 ‎region of hippocampus (1l/2min and animals were stimulated at 5 and 15 minutes after drug ‎injection. All animals were received artificial cerebrospinal fluid, 24 h before ‎each drug injection and this result were used as control. Results: The seizure parameters were measured at 5 and 15min post injection. Obtained data showed that CHA at concentrations of 10 ‎µ‎M reduced ‎entorhinal cortex and amygdala after discharge and stage5 seizure durations and ‎increased stage4 latency. CHA at concentration 1‎µ‎M significantly alters ‎seizure parameters of group A but not effect on group B. Intrahippocampal (CA1 region pretreatment of CPT (1 ‎µ‎M before CHA abolished the effects of CHA on seizure parameters.Conclusion: It ‎may be

  4. Histamine H3 receptor ligands in the group of (homo)piperazine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanska, Katarzyna; Kuder, Kamil; Kiec-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2017-11-23

    Since its' discovery in 1983, followed by gene cloning in 1999, the histamine H3 receptor served as an outstanding target for drug discovery. The wide spectrum of possible therapeutic implications make H3R's one of the most researched areas in the vast GPCR ligands field - started from imidazole containing ligands, through various successful imidazole replacements, with recent introduction of Wakix® to pharmaceutical market. One of such replacements is piperazine moiety, a significant versatile scaffold in rational drug design for most of the GPCR ligands. Therefore, herein we review ligands built on piperazine, as well as its seven membered analogue azepine, that target H3R's and their potential therapeutical applications, in order to elucidate the current state of the art in this vast field. Due to a high level of structural divergence among compounds described herein, we decided to divide them into groups, where the key division element was the position of nitrogen basicity decreasing moieties in (homo)piperazine ring. Paying attention to a number of published structures and their overall high biological activity, one can realize that the (homo)piperazine scaffold bids a versatile template also for histamine H3 receptor ligands. With two possible substitution sites and therefore a number of possible structural combinations, piperazine derivatives stand as one of the largest group of high importance among H3R ligands. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Ligand-triggered de-repression of Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G proteins coupled to immune receptor kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiangxiu; Ma, Miaomiao; Zhou, Zhaoyang; Wang, Jinlong; Yang, Xinru; Rao, Shaofei; Bi, Guozhi; Li, Lin; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Chai, Jijie; Chen, She; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2018-03-15

    Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G proteins regulate diverse processes by coupling to single-transmembrane receptors. One such receptor is the FLS2 receptor kinase, which perceives bacterial flagellin epitope flg22 to activate immunity through a class of cytoplasmic kinases called BIK1/PBLs. Unlike animal and fungal heterotrimeric G proteins that are activated by a ligand-induced guanine nucleotide exchange activity of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), plant heterotrimeric G proteins are self-activating. How plant receptors regulate heterotrimeric G proteins in response to external ligands remains unknown. Here we show that RGS1, a GTPase accelerating protein, maintains Arabidopsis G proteins in an inactive state in complex with FLS2. Activation of FLS2 by flg22 induces a BIK1/PBL-mediated phosphorylation of RGS1 at Ser428 and Ser431 and that promotes RGS1 dissociation from the FLS2-G protein complex. This relieves G proteins from the RGS1-mediated repression and enables positive regulation of immune signaling. We additionally show that RGS1 is similarly regulated by multiple immune receptors. Our results uncover ligand-induced de-repression as a mechanism for G protein signaling in plants that is distinct from previously reported mechanism underlying the activation of heterotrimeric G proteins in other systems.

  6. A genetic variation in the adenosine A2A receptor gene (ADORA2A) contributes to individual sensitivity to caffeine effects on sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rétey, J V; Adam, M; Khatami, R; Luhmann, U F O; Jung, H H; Berger, W; Landolt, H-P

    2007-05-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used stimulant in Western countries. Some people voluntarily reduce caffeine consumption because it impairs the quality of their sleep. Studies in mice revealed that the disruption of sleep after caffeine is mediated by blockade of adenosine A2A receptors. Here we show in humans that (1) habitual caffeine consumption is associated with reduced sleep quality in self-rated caffeine-sensitive individuals, but not in caffeine-insensitive individuals; (2) the distribution of distinct c.1083T>C genotypes of the adenosine A2A receptor gene (ADORA2A) differs between caffeine-sensitive and -insensitive adults; and (3) the ADORA2A c.1083T>C genotype determines how closely the caffeine-induced changes in brain electrical activity during sleep resemble the alterations observed in patients with insomnia. These data demonstrate a role of adenosine A2A receptors for sleep in humans, and suggest that a common variation in ADORA2A contributes to subjective and objective responses to caffeine on sleep.

  7. Administration of caffeine inhibited adenosine receptor agonist-induced decreases in motor performance, thermoregulation, and brain neurotransmitter release in exercising rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of an adenosine receptor agonist on caffeine-induced changes in thermoregulation, neurotransmitter release in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus, and endurance exercise performance in rats. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either saline alone (SAL), 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine and saline (CAF), a non-selective adenosine receptor agonist (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine [NECA]: 0.5 mg kg(-1)) and saline (NECA), or the combination of caffeine and NECA (CAF+NECA). Rats ran until fatigue on the treadmill with a 5% grade at a speed of 18 m min(-1) at 23 °C. Compared to the SAL group, the run time to fatigue (RTTF) was significantly increased by 52% following caffeine administration and significantly decreased by 65% following NECA injection (SAL: 91 ± 14.1 min; CAF: 137 ± 25.8 min; NECA: 31 ± 13.7 min; CAF+NECA: 85 ± 11.8 min; pcaffeine injection inhibited the NECA-induced decreases in the RTTF, Tcore, heat production, heat loss, and extracellular DA release. Neither caffeine nor NECA affected extracellular noradrenaline or serotonin release. These results support the findings of previous studies showing improved endurance performance and overrides in body limitations after caffeine administration, and imply that the ergogenic effects of caffeine may be associated with the adenosine receptor blockade-induced increases in brain DA release. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ligand-induced type II interleukin-4 receptor dimers are sustained by rapid re-association within plasma membrane microcompartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, David; Moraga, Ignacio; Winkelmann, Hauke; Birkholz, Oliver; Wilmes, Stephan; Schulte, Markos; Kraich, Michael; Kenneweg, Hella; Beutel, Oliver; Selenschik, Philipp; Paterok, Dirk; Gavutis, Martynas; Schmidt, Thomas; Garcia, K. Christopher; Müller, Thomas D.; Piehler, Jacob

    2017-07-01

    The spatiotemporal organization of cytokine receptors in the plasma membrane is still debated with models ranging from ligand-independent receptor pre-dimerization to ligand-induced receptor dimerization occurring only after receptor uptake into endosomes. Here, we explore the molecular and cellular determinants governing the assembly of the type II interleukin-4 receptor, taking advantage of various agonists binding the receptor subunits with different affinities and rate constants. Quantitative kinetic studies using artificial membranes confirm that receptor dimerization is governed by the two-dimensional ligand-receptor interactions and identify a critical role of the transmembrane domain in receptor dimerization. Single molecule localization microscopy at physiological cell surface expression levels, however, reveals efficient ligand-induced receptor dimerization by all ligands, largely independent of receptor binding affinities, in line with the similar STAT6 activation potencies observed for all IL-4 variants. Detailed spatiotemporal analyses suggest that kinetic trapping of receptor dimers in actin-dependent microcompartments sustains robust receptor dimerization and signalling.

  9. Assessment and challenges of ligand docking into comparative models of G-protein coupled receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dong Nguyen

    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing number of high-resolution X-ray structures of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs creates a unique opportunity to employ comparative modeling and docking to provide valuable insight into the function and ligand binding determinants of novel receptors, to assist in virtual screening and to design and optimize drug candidates. However, low sequence identity between receptors, conformational flexibility, and chemical diversity of ligands present an enormous challenge to molecular modeling approaches. It is our hypothesis that rapid Monte-Carlo sampling of protein backbone and side-chain conformational space with Rosetta can be leveraged to meet this challenge. This study performs unbiased comparative modeling and docking methodologies using 14 distinct high-resolution GPCRs and proposes knowledge-based filtering methods for improvement of sampling performance and identification of correct ligand-receptor interactions. On average, top ranked receptor models built on template structures over 50% sequence identity are within 2.9 Å of the experimental structure, with an average root mean square deviation (RMSD of 2.2 Å for the transmembrane region and 5 Å for the second extracellular loop. Furthermore, these models are consistently correlated with low Rosetta energy score. To predict their binding modes, ligand conformers of the 14 ligands co-crystalized with the GPCRs were docked against the top ranked comparative models. In contrast to the comparative models themselves, however, it remains difficult to unambiguously identify correct binding modes by score alone. On average, sampling performance was improved by 10(3 fold over random using knowledge-based and energy-based filters. In assessing the applicability of experimental constraints, we found that sampling performance is increased by one order of magnitude for every 10 residues known to contact the ligand. Additionally, in the case of DOR, knowledge of a single specific

  10. Modulation of estrogen receptor α levels by endogenous and exogenous ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. La Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ERα is a ligand-activated transcription factor, member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Regulation of ERα levels is intrinsically required for its transcriptional activity and thus for the modulation of the physiological actions of the cognate hormone 17β-estradiol (E2. Indeed, ERα exogenous ligands that target this molecular circuitry are used as drugs in clinical practice. Interestingly, some natural and synthetic molecules, which human beings are commonly exposed to, interfere with the endocrine system and operate through ERα by selectively modifying its signalling. In addition, these molecules may also modulate ERα cellular content. Here, we report the recent advances in our understanding of how exogenous ERα ligands impact on receptor levels and change the physiological E2-dipendent modulation of specific cellular function.

  11. Imaging GABAc Receptors with Ligand-Conjugated Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Tomlinson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a methodology for labeling the GABAc receptor on the surface membrane of intact cells. This work builds upon our earlier work with serotonin-conjugated quantum dots and our studies with PEGylated quantum dots to reduce nonspecific binding. In the current approach, a PEGylated derivative of muscimol was synthesized and attached via an amide linkage to quantum dots coated in an amphiphilic polymer derivative of a modified polyacrylamide. These conjugates were used to image GABAC receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

  12. Ligand binding to G protein-coupled receptors in tethered cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Karen L.; Meyer, Bruno H.; Hovius, Ruud

    2003-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large class of seven transmembrane proteins, which bind selectively agonists or antagonists with important consequences for cellular signaling and function. Comprehension of the molecular details of ligand binding is important for the understanding...

  13. A multistep continuous-flow system for rapid on-demand synthesis of receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Trine P; Ritzén, Andreas; Ulven, Trond

    2009-01-01

    A multistep continuous-flow system for synthesis of receptor ligands by assembly of three variable building blocks in a single unbroken flow is described. The sequence consists of three reactions and two scavenger steps, where a Cbz-protected diamine is reacted with an isocyanate, deprotected, an......, and reacted further with an alkylating agent....

  14. Unnatural amino acids as probes of ligand-receptor interactions and their conformational consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Ahern, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    -edge synthetic and chemical biological approaches. Here we summarize recent advances in the use of site-directed incorporation of unnatural amino acids and chemical probes to study ligand-receptor interactions, determine the location of binding sites, and examine the downstream conformational consequences...

  15. Novel insights into mechanisms of glucocorticoid action and the development of new glucocorticoid receptor ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwenberg, Mark; Stahn, Cindy; Hommes, Daniel W.; Buttgereit, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant agents. Unfortunately, they also produce serious side effects that limit their usage. This discrepancy is the driving force for the intensive search for novel GC receptor ligands with a better benefit-risk ratio as compared to

  16. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Ligands and Their Role in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Therapeutic Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Bahman; Samadi, Nasser; Baradaran, Behzad; Shafiei-Irannejad, Vahid; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2016-07-01

    Imatinib therapy remains the gold standard for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia; however, the acquired resistance to this therapeutic agent in patients has urged the scientists to devise modalities for overcoming this chemoresistance. For this purpose, initially therapeutic agents with higher tyrosine kinase activity were introduced, which had the potential for inhibiting even mutant forms of Bcr-Abl. Furthermore, coupling imatinib with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands also showed beneficial effects in chronic myeloid leukemia cell proliferation. These combination protocols inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis as well as differentiation in chronic myeloid leukemia cell lines. In addition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ligands increased imatinib uptake by upregulating the expression of human organic cation transporter 1. Taken together, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ligands are currently being considered as novel promising therapeutic candidates for chronic myeloid leukemia treatment, because they can synergistically enhance the efficacy of imatinib. In this article, we reviewed the potential of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ligands for use in chronic myeloid leukemia treatment. The mechanism of action of these therapeutics modalities are also presented in detail. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Sigma Receptors in Oncology : Therapeutic and Diagnostic Applications of Sigma Ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Rybczynska, Anna A.; K. Ramakrishnan, Nisha; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Elsinga, Philip H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.

    2010-01-01

    Sigma receptors (subtypes sigma-1 and sigma-2) are a unique class of binding sites expressed throughout the mammalian body. The endogenous ligand for these sites has not been identified, but steroid hormones (particularly progesterone), sphingolipid-derived amines and N,N-dimethyltryptamine can bind

  18. Serum aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand activity is associated with insulin resistance and resulting type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Eun; Kwak, Soo Heon; Jung, Hye Seung; Cho, Young Min; Pak, Youngmi Kim; Park, Kyong Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon; Lee, Hong Kyu

    2015-06-01

    Dioxin or dioxin-like compounds are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is a ligand-activated nuclear transcription factor. There are limited studies about the association of serum AhR ligand activities and T2DM. Our objective was to investigate the association of serum AhR ligand activities with T2DM and its related metabolic parameters. This case-control study involved 83 subjects with T2DM as well as age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n = 130) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 83). Serum AhR ligand activities were measured using a cell-based AhR ligand assay and standardized as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDDeq, pmol/l). The T2DM group had the highest AhR ligand activities compared to the IGT and NGT groups [median (interquartile range), 68.1 (53.1, 81.5), 60.2 (45.8, 75.1), and 53.3 (46.1, 63.7) pmol/l, respectively; P = 0.003]. In the multivariate analysis, the log2-transformed TCDDeq levels were significantly associated with the risk of T2DM after adjusting for age, sex, and BMI (odds ratio 2.26, 95 % confidence interval 1.34-3.82; P = 0.002). In nondiabetic subjects, serum AhR ligand activities showed a positive correlation with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, but showed a negative correlation with adiponectin concentrations. Serum AhR ligand activities were higher in the T2DM group and were correlated with the parameters of insulin resistance. Further investigation is required to elucidate the causal relationship between AhR ligand activity and T2DM.

  19. An A2A adenosine receptor agonist, ATL313, reduces inflammation and improves survival in murine sepsis models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linden Joel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathophysiology of sepsis is due in part to early systemic inflammation. Here we describe molecular and cellular responses, as well as survival, in A2A adenosine receptor (AR agonist treated and untreated animals during experimental sepsis. Methods Sepsis was induced in mice by intraperitoneal inoculation of live bacteria (Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus or lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Mice inoculated with live bacteria were treated with an A2A AR agonist (ATL313 or phosphate buffered saline (PBS, with or without the addition of a dose of ceftriaxone. LPS inoculated mice were treated with ATL313 or PBS. Serum cytokines and chemokines were measured sequentially at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours after LPS was administered. In survival studies, mice were followed until death or for 7 days. Results There was a significant survival benefit in mice infected with live E. coli (100% vs. 20%, p = 0.013 or S. aureus (60% vs. 20%, p = 0.02 when treated with ATL313 in conjunction with an antibiotic versus antibiotic alone. ATL313 also improved survival from endotoxic shock when compared to PBS treatment (90% vs. 40%, p = 0.005. The serum concentrations of TNF-α, MIP-1α, MCP-1, IFN-γ, and IL-17 were decreased by ATL313 after LPS injection (p p p Conclusion Further studies are warranted to determine the clinical utility of ATL313 as a novel treatment for sepsis.

  20. Theobromine suppresses adipogenesis through enhancement of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β degradation by adenosine receptor A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Takakazu; Watanabe, Shun; Yoshioka, Yasukiyo; Katayama, Shigeru; Nakamura, Soichiro; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2017-12-01

    Theobromine, a methylxanthine derived from cacao beans, reportedly has various health-promoting properties but molecular mechanism by which effects of theobromine on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to clarify the molecular mechanisms of the anti-adipogenic effect of theobromine in vitro and in vivo. ICR mice (4week-old) were administered with theobromine (0.1g/kg) for 7days. Theobromine administration attenuated gains in body and epididymal adipose tissue weights in mice and suppressed expression of adipogenic-associated genes in mouse adipose tissue. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, theobromine caused degradation of C/EBPβ protein by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Pull down assay showed that theobromine selectively interacts with adenosine receptor A1 (AR1), and AR1 knockdown inhibited theobromine-induced C/EBPβ degradation. Theobromine increased sumoylation of C/EBPβ at Lys133. Expression of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-specific protease 2 (SENP2) gene, coding for a desumoylation enzyme, was suppressed by theobromine. In vivo knockdown studies showed that AR1 knockdown in mice attenuated the anti-adipogenic effects of theobromine in younger mice. Theobromine suppresses adipocyte differentiation and induced C/EBPβ degradation by increasing its sumoylation. Furthermore, the inhibition of AR1 signaling is important for theobromine-induced C/EBPβ degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Adenosine A2A Receptors Control Glutamatergic Synaptic Plasticity in Fast Spiking Interneurons of the Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Kerkhofs

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR are activated upon increased synaptic activity to assist in the implementation of long-term plastic changes at synapses. While it is reported that A2AR are involved in the control of prefrontal cortex (PFC-dependent behavior such as working memory, reversal learning and effort-based decision making, it is not known whether A2AR control glutamatergic synapse plasticity within the medial PFC (mPFC. To elucidate that, we tested whether A2AR blockade affects long-term plasticity (LTP of excitatory post-synaptic potentials in pyramidal neurons and fast spiking (FS interneurons in layer 5 of the mPFC and of population spikes. Our results show that A2AR are enriched at mPFC synapses, where their blockade reversed the direction of plasticity at excitatory synapses onto layer 5 FS interneurons from LTP to long-term depression, while their blockade had no effect on the induction of LTP at excitatory synapses onto layer 5 pyramidal neurons. At the network level, extracellularly induced LTP of population spikes was reduced by A2AR blockade. The interneuron-specificity of A2AR in controlling glutamatergic synapse LTP may ensure that during periods of high synaptic activity, a proper excitation/inhibition balance is maintained within the mPFC.

  2. Purine (N)-Methanocarba Nucleoside Derivatives Lacking an Exocyclic Amine as Selective A3 Adenosine Receptor Agonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purine (N)-methanocarba-5′-N-alkyluronamidoriboside A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) agonists lacking an exocyclic amine resulted from an unexpected reaction during a Sonogashira coupling and subsequent aminolysis. Because the initial C6-Me and C6-styryl derivatives had unexpectedly high A3AR affinity, other rigid nucleoside analogues lacking an exocyclic amine were prepared. Of these, the C6-Me-(2-phenylethynyl) and C2-(5-chlorothienylethynyl) analogues were particularly potent, with human A3AR Ki values of 6 and 42 nM, respectively. Additionally, the C2-(5-chlorothienyl)-6-H analogue was potent and selective at A3AR (MRS7220, Ki 60 nM) and also completely reversed mouse sciatic nerve mechanoallodynia (in vivo, 3 μmol/kg, po). The lack of a C6 H-bond donor while maintaining A3AR affinity and efficacy could be rationalized by homology modeling and docking of these hypermodified nucleosides. The modeling suggests that a suitable combination of stabilizing features can partially compensate for the lack of an exocyclic amine, an otherwise important contributor to recognition in the A3AR binding site. PMID:26890707

  3. CADASIL-associated Notch3 mutations have differential effects both on ligand binding and ligand-induced Notch3 receptor signaling through RBP-Jk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Nils; Opherk, Christian; Zacherle, Simone; Capell, Anja; Gempel, Petra; Dichgans, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Mutations in the NOTCH3 gene are the cause of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a hereditary angiopathy leading to strokes and dementia. Pathogenic mutations remove or insert cysteine residues within epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats in the extracellular domain of the Notch3 receptor (N3ECD). Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are the predominant site of Notch3 expression in adults. In CADASIL patients, VSMC degenerate and N3ECD is deposited within the vasculature. However, the mechanisms underlying VSMC degeneration and N3ECD accumulation are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the consequences of three pathogenic Notch3 mutations on the biological activity of the receptor by analyzing ligand (Delta-/Jagged-)-induced signaling via RBP-Jk. Two mutations (R133C and C183R) that are located outside the putative ligand binding domain (LBD) of the receptor were found to result in normal Jagged1-induced signaling in A7r5 VSMC, whereas the third mutation (C455R located within the putative LBD) showed strongly reduced signaling activity. Ligand binding assays with soluble Delta1 and Jagged1 revealed that C455R interferes with ligand binding through disruption of the LBD which, as we show here, is located in EGF repeats 10/11 of Notch3. All mutant receptors including Notch3C455R were targeted to the cell surface but showed an elevated ratio between the unprocessed full-length 280-kDa receptor and S1-cleaved receptor fragments. Taken together, these data indicate that CADASIL-associated Notch3 mutations differ with respect to their consequences both on ligand binding and ligand-induced signaling through RBP-Jk, whereas they have similar effects on receptor maturation. Moreover, the data suggest that ligand-induced receptor shedding may not be required for N3ECD deposition in CADASIL. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Functional Selectivity and Antidepressant Activity of Serotonin 1A Receptor Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław; Bojarski, Andrzej Jacek; Pilc, Andrzej; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    2015-08-07

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays an important role in physiological functions. 5-HT has been implicated in sleep, feeding, sexual behavior, temperature regulation, pain, and cognition as well as in pathological states including disorders connected to mood, anxiety, psychosis and pain. 5-HT1A receptors have for a long time been considered as an interesting target for the action of antidepressant drugs. It was postulated that postsynaptic 5-HT1A agonists could form a new class of antidepressant drugs, and mixed 5-HT1A receptor ligands/serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors seem to possess an interesting pharmacological profile. It should, however, be noted that 5-HT1A receptors can activate several different biochemical pathways and signal through both G protein-dependent and G protein-independent pathways. The variables that affect the multiplicity of 5-HT1A receptor signaling pathways would thus result from the summation of effects specific to the host cell milieu. Moreover, receptor trafficking appears different at pre- and postsynaptic sites. It should also be noted that the 5-HT1A receptor cooperates with other signal transduction systems (like the 5-HT1B or 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptors, the GABAergic and the glutaminergic systems), which also contribute to its antidepressant and/or anxiolytic activity. Thus identifying brain specific molecular targets for 5-HT1A receptor ligands may result in a better targeting, raising a hope for more effective medicines for various pathologies.

  5. A python-based docking program utilizing a receptor bound ligand shape: PythDock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Cho, Seung Joo; Hah, Jung-Mi

    2011-09-01

    PythDock is a heuristic docking program that uses Python programming language with a simple scoring function and a population based search engine. The scoring function considers electrostatic and dispersion/repulsion terms. The search engine utilizes a particle swarm optimization algorithm. A grid potential map is generated using the shape information of a bound ligand within the active site. Therefore, the searching area is more relevant to the ligand binding. To evaluate the docking performance of PythDock, two well-known docking programs (AutoDock and DOCK) were also used with the same data. The accuracy of docked results were measured by the difference of the ligand structure between x-ray structure, and docked pose, i.e., average root mean squared deviation values of the bound ligand were compared for fourteen protein-ligand complexes. Since the number of ligands' rotational flexibility is an important factor affecting the accuracy of a docking, the data set was chosen to have various degrees of flexibility. Although PythDock has a scoring function simpler than those of other programs (AutoDock and DOCK), our results showed that PythDock predicted more accurate poses than both AutoDock4.2 and DOCK6.2. This indicates that PythDock could be a useful tool to study ligand-receptor interactions and could also be beneficial in structure based drug design.

  6. Discovery of indolylpiperazinylpyrimidines with dual-target profiles at adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors for Parkinson's disease treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Shao

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the human brain, leading to depletion of dopamine production. Dopamine replacement therapy remains the mainstay for attenuation of PD symptoms. Nonetheless, the potential benefit of current pharmacotherapies is mostly limited by adverse side effects, such as drug-induced dyskinesia, motor fluctuations and psychosis. Non-dopaminergic receptors, such as human A2A adenosine receptors, have emerged as important therapeutic targets in potentiating therapeutic effects and reducing the unwanted side effects. In this study, new chemical entities targeting both human A2A adenosine receptor and dopamine D2 receptor were designed and evaluated. Two computational methods, namely support vector machine (SVM models and Tanimoto similarity-based clustering analysis, were integrated for the identification of compounds containing indole-piperazine-pyrimidine (IPP scaffold. Subsequent synthesis and testing resulted in compounds 5 and 6, which acted as human A2A adenosine receptor binders in the radioligand competition assay (Ki = 8.7-11.2 μM as well as human dopamine D2 receptor binders in the artificial cell membrane assay (EC50 = 22.5-40.2 μM. Moreover, compound 5 showed improvement in movement and mitigation of the loss of dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila models of PD. Furthermore, in vitro toxicity studies on compounds 5 and 6 did not reveal any mutagenicity (up to 100 μM, hepatotoxicity (up to 30 μM or cardiotoxicity (up to 30 μM.

  7. Adenosine A1 receptor activation modulates N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) preconditioning phenotype in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Leandra C; Pamplona, Fabrício A; Matheus, Filipe C; Ludka, Fabiana K; Gomez-Soler, Maricel; Ciruela, Francisco; Boeck, Carina R; Prediger, Rui D; Tasca, Carla I

    2015-04-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) preconditioning is induced by subtoxic doses of NMDA and it promotes a transient state of resistance against subsequent lethal insults. Interestingly, this mechanism of neuroprotection depends on adenosine A1 receptors (A1R), since blockade of A1R precludes this phenomenon. In this study we evaluated the consequences of NMDA preconditioning on the hippocampal A1R biology (i.e. expression, binding properties and functionality). Accordingly, we measured A1R expression in NMDA preconditioned mice (75mg/kg, i.p.; 24h) and showed that neither the total amount of receptor, nor the A1R levels in the synaptic fraction was altered. In addition, the A1R binding affinity to the antagonist [(3)H] DPCPX was slightly increased in total membrane extracts of hippocampus from preconditioned mice. Next, we evaluated the impact of NMDA preconditioning on A1R functioning by measuring the A1R-mediated regulation of glutamate uptake into hippocampal slices and on behavioral responses in the open field and hot plate tests. NMDA preconditioning increased glutamate uptake into hippocampal slices without altering the expression of glutamate transporter GLT-1. Interestingly, NMDA preconditioning also induced antinociception in the hot plate test and both effects were reversed by post-activation of A1R with the agonist CCPA (0.2mg/kg, i.p.). NMDA preconditioning or A1R modulation did not alter locomotor activity in the open field. Overall, the results described herein provide new evidence that post-activation of A1R modulates NMDA preconditioning-mediated responses, pointing to the importance of the cross-talk between glutamatergic and adenosinergic systems to neuroprotection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation and characterization of coronary endothelial and smooth muscle cells from A1 adenosine receptor-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Bunyen; Ansari, Habib R; Oldenburg, Peter J; Schnermann, J; Mustafa, S Jamal

    2006-04-01

    Mice have been used widely in in vivo and in vitro cardiovascular research. The availability of knockout mice provides further clues to the physiological significance of specific receptor subtypes. Adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1)AR)-knockout (A(1)KO) mice and their wild-type (A(1)WT) controls were employed in this investigation. The heart and aortic arch were carefully removed and retroinfused with enzyme solution (1 mg/ml collagenase type I, 0.5 mg/ml soybean trypsin inhibitor, 3% BSA, and 2% antibiotics) through the aortic arch. The efflux was collected at 30-, 60-, and 90-min intervals. The cells were centrifuged, and the pellets were mixed with medium [medium 199-F-12 medium with 10% FBS and 2% antibiotics (for endothelial cells) and advanced DMEM with 10% FBS, 10% mouse serum, 2% GlutaMax, and 2% antibiotics (for smooth muscle cells)] and plated. Endothelial cells were characterized by a cobblestone appearance and positive staining with acetylated LDL labeled with 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate. Smooth muscle cells were characterized by positive staining of smooth muscle alpha-actin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. Homogeneity of the smooth muscle cells was approximately 91%. Western blot analysis showed expression of smoothelin in the cells from passages 3, 7, and 11 in A(1)WT and A(1)KO mice. Furthermore, the A(1)AR was characterized by Western blot analysis using an A(1)AR-specific antibody. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation and successful characterization of smooth muscle cells from the mouse coronary system.

  9. Up-regulation of striatal adenosine A2A receptors with iron deficiency in rats. Effects on locomotion and cortico-striatal neurotransmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, César; Pearson, Virginia; Gulyani, Seema; Allen, Richard; Earley, Christopher; Ferré, Sergi

    2010-01-01

    Brain iron deficiency leads to altered dopaminergic function in experimental animals, which can provide a mechanistic explanation for iron deficiency-related human sensory-motor disorders, such as Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). However, mechanisms linking both conditions have not been determined. Considering the strong modulation exerted by adenosine on dopamine signaling, one connection could involve changes in adenosine receptor expression or function. In the striatum, presynaptic A2A receptors are localized in glutamatergic terminals contacting GABAergic dynorphinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by the ability of A2A receptor antagonists to block the motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Postsynaptic A2A receptors are localized in the dendritic field of GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by studying the ability of A2A receptor antagonists to produce locomotor activity and to counteract striatal ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Increased density of striatal A2A receptors was found in rats fed during three weeks with an iron-deficient diet during the post-weaning period. In iron-deficient rats, the selective A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3, at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg, was more effective at blocking motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation (presynaptic A2A receptor-mediated effect) and at enhancing locomotor activation and blocking striatal ERK phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation (postsynaptic A2A receptor-mediated effects). These results indicate that brain iron deficiency induces a functional up-regulation of both striatal pre- and postsynaptic A2A receptor, which could be involved in sensory-motor disorders associated with iron deficiency such as RLS. PMID:20385128

  10. Up-regulation of striatal adenosine A(2A) receptors with iron deficiency in rats: effects on locomotion and cortico-striatal neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, César; Pearson, Virginia; Gulyani, Seema; Allen, Richard; Earley, Christopher; Ferré, Sergi

    2010-07-01

    Brain iron deficiency leads to altered dopaminergic function in experimental animals, which can provide a mechanistic explanation for iron deficiency-related human sensory-motor disorders, such as Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). However, mechanisms linking both conditions have not been determined. Considering the strong modulation exerted by adenosine on dopamine signaling, one connection could involve changes in adenosine receptor expression or function. In the striatum, presynaptic A(2A) receptors are localized in glutamatergic terminals contacting GABAergic dynorphinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by the ability of A(2A) receptor antagonists to block the motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Postsynaptic A(2A) receptors are localized in the dendritic field of GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by studying the ability of A(2A) receptor antagonists to produce locomotor activity and to counteract striatal ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Increased density of striatal A(2A) receptors was found in rats fed during 3 weeks with an iron-deficient diet during the post-weaning period. In iron-deficient rats, the selective A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3, at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg, was more effective at blocking motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation (presynaptic A(2A) receptor-mediated effect) and at enhancing locomotor activation and blocking striatal ERK phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation (postsynaptic A(2A) receptor-mediated effects). These results indicate that brain iron deficiency induces a functional up-regulation of both striatal pre- and postsynaptic A(2A) receptor, which could be involved in sensory-motor disorders associated with iron deficiency such as RLS. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Adenosine Receptors As Drug Targets for Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Alencar, Allan K. N.; Montes, Guilherme C.; Barreiro, Eliezer J.; Sudo, Roberto T.; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a clinical condition characterized by pulmonary arterial remodeling and vasoconstriction, which promote chronic vessel obstruction and elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance. Long-term right ventricular (RV) overload leads to RV dysfunction and failure, which are the main determinants of life expectancy in PAH subjects. Therapeutic options for PAH remain limited, despite the introduction of prostacyclin analogs, endothelin receptor antagonists, pho...

  12. Adenosine A(2A receptors measured with [C]TMSX PET in the striata of Parkinson's disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Mishina

    Full Text Available Adenosine A(2A receptors (A2ARs are thought to interact negatively with the dopamine D(2 receptor (D2R, so selective A2AR antagonists have attracted attention as novel treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD. However, no information about the receptor in living patients with PD is available. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between A2ARs and the dopaminergic system in the striata of drug-naïve PD patients and PD patients with dyskinesia, and alteration of these receptors after antiparkinsonian therapy. We measured binding ability of striatal A2ARs using positron emission tomography (PET with [7-methyl-(11C]-(E-8-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl-1,3,7-trimethylxanthine ([(11C]TMSX in nine drug-naïve patients with PD, seven PD patients with mild dyskinesia and six elderly control subjects using PET. The patients and eight normal control subjects were also examined for binding ability of dopamine transporters and D2Rs. Seven of the drug-naïve patients underwent a second series of PET scans following therapy. We found that the distribution volume ratio of A2ARs in the putamen were larger in the dyskinesic patients than in the control subjects (p<0.05, Tukey-Kramer post hoc test. In the drug-naïve patients, the binding ability of the A2ARs in the putamen, but not in the head of caudate nucleus, was significantly lower on the more affected side than on the less affected side (p<0.05, paired t-test. In addition, the A2ARs were significantly increased after antiparkinsonian therapy in the bilateral putamen of the drug-naïve patients (p<0.05, paired t-test but not in the bilateral head of caudate nucleus. Our study demonstrated that the A2ARs in the putamen were increased in the PD patients with dyskinesia, and also suggest that the A2ARs in the putamen compensate for the asymmetrical decrease of dopamine in drug-naïve PD patients and that antiparkinsonian therapy increases the A2ARs in the putamen. The A2ARs may play an

  13. A selection fit mechanism in BMP receptor IA as a possible source for BMP ligand-receptor promiscuity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Harth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Members of the TGF-β superfamily are characterized by a highly promiscuous ligand-receptor interaction as is readily apparent from the numeral discrepancy of only seven type I and five type II receptors available for more than 40 ligands. Structural and functional studies have been used to address the question of how specific signals can be deduced from a limited number of receptor combinations and to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the protein-protein recognition that allow such limited specificity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we have investigated how an antigen binding antibody fragment (Fab raised against the extracellular domain of the BMP receptor type IA (BMPR-IA recognizes the receptor's BMP-2 binding epitope and thereby neutralizes BMP-2 receptor activation. The crystal structure of the complex of the BMPR-IA ectodomain bound to the Fab AbD1556 revealed that the contact surface of BMPR-IA overlaps extensively with the contact surface for BMP-2 interaction. Although the structural epitopes of BMPR-IA to both binding partners coincides, the structures of BMPR-IA in the two complexes differ significantly. In contrast to the structural differences, alanine-scanning mutagenesis of BMPR-IA showed that the functional determinants for binding to the antibody and BMP-2 are almost identical. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing the structures of BMPR-IA bound to BMP-2 or bound to the Fab AbD1556 with the structure of unbound BMPR-IA shows that binding of BMPR-IA to its interaction partners follows a selection fit mechanism, possibly indicating that the ligand promiscuity of BMPR-IA is inherently encoded by structural adaptability. The functional and structural analysis of the BMPR-IA binding antibody AbD1556 mimicking the BMP-2 binding epitope may thus pave the way for the design of low-molecular weight synthetic receptor binders/inhibitors.

  14. Ligand-specific conformational changes in the alpha1 glycine receptor ligand-binding domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Lynch, Joseph W

    2009-01-01

    , and by the antagonist, strychnine. Voltage-clamp fluorometry involves labeling introduced cysteines with environmentally sensitive fluorophores and inferring structural rearrangements from ligand-induced fluorescence changes. In the inner beta-sheet, we labeled residues in loop 2 and in binding domain loops D and E....... At each position, strychnine and glycine induced distinct maximal fluorescence responses. The pre-M1 domain responded similarly; at each of four labeled positions glycine produced a strong fluorescence signal, whereas strychnine did not. This suggests that glycine induces conformational changes...... in the inner beta-sheet and pre-M1 domain that may be important for activation, desensitization, or both. In contrast, most labeled residues in loops C and F yielded fluorescence changes identical in magnitude for glycine and strychnine. A notable exception was H201C in loop C. This labeled residue responded...

  15. Complex pharmacology of novel allosteric free fatty acid 3 receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Brian D; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Murdoch, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the roles of the short chain fatty acid receptor, free fatty acid 3 receptor (FFA3), has been severely limited by the low potency of its endogenous ligands, the crossover of function of these on the closely related free fatty acid 2 receptor, and a dearth of FFA3-selective synthetic......, considerable care must be taken to define the pharmacological characteristics of specific compounds before useful predictions of their activity and their use in defining specific roles of FFA3 in either in vitro and in vivo settings can be made....

  16. Structural basis for AMPA receptor activation and ligand selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogner, A; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm Jensen; Jin, R

    2002-01-01

    Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter within the mammalian CNS, playing an important role in many different functions in the brain such as learning and memory. In this study, a combination of molecular biology, X-ray structure determinations, as well as electrophysiology and bind......Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter within the mammalian CNS, playing an important role in many different functions in the brain such as learning and memory. In this study, a combination of molecular biology, X-ray structure determinations, as well as electrophysiology...... correlation between domain closure and efficacy has been obtained from electrophysiology experiments undertaken on non-desensitising GluR2i(Q)-L483Y receptors expressed in oocytes, providing strong evidence that receptor activation occurs as a result of domain closure. The structural results, combined...

  17. Foreign or Domestic CARs: Receptor Ligands as Antigen-Binding Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R. Shaffer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs are increasingly being used in clinical trials to treat a variety of malignant conditions and recent results with CD19-specific CARs showing complete tumor regressions has sparked the interest of researchers and the public alike. Traditional CARs have been generated using single-chain variable fragments (scFv, often derived from murine monoclonal antibodies, for antigen specificity. As the clinical experience with CAR T cells grows, so does the potential for unwanted immune responses against the foreign transgene. Strategies that may reduce the immunogenicity of CAR T cells are humanization of the scFv and the use of naturally occurring receptor ligands as antigen-binding domains. Herein, we review the experience with alternatively designed CARs that contain receptor ligands rather than scFv. While most of the experiences have been in the pre-clinical setting, clinical data is also emerging.

  18. Preclinical tools in PET-tracer development : automatisation and biopharmaceutical evaluation with special emphasis on the adenosine A3 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusler, D. I. B.

    2010-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is the first choice technology for the visualization and quantification of receptors and transporters, enabling examination of e.g. neurological, psychiatric and oncological diseases on a molecular level. Therefore, new and innovative PET-radiopharmaceuticals need to be developed to get further insights into the biochemical mechanisms involved in pathological changes. PET-tracer development starts with the idea or modelling of the chemical structure of a (new) molecule with (hopefully) good binding characteristics to the desired target site. As next steps, the compound needs to be synthesized and radiolabelled with a suitable PET-nuclide. Then it has to be evaluated regarding its parameters in various preclinical experimental settings. Hence, two major tools are crucial in the development-process of new PET-tracers: 1) a fast and reliable production method, most desirable and optimal in an automated set-up, and 2) proof of tracer suitability (high affinity, high selectivity and specificity, beside low unspecific binding) through preclinical evaluation in an animal model, prior to human application. Both aspects, the radiochemical preparation and automatisation, as well as the biopharmaceutical evaluation are presented in the thesis in 5 different manuscripts. In detail, the development and preclinical evaluation of 4 different PET-tracers ([11C]DASB, [18F]FE SUPPY, [18F]FE SUPPY:2, and [18F]FE CIT) for 3 targets, the serotonin transporter (SERT), the adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) and the dopamine transporter (DAT), respectively, are covered in the present thesis. The first manuscript presents a method for a fast, reliable and fully-automated radiosynthesis of [11C]DASB (a tracer for the imaging of the SERT in human brain in e.g. depression patients) will facilitate further clinical investigations (e.g. for the department of psychiatry and psychotherapy of the medical university of Vienna) with this tracer. [18F]FE SUPPY was

  19. Adenosine A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of in vitro prolactin secretion from the rat anterior pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L.W. Picanço-Diniz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, we demonstrated biphasic purinergic effects on prolactin (PRL secretion stimulated by an adenosine A2 agonist. In the present study, we investigated the role of the activation of adenosine A1 receptors by (R-N6-(2-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA at the pituitary level in in vitro PRL secretion. Hemipituitaries (one per cuvette in five replicates from adult male rats were incubated. Administration of R-PIA (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 µM induced a reduction of PRL secretion into the medium in a U-shaped dose-response curve. The maximal reduction was obtained with 0.1 µM R-PIA (mean ± SEM, 36.01 ± 5.53 ng/mg tissue weight (t.w. treatment compared to control (264.56 ± 15.46 ng/mg t.w.. R-PIA inhibition (0.01 µM = 141.97 ± 15.79 vs control = 244.77 ± 13.79 ng/mg t.w. of PRL release was blocked by 1 µM cyclopentyltheophylline, a specific A1 receptor antagonist (1 µM = 212.360 ± 26.560 ng/mg t.w., whereas cyclopentyltheophylline alone (0.01, 0.1, 1 µM had no effect. R-PIA (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 µM produced inhibition of PRL secretion stimulated by both phospholipase C (0.5 IU/mL; 977.44 ± 76.17 ng/mg t.w. and dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM; 415.93 ± 37.66 ng/mg t.w. with nadir established at the dose of 0.1 µM (225.55 ± 71.42 and 201.9 ± 19.08 ng/mg t.w., respectively. Similarly, R-PIA (0.01 µM decreased (242.00 ± 24.00 ng/mg t.w. the PRL secretion stimulated by cholera toxin (0.5 mg/mL; 1050.00 ± 70.00 ng/mg t.w.. In contrast, R-PIA had no effect (468.00 ± 34.00 ng/mg t.w. on PRL secretion stimulation by pertussis toxin (0.5 mg/mL; 430.00 ± 26.00 ng/mg t.w.. These results suggest that inhibition of PRL secretion after A1 receptor activation by R-PIA is mediated by a Gi protein-dependent mechanism.

  20. Aqueous and Ethanolic Valeriana officinalis Extracts Change the Binding of Ligands to Glutamate Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M.; Cordero-Hernández, José M.; González-Medina, Giselle; Ramos-Vélez, Igmeris; Berríos-Cartagena, Nairimer; Torres-Hernández, Bianca A.; Ortíz, José G.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of two valerian extracts (aqueous and hydroalcoholic) were investigated through [3H]Glutamate ([3H]Glu) and [3H]Fluorowillardine ([3H]FW) receptor binding assays using rat synaptic membranes in presence of different receptor ligands. In addition, the extract stability was monitored spectrophotometrically. Both extracts demonstrated interaction with ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). However, the extracts displayed considerable differences in receptor selectivity. The hydroalcoholic extract selectively interacted with quisqualic acid (QA), group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) ligand, while the aqueous extract did not alter the binding of QA. The stability of the extracts was examined during several weeks. Freshly prepared extract inhibited 38–60% of [3H]FW binding (AMPA). After 10 days, the aqueous extract inhibited 85% of [3H]FW binding while the hydroalcoholic extract markedly potentiated (200%) [3H]FW binding to AMPA receptors. Thus, our results showed that factors such as extraction solvent and extract stability determine the selectivity for glutamate receptor (GluR) interactions. PMID:21151614

  1. A strategy using NMR peptide structures of thromboxane A2 receptor as templates to construct ligand-recognition pocket of prostacyclin receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruan Ke-He

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Prostacyclin receptor (IP and thromboxane A2 receptor (TP belong to rhodopsin-type G protein-coupling receptors and respectively bind to prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 derived from arachidonic acid. Recently, we have determined the extracellular loop (eLP structures of the human TP receptor by 2-D 1H NMR spectroscopy using constrained peptides mimicking the individual eLP segments. The studies have identified the segment along with several residues in the eLP domains important to ligand recognition, as well as proposed a ligand recognition pocket for the TP receptor. Results: The IP receptor shares a similar primary structure in the eLPs with those of the TP receptor. Forty percent residues in the second eLPs of the receptors are identical, which is the major region involved in forming the ligand recognition pocket in the TP receptor. Based on the high homology score, the eLP domains of the IP receptor were constructed by the homology modeling approach using the NMR structures of the TP eLPs as templates, and then configured to the seven transmembrane (TM domains model constructed using the crystal structure of the bovine rhodopsin as a template. A NMR structure of iloprost was docked into the modeled IP ligand recognition pocket. After dynamic studies, the segments and residues involved in the IP ligand recognition were proposed. A key residue, Arg173 involved in the ligand recognition for the IP receptor, as predicted from the modeling, was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. Conclusion: A 3-D model of the human IP receptor was constructed by homology modeling using the crystal structure of bovine rhodopsin TM domains and the NMR structures of the synthetic constrained peptides of the eLP domains of the TP receptor as templates. This strategy can be applied to molecular modeling and the prediction of ligand recognition pockets for other prostanoid receptors.

  2. Acetylation of pregnane X receptor protein determines selective function independent of ligand activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Arunima; Pasquel, Danielle; Tyagi, Rakesh Kumar; Mani, Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Pregnane X receptor (PXR), a major regulatory protein, is modified by acetylation. → PXR undergoes dynamic deacetylation upon ligand-mediated activation. → SIRT1 partially mediates PXR deacetylation. → PXR deacetylation per se induces lipogenesis mimicking ligand-mediated activation. -- Abstract: Pregnane X receptor (PXR), like other members of its class of nuclear receptors, undergoes post-translational modification [PTM] (e.g., phosphorylation). However, it is unknown if acetylation (a major and common form of protein PTM) is observed on PXR and, if it is, whether it is of functional consequence. PXR has recently emerged as an important regulatory protein with multiple ligand-dependent functions. In the present work we show that PXR is indeed acetylated in vivo. SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1), a NAD-dependent class III histone deacetylase and a member of the sirtuin family of proteins, partially mediates deacetylation of PXR. Most importantly, the acetylation status of PXR regulates its selective function independent of ligand activation.

  3. A multi-protein receptor-ligand complex underlies combinatorial dendrite guidance choices in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Shen, Ao; Dong, Xintong; Tugizova, Madina; Xiang, Yang K; Shen, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Ligand receptor interactions instruct axon guidance during development. How dendrites are guided to specific targets is less understood. The C. elegans PVD sensory neuron innervates muscle-skin interface with its elaborate dendritic branches. Here, we found that LECT-2, the ortholog of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2), is secreted from the muscles and required for muscle innervation by PVD. Mosaic analyses showed that LECT-2 acted locally to guide the growth of terminal branches. Ectopic expression of LECT-2 from seam cells is sufficient to redirect the PVD dendrites onto seam cells. LECT-2 functions in a multi-protein receptor-ligand complex that also contains two transmembrane ligands on the skin, SAX-7/L1CAM and MNR-1, and the neuronal transmembrane receptor DMA-1. LECT-2 greatly enhances the binding between SAX-7, MNR-1 and DMA-1. The activation of DMA-1 strictly requires all three ligands, which establishes a combinatorial code to precisely target and pattern dendritic arbors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18345.001 PMID:27705746

  4. Adenosine A{sub 2A} receptor imaging with [{sup 11}C]KF18446 PET in the rat brain after quinolinic acid lesion. Comparison with the dopamine receptor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ogi, Nobuo; Hayakawa, Nobutaka [Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Gerontology, Tokyo (Japan). Positron Medical Center] [and others

    2002-11-01

    We proposed [{sup 11}C]KF18446 as a selective radioligand for mapping the adenosine A{sub 2A} receptors being highly enriched in the striatum by positron emission tomography (PET). In the present study, we investigated whether [{sup 11}C]KF18446 PET can detect the change in the striatal adenosine A{sub 2A} receptors in the rat after unilateral injection of an excitotoxin quinolinic acid into the striatum, a Huntington's disease model, to demonstrate the usefulness of [{sup 11}C]KF18446. The extent of the striatal lesion was identified based on MRI, to which the PET was co-registered. The binding potential of [{sup 11}C]KF18446 significantly decreased in the quinolinic acid-lesioned striatum. The decrease was comparable to the decrease in the potential of [{sup 11}C] raclopride binding to dopamine D{sub 2} receptors in the lesioned striatum, but seemed to be larger than the decrease in the potential of [{sup 11}C]SCH23390 binding to dopamine D{sub 1} receptors. Ex vivo and in vitro autoradiography validated the PET signals. We concluded that [{sup 11}C]KF18446 PET can detect change in the adenosine A{sub 2A} receptors in the rat model, and will provide a new diagnostic tool for characterizing post-synaptic striatopallidal neurons in the stratum. (author)

  5. Ligand-induced internalization of the type 1 cholecystokinin receptor independent of recognized signaling activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawston, Erin E; Harikumar, Kaleeckal G; Miller, Laurence J

    2012-02-01

    Receptor ligands, identified as antagonists, based on the absence of stimulation of signaling, can rarely stimulate receptor internalization. d-Tyr-Gly-[(Nle(28,31),d-Trp(30))CCK-26-32]-2-phenylethyl ester (d-Trp-OPE) is such a ligand that binds to the cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor and stimulates internalization. Here, the molecular basis of this trafficking event is explored, with the assumption that ligand binding initiates conformational change, exposing an epitope to direct endocytosis. Ligand-stimulated internalization was studied morphologically using fluorescent CCK and d-Trp-OPE. d-Trp-OPE occupation of Chinese hamster ovary cell receptors stimulated internalization into the same region as CCK. Arrestin-biased action was ruled out using morphological translocation of fluorescent arrestin 2 and arrestin 3, moving to the membrane in response to CCK, but not d-Trp-OPE. Possible roles of the carboxyl terminus were studied using truncated receptor constructs, eliminating the proline-rich distal tail, the serine/threonine-rich midregion, and the remainder to the vicinal cysteines. None of these constructs disrupted d-Trp-OPE-stimulated internalization. Possible contributions of transmembrane segments were studied using competitive inhibition with peptides that also had no effect. Intracellular regions were studied with a similar strategy using coexpressing cell lines. Peptides corresponding to ends of each loop region were studied, with only the peptide at the carboxyl end of the third loop inhibiting d-Trp-OPE-stimulated internalization but having no effect on CCK-stimulated internalization. The region contributing to this effect was refined to peptide 309-323, located below the recognized G protein-association motif. While a receptor in which this segment was deleted did internalize in response to d-Trp-OPE, it exhibited abnormal ligand binding and did not signal in response to CCK, suggesting an abnormal conformation and possible mechanism of internalization

  6. Ligands for SPECT and PET imaging of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors of the heart and brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H. [and others

    1995-06-01

    Interest in the potential use of cerebral SPECT and PET imaging for determination of the density and activity of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors (mAChR) has been stimulated by the changes in these receptors which occur in many neurological diseases. In addition, the important involvement of mAChR in modulating negative inotropic cardiac activity suggests that such receptor ligands may have important applications in evaluation of changes which may occur in cardiac disease. In this paper, the properties of several key muscarinic receptor ligands being developed or which have been used for clinical SPECT and PET are discussed. In addition, the ORNL development of the new iodinated IQNP ligand based on QNB and the results of in vivo biodistribution studies in rats, in vitro competitive binding studies and ex vivo autoradiographic experiments are described. The use of radioiodinated IQNP may offer several advantages in comparison to IQNB because of its easy and high yield preparation and high brain uptake and the potential usefulness of the {open_quotes}partial{close_quotes} subtype selective IONP isomers. We also describe the development of new IQNP-type analogues which offer the opportunity for radiolabeling with positron-emitting radioisotopes (carbon-11, fluorine-18 and bromine-76) for potential use with PET.

  7. Molecular mechanism of ligand recognition by NR3 subtype glutamate receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yongneng; Harrison, Chris B.; Freddolino, Peter L.; Schulten, Klaus; Mayer, Mark L. (UIUC); (NIH)

    2008-10-27

    NR3 subtype glutamate receptors have a unique developmental expression profile, but are the least well-characterized members of the NMDA receptor gene family, which have key roles in synaptic plasticity and brain development. Using ligand binding assays, crystallographic analysis, and all atom MD simulations, we investigate mechanisms underlying the binding by NR3A and NR3B of glycine and D-serine, which are candidate neurotransmitters for NMDA receptors containing NR3 subunits. The ligand binding domains of both NR3 subunits adopt a similar extent of domain closure as found in the corresponding NR1 complexes, but have a unique loop 1 structure distinct from that in all other glutamate receptor ion channels. Within their ligand binding pockets, NR3A and NR3B have strikingly different hydrogen bonding networks and solvent structures from those found in NR1, and fail to undergo a conformational rearrangement observed in NR1 upon binding the partial agonist ACPC. MD simulations revealed numerous interdomain contacts, which stabilize the agonist-bound closed-cleft conformation, and a novel twisting motion for the loop 1 helix that is unique in NR3 subunits.

  8. Membrane signalling complexes: implications for development of functionally selective ligands modulating heptahelical receptor signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeyro, Graciela

    2009-02-01

    Technological development has considerably changed the way in which we evaluate drug efficacy and has led to a conceptual revolution in pharmacological theory. In particular, molecular resolution assays have revealed that heptahelical receptors may adopt multiple active conformations with unique signalling properties. It is therefore becoming widely accepted that ligand ability to stabilize receptor conformations with distinct signalling profiles may allow to direct the stimulus generated by an activated receptor towards a specific signalling pathway. This capacity to induce only a subset of the ensemble of responses regulated by a given receptor has been termed "functional selectivity" (or "stimulus trafficking"), and provides the bases for a highly specific regulation of receptor signalling. Concomitant with these observations, heptahelical receptors have been shown to associate with G proteins and effectors to form multimeric arrays. These complexes are constitutively formed during protein synthesis and are targeted to the cell surface as integral signalling units. Herein we summarize evidence supporting the existence of such constitutive signalling arrays and analyze the possibility that they may constitute viable targets for developing ligands with "functional selectivity".

  9. A2AR Binding Kinetics in the Ligand Depletion Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Patrick M; Naranjo, Andrea N; Forsten-Williams, Kimberly; Robinson, Anne Skaja

    2017-02-01

    Ligand binding plays a fundamental role in stimulating the downstream signaling of membrane receptors. Here, ligand-binding kinetics of the full-length human adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) reconstituted in detergent micelles were measured using a fluorescently labeled ligand via fluorescence anisotropy. Importantly, to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio, these experiments were conducted in the ligand depletion regime. In the ligand depletion regime, the assumptions used to determine analytical solutions for one-site binding models for either one or two ligands in competition are no longer valid. We therefore implemented a numerical solution approach to analyze kinetic binding data as experimental conditions approach the ligand depletion regime. By comparing the results from the numerical and the analytical solutions, we highlight the ligand-receptor ratios at which the analytical solution begins to lose predictive accuracy. Using the numerical solution approach, we determined the kinetic rate constants of the fluorescent ligand, FITC-APEC, and those for three unlabeled ligands using competitive association experiments. The association and dissociation rate constants of the unlabeled ligands determined from the competitive association experiments were then independently validated using competitive dissociation data. Based on this study, a numerical solution is recommended to determine kinetic ligand-binding parameters for experiments conducted in the ligand-depletion regime.

  10. IL-17 receptor A and adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency in siblings with recurrent infections and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellmann, Florence; Angelini, Federica; Wassenberg, Jacqueline; Perreau, Matthieu; Arenas Ramirez, Natalia; Simon, Gregoire; Boyman, Onur; Demaria, Olivier; Christen-Zaech, Stephanie; Hohl, Daniel; Belfiore, Marco; von Scheven-Gete, Annette; Gilliet, Michel; Bochud, Pierre-Yves; Perrin, Yannick; Beck Popovic, Maya; Bart, Pierre-Alexandre; Beckmann, Jacques S; Martinet, Danielle; Hofer, Michaël

    2016-04-01

    Data on patients affected by chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis underscore the preponderant role of IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) in preserving mucocutaneous immunity. Little is known about the role of adenosine deaminase (ADA) 2 in regulation of immune responses, although recent reports linked ADA2 deficiency with inflammation and vasculitis. We sought to investigate the mechanisms of chronic inflammation and vasculitis in a child lacking IL-17RA and ADA2 to identify therapeutic targets. We report a family with 2 siblings who have had recurrent mucocutaneous infections with Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus and chronic inflammatory disease and vasculitis since early childhood, which were refractory to classical treatments. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis showed that both siblings are homozygous for a 770-kb deletion on chr22q11.1 encompassing both IL17RA and cat eye critical region 1 (CECR1). Immunologic studies were carried out by means of flow cytometry, ELISA, and RIA. As expected, in the affected child we found a lack of IL-17RA expression, which implies a severe malfunction in the IL-17 signaling pathway, conferring susceptibility to recurrent mucocutaneous infections. Surprisingly, we detected an in vitro and in vivo upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, notably IL-1β and TNF-α, which is consistent with the persistent systemic inflammation. This work emphasizes the utility of whole-genome analyses combined with immunologic investigation in patients with unresolved immunodeficiency. This approach is likely to provide an insight into immunologic pathways and mechanisms of disease. It also provides molecular evidence for more targeted therapies. In addition, our report further corroborates a potential role of ADA2 in modulating immunity and inflammation. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Embryonic caffeine exposure acts via A1 adenosine receptors to alter adult cardiac function and DNA methylation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela L Buscariollo

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates that disruption of normal prenatal development influences an individual's risk of developing obesity and cardiovascular disease as an adult. Thus, understanding how in utero exposure to chemical agents leads to increased susceptibility to adult diseases is a critical health related issue. Our aim was to determine whether adenosine A1 receptors (A1ARs mediate the long-term effects of in utero caffeine exposure on cardiac function and whether these long-term effects are the result of changes in DNA methylation patterns in adult hearts. Pregnant A1AR knockout mice were treated with caffeine (20 mg/kg or vehicle (0.09% NaCl i.p. at embryonic day 8.5. This caffeine treatment results in serum levels equivalent to the consumption of 2-4 cups of coffee in humans. After dams gave birth, offspring were examined at 8-10 weeks of age. A1AR+/+ offspring treated in utero with caffeine were 10% heavier than vehicle controls. Using echocardiography, we observed altered cardiac function and morphology in adult mice exposed to caffeine in utero. Caffeine treatment decreased cardiac output by 11% and increased left ventricular wall thickness by 29% during diastole. Using DNA methylation arrays, we identified altered DNA methylation patterns in A1AR+/+ caffeine treated hearts, including 7719 differentially methylated regions (DMRs within the genome and an overall decrease in DNA methylation of 26%. Analysis of genes associated with DMRs revealed that many are associated with cardiac hypertrophy. These data demonstrate that A1ARs mediate in utero caffeine effects on cardiac function and growth and that caffeine exposure leads to changes in DNA methylation.

  12. Embryonic Caffeine Exposure Acts via A1 Adenosine Receptors to Alter Adult Cardiac Function and DNA Methylation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Victoria; Xue, Huiling; Rivkees, Scott A.; Wendler, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates that disruption of normal prenatal development influences an individual's risk of developing obesity and cardiovascular disease as an adult. Thus, understanding how in utero exposure to chemical agents leads to increased susceptibility to adult diseases is a critical health related issue. Our aim was to determine whether adenosine A1 receptors (A1ARs) mediate the long-term effects of in utero caffeine exposure on cardiac function and whether these long-term effects are the result of changes in DNA methylation patterns in adult hearts. Pregnant A1AR knockout mice were treated with caffeine (20 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.09% NaCl) i.p. at embryonic day 8.5. This caffeine treatment results in serum levels equivalent to the consumption of 2–4 cups of coffee in humans. After dams gave birth, offspring were examined at 8–10 weeks of age. A1AR+/+ offspring treated in utero with caffeine were 10% heavier than vehicle controls. Using echocardiography, we observed altered cardiac function and morphology in adult mice exposed to caffeine in utero. Caffeine treatment decreased cardiac output by 11% and increased left ventricular wall thickness by 29% during diastole. Using DNA methylation arrays, we identified altered DNA methylation patterns in A1AR+/+ caffeine treated hearts, including 7719 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) within the genome and an overall decrease in DNA methylation of 26%. Analysis of genes associated with DMRs revealed that many are associated with cardiac hypertrophy. These data demonstrate that A1ARs mediate in utero caffeine effects on cardiac function and growth and that caffeine exposure leads to changes in DNA methylation. PMID:24475304

  13. Quantification of adenosine A2A receptors in the human brain using [11C]TMSX and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Mika; Kimura, Yuichi; Oda, Keiichi; Ishii, Kenji; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Mishina, Masahiro; Manabe, Yoshitsugu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2007-01-01

    [7-methyl- 11 C]-(E)-8-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl)-1,3,7-trimethylxanthine ([ 11 C]TMSX) is a positron-emitting adenosine A 2A receptor (A2AR) antagonist for visualisation of A2AR distribution by positron emission tomography (PET). The aims of this paper were to use a kinetic model to analyse the behaviour of [ 11 C]TMSX in the brain and to examine the applicability of the Logan plot. We also studied the applicability of a simplified Logan plot by omitting metabolite correction and arterial blood sampling. The centrum semiovale was used as a reference region on the basis of a post-mortem study showing that it has a negligibly low density of A2ARs. Compartmental analysis was performed in five normal subjects. Parametric images of A2AR binding potential (BP) were also generated using a Logan plot with or without metabolite correction and with or without arterial blood sampling. To omit arterial blood sampling, we applied a method to extract the plasma-related information using independent component analysis (EPICA). The estimated K 1 /k 2 was confirmed to be common in the centrum semiovale and main cortices. The three-compartment model was well fitted to the other regions using the fixed value of K 1 /k 2 estimated from the centrum semiovale. The estimated BPs using the Logan plot matched those derived from compartment analysis. Without the metabolite correction, the estimate of BP underestimated the true value by 5%. The estimated BPs agreed regardless of arterial blood sampling. A three-compartment model with a reference region, the centrum semiovale, describes the kinetic behaviour of [ 11 C]TMSX PET images. A2ARs in the human brain can be visualised as a BP image using [ 11 C]TMSX PET without arterial blood sampling. (orig.)

  14. METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE TYPE 5, DOPAMINE D2 AND ADENOSINE A2A RECEPTORS FORM HIGHER-ORDER OLIGOMERS IN LIVING CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Nuria; Gandía, Jorge; Bertarelli, Daniela C. G.; Watanabe, Masahiko; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; Ferré, Sergi; Luján, Rafael; Ciruela, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are known to form homo- and heteromers at the plasma membrane, but the stoichiometry of these receptor oligomers are relatively unknown. Here, by using bimolecular fluorescence complementation, we visualized for the first time the occurrence of heterodimers of metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 receptors (mGlu5R) and dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in living cells. Furthermore, the combination of bimolecular fluorescence complementation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer techniques, as well as the sequential resonance energy transfer (SRET) technique, allowed us to detect the occurrence receptor oligomers containing more than two protomers, mGlu5R, D2R and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). Interestingly, by using high-resolution immunoelectron microscopy we could confirm that the three receptors co-distribute within the extrasynaptic plasma membrane of the same dendritic spines of asymmetrical, putative glutamatergic, striatal synapses. Also, co-immunoprecipitation experiments in native tissue demonstrated the existence of an association of mGlu5R, D2R and A2AR in rat striatum homogenates. Overall, these results provide new insights into the molecular composition of G protein-coupled receptor oligomers in general and the mGlu5R/D2R/A2AR oligomer in particular, a receptor oligomer that might constitute an important target for the treatment of some neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19344374

  15. Evidence that Argos is an antagonistic ligand of the EGF receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinós, J; Freeman, M

    2000-07-20

    Argos, the inhibitor of the Drosophila epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, remains the only known extracellular inhibitor of this family of receptors in any organism. The functional domain of Argos includes an atypical EGF domain and it is not clear whether it binds to the EGF receptor or if it acts via a distinct receptor to reduce Egfr activity indirectly. Here we present two lines of evidence that strongly suggest that Argos directly interacts with the EGF receptor. First, Argos is unable to inhibit a chimeric receptor that contains an extracellular domain from an unrelated RTK, indicating the need for the EGF receptor extracellular domain. Second, Argos can inhibit the Drosophila EGF receptor even when expressed in human cells, implying that no other Drosophila protein is necessary for inhibition. We also report that Argos and the Drosophila activating ligand, Spitz, can influence mammalian RTK activation, albeit in a cell-type specific manner. This includes the first evidence that Argos can inhibit signalling in mammalian cells, raising the possibility of engineering an effective human EGF receptor/ErbB antagonist. Oncogene (2000) 19, 3560 - 3562

  16. Repeated administration of adenosine increases its cardiovascular effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrio, H; García-Márquez, F; Magos, G A

    1987-01-20

    Hypotensive and negative chronotropic responses to adenosine in anesthetized rats increased after previous administration of the nucleoside. Bradycardia after adenosine in the isolated perfused rat heart was also potentiated after repeated administration at short intervals. This self-potentiation could be due to extracellular accumulation of adenosine and persistent stimulation of receptors caused by saturation or inhibition of cellular uptake of adenosine.

  17. Preparation and evaluation of an astatine-211-labeled sigma receptor ligand for alpha radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kazuma; Mizuno, Yoshiaki; Washiyama, Kohshin; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Naruto; Kozaka, Takashi; Watanabe, Shigeki; Shinohara, Atsushi; Odani, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sigma receptors are overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, making them potential targets for radionuclide receptor therapy. We have previously synthesized and evaluated 131 I-labeled (+)-2-[4-(4-iodophenyl)piperidino]cyclohexanol [(+)-[ 131 I]pIV], which has a high affinity for sigma receptors. Therefore, (+)-[ 131 I]pIV significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in tumor-bearing mice. In the present study, we report the synthesis and the in vitro and in vivo characterization of (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV, an 211 At-labeled sigma receptor ligand, that has potential use in alpha-radionuclide receptor therapy. Methods: The radiolabeled sigma receptor ligand (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV was prepared using a standard halogenation reaction generating a 91% radiochemical yield with 98% purity after HPLC purification. The partition coefficient of (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV was measured. Cellular uptake experiments and in vivo biodistribution experiments were performed using a mixed solution of (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV and (+)-[ 125 I]pIV; the human prostate cancer cell line DU-145, which expresses high levels of the sigma receptors, and DU-145 tumor-bearing mice. Results: The lipophilicity of (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV was similar to that of (+)-[ 125 I]pIV. DU-145 cellular uptake and the biodistribution patterns in DU-145 tumor-bearing mice at 1 h post-injection were also similar between (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV and (+)-[ 125 I]pIV. Namely, (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV demonstrated high uptake and retention in tumor via binding to sigma receptors. Conclusion: These results indicate that (+)-[ 211 At]pAtV could function as an new agent for alpha-radionuclide receptor therapy.

  18. Preparation and evaluation of an astatine-211-labeled sigma receptor ligand for alpha radionuclide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazuma; Mizuno, Yoshiaki; Washiyama, Kohshin; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Naruto; Kozaka, Takashi; Watanabe, Shigeki; Shinohara, Atsushi; Odani, Akira

    2015-11-01

    Sigma receptors are overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, making them potential targets for radionuclide receptor therapy. We have previously synthesized and evaluated (131)I-labeled (+)-2-[4-(4-iodophenyl)piperidino]cyclohexanol [(+)-[(131)I]pIV], which has a high affinity for sigma receptors. Therefore, (+)-[(131)I]pIV significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in tumor-bearing mice. In the present study, we report the synthesis and the in vitro and in vivo characterization of (+)-[(211)At]pAtV, an (211)At-labeled sigma receptor ligand, that has potential use in alpha-radionuclide receptor therapy. The radiolabeled sigma receptor ligand (+)-[(211)At]pAtV was prepared using a standard halogenation reaction generating a 91% radiochemical yield with 98% purity after HPLC purification. The partition coefficient of (+)-[(211)At]pAtV was measured. Cellular uptake experiments and in vivo biodistribution experiments were performed using a mixed solution of (+)-[(211)At]pAtV and (+)-[(125)I]pIV; the human prostate cancer cell line DU-145, which expresses high levels of the sigma receptors, and DU-145 tumor-bearing mice. The lipophilicity of (+)-[(211)At]pAtV was similar to that of (+)-[(125)I]pIV. DU-145 cellular uptake and the biodistribution patterns in DU-145 tumor-bearing mice at 1h post-injection were also similar between (+)-[(211)At]pAtV and (+)-[(125)I]pIV. Namely, (+)-[(211)At]pAtV demonstrated high uptake and retention in tumor via binding to sigma receptors. These results indicate that (+)-[(211)At]pAtV could function as an new agent for alpha-radionuclide receptor therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Age dependent accumulation patterns of advanced glycation end product receptor (RAGE) ligands and binding intensities between RAGE and its ligands differ in the liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Myeongjoo; Chung, Wook-Jin; Oh, Seyeon; Ahn, Hyosang; Choi, Chang Hu; Hong, Suntaek; Park, Kook Yang; Son, Kuk Hui; Byun, Kyunghee

    2017-01-01

    Much evidence indicates receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) related inflammation play essential roles during aging. However, the majority of studies have focused on advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and not on other RAGE ligands. In the present study, the authors evaluated whether the accumulation of RAGE ligands and binding intensities between RAGE and its ligands differ in kidney, liver, and skeletal muscle during aging. In C57BL/6 N mice aged 12 weeks, 12 months, and 22 months, ligands accumulation, binding intensities between RAGE and its ligands, activated macrophage infiltration, M1/M2 macrophage expression, glyoxalase-1expression, and signal pathways related to inflammation were evaluated. The RAGE ligands age-associated accumulation patterns were found to be organ dependent. Binding intensities between RAGE and its ligands in kidney and liver increased with age, but those in skeletal muscle were unchanged. Infiltration of activated macrophages in kidney and liver increased with age, but infiltration in the skeletal muscle was unchanged. M1 expression increased and M2 and glyoxalase-1 expression decreased with age in kidney and liver, but their expressions in skeletal muscle were not changed. These findings indicate patterns of RAGE ligands accumulation, RAGE/ligands binding intensities, or inflammation markers changes during aging are organs dependent.

  20. A Structural Switch between Agonist and Antagonist Bound Conformations for a Ligand-Optimized Model of the Human Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligand Binding Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arden Perkins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates the expression of a diverse group of genes. Exogenous AHR ligands include the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, which is a potent agonist, and the synthetic AHR antagonist N-2-(1H-indol-3ylethyl-9-isopropyl-2- (5-methylpyridin-3-yl-9H-purin-6-amine (GNF351. As no experimentally determined structure of the ligand binding domain exists, homology models have been utilized for virtual ligand screening (VLS to search for novel ligands. Here, we have developed an “agonist-optimized” homology model of the human AHR ligand binding domain, and this model aided in the discovery of two human AHR agonists by VLS. In addition, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of an agonist TCDD-bound and antagonist GNF351-bound version of this model in order to gain insights into the mechanics of the AHR ligand-binding pocket. These simulations identified residues 307–329 as a flexible segment of the AHR ligand pocket that adopts discrete conformations upon agonist or antagonist binding. This flexible segment of the AHR may act as a structural switch that determines the agonist or antagonist activity of a given AHR ligand.

  1. New insights into the GABAA receptor structure and orthosteric ligand binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Tommy; Frølund, Bente Flensborg; Bruun, Anne Techau

    2011-01-01

    GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A) Rs) are ligand gated chloride ion channels that mediate overall inhibitory signaling in the CNS. A detailed understanding of their structure is important to gain insights in, e.g., ligand binding and functional properties of this pharmaceutically important target....... Homology modeling is a necessary tool in this regard because experimentally determined structures are lacking. Here we present an exhaustive approach for creating a high quality model of the a(1) ß(2) ¿(2) subtype of the GABA(A) R ligand binding domain, and we demonstrate its usefulness in understanding......, and its stability in molecular dynamics (MD) compared with that of the two homologous crystal structures. We then combined the model with extensive structure-activity relationships available from two homologous series of orthosteric GABA(A) R antagonists to create a detailed hypothesis for their binding...

  2. Peptides identify multiple hotspots within the ligand binding domain of the TNF receptor 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennick Michael

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hotspots are defined as the minimal functional domains involved in protein:protein interactions and sufficient to induce a biological response. Results Here we describe the use of complex and high diversity phage display libraries to isolate peptides (called Hotspot Ligands or HSPLs which sub-divide the ligand binding domain of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2; p75 into multiple hotspots. We have shown that these libraries could generate HSPLs which not only subdivide hotspots on protein and non-protein targets but act as agonists or antagonists. Using this approach, we generated peptides which were specific for human TNFR2, could be competed by the natural ligands, TNFα and TNFβ and induced an unexpected biological response in a TNFR2-specific manner. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the dissection of the TNFR2 into biologically active hotspots with the concomitant identification of a novel and unexpected biological activity.

  3. 2',3'-cAMP, 3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine inhibit TNF-α and CXCL10 production from activated primary murine microglia via A2A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Elizabeth A; Exo, Jennifer L; Verrier, Jonathan D; Jackson, Travis C; Gillespie, Delbert G; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Kochanek, Patrick M; Jackson, Edwin K

    2015-01-12

    Some cells, tissues and organs release 2',3'-cAMP (a positional isomer of 3',5'-cAMP) and convert extracellular 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP plus 3'-AMP and convert these AMPs to adenosine (called the extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway). Recent studies show that microglia have an extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway could have functional consequences on the production of cytokines/chemokines by activated microglia. Experiments were conducted in cultures of primary murine microglia. In the first experiment, the effect of 2',3'-cAMP, 3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine on LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production was determined. In the next experiment, the first protocol was replicated but with the addition of 1,3-dipropyl-8-p-sulfophenylxanthine (DPSPX) (0.1 μM; antagonist of adenosine receptors). The last experiment compared the ability of 2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) (10 μM; selective A1 agonist), 5'-N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine (NECA) (10 μM; agonist for all adenosine receptor subtypes) and CGS21680 (10 μM; selective A2A agonist) to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production. (1) 2',3'-cAMP, 3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine similarly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production; (2) DPSPX nearly eliminated the inhibitory effects of 2',3'-cAMP, 3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine on LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production; (3) CCPA did not affect LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10; (4) NECA and CGS21680 similarly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production. 2',3'-cAMP and its metabolites (3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine) inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production via A2A-receptor activation. Adenosine and its precursors, via A2A receptors, likely suppress TNF-α and CXCL10 production by activated microglia in brain diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 2’,3’-cAMP, 3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and Adenosine Inhibit TNF-α and CXCL10 Production From Activated Primary Murine Microglia via A2A Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Elizabeth A.; Exo, Jennifer L.; Verrier, Jonathan D.; Jackson, Travis C.; Gillespie, Delbert G.; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Kochanek, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Some cells, tissues and organs release 2’,3’-cAMP (a positional isomer of 3’,5’-cAMP) and convert extracellular 2’,3’-cAMP to 2’-AMP plus 3’-AMP and convert these AMPs to adenosine (called the extracellular 2’,3’-cAMP-adenosine pathway). Recent studies show that microglia have an extracellular 2’,3’-cAMP-adenosine pathway. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the extracellular 2’,3’-cAMP-adenosine pathway could have functional consequences on the production of cytokines/chemokines by activated microglia. Methods Experiments were conducted in cultures of primary murine microglia. In the first experiment, the effect of 2’,3’-cAMP, 3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and adenosine on LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production was determined. In the next experiment, the first protocol was replicated but with the addition of 1,3-dipropyl-8-p-sulfophenylxanthine (DPSPX) (0.1 µM; antagonist of adenosine receptors). The last experiment compared the ability of 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) (10 µM; selective A1 agonist), 5’-N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine (NECA) (10 µM; agonist for all adenosine receptor subtypes) and CGS21680 (10 µM; selective A2A agonist) to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production. Results 1) 2’,3’-cAMP, 3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and adenosine similarly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production; 2) DPSPX nearly eliminated the inhibitory effects of 2’,3’-cAMP, 3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and adenosine on LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production; 3) CCPA did not affect LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10; 4) NECA and CGS21680 similarly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production. Conclusions 2’,3’-cAMP and its metabolites (3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and adenosine) inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production via A2A-receptor activation. Adenosine and its precursors, via A2A receptors, likely suppress TNF-α and CXCL10 production by activated microglia in brain diseases. PMID:25451117

  5. Adenosine A₂A receptors in striatal glutamatergic terminals and GABAergic neurons oppositely modulate psychostimulant action and DARPP-32 phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Ying Shen

    Full Text Available Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR are located postsynaptically in striatopallidal GABAergic neurons, antagonizing dopamine D2 receptor functions, and are also located presynaptically at corticostriatal terminals, facilitating glutamate release. To address the hypothesis that these two A2AR populations differently control the action of psychostimulants, we characterized A2AR modulation of cocaine-induced effects at the level of DARPP-32 phosphorylation at Thr-34 and Thr-75, c-Fos expression, and psychomotor activity using two lines of cell-type selective A2AR knockout (KO mice with selective A2AR deletion in GABAergic neurons (striatum-A2AR-KO mice, or with A2AR deletion in both striatal GABAergic neurons and projecting cortical glutamatergic neurons (forebrain-A2AR-KO mice. We demonstrated that striatum-A2AR KO mice lacked A2ARs exclusively in striatal GABAergic terminals whereas forebrain-A2AR KO mice lacked A2ARs in both striatal GABAergic and glutamatergic terminals leading to a blunted A2AR-mediated facilitation of synaptosomal glutamate release. The inactivation of A2ARs in GABAergic neurons reduced striatal DARPP-32 phosphorylation at Thr-34 and increased its phosphorylation at Thr-75. Conversely, the additional deletion of corticostriatal glutamatergic A2ARs produced opposite effects on DARPP-32 phosphorylation at Thr-34 and Thr-75. This distinct modulation of DARPP-32 phosphorylation was associated with opposite responses to cocaine-induced striatal c-Fos expression and psychomotor activity in striatum-A2AR KO (enhanced and forebrain-A2AR KO mice (reduced. Thus, A2ARs in glutamatergic corticostriatal terminals and in GABAergic striatal neurons modulate the action of psychostimulants and DARPP-32 phosphorylation in opposite ways. We conclude that A2ARs in glutamatergic terminals prominently control the action of psychostimulants and define a novel mechanism by which A2ARs fine-tune striatal activity by integrating GABAergic, dopaminergic and

  6. Titration ELISA as a Method to Determine the Dissociation Constant of Receptor Ligand Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eble, Johannes A

    2018-02-15

    The dissociation constant describes the interaction between two partners in the binding equilibrium and is a measure of their affinity. It is a crucial parameter to compare different ligands, e.g., competitive inhibitors, protein isoforms and mutants, for their binding strength to a binding partner. Dissociation constants are determined by plotting concentrations of bound versus free ligand as binding curves. In contrast, titration curves, in which a signal that is proportional to the concentration of bound ligand is plotted against the total concentration of added ligand, are much easier to record. The signal can be detected spectroscopically and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This is exemplified in a protocol for a titration ELISA that measures the binding of the snake venom-derived rhodocetin to its immobilized target domain of α2β1 integrin. Titration ELISAs are versatile and widely used. Any pair of interacting proteins can be used as immobilized receptor and soluble ligand, provided that both proteins are pure, and their concentrations are known. The difficulty so far has been to determine the dissociation constant from a titration curve. In this study, a mathematical function underlying titration curves is introduced. Without any error-prone graphical estimation of a saturation yield, this algorithm allows processing of the raw data (signal intensities at different concentrations of added ligand) directly by mathematical evaluation via non-linear regression. Thus, several titration curves can be recorded simultaneously and transformed into a set of characteristic parameters, among them the dissociation constant and the concentration of binding-active receptor, and they can be evaluated statistically. When combined with this algorithm, titration ELISAs gain the advantage of directly presenting the dissociation constant. Therefore, they may be used more efficiently in the future.

  7. Ligand-selective activation of heterologously-expressed mammalian olfactory receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhanov, K; Bobkov, Y; Corey, E A; Ache, B W

    2014-10-01

    Mammalian olfactory receptors (ORs) appear to have the capacity to couple to multiple G protein-coupled signaling pathways in a ligand-dependent selective manner. To better understand the mechanisms and molecular range of such ligand selectivity, we expressed the mouse eugenol OR (mOR-EG) in HEK293T cells together with Gα15 to monitor activation of the phospholipase-C (PLC) signaling pathway and/or Gαolf to monitor activation of the adenylate cyclase (AC) signaling pathway, resulting in intracellular Ca(2+) release and/or Ca(2+) influx through a cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, respectively. PLC-dependent responses differed dynamically from AC-dependent responses, allowing them to be distinguished when Gα15 and Gαolf were co-expressed. The dynamic difference in readout was independent of the receptor, the heterologous expression system, and the ligand concentration. Of 17 reported mOR-EG ligands tested, including eugenol, its analogs, and structurally dissimilar compounds (mousse cristal, nootkatone, orivone), some equally activated both signaling pathways, some differentially activated both signaling pathways, and some had no noticeable effect even at 1-5mM. Our findings argue that mOR-EG, when heterologously expressed, can couple to two different signaling pathways in a ligand selective manner. The challenge now is to determine the potential of mOR-EG, and perhaps other ORs, to activate multiple signaling pathways in a ligand selective manner in native ORNs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. submitter Emerging importance of chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands in cardiovascular diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Altara, R; Brandao, R D; Zeidan, A; Booz, G W; Zouein, F A

    2016-01-01

    The CXC chemokines, CXCL4, -9, -10, -11, CXCL4L1, and the CC chemokine CCL21, activate CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3), a cell-surface G protein-coupled receptor expressed mainly by Th1 cells, cytotoxic T (Tc) cells and NK cells that have a key role in immunity and inflammation. However, CXCR3 is also expressed by vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and appears to be important in controlling physiological vascular function. In the last decade, evidence from pre-clinical and clinical studies has revealed the participation of CXCR3 and its ligands in multiple cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) of different aetiologies including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, as well as in heart transplant rejection and transplant coronary artery disease (CAD). CXCR3 ligands have also proven to be valid biomarkers for the development of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction, suggesting an underlining pathophysiological relation between levels of these chemokines and the deve...

  9. Quantitative autoradiography of ligands for dopamine receptors and transporters in brain of Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minuzzi, Luciano; Olsen, Aage Kristian; Bender, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    the presence of DAT in rat and ferret brain. The distribution volume (Vd) of the selective DAT ligand [11C]NS2214 ([11C]Brasofensine) was mapped in groups of normal and MPTP-lesioned Göttingen miniature pigs. The in vivo pattern of Vd matched the distribution of SERT in vitro, and did not differ between...... the normal pigs and the lesioned animals with documented 60% DA depletions. However, the pattern of specific binding of the selective noradrenaline transporter ligand (S,S)-[11C]MeNER in a single Landrace pig showed that, of the three monoamine transporters, only DAT could not be detected in pig brain. We......The pig has been used as animal model for positron emission tomography (PET) studies of dopamine (DA) receptors and pharmacological perturbations of DA neurotransmission. However, the binding properties of DA receptors and transporters in pig brain have not been characterized in vitro. Therefore...

  10. Labeling of receptor ligands with bromine radionuclides. Progress report, March 1, 1981-February 28, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.

    1981-10-01

    In recent years there has been an interest in the use of various radioisotopes of bromine as labels for radiopharmaceuticals. Although radioisotopes of iodine have been used extensively as radiopharmaceutical labels, there are several advantages associated with the use of radiobromine as a label, due primarily to increased stability of bonds to the radiohalide and smaller steric perturbation resulting from substitution of the radiohalide. Methods of attaching radiobromine to receptor ligands with the potential of mapping estrogen receptors in mammary tumors and uteri were studied. Two ligands were studied extensively in vitro and in animal models; preliminary studies were also carried out in humans. To date, the only radioisotope of bromine used was bromine-77. In addition, a series of model compounds were labeled with bromine-77 using a recently described method for rapid bromination; the scope and limitations of this new rapid radiobromination technique were evaluated

  11. Ligand-modulated conformational switching in a fully synthetic membrane-bound receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Francis G. A.; Le Bailly, Bryden A. F.; Webb, Simon J.; Clayden, Jonathan

    2017-05-01

    Signal transduction through G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) involves binding to signalling molecules at the cell surface, which leads to global changes in molecular conformation that are communicated through the membrane. Artificial mechanisms for communication involving ligand binding and global conformational switching have been demonstrated so far only in the solution phase. Here, we report a membrane-bound synthetic receptor that responds to binding of a ligand by undergoing a conformational change that is propagated over several nanometres, deep into the phospholipid bilayer. Our design uses a helical foldamer core, with structural features borrowed from a class of membrane-active fungal antibiotics, ligated to a water-compatible, metal-centred binding site and a conformationally responsive fluorophore. Using the fluorophore as a remote reporter of conformational change, we find that binding of specific carboxylate ligands to a Cu(II) cofactor at the binding site perturbs the foldamer's global conformation, mimicking the conformational response of a GPCR to ligand binding.

  12. Thyroid hormone and retinoic acid nuclear receptors: specific ligand-activated transcription factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brtko, J.

    1998-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation by both the thyroid hormone and the vitamin A-derived 'retinoid hormones' is a critical component in controlling many aspects of higher vertebrate development and metabolism. Their functions are mediated by nuclear receptors, which comprise a large super-family of ligand-inducible transcription factors. Both the thyroid hormone and the retinoids are involved in a complex arrangement of physiological and development responses in many tissues of higher vertebrates. The functions of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T 3 ), the thyromimetically active metabolite of thyroxine as well as all-trans retinoic acid, the biologically active vitamin A metabolite are mediated by nuclear receptor proteins that are members of the steroid/thyroid/retinoid hormone receptor family. The functions of all members of the receptor super family are discussed. (authors)

  13. Development of sub-nanomolar dipeptidic ligands of neuropeptide FF receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gealageas, Ronan; Schneider, Séverine; Humbert, Jean-Paul; Bertin, Isabelle; Schmitt, Martine; Laboureyras, Emilie; Dugave, Christophe; Mollereau, Catherine; Simonnet, Guy; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Simonin, Frédéric; Bihel, Frédéric

    2012-12-15

    Based on our earlier reported neuropeptide FF receptors antagonist (RF9), we carried out an extensive structural exploration of the N-terminus part of the amidated dipeptide Arg-Phe-NH(2) in order to establish a structure-activity relationships (SAR) study towards both NPFF receptor subtypes. This SAR led to the discovery of dipeptides (12, 35) with subnanomolar affinities towards NPFF1 receptor subtype, similar to endogenous ligand NPVF. More particularly, compound 12 exhibited a potent in vivo preventive effect on opioid-induced hyperalgesia at low dose. The significant selectivity of 12 toward NPFF1-R indicates that this receptor subtype may play a critical role in the anti-opioid activity of NPFF-like peptides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular determinants of ligand binding modes in the histamine H(4) receptor: linking ligand-based three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models to in silico guided receptor mutagenesis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istyastono, Enade P; Nijmeijer, Saskia; Lim, Herman D; van de Stolpe, Andrea; Roumen, Luc; Kooistra, Albert J; Vischer, Henry F; de Esch, Iwan J P; Leurs, Rob; de Graaf, Chris

    2011-12-08

    The histamine H(4) receptor (H(4)R) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that plays an important role in inflammation. Similar to the homologous histamine H(3) receptor (H(3)R), two acidic residues in the H(4)R binding pocket, D(3.32) and E(5.46), act as essential hydrogen bond acceptors of positively ionizable hydrogen bond donors in H(4)R ligands. Given the symmetric distribution of these complementary pharmacophore features in H(4)R and its ligands, different alternative ligand binding mode hypotheses have been proposed. The current study focuses on the elucidation of the molecular determinants of H(4)R-ligand binding modes by combining (3D) quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), protein homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, and site-directed mutagenesis studies. We have designed and synthesized a series of clobenpropit (N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-S-[3-(4(5)-imidazolyl)propyl]isothiourea) derivatives to investigate H(4)R-ligand interactions and ligand binding orientations. Interestingly, our studies indicate that clobenpropit (2) itself can bind to H(4)R in two distinct binding modes, while the addition of a cyclohexyl group to the clobenpropit isothiourea moiety allows VUF5228 (5) to adopt only one specific binding mode in the H(4)R binding pocket. Our ligand-steered, experimentally supported protein modeling method gives new insights into ligand recognition by H(4)R and can be used as a general approach to elucidate the structure of protein-ligand complexes.

  15. Novel Alexa Fluor-488 labeled antagonist of the A(2A) adenosine receptor: Application to a fluorescence polarization-based receptor binding assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskés, Miklós; Kumar, T Santhosh; Yoo, Lena; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2010-08-15

    Fluorescence polarization (FP) assay has many advantages over the traditional radioreceptor binding studies. We developed an A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) FP assay using a newly synthesized fluorescent antagonist of the A(2A)AR (MRS5346), a pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine derivative conjugated to the fluorescent dye Alexa Fluor-488. MRS5346 displayed a K(i) value of 111+/-16nM in radioligand binding using [(3)H]CGS21680 and membranes prepared from HEK293 cells stably expressing the human A(2A)AR. In a cyclic AMP functional assay, MRS5346 was shown to be an A(2A)AR antagonist. MRS5346 did not show any effect on A(1) and A(3) ARs in binding or the A(2B)AR in a cyclic AMP assay at 10microM. Its suitability as a fluorescent tracer was indicated in an initial observation of an FP signal following A(2A)AR binding. The FP signal was optimal with 20nM MRS5346 and 150microg protein/mL HEK293 membranes. The association and dissociation kinetic parameters were readily determined using this FP assay. The K(d) value of MRS5346 calculated from kinetic parameters was 16.5+/-4.7nM. In FP competition binding experiments using MRS5346 as a tracer, K(i) values of known AR agonists and antagonists consistently agreed with K(i) values from radioligand binding. Thus, this FP assay, which eliminates using radioisotopes, appears to be appropriate for both routine receptor binding and high-throughput screening with respect to speed of analysis, displaceable signal and precision. The approach used in the present study could be generally applicable to other GPCRs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Different mechanisms are involved in the antibody mediated inhibition of ligand binding to the urokinase receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, K; Høyer-Hansen, G; Rønne, E

    1999-01-01

    or interference with conformational properties of the receptor critical for ligand binding. This distinction is central when employing the antibodies as tools in the elucidation of the structure-function relationship of the protein in question. We have studied the effect of monoclonal antibodies against......PA/uPAR complex. The continuous recording of binding and dissociation, obtained in BIA, is central in characterizing these phenomena. The identification of a non-competitive inhibitory mechanism against this receptor reveals the presence of a determinant which influences the binding properties of a remote site...

  17. Synthesis and preliminary pharmacological evaluation of a new putative radioiodinated AMPA receptor ligand for molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, T.L.; Sihver, W.; Ermert, J.; Coenen, H.H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-5) - Nuclear Chemistry

    2013-11-01

    A new (radio)iodinated AMPA receptor ligand has been developed and pharmacologically evaluated in vitro and ex vivo using rodents. The new radioligand was directly labeled by electrophilic radioiodo-destannylation with iodine-131 in high radiochemical yields of 97% within 2 min. The new radioligand showed an excellent initial brain uptake of 2.1%ID/g at 10 min post injection, but a fast wash-out reduced the uptake by about 10-fold at 60 min post injection. Due to high nonspecific binding accompanied with a uniform distribution in brain tissue, however, the new radiotracer appears not suitable for AMPA receptor imaging in vivo.

  18. The ligand-binding domain of the cell surface receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Ploug, M; Patthy, L

    1991-01-01

    The purified urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) was cleaved into two fragments by mild chymotrypsin treatment. The smaller fragment (apparent Mr 16,000) possessed the ligand-binding capability, as shown by chemical cross-linking analysis. This fragment constituted the NH2-terminal...... part of the intact receptor, probably including the whole sequence 1-87, and contained N-linked carbohydrate. After detergent phase separation in the Triton X-114 system, the fragment was present in the water phase where its binding activity could be demonstrated in the absence of the rest...

  19. Synthesis and radiofluorination of putative NMDA receptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, U.

    2011-01-01

    In the course of this work on the synthesis of radioligands for the NMDA receptor the authentic standards and labeling precursors of four compounds with an amidine structure was performed. Synthesis of the precursors followed reaction conditions given in the literature and was successful. The imidoesters used for the synthesis were obtained from their nitriles in a Pinner synthesis, while 2-hydroxybenzylamine was synthesized in a reduction of 2-hydroxybenzonitrile using borane as a reducing agent. After a coupling reaction of the amine and the imidoester in DMF using triethylamine as base the precursors were obtained in good yields and purified by crystallization from methanol. The cyclic standard compound was synthesized directly from 2-(bromomethyl)- benzonitrile and 2-hydroxybenzylamine in a ring closing reaction. Similar to the other precursors, crystallization from methanol produced a pure compound. The authentic standards were synthesized starting from salicylaldehyde. In a four step synthesis the desired ortho-fluoroethoxybenzylamine was obtained in good yield. Coupling of the amine with the respective imidoester or in the case of the cyclic compound 2-(bromomethyl)-benzonitrile gave the desired product which was then purified by column chromatography or by crystallization from ethanol and water. For the labeling procedure 1-bromo-2-[ 18 F]fluoroethane was synthesized following a previously published pathway starting from 1,2-dibromoethane. An alternative route of radiosynthesis for this prosthetic group was tested using ethyleneglycole- 1,2-ditosylate. The labeling reaction was performed on one of the precursors testing both DMF and DMSO as solvents and using NaOH as base. Yields of N-(2-fluoroethoxybenzyl)- cinnamamidine were about 78 % at 80 C after 30 minutes in DMSO. The desired product can now be synthesized in sufficient yields for in vitro and in vivo evaluation studies. Labeling on the cyclic precursor was attempted utilizing DMSO as solvent, but no

  20. Synthesis and radiofluorination of putative NMDA receptor ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, U.

    2011-01-15

    In the course of this work on the synthesis of radioligands for the NMDA receptor the authentic standards and labeling precursors of four compounds with an amidine structure was performed. Synthesis of the precursors followed reaction conditions given in the literature and was successful. The imidoesters used for the synthesis were obtained from their nitriles in a Pinner synthesis, while 2-hydroxybenzylamine was synthesized in a reduction of 2-hydroxybenzonitrile using borane as a reducing agent. After a coupling reaction of the amine and the imidoester in DMF using triethylamine as base the precursors were obtained in good yields and purified by crystallization from methanol. The cyclic standard compound was synthesized directly from 2-(bromomethyl)- benzonitrile and 2-hydroxybenzylamine in a ring closing reaction. Similar to the other precursors, crystallization from methanol produced a pure compound. The authentic standards were synthesized starting from salicylaldehyde. In a four step synthesis the desired ortho-fluoroethoxybenzylamine was obtained in good yield. Coupling of the amine with the respective imidoester or in the case of the cyclic compound 2-(bromomethyl)-benzonitrile gave the desired product which was then purified by column chromatography or by crystallization from ethanol and water. For the labeling procedure 1-bromo-2-[{sub 18}F]fluoroethane was synthesized following a previously published pathway starting from 1,2-dibromoethane. An alternative route of radiosynthesis for this prosthetic group was tested using ethyleneglycole- 1,2-ditosylate. The labeling reaction was performed on one of the precursors testing both DMF and DMSO as solvents and using NaOH as base. Yields of N-(2-fluoroethoxybenzyl)- cinnamamidine were about 78 % at 80 C after 30 minutes in DMSO. The desired product can now be synthesized in sufficient yields for in vitro and in vivo evaluation studies. Labeling on the cyclic precursor was attempted utilizing DMSO as solvent

  1. Estrogen receptor determination in endometrial carcinoma: ligand binding assay versus enzyme immunoassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Lyndrup, J

    1995-01-01

    We compared concentrations of cytosolic estrogen receptors (ERc) measured in 35 postmenopausal endometrial carcinomas by ligand binding method (LBA) (dextran-coated charcoal assay) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Correlations between ERc, nuclear estrogen receptors (ERn) determined by EIA, and cyto......We compared concentrations of cytosolic estrogen receptors (ERc) measured in 35 postmenopausal endometrial carcinomas by ligand binding method (LBA) (dextran-coated charcoal assay) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Correlations between ERc, nuclear estrogen receptors (ERn) determined by EIA......, and cytosolic progesterone receptors (PR) measured by LBA were also studied. While ERc concentrations determined by LBA and EIA were highly correlated (r: 0.94), ERc values detected by LBA were approximately twice those found by EIA (median values of ERc: 155 vs. 64 fmol/mg cytosol protein, DCC vs. EIA......). The percentages of ERc positive tumors were 89% by LBA and 77% by EIA. The median fraction of total ER present as ERn was 63%. PR levels correlated positively with ERn concentrations (r: 0.73). We explore possible reasons why greater concentrations of ERc are determined by estradiol binding than by the ER-EIA kit...

  2. Monitoring ligand-dependent assembly of receptor ternary complexes in live cells by BRETFect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotnoir-White, David; El Ezzy, Mohamed; Boulay, Pierre-Luc; Rozendaal, Marieke; Bouvier, Michel; Gagnon, Etienne; Mader, Sylvie

    2018-03-13

    There is currently an unmet need for versatile techniques to monitor the assembly and dynamics of ternary complexes in live cells. Here we describe bioluminescence resonance energy transfer with fluorescence enhancement by combined transfer (BRETFect), a high-throughput technique that enables robust spectrometric detection of ternary protein complexes based on increased energy transfer from a luciferase to a fluorescent acceptor in the presence of a fluorescent intermediate. Its unique donor-intermediate-acceptor relay system is designed so that the acceptor can receive energy either directly from the donor or indirectly via the intermediate in a combined transfer, taking advantage of the entire luciferase emission spectrum. BRETFect was used to study the ligand-dependent cofactor interaction properties of the estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, which form homo- or heterodimers whose distinctive regulatory properties are difficult to dissect using traditional methods. BRETFect uncovered the relative capacities of hetero- vs. homodimers to recruit receptor-specific cofactors and regulatory proteins, and to interact with common cofactors in the presence of receptor-specific ligands. BRETFect was also used to follow the assembly of ternary complexes between the V2R vasopressin receptor and two different intracellular effectors, illustrating its use for dissection of ternary protein-protein interactions engaged by G protein-coupled receptors. Our results indicate that BRETFect represents a powerful and versatile technique to monitor the dynamics of ternary interactions within multimeric complexes in live cells.

  3. The Prelude on Novel Receptor and Ligand Targets Involved in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu Gopal Jonnalagadda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders are a group of disorders, due to the disruption of the normal metabolic process at a cellular level. Diabetes Mellitus and Tyrosinaemia are the majorly reported metabolic disorders. Among them, Diabetes Mellitus is a one of the leading metabolic syndrome, affecting 5 to 7 % of the population worldwide and mainly characterised by elevated levels of glucose and is associated with two types of physiological event disturbances such as impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Up to now, various treatment strategies are like insulin, alphaglucosidase inhibitors, biguanides, incretins were being followed. Concurrently, various novel therapeutic strategies are required to advance the therapy of Diabetes mellitus. For the last few decades, there has been an extensive research in understanding the metabolic pathways involved in Diabetes Mellitus at the cellular level and having the profound knowledge on cell-growth, cell-cycle, and apoptosis at a molecular level provides new targets for the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus. Receptor signalling has been involved in these mechanisms, to translate the information coming from outside. To understand the various receptors involved in these pathways, we must have a sound knowledge on receptors and ligands involved in it. This review mainly summarises the receptors and ligands which are involved the Diabetes Mellitus. Finally, researchers have to develop the alternative chemical moieties that retain their affinity to receptors and efficacy. Diabetes Mellitus being a metabolic disorder due to the glucose surfeit, demands the need for regular exercise along with dietary changes.

  4. Characterizing ligand-gated ion channel receptors with genetically encoded Ca2++ sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Yamauchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a cell based system and experimental approach to characterize agonist and antagonist selectivity for ligand-gated ion channels (LGIC by developing sensor cells stably expressing a Ca(2+ permeable LGIC and a genetically encoded Förster (or fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET-based calcium sensor. In particular, we describe separate lines with human α7 and human α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, mouse 5-HT(3A serotonin receptors and a chimera of human α7/mouse 5-HT(3A receptors. Complete concentration-response curves for agonists and Schild plots of antagonists were generated from these sensors and the results validate known pharmacology of the receptors tested. Concentration-response relations can be generated from either the initial rate or maximal amplitudes of FRET-signal. Although assaying at a medium throughput level, this pharmacological fluorescence detection technique employs a clonal line for stability and has versatility for screening laboratory generated congeners as agonists or antagonists on multiple subtypes of ligand-gated ion channels. The clonal sensor lines are also compatible with in vivo usage to measure indirectly receptor activation by endogenous neurotransmitters.

  5. Functional Selectivity and Antidepressant Activity of Serotonin 1A Receptor Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Chilmonczyk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays an important role in physiological functions. 5-HT has been implicated in sleep, feeding, sexual behavior, temperature regulation, pain, and cognition as well as in pathological states including disorders connected to mood, anxiety, psychosis and pain. 5-HT1A receptors have for a long time been considered as an interesting target for the action of antidepressant drugs. It was postulated that postsynaptic 5-HT1A agonists could form a new class of antidepressant drugs, and mixed 5-HT1A receptor ligands/serotonin transporter (SERT inhibitors seem to possess an interesting pharmacological profile. It should, however, be noted that 5-HT1A receptors can activate several different biochemical pathways and signal through both G protein-dependent and G protein-independent pathways. The variables that affect the multiplicity of 5-HT1A receptor signaling pathways would thus result from the summation of effects specific to the host cell milieu. Moreover, receptor trafficking appears different at pre- and postsynaptic sites. It should also be noted that the 5-HT1A receptor cooperates with other signal transduction systems (like the 5-HT1B or 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptors, the GABAergic and the glutaminergic systems, which also contribute to its antidepressant and/or anxiolytic activity. Thus identifying brain specific molecular targets for 5-HT1A receptor ligands may result in a better targeting, raising a hope for more effective medicines for various pathologies.

  6. Non-Ligand-Induced Dimerization is Sufficient to Initiate the Signalling and Endocytosis of EGF Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kourouniotis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF to EGF receptor (EGFR stimulates cell mitogenesis and survival through various signalling cascades. EGF also stimulates rapid EGFR endocytosis and its eventual degradation in lysosomes. The immediate events induced by ligand binding include receptor dimerization, activation of intrinsic tyrosine kinase and autophosphorylation. However, in spite of intensified efforts, the results regarding the roles of these events in EGFR signalling and internalization is still very controversial. In this study, we constructed a chimeric EGFR by replacing its extracellular domain with leucine zipper (LZ and tagged a green fluorescent protein (GFP at its C-terminus. We showed that the chimeric LZ-EGFR-GFP was constitutively dimerized. The LZ-EGFR-GFP dimer autophosphorylated each of its five well-defined C-terminal tyrosine residues as the ligand-induced EGFR dimer does. Phosphorylated LZ-EGFR-GFP was localized to both the plasma membrane and endosomes, suggesting it is capable of endocytosis. We also showed that LZ-EGFR-GFP activated major signalling proteins including Src homology collagen-like (Shc, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and Akt. Moreover, LZ-EGFR-GFP was able to stimulate cell proliferation. These results indicate that non-ligand induced dimerization is sufficient to activate EGFR and initiate cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. We conclude that receptor dimerization is a critical event in EGF-induced cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis.

  7. Tyrosine Kinase Ligand-Receptor Pair Prediction by Using Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Yarimizu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Receptor tyrosine kinases are essential proteins involved in cellular differentiation and proliferation in vivo and are heavily involved in allergic diseases, diabetes, and onset/proliferation of cancerous cells. Identifying the interacting partner of this protein, a growth factor ligand, will provide a deeper understanding of cellular proliferation/differentiation and other cell processes. In this study, we developed a method for predicting tyrosine kinase ligand-receptor pairs from their amino acid sequences. We collected tyrosine kinase ligand-receptor pairs from the Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP and UniProtKB, filtered them by removing sequence redundancy, and used them as a dataset for machine learning and assessment of predictive performance. Our prediction method is based on support vector machines (SVMs, and we evaluated several input features suitable for tyrosine kinase for machine learning and compared and analyzed the results. Using sequence pattern information and domain information extracted from sequences as input features, we obtained 0.996 of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. This accuracy is higher than that obtained from general protein-protein interaction pair predictions.

  8. Ligand-specific regulation of the extracellular surface of a G-protein-coupled receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokoch, Michael P.; Zou, Yaozhong; Rasmussen, Søren G.F.; Liu, Corey W.; Nygaard, Rie; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Fung, Juan José; Choi, Hee-Jung; Thian, Foon Sun; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Puglisi, Joseph D.; Weis, William I.; Pardo, Leonardo; Prosser, R. Scott; Mueller, Luciano; Kobilka, Brian K. (Stanford-MED); (Toronto); (BMS); (UAB, Spain)

    2010-01-14

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven-transmembrane proteins that mediate most cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters. They are the largest group of therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. Recent crystal structures of GPCRs have revealed structural conservation extending from the orthosteric ligand-binding site in the transmembrane core to the cytoplasmic G-protein-coupling domains. In contrast, the extracellular surface (ECS) of GPCRs is remarkably diverse and is therefore an ideal target for the discovery of subtype-selective drugs. However, little is known about the functional role of the ECS in receptor activation, or about conformational coupling of this surface to the native ligand-binding pocket. Here we use NMR spectroscopy to investigate ligand-specific conformational changes around a central structural feature in the ECS of the {beta}{sub 2} adrenergic receptor: a salt bridge linking extracellular loops 2 and 3. Small-molecule drugs that bind within the transmembrane core and exhibit different efficacies towards G-protein activation (agonist, neutral antagonist and inverse agonist) also stabilize distinct conformations of the ECS. We thereby demonstrate conformational coupling between the ECS and the orthosteric binding site, showing that drugs targeting this diverse surface could function as allosteric modulators with high subtype selectivity. Moreover, these studies provide a new insight into the dynamic behaviour of GPCRs not addressable by static, inactive-state crystal structures.

  9. Allosteric ligands and their binding sites define γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors (GABA(A)Rs) mediate rapid inhibitory transmission in the brain. GABA(A)Rs are ligand-gated chloride ion channel proteins and exist in about a dozen or more heteropentameric subtypes exhibiting variable age and brain regional localization and thus participation in differing brain functions and diseases. GABA(A)Rs are also subject to modulation by several chemotypes of allosteric ligands that help define structure and function, including subtype definition. The channel blocker picrotoxin identified a noncompetitive channel blocker site in GABA(A)Rs. This ligand site is located in the transmembrane channel pore, whereas the GABA agonist site is in the extracellular domain at subunit interfaces, a site useful for low energy coupled conformational changes of the functional channel domain. Two classes of pharmacologically important allosteric modulatory ligand binding sites reside in the extracellular domain at modified agonist sites at other subunit interfaces: the benzodiazepine site and the high-affinity, relevant to intoxication, ethanol site. The benzodiazepine site is specific for certain GABA(A)R subtypes, mainly synaptic, while the ethanol site is found at a modified benzodiazepine site on different, extrasynaptic, subtypes. In the transmembrane domain are allosteric modulatory ligand sites for diverse chemotypes of general anesthetics: the volatile and intravenous agents, barbiturates, etomidate, propofol, long-chain alcohols, and neurosteroids. The last are endogenous positive allosteric modulators. X-ray crystal structures of prokaryotic and invertebrate pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, and the mammalian GABA(A)R protein, allow homology modeling of GABA(A)R subtypes with the various ligand sites located to suggest the structure and function of these proteins and their pharmacological modulation. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modulation of postsynaptic potentials in rat cortical neurons by valerian extracts macerated with different alcohols: involvement of adenosine A(1)- and GABA(A)-receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichardt, K; Vissiennon, Z; Koetter, U; Brattström, A; Nieber, K

    2007-10-01

    Valeriana officinalis (valerian) is used traditionally as a mild sedative. Research into valerian is sparse, and studies differ greatly with respect to design, measures and preparations used. This study compares the action of a methanol (M-E), ethanol (E-E) and an extract macerated with ethylacetate (EA-E) from roots of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L., Valerianaceae) on postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in cortical neurons. Intracellular recordings were performed in rat brain slice preparations containing pyramidal cells of the cingulate cortex. PSPs were induced by electrical field stimulation. The M-E induced strong inhibition in the concentration range 0.1-15 mg/mL, whereas the E-E (1-10 mg/mL) did not influence significantly the PSPs. The maximum inhibition induced by the M-E was completely antagonized by 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX, 0.1 microm), an antagonist on the adenosine A(1) receptor. Contrary to the M-E, the EA-E (10 mg/mL) induced an increase of the PSPs, which was completely blocked by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist picrotoxin (100 microm). The data suggest that activation of adenosine A(1) and GABA(A) receptors is mediated by different components within the valerian extract. The two mechanisms may contribute independently to the sleep-inducing effect of valerian.

  11. Affinity labeling of a human platelet membrane protein with 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyl adenosine. Concomitant inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation and fibrinogen receptor exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figures, W R; Niewiarowski, S; Morinelli, T A; Colman, R F; Colman, R W

    1981-08-10

    Incubation of washed human blood platelets with 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyl [3H]adenosine (FSBA) covalently labels a single polypeptide of Mr = 100,000. Protection by ADP has suggested that an ADP receptor on the platelet surface membrane was modified. The modified cells, unlike native platelets, failed to aggregate in response to ADP (100 microM) and fibrinogen (1 mg/ml). The extent of binding of 125I-fibrinogen and aggregation was inhibited to a degree related to the incorporation of 5'-p-sulfonylbenzoyl adenosine (SBA) into platelets, indicating FSBA could inhibit the exposure of fibrinogen receptors by ADP necessary for aggregation. Incubation of SBA platelets with alpha-chymotrypsin cleaved the covalently labeled polypeptide and concomitantly reversed the inhibition of aggregation and fibrinogen binding. Platelets proteolytically digested by chymotrypsin prior to exposure to FSBA did not require ADP for aggregation and fibrinogen binding. Moreover, subsequent exposure to FSBA did not inhibit aggregation or fibrinogen binding. The affinity reagent FSBA can displace fibrinogen bound to platelets in the presence of ADP, as well as promote the rapid disaggregation of the platelets. The apparent initial pseudo-first order rate constant of dissociation of fibrinogen was linearly proportional to FSBA concentrations. These studies suggest that a single polypeptide can be altered either by ADP-induced conformational changes or proteolysis by chymotrypsin to reveal latent fibrinogen receptors and promote aggregation of platelets after fibrinogen binding.

  12. Ligand recognition and domain structure of Vps10p, a vacuolar protein sorting receptor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M U; Emr, S D; Winther, Jakob R.

    1999-01-01

    Vp10p is a receptor that sorts several different vacuolar proteins by cycling between a late Golgi compartment and the endosome. The cytoplasmic tail of Vps10p is necessary for the recycling, whereas the lumenal domain is predicted to interact with the soluble ligands. We have studied ligand bind...

  13. Crystal structure of the ligand-binding domain of the promiscuous EphA4 receptor reveals two distinct conformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singla, Nikhil; Goldgur, Yehuda; Xu, Kai; Paavilainen, Sari; Nikolov, Dimitar B.; Himanen, Juha P. (MSKCC); (Turku)

    2010-09-08

    Eph receptors and their ephrin ligands are important mediators of cell-cell communication. They are divided in two subclasses based on their affinities for each other and on sequence conservation. Receptor-ligand binding within each subclass is fairly promiscuous, while binding cross the subclasses happens rarely. EphA4 is an exception to this general rule, since it has long been known to bind both A- and B-class ephrin ligands but the reason for this exceptional behavior has not been worked out at molecular level. Recent structural and biochemical studies on EphA4 ligand-binding domain alone and in complex with its ligands have addressed this question. However, the published structures of EphA4/ephrin complexes differ considerably from each other and strikingly different explanations for the exceptional promiscuity of EphA4 were proposed. To address these contradictory findings, we have determined a crystal structure of the EphA4 ligand-binding domain at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution and show that the receptor has an unprecedented ability to exist in two very different, well-ordered conformations even in the unbound state. Our results suggest that the ligand promiscuity of the Ephs is directly correlated with the structural flexibility of the ligand-binding surface of the receptor.

  14. Effects of cypermethrin on the ligand-independent interaction between androgen receptor and steroid receptor coactivator-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Chen; Liu, Ya-Peng; Li, Yan-Fang; Hu, Jin-Xia; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Wang, Hong-Mei; Li, Jing; Xu, Li-Chun

    2012-01-01

    The pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrin has been considered as an environmental anti-androgen by interfering with the androgen receptor (AR) transactivation. In order to clarify the effects of cypermethrin on the ligand-independent interaction between the AR and SRC-1, the mammalian two-hybrid assay has been developed in the study. The AR N-terminal domain 1–660 amino acid residues were subcloned into the plasmid pVP16 to construct the vector pVP16-ARNTD. The SRC-1 C-terminal domain 989–1240 amino acid residues were subcloned into the plasmid pM to construct the vector pM-SRC-1. The fusion vectors pVP16-ARNTD, pM-SRC-1 and the pG5CAT Reporter Vector were cotransfected into the CV-1 cells. The AR AF1 interacted with SRC-1 in the absence of exogenous ligand 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Furthermore, DHT did not enhance the interaction between AR AF-1 and SRC-1 at the concentrations from 10 −10 M to 10 −8 M. Cypermethrin inhibited the interaction between the AR AF1 and SRC-1, and the significant reduction was detected at the concentration of 10 −5 M. It is suggested that the interaction between the AR AF1 and SRC-1 is ligand-independent. Cypermethrin inhibits AR activity by disrupting the ligand-independent AR–SRC-1 interaction.

  15. Adenosine A1, A2a, A2B, and A3 receptors in hematopoiesis. 2. Expression of receptor mRNA in resting and lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štreitová, Denisa; Hofer, Michal; Holá, Jiřina; Vacek, Antonín; Pospíšil, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2010), s. 139-144 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/06/0015; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : adenosine receptors * macrophage * mRNA expression Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  16. Quantitative analysis of adenosine A1 receptors in human brain using positron emission tomography and [1 -methyl-11C]8-dicyclopropylmethyl-1-methyl-3-propylxanthine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yuichi; Ishii, Kenji; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Oda, Keiichi; Sasaki, Toru; Kawamura, Kazunori; Ishiwata, Kiichi

    2004-01-01

    Fully quantitative analysis of the adenosine A 1 receptor (A1R) in the brain with 11 C-MPDX and positron emission tomography is reported. The kinetics is described using a two-tissue three-compartment model, and estimated binding potentials correspond well with the estimates made by Logan plot. The image of the binding potential of the MPDX is physiologically reasonable. We conclude that MPDX is applicable to the visualization of the A1Rs in the brain with Logan plot

  17. Synthesis of the possible receptor Ligand [125I]-spiperone for D2-dopamine receptor and in-vivo biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, A.M.; Shoukry, M.; Abd EL-Bary, A.

    2009-01-01

    The spiperone is a selective D2-dopamine receptor antagonist radioiodination of spiperone is of interest for dopamine (DA) receptor studies both in vivo and in vitro. The labeling of spiperone with iodine-125 was extremely done in a neutral ph 7, using chloramine-T as oxidizing agent via heating the reaction mixture at 70 C (degree) for 10 - 15 minutes producing radiochemical yield of 97 %. In vivo biodistribution studies showed that the initial brain uptake correlated fairly well with the brain uptake index and that the kinetics of the radioactivity specifically bound to the striatum were strongly influenced by the dopamine receptor binding affinity of the compound. The brain uptake of 125 I-Spiperone was high and equal to 3.5, 3.25,2.75 and 1.7 % per gram tissue at 5, 30, 60 and 120 minutes post injection, respectively. 125 I-Spiperone binds with high affinity to dopamine receptors in vivo. Specific binding is about 65% of the total binding as is displaced stereo-specifically by clozapine. 125 I-spiperone may prove to be a useful ligand in studies examining D2-dopamine receptors. Furthermore iodinated spiperone may be useful in radioreceptor assays of neuroleptic drug levels and, in a 123 I-labeled form, for imaging of dopamine receptors, in vivo, using single photon tomography.

  18. Novel aza-analogous ergoline derived scaffolds as potent serotonin 5-HT6 and dopamine D2 receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard-Larsen, Niels; Jensen, Anders A.; Schrøder, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    By introducing distal substituents on a tetracyclic scaffold resembling the ergoline structure, two series of analogues were achieved exhibiting subnanomolar receptor binding affinities for the dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT6 receptor subtype, respectively. While the 5-HT6 ligands were antagonists......, the D2 ligands displayed intrinsic activities ranging from full agonism to partial agonism with low intrinsic activity. These structures could potentially be interesting for treatment of neurological diseases such as schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, and cognitive deficits....

  19. Importance of the extracellular loops in G protein-coupled receptors for ligand recognition and receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, M C; van Westen, G J P; Li, Q; IJzerman, A P

    2011-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the major drug target of medicines on the market today. Therefore, much research is and has been devoted to the elucidation of the function and three-dimensional structure of this large family of membrane proteins, which includes multiple conserved transmembrane domains connected by intra- and extracellular loops. In the last few years, the less conserved extracellular loops have garnered increasing interest, particularly after the publication of several GPCR crystal structures that clearly show the extracellular loops to be involved in ligand binding. This review will summarize the recent progress made in the clarification of the ligand binding and activation mechanism of class-A GPCRs and the role of extracellular loops in this process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of different ligands on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nuclear translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Jerusa A.Q.A.; Andrade, Carolina de; Goes, Alfredo M. [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Rodrigues, Michele A. [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Department of General Pathology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Gomes, Dawidson A., E-mail: dawidson@ufmg.br [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil)

    2016-09-09

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated through binding to specific ligands and generate