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Sample records for adenosine inhibits chemotaxis

  1. Inhibition of neutrophil and eosinophil induced chemotaxis by nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate.

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    Bruijnzeel, P. L.; Warringa, R. A.; Kok, P. T.; Kreukniet, J.

    1990-01-01

    1. Neutrophils and eosinophils infiltrate the airways in association with the allergen-induced late phase asthmatic reaction. Mobilization of these cells takes place via lipid-like and protein-like chemotactic factors. In this study platelet-activating factor (PAF), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), zymosan-activated serum (ZAS) and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) were used as illustrative examples of both groups. Chemotaxis was studied in human neutrophils and eosinophils. The inhibitory effects of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate were evaluated. 2. All chemotactic factors tested attracted neutrophils with the following rank order of activity: ZAS greater than PAF identical to FMLP identical to LTB4. Eosinophils were only mobilized by PAF, LTB4 and ZAS with the following rank order of activity: ZAS greater than PAF greater than LTB4. 3. Nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate were equally active as the PAF antagonist BN 52021 in inhibiting the PAF-induced chemotaxis of neutrophils (IC50 approximately 10(-8) M). Both drugs were also equally active in inhibiting the chemotaxis of neutrophils induced by ZAS (IC50 approximately 10(-7)-10(-6) M), FMLP (IC50 approximately 10(-7) M) and LTB4 (IC50 approximately 10(-6) M). 4. Nedocromil sodium significantly inhibited the chemotaxis of eosinophils induced by PAF (IC50 approximately 10(-6) M) and LTB4 (IC50 approximately 10(-7) M). The inhibitory potency of BN 52021 was similar to that of nedocromil sodium on the PAF-induced chemotaxis of eosinophils. Sodium cromoglycate was incapable of eliciting significant inhibition of these chemotactic responses. However, sodium cromoglycate significantly inhibited the chemotaxis of eosinophils induced by ZAS (IC50 approximately 10(-7) M), whereas nedocromil sodium was ineffective. PMID:2163279

  2. Prostaglandin E₂ inhibits human lung fibroblast chemotaxis through disparate actions on different E-prostanoid receptors.

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    Li, Ying-Ji; Wang, Xing-Qi; Sato, Tadashi; Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Nakanishi, Masanori; Kim, Miok; Michalski, Joel; Nelson, Amy J; Sun, Jian-Hong; Farid, Maha; Basma, Hesham; Patil, Amol; Toews, Myron L; Liu, Xiangde; Rennard, Stephen I

    2011-01-01

    The migration of fibroblasts is believed to play a key role in both normal wound repair and abnormal tissue remodeling. Prostaglandin E (PGE)(2), a mediator that can inhibit many fibroblast functions including chemotaxis, was reported to be mediated by the E-prostanoid (EP) receptor EP2. PGE(2), however, can act on four receptors. This study was designed to determine if EP receptors, in addition to EP2, can modulate fibroblast chemotaxis. Using human fetal lung fibroblasts, the expression of all four EP receptors was demonstrated by Western blotting. EP2-selective and EP4-selective agonists inhibited both chemotaxis toward fibronectin in the blindwell assay and migration in a wound-closure assay. In contrast, EP1-selective and EP3-selective agonists stimulated cell migration in both assay systems. These results were confirmed using EP-selective antagonists. The role of both EP2 and EP4 receptors in mediating the PGE(2) inhibition of chemotaxis was also confirmed by small interfering RNA suppression. Furthermore, the role of EP receptors was confirmed by blocking the expected signaling pathways. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PGE(2) can act on multiple EP receptors in human lung fibroblasts, to exert disparate effects. Alterations in EP receptor expression may have the potential to alter PGE(2) action. Targeting specific EP receptors may offer therapeutic opportunities in conditions characterized by abnormal tissue repair and remodeling.

  3. Compound C inhibits macrophage chemotaxis through an AMPK-independent mechanism

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    Lee, Youngyi [College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University, Wanju, Jeonbuk 55338 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung-Hyun, E-mail: bhpark@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Eun Ju, E-mail: ejbae@woosuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University, Wanju, Jeonbuk 55338 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue is a well-established cause of obesity-linked insulin resistance. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in peripheral tissues such as adipose tissue has beneficial effects on the protection against obesity-induced insulin resistance, which is mainly mediated by prevention of adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and inflammation. In examining the role of AMPK on adipose tissue inflammation, we unexpectedly found that compound C (CC), despite its inhibition of AMPK, robustly inhibited macrophage chemotaxis in RAW 264.7 cells when adipocyte conditioned medium (CM) was used as a chemoattractant. Here, we report that CC inhibition of macrophage migration occurred independently of AMPK. Mechanistically, this inhibitory effect of cell migration by CC was mediated by inhibition of the focal adhesion kinase, AKT, nuclear factor κB pathways. Moreover, the expression of chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and pro-inflammatory genes such as tumor necrosis factor α and inducible nitric oxide synthase were prevented by CC treatment in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with either adipocyte CM or lipopolysaccharide. Lastly, in accord with the findings of the anti-inflammatory effect of CC, we demonstrated that CC functioned as a repressor of macrophage CM-mediated insulin resistance in adipocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that CC serves as a useful inhibitory molecule against macrophage chemotaxis into adipose tissue and thus might have therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity-linked adipose inflammation. - Highlights: • Compound C (CC) inhibits macrophage chemotaxis regardless of AMPK suppression. • CC enhances insulin sensitivity in adipocytes. • CC inhibits focal adhesion kinase, AKT, and NF-κB signaling in RAW 264.7 cells.

  4. ProBDNF inhibits collective migration and chemotaxis of rat Schwann cells.

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    Ding, You-Quan; Li, Xuan-Yang; Xia, Guan-Nan; Ren, Hong-Yi; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Su, Bing-Yin; Qi, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Schwann cell migration, including collective migration and chemotaxis, is essential for the formation of coordinate interactions between Schwann cells and axons during peripheral nerve development and regeneration. Moreover, limited migration of Schwann cells imposed a serious obstacle on Schwann cell-astrocytes intermingling and spinal cord repair after Schwann cell transplantation into injured spinal cords. Recent studies have shown that mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a member of the neurotrophin family, inhibits Schwann cell migration. The precursor form of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, proBDNF, was expressed in the developing or degenerating peripheral nerves and the injured spinal cords. Since "the yin and yang of neurotrophin action" has been established as a common sense, proBDNF would be expected to promote Schwann cell migration. However, we found, in the present study, that exogenous proBDNF also inhibited in vitro collective migration and chemotaxis of RSC 96 cells, a spontaneously immortalized rat Schwann cell line. Moreover, proBDNF suppressed adhesion and spreading of those cells. At molecular level, proBDNF inhibits F-actin polymerization and focal adhesion dynamics in cultured RSC 96 cells. Therefore, our results suggested a special case against the classical opinion of "the yin and yang of neurotrophin action" and implied that proBDNF might modulate peripheral nerve development or regeneration and spinal cord repair through perturbing native or transplanted Schwann cell migration.

  5. Contact-inhibited chemotaxis in de novo and sprouting blood-vessel growth.

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    Roeland M H Merks

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessels form either when dispersed endothelial cells (the cells lining the inner walls of fully formed blood vessels organize into a vessel network (vasculogenesis, or by sprouting or splitting of existing blood vessels (angiogenesis. Although they are closely related biologically, no current model explains both phenomena with a single biophysical mechanism. Most computational models describe sprouting at the level of the blood vessel, ignoring how cell behavior drives branch splitting during sprouting. We present a cell-based, Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model (also called Cellular Potts Model simulation of the initial patterning before the vascular cords form lumens, based on plausible behaviors of endothelial cells. The endothelial cells secrete a chemoattractant, which attracts other endothelial cells. As in the classic Keller-Segel model, chemotaxis by itself causes cells to aggregate into isolated clusters. However, including experimentally observed VE-cadherin-mediated contact inhibition of chemotaxis in the simulation causes randomly distributed cells to organize into networks and cell aggregates to sprout, reproducing aspects of both de novo and sprouting blood-vessel growth. We discuss two branching instabilities responsible for our results. Cells at the surfaces of cell clusters attempting to migrate to the centers of the clusters produce a buckling instability. In a model variant that eliminates the surface-normal force, a dissipative mechanism drives sprouting, with the secreted chemical acting both as a chemoattractant and as an inhibitor of pseudopod extension. Both mechanisms would also apply if force transmission through the extracellular matrix rather than chemical signaling mediated cell-cell interactions. The branching instabilities responsible for our results, which result from contact inhibition of chemotaxis, are both generic developmental mechanisms and interesting examples of unusual patterning instabilities.

  6. Pioglitazone Suppresses CXCR7 Expression To Inhibit Human Macrophage Chemotaxis through Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ.

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    Zhao, Duo; Zhu, Zhicheng; Li, Dan; Xu, Rihao; Wang, Tiance; Liu, Kexiang

    2015-11-17

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Pioglitazone, the widely used thiazolidinedione, is shown to be efficient in the prevention of cardiovascular complications of T2DM. In this study, we report that pioglitazone inhibits CXCR7 expression and thus blocks chemotaxis in differentiated macrophage without perturbing cell viability or macrophage differentiation. In addition, pioglitazone-mediated CXCR7 suppression and chemotaxis inhibition occur via activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) but not PPARα in differentiated macrophage. More importantly, pioglitazone therapy-induced PPARγ activation suppresses CXCR7 expression in human carotid atherosclerotic lesions. Collectively, our data demonstrate that pioglitazone suppresses CXCR7 expression to inhibit human macrophage chemotaxis through PPARγ.

  7. Presynaptic inhibition by kainate receptors converges mechanistically with presynaptic inhibition by adenosine and GABAB receptors.

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    Partovi, Dara; Frerking, Matthew

    2006-11-01

    Kainate receptors are widely reported to regulate the release of neurotransmitter in the CNS, but the mechanisms involved remain controversial. Previous studies have found that the kainate receptor agonist ATPA, which selectively activates Glu(K5)-containing kainate receptors, depresses glutamate release at Schaffer-collateral synapses in the hippocampus. In the present study, we provide pharmacological evidence that this depressant effect is mediated by Glu(K5)-containing heteromers, but is distinct from a similar depressant effect engaged by the kainate receptor agonist domoate. The depressant effect of ATPA is insensitive to antagonists for GABA(A), GABA(B), and adenosine receptors, and is also unaffected by lowering the release probability by reducing extracellular calcium. However, the effect of ATPA is partly occluded by prior activation of GABA(B) receptors and completely occluded by prior activation of adenosine receptors, suggesting a mechanistic convergence of heteromeric Glu(K5) kainate receptor signaling with GABA(B) receptors and adenosine receptors. The effects of domoate are partially occluded by both adenosine and GABA(B) receptor agonists, indicating at least a partial convergence of Glu(K5)-lacking kainate receptor signaling with these other pathways. The depressant effect of ATPA is not blocked by inhibition of serine/threonine protein kinases. These results suggest that ATPA and domoate inhibit glutamate release through mechanisms that converge with those of classical metabotropic receptor agonists, although they do so through different receptors.

  8. Histamine H3 receptor in primary mouse microglia inhibits chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion.

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    Iida, Tomomitsu; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Matsuzawa, Takuro; Naganuma, Fumito; Nakamura, Tadaho; Miura, Yamato; Mohsen, Attayeb S; Harada, Ryuichi; Iwata, Ren; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2015-07-01

    Histamine is a physiological amine which initiates a multitude of physiological responses by binding to four known G-protein coupled histamine receptor subtypes as follows: histamine H1 receptor (H1 R), H2 R, H3 R, and H4 R. Brain histamine elicits neuronal excitation and regulates a variety of physiological processes such as learning and memory, sleep-awake cycle and appetite regulation. Microglia, the resident macrophages in the brain, express histamine receptors; however, the effects of histamine on critical microglial functions such as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion have not been examined in primary cells. We demonstrated that mouse primary microglia express H2 R, H3 R, histidine decarboxylase, a histamine synthase, and histamine N-methyltransferase, a histamine metabolizing enzyme. Both forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation and ATP-induced intracellular Ca(2+) transients were reduced by the H3 R agonist imetit but not the H2 R agonist amthamine. H3 R activation on two ubiquitous second messenger signalling pathways suggests that H3 R can regulate various microglial functions. In fact, histamine and imetit dose-dependently inhibited microglial chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production. Furthermore, we confirmed that microglia produced histamine in the presence of LPS, suggesting that H3 R activation regulate microglial function by autocrine and/or paracrine signalling. In conclusion, we demonstrate the involvement of histamine in primary microglial functions, providing the novel insight into physiological roles of brain histamine.

  9. Inhibition by adenosine of histamine and leukotriene release from human basophils.

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    Peachell, P T; Lichtenstein, L M; Schleimer, R P

    1989-06-01

    Adenosine inhibited the release of histamine and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) from immunologically-activated basophils in a dose-dependent manner. Structural congeners of adenosine also attenuated the elaboration of these two mediators from stimulated basophils and a rank order of potency for the inhibition was observed following the sequence 2-chloroadenosine greater than or equal to N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) greater than adenosine greater than or equal to R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) greater than or equal to S-PIA. These same nucleosides modulated the generation of LTC4 more potently than the release of histamine. A number of methylxanthines, which are antagonists of cell surface adenosine receptors, reversed the inhibition by adenosine and its congeners of the release of both histamine and LTC4 to varying extents. Dipyridamole and nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI), agents that block the intracellular uptake of adenosine, antagonized the inhibition of histamine release by adenosine (and 2-chloroadenosine) but failed to reverse the attenuation of LTC4 generation by the nucleoside. These same uptake blockers were unable to antagonize the inhibitory effects of NECA on either histamine or LTC4 release. In purified basophils, NECA and R-PIA, and in that order of decreasing reactivity, increased total cell cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and inhibited the stimulated release of mediators. In total, these results suggest that the basophil possesses a cell surface adenosine receptor which, on the basis of both pharmacological and biochemical criteria, most closely conforms to an A2/Ra-like receptor. However, in addition to an interaction at the cell surface, studies with agents that block the intracellular uptake of adenosine suggest that the nucleoside may also exert intracellular effects when countering the release of histamine (but not LTC4).

  10. Adenosine triphosphate inhibits melatonin synthesis in the rat pineal gland.

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    Souza-Teodoro, Luis Henrique; Dargenio-Garcia, Letícia; Petrilli-Lapa, Camila Lopes; Souza, Ewerton da Silva; Fernandes, Pedro A C M; Markus, Regina P; Ferreira, Zulma S

    2016-03-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released onto the pinealocyte, along with noradrenaline, from sympathetic neurons and triggers P2Y1 receptors that enhance β-adrenergic-induced N-acetylserotonin (NAS) synthesis. Nevertheless, the biotransformation of NAS into melatonin, which occurs due to the subsequent methylation by acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT; EC 2.1.1.4), has not yet been evaluated in the presence of purinergic stimulation. We therefore evaluated the effects of purinergic signaling on melatonin synthesis induced by β-adrenergic stimulation. ATP increased NAS levels, but, surprisingly, inhibited melatonin synthesis in an inverse, concentration-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that enhanced NAS levels, which depend on phospholipase C (PLC) activity (but not the induction of gene transcription), are a post-translational effect. By contrast, melatonin reduction is related to an ASMT inhibition of expression at both the gene transcription and protein levels. These results were independent of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) translocation. Neither the P2Y1 receptor activation nor the PLC-mediated pathway was involved in the decrease in melatonin, indicating that ATP regulates pineal metabolism through different mechanisms. Taken together, our data demonstrate that purinergic signaling differentially modulates NAS and melatonin synthesis and point to a regulatory role for ATP as a cotransmitter in the control of ASMT, the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin synthesis. The endogenous production of melatonin regulates defense responses; therefore, understanding the mechanisms involving ASMT regulation might provide novel insights into the development and progression of neurological disorders since melatonin presents anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and neurogenic effects.

  11. Adenine arabinoside inhibition of adenovirus replication enhanced by an adenosine deaminase inhibitor.

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    Wigand, R

    1979-01-01

    The inhibition of adenovirus multiplication by adenine arabinoside was determined by yield reduction in one-step multiplication cycle. Inhibition was greatly enhanced by an adenosine deaminase inhibitor (2-deoxycoformycin) in concentrations down to 10 ng/ml. Adenovirus types from four subgroups showed similar results. However, the enhancing effect of adenosine deaminase inhibitor was great in HeLa cells, moderate in human fibroblasts, and negligible in Vero cells. This difference could be explained by different concentrations of adenosine deaminase found in cell homogenates.

  12. Adenosine Inhibits the Excitatory Synaptic Inputs to Basal Forebrain Cholinergic, GABAergic and Parvalbumin Neurons in mice

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    Chun eYang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coffee and tea contain the stimulants caffeine and theophylline. These compounds act as antagonists of adenosine receptors. Adenosine promotes sleep and its extracellular concentration rises in association with prolonged wakefulness, particularly in the basal forebrain (BF region involved in activating the cerebral cortex. However, the effect of adenosine on identified BF neurons, especially non-cholinergic neurons, is incompletely understood. Here we used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in mouse brain slices prepared from two validated transgenic mouse lines with fluorescent proteins expressed in GABAergic or parvalbumin (PV neurons to determine the effect of adenosine. Whole-cell recordings were made BF cholinergic neurons and from BF GABAergic & PV neurons with the size (>20 µm and intrinsic membrane properties (prominent H-currents corresponding to cortically projecting neurons. A brief (2 min bath application of adenosine (100 μM decreased the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in all groups of BF cholinergic, GABAergic and PV neurons we recorded. In addition, adenosine decreased the frequency of miniature EPSCs in BF cholinergic neurons. Adenosine had no effect on the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in cholinergic neurons or GABAergic neurons with large H-currents but reduced them in a group of GABAergic neurons with smaller H-currents. All effects of adenosine were blocked by a selective, adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT, 1 μM. Adenosine had no postsynaptic effects. Taken together, our work suggests that adenosine promotes sleep by an A1-receptor mediated inhibition of glutamatergic inputs to cortically-projecting cholinergic and GABA/PV neurons. Conversely, caffeine and theophylline promote attentive wakefulness by inhibiting these A1 receptors in BF thereby promoting the high-frequency oscillations in the cortex required for

  13. Inhibition of uptake of adenosine into human blood platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, J.P.M.; Sixma, J.J.; Trieschnigg, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    Adenosine transport into human blood platelets is mediated by two independent systems with different affinities. Both systems transport only purine nucleosides and no pyrimidine nucleosides. In experiments with differently substituted purine nucleosides, purines and analogues, differences in carrier

  14. Feed-Forward Inhibition of CD73 and Upregulation of Adenosine Deaminase Contribute to the Loss of Adenosine Neuromodulation in Postinflammatory Ileitis

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    Cátia Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purinergic signalling is remarkably plastic during gastrointestinal inflammation. Thus, selective drugs targeting the “purinome” may be helpful for inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. The myenteric neuromuscular transmission of healthy individuals is fine-tuned and controlled by adenosine acting on A2A excitatory receptors. Here, we investigated the neuromodulatory role of adenosine in TNBS-inflamed longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus of the rat ileum. Seven-day postinflammation ileitis lacks adenosine neuromodulation, which may contribute to acceleration of gastrointestinal transit. The loss of adenosine neuromodulation results from deficient accumulation of the nucleoside at the myenteric synapse despite the fact that the increases in ATP release were observed. Disparity between ATP outflow and adenosine deficit in postinflammatory ileitis is ascribed to feed-forward inhibition of ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 by high extracellular ATP and/or ADP. Redistribution of NTPDase2, but not of NTPDase3, from ganglion cell bodies to myenteric nerve terminals leads to preferential ADP accumulation from released ATP, thus contributing to the prolonged inhibition of muscle-bound ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 and to the delay of adenosine formation at the inflamed neuromuscular synapse. On the other hand, depression of endogenous adenosine accumulation may also occur due to enhancement of adenosine deaminase activity. Both membrane-bound and soluble forms of ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 and adenosine deaminase were detected in the inflamed myenteric plexus. These findings provide novel therapeutic targets for inflammatory gut motility disorders.

  15. Adenosine Deaminase Inhibition Prevents Clostridium difficile Toxin A-Induced Enteritis in Mice ▿

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    de Araújo Junqueira, Ana Flávia Torquato; Dias, Adriana Abalen Martins; Vale, Mariana Lima; Spilborghs, Graziela Machado Gruner Turco; Bossa, Aline Siqueira; Lima, Bruno Bezerra; Carvalho, Alex Fiorini; Guerrant, Richard Littleton; Ribeiro, Ronaldo Albuquerque; Brito, Gerly Anne

    2011-01-01

    Toxin A (TxA) is able to induce most of the classical features of Clostridium difficile-associated disease in animal models. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of an inhibitor of adenosine deaminase, EHNA [erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)-adenine], on TxA-induced enteritis in C57BL6 mice and on the gene expression of adenosine receptors. EHNA (90 μmol/kg) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) 30 min prior to TxA (50 μg) or PBS injection into the ileal loop. A2A adenosine receptor agonist (ATL313; 5 nM) was injected in the ileal loop immediately before TxA (50 μg) in mice pretreated with EHNA. The animals were euthanized 3 h later. The changes in the tissue were assessed by the evaluation of ileal loop weight/length and secretion volume/length ratios, histological analysis, myeloperoxidase assay (MPO), the local expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), pentraxin 3 (PTX3), NF-κB, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) by immunohistochemistry and/or quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). The gene expression profiles of A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 adenosine receptors also were evaluated by qRT-PCR. Adenosine deaminase inhibition, by EHNA, reduced tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration, and the levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) as well as the expression of NOS2, NF-κB, and PTX3 in the ileum of mice injected with TxA. ATL313 had no additional effect on EHNA action. TxA increased the gene expression of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors. Our findings show that the inhibition of adenosine deaminase by EHNA can prevent Clostridium difficile TxA-induced damage and inflammation possibly through the A2A adenosine receptor, suggesting that the modulation of adenosine/adenosine deaminase represents an important tool in the management of C. difficile-induced disease. PMID:21115723

  16. Unexpected Discovery of Dichloroacetate Derived Adenosine Triphosphate Competitors Targeting Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase To Inhibit Cancer Proliferation.

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    Zhang, Shao-Lin; Hu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Wen; Tam, Kin Yip

    2016-04-14

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs) have recently emerged as an attractive target for cancer therapy. Herein, we prepared a series of compounds derived from dichloroacetate (DCA) which inhibited cancer cells proliferation. For the first time, we have successfully developed DCA derived inhibitors that preferentially bind to the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) pocket of PDK isoform 1 (PDK1).

  17. Thymoquinone inhibits the CXCL12-induced chemotaxis of multiple myeloma cells and increases their susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis.

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    Gamal Badr

    Full Text Available In multiple myeloma (MM, malignant plasma cells reside in the bone marrow, where they accumulate in close contact with stromal cells. The mechanisms responsible for the chemotaxis of malignant plasma cells are still poorly understood. Thus, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the chemotaxis of MDN and XG2 MM cell lines. Both cell lines strongly expressed CCR9, CXCR3 and CXCR4 chemokine receptors but only migrated toward CXCL12. Activation of CXCR4 by CXCL12 resulted in the association of CXCR4 with CD45 and activation of PLCβ3, AKT, RhoA, IκBα and ERK1/2. Using siRNA-silencing techniques, we showed CD45/CXCR4 association is essential for CXCL12-induced migration of MM cells. Thymoquinone (TQ, the major active component of the medicinal herb Nigella sativa Linn, has been described as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic compound. TQ treatment strongly inhibited CXCL12-mediated chemotaxis in MM cell lines as well as primary cells isolated from MM patients, but not normal PBMCs. Moreover, TQ significantly down-regulated CXCR4 expression and CXCL12-mediated CXCR4/CD45 association in MM cells. Finally, TQ also induced the relocalization of cytoplasmic Fas/CD95 to the membrane of MM cells and increased CD95-mediated apoptosis by 80%. In conclusion, we demonstrate the potent anti-myeloma activity of TQ, providing a rationale for further clinical evaluation.

  18. NTS adenosine A2a receptors inhibit the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of regional sympathetic outputs via a GABAergic mechanism.

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    Minic, Zeljka; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2015-07-01

    Adenosine is a powerful central neuromodulator acting via opposing A1 (inhibitor) and A2a (activator) receptors. However, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), both adenosine receptor subtypes attenuate cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) sympathoinhibition of renal, adrenal, and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity and attenuate reflex decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. Adenosine A1 receptors inhibit glutamatergic transmission in the CCR pathway, whereas adenosine A2a receptors most likely facilitate release of an unknown inhibitory neurotransmitter, which, in turn, inhibits the CCR. We hypothesized that adenosine A2a receptors inhibit the CCR via facilitation of GABA release in the NTS. In urethane-chloralose-anesthetized rats (n = 51), we compared regional sympathetic responses evoked by stimulation of the CCR with right atrial injections of the 5-HT3 receptor agonist phenylbiguanide (1-8 μg/kg) before and after selective stimulation of NTS adenosine A2a receptors [microinjections into the NTS of CGS-21680 (20 pmol/50 nl)] preceded by blockade of GABAA or GABAB receptors in the NTS [bicuculline (10 pmol/100 nl) or SCH-50911 (1 nmol/100 nl)]. Blockade of GABAA receptors virtually abolished adenosine A2a receptor-mediated inhibition of the CCR. GABAB receptors had much weaker but significant effects. These effects were similar for the different sympathetic outputs. We conclude that stimulation of NTS adenosine A2a receptors inhibits CCR-evoked hemodynamic and regional sympathetic reflex responses via a GABA-ergic mechanism.

  19. Inhibition of adenosine deaminase attenuates endotoxin-induced release of cytokines in vivo in rats.

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    Tofovic, S P; Zacharia, L; Carcillo, J A; Jackson, E K

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in vivo the effects of modulating the adenosine system on endotoxin-induced release of cytokines and changes in heart performance and neurohumoral status in early, profound endotoxemia in rats. Time/pressure variables of heart performance and blood pressure were recorded continuously, and plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin 1-beta (IL-1beta), plasma renin activity (PRA), and catecholamines were determined before and 90 min after administration of endotoxin (30 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide, i.v.). Erythro-9[2-hydroxyl-3-nonyl] adenine (EHNA; an adenosine deaminase inhibitor) had no effects on measured time-pressure variables of heart performance under baseline conditions and during endotoxemia, yet significantly attenuated endotoxin-induced release of cytokines and PRA. Pretreatment with the non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist DPSPX not only prevented the effects of EHNA but also increased the basal release of cytokines and augmented PRA. At baseline, caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) increased HR, +dP/dtmax, heart rate x ventricular pressure product (HR x VPSP) and +dP/dtmax normalized by pressure (+dP/dtmax/VPSP), and these changes persisted during endotoxemia. Caffeine attenuated endotoxin-induced release of cytokines and augmented endotoxin-induced increases in plasma catecholamines and PRA. Pretreatment with propranolol abolished the effects of caffeine on heart performance and neurohumoral activation during the early phase of endotoxemia. 6N-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; selective A1 adenosine receptor agonist) induced bradicardia and negative inotropic effects, reduced work load (i.e., decreased HR, VPSP, +dP/dtmax, +dP/dtmax/VPSP and HR x VPSP) and inhibited endotoxin-induced tachycardia and renin release. CGS 21680 (selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist) decreased blood pressure under basal condition but did not potentiate decreases in blood pressure

  20. Dual inhibition of plasminogen kringle 5 on angiogenesis and chemotaxis suppresses tumor metastasis by targeting HIF-1α pathway.

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    Wei-Bin Cai

    Full Text Available We had demonstrated that plasminogen kringle 5 (K5, a potent angiogenic inhibitor, inhibited retinal neovascularization and hepatocellular carcinoma growth by anti-angiogenesis. The current study investigated the effects and the underlying mechanisms of K5 on both tumor growth and spontaneous pulmonary metastasis in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC implanted mouse model. Similarly, K5 could decrease expression of VEGF in LLC cells and grafted tissues and suppress tumor angiogenesis and growth. K5 had no direct effect on proliferation and apoptosis of LLC. However, K5 could significantly inhibit SDF-1α-induced chemotaxis movement of LLC cells and resulted in a great reduction of surface metastatic nodules and micrometastases in the lungs of LLC tumor-bearing mice. K5 also decreased expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif receptor 4 (CXCR4 in LLC cells and grafted tissues. Furthermore, K5 down-regulated SDF-1α expression in metastatic lung tissues of LLC-bearing mice. Therefore, K5 may suppress tumor pulmonary metastasis through inhibiting SDF-1α-CXCR4 chemotaxis movement and down-regulation of VEGF. Moreover, the role of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α, a crucial transcriptional factor for both VEGF and CXCR4 expression, was evaluated. The siRNA of HIF-1α attenuated expression of VEGF and CXCR4 and inhibited LLC migration. K5 decreased HIF-1α protein level and impaired nuclear HIF-1α accumulation. These results showed for the first time that K5 inhibits LLC growth and metastasis via the dual effects of anti-angiogenesis and suppression of tumor cell motility by targeting the pivotal molecule, HIF-1α.

  1. Protective effects of inhibition of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase activity against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    补娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of inhibition of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) on shape,function and inflammatory factor of microglia for mice after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion

  2. Activation of AMPK enhances neutrophil chemotaxis and bacterial killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae Won; Jiang, Shaoning; Tadie, Jean-Marc; Stigler, William S; Gao, Yong; Deshane, Jessy; Abraham, Edward; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W

    2013-11-08

    An inability of neutrophils to eliminate invading microorganisms is frequently associated with severe infection and may contribute to the high mortality rates associated with sepsis. In the present studies, we examined whether metformin and other 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators affect neutrophil motility, phagocytosis and bacterial killing. We found that activation of AMPK enhanced neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro and in vivo, and also counteracted the inhibition of chemotaxis induced by exposure of neutrophils to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In contrast, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of AMPKα1 or blockade of AMPK activation through treatment of neutrophils with the AMPK inhibitor compound C diminished neutrophil chemotaxis. In addition to their effects on chemotaxis, treatment of neutrophils with metformin or aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) improved phagocytosis and bacterial killing, including more efficient eradication of bacteria in a mouse model of peritonitis-induced sepsis. Immunocytochemistry showed that, in contrast to LPS, metformin or AICAR induced robust actin polymerization and distinct formation of neutrophil leading edges. Although LPS diminished AMPK phosphorylation, metformin or AICAR was able to partially decrease the effects of LPS/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) engagement on downstream signaling events, particularly LPS-induced IκBα degradation. The IκB kinase (IKK) inhibitor PS-1145 diminished IκBα degradation and also prevented LPS-induced inhibition of chemotaxis. These results suggest that AMPK activation with clinically approved agents, such as metformin, may facilitate bacterial eradication in sepsis and other inflammatory conditions associated with inhibition of neutrophil activation and chemotaxis.

  3. Inhibition of formyl peptide receptor in high-grade astrocytoma by CHemotaxis Inhibitory Protein of S. aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, J C; Domanska, U M; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Boer, I G J; de Haas, C J C; Joseph, J V; Kruyt, F A E; de Vries, E G E; den Dunnen, W F A; van Strijp, J A G; Walenkamp, A M E

    2013-02-19

    High-grade astrocytomas are malignant brain tumours that infiltrate the surrounding brain tissue and have a poor prognosis. Activation of formyl peptide receptor (FPR1) on the human astrocytoma cell line U87 promotes cell motility, growth and angiogenesis. We therefore investigated the FPR1 inhibitor, Chemotaxis Inhibitory Protein of S. aureus (CHIPS), as a potential anti-astrocytoma drug. FPR1 expression was studied immunohistochemically in astrocytomas WHO grades I-IV. With intracellular calcium mobilisation and migration assays, human ligands were tested for their ability to activate FPR1 on U87 cells and on a cell line derived from primary astrocytoma grade IV patient material. Thereafter, we selectively inhibited these ligand-induced responses of FPR1 with an anti-inflammatory compound called Chemotaxis Inhibitory Protein of S. aureus (CHIPS). U87 xenografts in NOD-SCID mice served to investigate the effects of CHIPS in vivo. FPR1 was expressed in 29 out of 32 (90%) of all grades of astrocytomas. Two human mitochondrial-derived formylated peptides, formyl-methionil-leucine-lysine-isoleucine-valine (fMLKLIV) and formyl-methionil-methionil-tyrosine-alanine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMMYALF), were potent activators of FPR1 on tumour cells. Ligand-induced responses of FPR1-expressing tumour cells could be inhibited with FPR1 inhibitor CHIPS. Treatment of tumour-bearing mice with CHIPS slightly reduced tumour growth and improved survival as compared to non-treated animals (P=0.0019). Targeting FPR1 with CHIPS reduces cell motility and tumour cell activation, and prolongs the survival of tumour-bearing mice. This strategy could be explored in future research to improve treatment results for astrocytoma patients.

  4. Adenosine inhibits neutrophil vascular endothelial growth factor release and transendothelial migration via A2B receptor activation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wakai, A

    2012-02-03

    The effects of adenosine on neutrophil (polymorphonuclear neutrophils; PMN)-directed changes in vascular permeability are poorly characterized. This study investigated whether adenosine modulates activated PMN vascular endothelial growth factor (vascular permeability factor; VEGF) release and transendothelial migration. PMN activated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, 10 ng\\/mL) were incubated with adenosine and its receptor-specific analogues. Culture supernatants were assayed for VEGF. PMN transendothelial migration across human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers was assessed in vitro. Adhesion molecule receptor expression was assessed flow cytometrically. Adenosine and some of its receptor-specific analogues dose-dependently inhibited activated PMN VEGF release. The rank order of potency was consistent with the affinity profile of human A2B receptors. The inhibitory effect of adenosine was reversed by 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, an A2 receptor antagonist. Adenosine (100 microM) or the A2B receptor agonist 5\\'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA, 100 microM) significantly reduced PMN transendothelial migration. However, expression of activated PMN beta2 integrins and HUVEC ICAM-1 were not significantly altered by adenosine or NECA. Adenosine attenuates human PMN VEGF release and transendothelial migration via the A2B receptor. This provides a novel target for the modulation of PMN-directed vascular hyperpermeability in conditions such as the capillary leak syndrome.

  5. Curcumin inhibits adenosine deaminase and arginase activities in cadmium-induced renal toxicity in rat kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Jacob Akinyemi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of enzymes involved in degradation of renal adenosine and l-arginine was investigated in rats exposed to cadmium (Cd and treated with curcumin, the principal active phytochemical in turmeric rhizome. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 6: saline/vehicle, saline/curcumin 12.5 mg/kg, saline/curcumin 25 mg/kg, Cd/vehicle, Cd/curcumin 12.5 mg/kg, and Cd/curcumin 25 mg/kg. The results of this study revealed that the activities of renal adenosine deaminase and arginase were significantly increased in Cd-treated rats when compared with the control (p < 0.05. However, co-treatment with curcumin inhibits the activities of these enzymes compared with Cd-treated rats. Furthermore, Cd intoxication increased the levels of some renal biomarkers (serum urea, creatinine, and electrolytes and malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in functional sulfhydryl group and nitric oxide (NO. However, co-treatment with curcumin at 12.5 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg, respectively, increases the nonenzymatic antioxidant status and NO in the kidney, with a concomitant decrease in the levels of malondialdehyde and renal biomarkers. Therefore, our results reinforce the importance of adenosine deaminase and arginase activities in Cd poisoning conditions and suggest some possible mechanisms of action by which curcumin prevent Cd-induced renal toxicity in rats.

  6. Inhibition of platelet-activating factor- and zymosan-activated serum-induced chemotaxis of human neutrophils by nedocromil sodium, BN 52021 and sodium cromoglycate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnzeel, P. L.; Warringa, R. A.; Kok, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    1. Inflammatory cells such as eosinophils and neutrophils are thought to contribute actively to the pathogenesis of asthma since they infiltrate into the lung tissue. These cells are mobilized by lipid-like and protein-like chemotactic factors. As illustrative examples of both groups, platelet-activating-factor (Paf) and zymosan-activated-serum (ZAS) were used in this study. The inhibitory effects of nedocromil sodium, the Paf antagonist BN 52021 and sodium cromoglycate on Paf- and ZAS-induced neutrophil chemotaxis were evaluated. 2. All tested drugs inhibited Paf-induced neutrophil chemotaxis with approximately the same potency (IC50 approximately 1 nM). 3. Nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate were equally potent in inhibiting ZAS-induced neutrophil chemotaxis (IC50 = 0.1-1 microM), whereas BN 52021 was considerably less potent (IC30 = 10 microM). 4. To find out whether the drugs tested could inhibit early events in cell activation, their capacity to inhibit Paf- and ZAS-induced cytosolic free Ca2+-mobilization was investigated. BN 52021, at a concentration of 100 microM, completely inhibited Paf-induced Ca2+-mobilization and inhibited ZAS-induced Ca2+-mobilization by about 50%. Nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate were ineffective. PMID:2551444

  7. Activation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors inhibits regional sympathetic responses evoked by activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Tomoko K; Minic, Zeljka; Li, Cailian; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2012-09-01

    Previously we have shown that adenosine operating via the A(1) receptor subtype may inhibit glutamatergic transmission in the baroreflex arc within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and differentially increase renal (RSNA), preganglionic adrenal (pre-ASNA), and lumbar (LSNA) sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA>RSNA≥LSNA). Since the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex and the arterial baroreflex are mediated via similar medullary pathways, and glutamate is a primary transmitter in both pathways, it is likely that adenosine operating via A(1) receptors in the NTS may differentially inhibit regional sympathetic responses evoked by activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreceptors. Therefore, in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized rats (n = 37) we compared regional sympathoinhibition evoked by the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (activated with right atrial injections of serotonin 5HT(3) receptor agonist phenylbiguanide, PBG, 1-8 μg/kg) before and after selective stimulation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors [microinjections of N(6)-cyclopentyl adenosine (CPA), 0.033-330 pmol/50 nl]. Activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreceptors evoked differential, dose-dependent sympathoinhibition (RSNA>ASNA>LSNA), and decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. These differential sympathetic responses were uniformly attenuated in dose-dependent manner by microinjections of CPA into the NTS. Volume control (n = 11) and blockade of adenosine receptor subtypes in the NTS via 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (8-SPT, 1 nmol in 100 nl) (n = 9) did not affect the reflex responses. We conclude that activation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors uniformly inhibits neural and cardiovascular cardiopulmonary chemoreflex responses. A(1) adenosine receptors have no tonic modulatory effect on this reflex under normal conditions. However, when adenosine is released into the NTS (i.e., during stress or severe hypotension/ischemia), it may serve as negative feedback regulator for depressor and sympathoinhibitory reflexes

  8. Acute exposure to apolipoprotein A1 inhibits macrophage chemotaxis in vitro and monocyte recruitment in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif J; Barrett, Tessa J; Taylor, Lewis; McNeill, Eileen; Manmadhan, Arun; Recio, Carlota; Carmineri, Alfredo; Brodermann, Maximillian H; White, Gemma E; Cooper, Dianne; DiDonato, Joseph A; Zamanian-Daryoush, Maryam; Hazen, Stanley L; Channon, Keith M

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) is the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and has well documented anti-inflammatory properties. To better understand the cellular and molecular basis of the anti-inflammatory actions of apoA1, we explored the effect of acute human apoA1 exposure on the migratory capacity of monocyte-derived cells in vitro and in vivo. Acute (20–60 min) apoA1 treatment induced a substantial (50–90%) reduction in macrophage chemotaxis to a range of chemoattractants. This acute treatment was anti-inflammatory in vivo as shown by pre-treatment of monocytes prior to adoptive transfer into an on-going murine peritonitis model. We find that apoA1 rapidly disrupts membrane lipid rafts, and as a consequence, dampens the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway that coordinates reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell migration. Our data strengthen the evidence base for therapeutic apoA1 infusions in situations where reduced monocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation could have beneficial outcomes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15190.001 PMID:27572261

  9. HIV-1 Nef binds the DOCK2-ELMO1 complex to activate rac and inhibit lymphocyte chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Janardhan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The infectious cycle of primate lentiviruses is intimately linked to interactions between cells of the immune system. Nef, a potent virulence factor, alters cellular environments to increase lentiviral replication in the host, yet the mechanisms underlying these effects have remained elusive. Since Nef likely functions as an adaptor protein, we exploited a proteomic approach to directly identify molecules that Nef targets to subvert the signaling machinery in T cells. We purified to near homogeneity a major Nef-associated protein complex from T cells and identified by mass spectroscopy its subunits as DOCK2-ELMO1, a key activator of Rac in antigen- and chemokine-initiated signaling pathways, and Rac. We show that Nef activates Rac in T cell lines and in primary T cells following infection with HIV-1 in the absence of antigenic stimuli. Nef activates Rac by binding the DOCK2-ELMO1 complex, and this interaction is linked to the abilities of Nef to inhibit chemotaxis and promote T cell activation. Our data indicate that Nef targets a critical switch that regulates Rac GTPases downstream of chemokine- and antigen-initiated signaling pathways. This interaction enables Nef to influence multiple aspects of T cell function and thus provides an important mechanism by which Nef impacts pathogenesis by primate lentiviruses.

  10. Losartan and Dexamethasone may inhibit chemotaxis to reduce the infiltration of Th22 cells in IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chenggen; Zhou, Qiaoling; Li, Xiaozhao; Li, Hui; Zhong, Yong; Meng, Ting; Zhu, Mengyuan; Sun, Hong; Liu, Shuang; Tang, Rong; Pu, Jiaxi; Xu, Yan; Xiao, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Angiotensin II is considered a major profibrotic factor that is involved in tissue remodeling processes, as the inhibition of Angiotensin II can halt renal inflammatory processes. Dexamethasone, an important anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent, has been widely used to treat renal disease for decades. In this study, we explored the frequency of Th22 cells in a mouse model of IgA nephropathy and compared the possible effects of Losartan and Dexamethasone on Th22 cells. The experiments were performed using 6-week-old BALB/c female mice in an established IgA nephropathy model. The mice were randomly separated into 4 groups, which were administered Losartan (30mg/kg/d) or Dexamethasone (10mg/kg/d) and subjected to IgA nephropathy or the normal control treatment for 1month. The frequency of Th22 cells was measured via flow cytometry, and the relative pathological changes in renal morphology were measured with different pathological staining methods. Immunohistochemistry was performed to verify the expression of CCR10 and CCL27, which is specialized receptor on Th22 cells and its corresponding chemokine, respectively. The concentrations of CCL27 and IL-22 in renal tissue homogenates and sera were detected using ELISAs. Losartan and Dexamethasone differentially decreased the frequency of Th22 cells after 1month, and mesangial cell proliferation was also improved. Moreover, the expression of CCR10, CCL27 and IL-22 was reduced by treatment with either drug. However, significant differences between Losartan and Dexamethasone were not observed. Based on these findings, Losartan and Dexamethasone may suppress inflammatory responses by inhibiting the chemotaxis of Th22 cells in IgA nephropathy.

  11. Fully human antagonistic antibodies against CCR4 potently inhibit cell signaling and chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs B Hagemann

    Full Text Available CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4 represents a potentially important target for cancer immunotherapy due to its expression on tumor infiltrating immune cells including regulatory T cells (Tregs and on tumor cells in several cancer types and its role in metastasis.Using phage display, human antibody library, affinity maturation and a cell-based antibody selection strategy, the antibody variants against human CCR4 were generated. These antibodies effectively competed with ligand binding, were able to block ligand-induced signaling and cell migration, and demonstrated efficient killing of CCR4-positive tumor cells via ADCC and phagocytosis. In a mouse model of human T-cell lymphoma, significant survival benefit was demonstrated for animals treated with the newly selected anti-CCR4 antibodies.For the first time, successful generation of anti- G-protein coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR antibodies using human non-immune library and phage display on GPCR-expressing cells was demonstrated. The generated anti-CCR4 antibodies possess a dual mode of action (inhibition of ligand-induced signaling and antibody-directed tumor cell killing. The data demonstrate that the anti-tumor activity in vivo is mediated, at least in part, through Fc-receptor dependent effector mechanisms, such as ADCC and phagocytosis. Anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 antibodies inhibiting receptor signaling have potential as immunomodulatory antibodies for cancer.

  12. Inhibition of thyrotropin-stimulated adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate formation in rat thyroid cells by an adenosine analog. Evidence that the inhibition is mediated by the putative inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, M I; Thomas, C G; Nayfeh, S N

    1986-01-01

    Addition of N6-(L-2-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine (PIA) to cultured FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of TSH-stimulated cAMP formation. Half-maximal inhibition was attained with approximately 0.5 nM PIA. Forskolin and cholera toxin-stimulated cAMP production were also inhibited by PIA. 3-Isobutyl-methylxanthine inhibited the effect of PIA. These results are consistent with the presence of inhibitory adenosine receptors (Ri). Ri-sites were further demonstrated by the binding of 3H-cyclohexyl-adenosine to FRTL-5 plasma membranes. High (Kd = 0.50 +/- 0.07 nM) and low affinity (Kd = 5.95 +/- 2.33 nM) binding sites were observed. Pretreatment of FRTL-5 cells with pertussis, but not cholera, toxin effectively antagonized the inhibitory effects of PIA on cAMP production. ADP-ribosylation of FRTL-5 membranes with [32P]-NAD in the presence of cholera or pertussis toxin specifically labeled a 45,000 and 41,000 Mr species, respectively, which correspond to the alpha subunit of the stimulatory and inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins. These results demonstrate that PIA inhibits TSH-stimulated cAMP production via Ri-sites on FRTL-5 thyroid cells. PIA appears to exert its inhibitory effects through the inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein.

  13. Structural basis of the inhibition of class C acid phosphatases by adenosine 5;#8242;-phosphorothioate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Harkewal; Reilly, Thomas J.; Tanner, John J. (UMC)

    2012-01-20

    The inhibition of phosphatases by adenosine 5'-phosphorothioate (AMPS) was first reported in the late 1960s; however, the structural basis for the inhibition has remained unknown. Here, it is shown that AMPS is a submicromolar inhibitor of class C acid phosphatases, a group of bacterial outer membrane enzymes belonging to the haloacid dehalogenase structural superfamily. Furthermore, the 1.35-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the inhibited recombinant Haemophilus influenzae class C acid phosphatase was determined; this is the first structure of a phosphatase complexed with AMPS. The conformation of AMPS is identical to that of the substrate 5'-AMP, except that steric factors force a rotation of the thiophosphoryl out of the normal phosphoryl-binding pocket. This conformation is catalytically nonproductive, because the P atom is not positioned optimally for nucleophilic attack by Asp64, and the O atom of the scissile O-P bond is too far from the Asp (Asp66) that protonates the leaving group. The structure of 5'-AMP complexed with the Asp64 {yields} Asn mutant enzyme was also determined at 1.35-{angstrom} resolution. This mutation induces the substrate to adopt the same nonproductive binding mode that is observed in the AMPS complex. In this case, electrostatic considerations, rather than steric factors, underlie the movement of the phosphoryl. The structures not only provide an explanation for the inhibition by AMPS, but also highlight the precise steric and electrostatic requirements of phosphoryl recognition by class C acid phosphatases. Moreover, the structure of the Asp64 {yields} Asn mutant illustrates how a seemingly innocuous mutation can cause an unexpected structural change.

  14. Inhibition of Salmonella enterica biofilm formation using small-molecule adenosine mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Jacob A; Marshall, Joanna M; Bhatiya, Aditi; Eguale, Tadesse; Kwiek, Jesse J; Gunn, John S

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms have been widely implicated in chronic infections and environmental persistence of Salmonella enterica, facilitating enhanced colonization of surfaces and increasing the ability of the bacteria to be transmitted to new hosts. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi biofilm formation on gallstones from humans and mice enhances gallbladder colonization and bacterial shedding, while Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium biofilms facilitate long-term persistence in a number of environments important to food, medical, and farming industries. Salmonella regulates expression of many virulence- and biofilm-related processes using kinase-driven pathways. Kinases play pivotal roles in phosphorylation and energy transfer in cellular processes and possess an ATP-binding pocket required for their functions. Many other cellular proteins also require ATP for their activity. Here we test the hypothesis that pharmacological interference with ATP-requiring enzymes utilizing adenosine mimetic compounds would decrease or inhibit bacterial biofilm formation. Through the screening of a 3,000-member ATP mimetic library, we identified a single compound (compound 7955004) capable of significantly reducing biofilm formation by S. Typhimurium and S. Typhi. The compound was not bactericidal or bacteriostatic toward S. Typhimurium or cytotoxic to mammalian cells. An ATP-Sepharose affinity matrix technique was used to discover potential protein-binding targets of the compound and identified GroEL and DeoD. Compound 7955004 was screened against other known biofilm-forming bacterial species and was found to potently inhibit biofilms of Acinetobacter baumannii as well. The identification of a lead compound with biofilm-inhibiting capabilities toward Salmonella provides a potential new avenue of therapeutic intervention against Salmonella biofilm formation, with applicability to biofilms of other bacterial pathogens.

  15. Paeoniflorin attenuates Aβ1-42-induced inflammation and chemotaxis of microglia in vitro and inhibits NF-κB- and VEGF/Flt-1 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huayan; Wang, Jinyan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Ping; Xue, Yixue

    2015-08-27

    Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with elusive pathogenesis, which accounts for most cases of dementia in the aged population. It has been reported that persistent inflammatory responses and excessive chemotaxis of microglia stimulated by beta-amyloid (Aβ) oligomers in the brain may accelerate the progression of AD. The present study was conducted to explore whether paeoniflorin (PF), a water-soluble monoterpene glycoside isolated from the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, could attenuate Aβ1-42-induced toxic effects on primary and BV-2 microglial cells in vitro. Our data showed that PF pretreatment inhibited Aβ1-42-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in rodent microglia. Also, the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) subunit p65 and the phosphorylation of NF-κB inhibitor alpha (IκBα) in Aβ1-42-stimulated microglial cells were suppressed by PF administration. Moreover, PF treatment reduced the release of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL-2) from Aβ1-42-stimulated microglia. Additionally, application of PF inhibited the increases in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor 1 (Flt-1) triggered by Aβ1-42, and resulted in a concomitant reduction in microglial chemotaxis. Restoration of VEGF was noted to counteract the inhibitory effect of PF, suggesting that PF mitigated Aβ1-42-elicited microglial migration at least partly by suppressing the VEGF/Flt-1 axis. In summary, in presence of Aβ1-42, PF pretreatment inhibited the excessive microglial activation and chemotaxis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA-1 (ADAR1 inhibits HIV-1 replication in human alveolar macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Weiden

    Full Text Available While exploring the effects of aerosol IFN-γ treatment in HIV-1/tuberculosis co-infected patients, we observed A to G mutations in HIV-1 envelope sequences derived from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL of aerosol IFN-γ-treated patients and induction of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1 in the BAL cells. IFN-γ induced ADAR1 expression in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM but not T cells. ADAR1 siRNA knockdown induced HIV-1 expression in BAL cells of four HIV-1 infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. Similar results were obtained in MDM that were HIV-1 infected in vitro. Over-expression of ADAR1 in transformed macrophages inhibited HIV-1 viral replication but not viral transcription measured by nuclear run-on, suggesting that ADAR1 acts post-transcriptionally. The A to G hyper-mutation pattern observed in ADAR1 over-expressing cells in vitro was similar to that found in the lungs of HIV-1 infected patients treated with aerosol IFN-γ suggesting the model accurately represented alveolar macrophages. Together, these results indicate that ADAR1 restricts HIV-1 replication post-transcriptionally in macrophages harboring HIV-1 provirus. ADAR1 may therefore contribute to viral latency in macrophages.

  17. Norepinephrine inhibits mesenchymal stem cell chemotaxis migration by increasing stromal cell-derived factor-1 secretion by vascular endothelial cells via NE/abrd3/JNK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baolei; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xi; Mao, Ming; Ye, Chen; Liu, Peng; Yang, Zihui; Yang, Xinjie; Lei, Delin; Zhang, Chenping

    2016-12-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are physiologically maintained in vascular endothelial cell (VEC)-based niches, play a critical role in tissue regeneration. Our previous studies demonstrated that sympathetic denervation could promote MSC mobilization, thereby enhancing bone formation in distraction osteogenesis (DO), a self-tissue engineering for craniofacial and orthopeadic surgeries. However, the mechanisms on how sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) regulates MSC migration are not well understood. Here we showed that deprivation of NE by transection of cervical sympathetic trunk (TCST) inhibited stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) expression in the perivascular regions in rat mandibular DO. In vitro studies showed that NE treatment markedly upregulated p-JNK and therefore stimulated higher SDF-1 expression in VECs than control groups, and siRNA knockdown of the abrd3 gene abolished the NE-induced p-JNK activation. On the other hand, osteoblasts differentiated from MSCs showed an increase in SDF-1 secretion with lack of NE. Importantly, NE-treated VECs inhibited the MSC chemotaxis migration along the SDF-1 concentration gradient as demonstrated in a novel 3-chamber Transwell assay. Collectively, our study suggested that NE may increase the SDF-1 secretion by VECs via NE/abrd3/JNK pathway, thereby inhibiting the MSC chemotaxis migration from perivascular regions toward bone trabecular frontlines along the SDF-1 concentration gradient in bone regeneration. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Deletion of striatal adenosine A(2A) receptor spares latent inhibition and prepulse inhibition but impairs active avoidance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Philipp; Wei, Catherine J; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Boison, Detlev; Yee, Benjamin K

    2013-04-01

    Following early clinical leads, the adenosine A(2A)R receptor (A(2A)R) has continued to attract attention as a potential novel target for treating schizophrenia, especially against the negative and cognitive symptoms of the disease because of A(2A)R's unique modulatory action over glutamatergic in addition to dopaminergic signaling. Through (i) the antagonistic interaction with the dopamine D(2) receptor, and (ii) the regulation of glutamate release and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor function, striatal A(2A)R is ideally positioned to fine-tune the dopamine-glutamate balance, the disturbance of which is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the precise function of striatal A(2A)Rs in the regulation of schizophrenia-relevant behavior is poorly understood. Here, we tested the impact of conditional striatum-specific A(2A)R knockout (st-A(2A)R-KO) on latent inhibition (LI) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) - behavior that is tightly regulated by striatal dopamine and glutamate. These are two common cross-species translational tests for the assessment of selective attention and sensorimotor gating deficits reported in schizophrenia patients; and enhanced performance in these tests is associated with antipsychotic drug action. We found that neither LI nor PPI was significantly affected in st-A(2A)R-KO mice, although a deficit in active avoidance learning was identified in these animals. The latter phenotype, however, was not replicated in another form of aversive conditioning - namely, conditioned taste aversion. Hence, the present study shows that neither learned inattention (as measured by LI) nor sensory gating (as indexed by PPI) requires the integrity of striatal A(2A)Rs - a finding that may undermine the hypothesized importance of A(2A)R in the genesis and/or treatment of schizophrenia.

  19. Adenosine kinase inhibition protects against cranial radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munjal M Acharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical radiation therapy for the treatment of CNS cancers leads to unintended and debilitating impairments in cognition. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction is long lasting, however, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are still not well established. Since ionizing radiation causes microglial and astroglial activation, we hypothesized that maladaptive changes in astrocyte function might be implicated in radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. Among other gliotransmitters, astrocytes control the availability of adenosine, an endogenous neuroprotectant and modulator of cognition, via metabolic clearance through adenosine kinase (ADK. Adult rats exposed to cranial irradiation (10 Gy showed significant declines in performance of hippocampal-dependent cognitive function tasks (novel place recognition, novel object recognition, and contextual fear conditioning 1 month after exposure to ionizing radiation using a clinically relevant regimen. Irradiated rats spent less time exploring a novel place or object. Cranial irradiation also led to reduction in freezing behavior compared to controls in the fear conditioning task. Importantly, immunohistochemical analyses of irradiated brains showed significant elevation of ADK immunoreactivity in the hippocampus that was related to astrogliosis and increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Conversely, rats treated with the ADK inhibitor 5-iodotubercidin (5-ITU, 3.1 mg/kg, i.p., for 6 days prior to cranial irradiation showed significantly improved behavioral performance in all cognitive tasks 1 month post exposure. Treatment with 5-ITU attenuated radiation-induced astrogliosis and elevated ADK immunoreactivity in the hippocampus. These results confirm an astrocyte-mediated mechanism where preservation of extracellular adenosine can exert neuroprotection also against radiation-induced pathology. These innovative findings link radiation-induced changes in cognition and CNS

  20. Adenosine Kinase Inhibition Protects against Cranial Radiation-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Munjal M; Baulch, Janet E; Lusardi, Theresa A; Allen, Barrett D; Chmielewski, Nicole N; Baddour, Al Anoud D; Limoli, Charles L; Boison, Detlev

    2016-01-01

    Clinical radiation therapy for the treatment of CNS cancers leads to unintended and debilitating impairments in cognition. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction is long lasting; however, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are still not well established. Since ionizing radiation causes microglial and astroglial activation, we hypothesized that maladaptive changes in astrocyte function might be implicated in radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. Among other gliotransmitters, astrocytes control the availability of adenosine, an endogenous neuroprotectant and modulator of cognition, via metabolic clearance through adenosine kinase (ADK). Adult rats exposed to cranial irradiation (10 Gy) showed significant declines in performance of hippocampal-dependent cognitive function tasks [novel place recognition, novel object recognition (NOR), and contextual fear conditioning (FC)] 1 month after exposure to ionizing radiation using a clinically relevant regimen. Irradiated rats spent less time exploring a novel place or object. Cranial irradiation also led to reduction in freezing behavior compared to controls in the FC task. Importantly, immunohistochemical analyses of irradiated brains showed significant elevation of ADK immunoreactivity in the hippocampus that was related to astrogliosis and increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Conversely, rats treated with the ADK inhibitor 5-iodotubercidin (5-ITU, 3.1 mg/kg, i.p., for 6 days) prior to cranial irradiation showed significantly improved behavioral performance in all cognitive tasks 1 month post exposure. Treatment with 5-ITU attenuated radiation-induced astrogliosis and elevated ADK immunoreactivity in the hippocampus. These results confirm an astrocyte-mediated mechanism where preservation of extracellular adenosine can exert neuroprotection against radiation-induced pathology. These innovative findings link radiation-induced changes in cognition and CNS functionality to altered

  1. N-ethyl-carboxamide adenosine inhibits perioral dyskinesias induced by sulpiride + SKF 38393 in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporali, M G; Scotti de Carolis, A; Popoli, P

    1992-11-13

    A pattern of perioral dyskinesia was induced in adult male rabbits by concomitant stimulation of dopamine D1 receptors (SKF 38393) and blockade of dopamine D2 receptors (sulpiride). Rabbits treated with sulpiride (6 and 12.5 mg/kg i.v.) then, 90 min thereafter, with SKF 38393 (0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg i.v.) showed a pattern of perioral dyskinesia characterized by compulsive and repetitive sniffing, licking and vacuous chewing. These effects were completely prevented by the administration of N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine (NECA), an A2 > A1 adenosine receptor agonist. The present results confirm that perioral dyskinesia is dependent on the activation of dopamine D1 receptors. They also show that, in order to induce perioral dyskinesia in rabbits, a concomitant blockade of dopamine D2 receptors is required. Finally, the antagonistic effect of NECA on the appearance of perioral movements confirms that adenosine receptors play a key role in the control of dopamine-mediated effects.

  2. The new 4-O-methylhonokiol analog GS12021 inhibits inflammation and macrophage chemotaxis: role of AMP-activated protein kinase α activation.

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    Sora Kim

    Full Text Available Preventing pathologic tissue inflammation is key to treating obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Previously, we synthesized a series of methylhonokiol analogs and reported that compounds with a carbamate structure had inhibitory function against cyclooxygenase-2 in a cell-free enzyme assay. However, whether these compounds could inhibit the expression of inflammatory genes in macrophages has not been investigated. Here, we found that a new 4-O-methylhonokiol analog, 3',5-diallyl-4'-methoxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl morpholine-4-carboxylate (GS12021 inhibited LPS- or TNFα-stimulated inflammation in macrophages and adipocytes, respectively. LPS-induced phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB/p65 was significantly decreased, whereas NF-κB luciferase activities were slightly inhibited, by GS12021 treatment in RAW 264.7 cells. Either mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation or AP-1 luciferase activity was not altered by GS12021. GS12021 increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK α and the expression of sirtuin (SIRT 1. Inhibition of mRNA expression of inflammatory genes by GS12021 was abolished in AMPKα1-knockdown cells, but not in SIRT1 knockout cells, demonstrating that GS12021 exerts anti-inflammatory effects through AMPKα activation. The transwell migration assay results showed that GS12021 treatment of macrophages prevented the cell migration promoted by incubation with conditioned medium obtained from adipocytes. GS12021 suppression of p65 phosphorylation and macrophage chemotaxis were preserved in AMPKα1-knockdown cells, indicating AMPK is not required for these functions of GS12021. Identification of this novel methylhonokiol analog could enable studies of the structure-activity relationship of this class of compounds and further evaluation of its in vivo potential for the treatment of insulin-resistant states and other chronic inflammatory diseases.

  3. Pre-synaptic adenosine A2A receptors control cannabinoid CB1 receptor-mediated inhibition of striatal glutamatergic neurotransmission.

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    Martire, Alberto; Tebano, Maria Teresa; Chiodi, Valentina; Ferreira, Samira G; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Köfalvi, Attila; Popoli, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    An interaction between adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A) Rs) and cannabinoid CB(1) receptors (CB(1) Rs) has been consistently reported to occur in the striatum, although the precise mechanisms are not completely understood. As both receptors control striatal glutamatergic transmission, we now probed the putative interaction between pre-synaptic CB(1) R and A(2A) R in the striatum. In extracellular field potentials recordings in corticostriatal slices from Wistar rats, A(2A) R activation by CGS21680 inhibited CB(1) R-mediated effects (depression of synaptic response and increase in paired-pulse facilitation). Moreover, in superfused rat striatal nerve terminals, A(2A) R activation prevented, while A(2A) R inhibition facilitated, the CB(1) R-mediated inhibition of 4-aminopyridine-evoked glutamate release. In summary, the present study provides converging neurochemical and electrophysiological support for the occurrence of a tight control of CB(1) R function by A(2A) Rs in glutamatergic terminals of the striatum. In view of the key role of glutamate to trigger the recruitment of striatal circuits, this pre-synaptic interaction between CB(1) R and A(2A) R may be of relevance for the pathogenesis and the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders affecting the basal ganglia.

  4. Propofol inhibits superoxide production, elastase release, and chemotaxis in formyl peptide-activated human neutrophils by blocking formyl peptide receptor 1.

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    Yang, Shun-Chin; Chung, Pei-Jen; Ho, Chiu-Ming; Kuo, Chan-Yen; Hung, Min-Fa; Huang, Yin-Ting; Chang, Wen-Yi; Chang, Ya-Wen; Chan, Kwok-Hon; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2013-06-15

    Neutrophils play a critical role in acute and chronic inflammatory processes, including myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, sepsis, and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Binding of formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) by N-formyl peptides can activate neutrophils and may represent a new therapeutic target in either sterile or septic inflammation. Propofol, a widely used i.v. anesthetic, has been shown to modulate immunoinflammatory responses. However, the mechanism of propofol remains to be established. In this study, we showed that propofol significantly reduced superoxide generation, elastase release, and chemotaxis in human neutrophils activated by fMLF. Propofol did not alter superoxide generation or elastase release in a cell-free system. Neither inhibitors of γ-aminobutyric acid receptors nor an inhibitor of protein kinase A reversed the inhibitory effects of propofol. In addition, propofol showed less inhibitory effects in non-FPR1-induced cell responses. The signaling pathways downstream from FPR1, involving calcium, AKT, and ERK1/2, were also competitively inhibited by propofol. These results show that propofol selectively and competitively inhibits the FPR1-induced human neutrophil activation. Consistent with the hypothesis, propofol inhibited the binding of N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein, a fluorescent analog of fMLF, to FPR1 in human neutrophils, differentiated THP-1 cells, and FPR1-transfected human embryonic kidney-293 cells. To our knowledge, our results identify, for the first time, a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of propofol by competitively blocking FPR1 in human neutrophils. Considering the importance of N-formyl peptides in inflammatory processes, our data indicate that propofol may have therapeutic potential to attenuate neutrophil-mediated inflammatory diseases by blocking FPR1.

  5. 2´,3´-Dialdehyde of ATP, ADP, and adenosine inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and HIV-1 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Julieta; Valadao, Ana Luiza Chaves; Aguiar, Renato Santana; Barreto-de-Souza, Victor; Rossi, Atila Duque; Arantes, Pablo Ricardo; Verli, Hugo; Quintana, Paula Gabriela; Heise, Norton; Tanuri, Amilcar; Bou-Habib, Dumith Chequer; Persechini, Pedro Muanis

    2014-01-01

    The 2´3´-dialdehyde of ATP or oxidized ATP (oATP) is a compound known for specifically making covalent bonds with the nucleotide-binding site of several ATP-binding enzymes and receptors. We investigated the effects of oATP and other oxidized purines on HIV-1 infection and we found that this compound inhibits HIV-1 and SIV infection by blocking early steps of virus replication. oATP, oxidized ADP (oADP), and oxidized Adenosine (oADO) impact the natural activity of endogenous reverse transcriptase enzyme (RT) in cell free virus particles and are able to inhibit viral replication in different cell types when added to the cell cultures either before or after infection. We used UFLC-UV to show that both oADO and oATP can be detected in the cell after being added in the extracellular medium. oATP also suppresses RT activity and replication of the HIV-1 resistant variants M184V and T215Y. We conclude that oATP, oADP and oADO display anti HIV-1 activity that is at in least in part due to inhibitory activity on HIV-1 RT.

  6. Adenosine in the tuberomammillary nucleus inhibits the histaminergic system via A1 receptors and promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep.

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    Oishi, Yo; Huang, Zhi-Li; Fredholm, Bertil B; Urade, Yoshihiro; Hayaishi, Osamu

    2008-12-16

    Adenosine has been proposed to promote sleep through A(1) receptors (A(1)R's) and/or A(2A) receptors in the brain. We previously reported that A(2A) receptors mediate the sleep-promoting effect of prostaglandin D(2), an endogenous sleep-inducing substance, and that activation of these receptors induces sleep and blockade of them by caffeine results in wakefulness. On the other hand, A(1)R has been suggested to increase sleep by inhibition of the cholinergic region of the basal forebrain. However, the role and target sites of A(1)R in sleep-wake regulation remained controversial. In this study, immunohistochemistry revealed that A(1)R was expressed in histaminergic neurons of the rat tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). In vivo microdialysis showed that the histamine release in the frontal cortex was decreased by microinjection into the TMN of N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), an A(1)R agonist, adenosine or coformycin, an inhibitor of adenosine deaminase, which catabolizes adenosine to inosine. Bilateral injection of CPA into the rat TMN significantly increased the amount and the delta power density of non-rapid eye movement (non-REM; NREM) sleep but did not affect REM sleep. CPA-promoted sleep was observed in WT mice but not in KO mice for A(1)R or histamine H(1) receptor, indicating that the NREM sleep promoted by A(1)R-specific agonist depended on the histaminergic system. Furthermore, the bilateral injection of adenosine or coformycin into the rat TMN increased NREM sleep, which was completely abolished by coadministration of 1,3-dimethyl-8-cyclopenthylxanthine, a selective A(1)R antagonist. These results indicate that endogenous adenosine in the TMN suppresses the histaminergic system via A(1)R to promote NREM sleep.

  7. Hemodynamic and neurohumoral effects of various grades of selective adenosine transport inhibition in humans. Implications for its future role in cardioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, G A; Smits, P; Ver Donck, K; Willemsen, J J; De Abreu, R A; Van Belle, H; Thien, T

    1995-02-01

    In 12 healthy male volunteers (27-53 yr), a placebo-controlled randomized double blind cross-over trial was performed to study the effect of the intravenous injection of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 mg draflazine (a selective nucleoside transport inhibitor) on hemodynamic and neurohumoral parameters and ex vivo nucleoside transport inhibition. We hypothesized that an intravenous draflazine dosage without effect on hemodynamic and neurohumoral parameters would still be able to augment the forearm vasodilator response to intraarterially infused adenosine. Heart rate (electrocardiography), systolic blood pressure (Dinamap 1846 SX; Critikon, Portanje Electronica BV, Utrecht, The Netherlands) plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine increased dose-dependently and could almost totally be abolished by caffeine pretreatment indicating the involvement of adenosine receptors. Draflazine did not affect forearm blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography). Intravenous injection of 0.5 mg draflazine did not affect any of the measured hemodynamic parameters but still induced a significant ex vivo nucleoside-transport inhibition of 31.5 +/- 4.1% (P < 0.05 vs placebo). In a subgroup of 10 subjects the brachial artery was cannulated to infuse adenosine (0.15, 0.5, 1.5, 5, 15, and 50 micrograms/100 ml forearm per min) before and after intravenous injection of 0.5 mg draflazine. Forearm blood flow amounted 1.9 +/- 0.3 ml/100 ml forearm per min for placebo and 1.8 +/- 0.2, 2.0 +/- 0.3, 3.8 +/- 0.9, 6.3 +/- 1.2, 11.3 +/- 2.2, and 19.3 +/- 3.9 ml/100 ml forearm per min for the six incremental adenosine dosages, respectively. After the intravenous draflazine infusion, these values were 1.6 +/- 0.2 ml/100 ml forearm per min for placebo and 2.1 +/- 0.3, 3.3 +/- 0.6, 5.8 +/- 1.1, 6.9 +/- 1.4, 14.4 +/- 2.9, and 23.5 +/- 4.0 ml/100 ml forearm per min, respectively (Friedman ANOVA: P < 0.05 before vs after draflazine infusion). In conclusion, a 30-50% inhibition of adenosine transport significantly

  8. Mixed inhibition of adenosine deaminase activity by 1,3-dinitrobenzene: a model for understanding cell-selective neurotoxicity in chemically-induced energy deprivation syndromes in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yipei; Liu, Xin; Schneider, Brandon; Zverina, Elaina A; Russ, Kristen; Wijeyesakere, Sanjeeva J; Fierke, Carol A; Richardson, Rudy J; Philbert, Martin A

    2012-02-01

    Astrocytes are acutely sensitive to 1,3-dinitrobenzene (1,3-DNB) while adjacent neurons are relatively unaffected, consistent with other chemically-induced energy deprivation syndromes. Previous studies have investigated the role of astrocytes in protecting neurons from hypoxia and chemical injury via adenosine release. Adenosine is considered neuroprotective, but it is rapidly removed by extracellular deaminases such as adenosine deaminase (ADA). The present study tested the hypothesis that ADA is inhibited by 1,3-DNB as a substrate mimic, thereby preventing adenosine catabolism. ADA was inhibited by 1,3-DNB with an IC(50) of 284 μM, Hill slope, n = 4.8 ± 0.4. Native gel electrophoresis showed that 1,3-DNB did not denature ADA. Furthermore, adding Triton X-100 (0.01-0.05%, wt/vol), Nonidet P-40 (0.0015-0.0036%, wt/vol), or bovine serum albumin (0.05 mg/ml or changing [ADA] (0.2 and 2 nM) did not substantially alter the 1,3-DNB IC(50) value. Likewise, dynamic light scattering showed no particle formation over a (1,3-DNB) range of 149-1043 μM. Kinetics revealed mixed inhibition with 1,3-DNB binding to ADA (K(I) = 520 ± 100 μM, n = 1 ± 0.6) and the ADA-adenosine complex (K(IS) = 262 ± 7 μM, n = 6 ± 0.6, indicating positive cooperativity). In accord with the kinetics, docking predicted binding of 1,3-DNB to the active site and three peripheral sites. In addition, exposure of DI TNC-1 astrocytes to 10-500 μM 1,3-DNB produced concentration-dependent increases in extracellular adenosine at 24 h. Overall, the results demonstrate that 1,3-DNB is a mixed inhibitor of ADA and may thus lead to increases in extracellular adenosine. The finding may provide insights to guide future work on chemically-induced energy deprivation.

  9. Inhibition of aortic vessel adenosine diphosphate degradation by cadmium and mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togna, G; Dolci, N; Caprino, L

    1984-01-01

    The effects of cadmium and mercury on ADP breakdown by vessel walls were investigated. These metals reduce the ADP clearance promoted by arterial tissue. This effect could be attributed to the inhibition of vessel wall ADP-ase enzyme, which plays an important role in the genesis of thrombotic phenomena.

  10. Adenosine A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of in vitro prolactin secretion from the rat anterior pituitary

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    D.L.W. Picanço-Diniz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, we demonstrated biphasic purinergic effects on prolactin (PRL secretion stimulated by an adenosine A2 agonist. In the present study, we investigated the role of the activation of adenosine A1 receptors by (R-N6-(2-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA at the pituitary level in in vitro PRL secretion. Hemipituitaries (one per cuvette in five replicates from adult male rats were incubated. Administration of R-PIA (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 µM induced a reduction of PRL secretion into the medium in a U-shaped dose-response curve. The maximal reduction was obtained with 0.1 µM R-PIA (mean ± SEM, 36.01 ± 5.53 ng/mg tissue weight (t.w. treatment compared to control (264.56 ± 15.46 ng/mg t.w.. R-PIA inhibition (0.01 µM = 141.97 ± 15.79 vs control = 244.77 ± 13.79 ng/mg t.w. of PRL release was blocked by 1 µM cyclopentyltheophylline, a specific A1 receptor antagonist (1 µM = 212.360 ± 26.560 ng/mg t.w., whereas cyclopentyltheophylline alone (0.01, 0.1, 1 µM had no effect. R-PIA (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 µM produced inhibition of PRL secretion stimulated by both phospholipase C (0.5 IU/mL; 977.44 ± 76.17 ng/mg t.w. and dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM; 415.93 ± 37.66 ng/mg t.w. with nadir established at the dose of 0.1 µM (225.55 ± 71.42 and 201.9 ± 19.08 ng/mg t.w., respectively. Similarly, R-PIA (0.01 µM decreased (242.00 ± 24.00 ng/mg t.w. the PRL secretion stimulated by cholera toxin (0.5 mg/mL; 1050.00 ± 70.00 ng/mg t.w.. In contrast, R-PIA had no effect (468.00 ± 34.00 ng/mg t.w. on PRL secretion stimulation by pertussis toxin (0.5 mg/mL; 430.00 ± 26.00 ng/mg t.w.. These results suggest that inhibition of PRL secretion after A1 receptor activation by R-PIA is mediated by a Gi protein-dependent mechanism.

  11. Activation of Adenosine Receptor A2A Increases HSC Proliferation and Inhibits Death and Senescence by Down-regulation of p53 and Rb

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    Md. Kaimul eAhsan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: During fibrosis hepatic stellate cells (HSC undergo activation, proliferation and senescence but the regulation of these important processes is poorly understood. The adenosine A2A receptor (A2A is known to be present on HSC, and its activation results in liver fibrosis. In this study, we tested if A2A has a role in the regulation of HSC proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, and the relevant molecular mechanism.Methods: The ability of adenosine to regulate p53 and Rb protein levels, proliferation, apoptosis and senescence was tested in the human HSC cell line LX-2 and rat primary HSC.Results: Adenosine receptor activation down-regulates p53 and Rb protein levels, increases BrdU incorporation and increases cell survival in LX-2 cells and in primary rat HSC. These effects of NECA were reproduced by an adenosine A2A receptor specific agonist (CGS21680 and blocked by a specific antagonist (ZM241385. By day twenty-one of culture primary rat HSC entered senescence and expressed -gal which was significantly inhibited by NECA. Furthermore, NECA induced down regulation of p53 and Rb and Rac1, and decreased phosphorylation of p44-42 MAP Kinase in LX-2 cells and primary rat HSC. These effects were reproduced by the cAMP analog 8-Bromo-cAMP, and the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin, and were blocked by PKA inhibitors.Conclusions: These results demonstrate that A2A receptor regulates a number of HSC fate decisions and induces greater HSC proliferation, reduces apoptosis and senescence by decreasing p53 and Rb through cAMP-PKA/Rac1/p38 MAPK pathway. This provides a mechanism for adenosine induced HSC regulation and liver fibrosis.

  12. Imaging Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Megha; Dane, Eric; Conley, Jason; Tantama, Mathew

    2016-08-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a universal mediator of metabolism and signaling across unicellular and multicellular species. There is a fundamental interdependence between the dynamics of ATP and the physiology that occurs inside and outside the cell. Characterizing and understanding ATP dynamics provide valuable mechanistic insight into processes that range from neurotransmission to the chemotaxis of immune cells. Therefore, we require the methodology to interrogate both temporal and spatial components of ATP dynamics from the subcellular to the organismal levels in live specimens. Over the last several decades, a number of molecular probes that are specific to ATP have been developed. These probes have been combined with imaging approaches, particularly optical microscopy, to enable qualitative and quantitative detection of this critical molecule. In this review, we survey current examples of technologies available for visualizing ATP in living cells, and identify areas where new tools and approaches are needed to expand our capabilities.

  13. Novel treatment strategies in triple-negative breast cancer: specific role of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase inhibition

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    Audeh MW

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available M William Audeh Division of Medical Oncology, Samuel Oschin Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Inhibitors of the poly(adenosine triphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP-1 enzyme induce synthetic lethality in cancers with ineffective DNA (DNA repair or homologous repair deficiency, and have shown promising clinical activity in cancers deficient in DNA repair due to germ-line mutation in BRCA1 and BRCA2. The majority of breast cancers arising in carriers of BRCA1 germ-line mutations, as well as half of those in BRCA2 carriers, are classified as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC. TNBC is a biologically heterogeneous group of breast cancers characterized by the lack of immunohistochemical expression of the ER, PR, or HER2 proteins, and for which the current standard of care in systemic therapy is cytotoxic chemotherapy. Many “sporadic” cases of TNBC appear to have indicators of DNA repair dysfunction similar to those in BRCA-mutation carriers, suggesting the possible utility of PARP inhibitors in a subset of TNBC. Significant genetic heterogeneity has been observed within the TNBC cohort, creating challenges for interpretation of prior clinical trial data, and for the design of future clinical trials. Several PARP inhibitors are currently in clinical development in BRCA-mutated breast cancer. The use of PARP inhibitors in TNBC without BRCA mutation will require biomarkers that identify cancers with homologous repair deficiency in order to select patients likely to respond. Beyond mutations in the BRCA genes, dysfunction in other genes that interact with the homologous repair pathway may offer opportunities to induce synthetic lethality when combined with PARP inhibition. Keywords: PARP, triple negative breast cancer, PARP inhibitors

  14. The effects of adenosine A2B receptor inhibition on VEGF and nitric oxide axis-mediated renal function in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Leena; Thaker, Aswin

    2014-07-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. The pathophysiologic mechanisms of diabetic nephropathy are incompletely understood but include overproduction of various growth factors and cytokines. Upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a pathogenic event occurring in most forms of podocytopathy; however, the mechanisms that regulate this growth factor induction are not clearly identified. A2B receptors have been found to regulate VEGF expression under hypoxic environment in different tissues. One proposed hypothesis in mediating diabetic nephropathy is the modulation of VEGF-NO balance in renal tissue. We determined the role of adenosine A2B receptor in mediating VEGF overproduction and nitrite in diabetic nephropathy. The renal content of A2B receptors and VEGF was increased after 8 weeks of diabetes induction. The renal and plasma nitrite levels were also reduced in these animals. In vivo administration of A2B adenosine receptor antagonist (MRS1754) inhibited the renal over expression of VEGF and adverse renal function parameters. The antagonist administration also improved the kidney tissue nitrite levels. In conclusion, we demonstrated that VEGF induction via adenosine signaling might be the critical event in regulating VEGF-NO axis in diabetic nephropathy.

  15. Administration of caffeine inhibited adenosine receptor agonist-induced decreases in motor performance, thermoregulation, and brain neurotransmitter release in exercising rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of an adenosine receptor agonist on caffeine-induced changes in thermoregulation, neurotransmitter release in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus, and endurance exercise performance in rats. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either saline alone (SAL), 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine and saline (CAF), a non-selective adenosine receptor agonist (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine [NECA]: 0.5 mg kg(-1)) and saline (NECA), or the combination of caffeine and NECA (CAF+NECA). Rats ran until fatigue on the treadmill with a 5% grade at a speed of 18 m min(-1) at 23 °C. Compared to the SAL group, the run time to fatigue (RTTF) was significantly increased by 52% following caffeine administration and significantly decreased by 65% following NECA injection (SAL: 91 ± 14.1 min; CAF: 137 ± 25.8 min; NECA: 31 ± 13.7 min; CAF+NECA: 85 ± 11.8 min; pcaffeine injection inhibited the NECA-induced decreases in the RTTF, Tcore, heat production, heat loss, and extracellular DA release. Neither caffeine nor NECA affected extracellular noradrenaline or serotonin release. These results support the findings of previous studies showing improved endurance performance and overrides in body limitations after caffeine administration, and imply that the ergogenic effects of caffeine may be associated with the adenosine receptor blockade-induced increases in brain DA release.

  16. Repeated administration of adenosine increases its cardiovascular effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrio, H; García-Márquez, F; Magos, G A

    1987-01-20

    Hypotensive and negative chronotropic responses to adenosine in anesthetized rats increased after previous administration of the nucleoside. Bradycardia after adenosine in the isolated perfused rat heart was also potentiated after repeated administration at short intervals. This self-potentiation could be due to extracellular accumulation of adenosine and persistent stimulation of receptors caused by saturation or inhibition of cellular uptake of adenosine.

  17. Long-term administration of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol desensitizes CB1-, adenosine A1-, and GABAB-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase in mouse cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selley, Dana E; Cassidy, Michael P; Martin, Billy R; Sim-Selley, Laura J

    2004-11-01

    Cannabinoid CB(1) receptors in the cerebellum mediate the inhibitory effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on motor coordination. Intracellular effects of CB(1) receptors include inhibition of adenylyl cyclase via activation of G(i/o) proteins. There is evidence for the convergence of other neuronal receptors, such as adenosine A(1) and GABA(B), with the cannabinoid system on this signaling pathway to influence motor function. Previous studies have shown that brain CB(1) receptors are desensitized and down-regulated by long-term THC treatment, but few studies have examined the effects of long-term THC treatment on downstream effector activity in brain. Therefore, these studies examined the relationship between CB(1), adenosine A(1), and GABA(B) receptors in cerebella of mice undergoing prolonged treatment with vehicle or THC at the level of G protein activation and adenylyl cyclase inhibition. In control cerebella, CB(1) receptors produced less than additive inhibition of adenylyl cyclase with GABA(B) and A(1) receptors, indicating that these receptors are localized on overlapping populations of cells. Long-term THC treatment produced CB(1) receptor down-regulation and desensitization of both cannabinoid agonist-stimulated G protein activation and inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase. However, G protein activation by GABA(B) or A(1) receptors was unaffected. It is noteworthy that heterologous attenuation of GABA(B) and A(1) receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase was observed, even though absolute levels of basal and forskolin- or G(s)-stimulated activity were unchanged. These results indicate that long-term THC administration produces a disruption of inhibitory receptor control of cerebellar adenylyl cyclase and suggest a potential mechanism of cross-tolerance to the motor incoordinating effects of cannabinoid, GABA(B), and A(1) agonists.

  18. Identification of Electronic and Structural Descriptors of Adenosine Analogues Related to Inhibition of Leishmanial Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase

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    Norka B. H. Lozano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR studies were performed in order to identify molecular features responsible for the antileishmanial activity of 61 adenosine analogues acting as inhibitors of the enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Leishmania mexicana (LmGAPDH. Density functional theory (DFT was employed to calculate quantum-chemical descriptors, while several structural descriptors were generated with Dragon 5.4. Variable selection was undertaken with the ordered predictor selection (OPS algorithm, which provided a set with the most relevant descriptors to perform PLS, PCR and MLR regressions. Reliable and predictive models were obtained, as attested by their high correlation coefficients, as well as the agreement between predicted and experimental values for an external test set. Additional validation procedures were carried out, demonstrating that robust models were developed, providing helpful tools for the optimization of the antileishmanial activity of adenosine compounds.

  19. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases affects KC/CXCL1-induced intraluminal crawling, transendothelial migration, and chemotaxis of neutrophils in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Najia; Hossain, Mokarram; Liu, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling is critical in the pathophysiology of a variety of inflammatory processes. Leukocyte recruitment to the site of inflammation is a multistep process governed by specific signalling cascades. After adhesion in the lumen, many leukocytes crawl to optimal sites at endothelial junctions and transmigrate to extravascular tissue in a Mac-1-dependent manner. The signalling mechanisms that regulate postadhesion steps of intraluminal crawling, transmigration, and chemotaxis in tissue remain incompletely understood. The present study explored the effect of p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 on various parameters of neutrophil recruitment triggered by chemokine KC (CXCL1) gradient. Neutrophil-endothelial interactions in microvasculature of murine cremaster muscle were determined using intravital microscopy and time-lapsed video analysis. SB203580 (100 nM) did not change leukocyte rolling but significantly attenuated neutrophil adhesion, emigration, and transmigration and impaired the initiation of neutrophil crawling and transmigration. In response to KC chemotactic gradient, SB203580 significantly reduced the velocity of migration and chemotaxis index of neutrophils in tissue. The upregulation of Mac-1 expression in neutrophils stimulated by KC was significantly blunted by SB203580 in vitro. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that pharmacological suppression of p38 MAPK significantly impairs multiple steps of neutrophil recruitment in vivo.

  20. Pharmacological Inhibition of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Affects KC/CXCL1-Induced Intraluminal Crawling, Transendothelial Migration, and Chemotaxis of Neutrophils In Vivo

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    Najia Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signalling is critical in the pathophysiology of a variety of inflammatory processes. Leukocyte recruitment to the site of inflammation is a multistep process governed by specific signalling cascades. After adhesion in the lumen, many leukocytes crawl to optimal sites at endothelial junctions and transmigrate to extravascular tissue in a Mac-1-dependent manner. The signalling mechanisms that regulate postadhesion steps of intraluminal crawling, transmigration, and chemotaxis in tissue remain incompletely understood. The present study explored the effect of p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 on various parameters of neutrophil recruitment triggered by chemokine KC (CXCL1 gradient. Neutrophil-endothelial interactions in microvasculature of murine cremaster muscle were determined using intravital microscopy and time-lapsed video analysis. SB203580 (100 nM did not change leukocyte rolling but significantly attenuated neutrophil adhesion, emigration, and transmigration and impaired the initiation of neutrophil crawling and transmigration. In response to KC chemotactic gradient, SB203580 significantly reduced the velocity of migration and chemotaxis index of neutrophils in tissue. The upregulation of Mac-1 expression in neutrophils stimulated by KC was significantly blunted by SB203580 in vitro. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that pharmacological suppression of p38 MAPK significantly impairs multiple steps of neutrophil recruitment in vivo.

  1. Fractional Chemotaxis Diffusion Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Langlands, T A M

    2010-01-01

    We introduce mesoscopic and macroscopic model equations of chemotaxis with anomalous subdiffusion for modelling chemically directed transport of biological organisms in changing chemical environments with diffusion hindered by traps or macro-molecular crowding. The mesoscopic models are formulated using Continuous Time Random Walk master equations and the macroscopic models are formulated with fractional order differential equations. Different models are proposed depending on the timing of the chemotactic forcing. Generalizations of the models to include linear reaction dynamics are also derived. Finally a Monte Carlo method for simulating anomalous subdiffusion with chemotaxis is introduced and simulation results are compared with numerical solutions of the model equations. The model equations developed here could be used to replace Keller-Segel type equations in biological systems with transport hindered by traps, macro-molecular crowding or other obstacles.

  2. From rigid cyclic templates to conformationally stabilized acyclic scaffolds. Part I: the discovery of CCR3 antagonist development candidate BMS-639623 with picomolar inhibition potency against eosinophil chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Joseph B; Gardner, Daniel S; Yao, Wenqing; Shi, Chongsheng; Reddy, Prabhakar; Tebben, Andrew J; DeLucca, George V; Wacker, Dean A; Watson, Paul S; Welch, Patricia K; Wadman, Eric A; Davies, Paul; Solomon, Kimberly A; Graden, Dani M; Yeleswaram, Swamy; Mandlekar, Sandhya; Kariv, Ilona; Decicco, Carl P; Ko, Soo S; Carter, Percy H; Duncia, John V

    2008-01-15

    Conformational analysis of trans-1,2-disubstituted cyclohexane CCR3 antagonist 2 revealed that the cyclohexane linker could be replaced by an acyclic syn-alpha-methyl-beta-hydroxypropyl linker. Synthesis and biological evaluation of mono- and disubstituted propyl linkers support this conformational correlation. It was also found that the alpha-methyl group to the urea lowered protein binding and that the beta-hydroxyl group lowered affinity for CYP2D6. Ab initio calculations show that the alpha-methyl group governs the spatial orientation of three key functionalities within the molecule. alpha-Methyl-beta-hydroxypropyl urea 31 with a chemotaxis IC(50)=38 pM for eosinophils was chosen to enter clinical development for the treatment of asthma.

  3. Membrane events and ionic processes involved in dopamine release from tuberoinfundibular neurons. I. Effect of the inhibition of the Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase pump by ouabain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taglialatela, M.; Amoroso, S.; Kaparos, G.; Maurano, F.; Di Renzo, G.F.; Annunziato, L.

    1988-08-01

    In the present study we investigated the membrane events and the ionic processes which mediate the stimulatory effect of ouabain on the release of endogenous dopamine (DA) and previously taken-up (3H)DA release from rat hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons. Ouabain (0.1-1 mM) dose-dependently stimulated endogenous DA and newly taken-up (3H)DA release. This effect was counteracted partially by nomifensine (10 microM). Removal of Ca++ ions from the extracellular space in the presence of the Ca++-chelator ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid prevented completely ouabain-elicited (3H)DA release. Lanthanum (1 mM) and cobalt (2 mM), two inorganic Ca++-entry blockers, were able to inhibit this stimulatory effect, whereas verapamil (10 microM) and nitrendipine (50 microM), two organic antagonists of the voltage-operated channel for Ca++ ions, failed to affect ouabain-induced (3H)DA release. By contrast, adriamycin (100-300 microM), a putative inhibitor of cardiac Na+-Ca++ antiporter, dose-dependently prevented ouabain-induced (3H)DA release from TIDA neurons. Finally, tetrodotoxin reduced digitalis-stimulated (3H)DA release. In conclusion, these results seem to be compatible with the idea that the inhibition of Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase by ouabain stimulates the release of (3H)DA from a central neuronal system like the TIDA tract and that this effect is critically dependent on the entrance of Ca++ ions into the nerve terminals of these neurons. In addition the Na+-Ca++ exchange antiporter appears to be the membrane system which transports Ca++ ions into the neuronal cytoplasm during Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase inhibition. The enhanced intracellular Ca++ availability triggers DA release which could occur partially through a carrier-dependent process.

  4. Membrane events and ionic processes involved in dopamine release from tuberoinfundibular neurons. I. Effect of the inhibition of the Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase pump by ouabain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglialatela, M; Amoroso, S; Kaparos, G; Maurano, F; Di Renzo, G F; Annunziato, L

    1988-08-01

    In the present study we investigated the membrane events and the ionic processes which mediate the stimulatory effect of ouabain on the release of endogenous dopamine (DA) and "previously taken-up" [3H]DA release from rat hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons. Ouabain (0.1-1 mM) dose-dependently stimulated endogenous DA and "newly taken-up" [3H]DA release. This effect was counteracted partially by nomifensine (10 microM). Removal of Ca++ ions from the extracellular space in the presence of the Ca++-chelator ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid prevented completely ouabain-elicited [3H]DA release. Lanthanum (1 mM) and cobalt (2 mM), two inorganic Ca++-entry blockers, were able to inhibit this stimulatory effect, whereas verapamil (10 microM) and nitrendipine (50 microM), two organic antagonists of the voltage-operated channel for Ca++ ions, failed to affect ouabain-induced [3H]DA release. By contrast, adriamycin (100-300 microM), a putative inhibitor of cardiac Na+-Ca++ antiporter, dose-dependently prevented ouabain-induced [3H]DA release from TIDA neurons. Finally, tetrodotoxin reduced digitalis-stimulated [3H]DA release. In conclusion, these results seem to be compatible with the idea that the inhibition of Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase by ouabain stimulates the release of [3H]DA from a central neuronal system like the TIDA tract and that this effect is critically dependent on the entrance of Ca++ ions into the nerve terminals of these neurons. In addition the Na+-Ca++ exchange antiporter appears to be the membrane system which transports Ca++ ions into the neuronal cytoplasm during Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase inhibition. The enhanced intracellular Ca++ availability triggers DA release which could occur partially through a carrier-dependent process.

  5. Effects of an ATP analogue, adenosine 5'-[α-thio]-triphosphate, on F1-ATPase rotary catalysis, torque generation, and inhibited intermediated formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, Ayako; Watanabe, Rikiya; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-13

    F1-ATPase (F1), an important rotary motor protein, converts the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical energy using rotary motion with extremely high efficiency. The energy-conversion mechanism for this molecular motor has been extensively clarified by previous studies, which indicate that the interactions between the catalytic residues and the β- and γ-phosphates of ATP are indispensable for efficient catalysis and torque generation. However, the role of α-phosphate is largely unknown. In this study, we observed the rotation of F1 fuelled with an ATP analogue, adenosine 5'-[α-thio]-triphosphate (ATPαS), in which the oxygen has been substituted with a sulfur ion to perturb the α-phosphate/F1 interactions. In doing so, we have revealed that ATPαS does not appear to have any impact on the kinetic properties of the motor or on torque generation compared to ATP. On the other hand, F1 was observed to lapse into the ADP-inhibited intermediate states when in the presence of ATPαS more severely than in the presence of ATP, suggesting that the α-phosphate group of ATP contributes to the avoidance of ADP-inhibited intermediate formation.

  6. COUPLED CHEMOTAXIS FLUID MODEL

    KAUST Repository

    LORZ, ALEXANDER

    2010-06-01

    We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria. The presented model consist of a parabolicparabolic chemotaxis system for the oxygen concentration and the bacteria density coupled to an incompressible Stokes equation for the fluid driven by a gravitational force of the heavier bacteria. We show local existence of weak solutions in a bounded domain in d, d = 2, 3 with no-flux boundary condition and in 2 in the case of inhomogeneous Dirichlet conditions for the oxygen. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  7. Ontogeny of catecholamine and adenosine receptor-mediated cAMP signaling of embryonic red blood cells: role of cGMP-inhibited phosphodiesterase 3 and hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, R; Blass, C; Götz, R; Dragon, S

    1999-12-15

    We have previously shown that the cAMP signaling pathway controls major aspects of embryonic red blood cell (RBC) function in avian embryos (Glombitza et al, Am J Physiol 271:R973, 1996; and Dragon et al, Am J Physiol 271:R982, 1996) that are important for adaptation of the RBC gas transport properties to the progressive hypercapnia and hypoxia of later stages of avian embryonic development. Data about the ontogeny of receptor-mediated cAMP signaling are lacking. We have analyzed the response of primitive and definitive chick embryo RBC harvested from day 3 to 18 of development towards forskolin, beta-adrenergic, and A2 receptor agonists. The results show a strong response of immature definitive and primitive RBC to adenosine A2 and beta-adrenergic receptor agonists, which is drastically reduced in the last stage of development, coincident with the appearance of mature, transcriptionally inactive RBC. Modulation of cGMP-inhibited phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) has a controlling influence on cAMP accumulation in definitive RBC. Under physiological conditions, PDE3 is inhibited due to activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). Inhibition of sGC with the specific inhibitor ODQ decreases receptor-mediated stimulation of cAMP production; this effect is reversed by the PDE3 inhibitor milrinone. sGC is acitivated by nitric oxide (NO), but we found no evidence for production of NO by erythrocyte NO-synthase. However, embryonic hemoglobin releases NO in an oxygen-linked manner that may activate guanylyl cyclase.

  8. The potent, indirect adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activator R419 attenuates mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, inhibits nociceptor excitability, and reduces pain hypersensitivity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo L. Mejia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There is a great need for new therapeutics for the treatment of pain. A possible avenue to development of such therapeutics is to interfere with signaling pathways engaged in peripheral nociceptors that cause these neurons to become hyperexcitable. There is strong evidence that mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathways are key modulators of nociceptor excitability in vitro and in vivo. Activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK can inhibit signaling in both of these pathways, and AMPK activators have been shown to inhibit nociceptor excitability and pain hypersensitivity in rodents. R419 is one of, if not the most potent AMPK activator described to date. We tested whether R419 activates AMPK in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and if this leads to decreased pain hypersensitivity in mice. We find that R419 activates AMPK in DRG neurons resulting in decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, decreased nascent protein synthesis, and enhanced P body formation. R419 attenuates nerve growth factor (NGF-induced changes in excitability in DRG neurons and blocks NGF-induced mechanical pain amplification in vivo. Moreover, locally applied R419 attenuates pain hypersensitivity in a model of postsurgical pain and blocks the development of hyperalgesic priming in response to both NGF and incision. We conclude that R419 is a promising lead candidate compound for the development of potent and specific AMPK activation to inhibit pain hypersensitivity as a result of injury.

  9. Caffeine inhibits the activation of hepatic stellate cells induced by acetaldehyde via adenosine A2A receptor mediated by the cAMP/PKA/SRC/ERK1/2/P38 MAPK signal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wang

    Full Text Available Hepatic stellate cell (HSC activation is an essential event during alcoholic liver fibrosis. Evidence suggests that adenosine aggravates liver fibrosis via the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR. Caffeine, which is being widely consumed during daily life, inhibits the action of adenosine. In this study, we attempted to validate the hypothesis that caffeine influences acetaldehyde-induced HSC activation by acting on A2AR. Acetaldehyde at 50, 100, 200, and 400 μM significantly increased HSC-T6 cells proliferation, and cell proliferation reached a maximum at 48 h after exposure to 200 μM acetaldehyde. Caffeine and the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 decreased the cell viability and inhibited the expression of procollagen type I and type III in acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells. In addition, the inhibitory effect of caffeine on the expression of procollagen type I was regulated by A2AR-mediated signal pathway involving cAMP, PKA, SRC, and ERK1/2. Interestingly, caffeine's inhibitory effect on the expression of procollagen type III may depend upon the A2AR-mediated P38 MAPK-dependent pathway.Caffeine significantly inhibited acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells activation by distinct A2AR mediated signal pathway via inhibition of cAMP-PKA-SRC-ERK1/2 for procollagen type I and via P38 MAPK for procollagen type III.

  10. Adenosine AA Receptor Antagonists Do Not Disrupt Rodent Prepulse Inhibition: An Improved Side Effect Profile in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina J. Bleickardt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Current treatments for PD focus on dopaminergic therapies, including L-dopa and dopamine receptor agonists. However, these treatments induce neuropsychiatric side effects. Psychosis, characterized by delusions and hallucinations, is one of the most serious such side effects. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonism is a nondopaminergic treatment for PD with clinical and preclinical efficacy. The present studies assessed A2A antagonists SCH 412348 and istradefylline in rodent prepulse inhibition (PPI, a model of psychosis. Dopamine receptor agonists pramipexole (0.3–3 mg/kg, pergolide (0.3–3 mg/kg, and apomorphine (0.3–3 mg/kg significantly disrupted PPI; ropinirole (1–30 mg/kg had no effect; L-dopa (100–300 mg/kg disrupted rat but not mouse PPI. SCH 412348 (0.3–3 mg/kg did not disrupt rodent PPI; istradefylline (0.1–1 mg/kg marginally disrupted mouse but not rat PPI. These results suggest that A2A antagonists, unlike dopamine agonists, have an improved neuropsychiatric side effect profile.

  11. Human Gingiva-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Inhibit Xeno-Graft-versus-Host Disease via CD39–CD73–Adenosine and IDO Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Chen, Maogen; Chen, Weiqian; Gu, Jian; Yuan, Jia; Xue, Yaoqiu; Dang, Junlong; Su, Wenru; Wang, Julie; Zadeh, Homayoun H.; He, Xiaoshun; Rong, Limin; Olsen, Nancy; Zheng, Song Guo

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have the capacity to maintain immune homeostasis and prevent autoimmunity. We recently reported that human-derived gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) have strong capacity to suppress immune responses and T cell-mediated collagen-induced arthritis in animals. However, it is unclear whether these cells can suppress human T cell-mediated diseases. Here, we used a xenogenic GVHD model in the NOD/SCID mouse, which is a useful preclinical construct for evaluating the therapeutic and translational potential of this approach for applications in human disease. We found that GMSCs potently suppressed the proliferation of PBMC and T cells in vitro. Co-transfer of GMSC with human PBMC significantly suppressed human cell engraftment and markedly prolonged the mouse survival. Moreover, we demonstrated that GMSCs inhibited human PBMC-initiated xenogenic responses via CD39/CD73/adenosine and IDO signals. These findings suggest the potential for GMSCs to suppress human immune responses in immune system-mediated diseases, offering a potential clinical option to be used for modulating GVHD and autoimmune diseases. PMID:28210258

  12. The antilipolytic agent 3,5-dimethylpyrazole inhibits insulin release in response to both nutrient secretagogues and cyclic adenosine monophosphate agonists in isolated rat islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, P; Novelli, M; Bombara, M; Fierabracci, V; Vittorini, S; Prentki, M; Bergamini, E

    2002-01-01

    This study intended to test the hypothesis that intracellular lipolysis in the pancreatic beta cells is implicated in the regulation of insulin secretion stimulated by nutrient secretagogues or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) agonists. Indeed, although lipid signaling molecules were repeatedly reported to influence beta-cell function, the contribution of intracellular triglycerides to the generation of these molecules has remained elusive. Thus, we have studied insulin secretion of isolated rat pancreatic islets in response to various secretagogues in the presence or absence of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (DMP), a water-soluble and highly effective antilipolytic agent, as previously shown in vivo. In vitro exposure of islets to DMP resulted in an inhibition (by approximately 50%) of the insulin release stimulated not only by high glucose, but also by another nutrient secretagogue, 2-ketoisocaproate, as well as the cAMP agonists 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and glucagon. The inhibitory effect of DMP, which was not due to alteration of islet glucose oxidation, could be reversed upon addition of sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, a synthetic diglyceride, which activates protein kinase C. The results provide direct pharmacologic evidence supporting the concept that endogenous beta-cell lipolysis plays an important role in the generation of lipid signaling molecules involved in the control of insulin secretion in response to both fuel stimuli and cAMP agonists.

  13. Leptin interferes with 3',5'-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP signaling to inhibit steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HoYuen Basil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has been linked to an increased risk of female infertility. Leptin, an adipocytokine which is elevated during obesity, may influence gonadal function through modulating steroidogenesis in granulosa cells. Methods The effect of leptin on progesterone production in simian virus 40 immortalized granulosa (SVOG cells was examined by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The effect of leptin on the expression of the steroidogenic enzymes (StAR, P450scc, 3betaHSD in SVOG cells was examined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. The mRNA expression of leptin receptor isoforms in SVOG cells were examined by using PCR. SVOG cells were co-treated with leptin and specific pharmacological inhibitors to identify the signaling pathways involved in leptin-reduced progesterone production. Silencing RNA against leptin receptor was used to determine that the inhibition of leptin on cAMP-induced steroidogenesis acts in a leptin receptor-dependent manner. Results and Conclusion In the present study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying leptin-regulated steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells. We show that leptin inhibits 8-bromo cAMP-stimulated progesterone production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that leptin inhibits expression of the cAMP-stimulated steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR protein, the rate limiting de novo protein in progesterone synthesis. Leptin induces the activation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK but only the ERK1/2 (PD98059 and p38 (SB203580 inhibitors attenuate the leptin-induced inhibition of cAMP-stimulated StAR protein expression and progesterone production. These data suggest that the leptin-induced MAPK signal transduction pathway interferes with cAMP/PKA-stimulated steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells. Moreover, siRNA mediated knock-down of the endogenous leptin receptor attenuates the effect of leptin on cAMP-induced StAR protein expression and progesterone

  14. Metallothionein mediates leukocyte chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynes Michael A

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metallothionein (MT is a cysteine-rich, metal-binding protein that can be induced by a variety of agents. Modulation of MT levels has also been shown to alter specific immune functions. We have noticed that the MT genes map close to the chemokines Ccl17 and Cx3cl1. Cysteine motifs that characterize these chemokines are also found in the MT sequence suggesting that MT might also act as a chemotactic factor. Results In the experiments reported here, we show that immune cells migrate chemotactically in the presence of a gradient of MT. This response can be specifically blocked by two different monoclonal anti-MT antibodies. Exposure of cells to MT also leads to a rapid increase in F-actin content. Incubation of Jurkat T cells with cholera toxin or pertussis toxin completely abrogates the chemotactic response to MT. Thus MT may act via G-protein coupled receptors and through the cyclic AMP signaling pathway to initiate chemotaxis. Conclusion These results suggest that, under inflammatory conditions, metallothionein in the extracellular environment may support the beneficial movement of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. MT may therefore represent a "danger signal"; modifying the character of the immune response when cells sense cellular stress. Elevated metallothionein produced in the context of exposure to environmental toxicants, or as a result of chronic inflammatory disease, may alter the normal chemotactic responses that regulate leukocyte trafficking. Thus, MT synthesis may represent an important factor in immunomodulation that is associated with autoimmune disease and toxicant exposure.

  15. Homeostatic control of synaptic activity by endogenous adenosine is mediated by adenosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diógenes, Maria José; Neves-Tomé, Raquel; Fucile, Sergio; Martinello, Katiuscia; Scianni, Maria; Theofilas, Panos; Lopatár, Jan; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Maggi, Laura; Frenguelli, Bruno G; Limatola, Cristina; Boison, Detlev; Sebastião, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine, a key regulator of neuronal excitability, is metabolized by astrocyte-based enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK). We hypothesized that ADK might be an upstream regulator of adenosine-based homeostatic brain functions by simultaneously affecting several downstream pathways. We therefore studied the relationship between ADK expression, levels of extracellular adenosine, synaptic transmission, intrinsic excitability, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent synaptic actions in transgenic mice underexpressing or overexpressing ADK. We demonstrate that ADK: 1) Critically influences the basal tone of adenosine, evaluated by microelectrode adenosine biosensors, and its release following stimulation; 2) determines the degree of tonic adenosine-dependent synaptic inhibition, which correlates with differential plasticity at hippocampal synapses with low release probability; 3) modulates the age-dependent effects of BDNF on hippocampal synaptic transmission, an action dependent upon co-activation of adenosine A2A receptors; and 4) influences GABAA receptor-mediated currents in CA3 pyramidal neurons. We conclude that ADK provides important upstream regulation of adenosine-based homeostatic function of the brain and that this mechanism is necessary and permissive to synaptic actions of adenosine acting on multiple pathways. These mechanistic studies support previous therapeutic studies and implicate ADK as a promising therapeutic target for upstream control of multiple neuronal signaling pathways crucial for a variety of neurological disorders.

  16. Recovery of the Cell Cycle Inhibition in CCl4-Induced Cirrhosis by the Adenosine Derivative IFC-305

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Chagoya de Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cirrhosis is a chronic degenerative illness characterized by changes in normal liver architecture, failure of hepatic function, and impairment of proliferative activity. The aim of this study is to know how IFC-305 compound induces proliferation of the liver during reversion of cirrhosis. Methods. Once cirrhosis has been installed by CCl4 treatment for 10 weeks in male Wistar rats, they were divided into four groups: two received saline and two received the compound; all were euthanized at 5 and 10 weeks of treatment. Liver homogenate, mitochondria, and nucleus were used to measure cyclins, CDKs, and cell cycle regulatory proteins PCNA, pRb, p53, E2F, p21, p27, HGF, liver ATP, and mitochondrial function. Results. Diminution and small changes were observed in the studied proteins in the cirrhotic animals without treatment. The IFC-305-treated rats showed a clear increase in most of the proteins studied mainly in PCNA and CDK6, and a marked increased in ATP and mitochondrial function. Discussion/Conclusion. IFC-305 induces a recovery of the cell cycle inhibition promoting recovery of DNA damage through the action of PCNA and p53. The increase in energy and preservation of mitochondrial function contribute to recovering the proliferative function.

  17. Different Modulating Effects of Adenosine on Neonatal and Adult Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen Hou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs are the major leukocytes in the circulation and play an important role in host defense. Intact PMN functions include adhesion, migration, phagocytosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS release. It has been known for a long time that adenosine can function as a modulator of adult PMN functions. Neonatal plasma has a higher adenosine level than that of adults; however, little is known about the modulating effects of adenosine on neonatal PMNs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adenosine on neonatal PMN functions. We found that neonatal PMNs had impaired adhesion, chemotaxis, and ROS production abilities, but not phagocytosis compared to adult PMNs. As with adult PMNs, adenosine could suppress the CD11b expressions of neonatal PMNs, but had no significant suppressive effect on phagocytosis. In contrast to adult PMNs, adenosine did not significantly suppress chemotaxis and ROS production of neonatal PMNs. This may be due to impaired phagocyte reactions and a poor neonatal PMN response to adenosine. Adenosine may not be a good strategy for the treatment of neonatal sepsis because of impaired phagocyte reactions and poor response.

  18. Dictyostelium Chemotaxis studied with fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruchira, A.

    2005-01-01

    The movement of cells in the direction of a chemical gradient, also known as chemotaxis, is a vital biological process. During chemotaxis, minute extracellular signals are translated into complex cellular responses such as change in morphology and motility. To understand the chemotaxis mechanism at

  19. Dictyostelium Chemotaxis studied with fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruchira, A.

    2005-01-01

    The movement of cells in the direction of a chemical gradient, also known as chemotaxis, is a vital biological process. During chemotaxis, minute extracellular signals are translated into complex cellular responses such as change in morphology and motility. To understand the chemotaxis mechanism at

  20. Melatonin enhances interleukin-10 expression and suppresses chemotaxis to inhibit inflammation in situ and reduce the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shyi-Jou; Huang, Shing-Hwa; Chen, Jing-Wun; Wang, Kai-Chen; Yang, Yung-Rong; Liu, Pi-Fang; Lin, Gu-Jiun; Sytwu, Huey-Kang

    2016-02-01

    Melatonin is the major product secreted by the pineal gland at night and displays multifunctional properties, including immunomodulatory functions. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of melatonin in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We demonstrated that melatonin exhibits a therapeutic role by ameliorating the clinical severity and restricting the infiltration of inflammatory Th17 cells into the CNS of mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE. Furthermore, melatonin enhances splenic interleukin (IL)-10 expression in regulatory T cells by inducing IL-27 expression in the splenic DC; it also suppresses the expression of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-6, and CCL20 in the CNS and inhibits antigen-specific T cell proliferation. However, there were no significant differences in the percentage of splenic regulatory T cells. These data provide the first evidence that the therapeutic administration of melatonin is effective in mice with EAE and modulates adaptive immunity centrally and peripherally. Thus, we suggest that melatonin could play an adjunct therapeutic role in treating human CNS autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Melatonin merits further studies in animals and humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Adenosine and adenosine receptors: Newer therapeutic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine, a purine nucleoside has been described as a ′retaliatory metabolite′ by virtue of its ability to function in an autocrine manner and to modify the activity of a range of cell types, following its extracellular accumulation during cell stress or injury. These effects are largely protective and are triggered by binding of adenosine to any of the four adenosine receptor subtypes namely A1, A2a, A2b, A3, which have been cloned in humans, and are expressed in most of the organs. Each is encoded by a separate gene and has different functions, although overlapping. For instance, both A1 and A2a receptors play a role in regulating myocardial oxygen consumption and coronary blood flow. It is a proven fact that adenosine plays pivotal role in different physiological functions, such as induction of sleep, neuroprotection and protection against oxidative stress. Until now adenosine was used for certain conditions like paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT and Wolff Parkinson White (WPW syndrome. Now there is a growing evidence that adenosine receptors could be promising therapeutic targets in a wide range of conditions including cardiac, pulmonary, immunological and inflammatory disorders. After more than three decades of research in medicinal chemistry, a number of selective agonists and antagonists of adenosine receptors have been discovered and some have been clinically evaluated, although none has yet received regulatory approval. So this review focuses mainly on the newer potential role of adenosine and its receptors in different clinical conditions.

  2. Rosuvastatin increases extracellular adenosine formation in humans in vivo: a new perspective on cardiovascular protection.

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, P; Oyen, W.J.G.; Dekker, D.; Broek, P.H.H. van den; Wouters, C.W.; Boerman, O.C.; Scheffer, G. J.; Smits, P; Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Statins may increase extracellular adenosine formation from adenosine monophosphate by enhancing ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity. This theory was tested in humans using dipyridamole-induced vasodilation as a read-out for local adenosine formation. Dipyridamole inhibits the transport of extracellular adenosine into the cytosol resulting in increased extracellular adenosine and subsequent vasodilation. In addition, we studied the effect of statin therapy in a forearm model of ischemia-...

  3. Neutrophil chemotaxis and arachidonic acid metabolism are not linked: evidence from metal ion probe studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, S.R.; Turner, R.A.; Smith, D.M.; Johnson, J.A.

    1986-03-05

    Heavy metal ions can inhibit arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism protect against ionophore cytotoxicity (ibid) and inhibit neutrophil chemotaxis. In this study they used Au/sup 3 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Mn/sup 2 +/ and Cu/sup 2 +/ as probes of the interrelationships among AA metabolism, ionophore-mediated cytotoxicity, and chemotaxis. Phospholipid deacylation was measured in ionophore-treated cells prelabeled with /sup 3/H-AA. Eicosanoid release from ionophore-treated cells was monitored by radioimmunoassay. Cytoprotection was quantitated as ability to exclude trypan blue. Chemotaxis toward f-met-leu-phe was measured by leading front analysis. The results imply that metal ions attenuate ionophore cytotoxicity by blocking phospholipid deacylation and eicosanoid release. In contrast to previous reports, no correlation between AA metabolism and chemotaxis was demonstrated, suggesting that these 2 processes are not linked.

  4. Signaling mechanisms for regulation of chemotaxis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianqing WU

    2005-01-01

    Chemotaxis is a fascinating biological process, through which a cell migrates along a shallow chemoattractant gradient that is less than 5% difference between the anterior and posterior of the cell. Chemotaxis is composed of two independent,but interrelated processes-motility and directionality, both of which are regulated by extracellular stimuli, chemoattractants.In this mini-review, recent progresses in the understanding of the regulation of leukocyte chemotaxis by chemoattractant signaling are reviewed.

  5. Emergent collective chemotaxis without single-cell gradient sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Camley, Brian A; Levine, Herbert; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Many eukaryotic cells chemotax, sensing and following chemical gradients. However, even if single cells do not chemotax significantly, small clusters may still follow a gradient; this behavior is observed in neural crest cells and during border cell migration in Drosophila, but its origin remains puzzling. Here, we study this "collective guidance" analytically and computationally. We show collective chemotaxis can exist without single-cell chemotaxis if contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL), where cells polarize away from cell-cell contact, is regulated by the chemoattractant. We present explicit formulas for how cluster velocity and chemotactic index depend on the number and organization of cells in the cluster. Pairs of cells will have velocities that are strongly dependent on the cell pair's orientation: this provides a simple test for the presence of collective guidance in neural crest cells and other systems. We also study cluster-level adaptation, amplification, and cohesion via co-attraction.

  6. Impairment of adenosine A3 receptor activity disrupts neutrophil migratory capacity and impacts innate immune function in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Matt; Sanmugalingam, Devika; Burton, Victoria J; Wilson, Tammy; Pearson, Ruth; Watson, Robert P; Smith, Philip; Parkinson, Scott J

    2012-12-01

    Adenosine possesses potent anti-inflammatory properties which are partly mediated by G(i) -coupled adenosine A3 receptors (A3Rs). A3R agonists have shown clinical benefit in a number of inflammatory conditions although some studies in A3R-deficient mice suggest a pro-inflammatory role. We hypothesised that, in addition to cell signalling effects, A3R compounds might inhibit neutrophil chemotaxis by disrupting the purinergic feedback loop controlling leukocyte migration. Human neutrophil activation triggered rapid upregulation of surface A3R expression which was disrupted by pre-treatment with either agonist (Cl-IB-MECA) or antagonist (MRS1220). Both compounds reduced migration velocity and neutrophil transmigration capacity without impacting the response to chemokines per se. Similar effects were observed in murine neutrophils, while cells from A3R-deficient mice displayed a constitutively impaired migratory phenotype indicating compound-induced desensitisation and genetic ablation had the same functional outcome. In a dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis model, A3R-deficient mice exhibited reduced colon pathology and decreased tissue myeloperoxidase levels at day 8 - consistent with reduced neutrophil recruitment. However, A3R-deficient mice were unable to resolve the dextran sodium sulphate-induced inflammation and had elevated numbers of tissue-associated bacteria by day 21. Our data indicate that A3Rs play a role in neutrophil migration and disrupting this function has the potential to adversely affect innate immune responses.

  7. An adenosine A3 receptor agonist inhibits DSS-induced colitis in mice through modulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tianhua; Tian, Ting; Feng, Xiao; Ye, Shicai; Wang, Hao; Wu, Weiyun; Qiu, Yumei; Yu, Caiyuan; He, Yanting; Zeng, Juncheng; Cen, Junwei; Zhou, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The role of the adenosine A3 receptor (A3AR) in experimental colitis is controversial. The A3AR agonist N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA) has been shown to have a clinical benefit, although studies in A3AR-deficient mice suggest a pro-inflammatory role. However, there are no studies on the effect of 2-Cl-IB-MECA and the molecular mechanism of action of A3AR in murine colitis models in vivo. Is it the same as that observed in vitro? The interaction between 2-CL-IB-MECA and A3AR in a murine colitis model and the signaling pathways associated with this interaction remain unclear. Here we demonstrate a role for the NF-κB signaling pathway and its effect on modifying the activity of proinflammatory factors in A3AR-mediated biological processes. Our results demonstrated that A3AR activation possessed marked effects on experimental colitis through the NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:25762375

  8. An adenosine A3 receptor agonist inhibits DSS-induced colitis in mice through modulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tianhua; Tian, Ting; Feng, Xiao; Ye, Shicai; Wang, Hao; Wu, Weiyun; Qiu, Yumei; Yu, Caiyuan; He, Yanting; Zeng, Juncheng; Cen, Junwei; Zhou, Yu

    2015-03-12

    The role of the adenosine A3 receptor (A3AR) in experimental colitis is controversial. The A3AR agonist N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA) has been shown to have a clinical benefit, although studies in A3AR-deficient mice suggest a pro-inflammatory role. However, there are no studies on the effect of 2-Cl-IB-MECA and the molecular mechanism of action of A3AR in murine colitis models in vivo. Is it the same as that observed in vitro? The interaction between 2-CL-IB-MECA and A3AR in a murine colitis model and the signaling pathways associated with this interaction remain unclear. Here we demonstrate a role for the NF-κB signaling pathway and its effect on modifying the activity of proinflammatory factors in A3AR-mediated biological processes. Our results demonstrated that A3AR activation possessed marked effects on experimental colitis through the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  9. Increased Signaling via Adenosine A1 Receptors, Sleep Deprivation, Imipramine, and Ketamine Inhibit Depressive-like Behavior via Induction of Homer1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serchov, Tsvetan; Clement, Hans-Willi; Schwarz, Martin K; Iasevoli, Felice; Tosh, Dilip K; Idzko, Marco; Jacobson, Kenneth A; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Normann, Claus; Biber, Knut; van Calker, Dietrich

    2015-08-05

    Major depressive disorder is among the most commonly diagnosed disabling mental diseases. Several non-pharmacological treatments of depression upregulate adenosine concentration and/or adenosine A1 receptors (A1R) in the brain. To test whether enhanced A1R signaling mediates antidepressant effects, we generated a transgenic mouse with enhanced doxycycline-regulated A1R expression, specifically in forebrain neurons. Upregulating A1R led to pronounced acute and chronic resilience toward depressive-like behavior in various tests. Conversely, A1R knockout mice displayed an increased depressive-like behavior and were resistant to the antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation (SD). Various antidepressant treatments increase homer1a expression in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Specific siRNA knockdown of homer1a in mPFC enhanced depressive-like behavior and prevented the antidepressant effects of A1R upregulation, SD, imipramine, and ketamine treatment. In contrast, viral overexpression of homer1a in the mPFC had antidepressant effects. Thus, increased expression of homer1a is a final common pathway mediating the antidepressant effects of different antidepressant treatments.

  10. Regulation of adenosine deaminase (ADA) on induced mouse experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) ?

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Dongchun; Zuo, Aijun; Zhao, Ronglan; Shao, Hui; Kaplan, Henry J.; Sun, Deming

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine is an important regulator of the immune response and adenosine deaminase (ADA) inhibits this regulatory effect by converting adenosine into functionally inactive molecules. Studies have shown that adenosine receptor (AR) agonists can be either anti- or pro-inflammatory. Clarification of the mechanisms that cause these opposing effects should provide a better guide for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we investigated the effect of ADA on the development of experimental autoim...

  11. Engineering Hybrid Chemotaxis Receptors in Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Shuangyu; Pollard, Abiola M; Yang, Yiling; Jin, Fan; Sourjik, Victor

    2016-09-16

    Most bacteria use transmembrane sensors to detect a wide range of environmental stimuli. A large class of such sensors are the chemotaxis receptors used by motile bacteria to follow environmental chemical gradients. In Escherichia coli, chemotaxis receptors are known to mediate highly sensitive responses to ligands, making them potentially useful for biosensory applications. However, with only four ligand-binding chemotaxis receptors, the natural ligand spectrum of E. coli is limited. The design of novel chemoreceptors to extend the sensing capabilities of E. coli is therefore a critical aspect of chemotaxis-based biosensor development. One path for novel sensor design is to harvest the large natural diversity of chemosensory functions found in bacteria by creating hybrids that have the signaling domain from E. coli chemotaxis receptors and sensory domains from other species. In this work, we demonstrate that the E. coli receptor Tar can be successfully combined with most typical sensory domains found in chemotaxis receptors and in evolutionary-related two-component histidine kinases. We show that such functional hybrids can be generated using several different fusion points. Our work further illustrates how hybrid receptors could be used to quantitatively characterize ligand specificity of chemotaxis receptors and histidine kinases using standardized assays in E. coli.

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of chalcone derivatives as inhibitors of neutrophils' chemotaxis, phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Syed N A; Tajuddin, Yasmin; Benedict, Vannessa J; Lam, Kok W; Jantan, Ibrahim; Jalil, Juriyati; Jasamai, Malina

    2014-02-01

    Inhibitory effects on neutrophils' chemotaxis, phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are among the important targets in developing anti-inflammatory agents and immunosuppressants. Eight series of chalcone derivatives including five newly synthesized series were assessed for their inhibitory effects on chemotaxis, phagocytosis and ROS production in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Inhibition of PMNs' chemotaxis and phagocytosis abilities were investigated using the Boyden chamber technique and the Phagotest kit, respectively, while ROS production was evaluated using luminol- and lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. The new derivatives (4d and 8d), which contain 4-methylaminoethanol functional group were active in all the assays performed. It was also observed that some of the compounds were active in inhibiting chemotaxis while others suppressed phagocytosis and ROS production. The information obtained gave new insight into chalcone derivatives with the potential to be developed as immunomodulators.

  13. Strenuous physical exercise adversely affects monocyte chemotaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czepluch, Frauke S; Barres, Romain; Caidahl, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise is important for proper cardiovascular function and disease prevention, but it may influence the immune system. We evaluated the effect of strenuous exercise on monocyte chemotaxis. Monocytes were isolated from blood of 13 young, healthy, sedentary individuals participating...... in a three-week training program which consisted of repeated exercise bouts. Monocyte chemotaxis and serological biomarkers were investigated at baseline, after three weeks training and after four weeks recovery. Chemotaxis towards vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and transforming growth factor...

  14. Anaerobic electron acceptor chemotaxis in Shewanella putrefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealson, K. H.; Moser, D. P.; Saffarini, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 can grow either aerobically or anaerobically at the expense of many different electron acceptors and is often found in abundance at redox interfaces in nature. Such redox interfaces are often characterized by very strong gradients of electron acceptors resulting from rapid microbial metabolism. The coincidence of S. putrefaciens abundance with environmental gradients prompted an examination of the ability of MR-1 to sense and respond to electron acceptor gradients in the laboratory. In these experiments, taxis to the majority of the electron acceptors that S. putrefaciens utilizes for anaerobic growth was seen. All anaerobic electron acceptor taxis was eliminated by the presence of oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, elemental sulfur, or dimethyl sulfoxide, even though taxis to the latter was very weak and nitrate and nitrite respiration was normal in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Studies with respiratory mutants of MR-1 revealed that several electron acceptors that could not be used for anaerobic growth nevertheless elicited normal anaerobic taxis. Mutant M56, which was unable to respire nitrite, showed normal taxis to nitrite, as well as the inhibition of taxis to other electron acceptors by nitrite. These results indicate that electron acceptor taxis in S. putrefaciens does not conform to the paradigm established for Escherichia coli and several other bacteria. Carbon chemo-taxis was also unusual in this organism: of all carbon compounds tested, the only positive response observed was to formate under anaerobic conditions.

  15. Strain-specific chemotaxis of Azospirillum spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, B; Hurek, T; Fendrik, I

    1985-01-01

    Chemotactic responses of three Azospirillum strains originating from different host plants were compared to examine the possible role of chemotaxis in the adaptation of these bacteria to their respective hosts. The chemotaxis to several sugars, amino acids, and organic acids was determined qualitatively by an agar plate assay and quantitatively by a channeled-chamber technique. High chemotactic ratios, up to 40, were obtained with the latter technique. The chemotactic response did not rely up...

  16. Specific epidermal growth factor receptor autophosphorylation sites promote mouse colon epithelial cell chemotaxis and restitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Toshimitsu; Frey, Mark R; Dise, Rebecca S; Bernard, Jessica K; Polk, D Brent

    2011-08-01

    Upon ligand binding, epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (R) autophosphorylates on COOH-terminal tyrosines, generating docking sites for signaling partners that stimulate proliferation, restitution, and chemotaxis. Specificity for individual EGFR tyrosines in cellular responses has been hypothesized but not well documented. Here we tested the requirement for particular tyrosines, and associated downstream pathways, in mouse colon epithelial cell chemotactic migration. We compared these requirements to those for the phenotypically distinct restitution (wound healing) migration. Wild-type, Y992/1173F, Y1045F, Y1068F, and Y1086F EGFR constructs were expressed in EGFR(-/-) cells; EGF-induced chemotaxis or restitution were determined by Boyden chamber or modified scratch wound assay, respectively. Pharmacological inhibitors of p38, phospholipase C (PLC), Src, MEK, JNK/SAPK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), and protein kinase C (PKC) were used to block EGF-stimulated signaling. Pathway activation was determined by immunoblot analysis. Unlike wild-type EGFR, Y992/1173F and Y1086F EGFR did not stimulate colon epithelial cell chemotaxis toward EGF; Y1045F and Y1068F EGFR partially stimulated chemotaxis. Only wild-type EGFR promoted colonocyte restitution. Inhibition of p38, PLC, and Src, or Grb2 knockdown, blocked chemotaxis; JNK, PI 3-kinase, and PKC inhibitors or c-Cbl knockdown blocked restitution but not chemotaxis. All four EGFR mutants stimulated downstream signaling in response to EGF, but Y992/1173F EGFR was partially defective in PLCγ activation whereas both Y1068F and Y1086F EGFR failed to activate Src. We conclude that specific EGFR tyrosines play key roles in determining cellular responses to ligand. Chemotaxis and restitution, which have different migration phenotypes and physiological consequences, have overlapping but not identical EGFR signaling requirements.

  17. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Inhibits Voltage-Sensitive Potassium Currents in Isolated Hensen's Cells and Nifedipine Protects Against Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Rui; Liu, Jun; Jia, Zhiying; Wang, Hongyang; Wang, YongAn; Sun, Wei; Wu, Xuan; Zhao, Zhifei; Niu, Baolong; Li, Xingqi; Dai, Guanghai; Li, Jianxiong

    2016-06-13

    BACKGROUND There is increasing evidence that adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a well-known neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in the central nervous system, plays an important role as an extracellular chemical messenger in the cochlea. MATERIAL AND METHODS Using a whole-cell recording technique, we studied the effects of ATP on isolated Hensen's cells, which are supporting cells in the cochlea, to determine if they are involved in the transduction of ions with hair cells. RESULTS ATP (0.1-10 µM) reduced the potassium current (IK+) in the majority of the recorded Hensen's cells (21 out of 25 cells). An inward current was also induced by high concentrations of ATP (100 µM to 10 mM), which was reversibly blocked by 100 µM suramin (a purinergic antagonist) and blocked by nifedipine (an L-type calcium channel blocker). After the cochleas were perfused with artificial perilymph solutions containing nifedipine and exposed to noise, the amplitude increase in the compound action potential (CAP) threshold and the reduction in cochlear microphonics was lower than when they were exposed to noise alone. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that ATP can block IK+ channels at a low concentration and induce an inward Ca2+ current at high concentrations, which is reversed by purinergic receptors. Nifedipine may have a partially protective effect on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL).

  18. 5′-Adenosine Monophosphate-Induced Hypothermia Attenuates Brain Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Model by Inhibiting the Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Feng Miao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia treatment is a promising therapeutic strategy for brain injury. We previously demonstrated that 5′-adenosine monophosphate (5′-AMP, a ribonucleic acid nucleotide, produces reversible deep hypothermia in rats when the ambient temperature is appropriately controlled. Thus, we hypothesized that 5′-AMP-induced hypothermia (AIH may attenuate brain ischemia/reperfusion injury. Transient cerebral ischemia was induced by using the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO model in rats. Rats that underwent AIH treatment exhibited a significant reduction in neutrophil elastase infiltration into neuronal cells and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9, interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R, tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR, and Toll-like receptor (TLR protein expression in the infarcted area compared to euthermic controls. AIH treatment also decreased the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling- (TUNEL- positive neuronal cells. The overall infarct volume was significantly smaller in AIH-treated rats, and neurological function was improved. By contrast, rats with ischemic brain injury that were administered 5′-AMP without inducing hypothermia had ischemia/reperfusion injuries similar to those in euthermic controls. Thus, the neuroprotective effects of AIH were primarily related to hypothermia.

  19. Adenosine receptor neurobiology: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Lee, Chien-fei; Chern, Yijuang

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside that is distributed ubiquitously throughout the body as a metabolic intermediary. In the brain, adenosine functions as an important upstream neuromodulator of a broad spectrum of neurotransmitters, receptors, and signaling pathways. By acting through four G-protein-coupled receptors, adenosine contributes critically to homeostasis and neuromodulatory control of a variety of normal and abnormal brain functions, ranging from synaptic plasticity, to cognition, to sleep, to motor activity to neuroinflammation, and cell death. This review begun with an overview of the gene and genome structure and the expression pattern of adenosine receptors (ARs). We feature several new developments over the past decade in our understanding of AR functions in the brain, with special focus on the identification and characterization of canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways of ARs. We provide an update on functional insights from complementary genetic-knockout and pharmacological studies on the AR control of various brain functions. We also highlight several novel and recent developments of AR neurobiology, including (i) recent breakthrough in high resolution of three-dimension structure of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) in several functional status, (ii) receptor-receptor heterodimerization, (iii) AR function in glial cells, and (iv) the druggability of AR. We concluded the review with the contention that these new developments extend and strengthen the support for A1 and A2ARs in brain as therapeutic targets for neurologic and psychiatric diseases.

  20. Endomorphins 1 and 2 modulate chemotaxis, phagocytosis and superoxide anion production by microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Y; Ohura, K; Wang, P L; Shinohara, M

    2001-09-03

    We evaluate the role of endomorphins 1 and 2 on microglial functions. Endomorphins 1 and 2 blocked phagocytosis of Escherichia coli. In addition, both markedly inhibited chemotaxis toward zymosan-activated serum. In contrast, when microglia was preincubated with these endomorphins, followed by incubation with LPS before stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) at 200 nM, they potentiated superoxide anion production. Furthermore, when microglia was preincubated with these endomorphins together with PMA at 20 nM, followed by stimulation with PMA at 200 nM, superoxide anion production was potentiated. These results suggest that endomorphins 1 and 2 modulate phagocytosis, chemotaxis and superoxide anion production by microglia.

  1. Supplementation of chitosan alleviates high-fat diet-enhanced lipogenesis in rats via adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase activation and inhibition of lipogenesis-associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chen-Yuan; Chan, Im-Lam; Yang, Tsung-Han; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2015-03-25

    This study investigated the role of chitosan in lipogenesis in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. The lipogenesis-associated genes and their upstream regulatory proteins were explored. Diet supplementation of chitosan efficiently decreased the increased weights in body, livers, and adipose tissues in high-fat diet-fed rats. Chitosan supplementation significantly raised the lipolysis rate; attenuated the adipocyte hypertrophy, triglyceride accumulation, and lipoprotein lipase activity in epididymal adipose tissues; and decreased hepatic enzyme activities of lipid biosynthesis. Chitosan supplementation significantly activated adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and attenuated high-fat diet-induced protein expressions of lipogenic transcription factors (PPAR-γ and SREBP1c) in livers and adipose tissues. Moreover, chitosan supplementation significantly inhibited the expressions of downstream lipogenic genes (FAS, HMGCR, FATP1, and FABP4) in livers and adipose tissues of high-fat diet-fed rats. These results demonstrate for the first time that chitosan supplementation alleviates high-fat diet-enhanced lipogenesis in rats via AMPK activation and lipogenesis-associated gene inhibition.

  2. Adenosine contributes to blood flow regulation in the exercising human leg by increasing prostaglandin and nitric oxide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan; Nyberg, Michael; Thaning, Pia

    2009-01-01

    /min); (2) whether adenosine-induced vasodilation is mediated via formation of prostaglandins and/or NO; and (3) the femoral arterial and venous plasma adenosine concentrations during leg exercise with the microdialysis technique in a total of 24 healthy, male subjects. Inhibition of adenosine receptors......+/-8%, and 66+/-8%, respectively (Pplasma adenosine concentrations were similar at rest and during exercise. These results suggest that adenosine contributes to the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow by stimulating prostaglandin and NO synthesis.......Adenosine can induce vasodilation in skeletal muscle, but to what extent adenosine exerts its effect via formation of other vasodilators and whether there is redundancy between adenosine and other vasodilators remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that adenosine, prostaglandins, and NO act...

  3. Chemotaxis when bacteria remember: drift versus diffusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakuntala Chatterjee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli (E. coli bacteria govern their trajectories by switching between running and tumbling modes as a function of the nutrient concentration they experienced in the past. At short time one observes a drift of the bacterial population, while at long time one observes accumulation in high-nutrient regions. Recent work has viewed chemotaxis as a compromise between drift toward favorable regions and accumulation in favorable regions. A number of earlier studies assume that a bacterium resets its memory at tumbles - a fact not borne out by experiment - and make use of approximate coarse-grained descriptions. Here, we revisit the problem of chemotaxis without resorting to any memory resets. We find that when bacteria respond to the environment in a non-adaptive manner, chemotaxis is generally dominated by diffusion, whereas when bacteria respond in an adaptive manner, chemotaxis is dominated by a bias in the motion. In the adaptive case, favorable drift occurs together with favorable accumulation. We derive our results from detailed simulations and a variety of analytical arguments. In particular, we introduce a new coarse-grained description of chemotaxis as biased diffusion, and we discuss the way it departs from older coarse-grained descriptions.

  4. Adenosine and sleep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanik, G.M. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Behavioral and biochemical approaches have been used to determine the relative contribution of endogenous adenosine and adenosine receptors to the sleep-wake cycle in the rat. Adenosine concentrations in specific areas of the rat brain were not affected by 24 hours of total sleep deprivation, or by 24 or 48 hours of REM sleep deprivation. In order to assess the effect of REM sleep deprivation on adenosine A/sub 1/ receptors, /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding was measured. The Bmax values for /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding to membrane preparations of the cortices and corpus striata from 48 hour REM sleep-deprived animals were increased 14.8% and 23%, respectively. These increases were not maintained following the cessation of sleep deprivation and recovered within 2 hours. The results of a 96 hour REM deprivation experiment were similar to those of the 48 hour REM sleep deprivation experiment. However, these increases were not evident in similar structures taken from stress control animals, and conclusively demonstrated that the changes in /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding resulted from REM sleep deprivation and not from stress.

  5. Fundamental constraints on the abundances of chemotaxis proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Bitbol, Anne-Florence

    2015-01-01

    Flagellated bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, perform directed motion in gradients of concentration of attractants and repellents in a process called chemotaxis. The E. coli chemotaxis signaling pathway is a model for signal transduction, but it has unique features. We demonstrate that the need for fast signaling necessitates high abundances of the proteins involved in this pathway. We show that further constraints on the abundances of chemotaxis proteins arise from the requirements of self-assembly, both of flagellar motors and of chemoreceptor arrays. All these constraints are specific to chemotaxis, and published data confirm that chemotaxis proteins tend to be more highly expressed than their homologs in other pathways. Employing a chemotaxis pathway model, we show that the gain of the pathway at the level of the response regulator CheY increases with overall chemotaxis protein abundances. This may explain why, at least in one E. coli strain, the abundance of all chemotaxis proteins is higher in media w...

  6. Adenosine A(1) Receptors in the Central Nervous System : Their Functions in Health and Disease, and Possible Elucidation by PET Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, S.; Elsinga, P. H.; Ishiwata, K.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.; van Waarde, A.

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine is a neuromodulator with several functions in the central nervous system (CNS), such as inhibition of neuronal activity in many signaling pathways. Most of the sedating, anxiolytic, seizure-inhibiting and protective actions of adenosine are mediated by adenosine A(1) receptors (A(1)R) on t

  7. Slit-2/Robo-1 modulates the CXCL12/CXCR4-induced chemotaxis of T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Anil; Qamri, Zahida; Wu, Jane; Ganju, Ramesh K

    2007-09-01

    Slit, which mediates its function by binding to the Roundabout (Robo) receptor, has been shown to regulate neuronal, dendritic, and leukocyte migration. However, the molecular mechanism by which the Slit/Robo complex inhibits the migration of cells is not well defined. Here, we showed that Slit-2 can inhibit the CXCL12-induced chemotaxis and transendothelial migration of T cells and monocytes. We observed that CXCR4 associates with Robo-1 and that Slit-2 treatment enhances this association with the Robo-1 receptor. Robo-1 is a single-pass transmembrane receptor whose intracellular region contains four conserved motifs designated as CC0, CC1, CC2, and CC3. Structural and functional analyses of Robo receptors revealed that interaction of the CC3 motif with the CXCR4 receptor may regulate the CXCL12-induced chemotaxis of T cells. We further characterized Slit-2-mediated inhibition of the CXCL12/CXCR4 chemotactic pathway and found that Slit-2 can block the CXCL12-induced activation of the Src and Lck kinases but not Lyn kinase. Although Slit-2 did not inhibit the CXCL12-induced activation of MAPKs, it did inhibit the Akt phosphorylation and Rac activation induced by this chemokine. Altogether, our studies indicate a novel mechanism by which the Slit/Robo complex may inhibit the CXCR4/CXCL12-mediated chemotaxis of T cells.

  8. Independent control of locomotion and orientation during Dictyostelium discoideum chemotaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, Bert van; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1992-01-01

    Chemotaxis is cell movement in the direction of a chemical and is composed of two components: movement and directionality. The directionality of eukaryotic chemotaxis is probably derived from orientation: the detection of the spacial gradient of chemoattractant over the cell length. Chemotaxis was i

  9. N6-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-Adenosine Exhibits Insecticidal Activity against Plutella xylostella via Adenosine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ming; Chai, Yiqiu; Chen, Guanjv; Wang, Huidong; Huang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is one of the most important pests of cruciferous crops. We have earlier shown that N6-(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine (HEA) exhibits insecticidal activity against P. xylostella. In the present study we investigated the possible mechanism of insecticidal action of HEA on P. xylostella. HEA is a derivative of adenosine, therefore, we speculated whether it acts via P. xylostella adenosine receptor (PxAdoR). We used RNAi approach to silence PxAdoR gene and used antagonist of denosine receptor (AdoR) to study the insecticidal effect of HEA. We cloned the whole sequence of PxAdoR gene. A BLAST search using NCBI protein database showed a 61% identity with the Drosophila adenosine receptor (DmAdoR) and a 32–35% identity with human AdoR. Though the amino acids sequence of PxAdoR was different compared to other adenosine receptors, most of the amino acids that are known to be important for adenosine receptor ligand binding and signaling were present. However, only 30% binding sites key residues was similar between PxAdoR and A1R. HEA, at a dose of 1 mg/mL, was found to be lethal to the second-instar larvae of P. xylostella, and a significant reduction of mortality and growth inhibition ratio were obtained when HEA was administered to the larvae along with PxAdoR-dsRNA or antagonist of AdoR (SCH58261) for 36, 48, or 60 h. Especially at 48 h, the rate of growth inhibition of the PxAdoR knockdown group was 3.5-fold less than that of the HEA group, and the corrected mortality of SCH58261 group was reduced almost 2-fold compared with the HEA group. Our findings show that HEA may exert its insecticidal activity against P. xylostella larvae via acting on PxAdoR. PMID:27668428

  10. N6-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-Adenosine Exhibits Insecticidal Activity against Plutella xylostella via Adenosine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ming; Chai, Yiqiu; Chen, Guanjv; Wang, Huidong; Huang, Bo

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is one of the most important pests of cruciferous crops. We have earlier shown that N6-(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine (HEA) exhibits insecticidal activity against P. xylostella. In the present study we investigated the possible mechanism of insecticidal action of HEA on P. xylostella. HEA is a derivative of adenosine, therefore, we speculated whether it acts via P. xylostella adenosine receptor (PxAdoR). We used RNAi approach to silence PxAdoR gene and used antagonist of denosine receptor (AdoR) to study the insecticidal effect of HEA. We cloned the whole sequence of PxAdoR gene. A BLAST search using NCBI protein database showed a 61% identity with the Drosophila adenosine receptor (DmAdoR) and a 32-35% identity with human AdoR. Though the amino acids sequence of PxAdoR was different compared to other adenosine receptors, most of the amino acids that are known to be important for adenosine receptor ligand binding and signaling were present. However, only 30% binding sites key residues was similar between PxAdoR and A1R. HEA, at a dose of 1 mg/mL, was found to be lethal to the second-instar larvae of P. xylostella, and a significant reduction of mortality and growth inhibition ratio were obtained when HEA was administered to the larvae along with PxAdoR-dsRNA or antagonist of AdoR (SCH58261) for 36, 48, or 60 h. Especially at 48 h, the rate of growth inhibition of the PxAdoR knockdown group was 3.5-fold less than that of the HEA group, and the corrected mortality of SCH58261 group was reduced almost 2-fold compared with the HEA group. Our findings show that HEA may exert its insecticidal activity against P. xylostella larvae via acting on PxAdoR.

  11. Effect of heavy metal ions on neutrophil arachidonic acid metabolism and chemotaxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.; Turner, S.R.; Johnson, J.A.; Turner, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    Heavy metal ions can inhibit arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, protect against ionophore cytotoxicity (ibid) and inhibit neutrophil chemotaxis. In this study they used Au/sup +3/, Zn/sup +2/, Cr/sup +3/, Mn/sup +2/, and Cu/sup +2/ as probes of the interrelationships among AA metabolism, ionophore-mediated cytotoxicity, and chemotaxis. Phospholipid deacylation was measured in ionophore-treated cells prelabeled with /sup 3/H-AA. Eicosanoid release from ionophore-treated cells was monitored both qualitatively by thin-layer chromatography of /sup 3/H-AA metabolities and quantitatively by radioimmunoassay. Cytoprotection was quantitated as ability to exclude trypan blue. Chemotaxis toward f-Met-Leu-Phe was measured by leading front analysis. The results imply that metal ions attenuate ionophore cytotoxicity by blocking phospholipid deacylation and eicosanoid production. In contrast to previous reports, the data obtained using Au/sup +3/ and Cu/sup +2/ demonstrates no correlation between AA metabolism and chemotaxis, suggesting that these 2 processes are not linked.

  12. Travelling Waves in Hybrid Chemotaxis Models

    KAUST Repository

    Franz, Benjamin

    2013-12-18

    Hybrid models of chemotaxis combine agent-based models of cells with partial differential equation models of extracellular chemical signals. In this paper, travelling wave properties of hybrid models of bacterial chemotaxis are investigated. Bacteria are modelled using an agent-based (individual-based) approach with internal dynamics describing signal transduction. In addition to the chemotactic behaviour of the bacteria, the individual-based model also includes cell proliferation and death. Cells consume the extracellular nutrient field (chemoattractant), which is modelled using a partial differential equation. Mesoscopic and macroscopic equations representing the behaviour of the hybrid model are derived and the existence of travelling wave solutions for these models is established. It is shown that cell proliferation is necessary for the existence of non-transient (stationary) travelling waves in hybrid models. Additionally, a numerical comparison between the wave speeds of the continuum models and the hybrid models shows good agreement in the case of weak chemotaxis and qualitative agreement for the strong chemotaxis case. In the case of slow cell adaptation, we detect oscillating behaviour of the wave, which cannot be explained by mean-field approximations. © 2013 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  13. Intracerebral adenosine infusion improves neurological outcome after transient focal ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Hisashi; Mori, Atsushi; Shimada, Jun; Mitsumoto, Yasuhide; Kikuchi, Tetsuro

    2002-04-01

    Second Institute of New Drug Research, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokushima, Japan In order to elucidate the role of adenosine in brain ischemia, the possible protective effects of adenosine on ischemic brain injury were investigated in a rat model of brain ischemia both in vitro and in vivo. Exogenous adenosine dose-dependently rescued cortical neuronal cells from injury after glucose deprivation in vitro. Adenosine (1 mM) also significantly reduced hypoglycemia/hypoxia-induced glutamate release from the hippocampal slice. In a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), extracellular adenosine concentration was increased immediately after occlusion, and then returned to the baseline by 30 min after reperfusion. Adenosine infusion through a microdialysis probe into the ipsilateral striatum (1 mM adenosine, 2 microl min(-1), total 4.5 h from the occlusion to 3 h after reperfusion) showed a significant improvement in the neurological outcome, and about 25% reduction of infarct volume, although the effect did not reach statistical significance, compared with the vehicle-treated group at 20 h after 90 min of MCAO. These results demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of adenosine against ischemic brain injury both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the possible therapeutic application of adenosine regulating agents, which inhibit adenosine uptake or metabolism to enhance or maintain extracellular endogenous adenosine levels, for stroke treatment.

  14. Biomixing by chemotaxis and enhancement of biological reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Many processes in biology involve both reactions and chemotaxis. However, to the best of our knowledge, the question of interaction between chemotaxis and reactions has not yet been addressed either analytically or numerically. We consider a model with a single density function involving diffusion, advection, chemotaxis, and absorbing reaction. The model is motivated, in particular, by studies of coral broadcast spawning, where experimental observations of the efficiency of fertilization rates significantly exceed the data obtained from numerical models that do not take chemotaxis (attraction of sperm gametes by a chemical secreted by egg gametes) into account. We prove that in the framework of our model, chemotaxis plays a crucial role. There is a rigid limit to how much the fertilization efficiency can be enhanced if there is no chemotaxis but only advection and diffusion. On the other hand, when chemotaxis is present, the fertilization rate can be arbitrarily close to being complete provided that the chemo...

  15. Role of VASP phosphorylation for the regulation of microglia chemotaxis via the regulation of focal adhesion formation/maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Chung, C Y

    2009-12-01

    Microglia activation and migration are known to play crucial roles for the response to brain injuries. Extracellular ADP was reported to induce microglia chemotaxis and membrane ruffles through P2Y12 receptor. In this study, we examined the role of VASP phosphorylation in ADP-induced microglia chemotaxis and membrane ruffle formation. ADP stimulation transiently increased intracellular cAMP level, VASP phosphorylation at Ser153, membrane ruffle formation, and chemotaxis. PKA inhibitor effectively inhibited VASP phosphorylation and chemotaxis, indicating that P2Y12-mediated activation of PKA and subsequent VASP phosphorylation are involved in the regulation of microglia chemotaxis. Forskolin and okadaic acid induced sustained VASP phosphorylation at a high level, causing a significant reduction of the retraction of membrane ruffles and chemotaxis. In forskolin- or okadaic acid-treated cells, phosphorylated VASP remained at the membrane cortex, and size and number of mature focal adhesions were not increased, indicating that prolonged phosphorylation of VASP could inhibit transformation of focal complexes into focal adhesions. VASP knockdown cells showed markedly reduced frequency and distance of membrane ruffling upon ADP stimulation, reinforcing the idea that VASP is required for the ruffle formation. Cells expressing GFP-VASP(S153A) also showed a significant reduction of protrusion distance during ruffle formation, but the frequency and the distance of retraction were not affected by FSK at all. This result suggests that dephosphorylation of VASP might be required for the growth of adhesion strength during membrane retraction. Our results suggest that VASP phosphorylation by PKA plays an important role in membrane ruffle formation and chemotaxis via the regulation of focal adhesion formation/maturation.

  16. Adenosine improves cardiomyocyte respiratory efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babsky, A M; Doliba, M M; Doliba, N M; Osbakken, M D

    1998-01-01

    The role of adenosine on the regulation of mitochondrial function has been studied. In order to evaluate this the following experiments were done in isolated rat cardiomyocites and mitochondria using polarographic techniques. Cardiomyocyte oxygen consumption (MVO2) and mitochondrial respiratory function (State 3 and State 4, respiratory control index, and ADP/O ratio) were evaluated after exposure to adenosine. Cardiomyocyte MVO2 was significantly lower in cells previously exposed to adenosine (10 microM, 15 min or 30 min cell incubation) than in cells not exposed to adenosine (control). Addition of dipyridamole (10 microM) or 8-(p-Sulfophenyl) theophylline (50 microM) to cardiomyocytes before adenosine incubation prevented the adenosine-induced changes in MVO2. Mitochondria obtained from isolated perfused beating heart previously perfused with adenosine (10 microM, 30 min heart perfusion) also resulted in significant increases in ADP/O and respiratory control index compared to matching control. Mitochondria isolated from cardiomyocytes previously exposed to adenosine (10 microM, 15 min or 30 min cell incubation) resulted in a significant increase in mitochondrial ADP/O ratio compared to control. Adenosine-induced decrease in cardiomyocyte MVO2 may be related to an increase in efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and more economical use of oxygen, which is necessary for survival under ischemic stress.

  17. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits A2A adenosine receptor agonist induced β-amyloid production in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells via a cAMP dependent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Vijay Nagpure

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the leading cause of senile dementia in today's society. Its debilitating symptoms are manifested by disturbances in many important brain functions, which are influenced by adenosine. Hence, adenosinergic system is considered as a potential therapeutic target in AD treatment. In the present study, we found that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor, 100 µM attenuated HENECA (a selective A2A receptor agonist, 10-200 nM induced β-amyloid (1-42 (Aβ42 production in SH-SY5Y cells. NaHS also interfered with HENECA-stimulated production and post-translational modification of amyloid precursor protein (APP by inhibiting its maturation. Measurement of the C-terminal APP fragments generated from its enzymatic cleavage by β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 showed that NaHS did not have any significant effect on β-secretase activity. However, the direct measurements of HENECA-elevated γ-secretase activity and mRNA expressions of presenilins suggested that the suppression of Aβ42 production in NaHS pretreated cells was mediated by inhibiting γ-secretase. NaHS induced reductions were accompanied by similar decreases in intracellular cAMP levels and phosphorylation of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB. NaHS significantly reduced the elevated cAMP and Aβ42 production caused by forskolin (an adenylyl cyclase, AC agonist alone or forskolin in combination with IBMX (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, but had no effect on those caused by IBMX alone. Moreover, pretreatment with NaHS significantly attenuated HENECA-elevated AC activity and mRNA expressions of various AC isoforms. These data suggest that NaHS may preferentially suppress AC activity when it was stimulated. In conclusion, H2S attenuated HENECA induced Aβ42 production in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells through inhibiting γ-secretase via a cAMP dependent pathway.

  18. Primary Macrophage Chemotaxis Induced by Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Agonists Occurs Independently of the CB2 Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis; Christou, Ivy; Kapellos, Theodore S; Buchan, Alice; Brodermann, Maximillian H; Gianella-Borradori, Matteo; Russell, Angela; Iqbal, Asif J; Greaves, David R

    2015-06-02

    Activation of CB2 has been demonstrated to induce directed immune cell migration. However, the ability of CB2 to act as a chemoattractant receptor in macrophages remains largely unexplored. Using a real-time chemotaxis assay and a panel of chemically diverse and widely used CB2 agonists, we set out to examine whether CB2 modulates primary murine macrophage chemotaxis. We report that of 12 agonists tested, only JWH133, HU308, L-759,656 and L-759,633 acted as macrophage chemoattractants. Surprisingly, neither pharmacological inhibition nor genetic ablation of CB2 had any effect on CB2 agonist-induced macrophage chemotaxis. As chemotaxis was pertussis toxin sensitive in both WT and CB2(-/-) macrophages, we concluded that a non-CB1/CB2, Gi/o-coupled GPCR must be responsible for CB2 agonist-induced macrophage migration. The obvious candidate receptors GPR18 and GPR55 could not mediate JWH133 or HU308-induced cytoskeletal rearrangement or JWH133-induced β-arrestin recruitment in cells transfected with either receptor, demonstrating that neither are the unidentified GPCR. Taken together our results conclusively demonstrate that CB2 is not a chemoattractant receptor for murine macrophages. Furthermore we show for the first time that JWH133, HU308, L-759,656 and L-759,633 have off-target effects of functional consequence in primary cells and we believe that our findings have wide ranging implications for the entire cannabinoid field.

  19. α-1 Antitrypsin regulates human neutrophil chemotaxis induced by soluble immune complexes and IL-8.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bergin, David A

    2010-12-01

    Hereditary deficiency of the protein α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) causes a chronic lung disease in humans that is characterized by excessive mobilization of neutrophils into the lung. However, the reason for the increased neutrophil burden has not been fully elucidated. In this study we have demonstrated using human neutrophils that serum AAT coordinates both CXCR1- and soluble immune complex (sIC) receptor-mediated chemotaxis by divergent pathways. We demonstrated that glycosylated AAT can bind to IL-8 (a ligand for CXCR1) and that AAT-IL-8 complex formation prevented IL-8 interaction with CXCR1. Second, AAT modulated neutrophil chemotaxis in response to sIC by controlling membrane expression of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI-anchored) Fc receptor FcγRIIIb. This process was mediated through inhibition of ADAM-17 enzymatic activity. Neutrophils isolated from clinically stable AAT-deficient patients were characterized by low membrane expression of FcγRIIIb and increased chemotaxis in response to IL-8 and sIC. Treatment of AAT-deficient individuals with AAT augmentation therapy resulted in increased AAT binding to IL-8, increased AAT binding to the neutrophil membrane, decreased FcγRIIIb release from the neutrophil membrane, and normalization of chemotaxis. These results provide new insight into the mechanism underlying the effect of AAT augmentation therapy in the pulmonary disease associated with AAT deficiency.

  20. Adenosine transiently modulates stimulated dopamine release in the caudate-putamen via A1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ashley E; Venton, B Jill

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine modulates dopamine in the brain via A1 and A2A receptors, but that modulation has only been characterized on a slow time scale. Recent studies have characterized a rapid signaling mode of adenosine that suggests a possible rapid modulatory role. Here, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the extent to which transient adenosine changes modulate stimulated dopamine release (5 pulses at 60 Hz) in rat caudate-putamen brain slices. Exogenous adenosine was applied and dopamine concentration monitored. Adenosine only modulated dopamine when it was applied 2 or 5 s before stimulation. Longer time intervals and bath application of 5 μM adenosine did not decrease dopamine release. Mechanical stimulation of endogenous adenosine 2 s before dopamine stimulation also decreased stimulated dopamine release by 41 ± 7%, similar to the 54 ± 6% decrease in dopamine after exogenous adenosine application. Dopamine inhibition by transient adenosine was recovered within 10 min. The A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine blocked the dopamine modulation, whereas dopamine modulation was unaffected by the A2A receptor antagonist SCH 442416. Thus, transient adenosine changes can transiently modulate phasic dopamine release via A1 receptors. These data demonstrate that adenosine has a rapid, but transient, modulatory role in the brain. Here, transient adenosine was shown to modulate phasic dopamine release on the order of seconds by acting at the A1 receptor. However, sustained increases in adenosine did not regulate phasic dopamine release. This study demonstrates for the first time a transient, neuromodulatory function of rapid adenosine to regulate rapid neurotransmitter release.

  1. Chemotaxis of crawling and swimming Caenorhabditis Elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amar; Bilbao, Alejandro; Padmanabhan, Venkat; Khan, Zeina; Armstrong, Andrew; Rumbaugh, Kendra; Vanapalli, Siva; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2012-11-01

    A soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans efficiently navigates through complex environments, responding to chemical signals to find food or avoid danger. According to previous studies, the nematode uses both gradual-turn and run-and-tumble strategies to move in the direction of the increasing concentration of chemical attractants. We show that both these chemotaxis strategies can be described using our kinematic model [PLoS ONE, 7: e40121 (2012)] in which harmonic-curvature modes represent elementary nematode movements. In our chemotaxis model, the statistics of mode changes is governed by the time history of the chemoattractant concentration at the position of the nematode head. We present results for both nematodes crawling without transverse slip and for swimming nematodes. This work was supported by NSF grant No. CBET 1059745.

  2. Travelling waves in hybrid chemotaxis models

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Benjamin; Painter, Kevin J; Erban, Radek

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid models of chemotaxis combine agent-based models of cells with partial differential equation models of extracellular chemical signals. In this paper, travelling wave properties of hybrid models of bacterial chemotaxis are investigated. Bacteria are modelled using an agent-based (individual-based) approach with internal dynamics describing signal transduction. In addition to the chemotactic behaviour of the bacteria, the individual-based model also includes cell proliferation and death. Cells consume the extracellular nutrient field (chemoattractant) which is modelled using a partial differential equation. Mesoscopic and macroscopic equations representing the behaviour of the hybrid model are derived and the existence of travelling wave solutions for these models is established. It is shown that cell proliferation is necessary for the existence of non-transient (stationary) travelling waves in hybrid models. Additionally, a numerical comparison between the wave speeds of the continuum models and the hybr...

  3. Chemotaxis: new role for Ras revealed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianshe Yan; Dale Hereld; Tian Jin

    2010-01-01

    @@ A recent study of chemotaxis revealed a new role for the proto-oncogene Ras in the social ameba Dictyostelium discoideum.Chemotaxis,the directional movement of cells toward chemokines and other chemoattractants,plays critical roles in diverse physiological processes,such as mobilization of immune cells to fight invading microorganisms,targeting of metastatic cancer cells to specific tissues,and guidance of sperm cells to ova during fertilization.This work,published in the July 26 issue of The Journal of Cell Biology,was conducted in Dr.Devreotes' lab at John Hopkins University and Dr.Parent's lab at National Cancer Institute.This research team demonstrated that RasC functions as an upstream regulator of TORC2 and thereby governs the effects of TORC2-PKB signaling on the cytoskeleton and cell migration.

  4. Mast cell chemotaxis – Chemoattractants and signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eHalova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Migration of mast cells is essential for their recruitment within target tissues where they play an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses. These processes rely on the ability of mast cells to recognize appropriate chemotactic stimuli and react to them by a chemotactic response. Another level of intercellular communication is attained by production of chemoattractants by activated mast cells, which results in accumulation of mast cells and other hematopoietic cells at the sites of inflammation. Mast cells express numerous surface receptors for various ligands with properties of potent chemoattractants. They include the stem cell factor recognized by c-Kit, antigen, which binds to immunoglobulin E (IgE anchored to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcRI, highly cytokinergic IgE recognized by FcRI, lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, which binds to G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Other large groups of chemoattractants are eicosanoids [prostaglandin E2 and D2, leukotriene (LT B4, LTD4 and LTC4, and others] and chemokines (CC, CXC, C and CX3X, which also bind to various GPCRs. Further noteworthy chemoattractants are isoforms of transforming growth factor (TGF , which are sensitively recognized by TGF- serine/threonine type I and II  receptors, adenosine, C1q, C3a, and C5a components of the complement, 5-hydroxytryptamine, neuroendocrine peptide catestatin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor- and others. Here we discuss the major types of chemoattractants recognized by mast cells, their target receptors, as well as signaling pathways they utilize. We also briefly deal with methods used for studies of mast cell chemotaxis and with ways of how these studies profited from the results obtained in other cellular systems.

  5. Electroacupuncture improves neuropathic pain Adenosine,adenosine 5'-triphosphate disodium and their receptors perhaps change simultaneously

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Ren; Wenzhan Tu; Songhe Jiang; Ruidong Cheng; Yaping Du

    2012-01-01

    Applying a stimulating current to acupoints through acupuncture needles-known as electroacupuncture-has the potential to produce analgesic effects in human subjects and experimental animals.When acupuncture was applied in a rat model,adenosine 5'-triphosphate disodium in the extracellular space was broken down into adenosine,which in turn inhibited pain transmission by means of an adenosine A1 receptor-dependent process.Direct injection of an adenosine A1 receptor agonist enhanced the analgesic effect of acupuncture.The analgesic effect of acupuncture appears to be mediated by activation of A1 receptors located on ascending nerves.In neuropathic pain,there is upregulation of P2X purinoceptor 3(P2X3)receptor expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons.Conversely,the onset of mechanical hyperalgesia was diminished and established hyperalgesia was significantly reversed when P2X3 receptor expression was downregulated.The pathways upon which electroacupuncture appear to act are interwoven with pain pathways,and electroacupuncture stimuli converge with impulses originating from painful areas.Electroacupuncture may act via purinergic A1 and P2X3 receptors simultaneously to induce an analgesic effect on neuropathic pain.

  6. Contraction induced secretion of VEGF from skeletal muscle cells is mediated by adenosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Birgitte; Olsen, Karina; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2010-01-01

    The role of adenosine and contraction for secretion of VEGF in skeletal muscle was investigated in human subjects and rat primary skeletal muscle cells. Microdialysis probes were inserted into the thigh muscle of seven male subjects and dialysate was collected at rest, during infusion of adenosine...... and contraction caused secretion of VEGF (pcontraction induced secretion of VEGF protein was abolished by the A(2B) antagonist enprofyllin and markedly reduced by inhibition of PKA or MAPK. The results demonstrate that adenosine causes secretion of VEGF from human skeletal muscle cells...... and that the contraction induced secretion of VEGF is partially mediated via adenosine acting on A(2B) adenosine receptors. Moreover, the contraction induced secretion of VEGF protein from muscle is dependent on both PKA and MAPK activation, but only the MAPK pathway appears to be adenosine dependent....

  7. Adenosine Modulates the Oocyte Developmental Competence by Exposing Stages and Synthetic Blocking during In Vitro Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Yong-Pil

    2016-06-01

    Purine metabolism is known factor for nuclear maturation of oocytes through both follicle cells and oocyte itself. However, it is largely unknown the roles of purine metabolism in the oocyte competence for fertilization and early development. In this study, the effects of adenosine in oocyte competence for development were examined using adenosine and its synthetic inhibitors. Adenosine treatment from GV intact stage for 18 hr (fGV) caused of decrease the fertilization rate but of increase the cleavage rate compared from the other stage treatment groups. Hadacidin did not effect on fertilization rate but increased cleavage rate without stage specificity. Adenosine did not block the effects of hadacidin with the exception of fGV group. By the inhibition of purine synthetic pathways the fertilization rate was decreased in the fGV and fGVB groups but increased in the fMII group. Exogenous adenosine caused of decrease fertilization rate in the fGVB group but increase in the fMII group. Cleavage rate was dramatically increased in the adenosine treatment with synthetic inhibitors. It means that the metabolism of purine has stage specific effects on fertilization and cleavage. Exogenous adenosine had only can improve oocyte developmental competence when it treated at GV intact stage. On the other hand, endogenous synthesis in all maturation stage caused of increase the cleavage rate without effects on fertilization. These data suggest that adenosine at GV stage as a paracrine fashion and inhibitions of endogenous adenosine in all stage improve oocyte developmental competence..

  8. Effects of adenosine on lymphangiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Lenoir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The lymphatic system controls tissue homeostasis by draining protein-rich lymph to the vascular system. Lymphangiogenesis, the formation of lymphatic vessels, is a normal event in childhood but promotes tumor spread and metastasis during adulthood. Blocking lymphangiogenesis may therefore be of therapeutic interest. Production of adenosine is enhanced in the tumor environment and contributes to tumor progression through stimulation of angiogenesis. In this study, we determined whether adenosine affects lymphangiogenesis. METHODS: Lymphatic endothelial cells (HMVEC-dLy were cultured in presence of adenosine and their proliferation, migration and tube formation was assessed. Gelatin sponges embedded with the stable analogue of adenosine 2-chloro adenosine were implanted in mice ear and lymphangiogenesis was quantified. Mice were intravenously injected with adenoviruses containing expression vector for 5'-endonucleotidase, which plays a major role in the formation of adenosine. RESULTS: In vitro, we observed that adenosine decreased the proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells, their migration and tube formation. However, in vivo, gelatin sponges containing 2-chloro adenosine and implanted in mice ear displayed an elevated level of lymphangiogenesis (2.5-fold, p<0.001. Adenovirus-mediated over-expression of cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase IA stimulated lymphangiogenesis and the recruitment of macrophages in mouse liver. Proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells was enhanced (2-fold, p<0.001 when incubated in the presence of conditioned medium from murine macrophages. CONCLUSION: We have shown that adenosine stimulates lymphangiogenesis in vivo, presumably through a macrophage-mediated mechanism. This observation suggests that blockade of adenosine receptors may help in anti-cancer therapies.

  9. μ-Slide Chemotaxis: A new chamber for long-term chemotaxis studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zantl Roman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective tools for measurement of chemotaxis are desirable since cell migration towards given stimuli plays a crucial role in tumour metastasis, angiogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing. As for now, the Boyden chamber assay is the longstanding "gold-standard" for in vitro chemotaxis measurements. However, support for live cell microscopy is weak, concentration gradients are rather steep and poorly defined, and chemotaxis cannot be distinguished from migration in a single experiment. Results Here, we describe a novel all-in-one chamber system for long-term analysis of chemotaxis in vitro that improves upon many of the shortcomings of the Boyden chamber assay. This chemotaxis chamber was developed to provide high quality microscopy, linear concentration gradients, support for long-term assays, and observation of slowly migrating cells via video microscopy. AlexaFluor 488 dye was used to demonstrate the establishment, shape and time development of linear chemical gradients. Human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080 and freshly isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC were used to assess chemotaxis towards 10% fetal calf serum (FCS and FaDu cells' supernatant. Time-lapse video microscopy was conducted for 48 hours, and cell tracking and analysis was performed using ImageJ plugins. The results disclosed a linear steady-state gradient that was reached after approximately 8 hours and remained stable for at least 48 hours. Both cell types were chemotactically active and cell movement as well as cell-to-cell interaction was assessable. Conclusions Compared to the Boyden chamber assay, this innovative system allows for the generation of a stable gradient for a much longer time period as well as for the tracking of cell locomotion along this gradient and over long distances. Finally, random migration can be distinguished from primed and directed migration along chemotactic gradients in the same experiment, a feature, which

  10. Different efficacy of adenosine and NECA derivatives at the human A3 adenosine receptor: insight into the receptor activation switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Ben, Diego; Buccioni, Michela; Lambertucci, Catia; Kachler, Sonja; Falgner, Nico; Marucci, Gabriella; Thomas, Ajiroghene; Cristalli, Gloria; Volpini, Rosaria; Klotz, Karl-Norbert

    2014-01-15

    A3 Adenosine receptors are promising drug targets for a number of diseases and intense efforts are dedicated to develop selective agonists and antagonists of these receptors. A series of adenosine derivatives with 2-(ar)-alkynyl chains, with high affinity and different degrees of selectivity for human A3 adenosine receptors was tested for the ability to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase. All these derivatives are partial agonists at A3 adenosine receptors; their efficacy is not significantly modified by the introduction of small alkyl substituents in the N(6)-position. In contrast, the adenosine-5'-N-ethyluronamide (NECA) analogs of 2-(ar)-alkynyladenosine derivatives are full A3 agonists. Molecular modeling analyses were performed considering both the conformational behavior of the ligands and the impact of 2- and 5'-substituents on ligand-target interaction. The results suggest an explanation for the different agonistic behavior of adenosine and NECA derivatives, respectively. A sub-pocket of the binding site was analyzed as a crucial interaction domain for receptor activation.

  11. Impact of fluorochrome stains used to study bacterial transport in shallow aquifers on motility and chemotaxis of Pseudomonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepfer, J Amanda; Ford, Roseanne M; Metge, David; Harvey, Ronald W

    2012-07-01

    One of the most common methods of tracking movement of bacteria in groundwater environments involves a priori fluorescent staining. A major concern in using these stains to label bacteria in subsurface injection-and-recovery studies is the effect they may have on the bacterium's transport properties. Previous studies investigated the impact of fluorophores on bacterial surface properties (e.g. zeta potential). However, no previous study has looked at the impact of fluorescent staining on swimming speed and chemotaxis. It was found that DAPI lowered the mean population swimming speed of Pseudomonas putida F1 by 46% and Pseudomonas stutzeri by 55%. DAPI also inhibited the chemotaxis in both strains. The swimming speeds of P. putida F1 and P. stutzeri were diminished slightly by CFDA/SE, but not to a statistically significant extent. CFDA/SE had no effect on chemotaxis of either strain to acetate. SYBR(®) Gold had no effect on swimming speed or the chemotactic response to acetate for either strain. This research indicates that although DAPI may not affect sorption to grain surfaces, it adversely affects other potentially important transport properties such as swimming and chemotaxis. Consequently, bacterial transport studies conducted using DAPI are biased to nonchemotactic conditions and do not appear to be suitable for monitoring the effect of chemotaxis on bacterial transport in shallow aquifers.

  12. PI3K accelerates, but is not required for, neutrophil chemotaxis to fMLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Bryan; Liu, Lixin; Colarusso, Pina; Puri, Kamal D; Kubes, Paul

    2008-01-15

    PI3K activity, resulting in the accumulation of PIP(3) along the leading edge of a chemotaxing cell, has been proposed to be an indispensable signaling event that is required for cells to undergo chemotaxis to endogenous and exogenous chemoattractants. Some studies have suggested that this might be the case for chemoattractants such as IL8, whereas chemotaxis to other stimuli, such as the bacterial peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), might occur normally in the absence of PI3K activity. Herein, we systematically analyze the role of PI3K in mediating chemotaxis to fMLP, both in vitro and in vivo. Using short- and long-term in vitro assays, as well as an in vivo chemotaxis assay, we investigated the importance of PI3K in response to the prototypic chemoattractant fMLP. Exposure of neutrophils to fMLP induced an immediate polarization, which resulted in directional migration towards fMLP within 2-3 minutes. PI3K-inhibited cells also polarized and migrated in a directional fashion towards fMLP; however, this process was delayed by approximately 15 minutes, demonstrating that PI3K accelerates the initial response to fMLP, but an alternative pathway replaces PI3K over time. By contrast, p38-MAPK-inhibited cells, or cells lacking MK2, were unable to polarize in response to fMLP. Long-term chemotaxis assays using a pan-PI3K inhibitor, a PI3Kdelta-specific inhibitor or PI3Kgamma-knockout neutrophils, demonstrated no role for PI3K in mediating chemotaxis to fMLP, regardless of the steepness of the fMLP gradient. Similar results were observed in vivo, with PI3Kgamma(-/-) cells displaying a delayed, but otherwise normal, chemotactic response to gradients of fMLP. Together, these data demonstrate that, although PI3K can enhance early responses to the bacterial chemoattractant fMLP, it is not required for migration towards this chemoattractant.

  13. Adenosine stimulates the migration of human endothelial progenitor cells. Role of CXCR4 and microRNA-150.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Rolland-Turner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Administration of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC represents a promising option to regenerate the heart after myocardial infarction, but is limited because of low recruitment and engraftment in the myocardium. Mobilization and migration of EPC are mainly controlled by stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α and its receptor CXCR4. We hypothesized that adenosine, a cardioprotective molecule, may improve the recruitment of EPC to the heart. METHODS: EPC were obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers. Expression of chemokines and their receptors was evaluated using microarrays, quantitative PCR, and flow cytometry. A Boyden chamber assay was used to assess chemotaxis. Recruitment of EPC to the infarcted heart was evaluated in rats after permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. RESULTS: Microarray analysis revealed that adenosine modulates the expression of several members of the chemokine family in EPC. Among these, CXCR4 was up-regulated by adenosine, and this result was confirmed by quantitative PCR (3-fold increase, P<0.001. CXCR4 expression at the cell surface was also increased. This effect involved the A(2B receptor. Pretreatment of EPC with adenosine amplified their migration towards recombinant SDF-1α or conditioned medium from cardiac fibroblasts. Both effects were abolished by CXCR4 blocking antibodies. Adenosine also increased CXCR4 under ischemic conditions, and decreased miR-150 expression. Binding of miR-150 to the 3' untranslated region of CXCR4 was verified by luciferase assay. Addition of pre-miR-150 blunted the effect of adenosine on CXCR4. Administration of adenosine to rats after induction of myocardial infarction stimulated EPC recruitment to the heart and enhanced angiogenesis. CONCLUSION: Adenosine increases the migration of EPC. The mechanism involves A(2B receptor activation, decreased expression of miR-150 and increased expression of CXCR4. These

  14. Targeting the inflammasome and adenosine type-3 receptors improves outcome of antibiotic therapy in murine anthrax

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, Serguei G.; Popova, Taissia G.; Kashanchi, Fatah; Bailey, Charles

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To establish whether activation of adenosine type-3 receptors (A3Rs) and inhibition of interleukin-1β-induced inflammation is beneficial in combination with antibiotic therapy to increase survival of mice challenged with anthrax spores.

  15. ALLERGEN-INDUCED CHANGES IN ADENOSINE 5'-MONOPHOSPHATE BRONCHIAL RESPONSIVENESS - EFFECT OF NEDOCROMIL SODIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AALBERS, R; KAUFMAN, HF; GROEN, H; KOETER, GH; DEMONCHY, JGR

    1992-01-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) was studied after allergen challenge in allergic asthmatic patients. Measurements were made with and without nedocromil sodium pretreatment. Nedocromil sodium inhibited both the early and late asthmatic reactions (P <.01). After aller

  16. ALLERGEN-INDUCED CHANGES IN ADENOSINE 5'-MONOPHOSPHATE BRONCHIAL RESPONSIVENESS - EFFECT OF NEDOCROMIL SODIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AALBERS, R; KAUFMAN, HF; GROEN, H; KOETER, GH; DEMONCHY, JGR

    1992-01-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) was studied after allergen challenge in allergic asthmatic patients. Measurements were made with and without nedocromil sodium pretreatment. Nedocromil sodium inhibited both the early and late asthmatic reactions (P <.01). After

  17. Small-Animal PET Study of Adenosine A(1) Receptors in Rat Brain : Blocking Receptors and Raising Extracellular Adenosine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Soumen; Khanapur, Shivashankar; Rybczynska, Anna A.; Kwizera, Chantal; Sijbesma, Jurgen W. A.; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; van Waarde, Aren

    2011-01-01

    Activation of adenosine A(1) receptors (A(1)R) in the brain causes sedation, reduces anxiety, inhibits seizures, and promotes neuroprotection. Cerebral A(1)R can be visualized using 8-dicyclopropylmethyl-1-C-11-methyl-3-propyl-xanthine (C-11-MPDX) and PET. This study aims to test whether C-11-MPDX

  18. Small-Animal PET Study of Adenosine A(1) Receptors in Rat Brain : Blocking Receptors and Raising Extracellular Adenosine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Soumen; Khanapur, Shivashankar; Rybczynska, Anna A.; Kwizera, Chantal; Sijbesma, Jurgen W. A.; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; van Waarde, Aren

    2011-01-01

    Activation of adenosine A(1) receptors (A(1)R) in the brain causes sedation, reduces anxiety, inhibits seizures, and promotes neuroprotection. Cerebral A(1)R can be visualized using 8-dicyclopropylmethyl-1-C-11-methyl-3-propyl-xanthine (C-11-MPDX) and PET. This study aims to test whether C-11-MPDX c

  19. Some neural effects of adenosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haulică, I; Brănişteanu, D D; Petrescu, G H

    1978-01-01

    The possible neural effects of adenosine were investigated by using electrophysiological techniques at the level of some central and peripheral synapses. The evoked potentials in the somatosensorial cerebral cortex are influenced according to both the type of administration and the level of the electrical stimulation. While the local application does not induce significant alterations, the intrathalamic injections and the perfusion of the IIIrd cerebral ventricle do change the distribution of activated units at the level of different cortical layers especially during the peripheral stimulation. The frequency of spontaneous miniature discharges intracellularly recorded in the neuromuscular junction (mepp) is significantly depressed by adenosine. This effect is calcium- and dose-dependent. The end plate potentials (EPP) were also depressed. The statistical binomial analysis of the phenomenon indicated that adenosine induces a decrease if the presynaptic pool of the available transmitter. The data obtained demonstrate a presynaptic inhibitory action of adenosine beside its known vascular and metaholic effects.

  20. Highlighting the role of Ras and Rap during Dictyostelium chemotaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortholt, Arjan; van Haastert, Peter J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Chemotaxis, the directional movement towards a chemical compound, is an essential property of many cells and has been linked to the development and progression of many diseases. Eukaryotic chemotaxis is a complex process involving gradient sensing, cell polarity, remodelling of the cytoskeleton and

  1. Chemotaxis signaling systems in model beneficial plant-bacteria associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Birgit E; Hynes, Michael F; Alexandre, Gladys M

    2016-04-01

    Beneficial plant-microbe associations play critical roles in plant health. Bacterial chemotaxis provides a competitive advantage to motile flagellated bacteria in colonization of plant root surfaces, which is a prerequisite for the establishment of beneficial associations. Chemotaxis signaling enables motile soil bacteria to sense and respond to gradients of chemical compounds released by plant roots. This process allows bacteria to actively swim towards plant roots and is thus critical for competitive root surface colonization. The complete genome sequences of several plant-associated bacterial species indicate the presence of multiple chemotaxis systems and a large number of chemoreceptors. Further, most soil bacteria are motile and capable of chemotaxis, and chemotaxis-encoding genes are enriched in the bacteria found in the rhizosphere compared to the bulk soil. This review compares the architecture and diversity of chemotaxis signaling systems in model beneficial plant-associated bacteria and discusses their relevance to the rhizosphere lifestyle. While it is unclear how controlling chemotaxis via multiple parallel chemotaxis systems provides a competitive advantage to certain bacterial species, the presence of a larger number of chemoreceptors is likely to contribute to the ability of motile bacteria to survive in the soil and to compete for root surface colonization.

  2. Role of A3 adenosine receptor in diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Heng; Zhang, Enshui; Feng, Chang; Zhao, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Neuropathy is the most common diabetic complication. Although the A1 and A2A adenosine receptors are important pharmacological targets in alleviating diabetic neuropathy, the role of the A3 adenosine receptor remains unknown. Because the A3 adenosine receptor regulates pain induced by chronic constriction injury or chemotherapy, its stimulation might also attenuate diabetic neuropathy. This study examines the effects of systemic treatment with the A3 adenosine receptor agonist 1-deoxy-1-[6-[[(3-iodophenyl)methyl]amino]-9H-purin-9-yl]-N-methyl-β-d-ribofuranuronamide (IB-MECA) on diabetic neuropathy and explores the putative mechanisms underlying its pharmacological effects. We show that IB-MECA alleviated mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal hypoalgesia in mice 2 weeks but not 4 weeks after streptozocin (STZ) treatment. Furthermore, IB-MECA prevented the reduction in sciatic motor nerve conduction velocity and sensory nerve conduction velocity in diabetic mice 2 weeks but not 4 weeks after STZ treatment. Similarly, IB-MECA inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-κB and decreased the generation of tumor necrosis factor-α in the spinal cord of mice 2 weeks but not 4 weeks after STZ treatment. These phenomena were associated with reduction of A3 adenosine receptor expression in the spinal cord after long-term diabetes. Our results suggest that the A3 adenosine receptor plays a critical role in regulating diabetic neuropathy and that reduction in A3 adenosine receptor expression/function might contribute to the progression of diabetic neuropathy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A minimal model of metabolism-based chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Egbert

    Full Text Available Since the pioneering work by Julius Adler in the 1960's, bacterial chemotaxis has been predominantly studied as metabolism-independent. All available simulation models of bacterial chemotaxis endorse this assumption. Recent studies have shown, however, that many metabolism-dependent chemotactic patterns occur in bacteria. We hereby present the simplest artificial protocell model capable of performing metabolism-based chemotaxis. The model serves as a proof of concept to show how even the simplest metabolism can sustain chemotactic patterns of varying sophistication. It also reproduces a set of phenomena that have recently attracted attention on bacterial chemotaxis and provides insights about alternative mechanisms that could instantiate them. We conclude that relaxing the metabolism-independent assumption provides important theoretical advances, forces us to rethink some established pre-conceptions and may help us better understand unexplored and poorly understood aspects of bacterial chemotaxis.

  4. Recent developments in microfluidics-based chemotaxis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiandong; Wu, Xun; Lin, Francis

    2013-07-07

    Microfluidic devices can better control cellular microenvironments compared to conventional cell migration assays. Over the past few years, microfluidics-based chemotaxis studies showed a rapid growth. New strategies were developed to explore cell migration in manipulated chemical gradients. In addition to expanding the use of microfluidic devices for a broader range of cell types, microfluidic devices were used to study cell migration and chemotaxis in complex environments. Furthermore, high-throughput microfluidic chemotaxis devices and integrated microfluidic chemotaxis systems were developed for medical and commercial applications. In this article, we review recent developments in microfluidics-based chemotaxis studies and discuss the new trends in this field observed over the past few years.

  5. A Model of Drosophila Larva Chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Davies

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Detailed observations of larval Drosophila chemotaxis have characterised the relationship between the odour gradient and the runs, head casts and turns made by the animal. We use a computational model to test whether hypothesised sensorimotor control mechanisms are sufficient to account for larval behaviour. The model combines three mechanisms based on simple transformations of the recent history of odour intensity at the head location. The first is an increased probability of terminating runs in response to gradually decreasing concentration, the second an increased probability of terminating head casts in response to rapidly increasing concentration, and the third a biasing of run directions up concentration gradients through modulation of small head casts. We show that this model can be tuned to produce behavioural statistics comparable to those reported for the larva, and that this tuning results in similar chemotaxis performance to the larva. We demonstrate that each mechanism can enable odour approach but the combination of mechanisms is most effective, and investigate how these low-level control mechanisms relate to behavioural measures such as the preference indices used to investigate larval learning behaviour in group assays.

  6. A stochastic description of Dictyostelium chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Amselem

    Full Text Available Chemotaxis, the directed motion of a cell toward a chemical source, plays a key role in many essential biological processes. Here, we derive a statistical model that quantitatively describes the chemotactic motion of eukaryotic cells in a chemical gradient. Our model is based on observations of the chemotactic motion of the social ameba Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism for eukaryotic chemotaxis. A large number of cell trajectories in stationary, linear chemoattractant gradients is measured, using microfluidic tools in combination with automated cell tracking. We describe the directional motion as the interplay between deterministic and stochastic contributions based on a Langevin equation. The functional form of this equation is directly extracted from experimental data by angle-resolved conditional averages. It contains quadratic deterministic damping and multiplicative noise. In the presence of an external gradient, the deterministic part shows a clear angular dependence that takes the form of a force pointing in gradient direction. With increasing gradient steepness, this force passes through a maximum that coincides with maxima in both speed and directionality of the cells. The stochastic part, on the other hand, does not depend on the orientation of the directional cue and remains independent of the gradient magnitude. Numerical simulations of our probabilistic model yield quantitative agreement with the experimental distribution functions. Thus our model captures well the dynamics of chemotactic cells and can serve to quantify differences and similarities of different chemotactic eukaryotes. Finally, on the basis of our model, we can characterize the heterogeneity within a population of chemotactic cells.

  7. Modeling Transverse Chemotaxis in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M. L.; Valdés-Parada, F. J.; Wood, B. D.

    2009-12-01

    The movement of microorganisms toward a chemical attractant (chemotaxis) has been shown to aid in subsurface contaminant degradation and enhanced oil recovery. However, chemotaxis is inherently a pore scale process that must be upscaled to arrive at continuum scale models for field applications. In this work, the method of volume averaging is used to upscale the microscale chemotactic microbial transport equations in order to obtain the corresponding macroscale models for the mass balance of bacteria and the chemical attractant to which they respond. As a first approach, cellular growth/death and consumption of the attractant by chemical reaction are assumed to be negligible with respect to convective and diffusive transport mechanisms. Two effective medium coefficients are introduced in the model, namely a total motility tensor and a total velocity vector. Under certain conditions, it is shown that the coefficients can differ considerably from the values corresponding to non-chemotactic transport. The model is validated by comparing the predicted transverse motility coefficients and concentration profiles to those measured within an engineered porous medium. For the concentration profiles, we introduced a lag that accounts for the difference between the arrival time of the microorganisms and the their chemotactic response to the attractant.

  8. A Model of Drosophila Larva Chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Alex; Louis, Matthieu; Webb, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Detailed observations of larval Drosophila chemotaxis have characterised the relationship between the odour gradient and the runs, head casts and turns made by the animal. We use a computational model to test whether hypothesised sensorimotor control mechanisms are sufficient to account for larval behaviour. The model combines three mechanisms based on simple transformations of the recent history of odour intensity at the head location. The first is an increased probability of terminating runs in response to gradually decreasing concentration, the second an increased probability of terminating head casts in response to rapidly increasing concentration, and the third a biasing of run directions up concentration gradients through modulation of small head casts. We show that this model can be tuned to produce behavioural statistics comparable to those reported for the larva, and that this tuning results in similar chemotaxis performance to the larva. We demonstrate that each mechanism can enable odour approach but the combination of mechanisms is most effective, and investigate how these low-level control mechanisms relate to behavioural measures such as the preference indices used to investigate larval learning behaviour in group assays.

  9. Bacterial chemotaxis in an optical trap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Altindal

    Full Text Available An optical trapping technique is implemented to investigate the chemotactic behavior of a marine bacterial strain Vibrio alginolyticus. The technique takes the advantage that the bacterium has only a single polar flagellum, which can rotate either in the counter-clock-wise or clock-wise direction. The two rotation states of the motor can be readily and instantaneously resolved in the optical trap, allowing the flagellar motor switching rate S(t to be measured under different chemical stimulations. In this paper the focus will be on the bacterial response to an impulsive change of chemoattractant serine. Despite different propulsion apparati and motility patterns, cells of V. alginolyticus apparently use a similar response as Escherichia coli to regulate their chemotactic behavior. Specifically, we found that the switching rate S(t of the bacterial motor exhibits a biphasic behavior, showing a fast initial response followed by a slow relaxation to the steady-state switching rate S0. The measured S(t can be mimicked by a model that has been recently proposed for chemotaxis in E. coli. The similarity in the response to the brief chemical stimulation in these two different bacteria is striking, suggesting that the biphasic response may be evolutionarily conserved. This study also demonstrated that optical tweezers can be a useful tool for chemotaxis studies and should be applicable to other polarly flagellated bacteria.

  10. The role of muscarinic receptors in the beneficial effects of adenosine against myocardial reperfusion injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Sun

    Full Text Available Adenosine, a catabolite of ATP, displays a wide variety of effects in the heart including regulation of cardiac response to myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. Nonetheless, the precise mechanism of adenosine-induced cardioprotection is still elusive. Isolated Sprague-Dawley rat hearts underwent 30 min global ischemia and 120 min reperfusion using a Langendorff apparatus. Both adenosine and acetylcholine treatment recovered the post-reperfusion cardiac function associated with adenosine and muscarinic receptors activation. Simultaneous administration of adenosine and acetylcholine failed to exert any additive protective effect, suggesting a shared mechanism between the two. Our data further revealed a cross-talk between the adenosine and acetylcholine receptor signaling in reperfused rat hearts. Interestingly, the selective M(2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist methoctramine significantly attenuated the cardioprotective effect of adenosine. In addition, treatment with adenosine upregulated the expression and the maximal binding capacity of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, which were inhibited by the selective A(1 adenosine receptor antagonist 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME. These data suggested a possible functional coupling between the adenosine and muscarinic receptors behind the observed cardioprotection. Furthermore, nitric oxide was found involved in triggering the response to each of the two receptor agonist. In summary, there may be a cross-talk between the adenosine and muscarinic receptors in ischemic/reperfused myocardium with nitric oxide synthase might serve as the distal converging point. In addition, adenosine contributes to the invigorating effect of adenosine on muscarinic receptor thereby prompting to regulation of cardiac function. These findings argue for a potentially novel mechanism behind the adenosine

  11. Intracellular adenosine formation and release by freshly-isolated vascular endothelial cells from rat skeletal muscle: effects of hypoxia and/or acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, G Y; Essackjee, H C; Ballard, H J

    2014-07-18

    Previous studies suggested indirectly that vascular endothelial cells (VECs) might be able to release intracellularly-formed adenosine. We isolated VECs from the rat soleus muscle using collagenase digestion and magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). The VEC preparation had >90% purity based on cell morphology, fluorescence immunostaining, and RT-PCR of endothelial markers. The kinetic properties of endothelial cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase suggested it was the AMP-preferring N-I isoform: its catalytic activity was 4 times higher than ecto-5'nucleotidase. Adenosine kinase had 50 times greater catalytic activity than adenosine deaminase, suggesting that adenosine removal in VECs is mainly through incorporation into adenine nucleotides. The maximal activities of cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine kinase were similar. Adenosine and ATP accumulated in the medium surrounding VECs in primary culture. Hypoxia doubled the adenosine, but ATP was unchanged; AOPCP did not alter medium adenosine, suggesting that hypoxic VECs had released intracellularly-formed adenosine. Acidosis increased medium ATP, but extracellular conversion of ATP to AMP was inhibited, and adenosine remained unchanged. Acidosis in the buffer-perfused rat gracilis muscle elevated AMP and adenosine in the venous effluent, but AOPCP abolished the increase in adenosine, suggesting that adenosine is formed extracellularly by non-endothelial tissues during acidosis in vivo. Hypoxia plus acidosis increased medium ATP by a similar amount to acidosis alone and adenosine 6-fold; AOPCP returned the medium adenosine to the level seen with hypoxia alone. These data suggest that VECs release intracellularly formed adenosine in hypoxia, ATP during acidosis, and both under simulated ischaemic conditions, with further extracellular conversion of ATP to adenosine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of spontaneous, transient adenosine release in the caudate-putamen and prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Michael D; Lee, Scott T; Ross, Ashley E; Ryals, Matthew; Choudhry, Vishesh I; Venton, B Jill

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is a neuroprotective agent that inhibits neuronal activity and modulates neurotransmission. Previous research has shown adenosine gradually accumulates during pathologies such as stroke and regulates neurotransmission on the minute-to-hour time scale. Our lab developed a method using carbon-fiber microelectrodes to directly measure adenosine changes on a sub-second time scale with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). Recently, adenosine release lasting a couple of seconds has been found in murine spinal cord slices. In this study, we characterized spontaneous, transient adenosine release in vivo, in the caudate-putamen and prefrontal cortex of anesthetized rats. The average concentration of adenosine release was 0.17±0.01 µM in the caudate and 0.19±0.01 µM in the prefrontal cortex, although the range was large, from 0.04 to 3.2 µM. The average duration of spontaneous adenosine release was 2.9±0.1 seconds and 2.8±0.1 seconds in the caudate and prefrontal cortex, respectively. The concentration and number of transients detected do not change over a four hour period, suggesting spontaneous events are not caused by electrode implantation. The frequency of adenosine transients was higher in the prefrontal cortex than the caudate-putamen and was modulated by A1 receptors. The A1 antagonist DPCPX (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, 6 mg/kg i.p.) increased the frequency of spontaneous adenosine release, while the A1 agonist CPA (N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine, 1 mg/kg i.p.) decreased the frequency. These findings are a paradigm shift for understanding the time course of adenosine signaling, demonstrating that there is a rapid mode of adenosine signaling that could cause transient, local neuromodulation.

  13. A coupled chemotaxis-fluid model: Global existence

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jian-Guo

    2011-09-01

    We consider a model arising from biology, consisting of chemotaxis equations coupled to viscous incompressible fluid equations through transport and external forcing. Global existence of solutions to the Cauchy problem is investigated under certain conditions. Precisely, for the chemotaxis-Navier- Stokes system in two space dimensions, we obtain global existence for large data. In three space dimensions, we prove global existence of weak solutions for the chemotaxis-Stokes system with nonlinear diffusion for the cell density.© 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. A Sensitive Chemotaxis Assay Using a Novel Microfluidic Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing chemotaxis assays do not generate stable chemotactic gradients and thus—over time—functionally measure only nonspecific random motion (chemokinesis. In comparison, microfluidic technology has the capacity to generate a tightly controlled microenvironment that can be stably maintained for extended periods of time and is, therefore, amenable to adaptation for assaying chemotaxis. We describe here a novel microfluidic device for sensitive assay of cellular migration and show its application for evaluating the chemotaxis of smooth muscle cells in a chemokine gradient.

  15. Chemotaxis to Excitable Waves in Dictyostelium Discoideum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Arpan; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Levine, Herbert

    In recent years, there have been significant advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chemically directed motility by eukaryotic cells such as Dictyostelium. In particular, the LEGI model has proven capable of providing a framework for quantitatively explaining many experiments that present Dictyostelium cells with tailored chemical stimuli and monitor their subsequent polarization. Here, we couple the LEGI approach to an excitable medium model of the cAMP wave-field that is self-generated by the cells and investigate the extent to which this class of models enables accurate chemotaxis to the cAMP waveforms expected in vivo. Our results indicate that the ultra-sensitive version of the model does an excellent job in providing natural wave rectification, thereby providing a compelling solution to the ``back-of-the-wave paradox'' during cellular aggregation. This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grant P01 GM078586.

  16. Severe hemorrhage attenuates cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of regional sympathetic outputs via NTS adenosine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minic, Zeljka; Li, Cailian; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2014-09-15

    Selective stimulation of inhibitory A1 and facilitatory A2a adenosine receptor subtypes located in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) powerfully inhibits cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) control of regional sympathetic outputs via different mechanisms: direct inhibition of glutamate release and facilitation of an inhibitory neurotransmitter release, respectively. However, it remains unknown whether adenosine naturally released into the NTS has similar inhibitory effects on the CCR as the exogenous agonists do. Our previous study showed that adenosine is released into the NTS during severe hemorrhage and contributes to reciprocal changes of renal (decreases) and adrenal (increases) sympathetic nerve activity observed in this setting. Both A1 and A2a adenosine receptors are involved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that, during severe hemorrhage, CCR control of the two sympathetic outputs is attenuated by adenosine naturally released into the NTS. We compared renal and adrenal sympathoinhibitory responses evoked by right atrial injections of 5HT3 receptor agonist phenylbiguanide (2-8 μg/kg) under control conditions, during hemorrhage, and during hemorrhage preceded by blockade of NTS adenosine receptors with bilateral microinjections of 8-(p-sulfophenyl) theophylline (1 nmol/100 nl) in urethane/chloralose anesthetized rats. CCR-mediated inhibition of renal and adrenal sympathetic activity was significantly attenuated during severe hemorrhage despite reciprocal changes in the baseline activity levels, and this attenuation was removed by bilateral blockade of adenosine receptors in the caudal NTS. This confirmed that adenosine endogenously released into the NTS has a similar modulatory effect on integration of cardiovascular reflexes as stimulation of NTS adenosine receptors with exogenous agonists.

  17. Dispatch. Dictyostelium chemotaxis: fascism through the back door?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insall, Robert

    2003-04-29

    Aggregating Dictyostelium cells secrete cyclic AMP to attract their neighbours by chemotaxis. It has now been shown that adenylyl cyclase is enriched in the rear of cells, and this localisation is required for normal aggregation.

  18. Three-dimensional chemotaxis model for a crawling neutrophil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jihwan; Kim, Dongchoul

    2010-11-01

    Chemotactic cell migration is a fundamental phenomenon in complex biological processes. A rigorous understanding of the chemotactic mechanism of crawling cells has important implications for various medical and biological applications. In this paper, we propose a three-dimensional model of a single crawling cell to study its chemotaxis. A single-cell study of chemotaxis has an advantage over studies of a population of cells in that it provides a clearer observation of cell migration, which leads to more accurate assessments of chemotaxis. The model incorporates the surface energy of the cell and the interfacial interaction between the cell and substrate. The semi-implicit Fourier spectral method is applied to achieve high efficiency and numerical stability. The simulation results provide the kinetic and morphological traits of a crawling cell during chemotaxis.

  19. HYPERBOLIC-PARABOLIC CHEMOTAXIS SYSTEM WITH NONLINEAR PRODUCT TERMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hua; Wu Shaohua

    2008-01-01

    We prove the local existence and uniqueness of week solution of the hyperbolic-parabolic Chemotaxis system with some nonlinear product terms. For one dimensional case, we prove also the global existence and uniqueness of the solution for the problem.

  20. Role of nitric oxide and adenosine in the onset of vasodilation during dynamic forearm exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Darren P; Mohamed, Essa A; Joyner, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) and adenosine contribute to the onset of vasodilation during dynamic forearm exercise. Twenty-two subjects performed rhythmic forearm exercise (20 % of maximum) during control and NO synthase (NOS) inhibition (N (G)-monomethyl-L-arginine; L-NMMA) trials. A subset of subjects performed a third trial of forearm exercise during combined inhibition of NOS and adenosine (aminophylline; n = 9). Additionally, a separate group of subjects (n = 7) performed rhythmic forearm exercise during control, inhibition of adenosine alone and combined inhibition of adenosine and NOS. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC; ml min(-1) · 100 mmHg(-1)) was calculated from blood flow and mean arterial pressure (mmHg). The onset of vasodilation was assessed by calculating the slope of the FVC response for every duty cycle between baseline and steady state, and the number of duty cycles (1-s contraction/2-s relaxation) to reach steady state. NOS inhibition blunted vasodilation at the onset of exercise (11.1 ± 0.8 vs. 8.5 ± 0.6 FVC units/duty cycle; P Vasodilation was blunted further with combined inhibition of NOS and adenosine (7.5 ± 0.6 vs. 6.2 ± 0.8 FVC units/duty cycle; P vasodilation during dynamic forearm exercise.

  1. PP2A/B56 and GSK3/Ras suppress PKB activity during Dictyostelium chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Pino, Marbelys; Castillo, Boris; Kim, Bohye; Kim, Lou W

    2015-12-01

    We have previously shown that the Dictyostelium protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B56, encoded by psrA, modulates Dictyostelium cell differentiation through negatively affecting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) function. Our follow-up research uncovered that B56 preferentially associated with GDP forms of RasC and RasD, but not with RasG in vitro, and psrA(-) cells displayed inefficient activation of multiple Ras species, decreased random motility, and inefficient chemotaxis toward cAMP and folic acid gradient. Surprisingly, psrA(-) cells displayed aberrantly high basal and poststimulus phosphorylation of Dictyostelium protein kinase B (PKB) kinase family member PKBR1 and PKB substrates. Expression of constitutively active Ras mutants or inhibition of GSK3 in psrA(-) cells increased activities of both PKBR1 and PKBA, but only the PKBR1 activity was increased in wild-type cells under the equivalent conditions, indicating that either B56- or GSK3-mediated suppressive mechanism is sufficient to maintain low PKBA activity, but both mechanisms are necessary for suppressing PKBR1. Finally, cells lacking RasD or RasC displayed normal PKBR1 regulation under GSK3-inhibiting conditions, indicating that RasC or RasD proteins are essential for GSK3-mediated PKBR1 inhibition. In summary, B56 constitutes inhibitory circuits for PKBA and PKBR1 and thus heavily affects Dictyostelium chemotaxis.

  2. Isoform-specific regulation of the Na+-K+ pump by adenosine in guinea pig ventricular myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe ZHANG; Hui-cai GUO; Li-nan ZHANG; Yong-li WANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The present study investigated the effect of adenosine on Na+-K+ pumps in acutely isolated guinea pig (C, avia sp.) ven-tricular myocytes.Methods: The whole-cell, patch-damp technique was used to record the Na+-K+ pump current (Ip) in acutely isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes.Results: Adenosine inhibited the high DHO-affinity pump current (Ih) in a concentration-dependent manner, which was blocked by the selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX and the general protein kinase C (PKC) antagonists stau-rosporine, GF 109203X or the specific δ isoform antagonist rottlerin. In addition, the inhibitory action of adenosine was mimicked by a selective A1 receptor agonist CCPA and a specific activator peptide of PKC-δ, PP114. In contrast, the selec-tive A2A receptor agonist CGS21680 and A3 receptor agonist Cl-IB-MECA did not affect lb. Application of the selective A2A receptor antagonist SCH58261 and A3 receptor antagonist MRS1191 also failed to block the effect of adenosine. Further-more, H89, a selective protein kinase A (PKA) antagonist, did not exert any effect on adenosine-induced Ih inhibition.Conclusion: The present study provides the electrophysiological evidence that adenosine can induce significant inhibition of Ih via adenosine A1 receptors and the PKC-δ isoform.

  3. Involvement of adenosine A2a receptor in intraocular pressure decrease induced by 2-(1-octyn-1-yl)adenosine or 2-(6-cyano-1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Takashi; Murakami, Akira; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to clarify the mechanism for the decrease in intraocular pressure by 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives in rabbits. The receptor binding analysis revealed that 2-(1-octyn-1-yl)adenosine (2-O-Ado) and 2-(6-cyano-1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine (2-CN-Ado) selectively bound to the A(2a) receptor with a high affinity. Ocular hypotensive responses to 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado were inhibited by the adenosine A(2a)-receptor antagonist 1,3,7-trimethyl-8-(3-chlorostyryl)xanthine (CSC), but not by the adenosine A(1)-receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) or the adenosine A(2b)-receptor antagonist alloxazine. In addition, 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado caused an increase in outflow facility, which was inhibited by CSC, but not by DPCPX or alloxazine. Moreover, 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado increased cAMP in the aqueous humor, and the 2-O-Ado-induced an increase in cAMP was inhibited by CSC. These results suggest that 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado reduced intraocular pressure via an increase in outflow facility. The ocular hypotension may be mainly mediated through the activation of adenosine A(2a) receptor, although a possible involvement of adenosine A(1) receptor cannot be completely ruled out. 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado are useful lead compounds for the treatment of glaucoma.

  4. Smoke Extract Impairs Adenosine Wound Healing. Implications of Smoke-Generated Reactive Oxygen Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Matthew C.; Zhang, Hui; Castellanos, Glenda; O’Malley, Jennifer K.; Alvarez-Ramirez, Horacio; Kharbanda, Kusum; Sisson, Joseph H.; Wyatt, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine concentrations are elevated in the lungs of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, where it balances between tissue repair and excessive airway remodeling. We previously demonstrated that the activation of the adenosine A2A receptor promotes epithelial wound closure. However, the mechanism by which adenosine-mediated wound healing occurs after cigarette smoke exposure has not been investigated. The present study investigates whether cigarette smoke exposure alters adenosine-mediated reparative properties via its ability to induce a shift in the oxidant/antioxidant balance. Using an in vitro wounding model, bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to 5% cigarette smoke extract, were wounded, and were then stimulated with either 10 μM adenosine or the specific A2A receptor agonist, 5′-(N-cyclopropyl)–carboxamido–adenosine (CPCA; 10 μM), and assessed for wound closure. In a subset of experiments, bronchial epithelial cells were infected with adenovirus vectors encoding human superoxide dismutase and/or catalase or control vector. In the presence of 5% smoke extract, significant delay was evident in both adenosine-mediated and CPCA-mediated wound closure. However, cells pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a nonspecific antioxidant, reversed smoke extract–mediated inhibition. We found that cells overexpressing mitochondrial catalase repealed the smoke extract inhibition of CPCA-stimulated wound closure, whereas superoxide dismutase overexpression exerted no effect. Kinase experiments revealed that smoke extract significantly reduced the A2A-mediated activation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate–dependent protein kinase. However, pretreatment with NAC reversed this effect. In conclusion, our data suggest that cigarette smoke exposure impairs A2A-stimulated wound repair via a reactive oxygen species–dependent mechanism, thereby providing a better understanding of adenosine signaling that may direct the development of

  5. Regulation of adenosine levels during cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephanie CHU; Wei XIONG; Dali ZHANG; Hanifi SOYLU; Chao SUN; Benedict C ALBENSI; Fiona E PARKINSON

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine is a neuromodulator with its level increasing up to 100-fold during ischemic events,and attenuates the excitotoxic neuronal injury.Adenosine is produced both intracellularly and extracellularly,and nucleoside transport proteins transfer adenosine across plasma membranes.Adenosine levels and receptor-mediated effects of adenosine are regulated by intracellular ATP consumption,cellular release of ATP,metabolism of extracellular ATP (and other adenine nucleotides),adenosine influx,adenosine efflux and adenosine metabolism.Recent studies have used genetically modified mice to investigate the relative contributions of intra-and extracellular pathways for adenosine formation.The importance of cortical or hippocampal neurons as a source or a sink of adenosine under basal and hypoxic/ischemic conditions was addressed through the use of transgenic mice expressing human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) under the control of a promoter for neuron-specific enolase.From these studies,we conclude that ATP consumption within neurons is the primary source of adenosine in neuronal cultures,but not in hippocampal slices or in vivo mice exposed to ischemic conditions.

  6. ErbB2-dependent chemotaxis requires microtubule capture and stabilization coordinated by distinct signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedidja Benseddik

    Full Text Available Activation of the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase stimulates breast cancer cell migration. Cell migration is a complex process that requires the synchronized reorganization of numerous subcellular structures including cell-to-matrix adhesions, the actin cytoskeleton and microtubules. How the multiple signaling pathways triggered by ErbB2 coordinate, in time and space, the various processes involved in cell motility, is poorly defined. We investigated the mechanism whereby ErbB2 controls microtubules and chemotaxis. We report that activation of ErbB2 increased both cell velocity and directed migration. Impairment of the Cdc42 and RhoA GTPases, but not of Rac1, prevented the chemotactic response. RhoA is a key component of the Memo/ACF7 pathway whereby ErbB2 controls microtubule capture at the leading edge. Upon Memo or ACF7 depletion, microtubules failed to reach the leading edge and cells lost their ability to follow the chemotactic gradient. Constitutive ACF7 targeting to the membrane in Memo-depleted cells reestablished directed migration. ErbB2-mediated activation of phospholipase C gamma (PLCγ also contributed to cell guidance. We further showed that PLCγ signaling, via classical protein kinases C, and Memo signaling converged towards a single pathway controlling the microtubule capture complex. Finally, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway did not affect microtubule capture, but disturbed microtubule stability, which also resulted in defective chemotaxis. PI3K/Akt-dependent stabilization of microtubules involved repression of GSK3 activity on the one hand and inhibition of the microtubule destabilizing protein, Stathmin, on the other hand. Thus, ErbB2 triggers distinct and complementary pathways that tightly coordinate microtubule capture and microtubule stability to control chemotaxis.

  7. Fluidic control over cell proliferation and chemotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Alex

    2006-03-01

    Microscopic flows are almost always stable and laminar that allows precise control of chemical environment in micro-channels. We describe design and operation of several microfluidic devices, in which various types of environments are created for different experimental assays with live cells. In a microfluidic chemostat, colonies of non-adherent bacterial and yeast cells are trapped in micro-chambers with walls permeable for chemicals. Fast chemical exchange between the chambers and nearby flow-through channels creates essentially chemostatic medium conditions in the chambers and leads to exponential growth of the colonies up to very high cell densities. Another microfluidic device allows creation of linear concentration profiles of a pheromone (α-factor) across channels with non-adherent yeast cells, without exposure of the cells to flow or other mechanical perturbation. The concentration profile remains stable for hours enabling studies of chemotropic response of the cells to the pheromone gradient. A third type of the microfluidic devices is used to study chemotaxis of human neutrophils exposed to gradients of a chemoattractant (fMLP). The devices generate concentration profiles of various shapes, with adjustable steepness and mean concentration. The ``gradient'' of the chemoattractant can be imposed and reversed within less than a second, allowing repeated quantitative experiments.

  8. Protein Connectivity in Chemotaxis Receptor Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Eismann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemotaxis sensory system allows bacteria such as Escherichia coli to swim towards nutrients and away from repellents. The underlying pathway is remarkably sensitive in detecting chemical gradients over a wide range of ambient concentrations. Interactions among receptors, which are predominantly clustered at the cell poles, are crucial to this sensitivity. Although it has been suggested that the kinase CheA and the adapter protein CheW are integral for receptor connectivity, the exact coupling mechanism remains unclear. Here, we present a statistical-mechanics approach to model the receptor linkage mechanism itself, building on nanodisc and electron cryotomography experiments. Specifically, we investigate how the sensing behavior of mixed receptor clusters is affected by variations in the expression levels of CheA and CheW at a constant receptor density in the membrane. Our model compares favorably with dose-response curves from in vivo Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET measurements, demonstrating that the receptor-methylation level has only minor effects on receptor cooperativity. Importantly, our model provides an explanation for the non-intuitive conclusion that the receptor cooperativity decreases with increasing levels of CheA, a core signaling protein associated with the receptors, whereas the receptor cooperativity increases with increasing levels of CheW, a key adapter protein. Finally, we propose an evolutionary advantage as explanation for the recently suggested CheW-only linker structures.

  9. Chemotaxis by natural populations of coral reef bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tout, Jessica; Jeffries, Thomas C; Petrou, Katherina; Tyson, Gene W; Webster, Nicole S; Garren, Melissa; Stocker, Roman; Ralph, Peter J; Seymour, Justin R

    2015-08-01

    Corals experience intimate associations with distinct populations of marine microorganisms, but the microbial behaviours underpinning these relationships are poorly understood. There is evidence that chemotaxis is pivotal to the infection process of corals by pathogenic bacteria, but this evidence is limited to experiments using cultured isolates under laboratory conditions. We measured the chemotactic capabilities of natural populations of coral-associated bacteria towards chemicals released by corals and their symbionts, including amino acids, carbohydrates, ammonium and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). Laboratory experiments, using a modified capillary assay, and in situ measurements, using a novel microfabricated in situ chemotaxis assay, were employed to quantify the chemotactic responses of natural microbial assemblages on the Great Barrier Reef. Both approaches showed that bacteria associated with the surface of the coral species Pocillopora damicornis and Acropora aspera exhibited significant levels of chemotaxis, particularly towards DMSP and amino acids, and that these levels of chemotaxis were significantly higher than that of bacteria inhabiting nearby, non-coral-associated waters. This pattern was supported by a significantly higher abundance of chemotaxis and motility genes in metagenomes within coral-associated water types. The phylogenetic composition of the coral-associated chemotactic microorganisms, determined using 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing, differed from the community in the seawater surrounding the coral and comprised known coral associates, including potentially pathogenic Vibrio species. These findings indicate that motility and chemotaxis are prevalent phenotypes among coral-associated bacteria, and we propose that chemotaxis has an important role in the establishment and maintenance of specific coral-microbe associations, which may ultimately influence the health and stability of the coral holobiont.

  10. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine stimulates human monocyte-derived dendritic cell chemotaxis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ha-young LEE; Eun-ha SHIN; Yoe-sik BAE

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) on human monocyte-derived dendritic cell (DC) chemotaxis. Methods: Human DC were generated from peripheral blood monocytes by culturing them with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor and interleukin-4. The effect of SPC on the DC chemotactic migration was measured by chemotaxis assay. Intracellular signaling event involved in the SPC-induced DC chemotaxis was investigated with several inhibitors for specific kinase. The expression of the SPC receptors was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: We found that SPC induced chemotactic migration in immature DC (iDC) and mature DC (mDC). In terms of SPC-induced signaling events, mitogen activated protein kinase activation and Akt activation in iDC and mDC were stimulated. SPC-induced chemotaxis was mediated by extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and phosphoino-sitide-3-kinase, but not by calcium in both iDC and mDC. Although mDC express ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1, but not G protein-coupled receptor 4, iDC do not express any of these receptors. To examine the involvement of sphin-gosine-1-phosphate (SIP) receptors, we checked the effect of an SIP receptor antagonist (VPC23019) on SPC-induced DC chemotaxis. VPC23019 did not affect SPC-induced DC chemotaxis. Conclusion: The results suggest that SPC may play a role in regulating DC trafficking during phagocytosis and the T cell-stimulating phase, and the unique SPC receptor, which is different from SIP receptors, is involved in SPC-induced chemotaxis.

  11. Growth inhibition of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro by STO-609 is independent of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiming; Wen, Dacheng; Wang, Xudong; Yang, Longfei; Liu, Tianzhou; Liu, Jingjing; Zhu, Jiaming; Fang, Xuedong

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase is a recently identified downstream target of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta, and is involved in the regulation of cell metabolism and cell proliferation. STO-609 is a selective antagonist of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta. In the present study, we found that STO-609 suppressed AMP-activated protein kinase activity, reduced expression of Akt and ERK, and increased cell apoptosis in SNU-1 and N87 cells but not normal gastric epithelial cells (CCL-241). Interestingly, we found such effects of STO-609 on gastric cancer cells were not affected after the knock-down of CaMKK-β and AMPK. In conclusion, STO-609 is an effective cytotoxic agent for gastric adenocarcinoma in vivo.

  12. Novel aspects of extracellular adenosine dynamics revealed by adenosine sensor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiko Yamashiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine modulates diverse physiological and pathological processes in the brain, including neuronal activities, blood flow, and inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of extracellular adenosine are not fully understood. We have recently developed a novel biosensor, called an adenosine sensor cell, and we have characterized the neuronal and astrocytic pathways for elevating extracellular adenosine. In this review, the physiological implications and therapeutic potential of the pathways revealed by the adenosine sensor cells are discussed. We propose that the multiple pathways regulating extracellular adenosine allow for the diverse functions of this neuromodulator, and their malfunctions cause various neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  13. The A2B adenosine receptor impairs the maturation and immunogenicity of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeffrey M; Ross, William G; Agbai, Oma N; Frazier, Renea; Figler, Robert A; Rieger, Jayson; Linden, Joel; Ernst, Peter B

    2009-04-15

    The endogenous purine nucleoside adenosine is an important antiinflammatory mediator that contributes to the control of CD4(+) T cell responses. While adenosine clearly has direct effects on CD4(+) T cells, it remains to be determined whether actions on APC such as dendritic cells (DC) are also important. In this report we characterize DC maturation and function in BMDC stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of the nonselective adenosine receptor agonist NECA (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine). We found that NECA inhibited TNF-alpha and IL-12 in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas IL-10 production was increased. NECA-treated BMDC also expressed reduced levels of MHC class II and CD86 and were less effective at stimulating CD4(+) T cell proliferation and IL-2 production compared with BMDC exposed to vehicle control. Based on real-time RT-PCR, the A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A)AR) and A(2B)AR were the predominant adenosine receptors expressed in BMDC. Using adenosine receptor subtype selective antagonists and BMDC derived from A(2A)AR(-/-) and A(2B)AR(-/-)mice, it was shown that NECA modulates TNF-alpha, IL-12, IL-10, and CD86 responses predominantly via A(2B)AR. These data indicate that engagement of A(2B)AR modifies murine BMDC maturation and suggest that adenosine regulates CD4(+) T cell responses by selecting for DC with impaired immunogencity.

  14. In vivo adenosine A(2B) receptor desensitization in guinea-pig airway smooth muscle: implications for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breschi, Maria Cristina; Blandizzi, Corrado; Fogli, Stefano; Martinelli, Cinzia; Adinolfi, Barbara; Calderone, Vincenzo; Camici, Marcella; Martinotti, Enrica; Nieri, Paola

    2007-12-01

    This study was aimed at characterizing the role of adenosine receptor subtypes in the contractility modulation of guinea-pig airway smooth muscle in normal and pathological settings. In vitro and in vivo experiments were performed by testing selective agonists and antagonists on isolated tracheal smooth muscle preparations and pulmonary inflation pressure, respectively, under normal conditions or following ovalbumin-induced allergic sensitization. In normal and sensitized animals, the adenosine A(2A)/A(2B) receptor agonist, NECA, evoked relaxing responses of isolated tracheal preparations precontracted with histamine, and such an effect was reversed by the adenosine A(2B) antagonist, MRS 1706, in the presence or in the absence of epithelium. The expression of mRNA coding for adenosine A(2B) receptors was demonstrated in tracheal specimens. In vitro desensitization with 100 microM NECA markedly reduced the relaxing effect of the agonist. In vivo NECA or adenosine administration to normal animals inhibited histamine-mediated bronchoconstriction, while these inhibitory effects no longer occurred in sensitized guinea-pigs. Adenosine plasma levels were significantly higher in sensitized than normal animals. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that: (i) adenosine A(2B) receptors are responsible for the relaxing effects of adenosine on guinea-pig airways; (ii) these receptors can undergo rapid adaptive changes that may affect airway smooth muscle responsiveness to adenosine; (iii) ovalbumin-induced sensitization promotes a reversible inactivation of adenosine A(2B) receptors which can be ascribed to homologous desensitization. These findings can be relevant to better understand adenosine functions in airways as well as mechanisms of action of asthma therapies targeting the adenosine system.

  15. 2-(1-Hexyn-1-yl)adenosine-induced intraocular hypertension is mediated via K+ channel opening through adenosine A2A receptor in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Takashi; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2005-08-22

    The present study was performed to clarify the mechanism of change in intraocular pressure by 2-(1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine (2-H-Ado), a selective adenosine A2 receptor agonist, in rabbits. 2-H-Ado (0.1%, 50 microl)-induced ocular hypertension (E(max): 7.7 mm Hg) was inhibited by an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 1,3,7-trimethyl-8-(3-chlorostyryl)xanthine, ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker glibenclamide or 5-hydroxydecanoic acid, but not by an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, an adenosine A2B receptor antagonist alloxazine or a cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The outflow facility induced by 2-H-Ado seems to be independent of increase in intraocular pressure or ATP-sensitive K+ channel. In contrast, the recovery rate in intraocular pressure decreased by hypertonic saline was accelerated by 2-H-Ado, and this response was dependent on ATP-sensitive K+ channel. These results suggest that 2-H-Ado-induced ocular hypertension is mediated via K+ channel opening through adenosine A2A receptor, and this is probably due to aqueous formation, but independent of change in outflow facility or prostaglandin production.

  16. Slit2 regulates attractive eosinophil and repulsive neutrophil chemotaxis through differential srGAP1 expression during lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bu-Qing; Geng, Zhen H; Ma, Li; Geng, Jian-Guo

    2010-11-15

    Directional migration of leukocytes is an essential step in leukocyte trafficking during inflammatory responses. However, the molecular mechanisms governing directional chemotaxis of leukocytes remain poorly understood. The Slit family of guidance cues has been implicated for inhibition of leuocyte migration. We report that Clara cells in the bronchial epithelium secreted Slit2, whereas eosinophils and neutrophils expressed its cell-surface receptor, Robo1. Compared to neutrophils, eosinophils exhibited a significantly lower level of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 1 (srGAP1), leading to activation of Cdc42, recruitment of PI3K to Robo1, enhancment of eotaxin-induced eosinophil chemotaxis, and exaggeration of allergic airway inflammation. Notably, OVA sensitization elicited a Slit2 gradient at so-called bronchus-alveoli axis, with a higher level of Slit2 in the bronchial epithelium and a lower level in the alveolar tissue. Aerosol administration of rSlit2 accelerated eosinophil infiltration, whereas i.v. administered Slit2 reduced eosinophil deposition. In contrast, Slit2 inactivated Cdc42 and suppressed stromal cell-derived factor-1α-induced chemotaxis of neutrophils for inhibiting endotoxin-induced lung inflammation, which were reversed by blockade of srGAP1 binding to Robo1. These results indicate that the newly identified Slit2 gradient at the bronchus-alveoli axis induces attractive PI3K signaling in eosinophils and repulsive srGAP1 signaling in neutrophils through differential srGAP1 expression during lung inflammation.

  17. Ribosome-inactivating lectins with polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battelli, M G; Barbieri, L; Bolognesi, A; Buonamici, L; Valbonesi, P; Polito, L; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Stirpe, F

    1997-05-26

    Lectins from Aegopodium podagraria (APA), Bryonia dioica (BDA), Galanthus nivalis (GNA), Iris hybrid (IRA) and Sambucus nigra (SNAI), and a new lectin-related protein from Sambucus nigra (SNLRP) were studied to ascertain whether they had the properties of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIP). IRA and SNLRP inhibited protein synthesis by a cell-free system and, at much higher concentrations, by cells and had polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase activity, thus behaving like non-toxic type 2 (two chain) RIP. APA and SNAI had much less activity, and BDA and GNA did not inhibit protein synthesis.

  18. Magneto-chemotaxis in sediment: first insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuegang Mao

    Full Text Available Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB use passive alignment with the Earth magnetic field as a mean to increase their navigation efficiency in horizontally stratified environments through what is known as magneto-aerotaxis (M-A. Current M-A models have been derived from MTB observations in aqueous environments, where a >80% alignment with inclined magnetic field lines produces a one-dimensional search for optimal living conditions. However, the mean magnetic alignment of MTB in their most widespread living environment, i.e. sediment, has been recently found to be <1%, greatly reducing or even eliminating the magnetotactic advantage deduced for the case of MTB in water. In order to understand the role of magnetotaxis for MTB populations living in sediment, we performed first M-A observations with lake sediment microcosms. Microcosm experiments were based on different combinations of (1 MTB position with respect to their preferred living depth (i.e. above, at, and below, and (2 magnetic field configurations (i.e. correctly and incorrectly polarized vertical fields, horizontal fields, and zero fields. Results suggest that polar magnetotaxis is more complex than implied by previous experiments, and revealed unexpected differences between two types of MTB living in the same sediment. Our main findings are: (1 all investigated MTB benefit of a clear magnetotactic advantage when they need to migrate over macroscopic distances for reaching their optimal living depth, (2 magnetotaxis is not used by all MTB under stationary, undisturbed conditions, (3 some MTB can rely only on chemotaxis for macroscopic vertical displacements in sediment while other cannot, and (4 some MTB use a fixed polar M-A mechanisms, while other can switch their M-A polarity, performing what can be considered as a mixed polar-axial M-A. These observations demonstrate that sedimentary M-A is controlled by complex mechanical, chemical, and temporal factors that are poorly reproduced in aqueous

  19. The sensory transduction pathways in bacterial chemotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Barry L.

    1989-01-01

    Bacterial chemotaxis is a useful model for investigating in molecular detail the behavioral response of cells to changes in their environment. Peritrichously flagellated bacteria such as coli and typhimurium swim by rotating helical flagella in a counterclockwise direction. If flagellar rotation is briefly reversed, the bacteria tumble and change the direction of swimming. The bacteria continuously sample the environment and use a temporal sensing mechanism to compare the present and immediate past environments. Bacteria respond to a broad range of stimuli including changes in temperature, oxygen concentration, pH and osmotic strength. Bacteria are attracted to potential sources of nutrition such as sugars and amino acids and are repelled by other chemicals. In the methylation-dependent pathways for sensory transduction and adaptation in E. coli and S. typhimurium, chemoeffectors bind to transducing proteins that span the plasma membrane. The transducing proteins are postulated to control the rate of autophosphorylation of the CheA protein, which in turn phosphorylates the CheY protein. The phospho-CheY protein binds to the switch on the flagellar motor and is the signal for clockwise rotation of the motor. Adaptation to an attractant is achieved by increasing methylation of the transducing protein until the attractant stimulus is cancelled. Responses to oxygen and certain sugars involve methylation-independent pathways in which adaption occurs without methylation of a transducing protein. Taxis toward oxygen is mediated by the electron transport system and changes in the proton motive force. Recent studies have shown that the methylation-independent pathway converges with the methylation-dependent pathway at or before the CheA protein.

  20. Striatal adenosine signaling regulates EAAT2 and astrocytic AQP4 expression and alcohol drinking in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonnoh R; Ruby, Christina L; Hinton, David J; Choi, Sun; Adams, Chelsea A; Young Kang, Na; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2013-02-01

    Adenosine signaling is implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including alcoholism. Among its diverse functions in the brain, adenosine regulates glutamate release and has an essential role in ethanol sensitivity and preference. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying adenosine-mediated glutamate signaling in neuroglial interaction remain elusive. We have previously shown that mice lacking the ethanol-sensitive adenosine transporter, type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1), drink more ethanol compared with wild-type mice and have elevated striatal glutamate levels. In addition, ENT1 inhibition or knockdown reduces glutamate transporter expression in cultured astrocytes. Here, we examined how adenosine signaling in astrocytes contributes to ethanol drinking. Inhibition or deletion of ENT1 reduced the expression of type 2 excitatory amino-acid transporter (EAAT2) and the astrocyte-specific water channel, aquaporin 4 (AQP4). EAAT2 and AQP4 colocalization was also reduced in the striatum of ENT1 null mice. Ceftriaxone, an antibiotic compound known to increase EAAT2 expression and function, elevated not only EAAT2 but also AQP4 expression in the striatum. Furthermore, ceftriaxone reduced ethanol drinking, suggesting that ENT1-mediated downregulation of EAAT2 and AQP4 expression contributes to excessive ethanol consumption in our mouse model. Overall, our findings indicate that adenosine signaling regulates EAAT2 and astrocytic AQP4 expressions, which control ethanol drinking in mice.

  1. Pathologic overproduction: the bad side of adenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borea, Pier Andrea; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Varani, Katia

    2017-03-02

    Adenosine is an endogenous ubiquitous purine nucleoside, increased by hypoxia, ischemia and tissue damage that mediates a number of physiopathological effects by interacting with four G-protein-coupled receptors, identified as A1 , A2A , A2B , and A3 . Physiological and acutely-increased adenosine is associated with beneficial effects mostly including vasodilation and decrease of inflammation. In contrast chronic overproduction of adenosine occurs in important pathological states, where long lasting increases in the nucleoside levels are responsible for the bad side of adenosine associated with chronic inflammation, fibrosis and organ damage. In this review we describe and critically discuss the pathologic overproduction of adenosine analysing when, where and how adenosine exerts its detrimental effects through the body.

  2. A portable chemotaxis platform for short and long term analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenjie Xu

    Full Text Available Flow-based microfluidic systems have been widely utilized for cell migration studies given their ability to generate versatile and precisely defined chemical gradients and to permit direct visualization of migrating cells. Nonetheless, the general need for bulky peripherals such as mechanical pumps and tubing and the complicated setup procedures significantly limit the widespread use of these microfluidic systems for cell migration studies. Here we present a simple method to power microfluidic devices for chemotaxis assays using the commercially available ALZET® osmotic pumps. Specifically, we developed a standalone chemotaxis platform that has the same footprint as a multiwell plate and can generate well-defined, stable chemical gradients continuously for up to 7 days. Using this platform, we validated the short-term (24 hours and long-term (72 hours concentration dependent PDGF-BB chemotaxis response of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.

  3. Rethinking the relationship between hyperactivation and chemotaxis in mammalian sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Haixin; Suarez, Susan S

    2010-10-01

    Hyperactivation, a motility pattern of mammalian sperm in the oviduct, is essential to fertilization. Hyperactivation helps sperm to swim effectively through oviductal mucus, to escape from the sperm reservoir, and to penetrate the cumulus matrix and zona pellucida of the oocyte. There is some evidence that mammalian sperm can undergo chemotaxis; however, the relationship of chemotaxis to hyperactivation is unknown. Ca(2+) signaling is involved in hyperactivation and implicated in chemotaxis as well. In vivo, sperm hyperactivate in the lower oviduct, far from the cumulus-oocyte complex and possibly beyond the influence of chemotactic gradients emanating from the oocyte or cumulus. Thus, sperm are likely to be hyperactivated before sensing chemotactic gradients. Chemotactic signals might modulate hyperactivation to direct sperm toward oocytes as they reach a region of influence. Ca(2+)-directed modulation of hyperactivation is a potential mechanism of this process.

  4. Sitagliptin attenuates sympathetic innervation via modulating reactive oxygen species and interstitial adenosine in infarcted rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung-Ming; Chen, Wei-Ting; Yang, Chen-Chia; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chang, Nen-Chung

    2015-02-01

    We investigated whether sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, attenuates arrhythmias through inhibiting nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in post-infarcted normoglycemic rats, focusing on adenosine and reactive oxygen species production. DPP-4 bound adenosine deaminase has been shown to catalyse extracellular adenosine to inosine. DPP-4 inhibitors increased adenosine levels by inhibiting the complex formation. Normoglycemic male Wistar rats were subjected to coronary ligation and then randomized to either saline or sitagliptin in in vivo and ex vivo studies. Post-infarction was associated with increased oxidative stress, as measured by myocardial superoxide, nitrotyrosine and dihydroethidium fluorescent staining. Measurement of myocardial norepinephrine levels revealed a significant elevation in vehicle-treated infarcted rats compared with sham. Compared with vehicle, infarcted rats treated with sitagliptin significantly increased interstitial adenosine levels and attenuated oxidative stress. Sympathetic hyperinnervation was blunted after administering sitagliptin, as assessed by immunofluorescent analysis and western blotting and real-time quantitative RT-PCR of NGF. Arrhythmic scores in the sitagliptin-treated infarcted rats were significantly lower than those in vehicle. Ex vivo studies showed a similar effect of erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (an adenosine deaminase inhibitor) to sitagliptin on attenuated levels of superoxide and NGF. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of sitagliptin on superoxide anion production and NGF levels can be reversed by 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropulxanthine (adenosine A1 receptor antagonist) and exogenous hypoxanthine. Sitagliptin protects ventricular arrhythmias by attenuating sympathetic innervation via adenosine A1 receptor and xanthine oxidase-dependent pathways, which converge through the attenuated formation of superoxide in the non-diabetic infarcted rats.

  5. Piracy on the molecular level: human herpesviruses manipulate cellular chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaby, Caleb; Tanner, Anne; Stutz, Eric W; Poole, Brian D; Berges, Bradford K

    2016-03-01

    Cellular chemotaxis is important to tissue homeostasis and proper development. Human herpesvirus species influence cellular chemotaxis by regulating cellular chemokines and chemokine receptors. Herpesviruses also express various viral chemokines and chemokine receptors during infection. These changes to chemokine concentrations and receptor availability assist in the pathogenesis of herpesviruses and contribute to a variety of diseases and malignancies. By interfering with the positioning of host cells during herpesvirus infection, viral spread is assisted, latency can be established and the immune system is prevented from eradicating viral infection.

  6. DMPD: Cellular signaling in macrophage migration and chemotaxis. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11073096 Cellular signaling in macrophage migration and chemotaxis. Jones GE. J Leu...koc Biol. 2000 Nov;68(5):593-602. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Cellular signaling in macrophage migration... and chemotaxis. PubmedID 11073096 Title Cellular signaling in macrophage migration and chemotaxis. Autho

  7. Adenosine, Energy Metabolism, and Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available While the exact function of sleep remains unknown, it is evident that sleep was developed early in phylogenesis and represents an ancient and vital strategy for survival. Several pieces of evidence suggest that the function of sleep is associated with energy metabolism, saving of energy, and replenishment of energy stores. Prolonged wakefulness induces signs of energy depletion in the brain, while experimentally induced, local energy depletion induces increase in sleep, similarly as would a period of prolonged wakefulness. The key molecule in the induction of sleep appears to be adenosine, which induces sleep locally in the basal forebrain.

  8. Separation of effects of adenosine on energy metabolism from those on cyclic AMP in rat thymic lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordeen, S.K.; Young, D.A.

    1977-08-10

    In rat thymic lymphocytes incubated for 2 h without exogenous energy-providing substrate, adenosine may be substituted for glucose as a means of maximally restoring energy metabolism and those cellular functions whose rates are sensitive to small changes in the energy balance, such as protein synthesis and uridine utilization for RNA synthesis. Since effects of adenosine in thymocytes and other cells have frequently been attributed to changes in cyclic AMP, this report investigates its possible involvement in these glucose-like restorative actions of adenosine. Although the same range of doses of adenosine effective at raising cyclic AMP also elicit roughly parallel stimulations of protein synthesis and uridine utilization, further results dissociate the restorative actions from those on cyclic AMP. (a) Other purine nucleosides mimic the glucose-like actions of adenosine without increasing cyclic AMP; (b) conversely, prostaglandin E/sub 1/ mimics the cyclic AMP response without restoring energy metabolism or energy-dependent functions; and (c) potentiation of the cyclic AMP response, either by inhibiting phosphodiesterase or adenosine deaminase, does not enhance the restorative response to a range of doses of adenosine. Finally, cyclic AMP-mediated glycogenolysis cannot account for the glucose-like effects since addition of adenosine increases, not decreases, levels of glycogen.

  9. [Involvement of cyclic adenosine monophosphate in the control of motile behavior of Physarum polycephalum plasmodium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, N B; Teplov, V A; Nezvetskiĭ, A R; Orlova, T G; Beĭlina, S I

    2012-01-01

    Possible involvement of autocrine factors into the control of motile behavior via a receptor-mediated mechanism was investigated in Physarum polycephalum plasmodium, a multinuclear amoeboid cell with the auto-oscillatory mode of motility. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and extracellular cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, its involvement into the control of plasmodium motile behavior was proved by action of its strong inhibitor, were regarded as putative autocrine factors. It was shown that the plasmodium secreted cAMP. When it was introduced into agar support, 0,1-1 mM cAMP induced a delay of the plasmodium spreading and its transition to migration. When locally applied, cAMP at the same concentrations induced typical for attractant action the increase in oscillation frequency and the decrease of ectoplasm elasticity. The ability to exhibit positive chemotaxis in cAMP gradient and the dependence of its realization were shown to depend on the plasmodium state. Chemotaxis test specimens obtained from the migrating plasmodium, unlike those obtained from growing culture, generate alternative fronts which compete effectively with fronts oriented towards the attractant increment. The results obtained support our supposition stated earlier that advance of the Physarum polycephalum plasmodium leading edge is determined by local extracellular cAMP gradients arising from a time delay between secretion and hydrolysis of the nucleotide.

  10. Approximate Inertial Manifolds for Chemotaxis-Growth System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong LUO; Zhilin PU

    2012-01-01

    The long-time behaviour of solution to chemotaxis-growth system with Neumann condition is considered in this paper.The approximate inertial manifolds of such equations are constructed based on the contraction principle,and the orders of approximations of the manifolds to the global attractor are derived.

  11. Four key signaling pathways mediating chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, Douwe M.; Keizer-Gunnink, Ineke; Van Haastert, Peter J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Chemotaxis is the ability of cells to move in the direction of an external gradient of signaling molecules. Cells are guided by actin-filled protrusions in the front, whereas myosin filaments retract the rear of the cell. Previous work demonstrated that chernotaxis of unpolarized amoeboid

  12. Chemotaxis : signalling modules join hands at front and tail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Devreotes, Peter N.

    2004-01-01

    Chemotaxis is the result of a refined interplay among various intracellular molecules that process spatial and temporal information. Here we present a modular scheme of the complex interactions between the front and the back of cells that allows them to navigate. First, at the front of the cell, act

  13. Synergy between IL-8 and GM-CSF in reproductive tract epithelial cell secretions promotes enhanced neutrophil chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Fahey, John V; Hussey, Stephen B; Asin, Susana N; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W

    2004-07-01

    Neutrophils occur in tissues of the female reproductive tract (FRT) under non-infected conditions. These cells generally enter tissues under the influence of chemoattractants called chemokines. Primary epithelial cells (EC) from FRT were a potent source of chemokines, IL-8 being the chief neutrophil chemoattractant secreted. Blocking with neutralizing anti-IL-8 showed that IL-8 did not account for all of the chemoattraction observed. A mixture of 25 ng/mL rIL-8 and 1 ng/mL rGM-CSF mediated 2.7-fold more chemotaxis than that expected if the two agents were additive. We then found that GM-CSF was produced by EC in amounts that synergised strongly with IL-8 to enhance chemotaxis. Treatment of uterine EC conditioned medium with saturating doses of anti-IL-8 plus anti-GM-CSF antibodies produced an 84% inhibition of chemotaxis. These findings demonstrate that the majority of neutrophil chemoattractant activity produced by FRT EC results from the synergistic effects of IL-8 and GM-CSF.

  14. Localization of Adenosine Triphosphatase Activity on the Chloroplast Envelope in Tendrils of Pisum sativum1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabnis, Dinkar D.; Gordon, Mildred; Galston, Arthur W.

    1970-01-01

    When samples of pea tendril tissue were incubated in the Wachstein-Meisel medium for the demonstration of adenosine triphosphatases, deposits of lead reaction product were localized between the membranes of the chloroplast envelope. The presence of Mg2+ was necessary for adenosine triphosphatase activity, and Ca2+ could not substitute for this requirement. Varying the pH of incubation to 5.5 or 9.4 inhibited enzyme activity, as did the addition of p-chloromercuribenzoic acid or N-ethylmaleimide. The adenosine triphosphatase was apparently inactivated or degraded when the plants were grown in the dark for 24 hours prior to incubation. The enzyme was substrate-specific for adenosine triphosphate; no reaction was obtained with adenosine diphosphate, uridine triphosphate, inosine triphosphate, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, and sodium β-glycerophosphate. Sites of nonspecific depositions of lead are described. The adenosine triphosphatase on the chloroplast envelope may be involved in the light-induced contraction of this organelle. Images PMID:4245003

  15. In vivo effects of adenosine 5´-triphosphate on rat preneoplastic liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. Frontini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of adenosine 5´-triphosphate (ATP infusions to inhibit the growth of some human and animals tumors was based on the anticancer activity observed in in vitro and in vivo experiments, but contradictory results make the use of ATP in clinical practice rather controversial. Moreover, there is no literature regarding the use of ATP infusions to treat hepatocarcinomas. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether ATP prevents in vivo oncogenesis in very-early-stage cancer cells in a well characterized two-stage model of hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat. As we could not preclude the possible effect due to the intrinsic properties of adenosine, a known tumorigenic product of ATP hydrolysis, the effect of the administration of adenosine was also studied. Animals were divided in groups: rats submitted to the two stage preneoplasia initiation/promotion model of hepatocarcinogenesis, rats treated with intraperitoneal ATP or adenosine during the two phases of the model and appropriate control groups. The number and volume of preneoplastic foci per liver identified by the expression of glutathione S-transferase placental type and the number of proliferating nuclear antigen positive cells significantly increased in ATP and adenosine treated groups. Taken together, these results indicate that in this preneoplastic liver model, ATP as well as adenosine disturb the balance between apoptosis and proliferation contributing to malignant transformation.

  16. Motility and chemotaxis mediate the preferential colonization of gastric injury sites by Helicobacter pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitaro Aihara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a pathogen contributing to peptic inflammation, ulceration, and cancer. A crucial step in the pathogenic sequence is when the bacterium first interacts with gastric tissue, an event that is poorly understood in vivo. We have shown that the luminal space adjacent to gastric epithelial damage is a microenvironment, and we hypothesized that this microenvironment might enhance H. pylori colonization. Inoculation with 106 H. pylori (wild-type Sydney Strain 1, SS1 significantly delayed healing of acetic-acid induced ulcers at Day 1, 7 and 30 post-inoculation, and wild-type SS1 preferentially colonized the ulcerated area compared to uninjured gastric tissue in the same animal at all time points. Gastric resident Lactobacillus spp. did not preferentially colonize ulcerated tissue. To determine whether bacterial motility and chemotaxis are important to ulcer healing and colonization, we analyzed isogenic H. pylori mutants defective in motility (ΔmotB or chemotaxis (ΔcheY. ΔmotB (10(6 failed to colonize ulcerated or healthy stomach tissue. ΔcheY (10(6 colonized both tissues, but without preferential colonization of ulcerated tissue. However, ΔcheY did modestly delay ulcer healing, suggesting that chemotaxis is not required for this process. We used two-photon microscopy to induce microscopic epithelial lesions in vivo, and evaluated accumulation of fluorescently labeled H. pylori at gastric damage sites in the time frame of minutes instead of days. By 5 min after inducing damage, H. pylori SS1 preferentially accumulated at the site of damage and inhibited gastric epithelial restitution. H. pylori ΔcheY modestly accumulated at the gastric surface and inhibited restitution, but did not preferentially accumulate at the injury site. H. pylori ΔmotB neither accumulated at the surface nor inhibited restitution. We conclude that bacterial chemosensing and motility rapidly promote H. pylori colonization of injury sites

  17. Inhibitory effects of cryptoporus polysaccharide on airway constriction, eosinophil release, and chemotaxis in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yan ZHAO; Qiang-min XIE; Ji-qiang CHEN; Chuan-kui KE

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study effects of cryptoporus polysaccharide (CP) on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) release in vivo, and on platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced eosinophil chemotaxis in vitro in guinea pig. METHODS: The asthma model of guinea pig was formed with ovalbumin (OVA). The changes of lung resistance (RL) and dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn), EPO level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and eosinophil migration were determined. RESULTS: Pretreatment of CP at doses of 3, 9, and 27 mg/kg by intragastric gavage (ig), qd for 10 d, inhibited early asthma response in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibitory rates of mean increase value from 1 to 30 min of RL were 34.8 %, 74.4 % (P<0.05), and 79.6 % (P<0.05), respectively. Inhibitory rate of mean reduction value of Cdyn were 22.9 %, 40.5 % (P<0.01), and 66.5 % (P<0.01), respectively.Pretreatment of CP at doses of 3, 9, and 27 mg/kg also inhibited late asthma response, and the reduction of EPO level in BALF were 3.1%, 16.9 % (P<0.01), and 20.1% (P<0.01), respectively. The inhibitory rates of CP at concentrations of 0.13, 1.3, 13, 130 nmol/L to eosinophil migration induced by PAF were 6.8 %, 17.2 % (P<0.05),29.6 % (P<0.01), and 35.9 % (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: CP protects lung against increase of RL and reduction of Cdyn, decreases EPO level in the asthma model, and inhibits eosinophil chemotaxis induced by PAF. The results suggest that CP may be a novel antiinflammatory agent for the treatment of asthma and allergic diseases.

  18. Metformin inhibits nuclear factor-κB activation and inflammatory cytokines expression induced by high glucose via adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation in rat glomerular mesangial cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Junfei; Ye Shandong; Wang Shan; Sun Wenjia; Hu Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Background The renoprotective mechanisms of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonist-metformin have not been stated clearly.We hypothesized that metformin may ameliorate inflammation via AMPK interaction with critical inflammatory cytokines The aim of this study was to observe the effects of metformin on expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB),monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1),intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) induced by high glucose (HG) in cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells (MCs).Methods MCs were cultured in the medium with normal concentration glucose (group NG,5.6 mmol/L),high concentration glucose (group HG,25 mmol/L) and different concentrations of metformin (group M1,M2,M3).After 48-hour exposure,the supernatants and MCs were collected.The expression of NF-κB,MCP-1,ICAM-1,and TGF-β1 mRNA was analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction.Westem blotting was used to detect the expression of AMPK,phospho-Thr-172 AMPK (p-AMPK),NF-κB p65,MCP-1,ICAM-1,and TGF-β1 protein.Results After stimulated by HG,the expression of NF-κB,MCP-1,ICAM-1,TGF-β1 mRNA and protein of MCs in group HG increased significantly compared with group NG (P <0.05).Both genes and protein expression of NF-κB,MCP-1,ICAM-1,TGF-β1 of MCs induced by high glucose were markedly reduced after metformin treatment in a dose-dependent manner (P <0.05).The expression of p-AMPK increased with the rising of metformin concentration,presenting the opposite trend,while the level of total-AMPK protein was unchanged with exposure to HG or metformin.Conlusion Metformin can suppress the expression of NF-κB,MCP-1,ICAM-1 and TGF-β1 of glomerular MCs induced by high glucose via AMPK activation,which may partlv contribute to its reno-protection.

  19. Comparison of the effect of timegadine, levamisole, and D-penicillamine on human neutrophil metabolism of endogenous arachidonic acid and chemotaxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, O.H.; Ahnfelt-Roenne, I. Department of Pharmacology, Leo Pharmaceutical Products, Ballerup; Elmgreen, J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of timegadine, a novel experimental antirheumatic drug, on human neutrophil (PMN) 5-lipoxygenase activity and leukotriene B/sub 4/ (LTB/sub 4/) chemotaxis was compared with that of two second-line antiinflammatory drugs, D-penicillamine and levamisole. 1-/sup 14/C-Arachidonic acid (AA) was incorporated into the purified cells until steady state conditions were obtained. After preincubation with serial dilutions of the three drugs, AA release and metabolism was stimulated with calcium ionophore A23187. The radioactive eicosanoids released were extracted and separated by thinlayer chromatography, followed by autoradiography and quantitative laser densitometry. Chemotaxi of PMNs towards LTB/sub 4/ was measured in a modified Boyden chamber. Timegardine showed dose-dependent inhibition of both the 5-lipoxygenase pathway (IC50 3.4 x 10/sup -5/ M), and of chemotaxis (IC50 3 x 10/sup -4/ M). Inhibition of the release of AA from phospholipids, however, occurred only at therapeutically irrelevant doses (millimolar concentrations). Levamisole and D-penicillamine did not inhibit any of the cell functions investigated. Inhibition of both neutrophil motility and cellular synthesis of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, may thus contribute to the clinical effects of timegadine in rheumatoid arthritis.

  20. Suppression of chemotaxis by SSeCKS via scaffolding of phosphoinositol phosphates and the recruitment of the Cdc42 GEF, Frabin, to the leading edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyun-Kyung; Guo, Li-wu; Su, Bing; Gao, Lingqiu; Gelman, Irwin H

    2014-01-01

    Chemotaxis is controlled by interactions between receptors, Rho-family GTPases, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases, and cytoskeleton remodeling proteins. We investigated how the metastasis suppressor, SSeCKS, attenuates chemotaxis. Chemotaxis activity inversely correlated with SSeCKS levels in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF), DU145 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. SSeCKS loss induced chemotactic velocity and linear directionality, correlating with replacement of leading edge lamellipodia with fascin-enriched filopodia-like extensions, the formation of thickened longitudinal F-actin stress fibers reaching to filopodial tips, relative enrichments at the leading edge of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)P3 (PIP3), Akt, PKC-ζ, Cdc42-GTP and active Src (SrcpoY416), and a loss of Rac1. Leading edge lamellipodia and chemotaxis inhibition in SSeCKS-null MEF could be restored by full-length SSeCKS or SSeCKS deleted of its Src-binding domain (ΔSrc), but not by SSeCKS deleted of its three MARCKS (myristylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate) polybasic domains (ΔPBD), which bind PIP2 and PIP3. The enrichment of activated Cdc42 in SSeCKS-null leading edge filopodia correlated with recruitment of the Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Frabin, likely recruited via multiple PIP2/3-binding domains. Frabin knockdown in SSeCKS-null MEF restores leading edge lamellipodia and chemotaxis inhibition. However, SSeCKS failed to co-immunoprecipitate with Rac1, Cdc42 or Frabin. Consistent with the notion that chemotaxis is controlled by SSeCKS-PIP (vs. -Src) scaffolding activity, constitutively-active phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase could override the ability of the Src inhibitor, SKI-606, to suppress chemotaxis and filopodial enrichment of Frabin in SSeCKS-null MEF. Our data suggest a role for SSeCKS in controlling Rac1 vs. Cdc42-induced cellular dynamics at the leading chemotactic edge through the scaffolding of phospholipids and signal mediators, and through the reorganization of the

  1. Suppression of Chemotaxis by SSeCKS via Scaffolding of Phosphoinositol Phosphates and the Recruitment of the Cdc42 GEF, Frabin, to the Leading Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyun-Kyung; Guo, Li-wu; Su, Bing; Gao, Lingqiu; Gelman, Irwin H.

    2014-01-01

    Chemotaxis is controlled by interactions between receptors, Rho-family GTPases, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases, and cytoskeleton remodeling proteins. We investigated how the metastasis suppressor, SSeCKS, attenuates chemotaxis. Chemotaxis activity inversely correlated with SSeCKS levels in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF), DU145 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. SSeCKS loss induced chemotactic velocity and linear directionality, correlating with replacement of leading edge lamellipodia with fascin-enriched filopodia-like extensions, the formation of thickened longitudinal F-actin stress fibers reaching to filopodial tips, relative enrichments at the leading edge of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)P3 (PIP3), Akt, PKC-ζ, Cdc42-GTP and active Src (SrcpoY416), and a loss of Rac1. Leading edge lamellipodia and chemotaxis inhibition in SSeCKS-null MEF could be restored by full-length SSeCKS or SSeCKS deleted of its Src-binding domain (ΔSrc), but not by SSeCKS deleted of its three MARCKS (myristylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate) polybasic domains (ΔPBD), which bind PIP2 and PIP3. The enrichment of activated Cdc42 in SSeCKS-null leading edge filopodia correlated with recruitment of the Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Frabin, likely recruited via multiple PIP2/3-binding domains. Frabin knockdown in SSeCKS-null MEF restores leading edge lamellipodia and chemotaxis inhibition. However, SSeCKS failed to co-immunoprecipitate with Rac1, Cdc42 or Frabin. Consistent with the notion that chemotaxis is controlled by SSeCKS-PIP (vs. -Src) scaffolding activity, constitutively-active phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase could override the ability of the Src inhibitor, SKI-606, to suppress chemotaxis and filopodial enrichment of Frabin in SSeCKS-null MEF. Our data suggest a role for SSeCKS in controlling Rac1 vs. Cdc42-induced cellular dynamics at the leading chemotactic edge through the scaffolding of phospholipids and signal mediators, and through the reorganization of the

  2. Production of adenosine from extracellular ATP at the striatal cholinergic synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S; Richardson, P J

    1993-01-01

    The components of the ectonucleotidase pathway at the immunoaffinity-purified striatal cholinergic synapse have been studied. The ecto-ATPase (EC 3.6.1.15) had a Km of 131 microM, whereas the ecto-ADPase (EC 3.6.1.6) had a Km of 58 microM, was Ca(2+)-dependent, and was inhibited by the ATP analogue 5'-adenylylimidodiphosphate (AMPPNP). The ecto-5'-nucleotidase (EC 3.1.3.5) had a Km of 21 microM, was inhibited by AMPPNP and alpha,beta-methylene ADP, and by a specific antiserum. The Vmax values of the ATPase, ADPase, and 5'-nucleotidase enzymes present at this synapse were in a ratio of 30:14:1. Very little ecto-adenylate kinase activity was detected on these purified synapses. The intraterminal 5'-nucleotidase enzyme, which amounted to 40% of the total 5'-nucleotidase activity, was inhibited by AMPPNP, alpha,beta-methylene ADP, and the antiserum, and also had the same kinetic properties as the ectoenzyme. The time course of ATP degradation to adenosine outside the nerve terminals showed a delay, followed by a period of sustained adenosine production. The delay in adenosine production was proportional to the initial ATP concentration, was a consequence of feedforward inhibition of the ADPase and 5'-nucleotidase, and was inversely proportional to the ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity. The function and characteristics of this pathway and the central role of 5'-nucleotidase in the regulation of extraterminal adenosine concentrations are discussed.

  3. Comparative genomics of Geobacter chemotaxis genes reveals diverse signaling function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antommattei Frances M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geobacter species are δ-Proteobacteria and are often the predominant species in a variety of sedimentary environments where Fe(III reduction is important. Their ability to remediate contaminated environments and produce electricity makes them attractive for further study. Cell motility, biofilm formation, and type IV pili all appear important for the growth of Geobacter in changing environments and for electricity production. Recent studies in other bacteria have demonstrated that signaling pathways homologous to the paradigm established for Escherichia coli chemotaxis can regulate type IV pili-dependent motility, the synthesis of flagella and type IV pili, the production of extracellular matrix material, and biofilm formation. The classification of these pathways by comparative genomics improves the ability to understand how Geobacter thrives in natural environments and better their use in microbial fuel cells. Results The genomes of G. sulfurreducens, G. metallireducens, and G. uraniireducens contain multiple (~70 homologs of chemotaxis genes arranged in several major clusters (six, seven, and seven, respectively. Unlike the single gene cluster of E. coli, the Geobacter clusters are not all located near the flagellar genes. The probable functions of some Geobacter clusters are assignable by homology to known pathways; others appear to be unique to the Geobacter sp. and contain genes of unknown function. We identified large numbers of methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP homologs that have diverse sensing domain architectures and generate a potential for sensing a great variety of environmental signals. We discuss mechanisms for class-specific segregation of the MCPs in the cell membrane, which serve to maintain pathway specificity and diminish crosstalk. Finally, the regulation of gene expression in Geobacter differs from E. coli. The sequences of predicted promoter elements suggest that the alternative sigma factors

  4. Bacillus subtilis Hfq: A role in chemotaxis and motility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHANDRAKANT B JAGTAP; PRADEEP KUMAR; K KRISHNAMURTHY RAO

    2016-09-01

    Hfq is a global post-transcriptional regulator that modulates the translation and stability of target mRNAs and therebyregulates pleiotropic functions, such as growth, stress, virulence and motility, in many Gram-negative bacteria.However, comparatively little is known about the regulation and function(s) of Hfq in Gram-positive bacteria.Recently, in Bacillus subtilis, a role for Hfq in stationary phase survival has been suggested, although the possibilityof Hfq having an additional role(s) cannot be ruled out. In this study we show that an ortholog of Hfq in B. subtilis isregulated by the stress sigma factor, σB, in addition to the stationary phase sigma factor, σH. We further demonstratethat Hfq positively regulates the expression of flagellum and chemotaxis genes (fla/che) that control chemotaxis andmotility, thus assigning a new function for Hfq in B. subtilis.

  5. A Multiobjective Optimization Algorithm Based on Discrete Bacterial Colony Chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial colony chemotaxis algorithm was originally developed for optimal problem with continuous space. In this paper the discrete bacterial colony chemotaxis (DBCC algorithm is developed to solve multiobjective optimization problems. The basic DBCC algorithm has the disadvantage of being trapped into the local minimum. Therefore, some improvements are adopted in the new algorithm, such as adding chaos transfer mechanism when the bacterium choose their next locations and the crowding distance operation to maintain the population diversity in the Pareto Front. The definition of chaos transfer mechanism is used to retain the elite solution produced during the operation, and the definition of crowding distance is used to guide the bacteria for determinate variation, thus enabling the algorithm obtain well-distributed solution in the Pareto optimal set. The convergence properties of the DBCC strategy are tested on some test functions. At last, some numerical results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the results obtained by the new algorithm.

  6. Growth-dependent behavioral difference in bacterial chemotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Rongjing; Yuan, Junhua

    2017-06-01

    Cells can adjust to their growth environments and regulate their behavior accordingly. To study how cells accomplish this growth-dependent adjustment from the molecular to the behavioral level, we used bacterial chemotaxis as a model system to explore the behavioral difference for bacteria grown in nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor media. We found that bacteria grown in a nutrient-poor medium exhibit faster chemotaxis adaptation, and this enables them to respond more rapidly to a changing environment and increases their ability to localize to a nutrient concentration peak. We identified the molecular mechanisms behind this behavioral difference through coarse-grained modeling, and demonstrated its physiological consequences by simulating bacterial chemotactic motion in spatiotemporally varying environments and in a static environment with a nutrient concentration peak.

  7. Global Solutions to the Coupled Chemotaxis-Fluid Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Renjun

    2010-08-10

    In this paper, we are concerned with a model arising from biology, which is a coupled system of the chemotaxis equations and the viscous incompressible fluid equations through transport and external forcing. The global existence of solutions to the Cauchy problem is investigated under certain conditions. Precisely, for the Chemotaxis-Navier-Stokes system over three space dimensions, we obtain global existence and rates of convergence on classical solutions near constant states. When the fluid motion is described by the simpler Stokes equations, we prove global existence of weak solutions in two space dimensions for cell density with finite mass, first-order spatial moment and entropy provided that the external forcing is weak or the substrate concentration is small. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  8. Feeding ducks, bacterial chemotaxis, and the Gini index

    CERN Document Server

    Peaudecerf, Francois J

    2015-01-01

    Classic experiments on the distribution of ducks around separated food sources found consistency with the `ideal free' distribution in which the local population is proportional to the local supply rate. Motivated by this experiment and others, we examine the analogous problem in the microbial world: the distribution of chemotactic bacteria around multiple nearby food sources. In contrast to the optimization of uptake rate that may hold at the level of a single cell in a spatially varying nutrient field, nutrient consumption by a population of chemotactic cells will modify the nutrient field, and the uptake rate will generally vary throughout the population. Through a simple model we study the distribution of resource uptake in the presence of chemotaxis, consumption, and diffusion of both bacteria and nutrients. Borrowing from the field of theoretical economics, we explore how the Gini index can be used as a means to quantify the inequalities of uptake. The redistributive effect of chemotaxis can lead to a p...

  9. Mast cell adenosine receptors function: a focus on the A3 adenosine receptor and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam eRudich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine is a metabolite, which has long been implicated in a variety of inflammatory processes. Inhaled adenosine provokes bronchoconstriction in asthmatics or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients, but not in non-asthmatics. This hyper responsiveness to adenosine appears to be mediated by mast cell activation. These observations have marked the receptor that mediates the bronchoconstrictor effect of adenosine on mast cells, as an attractive drug candidate. Four subtypes (A1, A2a, A2b and A3 of adenosine receptors have been cloned and shown to display distinct tissue distributions and functions. Animal models have firmly established the ultimate role of the A3 adenosine receptor (A3R in mediating hyper responsiveness to adenosine in mast cells, although the influence of the A2b adenosine receptor was confirmed as well. In contrast, studies of the A3R in humans have been controversial. In this review, we summarize data on the role of different adenosine receptors in mast cell regulation of inflammation and pathology, with a focus on the common and distinct functions of the A3R in rodent and human mast cells. The relevance of mouse studies to the human is discussed.

  10. [Adenosine deaminase in experimental trypanosomiasis: future implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Aguilar, Mary Carmen; Rondón-Mercado, Rocío

    2015-09-01

    The adenosine deaminase represents a control point in the regulation of extracellular adenosine levels, thus playing a critical role in the modulation of purinergic responses to certain pathophysiological events. Several studies have shown that serum and plasma enzyme levels are elevated in some diseases caused by microorganisms, which may represent a compensatory mechanism due to the elevated levels of adenosine and the release of inflammatory mediators. Recent research indicates that adenosine deaminase activity decreases and affects hematological parameters of infected animals with Trypanosoma evansi, so that such alterations could have implications in the pathogenesis of the disease. In addition, the enzyme has been detected in this parasite; allowing the inference that it could be associated with the vital functions of the same, similar to what occurs in mammals. This knowledge may be useful in the association of chemotherapy with specific inhibitors of the enzyme in future studies.

  11. Adenosine Deaminase Activities in Hyperlipidaemic Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Health and Visual Sciences ... Abstract. Adenosine Deaminase Activities, markers of cellular-mediated immunity ... were statistically significantly higher (P<0.001) in the test groups than in the control groups (10.7+3iu/1) respectively.

  12. A model of excitation and adaptation in bacterial chemotaxis

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Bacterial chemotaxis is widely studied because of its accessibility and because it incorporates processes that are important in a number of sensory systems: signal transduction, excitation, adaptation, and a change in behavior, all in response to stimuli. Quantitative data on the change in behavior are available for this system, and the major biochemical steps in the signal transduction/processing pathway have been identified. We have incorporated recent biochemica...

  13. Evidence for Bacterial Chemotaxis to Cyanobacteria from a Radioassay Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangatharalingam, N.; Wang, Lizhu; Priscu, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Lyngbya birgei and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae elicited a significant chemotactic attraction of Aeromonas hydrophila compared with controls lacking cyanobacteria. There was a positive exponential relationship between biomass (chlorophyll a) of L. birgei and A. flos-aquae and chemotactic attraction of A. hydrophila. The assay equipment was simple and reliable and could be used to study bacterial chemotaxis in other species in situ. Images PMID:16348544

  14. Quantitative analysis of experiments on bacterial chemotaxis to naphthalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedit, Joseph A; Marx, Randall B; Miller, Cass T; Aitken, Michael D

    2002-06-20

    A mathematical model was developed to quantify chemotaxis to naphthalene by Pseudomonas putida G7 (PpG7) and its influence on naphthalene degradation. The model was first used to estimate the three transport parameters (coefficients for naphthalene diffusion, random motility, and chemotactic sensitivity) by fitting it to experimental data on naphthalene removal from a discrete source in an aqueous system. The best-fit value of naphthalene diffusivity was close to the value estimated from molecular properties with the Wilke-Chang equation. Simulations applied to a non-chemotactic mutant strain only fit the experimental data well if random motility was negligible, suggesting that motility may be lost rapidly in the absence of substrate or that gravity may influence net random motion in a vertically oriented experimental system. For the chemotactic wild-type strain, random motility and gravity were predicted to have a negligible impact on naphthalene removal relative to the impact of chemotaxis. Based on simulations using the best-fit value of the chemotactic sensitivity coefficient, initial cell concentrations for a non-chemotactic strain would have to be several orders of magnitude higher than for a chemotactic strain to achieve similar rates of naphthalene removal under the experimental conditions we evaluated. The model was also applied to an experimental system representing an adaptation of the conventional capillary assay to evaluate chemotaxis in porous media. Our analysis suggests that it may be possible to quantify chemotaxis in porous media systems by simply adjusting the model's transport parameters to account for tortuosity, as has been suggested by others.

  15. Oscillatory traveling wave solutions to an attractive chemotaxis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Liu, Hailiang; Wang, Lihe

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates oscillatory traveling wave solutions to an attractive chemotaxis system. The convective part of this system changes its type when crossing a parabola in the phase space. The oscillatory nature of the traveling wave comes from the fact that one far-field state is in the elliptic region and another in the hyperbolic region. Such traveling wave solutions are shown to be linearly unstable. Detailed construction of some traveling wave solutions is presented.

  16. Protein kinase A regulates 3-phosphatidylinositide dynamics during platelet-derived growth factor-induced membrane ruffling and chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Paula B; Campbell, Shirley L; Baldor, Linda C; Howe, Alan K

    2008-12-12

    Spatial regulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is required for chemotaxis in fibroblasts; however, the mechanism(s) by which PKA regulates the cell migration machinery remain largely unknown. Here we report that one function of PKA during platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced chemotaxis was to promote membrane ruffling by regulating phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) dynamics. Inhibition of PKA activity dramatically altered membrane dynamics and attenuated formation of peripheral membrane ruffles in response to PDGF. PKA inhibition also significantly decreased the number and size of PIP(3)-rich membrane ruffles in response to uniform stimulation and to gradients of PDGF. This ruffling defect was quantified using a newly developed method, based on computer vision edge-detection algorithms. PKA inhibition caused a marked attenuation in the bulk accumulation of PIP(3) following PDGF stimulation, without effects on PI3-kinase (PI3K) activity. The deficits in PIP(3) dynamics correlated with a significant inhibition of growth factor-induced membrane recruitment of endogenous Akt and Rac activation in PKA-inhibited cells. Simultaneous inhibition of PKA and Rac had an additive inhibitory effect on growth factor-induced ruffling dynamics. Conversely, the expression of a constitutively active Rac allele was able to rescue the defect in membrane ruffling and restore the localization of a fluorescent PIP(3) marker to membrane ruffles in PKA-inhibited cells, even in the absence of PI3K activity. These data demonstrate that, like Rac, PKA contributes to PIP(3) and membrane dynamics independently of direct regulation of PI3K activity and suggest that modulation of PIP(3)/3-phosphatidylinositol (3-PI) lipids represents a major target for PKA in the regulation of PDGF-induced chemotactic events.

  17. Chemotaxis of bio-hybrid multiple bacteria-driven microswimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiang; Sitti, Metin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, in a bio-hybrid microswimmer system driven by multiple Serratia marcescens bacteria, we quantify the chemotactic drift of a large number of microswimmers towards L-serine and elucidate the associated collective chemotaxis behavior by statistical analysis of over a thousand swimming trajectories of the microswimmers. The results show that the microswimmers have a strong heading preference for moving up the L-serine gradient, while their speed does not change considerably when moving up and down the gradient; therefore, the heading bias constitutes the major factor that produces the chemotactic drift. The heading direction of a microswimmer is found to be significantly more persistent when it moves up the L-serine gradient than when it travels down the gradient; this effect causes the apparent heading preference of the microswimmers and is the crucial reason that enables the seemingly cooperative chemotaxis of multiple bacteria on a microswimmer. In addition, we find that their chemotactic drift velocity increases superquadratically with their mean swimming speed, suggesting that chemotaxis of bio-hybrid microsystems can be enhanced by designing and building faster microswimmers. Such bio-hybrid microswimmers with chemotactic steering capability may find future applications in targeted drug delivery, bioengineering, and lab-on-a-chip devices.

  18. Localization of chemical sources using e. coli chemotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Timothy; Nguyen, Hoa; Nickels, Kevin; Frasch, Duncan; Basagaoglu, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    This paper furthers the application of chemotaxis to small-scale robots by simulating a system that localizes a chemical source in a dynamic fluid environment. This type of system responds to a chemical stimulus by mimicking, for example, the way that E. Coli bacteria move toward attractants (nutrients) and away from repellents. E. Coli use the intracellular signaling pathway to process the temporal change in the chemical concentration to determine if the cells should run or tumble. Previous work has shown that this process can be simulated with robots and used to localize chemical sources based upon a fixed nutrient gradient. Our work furthers this study by simulating the injection of an effluent of chemical at a specified location in an environment and uses computational fluid dynamics to model the interactions of the robot with the fluid while performing chemotaxis. The interactions between the chemical and fluid are also modelled with the advection diffusion equation to determine the concentration gradient. This method allows us to compute, over a lattice, the chemical concentration at all points and feed these results into an existing E. Coli controller for the robot, which results in the robot executing a tumble or a run according to a probabilistic formula. By simulating the robot in this complex environment, our work facilitates refinement of the chemotaxis controller while proving the ability of chemotactic robots to localize specific chemicals in environments that more closely resemble those encountered in the wide-ranging types of locations in which this robotic system might be deployed.

  19. Computational model of mesenchymal migration in 3D under chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F O; Gómez-Benito, M J; Folgado, J; Fernandes, P R; García-Aznar, J M

    2017-01-01

    Cell chemotaxis is an important characteristic of cellular migration, which takes part in crucial aspects of life and development. In this work, we propose a novel in silico model of mesenchymal 3D migration with competing protrusions under a chemotactic gradient. Based on recent experimental observations, we identify three main stages that can regulate mesenchymal chemotaxis: chemosensing, dendritic protrusion dynamics and cell-matrix interactions. Therefore, each of these features is considered as a different module of the main regulatory computational algorithm. The numerical model was particularized for the case of fibroblast chemotaxis under a PDGF-bb gradient. Fibroblasts migration was simulated embedded in two different 3D matrices - collagen and fibrin - and under several PDGF-bb concentrations. Validation of the model results was provided through qualitative and quantitative comparison with in vitro studies. Our numerical predictions of cell trajectories and speeds were within the measured in vitro ranges in both collagen and fibrin matrices. Although in fibrin, the migration speed of fibroblasts is very low, because fibrin is a stiffer and more entangling matrix. Testing PDGF-bb concentrations, we noticed that an increment of this factor produces a speed increment. At 1 ng mL(-1) a speed peak is reached after which the migration speed diminishes again. Moreover, we observed that fibrin exerts a dampening behavior on migration, significantly affecting the migration efficiency.

  20. Chemotaxis of bio-hybrid multiple bacteria-driven microswimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiang; Sitti, Metin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, in a bio-hybrid microswimmer system driven by multiple Serratia marcescens bacteria, we quantify the chemotactic drift of a large number of microswimmers towards L-serine and elucidate the associated collective chemotaxis behavior by statistical analysis of over a thousand swimming trajectories of the microswimmers. The results show that the microswimmers have a strong heading preference for moving up the L-serine gradient, while their speed does not change considerably when moving up and down the gradient; therefore, the heading bias constitutes the major factor that produces the chemotactic drift. The heading direction of a microswimmer is found to be significantly more persistent when it moves up the L-serine gradient than when it travels down the gradient; this effect causes the apparent heading preference of the microswimmers and is the crucial reason that enables the seemingly cooperative chemotaxis of multiple bacteria on a microswimmer. In addition, we find that their chemotactic drift velocity increases superquadratically with their mean swimming speed, suggesting that chemotaxis of bio-hybrid microsystems can be enhanced by designing and building faster microswimmers. Such bio-hybrid microswimmers with chemotactic steering capability may find future applications in targeted drug delivery, bioengineering, and lab-on-a-chip devices. PMID:27555465

  1. Aberrant methylation of PSD disturbs Rac1-mediated immune responses governing neutrophil chemotaxis and apoptosis in ulcerative colitis-associated carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takaharu; Suzuki, Koichi; Okada, Shinichiro; Kamiyama, Hidenori; Maeda, Takafumi; Saito, Masaaki; Koizumi, Kei; Miyaki, Yuichiro; Konishi, Fumio

    2012-04-01

    We previously reported that the Pleckstrin and Sec7 domain-containing (PSD) gene is preferentially methylated in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who developed colorectal cancer (CRC), and is implicated in UC-associated carcinogenesis through its inhibition of apoptosis. This study aimed to determine the potential effect of PSD methylation on its downstream molecule, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), which governs neutrophil chemotaxis and apoptosis signaling. PSD was knocked down in a normal human fibroblast cell line (HNDF) and a neutrophil-like cell line (HL-60). Both NHDF and HL-60 cells exhibited numerous filamentous-actin (F-actin) rich membrane extensions, resulting in the activation of Rac1; this activation was hampered by PSD silencing. Lipopolysaccharide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) inducer, stimulated NHDF cells to release ROS and activated caspase‑3/7 in the presence of neutrophils, which was inhibited by PSD knockdown. Migration assays demonstrated that chemotaxis of HL-60 cells was affected by PSD silencing in NHDF cells. Tissue sections from 6 UC patients with CRC and 15 UC patients without CRC were examined. To verify Rac1-mediated chemotaxis in tissue sections, we evaluated the grade of neutrophil infiltration by histological assessment and assessed F-actin and PSD expression by immunohistochemistry. Neutrophil infiltration, F-actin and PSD expression were significantly decreased in specimens from UC patients with PSD methylation compared with those without. Decreased levels of F-actin expression were observed in colorectal mucosa, as well as in infiltrating cells with PSD methylation. PSD expression was preferentially inhibited in colorectal mucosa by PSD methylation, whereas PSD expression was rarely observed in infiltrating cells, regardless of PSD methylation status. These data indicate that aberrant methylation of PSD occurs in UC-associated colorectal mucosa, enabling circumvention of Rac1-mediated immune responses

  2. Adenosine modulation of [Ca2+]i in cerebellar granular cells: multiple adenosine receptors involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, Javier; Fernández, Mercedes; Ros, Manuel; Blanco, Pablo

    2003-12-01

    Elimination of adenosine by addition of adenosine deaminase (ADA) to the media leads to alterations in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in cerebellar granular cells. Adenosine deaminase brings about increases or decreases in [Ca(2+)](i) depending on the previous activation state of the cell. These effects are dependent on the catalytic activity of adenosine deaminase, since its previous catalytic inactivation with Hg(2+) prevents the above-mentioned changes in intracellular calcium. Extracellular calcium is required for the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) promoted by ADA. This rise is insensitive to thapsigargin, but sensitive to micromolar concentrations of Ni(2+). Toxins specific for L, N and P/Q calcium channels do not overtly reduce this effect. N(6)-Cyclopentyl adenosine (CPA), an A(1) receptor agonist, produces a partial reversion of ADA effects, while CGS21680, A(2A)/A(2B) receptor agonist, slightly enhances them. Expression of A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3) adenosine receptor mRNAs was detected in cerebellar granular cell cultures. These results suggest that adenosine modulate [Ca(2+)](i) in cerebellar granule cells through different adenosine receptor subtypes which, at least in part, seem to act through R-type calcium channels.

  3. Radioassay of granulocyte chemotaxis. Studies of human granulocytes and chemotactic factors. [/sup 51/Cr tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallin, J.I.

    1974-01-01

    The above studies demonstrate that the /sup 51/Cr radiolabel chemotactic assay is a relatively simple and objective means for studying leukocyte chemotaxis in both normal and pathological conditions. Application of this method to studies of normal human chemotaxis revealed a relatively narrow range of normal and little day-to-day variability. Analysis of this variability revealed that there is more variability among the response of different granulocytes to a constant chemotactic stimulus than among the chemotactic activity of different sera to a single cell source. Utilizing the /sup 51/Cr radioassay, the abnormal granulocyte chemotactic behavior reported in Chediak-Higashi syndrome and a patient with recurrent pyogenic infections and mucocutaneous candidiasis has been confirmed. The /sup 51/Cr chemotactic assay has also been used to assess the generation of chemotactic activity from human serum and plasma. The in vitro generation of two distinct chemotactic factors were examined; the complement product (C5a) and kallikrein, an enzyme of the kinin-generating pathway. Kinetic analysis of complement-related chemotactic factor formation, utilizing immune complexes or endotoxin to activate normal sera in the presence or absence of EGTA as well as kinetic analysis of activation of C2-deficient human serum, provided an easy means of distinguishing the classical (antibody-mediated) complement pathway from the alternate pathway. Such kinetic analysis is necessary to detect clinically important abnormalities since, after 60 min of generation time, normal chemotactic activity may be present despite complete absence or inhibition of one complement pathway. The chemotactic factor generated by either pathway of complement activation appears to be predominately attributable to C5a.

  4. Adenosine stress protocols for myocardial perfusion imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baškot Branislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Treadmill test combined with myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS is a commonly used technique in the assessment of coronary artery disease. There are many patients, however, who may not be able to undergo treadmill test. Such patients would benefit from pharmacological stress procedures combined with MPS. The most commonly used pharmacological agents for cardiac stress are coronary vasodilatators (adenosine, dipyridamol and catecholamines. Concomitant low-level treadmill exercise with adenosine pharmacologic stress (AdenoEX during MPS has become commonly used in recent years. A number of studies have demonstrated a beneficial impact of AdenoEX protocol. The aim of the study was, besides introducing into practice the two types of protocols of pharmatological stress test with adenosine, as a preparation for MPS, to compare and monitor the frequency of their side effects to quality, acquisition, as well as to standardize the onset time of acquisition (diagnostic imaging for both protocols. Methods. A total of 130 patients underwent pharmacological stress test with adenosine (vasodilatator. In 108 of the patients we performed concomitant exercise (AdenoEX of low level (50W by a bicycle ergometar. In 28 of the patients we performed Adenosine abbreviated protocol (AdenoSCAN. Side effects of adenosine were followed and compared between the two kinds of protocols AdenoEX and AdenoSCAN. Also compared were image quality and suggested time of acquisition after the stress test. Results. Numerous side effects were found, but being short-lived they did not require any active interventions. The benefit of AdenoEX versus AdenoSCAN included decreased side effects (62% vs 87%, improved safety and patients tolerance, improved target-to-background ratios because of less subdiaphragmatic activity, earlier acquisition, and improved sensitivity. Conclusion. The safety and efficacy of adenosine pharmacological stress is even better with concomitant

  5. Biomixing by chemotaxis and efficiency of biological reactions: The critical reaction case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, Alexander; Ryzhik, Lenya

    2012-11-01

    Many phenomena in biology involve both reactions and chemotaxis. These processes can clearly influence each other, and chemotaxis can play an important role in sustaining and speeding up the reaction. In continuation of our work [A. Kiselev and L. Ryzhik, "Biomixing by chemotaxis and enhancement of biological reactions," Comm. Partial Differential Equations 37, 298-318 (2012)], 10.1080/03605302.2011.589879, we consider a model with a single density function involving diffusion, advection, chemotaxis, and absorbing reaction. The model is motivated, in particular, by the studies of coral broadcast spawning, where experimental observations of the efficiency of fertilization rates significantly exceed the data obtained from numerical models that do not take chemotaxis (attraction of sperm gametes by a chemical secreted by egg gametes) into account. We consider the case of the weakly coupled quadratic reaction term, which is the most natural from the biological point of view and was left open in Kiselev and Ryzhik ["Biomixing by chemotaxis and enhancement of biological reactions," Comm. Partial Differential Equations 37, 298-318 (2012)], 10.1080/03605302.2011.589879. The result is that similarly to Kiselev and Ryzhik ["Biomixing by chemotaxis and enhancement of biological reactions," Comm. Partial Differential Equations 37, 298-318 (2012)], 10.1080/03605302.2011.589879, the chemotaxis plays a crucial role in ensuring efficiency of reaction. However, mathematically, the picture is quite different in the quadratic reaction case and is more subtle. The reaction is now complete even in the absence of chemotaxis, but the timescales are very different. Without chemotaxis, the reaction is very slow, especially for the weak reaction coupling. With chemotaxis, the timescale and efficiency of reaction are independent of the coupling parameter.

  6. Bryostatin-5 blocks stromal cell-derived factor-1 induced chemotaxis via desensitization and down-regulation of cell surface CXCR4 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xing; Fang, Liyan; Wang, Jue; Yi, Yanghua; Zhang, Shuyu; Xie, Xin

    2008-11-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), play important roles in hematopoiesis regulation, lymphocyte activation, and trafficking, as well as in developmental processes, including organogenesis, vascularization, and embryogenesis. The receptor is also involved in HIV infection and tumor growth and metastasis. Antagonists of CXCR4 have been widely evaluated for drugs against HIV and tumors. In an effort to identify novel CXCR4 antagonists, we screened a small library of compounds derived from marine organisms and found bryostatin-5, which potently inhibits chemotaxis induced by SDF-1 in Jurkat cells. Bryostatin-5 is a member of the macrolactones, and its analogue bryostatin-1 is currently being evaluated in clinical trials for its chemotherapeutic potential. The involvement of bryostatins in the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling process has never been reported. In this study, we found that bryostatin-5 potently inhibits SDF-1-induced chemotaxis but does not affect serum-induced chemotaxis. Further studies indicate that this inhibitory effect is not due to receptor antagonism but rather to bryostatin-5-induced receptor desensitization and down-regulation of cell surface CXCR4. We also show that these effects are mediated by the activation of conventional protein kinase C.

  7. Adenosine elicits an eNOS-independent reduction in arterial blood pressure in conscious mice that involves adenosine A(2A) receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik; Jaff, Mohammad G; Høgh, Ditte;

    2011-01-01

    Aims:  Adenosine plays an important role in the regulation of heart rate and vascular reactivity. However, the mechanisms underlying the acute effect of adenosine on arterial blood pressure in conscious mice are unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of the nucleoside on mean...... arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in conscious mice. Methods:  Chronic indwelling catheters were placed in C57Bl/6J (WT) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase knock-out (eNOS(-/-) ) mice for continuous measurements of MAP and HR. Using PCR and myograph analysis involment of adenosine...... receptors was investigated in human and mouse renal blood vessels Results:  Bolus infusion of 0.5 mg/kg adenosine elicited significant transient decreases in MAP (99.3±2.3 to 70.4±4.5 mmHg) and HR (603.2±18.3 to 364.3±49.2 min(-1) ) which were inhibited by the A(2A) receptor antagonist ZM 241385. Activation...

  8. Adenosine receptor targeting in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Fazzi, Debora; Stefanelli, Angela; Varani, Katia; Borea, Pier Andrea

    2011-12-01

    The adenosine receptors A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3) are important and ubiquitous mediators of cellular signaling that play vital roles in protecting tissues and organs from damage. In particular, adenosine triggers tissue protection and repair by different receptor-mediated mechanisms, including increasing the oxygen supply:demand ratio, pre-conditioning, anti-inflammatory effects and the stimulation of angiogenesis. The state of the art of the role of adenosine receptors which have been proposed as targets for drug design and discovery, in health and disease, and an overview of the ligands for these receptors in clinical development. Selective ligands of A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3) adenosine receptors are likely to find applications in the treatment of pain, ischemic conditions, glaucoma, asthma, arthritis, cancer and other disorders in which inflammation is a feature. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the present knowledge regarding the role of these adenosine receptors in health and disease.

  9. Modulation and metamodulation of synapses by adenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J A; Sebastião, A M

    2010-06-01

    The presence of adenosine in all nervous system cells (neurones and glia) together with its intensive release following insults makes adenosine as a sort of 'regulator' of synaptic communication, leading to the homeostatic coordination of brain function. Besides the direct actions of adenosine on the neurosecretory mechanisms, to tune neurotransmitter release, adenosine receptors interact with other receptors as well as with transporters as part of its attempt to fine-tune synaptic transmission. This review will focus on examples of the different ways adenosine can use to modulate or metamodulate synapses, in other words, to trigger or brake the action of some neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, to cross-talk with other G protein-coupled receptors, with ionotropic receptors and with receptor kinases as well as with transporters. Most of these interactions occur through A2A receptors, which in spite of their low density in some brain areas, such as the hippocampus, may function as amplifiers of the signalling of other mediators at synapses.

  10. Regulation of adenosine deaminase (ADA) on induced mouse experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) ‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dongchun; Zuo, Aijun; Zhao, Ronglan; Shao, Hui; Kaplan, Henry J.; Sun, Deming

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine is an important regulator of the immune response and adenosine deaminase (ADA) inhibits this regulatory effect by converting adenosine into functionally inactive molecules. Studies have shown that adenosine receptor (AR) agonists can be either anti- or pro-inflammatory. Clarification of the mechanisms that cause these opposing effects should provide a better guide for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we investigated the effect of ADA on the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) induced by immunizing EAU-prone mice with a known uveitogenic peptide, IRBP1–20. Our results showed that the effective time to administer a single dose of ADA to suppress induction of EAU was 8–14 days post-immunization, shortly before EAU expression, but ADA treatment at other time points exacerbated disease. ADA preferentially inhibited Th17 responses and this effect was γδ T cell-dependent. Our results demonstrated that the existing immune status strongly influences the anti- or proinflammatory effects of ADA. Our observations should help improve the design of ADA- and AR-targeted therapies. PMID:26856700

  11. Role of extracellular cations in cell motility, polarity, and chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soll D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available David R Soll1, Deborah Wessels1, Daniel F Lusche1, Spencer Kuhl1, Amanda Scherer1, Shawna Grimm1,21Monoclonal Antibody Research Institute, Developmental Studies, Hybridoma Bank, Department of Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City; 2Mercy Medical Center, Surgical Residency Program, Des Moines, Iowa, USAAbstract: The concentration of cations in the aqueous environment of free living organisms and cells within the human body influence motility, shape, and chemotaxis. The role of extracellular cations is usually perceived to be the source for intracellular cations in the process of homeostasis. The role of surface molecules that interact with extracellular cations is believed to be that of channels, transporters, and exchangers. However, the role of Ca2+ as a signal and chemoattractant and the discovery of the Ca2+ receptor have demonstrated that extracellular cations can function as signals at the cell surface, and the plasma membrane molecules they interact with can function as bona fide receptors that activate coupled signal transduction pathways, associated molecules in the plasma membrane, or the cytoskeleton. With this perspective in mind, we have reviewed the cationic composition of aqueous environments of free living cells and cells that move in multicellular organisms, most notably humans, the range of molecules interacting with cations at the cell surface, the concept of a cell surface cation receptor, and the roles extracellular cations and plasma membrane proteins that interact with them play in the regulation of motility, shape, and chemotaxis. Hopefully, the perspective of this review will increase awareness of the roles extracellular cations play and the possibility that many of the plasma membrane proteins that interact with them could also play roles as receptors.Keywords: extracellular cations, chemotaxis, transporters, calcium, receptors

  12. Dependence of bacterial chemotaxis on gradient shape and adaptation rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Vladimirov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of cellular behavior on multiple scales requires models that are sufficiently detailed to capture central intracellular processes but at the same time enable the simulation of entire cell populations in a computationally cheap way. In this paper we present RapidCell, a hybrid model of chemotactic Escherichia coli that combines the Monod-Wyman-Changeux signal processing by mixed chemoreceptor clusters, the adaptation dynamics described by ordinary differential equations, and a detailed model of cell tumbling. Our model dramatically reduces computational costs and allows the highly efficient simulation of E. coli chemotaxis. We use the model to investigate chemotaxis in different gradients, and suggest a new, constant-activity type of gradient to systematically study chemotactic behavior of virtual bacteria. Using the unique properties of this gradient, we show that optimal chemotaxis is observed in a narrow range of CheA kinase activity, where concentration of the response regulator CheY-P falls into the operating range of flagellar motors. Our simulations also confirm that the CheB phosphorylation feedback improves chemotactic efficiency by shifting the average CheY-P concentration to fit the motor operating range. Our results suggest that in liquid media the variability in adaptation times among cells may be evolutionary favorable to ensure coexistence of subpopulations that will be optimally tactic in different gradients. However, in a porous medium (agar such variability appears to be less important, because agar structure poses mainly negative selection against subpopulations with low levels of adaptation enzymes. RapidCell is available from the authors upon request.

  13. Adenosine Receptors Differentially Regulate the Expression of Regulators of G-Protein Signalling (RGS 2, 3 and 4 in Astrocyte-Like Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Nicolas Eusemann

    Full Text Available The "regulators of g-protein signalling" (RGS comprise a large family of proteins that limit by virtue of their GTPase accelerating protein domain the signal transduction of G-protein coupled receptors. RGS proteins have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, drug abuse, depression and anxiety and aggressive behaviour. Since conditions associated with a large increase of adenosine in the brain such as seizures or ischemia were reported to modify the expression of some RGS proteins we hypothesized that adenosine might regulate RGS expression in neural cells. We measured the expression of RGS-2,-3, and -4 in both transformed glia cells (human U373 MG astrocytoma cells and in primary rat astrocyte cultures stimulated with adenosine agonists. Expression of RGS-2 mRNA as well as RGS2 protein was increased up to 30-fold by adenosine agonists in astrocytes. The order of potency of agonists and the blockade by the adenosine A2B-antagonist MRS1706 indicated that this effect was largely mediated by adenosine A2B receptors. However, a smaller effect was observed due to activation of adenosine A2A receptors. In astrocytoma cells adenosine agonists elicited an increase in RGS-2 expression solely mediated by A2B receptors. Expression of RGS-3 was inhibited by adenosine agonists in both astrocytoma cells and astrocytes. However while this effect was mediated by A2B receptors in astrocytoma cells it was mediated by A2A receptors in astrocytes as assessed by the order of potency of agonists and selective blockade by the specific antagonists MRS1706 and ZM241385 respectively. RGS-4 expression was inhibited in astrocytoma cells but enhanced in astrocytes by adenosine agonists.

  14. Role of adenosine and the orexinergic perifornical hypothalamus in sleep-promoting effects of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep; Thakkar, Mahesh M

    2014-03-01

    Strong clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that acute ethanol promotes sleep. However, very little is known about how and where ethanol acts to promote sleep. We hypothesized that ethanol may induce sleep by increasing extracellular levels of adenosine and inhibiting orexin neurons in the perifornical hypothalamus. Experiments 1 and 2: Within-Subject Design; Experiment 3: Between-Subject Design. N/A. N/A. N/A. Using adult male Sprague-Dawley rats as our animal model, we performed three experiments to test our hypothesis. Our first experiment examined the effect of A1 receptor blockade in the orexinergic perifornical hypothalamus on sleep- promoting effects of ethanol. Bilateral microinjection of the selective A1 receptor antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-phenylxanthine (500 μM; 250 nL/side) into orexinergic perifornical hypothalamus significantly reduced nonrapid eye movement sleep with a concomitant increase in wakefulness, suggesting that blockade of adenosine A1 receptor attenuates ethanol-induced sleep promotion. Our second experiment examined adenosine release in the orexinergic perifornical hypothalamus during local ethanol infusion. Local infusion of pharmacologically relevant doses of ethanol significantly and dose-dependently increased adenosine release. Our final experiment used c-Fos immunohistochemistry to examine the effects of ethanol on the activation of orexin neurons. Acute ethanol exposure significantly reduced the number of orexin neurons containing c-Fos, suggesting an inhibition of orexin neurons after ethanol intake. Based on our results, we believe that ethanol promotes sleep by increasing adenosine in the orexinergic perifornical hypothalamus, resulting in A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of orexin neurons.

  15. Exact solutions of certain nonlinear chemotaxis diffusion reaction equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MISHRA AJAY; KAUSHAL R S; PRASAD AWADHESH

    2016-05-01

    Using the auxiliary equation method, we obtain exact solutions of certain nonlinear chemotaxis diffusion reaction equations in the presence of a stimulant. In particular, we account for the nonlinearities arising not only from the density-dependent source terms contributed by the particles and the stimulant but also from the coupling term of the stimulant. In addition to this, the diffusion of the stimulant and the effect of long-range interactions are also accounted for in theconstructed coupled differential equations. The results obtained here could be useful in the studies of several biological systems and processes, e.g., in bacterial infection, chemotherapy, etc.

  16. cAMP-independent dilation of coronary arterioles to adenosine : role of nitric oxide, G proteins, and K(ATP) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, T W; Kuo, L

    1999-10-01

    Adenosine is known to play an important role in the regulation of coronary blood flow during metabolic stress. However, there is sparse information on the mechanism of adenosine-induced dilation at the microcirculatory levels. In the present study, we examined the role of endothelial nitric oxide (NO), G proteins, cyclic nucleotides, and potassium channels in coronary arteriolar dilation to adenosine. Pig subepicardial coronary arterioles (50 to 100 microm in diameter) were isolated, cannulated, and pressurized to 60 cm H(2)O without flow for in vitro study. The arterioles developed basal tone and dilated dose dependently to adenosine. Disruption of endothelium, blocking of endothelial ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels by glibenclamide, and inhibition of NO synthase by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and of soluble guanylyl cyclase by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3,-a]quinoxalin-1-one produced identical attenuation of vasodilation to adenosine. Combined administration of these inhibitors did not further attenuate the vasodilatory response. Production of NO from coronary arterioles was significantly increased by adenosine. Pertussis toxin, but not cholera toxin, significantly inhibited vasodilation to adenosine, and this inhibitory effect was only evident in vessels with an intact endothelium. Tetraethylammonium, glibenclamide, and a high concentration of extraluminal KCl abolished vasodilation of denuded vessels to adenosine; however, inhibition of calcium-activated potassium channels by iberiotoxin had no effect on this dilation. Rp-8-Br-cAMPS, a cAMP antagonist, inhibited vasodilation to cAMP analog 8-Br-cAMP but failed to block adenosine-induced dilation. Furthermore, vasodilations to 8-Br-cAMP and sodium nitroprusside were not inhibited by glibenclamide, indicating that cAMP- and cGMP-induced dilations are not mediated by the activation of K(ATP) channels. These results suggest that adenosine activates both endothelial and smooth muscle pathways to exert

  17. ETS-1-mediated Transcriptional Up-regulation of CD44 Is Required for Sphingosine-1-phosphate Receptor Subtype 3-stimulated Chemotaxis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenliang; Zhao, Jiawei; Lee, Jen-Fu; Gartung, Allison; Jawadi, Hiba; Lambiv, Wanyu Louis; Honn, Kenneth V.; Lee, Menq-Jer

    2013-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-regulated chemotaxis plays critical roles in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. S1P-regulated chemotaxis is mediated by the S1P family of G-protein-coupled receptors. However, molecular details of the S1P-regulated chemotaxis are incompletely understood. Cultured human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines abundantly express S1P receptor subtype 3 (S1P3), thus providing a tractable in vitro system to characterize molecular mechanism(s) underlying the S1P3 receptor-regulated chemotactic response. S1P treatment enhances CD44 expression and induces membrane localization of CD44 polypeptides via the S1P3/Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway. Knockdown of CD44 completely diminishes the S1P-stimulated chemotaxis. Promoter analysis suggests that the CD44 promoter contains binding sites of the ETS-1 (v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1) transcriptional factor. ChIP assay confirms that S1P treatment stimulates the binding of ETS-1 to the CD44 promoter region. Moreover, S1P induces the expression and nuclear translocation of ETS-1. Knockdown of S1P3 or inhibition of ROCK abrogates the S1P-induced ETS-1 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of ETS-1 inhibits the S1P-induced CD44 expression and cell migration. In addition, we showed that S1P3/ROCK signaling up-regulates ETS-1 via the activity of JNK. Collectively, we characterized a novel signaling axis, i.e., ROCK-JNK-ETS-1-CD44 pathway, which plays an essential role in the S1P3-regulated chemotactic response. PMID:24064218

  18. ETS-1-mediated transcriptional up-regulation of CD44 is required for sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor subtype 3-stimulated chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenliang; Zhao, Jiawei; Lee, Jen-Fu; Gartung, Allison; Jawadi, Hiba; Lambiv, Wanyu Louis; Honn, Kenneth V; Lee, Menq-Jer

    2013-11-08

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-regulated chemotaxis plays critical roles in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. S1P-regulated chemotaxis is mediated by the S1P family of G-protein-coupled receptors. However, molecular details of the S1P-regulated chemotaxis are incompletely understood. Cultured human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines abundantly express S1P receptor subtype 3 (S1P3), thus providing a tractable in vitro system to characterize molecular mechanism(s) underlying the S1P3 receptor-regulated chemotactic response. S1P treatment enhances CD44 expression and induces membrane localization of CD44 polypeptides via the S1P3/Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway. Knockdown of CD44 completely diminishes the S1P-stimulated chemotaxis. Promoter analysis suggests that the CD44 promoter contains binding sites of the ETS-1 (v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1) transcriptional factor. ChIP assay confirms that S1P treatment stimulates the binding of ETS-1 to the CD44 promoter region. Moreover, S1P induces the expression and nuclear translocation of ETS-1. Knockdown of S1P3 or inhibition of ROCK abrogates the S1P-induced ETS-1 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of ETS-1 inhibits the S1P-induced CD44 expression and cell migration. In addition, we showed that S1P3/ROCK signaling up-regulates ETS-1 via the activity of JNK. Collectively, we characterized a novel signaling axis, i.e., ROCK-JNK-ETS-1-CD44 pathway, which plays an essential role in the S1P3-regulated chemotactic response.

  19. The role of adenosine receptors and endogenous adenosine in citalopram-induced cardiovascular toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubilay Oransay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We investigated the role of adenosine in citalopram-induced cardiotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Protocol 1: Rats were randomized into four groups. Sodium cromoglycate was administered to rats. Citalopram was infused after the 5% dextrose, 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; A 1 receptor antagonist, 8-(-3-chlorostyryl-caffeine (CSC; A 2a receptor antagonist, or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO administrations. Protocol 2: First group received 5% dextrose intraperitoneally 1 hour prior to citalopram. Other rats were pretreated with erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl adenine (EHNA; inhibitor of adenosine deaminase and S-(4-Nitrobenzyl-6-thioinosine (NBTI; inhibitor of facilitated adenosine transport. After pretreatment, group 2 received 5% dextrose and group 3 received citalopram. Adenosine concentrations, mean arterial pressure (MAP, heart rate (HR,  QRS duration and QT interval were evaluated. Results: In the dextrose group, citalopram infusion caused a significant decrease in MAP and HR and caused a significant prolongation in QRS and QT. DPCPX infusion significantly prevented the prolongation of the QT interval when compared to control. In the second protocol, citalopram infusion did not cause a significant change in plasma adenosine concentrations, but a significant increase observed in EHNA/NBTI groups. In EHNA/NBTI groups, citalopram-induced MAP and HR reductions, QRS and QT prolongations were more significant than the dextrose group. Conclusions: Citalopram may lead to QT prolongation by stimulating adenosine A 1 receptors without affecting the release of adenosine.

  20. Normal chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum cells with a depolarized plasma membrane potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, Bert van; Vogelzang, Sake A.; Ypey, Dirk L.; Molen, Loek G. van der; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1990-01-01

    We examined a possible role for the plasma membrane potential in signal transduction during cyclic AMP-induced chemotaxis in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Chemotaxis, cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP responses in cells with a depolarized membrane potential were measured. Cells can be

  1. Confinement dependent chemotaxis in two-photon polymerized linear migration constructs with highly definable concentration gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Olsen, Mark Holm; Svane, Inge Marie

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cell chemotaxis is known to follow chemoattractant concentration gradients through tissue of heterogeneous pore sizes, but the dependence of migration velocity on pore size and gradient steepness is not fully understood. We enabled chemotaxis studies for at least 42 hours at confinement...

  2. Methylthioadenosine reprograms macrophage activation through adenosine receptor stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Keyel

    Full Text Available Regulation of inflammation is necessary to balance sufficient pathogen clearance with excessive tissue damage. Central to regulating inflammation is the switch from a pro-inflammatory pathway to an anti-inflammatory pathway. Macrophages are well-positioned to initiate this switch, and as such are the target of multiple therapeutics. One such potential therapeutic is methylthioadenosine (MTA, which inhibits TNFα production following LPS stimulation. We found that MTA could block TNFα production by multiple TLR ligands. Further, it prevented surface expression of CD69 and CD86 and reduced NF-KB signaling. We then determined that the mechanism of this action by MTA is signaling through adenosine A2 receptors. A2 receptors and TLR receptors synergized to promote an anti-inflammatory phenotype, as MTA enhanced LPS tolerance. In contrast, IL-1β production and processing was not affected by MTA exposure. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MTA reprograms TLR activation pathways via adenosine receptors to promote resolution of inflammation.

  3. Biomixing by chemotaxis and efficiency of biological reactions: the critical reaction case

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Many phenomena in biology involve both reactions and chemotaxis. These processes can clearly influence each other, and chemotaxis can play an important role in sustaining and speeding up the reaction. In continuation of our earlier work, we consider a model with a single density function involving diffusion, advection, chemotaxis, and absorbing reaction. The model is motivated, in particular, by the studies of coral broadcast spawning, where experimental observations of the efficiency of fertilization rates significantly exceed the data obtained from numerical models that do not take chemotaxis (attraction of sperm gametes by a chemical secreted by egg gametes) into account. We consider the case of the weakly coupled quadratic reaction term, which is the most natural from the biological point of view and was left open. The result is that similarly to higher power coupling, the chemotaxis plays a crucial role in ensuring efficiency of reaction. However, mathematically, the picture is quite different in the qua...

  4. A3 Adenosine Receptors Modulate Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1a Expression in Human A375 Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Merighi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 is a key regulator of genes crucial to many aspects of cancer biology. The purine nucleoside, adenosine, accumulates within many tissues under hypoxic conditions, including that of tumors. Because the levels of both HIF-1 and adenosine are elevated within the hypoxic environment of solid tumors, we investigated whether adenosine may regulate HIF-1. Here we show that, under hypoxic conditions (< 2% 02, adenosine upregulates HIF-1α protein expression in a dose-dependent and timedependent manner, exclusively through the A3 receptor subtype. The response to adenosine was generated at the cell surface because the inhibition of A3 receptor expression, by using small interfering RNA, abolished nucleoside effects. A3 receptor stimulation in hypoxia also increases angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2 protein accumulation through the induction of HIF-1α. In particular, we found that A3 receptor stimulation activates p44/p42 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, which are required for A3-induced increase of HIF-1a and Ang-2. Collectively, these results suggest a cooperation between hypoxic and adenosine signals that ultimately may lead to the increase in HIF-1-mediated effects in cancer cells.

  5. Effect of 2-(6-cyano-1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine on ocular blood flow in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Takashi; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2007-02-27

    Previously, we reported that a relatively selective adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist 2-(6-cyano-1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine (2-CN-Ado) elicited ocular hypotension in rabbits (Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 2005;97:501-509). In the present study, we investigated the effect of 2-CN-Ado on ocular blood flow in rabbit eyes. An intravitreal injection of 2-CN-Ado increased ocular blood flow, measured by a non-contact laser flowmeter. 2-CN-Ado-induced increase in ocular blood flow was accompanied with the retinal vasodilation. The increase in ocular blood flow was inhibited by an adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist 1,3,7-trimethyl-8-(3-chlorostyryl)xanthine, but not by an adenosine A(2B) receptor antagonist alloxazine or an adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine. The repetitive applications of topical 2-CN-Ado twice a day for 7 days produced a persistent increase in ocular blood flow with ocular hypotension. These results suggest that 2-CN-Ado increases the ocular blood flow mainly via adenosine A(2A) receptor, and that the topical application of 2-CN-Ado for several days not only increases the ocular blood flow but also prolong ocular hypotension, indicating that 2-CN-Ado may be a useful lead compound for the treatment of ischemic retinal diseases such as glaucoma.

  6. Chemotaxis toward phytoplankton drives organic matter partitioning among marine bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smriga, Steven; Fernandez, Vicente I; Mitchell, James G; Stocker, Roman

    2016-02-09

    The microenvironment surrounding individual phytoplankton cells is often rich in dissolved organic matter (DOM), which can attract bacteria by chemotaxis. These "phycospheres" may be prominent sources of resource heterogeneity in the ocean, affecting the growth of bacterial populations and the fate of DOM. However, these effects remain poorly quantified due to a lack of quantitative ecological frameworks. Here, we used video microscopy to dissect with unprecedented resolution the chemotactic accumulation of marine bacteria around individual Chaetoceros affinis diatoms undergoing lysis. The observed spatiotemporal distribution of bacteria was used in a resource utilization model to map the conditions under which competition between different bacterial groups favors chemotaxis. The model predicts that chemotactic, copiotrophic populations outcompete nonmotile, oligotrophic populations during diatom blooms and bloom collapse conditions, resulting in an increase in the ratio of motile to nonmotile cells and in the succession of populations. Partitioning of DOM between the two populations is strongly dependent on the overall concentration of bacteria and the diffusivity of different DOM substances, and within each population, the growth benefit from phycospheres is experienced by only a small fraction of cells. By informing a DOM utilization model with highly resolved behavioral data, the hybrid approach used here represents a new path toward the elusive goal of predicting the consequences of microscale interactions in the ocean.

  7. Chemotaxis of Dictyostelium discoideum: collective oscillation of cellular contacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Schäfer

    Full Text Available Chemotactic responses of Dictyostelium discoideum cells to periodic self-generated signals of extracellular cAMP comprise a large number of intricate morphological changes on different length scales. Here, we scrutinized chemotaxis of single Dictyostelium discoideum cells under conditions of starvation using a variety of optical, electrical and acoustic methods. Amebas were seeded on gold electrodes displaying impedance oscillations that were simultaneously analyzed by optical video microscopy to relate synchronous changes in cell density, morphology, and distance from the surface to the transient impedance signal. We found that starved amebas periodically reduce their overall distance from the surface producing a larger impedance and higher total fluorescence intensity in total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Therefore, we propose that the dominant sources of the observed impedance oscillations observed on electric cell-substrate impedance sensing electrodes are periodic changes of the overall cell-substrate distance of a cell. These synchronous changes of the cell-electrode distance were also observed in the oscillating signal of acoustic resonators covered with amebas. We also found that periodic cell-cell aggregation into transient clusters correlates with changes in the cell-substrate distance and might also contribute to the impedance signal. It turned out that cell-cell contacts as well as cell-substrate contacts form synchronously during chemotaxis of Dictyostelium discoideum cells.

  8. Nematode Chemotaxis: Gradual Turns, Sharp Turns, and Modulated Turn Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amar; Padmanabhan, Venkat; Rumbaugh, Kendra; Vanapalli, Siva; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2013-03-01

    We examine strategies used by the soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans for chemotaxis in complex environments. The proposed description is based on our recently developed piecewise-harmonic-curvature model of nematode locomotion [PLoS ONE, 7(7) e40121 (2012)], where random harmonic-curvature modes represent elementary locomotory movements. We show that the previously described gradual-turn and sharp-turn chemotaxis strategies can be unified in our model. The gradual-turn mechanism relies on crawling amplitude changes commensurate with the undulation frequency. The sharp-turn mechanism consists in modulation of the frequency of jumps to large-amplitude modes. We hypothesize that there exists a third strategy, where the nematode adjusts the variance of the amplitude distribution. Such adjustments result in a modulation of the magnitude of random turns, with smaller turns performed when the nematode moves toward the increasing chemoatractant concentration. Experiments are proposed to determine if the third strategy is present in the nematode behavior. This work was supported by NSF grant No. CBET 1059745.

  9. Phentolamine prevents the adverse effects of adenosine on glycolysis and mechanical function in isolated working rat hearts subjected to antecedent ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegan, B A; Gandhi, M; Clanachan, A S

    2000-06-01

    Adenosine inhibits glycolysis from exogenous glucose, reduces proton production and enhances post-ischemic left ventricular minute work (LV work) following ischemia in isolated working rat hearts perfused with glucose and fatty acids. In hearts partially depleted of glycogen by antecedent ischemic stress (AIS)--two cycles of ischemia (10 min) and reperfusion (5 min)--adenosine stimulates rather than inhibits glycolysis, increases proton production and worsens recovery of post-ischemic LV work. We determined if the switch in adenosine effect on glycolysis and recovery of LV work following ischemia in hearts subject to AIS was due to the reduction in glycogen content per se or because of alpha-adrenoceptor stimulation. One series of hearts underwent a 35-min period of substrate-free Langendorff perfusion (substrate-free glycogen depletion; SFGD) and a second series of hearts was subjected to AIS. Both series of hearts had a similar glycogen content (approximately 70 micromol/g dry wt) prior to drug treatment. In SFGD hearts perfused aerobically, adenosine (500 microM) inhibited glycolysis from exogenous glucose and reduced proton production. In SFGD hearts reperfused after prolonged ischemia, adenosine exerted similar effects on glucose metabolism and enhanced recovery of post-ischemic LV work (87.2 +/- 2.2% of preischemic values) relative to untreated hearts (25.9 +/- 13.3% of preischemic values). In AIS hearts perfused aerobically or subject to ischemia and reperfusion, phentolamine (1 microM) given in combination with adenosine, prevented adenosine-induced stimulation of glycolysis from exogenous glucose and reduced calculated proton production from glucose. Recoveries of post-ischemic LV work in AIS hearts for untreated, adenosine, phentolamine and adenosine/phentolamine groups were 34.4 +/- 11.4%, 8.6 +/- 3.9%, 16.3 +/- 13.5% and 73.2 +/- 13.1% respectively, of preischemic values. Glycogen depletion in the absence of ischemia does not switch the effect of

  10. The role of adenosine in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anisur

    2009-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system manifested by cognitive and memory deterioration, a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms, behavioral disturbances, and progressive impairment of daily life activities. Current pharmacotherapies are restricted to symptomatic interventions but do not prevent progressive neuronal degeneration. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are needed to intervene with these progressive pathological processes. In the past several years adenosine, a ubiquitously released purine ribonucleoside, has become important for its neuromodulating capability and its emerging positive experimental effects in neurodegenerative diseases. Recent research suggests that adenosine receptors play important roles in the modulation of cognitive function. The present paper attempts to review published reports and data from different studies showing the evidence of a relationship between adenosinergic function and AD-related cognitive deficits. Epidemiological studies have found an association between coffee (a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist) consumption and improved cognitive function in AD patients and in the elderly. Long-term administration of caffeine in transgenic animal models showed a reduced amyloid burden in brain with better cognitive performance. Antagonists of adenosine A2A receptors mimic these beneficial effects of caffeine on cognitive function. Neuronal cell cultures with amyloid beta in the presence of an A2A receptor antagonist completely prevented amyloid beta-induced neurotoxicity. These findings suggest that the adenosinergic system constitutes a new therapeutic target for AD, and caffeine and A2A receptor antagonists may have promise to manage cognitive dysfunction in AD.

  11. Collective Signal Processing in Cluster Chemotaxis: Roles of Adaptation, Amplification, and Co-attraction in Collective Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camley, Brian A; Zimmermann, Juliane; Levine, Herbert; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2016-07-01

    Single eukaryotic cells commonly sense and follow chemical gradients, performing chemotaxis. Recent experiments and theories, however, show that even when single cells do not chemotax, clusters of cells may, if their interactions are regulated by the chemoattractant. We study this general mechanism of "collective guidance" computationally with models that integrate stochastic dynamics for individual cells with biochemical reactions within the cells, and diffusion of chemical signals between the cells. We show that if clusters of cells use the well-known local excitation, global inhibition (LEGI) mechanism to sense chemoattractant gradients, the speed of the cell cluster becomes non-monotonic in the cluster's size-clusters either larger or smaller than an optimal size will have lower speed. We argue that the cell cluster speed is a crucial readout of how the cluster processes chemotactic signals; both amplification and adaptation will alter the behavior of cluster speed as a function of size. We also show that, contrary to the assumptions of earlier theories, collective guidance does not require persistent cell-cell contacts and strong short range adhesion. If cell-cell adhesion is absent, and the cluster cohesion is instead provided by a co-attraction mechanism, e.g. chemotaxis toward a secreted molecule, collective guidance may still function. However, new behaviors, such as cluster rotation, may also appear in this case. Co-attraction and adaptation allow for collective guidance that is robust to varying chemoattractant concentrations while not requiring strong cell-cell adhesion.

  12. The role of plasma adenosine deaminase in chemoattractant-stimulated oxygen radical production in neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälvegren, Hanna; Fridfeldt, Jonna; Bengtsson, Torbjörn

    2010-06-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) has a role in many immunity mediated disorders, such as asthma, tuberculosis and coronary artery disease. This study aims to investigate the ability of plasma ADA to modulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neutrophils, and examine the involvement of adenosine and the cyclic AMP signaling pathway in this process. Neutrophils were stimulated, in the absence or presence of plasma, with the chemotactic peptide fMLP (formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine), and the ROS production was determined with luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. Activity of ADA was measured spectrophotometrically. Plasma dose-dependently amplified the ROS generation in fMLP-stimulated neutrophils. In parallel, incubation of neutrophils in plasma elevated the total ADA-activity approximately 10 times from 1.3 U/ml to 12 U/ml. Inhibition of ADA, or type IV phosphodiesterases, significantly lowered the plasma-mediated ROS production. Furthermore, the high-affinity adenosine A(1) receptor antagonists DPCPX and 8-phenyltheophylline markedly inhibited the plasma-induced respiratory burst in neutrophils, suggesting an A(1) receptor-mediated mechanism. This study suggests that plasma ADA amplifies the release of toxic oxygen radicals from neutrophils through a downregulation of the inhibitory adenosine/cAMP-system and an enhanced activation of the stimulatory adenosine A(1)-receptor. This mechanism has probably a crucial role in regulating neutrophil function and in the defence against microbial infections. However, a sustained neutrophil activation could also contribute to inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. RpoS and quorum sensing control expression and polar localization of Vibrio cholerae chemotaxis cluster III proteins in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringgaard, Simon; Hubbard, Troy; Mandlik, Anjali; Davis, Brigid M; Waldor, Matthew K

    2015-08-01

    The diarrheal pathogen Vibrio cholerae contains three gene clusters that encode chemotaxis-related proteins, but only cluster II appears to be required for chemotaxis. Here, we present the first characterization of V. cholerae's 'cluster III' chemotaxis system. We found that cluster III proteins assemble into foci at bacterial poles, like those formed by cluster II proteins, but the two systems assemble independently and do not colocalize. Cluster III proteins are expressed in vitro during stationary phase and in conjunction with growth arrest linked to carbon starvation. This expression, as well as expression in vivo in suckling rabbits, is dependent upon RpoS. V. cholerae's CAI-1 quorum sensing (QS) system is also required for cluster III expression in stationary phase and modulates its expression in vivo, but is not required for cluster III expression in response to carbon starvation. Surprisingly, even though the CAI-1 and AI-2 QS systems are thought to feed into the same signaling pathway, the AI-2 system inhibited cluster III gene expression, revealing that the outputs of the two QS systems are not always the same. The distinctions between genetic determinants of cluster III expression in vitro and in vivo highlight the distinctive nature of the in vivo environment.

  14. Interleukin-17 (IL-17 Expression Is Reduced during Acute Myocardial Infarction: Role on Chemokine Receptor Expression in Monocytes and Their in Vitro Chemotaxis towards Chemokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guro Valen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The roles of immune cells and their soluble products during myocardial infarction (MI are not completely understood. Here, we observed that the percentages of IL-17, but not IL-22, producing cells are reduced in mice splenocytes after developing MI. To correlate this finding with the functional activity of IL-17, we sought to determine its effect on monocytes. In particular, we presumed that this cytokine might affect the chemotaxis of monocytes important for cardiac inflammation and remodeling. We observed that IL-17 tends to reduce the expression of two major chemokine receptors involved in monocyte chemotaxis, namely CCR2 and CXCR4. Further analysis showed that monocytes pretreated with IL-17 have reduced in vitro chemotaxis towards the ligand for CCR2, i.e., MCP-1/CCL2, and the ligand for CXCR4, i.e., SDF-1α/CXCL12. Our results support the possibility that IL-17 may be beneficial in MI, and this could be due to its ability to inhibit the migration of monocytes.

  15. AMP is an adenosine A1 receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittiner, Joseph E; Korboukh, Ilia; Hull-Ryde, Emily A; Jin, Jian; Janzen, William P; Frye, Stephen V; Zylka, Mark J

    2012-02-17

    Numerous receptors for ATP, ADP, and adenosine exist; however, it is currently unknown whether a receptor for the related nucleotide adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) exists. Using a novel cell-based assay to visualize adenosine receptor activation in real time, we found that AMP and a non-hydrolyzable AMP analog (deoxyadenosine 5'-monophosphonate, ACP) directly activated the adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1)R). In contrast, AMP only activated the adenosine A(2B) receptor (A(2B)R) after hydrolysis to adenosine by ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) or prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, ACPP). Adenosine and AMP were equipotent human A(1)R agonists in our real-time assay and in a cAMP accumulation assay. ACP also depressed cAMP levels in mouse cortical neurons through activation of endogenous A(1)R. Non-selective purinergic receptor antagonists (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid and suramin) did not block adenosine- or AMP-evoked activation. Moreover, mutation of His-251 in the human A(1)R ligand binding pocket reduced AMP potency without affecting adenosine potency. In contrast, mutation of a different binding pocket residue (His-278) eliminated responses to AMP and to adenosine. Taken together, our study indicates that the physiologically relevant nucleotide AMP is a full agonist of A(1)R. In addition, our study suggests that some of the physiological effects of AMP may be direct, and not indirect through ectonucleotidases that hydrolyze this nucleotide to adenosine.

  16. Adenosine: An immune modulator of inflammatory bowel diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeff Huaqing Ye; Vazhaikkurichi M Rajendran

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common and lifelong disabling gastrointestinal disease. Emerging treatments are being developed to target inflammatory cytokines which initiate and perpetuate the immune response. Adenosine is an important modulator of inflammation and its anti-inflammatory effects have been well established in humans as well as in animal models. High extracellular adenosine suppresses and resolves chronic inflammation in IBD models. High extracellular adenosine levels could be achieved by enhanced adenosine absorption and increased de novo synthesis. Increased adenosine concentration leads to activation of the A2a receptor on the cell surface of immune and epithelial cells that would be a potential therapeutic target for chronic intestinal inflammation. Adenosine is transported via concentrative nucleoside transporter and equilibrative nucleoside transporter transporters that are localized in apical and basolateral membranes of intestinal epithelial cells, respectively. Increased extracellular adenosine levels activate the A2a receptor, which would reduce cytokines responsible for chronic inflammation.

  17. Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP)-Activated Protein Kinase: A New Target for Nutraceutical Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Aguilar, Fabiola; Pavillard, Luis E; Giampieri, Francesca; Bullón, Pedro; Cordero, Mario D

    2017-01-29

    Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important energy sensor which is activated by increases in adenosine monophosphate (AMP)/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratio and/or adenosine diphosphate (ADP)/ATP ratio, and increases different metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, glucose transport and mitochondrial biogenesis. In this sense, AMPK maintains cellular energy homeostasis by induction of catabolism and inhibition of ATP-consuming biosynthetic pathways to preserve ATP levels. Several studies indicate a reduction of AMPK sensitivity to cellular stress during aging and this could impair the downstream signaling and the maintenance of the cellular energy balance and the stress resistance. However, several diseases have been related with an AMPK dysfunction. Alterations in AMPK signaling decrease mitochondrial biogenesis, increase cellular stress and induce inflammation, which are typical events of the aging process and have been associated to several pathological processes. In this sense, in the last few years AMPK has been identified as a very interesting target and different nutraceutical compounds are being studied for an interesting potential effect on AMPK induction. In this review, we will evaluate the interaction of the different nutraceutical compounds to induce the AMPK phosphorylation and the applications in diseases such as cancer, type II diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases or cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Chemokines in the corpus luteum: Implications of leukocyte chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liptak Amy R

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chemokines are small molecular weight peptides responsible for adhesion, activation, and recruitment of leukocytes into tissues. Leukocytes are thought to influence follicular atresia, ovulation, and luteal function. Many studies in recent years have focused attention on the characterization of leukocyte populations within the ovary, the importance of leukocyte-ovarian cell interactions, and more recently, the mechanisms of ovarian leukocyte recruitment. Information about the role of chemokines and leukocyte trafficking (chemotaxis during ovarian function is important to understanding paracrine-autocrine relationships shared between reproductive and immune systems. Recent advances regarding chemokine expression and leukocyte accumulation within the ovulatory follicle and the corpus luteum are the subject of this mini-review.

  19. A model of excitation and adaptation in bacterial chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, P A; Parkinson, J S; Othmer, H G

    1997-07-08

    Bacterial chemotaxis is widely studied because of its accessibility and because it incorporates processes that are important in a number of sensory systems: signal transduction, excitation, adaptation, and a change in behavior, all in response to stimuli. Quantitative data on the change in behavior are available for this system, and the major biochemical steps in the signal transduction/processing pathway have been identified. We have incorporated recent biochemical data into a mathematical model that can reproduce many of the major features of the intracellular response, including the change in the level of chemotactic proteins to step and ramp stimuli such as those used in experimental protocols. The interaction of the chemotactic proteins with the motor is not modeled, but we can estimate the degree of cooperativity needed to produce the observed gain under the assumption that the chemotactic proteins interact directly with the motor proteins.

  20. Optical tweezers force measurements to study parasites chemotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Thomaz, A. A.; Pozzo, L. Y.; Fontes, A.; Almeida, D. B.; Stahl, C. V.; Santos-Mallet, J. R.; Gomes, S. A. O.; Feder, D.; Ayres, D. C.; Giorgio, S.; Cesar, C. L.

    2009-07-01

    In this work, we propose a methodology to study microorganisms chemotaxis in real time using an Optical Tweezers system. Optical Tweezers allowed real time measurements of the force vectors, strength and direction, of living parasites under chemical or other kinds of gradients. This seems to be the ideal tool to perform observations of taxis response of cells and microorganisms with high sensitivity to capture instantaneous responses to a given stimulus. Forces involved in the movement of unicellular parasites are very small, in the femto-pico-Newton range, about the same order of magnitude of the forces generated in an Optical Tweezers. We applied this methodology to investigate the Leishmania amazonensis (L. amazonensis) and Trypanossoma cruzi (T. cruzi) under distinct situations.

  1. Computational Chemotaxis in Ants and Bacteria over Dynamic Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Vitorino; Rosa, A C; Abraham, A

    2007-01-01

    Chemotaxis can be defined as an innate behavioural response by an organism to a directional stimulus, in which bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment. This is important for bacteria to find food (e.g., glucose) by swimming towards the highest concentration of food molecules, or to flee from poisons. Based on self-organized computational approaches and similar stigmergic concepts we derive a novel swarm intelligent algorithm. What strikes from these observations is that both eusocial insects as ant colonies and bacteria have similar natural mechanisms based on stigmergy in order to emerge coherent and sophisticated patterns of global collective behaviour. Keeping in mind the above characteristics we will present a simple model to tackle the collective adaptation of a social swarm based on real ant colony behaviors (SSA algorithm) for tracking extrema in dynamic environments and highly multimodal complex functions des...

  2. Identification of FAM3D as a new endogenous chemotaxis agonist for the formyl peptide receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinjian; Xu, Enquan; Liang, Weiwei; Pei, Xiaolei; Chen, Dixin; Zheng, Danfeng; Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Can; Wang, Pingzhang; She, Shaoping; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Jing; Mo, Xiaoning; Zhang, Yingmei; Ma, Dalong; Wang, Ying

    2016-05-01

    The family with sequence similarity 3 (FAM3) gene family is a cytokine-like gene family with four members FAM3A, FAM3B, FAM3C and FAM3D. In this study, we found that FAM3D strongly chemoattracted human peripheral blood neutrophils and monocytes. To identify the FAM3D receptor, we used chemotaxis, receptor internalization, Ca(2+) flux and radioligand-binding assays in FAM3D-stimulated HEK293 cells that transiently expressed formyl peptide receptor (FPR)1 or FPR2 to show that FAM3D was a high affinity ligand of these receptors, both of which were highly expressed on the surface of neutrophils, and monocytes and macrophages. After being injected into the mouse peritoneal cavity, FAM3D chemoattracted CD11b+ Ly6G+ neutrophils in a short time. In response to FAM3D stimulation, phosphorylated ERK1/2 and phosphorylated p38 MAPK family proteins were upregulated in the mouse neutrophils, and this increase was inhibited upon treatment with an inhibitor of FPR1 or FPR2. FAM3D has been reported to be constitutively expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. We found that FAM3D expression increased significantly during colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium. Taken together, we propose that FAM3D plays a role in gastrointestinal homeostasis and inflammation through its receptors FPR1 and FPR2. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. JAM-A promotes neutrophil chemotaxis by controlling integrin internalization and recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cera, Maria Rosaria; Fabbri, Monica; Molendini, Cinzia; Corada, Monica; Orsenigo, Fabrizio; Rehberg, Markus; Reichel, Christoph A; Krombach, Fritz; Pardi, Ruggero; Dejana, Elisabetta

    2009-01-15

    The membrane-associated adhesion molecule JAM-A is required for neutrophil infiltration in inflammatory or ischemic tissues. JAM-A expressed in both endothelial cells and neutrophils has such a role, but the mechanism of action remains elusive. Here we show that JAM-A has a cell-autonomous role in neutrophil chemotaxis both in vivo and in vitro, which is independent of the interaction of neutrophils with endothelial cells. On activated neutrophils, JAM-A concentrates in a polarized fashion at the leading edge and uropod. Surprisingly, a significant amount of this protein is internalized in intracellular endosomal-like vesicles where it codistributes with integrin beta1. Clustering of beta1 integrin leads to JAM-A co-clustering, whereas clustering of JAM-A does not induce integrin association. Neutrophils derived from JAM-A-null mice are unable to correctly internalize beta1 integrins upon chemotactic stimuli and this causes impaired uropod retraction and cell motility. Consistently, inhibition of integrin internalization upon treatment with BAPTA-AM induces a comparable phenotype. These data indicate that JAM-A is required for the correct internalization and recycling of integrins during cell migration and might explain why, in its absence, the directional migration of neutrophils towards an inflammatory stimulus is markedly impaired.

  4. Twenty-four-hour changes of S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine adenosine and their metabolizing enzymes in rat liver; possible physiological significance in phospholipid methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagoya de Sánchez, V; Hernández-Muñoz, R; Sánchez, L; Vidrio, S; Yáñez, L; Suárez, J

    1991-01-01

    1. The metabolic control of adenosine concentration in the rat liver through the 24-hr cycle is related to the activity of adenosine-metabolizing enzymes [5'-nucleotidase (5'N), adenosine deaminase (A.D.), adenosine kinase (A.K.) and S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAH-H)]. 2. Two peaks of adenosine were observed, one at 12:00 hr caused by high activity of 5'N and SAH-H, and the other at 02:00 hr, caused by a decrease in purine catabolism and purine utilization, low activity of SAH-H and de novo purine formation. 3. The similarity of the adenosine and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) profiles through the 24-hr cycle suggests a role of adenosine in transmethylation reactions, because, during the night (02:00 hr), the metabolic conditions favor the formation and accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), with consequent inhibition of transmethylation reactions. 4. In the 24-hr variation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), the lowest ratio of PC/PE was observed at 24:00-02:00 hr when SAH concentration is high, whereas the highest PC/PE ratio occurs at the same time as one of the SAM/SAH ratio maxima.

  5. Adenosine activates ATP-sensitive potassium channels in arterial myocytes via A2 receptors and cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleppisch, T; Nelson, M T

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism by which the endogenous vasodilator adenosine causes ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels in arterial smooth muscle to open was investigated by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Adenosine induced voltage-independent, potassium-selective currents, which were inhibited by glibenclamide, a blocker of KATP currents. Glibenclamide-sensitive currents were also activated by the selective adenosine A2-receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxethyl)-phenethylamino-5'-N- ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS-21680), whereas 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA), a selective adenosine A1-receptor agonist, failed to induce potassium currents. Glibenclamide-sensitive currents induced by adenosine and CGS-21680 were largely reduced by blockers of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (Rp-cAMP[S], H-89, protein kinase A inhibitor peptide). Therefore, we conclude that adenosine can activate KATP currents in arterial smooth muscle through the following pathway: (i) Adenosine stimulates A2 receptors, which activates adenylyl cyclase; (ii) the resulting increase intracellular cAMP stimulates protein kinase A, which, probably through a phosphorylation step, opens KATP channels. PMID:8618917

  6. Role of Microglia Adenosine A2A Receptors in Retinal and Brain Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation mediated by microglial cells in the brain has been commonly associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Whether this microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is cause or consequence of neurodegeneration is still a matter of controversy. However, it is unequivocal that chronic neuroinflammation plays a role in disease progression and halting that process represents a potential therapeutic strategy. The neuromodulator adenosine emerges as a promising targeting candidate based on its ability to regulate microglial proliferation, chemotaxis, and reactivity through the activation of its G protein coupled A2A receptor (A2AR. This is in striking agreement with the ability of A2AR blockade to control several brain diseases. Retinal degenerative diseases have been also associated with microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, but the role of A2AR has been scarcely explored. This review aims to compare inflammatory features of Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases with glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy, discussing the therapeutic potential of A2AR in these degenerative conditions.

  7. Construction and Expression of Eukaryotic Expressing Vector pCH510 of Polypeptide CH50 and Its Chemotaxis and Antitumor Function by in vivo Transfection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东; 冯作化; 叶仕桥; 张桂梅; 张慧; 黄波; 肖徽

    2001-01-01

    To construct an eukaryotic expressing vector that expresses CH50, a recombinant CellⅠ-HepⅡ bifunctional-domain polypeptide of human fibronectin, and to investigate the chemotaxis to immune cells and the inhibitory effect on the growth of tumor by the expression of the plasmid in vivo, the plasmid was constructed by DNA recombination. Gene transfection was performed in vitro and in vivo. The expressed product was identified by Western blot. The chemotaxis after gene transfection in vivo was observed by histotomy and staining of muscle tissues. The inhibition of gene transfection on solid tumor was observed in mice. The results showed that plasmid pCH510 was constructed by the recombination of the 5′-terminal noncoding region and signal peptide coding region of human fibronectin cDNA and cDNA fragment coding CH50 polypeptide with a 3′-terminal noncoding region of human FN cDNA, and the insertion of the recombinated fragment into plasmid pcDNA3.1. After transfection with plasmid pCH510, NIH3T3 cells could produce CH50 polypeptide. The transfection of plasmid pCH510 by the injection in muscle of mouse could produce the effects of chemotaxis on immune cells and the inhibition on the growth of solid tumor. It is concluded that plasmid pCH510 can express in cells and in vivo in mouse. The expression of the plasmid in vivo has a chemotactic effect on immune cells and can inhibit the growth of solid tumor.

  8. Aminopyrimidine derivatives as adenosine antagonists / Janke Kleynhans

    OpenAIRE

    Kleynhans, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Aims of this project - The aim of this study was to design and synthesise novel 2-aminopyrimidine derivatives as potential adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonists. Background and rationale - Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder (after Alzheimer’s disease) and is characterised by the selective death of the dopaminergic neurons of the nigro-striatal pathway. Distinctive motor symptoms include bradykinesia, muscle rigidity and tremor, while non-m...

  9. Effects of AMP579 and adenosine on L-type Ca2+ current in isolated rat ventricular myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong WANG; Bo-wei WU; Dong-mei WU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effects of AMP579 and adenosine on L-type Ca2+ current (ICa- L) in rat ventricular myocytes and explore the mechanism by which AMP579 acts on ICa-L. Methods: ICa-L was recorded by patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. Results: Adenosine (10 nmol/L to 50 μmol/L) showed no effect on basal ICa- L, but it inhibited the ICa-L induced by isoproterenol 10 nmol/L in a concen tration-dependent manner with the IC50 of 13.06 μmol/L. Similar to adenosine,AMP579 also showed an inhibitory effect on the ICa-L induced by isoproterenol.AMP579 and adenosine (both in 10 μmol/L) suppressed isoproterenol-induced ICa-L by 11.1% and 5.2%, respectively. In addition, AMP579 had a direct inhibitory effect on basal ICa-L in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 (1.17 μmol/L).PD116948 (30 μmol/L), an adenosine A1 receptor blocker, showed no action on the inhibitory effect of AMP579 on basal ICa-L. However, GF109203X (0.4 μmol/L), a special protein kinase C (PKC) blocker, could abolish the inhibitory effect of AMP579 on basal ICa-L. So the inhibitory effect of AMP579 on basal ICa-L was induced through activating PKC, but not linked to adenosine A1 receptor. Conclusion:AMP579 shows a stronger inhibitory effect than adenosine on the ICa-L induced by isoproterenol. AMP579 also has a strong inhibitory effect on basal ICa-L in rat ventricular myocytes. Activation of PKC is involved in the inhibitory effect of AMP579 on basal ICa-L at downstream-mechanism.

  10. Numerical study of plume patterns in the chemotaxis-diffusion-convection coupling system

    CERN Document Server

    Deleuze, Yannick; Thiriet, Marc; Sheu, Tony W H

    2015-01-01

    A chemotaxis-diffusion-convection coupling system for describing a form of buoyant convection in which the fluid develops convection cells and plume patterns will be investigated numerically in this study. Based on the two-dimensional convective chemotaxis-fluid model proposed in the literature, we developed an upwind finite element method to investigate the pattern formation and the hydrodynamical stability of the system. The numerical simulations illustrate different predicted physical regimes in the system. In the convective regime, the predicted plumes resemble B\\'enard instabilities. Our numerical results show how structured layers of bacteria are formed before bacterium rich plumes fall in the fluid. The plumes have a well defined spectrum of wavelengths and have an exponential growth rate, yet their position can only be predicted in very simple examples. In the chemotactic and diffusive regimes, the effects of chemotaxis are investigated. Our results indicate that the chemotaxis can stabilize the overa...

  11. Qualitative analysis of stationary Keller-Segel chemotaxis models with logistic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Yan, Jingda; Gai, Chunyi

    2016-06-01

    We study the stationary Keller-Segel chemotaxis models with logistic cellular growth over a one-dimensional region subject to the Neumann boundary condition. We show that nonconstant solutions emerge in the sense of Turing's instability as the chemotaxis rate {χ} surpasses a threshold number. By taking the chemotaxis rate as the bifurcation parameter, we carry out bifurcation analysis on the system to obtain the explicit formulas of bifurcation values and small amplitude nonconstant positive solutions. Moreover, we show that solutions stay strictly positive in the continuum of each branch. The stabilities of these steady-state solutions are well studied when the creation and degradation rate of the chemical is assumed to be a linear function. Finally, we investigate the asymptotic behaviors of the monotone steady states. We construct solutions with interesting patterns such as a boundary spike when the chemotaxis rate is large enough and/or the cell motility is small.

  12. An optimal adaptive time-stepping scheme for solving reaction-diffusion-chemotaxis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chichia; Yu, Jui-Ling

    2007-04-01

    Reaction-diffusion-chemotaxis systems have proven to be fairly accurate mathematical models for many pattern formation problems in chemistry and biology. These systems are important for computer simulations of patterns, parameter estimations as well as analysis of the biological systems. To solve reaction-diffusion-chemotaxis systems, efficient and reliable numerical algorithms are essential for pattern generations. In this paper, a general reaction-diffusion-chemotaxis system is considered for specific numerical issues of pattern simulations. We propose a fully explicit discretization combined with a variable optimal time step strategy for solving the reaction-diffusion-chemotaxis system. Theorems about stability and convergence of the algorithm are given to show that the algorithm is highly stable and efficient. Numerical experiment results on a model problem are given for comparison with other numerical methods. Simulations on two real biological experiments will also be shown.

  13. Phosphodiesterase 2 negatively regulates adenosine-induced transcription of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, Edyta; Kuropatwa, Marianna; Kurowska, Ewa; Ciekot, Jaroslaw; Klopotowska, Dagmara; Matuszyk, Janusz

    2014-07-05

    Adenosine induces expression of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene in PC12 cells. However, it is suggested that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits expression of this gene. Using real-time PCR and luciferase reporter assays we found that ANP significantly decreases the adenosine-induced transcription of the TH gene. Results of measurements of cyclic nucleotide concentrations indicated that ANP-induced accumulation of cGMP inhibits the adenosine-induced increase in cAMP level. Using selective phosphodiesterase 2 (PDE2) inhibitors and a synthetic cGMP analog activating PDE2, we found that PDE2 is involved in coupling the ANP-triggered signal to the cAMP metabolism. We have established that ANP-induced elevated levels of cGMP as well as cGMP analog stimulate hydrolytic activity of PDE2, leading to inhibition of adenosine-induced transcription of the TH gene. We conclude that ANP mediates negative regulation of TH gene expression via stimulation of PDE2-dependent cAMP breakdown in PC12 cells.

  14. Selective deletion of the A1 adenosine receptor abolishes heart-rate slowing effects of intravascular adenosine in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Koeppen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Intravenous adenosine induces temporary bradycardia. This is due to the activation of extracellular adenosine receptors (ARs. While adenosine can signal through any of four ARs (A1AR, A2AAR, A2BAR, A3AR, previous ex vivo studies implicated the A1AR in the heart-rate slowing effects. Here, we used comparative genetic in vivo studies to address the contribution of individual ARs to the heart-rate slowing effects of intravascular adenosine. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied gene-targeted mice for individual ARs to define their in vivo contribution to the heart-rate slowing effects of adenosine. Anesthetized mice were treated with a bolus of intravascular adenosine, followed by measurements of heart-rate and blood pressure via a carotid artery catheter. These studies demonstrated dose-dependent slowing of the heart rate with adenosine treatment in wild-type, A2AAR(-/-, A2BAR(-/-, or A3AR(-/- mice. In contrast, adenosine-dependent slowing of the heart-rate was completely abolished in A1AR(-/- mice. Moreover, pre-treatment with a specific A1AR antagonist (DPCPX attenuated the heart-rate slowing effects of adenosine in wild-type, A2AAR(-/-, or A2BAR(-/- mice, but did not alter hemodynamic responses of A1AR(-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: The present studies combine pharmacological and genetic in vivo evidence for a selective role of the A1AR in slowing the heart rate during adenosine bolus injection.

  15. [The involvement of adenosine and adenosine deaminase in experimental myocardial infarct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratone, A; Busuioc, A; Roşca, V; Bazgan, L; Popa, M; Hăulică, I

    1989-01-01

    By the ligature of the left coronary artery in the rat anesthetized with nembutal (10 mg/100 i.p.) a significant increase of the 5'-nucleotidase activity (Wooton method) was noticed 10 minutes after the left ventricle infarction (from an average value of 1038.5 +/- 187 mU/g tissue to 1537 +/- 225 mU/g fresh tissue). The adenosine desaminase levels spectrophotometrically determined by Denstedt technique, do not appear significantly modified 10 or 30 minutes after the left ventricle infarction. The chromatographically determined adenosine levels, by HPLC technique, decrease from the average value of 11.63 +/- 1.4 micrograms/mg PT to 8.60 +/- 1.0 micrograms/mg PT 30 minutes after infarction. The observed changes are explained by the conditions of hypoxia in the infarcted ventricle which lead to the raise in adenosine levels by activating the 5'-nucleotidase and their depression by a very fast metabolism of the same substance.

  16. Effects of flow and diffusion on chemotaxis studies in a microfabricated gradient generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Glenn M; Sai, Jiqing; Richmond, Ann; Stremler, Mark; Chung, Chang Y; Wikswo, John P

    2005-06-01

    An understanding of chemotaxis at the level of cell-molecule interactions is important because of its relevance in cancer, immunology, and microbiology, just to name a few. This study quantifies the effects of flow on cell migration during chemotaxis in a microfluidic device. The chemotaxis gradient within the device was modeled and compared to experimental results. Chemotaxis experiments were performed using the chemokine CXCL8 under different flow rates with human HL60 promyelocytic leukemia cells expressing a transfected CXCR2 chemokine receptor. Cell trajectories were separated into x and y axis components. When the microchannel flow rates were increased, cell trajectories along the x axis were found to be significantly affected (p < 0.05). Total migration distances were not affected. These results should be considered when using similar microfluidic devices for chemotaxis studies so that flow bias can be minimized. It may be possible to use this effect to estimate the total tractile force exerted by a cell during chemotaxis, which would be particularly valuable for cells whose tractile forces are below the level of detection with standard techniques of traction-force microscopy.

  17. Quantification of chemotaxis-related alkane accumulation in Acinetobacter baylyi using Raman microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanbing; L Martin, Francis Luke; Zhang, Dayi

    2017-03-03

    Alkanes are one of the most widespread contaminants in the natural environment, primarily as a consequence of biological synthesis and oil spills. Many indigenous microbes metabolize alkanes, and the chemotaxis and accumulation in some strains has been identified. For the first time, we apply Raman microspectroscopy to identify such chemotaxis-related affinity, and quantify the alkane concentrations via spectral alterations. Raman spectral alterations were only found for the alkane chemo-attractant bacteria Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, not for Pseudomonas fluorescence, which exhibits limited chemotaxis towards alkane. The significant alterations were attributed to the strong chemotactic ability of A. baylyi enhancing the affinity and accumulation of alkane molecules on cell membranes or cellular internalization. Spectral fingerprints of A. baylyi significantly altered after 1-h exposure to pure alkanes (dodecane or tetradecane) and alkane mixtures (mineral oil or crude oil), but not monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A semi-log linear regression relationship between Raman spectral alterations and alkane concentrations showed its feasibility in quantifying alkane concentration in environmental samples. Pure alkanes or alkane mixtures exhibited different limits of detection and regression slopes, indicating that the chemotaxis-related alkane accumulation in A. baylyi is dependent on the carbon chain length. This work provides a novel biospectroscopy approach to characterize the chemotaxis-related alkane bioaccumulation, and has immense potential for fast and high-throughput screening bacterial chemotaxis.

  18. L-fucose influences chemotaxis and biofilm formation in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Ritika; Nothaft, Harald; Garber, Jolene; Xin Kin, Lin; Stahl, Martin; Flint, Annika; van Vliet, Arnoud H M; Stintzi, Alain; Szymanski, Christine M

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are zoonotic pathogens once considered asaccharolytic, but are now known to encode pathways for glucose and fucose uptake/metabolism. For C. jejuni, strains with the fuc locus possess a competitive advantage in animal colonization models. We demonstrate that this locus is present in > 50% of genome-sequenced strains and is prevalent in livestock-associated isolates of both species. To better understand how these campylobacters sense nutrient availability, we examined biofilm formation and chemotaxis to fucose. C. jejuni NCTC11168 forms less biofilms in the presence of fucose, although its fucose permease mutant (fucP) shows no change. In a newly developed chemotaxis assay, both wild-type and the fucP mutant are chemotactic towards fucose. C. jejuni 81-176 naturally lacks the fuc locus and is unable to swim towards fucose. Transfer of the NCTC11168 locus into 81-176 activated fucose uptake and chemotaxis. Fucose chemotaxis also correlated with possession of the pathway for C. jejuni RM1221 (fuc+) and 81116 (fuc-). Systematic mutation of the NCTC11168 locus revealed that Cj0485 is necessary for fucose metabolism and chemotaxis. This study suggests that components for fucose chemotaxis are encoded within the fuc locus, but downstream signals only in fuc + strains, are involved in coordinating fucose availability with biofilm development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Different migration patterns of sea urchin and mouse sperm revealed by a microfluidic chemotaxis device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixin Chang

    Full Text Available Chemotaxis refers to a process whereby cells move up or down a chemical gradient. Sperm chemotaxis is known to be a strategy exploited by marine invertebrates such as sea urchins to reach eggs efficiently in moving water. Less is understood about how or whether chemotaxis is used by mammalian sperm to reach eggs, where fertilization takes place within the confinement of a reproductive tract. In this report, we quantitatively assessed sea urchin and mouse sperm chemotaxis using a recently developed microfluidic model and high-speed imaging. Results demonstrated that sea urchin Arbacia punctulata sperm were chemotactic toward the peptide resact with high chemotactic sensitivity, with an average velocity Vx up the chemical gradient as high as 20% of its average speed (238 μm/s, while mouse sperm displayed no statistically significant chemotactic behavior in progesterone gradients, which had been proposed to guide mammalian sperm toward eggs. This work demonstrates the validity of a microfluidic model for quantitative sperm chemotaxis studies, and reveals a biological insight that chemotaxis up a progesterone gradient may not be a universal strategy for mammalian sperm to reach eggs.

  20. Effects of adenosine agonist R-phenylisopropyl-adenosine on halothane anesthesia and antinociception in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-chun MA; Yan-fen WANG; Chun-sheng FENG; Hua ZHAO; Shuji DOHI

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the antinociceptive effect of adenosine agonist Rphenylisopropyl-adenosine (R-PIA) given to conscious rats by intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intrathecal (IT), and identify the effect of R-PIA on minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of halothane with pretreatment of A1 receptor an tagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) or K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with 24 gauge stainless steel guide cannula using stereotaxic apparatus and ICV method, and an IT catheter (PE-10, 8.5 cm) was inserted into the lumbar subarachnoid space, while the rats were under pentobarbital anesthesia. After one week of recovery from surgery, rats were randomly assigned to one of the following protocols: MAC of halothane, or tail-flick latency. All measurements were performed after R-PIA (0.8-2.0 μg) microinjection into ICV and IT with or without pretreatment of DPCPX or 4-AP. Results: Microinjection of adenosine agonist R PIA in doses of 0.8-2.0 μg into ICV and IT produced a significant dose- and time dependent antinociceptive action as reflected by increasing latency times and ICV administration of adenosine agonist R-PIA (0.8 μg) reducing halothane anes thetic requirements (by 29%). The antinociception and reducing halothane requirements effected by adenosine agonist R-PIA was abolished by DPCPX and 4-AP. Conclusion: ICV and IT administration of adenosine agonist R-PIA produced an antinociceptive effect in a dose-dependent manner and decreased hal othane MAC with painful stimulation through activation of A1 receptor subtype, and the underlying mechanism involves K+ channel activation.

  1. The Role of Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Neurons in Adenosine-Mediated Homeostatic Control of Sleep: Lessons from 192 IgG-Saporin Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinchuk, Anna V.; McCarley, Robert W.; Stenberg, Dag; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Basheer, Radhika

    2013-01-01

    A topic of high current interest and controversy is the basis of the homeostatic sleep response, the increase in non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep and NREM-delta activity following sleep deprivation (SD). Adenosine, which accumulates in the cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) during SD, has been proposed as one of the important homeostatic sleep factors. It is suggested that sleep-inducing effects of adenosine are mediated by inhibiting the wake-active neurons of the BF, including cholinergic neurons. Here we examined the association between SD-induced adenosine release, the homeostatic sleep response and the survival of cholinergic neurons in the BF after injections of the immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin (saporin) in rodents. We correlated SD-induced adenosine level in the BF and the homeostatic sleep response with the cholinergic cell loss 2 weeks after local saporin injections into the BF, as well as 2 and 3 weeks after intracerebroventricular (ICV) saporin injections. Two weeks after local saporin injection there was an 88% cholinergic cell loss, coupled with nearly complete abolition of the SD-induced adenosine increase in the BF, the homeostatic sleep response, and the sleep-inducing effects of BF adenosine infusion. Two weeks after ICV saporin injection there was a 59% cholinergic cell loss, correlated with significant increase in SD-induced adenosine level in the BF and an intact sleep response. Three weeks after ICV saporin injection there was an 87% cholinergic cell loss, nearly complete abolition of the SD-induced adenosine increase in the BF and the homeostatic response, implying that the time course of ICV saporin lesions is a key variable in interpreting experimental results. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that cholinergic neurons in the BF are important for the SD-induced increase in adenosine as well as for its sleep-inducing effects and play a major, although not exclusive, role in sleep homeostasis. PMID:18805464

  2. Functional expression of adenosine A2A and A3 receptors in the mouse dendritic cell line XS-106.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, John M; Reeder, Steve; Rees, Bob; Alexander, Steve; Kendall, Dave

    2003-08-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that adenosine receptors can modulate the function of cells involved in the immune system. For example, human dendritic cells derived from blood monocytes have recently been described to express functional adenosine A1, A2A and A3 receptors. Therefore, in the present study, we have investigated whether the recently established murine dendritic cell line XS-106 expresses functional adenosine receptors. The selective adenosine A3 receptor agonist 1-[2-chloro-6[[(3-iodophenyl)methyl]amino]-9H-purin-9-yl]-1-deoxy-N-methyl-beta-D-ribofuranuronamide (2-Cl-IB-MECA) inhibited forskolin-mediated [3H]cyclic AMP accumulation and stimulated concentration-dependent increases in p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. The selective adenosine A2A receptor agonist 4-[2-[[-6-amino-9-(N-ethyl-beta-D-ribofuranuronamidosyl)-9H-purin-2-yl]amino]ethyl]benzene-propanoic acid (CGS 21680) stimulated a robust increase in [3H]cyclic AMP accumulation and p42/p44 MAPK phosphorylation. In contrast, the selective adenosine A1 receptor agonist CPA (N6-cyclopentyladenosine) did not inhibit forskolin-mediated [3H]cyclic AMP accumulation or stimulate increases in p42/p44 MAPK phosphorylation. These observations suggest that XS-106 cells express functional adenosine A2A and A3 receptors. The non-selective adenosine receptor agonist 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release from XS-106 cells in a concentration-dependent fashion. Furthermore, treatment with Cl-IB-MECA (1 microM) or CGS 21680 (1 microM) alone produced a partial inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha release (when compared to NECA), whereas a combination of both agonists resulted in the inhibition of TNF-alpha release comparable to that observed with NECA alone. Treatment of cells with the adenosine A2A receptor selective antagonists 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a

  3. Protein Kinase A Regulates 3-Phosphatidylinositide Dynamics during Platelet-derived Growth Factor-induced Membrane Ruffling and Chemotaxis*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Paula B.; Campbell, Shirley L.; Baldor, Linda C.; Howe, Alan K.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial regulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is required for chemotaxis in fibroblasts; however, the mechanism(s) by which PKA regulates the cell migration machinery remain largely unknown. Here we report that one function of PKA during platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced chemotaxis was to promote membrane ruffling by regulating phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) dynamics. Inhibition of PKA activity dramatically altered membrane dynamics and attenuated formation of peripheral membrane ruffles in response to PDGF. PKA inhibition also significantly decreased the number and size of PIP3-rich membrane ruffles in response to uniform stimulation and to gradients of PDGF. This ruffling defect was quantified using a newly developed method, based on computer vision edge-detection algorithms. PKA inhibition caused a marked attenuation in the bulk accumulation of PIP3 following PDGF stimulation, without effects on PI3-kinase (PI3K) activity. The deficits in PIP3 dynamics correlated with a significant inhibition of growth factor-induced membrane recruitment of endogenous Akt and Rac activation in PKA-inhibited cells. Simultaneous inhibition of PKA and Rac had an additive inhibitory effect on growth factor-induced ruffling dynamics. Conversely, the expression of a constitutively active Rac allele was able to rescue the defect in membrane ruffling and restore the localization of a fluorescent PIP3 marker to membrane ruffles in PKA-inhibited cells, even in the absence of PI3K activity. These data demonstrate that, like Rac, PKA contributes to PIP3 and membrane dynamics independently of direct regulation of PI3K activity and suggest that modulation of PIP3/3-phosphatidylinositol (3-PI) lipids represents a major target for PKA in the regulation of PDGF-induced chemotactic events. PMID:18936099

  4. The Role of Adenosine Signaling in Headache: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan T. Fried

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is the third most prevalent disease on the planet, yet our understanding of its mechanisms and pathophysiology is surprisingly incomplete. Recent studies have built upon decades of evidence that adenosine, a purine nucleoside that can act as a neuromodulator, is involved in pain transmission and sensitization. Clinical evidence and rodent studies have suggested that adenosine signaling also plays a critical role in migraine headache. This is further supported by the widespread use of caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, in several headache treatments. In this review, we highlight evidence that supports the involvement of adenosine signaling in different forms of headache, headache triggers, and basic headache physiology. This evidence supports adenosine A2A receptors as a critical adenosine receptor subtype involved in headache pain. Adenosine A2A receptor signaling may contribute to headache via the modulation of intracellular Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP production or 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity in neurons and glia to affect glutamatergic synaptic transmission within the brainstem. This evidence supports the further study of adenosine signaling in headache and potentially illuminates it as a novel therapeutic target for migraine.

  5. Primary adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase deficiency in a hypotonic infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Gago, Manuel; Gómez-Lado, Carmen; Pérez-Gay, Laura; Eirís-Puñal, Jesús; Martínez, Elena Pintos; García-Consuegra, Inés; Martín, Miguel Angel

    2011-06-01

    The spectrum of the adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase deficiency ranges from asymptomatic carriers to patients who manifest exercise-induced muscle pain, occasionally rhabdomyolysis, and idiopathic hyperCKemia. However, previous to the introduction of molecular techniques, rare cases with congenital weakness and hypotonia have also been reported. We report a 6-month-old girl with the association of congenital muscle weakness and hypotonia, muscle deficiency of adenosine monophosphate deaminase, and the homozygous C to T mutation at nucleotide 34 of the adenosine monophosphate deaminase-1 gene. This observation indicates the possible existence of a primary adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency manifested by congenital muscle weakness and hypotonia.

  6. Pretreatment with adenosine and adenosine A1 receptor agonist protects against intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V Haktan Ozacmak; Hale Sayan

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effects of adenosine and A1 receptor activation on reperfusion-induced small intestinal injury.METHODS: Rats were randomized into groups with sham operation, ischemia and reperfusion, and systemic treatments with either adenosine or 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine, A1 receptor agonist or 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, A1 receptor antagonist, plus adenosine before ischemia. Following reperfusion, contractions of ileum segments in response to KCl, carbachol and substance P were recorded. Tissue myeloperoxidase,malondialdehyde, and reduced glutathione levels were measured.RESULTS: Ischemia significantly decreased both contraction and reduced glutathione level which were ameliorated by adenosine and agonist administration. Treatment also decreased neutrophil infiltration and membrane lipid peroxidation. Beneficial effects of adenosine were abolished by pretreatment with A1 receptor antagonist.CONCLUSION: The data suggest that adenosine and A1 receptor stimulation attenuate ischemic intestinal injury via decreasing oxidative stress, lowering neutrophil infiltration, and increasing reduced glutathione content.

  7. Spatiotemporal evolution in a (2+1)-dimensional chemotaxis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Santo; Misra, Amar P.; Rondoni, L.

    2012-01-01

    Simulations are performed to investigate the nonlinear dynamics of a (2+1)-dimensional chemotaxis model of Keller-Segel (KS) type, with a logistic growth term. Because of its ability to display auto-aggregation, the KS model has been widely used to simulate self-organization in many biological systems. We show that the corresponding dynamics may lead to steady-states, to divergencies in a finite time as well as to the formation of spatiotemporal irregular patterns. The latter, in particular, appears to be chaotic in part of the range of bounded solutions, as demonstrated by the analysis of wavelet power spectra. Steady-states are achieved with sufficiently large values of the chemotactic coefficient (χ) and/or with growth rates r below a critical value rc. For r>rc, the solutions of the differential equations of the model diverge in a finite time. We also report on the pattern formation regime, for different values of χ, r and of the diffusion coefficient D.

  8. Spatiotemporal evolution in a (2+1)-dimensional chemotaxis model

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, S; Rondoni, L

    2011-01-01

    Simulations are performed to investigate the nonlinear dynamics of a (2+1)-dimensional chemotaxis model of Keller-Segel (KS) type with a logistic growth term. Because of its ability to display auto-aggregation, the KS model has been widely used to simulate self-organization in many biological systems. We show that the corresponding dynamics may lead to a steady-state, divergence in a finite time as well as the formation of spatiotemporal irregular patterns. The latter, in particular, appear to be chaotic in part of the range of bounded solutions, as demonstrated by the analysis of wavelet power spectra. Steady states are achieved with sufficiently large values of the chemotactic coefficient $(\\chi)$ and/or with growth rates $r$ below a critical value $r_c$. For $r > r_c$, the solutions of the differential equations of the model diverge in a finite time. We also report on the pattern formation regime for different values of $\\chi$, $r$ and the diffusion coefficient $D$.

  9. Adaptive microfluidic gradient generator for quantitative chemotaxis experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anielski, Alexander; Pfannes, Eva K. B.; Beta, Carsten

    2017-03-01

    Chemotactic motion in a chemical gradient is an essential cellular function that controls many processes in the living world. For a better understanding and more detailed modelling of the underlying mechanisms of chemotaxis, quantitative investigations in controlled environments are needed. We developed a setup that allows us to separately address the dependencies of the chemotactic motion on the average background concentration and on the gradient steepness of the chemoattractant. In particular, both the background concentration and the gradient steepness can be kept constant at the position of the cell while it moves along in the gradient direction. This is achieved by generating a well-defined chemoattractant gradient using flow photolysis. In this approach, the chemoattractant is released by a light-induced reaction from a caged precursor in a microfluidic flow chamber upstream of the cell. The flow photolysis approach is combined with an automated real-time cell tracker that determines changes in the cell position and triggers movement of the microscope stage such that the cell motion is compensated and the cell remains at the same position in the gradient profile. The gradient profile can be either determined experimentally using a caged fluorescent dye or may be alternatively determined by numerical solutions of the corresponding physical model. To demonstrate the function of this adaptive microfluidic gradient generator, we compare the chemotactic motion of Dictyostelium discoideum cells in a static gradient and in a gradient that adapts to the position of the moving cell.

  10. Chemotaxis and flow disorder shape microbial dispersion in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Anna, Pietro; Yawata, Yutaka; Stocker, Roman; Juanes, Ruben

    2017-04-01

    Bacteria drive a plethora of natural processes in the subsurface, consuming organic matter and catalysing chemical reactions that are key to global elemental cycles. These macro-scale consequences result from the collective action of individual bacteria at the micro-scale, which are modulated by the highly heterogeneous subsurface environment, dominated by flow disorder and strong chemical gradients. Yet, despite the generally recognized importance of these microscale processes, microbe-host medium interaction at the pore scale remain poorly characterized and understood. Here, we introduce a microfluidic model system to directly image and quantify the role of cell motility on bacterial dispersion and residence time in confined, porous, media. Using the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus subtilis and the common amino acid serine as a resource, we observe that chemotaxis in highly disordered and confined physico-chemical environment affords bacteria an increase in their ability to persistently occupy the host medium. Our findings illustrate that the interplay between bacterial behaviour and pore-scale disorder in fluid velocity and nutrient concentration directly impacts the residence time, transport and bio-geo-chemical transformation rates of biota in the subsurface, and thus likely the processes they mediate.

  11. Microfluidic chip containing porous gradient for chemotaxis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abboodi, Aswan; Tjeung, Ricky; Doran, Pauline; Yeo, Leslie; Friend, James; Chan, Peggy

    2011-12-01

    We have developed a new porous gradient microfluidic device based on in situ Gtn-HPA/CMC-Tyr hydrogel that comprises gelatin hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (Gtn-HPA) conjugate and carboxymethyl cellulose tyramine (CMC-Tyr) conjugate. The device is fabricated using a soft lithographic technique, in which microstructures were patterned on a thin layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using a polymeric mold. Human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) were employed as invasive cancer cell model. Porosity gradients were generated by flowing pore etching fluid in the gradient generator network. Results suggested that spatial control of the porosity can be obtained, which mimics the 3-dimensional microenvironment in vivo for cell-based screening applications including real time chemotaxis, cytotoxicity, and continuous drug-response monitoring. A chemoattractant gradient is then generated and cell migration is monitored in real time using fluorescence microscopy. The viability of cells was evaluated using calcien AM stain. Herein, we successfully monitored the chemotactic responses of cancer cells, confirmed the validity of using in situ porous hydrogels as a construction material for a microchemotaxis device, and demonstrated the potential of the hydrogel with tunable porosity based microfluidic device in biological experiments. This device will also be practical in controlling the chemical and mechanical properties of the surroundings during the formation of tissue engineered constructs.

  12. Mechanism of protection of adenosine from sulphate radical anion and repair of adenosine radicals by caffeic acid in aqueous solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sudha Swaraga; L Charitha; M Adinarayana

    2005-07-01

    The photooxidation of adenosine in presence of peroxydisulphate (PDS) has been studied by spectrophotometrically measuring the absorbance of adenosine at 260 nm. The rates of oxidation of adenosine by sulphate radical anion have been determined in the presence of different concentrations of caffeic acid. Increase in [caffeic acid] is found to decrease the rate of oxidation of adenosine suggesting that caffeic acid acts as an efficient scavenger of $SO_{4}^{\\bullet-}$ and protects adenosine from it. Sulphate radical anion competes for adenosine as well as for caffeic acid. The quantum yields of photooxidation of adenosine have been calculated from the rates of oxidation of adenosine and the light intensity absorbed by PDS at 254 nm, the wavelength at which PDS is activated to sulphate radical anion. From the results of experimentally determined quantum yields (exptl) and the quantum yields calculated (cal) assuming caffeic acid acting only as a scavenger of $SO_{4}^{\\bullet-}$ show that exptl values are lower than cal values. The ' values, which are experimentally found quantum yield values at each caffeic acid concentration and corrected for $SO_{4}^{\\bullet-}$ scavenging by caffeic acid, are also found to be greater than exptl values. These observations suggest that the transient adenosine radicals are repaired by caffeic acid in addition to scavenging of sulphate radical anions.

  13. Serum adenosine deaminase activity in cutaneous anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnetcioglu, Mahmut; Karadas, Sevdegul; Aslan, Mehmet; Ceylan, Mehmet Resat; Demir, Halit; Oncu, Mehmet Resit; Karahocagil, Mustafa Kasım; Sunnetcioglu, Aysel; Aypak, Cenk

    2014-07-06

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity has been discovered in several inflammatory conditions; however, there are no data associated with cutaneous anthrax. The aim of this study was to investigate serum ADA activity in patients with cutaneous anthrax. Sixteen patients with cutaneous anthrax and 17 healthy controls were enrolled. We measured ADA activity; peripheral blood leukocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts; erythrocyte sedimentation rate; and C reactive protein levels. Serum ADA activity was significantly higher in patients with cutaneous anthrax than in the controls (panthrax.

  14. Adenosine A1 Receptor Suppresses Tonic GABAA Receptor Currents in Hippocampal Pyramidal Cells and in a Defined Subpopulation of Interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombo, Diogo M; Dias, Raquel B; Duarte, Sofia T; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Lamsa, Karri P; Sebastião, Ana M

    2016-03-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous neuromodulator that decreases excitability of hippocampal circuits activating membrane-bound metabotropic A1 receptor (A1R). The presynaptic inhibitory action of adenosine A1R in glutamatergic synapses is well documented, but its influence on inhibitory GABAergic transmission is poorly known. We report that GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated tonic, but not phasic, transmission is suppressed by A1R in hippocampal neurons. Adenosine A1R activation strongly inhibits GABAAR agonist (muscimol)-evoked currents in Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) pyramidal neurons and in a specific subpopulation of interneurons expressing axonal cannabinoid receptor type 1. In addition, A1R suppresses tonic GABAAR currents measured in the presence of elevated ambient GABA as well as in naïve slices. The inhibition of GABAergic currents involves both protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways and decreases GABAAR δ-subunit expression. On the contrary, no A1R-mediated modulation was detected in phasic inhibitory postsynaptic currents evoked either by afferent electrical stimulation or by spontaneous quantal release. The results show that A1R modulates extrasynaptic rather than synaptic GABAAR-mediated signaling, and that this modulation selectively occurs in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and in a specific subpopulation of inhibitory interneurons. We conclude that modulation of tonic GABAAR signaling by adenosine A1R in specific neuron types may regulate neuronal gain and excitability in the hippocampus.

  15. Induction of macrophage chemotaxis by aortic extracts from patients with Marfan syndrome is related to elastin binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Guo

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder of connective tissue with prominent skeletal, ocular, and cardiovascular manifestations. Aortic aneurysm and dissection are the major determinants of premature death in untreated patients. In previous work, we showed that extracts of aortic tissues from the mgR mouse model of Marfan syndrome showed increased chemotactic stimulatory activity related to the elastin-binding protein. Aortic samples were collected from 6 patients with Marfan syndrome and 8 with isolated aneurysms of the ascending aorta. Control samples were obtained from 11 organ donors without known vascular or connective tissue diseases. Soluble proteins extracted from the aortic samples of the two patient groups were compared against buffer controls and against the aortic samples from controls with respect to the ability to induce macrophage chemotaxis as measured using a modified Boyden chamber, as well as the reactivity to a monoclonal antibody BA4 against bioactive elastin peptides using ELISA. Samples from Marfan patients displayed a statistically significant increase in chemotactic inductive activity compared to control samples. Additionally, reactivity to BA4 was significantly increased. Similar statistically significant increases were identified for the samples from patients with idiopathic thoracic aortic aneurysm. There was a significant correlation between the chemotactic index and BA4 reactivity, and the increases in chemotactic activity of extracts from Marfan patients could be inhibited by pretreatment with lactose, VGVAPG peptides, or BA4, which indicates the involvement of EBP in mediating the effects. Our results demonstrate that aortic extracts of patients with Marfan syndrome can elicit macrophage chemotaxis, similar to our previous study on aortic extracts of the mgR mouse model of Marfan syndrome (Guo et al., Circulation 2006; 114:1855-62.

  16. Regulation of adenylate cyclase of Dictyostelium discoideum by divalent cations and adenosine analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatrian, L.; Howlett, A.; Klein, C.

    1986-03-05

    Cyclic AMP is synthesized and secreted in a pulsatile fashion as a chemotactic signaling system intrinsic to the differentiation program of D. discoideum. They examined the regulation of D. dischoideum adenylate cyclase using a membrane fraction which exhibits high specific activity enzyme. When Mn-ATP was used as substrate, increasing Mn/sup 2 +/ concentrations activated the enzyme 3 to 8 fold. In contrast, Mg ion increased the adenylate cyclase activity by only 60%. These results suggested an activation of the catalytic subunit by Mn/sup 2 +/. Inhibition of activity was observed in response to adenosine and its analogs. P-site agonist, 2',5'-Dideoxy-adenosine, inhibited activity by about 25% in the presence of Mg/sup 2 +/, and about 80% in presence of Mn/sup 2 +/. This inhibition was not dependent on guanine nucleotides. The data are in agreement with characteristics of P-site regulation of the catalytic subunit of eukaryotic systems. Kinetic analysis of previously reported inhibition of D. discoideum adenylate cyclase by guanine nucleotides revealed that guanine nucleotides do not compete for the substrate binding site. Further, the enzyme activity cannot be accounted for by guanylate cyclase. Their data suggest that regulation of adenylate cyclase may exist not only at the catalytic subunit but also via inhibitory G protein, N/sub i/.

  17. Elevated placental adenosine signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriyama, Takayuki; Sun, Kaiqi; Parchim, Nicholas F; Li, Jessica; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Anren; Hart, Laura A; Blackwell, Sean C; Sibai, Baha M; Chan, Lee-Nien L; Chan, Teh-Sheng; Hicks, M John; Blackburn, Michael R; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2015-02-24

    Preeclampsia is a prevalent hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. This pathogenic condition is speculated to be caused by placental abnormalities that contribute to the maternal syndrome. However, the specific factors and signaling pathways that lead to impaired placentas and maternal disease development remain elusive. Using 2 independent animal models of preeclampsia (genetically engineered pregnant mice with elevated adenosine exclusively in placentas and a pathogenic autoantibody-induced preeclampsia mouse model), we demonstrated that chronically elevated placental adenosine was sufficient to induce hallmark features of preeclampsia, including hypertension, proteinuria, small fetuses, and impaired placental vasculature. Genetic and pharmacological approaches revealed that elevated placental adenosine coupled with excessive A₂B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) signaling contributed to the development of these features of preeclampsia. Mechanistically, we provided both human and mouse evidence that elevated placental CD73 is a key enzyme causing increased placental adenosine, thereby contributing to preeclampsia. We determined that elevated placental adenosine signaling is a previously unrecognized pathogenic factor for preeclampsia. Moreover, our findings revealed the molecular basis underlying the elevation of placental adenosine and the detrimental role of excess placental adenosine in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia, and thereby, we highlight novel therapeutic targets. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Comorbidities in Neurology: Is Adenosine the Common Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boison, Detlev; Aronica, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Comorbidities in Neurology represent a major conceptual and therapeutic challenge. For example, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a syndrome comprised of epileptic seizures and comorbid symptoms including memory and psychiatric impairment, depression, and sleep dysfunction. Similarly, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are accompanied by various degrees of memory dysfunction. Patients with AD have an increased likelihood for seizures, whereas all four conditions share certain aspects of psychosis, depression, and sleep dysfunction. This remarkable overlap suggests common pathophysiological mechanisms, which include synaptic dysfunction and synaptotoxicity, as well as glial activation and astrogliosis. Astrogliosis is linked to synapse function via the tripartite synapse, but astrocytes also control the availability of gliotransmitters and adenosine. Here we will specifically focus on the ‘adenosine hypothesis of comorbidities’ implying that astrocyte activation, via overexpression of adenosine kinase (ADK), induces a deficiency in the homeostatic tone of adenosine. We present evidence from patient-derived samples showing astrogliosis and overexpression of ADK as common pathological hallmark of epilepsy, AD, PD, and ALS. We discuss a transgenic ‘comorbidity model’, in which brain-wide overexpression of ADK and resulting adenosine deficiency produces a comorbid spectrum of seizures, altered dopaminergic function, attentional impairment, and deficits in cognitive domains and sleep regulation. We conclude that dysfunction of adenosine signaling is common in neurological conditions, that adenosine dysfunction can explain comorbid phenotypes, and that therapeutic adenosine augmentation might be effective for the treatment of comorbid symptoms in multiple neurological conditions. PMID:25979489

  19. Endogenous adenosine curtails lipopolysaccharide-stimulated tumour necrosis factor synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eigler, A; Greten, T F; Sinha, B; Haslberger, C; Sullivan, G W; Endres, S

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the inhibitory effect of exogenous adenosine on TNF production. During inflammation endogenous adenosine levels are elevated and may be one of several anti-inflammatory mediators that reduce TNF synthesis. In the present study the authors investigated this role of ad

  20. Adenosine receptor modulation: potential implications in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dip, Ramiro G

    2009-01-01

    Adenosine is a purine nucleoside whose concentration increases during inflammation and hypoxia and the many roles of this molecule are becoming better understood. Increased reactivity to adenosine of the airways of asthmatic but not of normal subjects underlines the role of adenosine in airway inflammation. The identification and pharmacological characterisation of different adenosine receptors have stimulated the search for subtype-specific ligands able to modulate the effects of this molecule in a directed way. Several compounds of different chemical classes have been identified as having potential drawbacks, including side effects resulting from the broad distribution of the receptors across the organism, have prevented clinical application. In this article, the effects of adenosine's different receptors and the intracellular signalling pathways are reviewed. The potential of adenosine receptor modulation as a therapeutic target for chronic airway inflammation is considered, taking equine recurrent airway disease and feline asthma as examples of naturally occurring airway obstructive diseases. Other potential applications for adenosine receptor modulation are also discussed. As the intrinsic molecular events of adenosine's mechanism of action become uncovered, new concrete therapeutic approaches will become available for the treatment of various conditions in veterinary medicine.

  1. Extending the Clinical Phenotype of Adenosine Deaminase 2 Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami, Tal; Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Brooks, Rebecca; Shaag, Avraham; Hershfield, Michael S; Kelly, Susan J; Ganson, Nancy J; Kfir-Erenfeld, Shlomit; Weintraub, Michael; Elpeleg, Orly; Berkun, Yackov; Stepensky, Polina

    2016-10-01

    Adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency is an autoinflammatory disease, characterized by various forms of vasculitis. We describe 5 patients with adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency with various hematologic manifestations, including pure red cell aplasia, with no evidence for vasculitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adenosine Receptors: Expression, Function and Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sheth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine receptors (ARs comprise a group of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR which mediate the physiological actions of adenosine. To date, four AR subtypes have been cloned and identified in different tissues. These receptors have distinct localization, signal transduction pathways and different means of regulation upon exposure to agonists. This review will describe the biochemical characteristics and signaling cascade associated with each receptor and provide insight into how these receptors are regulated in response to agonists. A key property of some of these receptors is their ability to serve as sensors of cellular oxidative stress, which is transmitted by transcription factors, such as nuclear factor (NF-κB, to regulate the expression of ARs. Recent observations of oligomerization of these receptors into homo- and heterodimers will be discussed. In addition, the importance of these receptors in the regulation of normal and pathological processes such as sleep, the development of cancers and in protection against hearing loss will be examined.

  3. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and drugs elevating extracellular adenosine synergize to enhance haematopoietic reconstitution in irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospisil, M.; Hofer, M.; Netikova, J.; Hola, J.; Vacek, A. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Inst. of Biophysics, Brno (Czech Republic); Znojil, V.; Vacha, J. [Masaryk Univ., Medical Faculty, Brno (Czech Republic)

    1998-03-01

    The activation of adenosine receptors has recently been demonstrated to stimulate haematopoiesis. In the present study, we investigated the ability of drugs elevating extracellular adenosine to influence curative effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in mice exposed to a sublethal dose of 4 Gy of {sup 60}Co radiation. Elevation of extracellular adenosine in mice was induced by the combined administration of dipyridamole, a drug inhibiting the cellular uptake of adenosine, and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), an adenosine prodrug. The effects of dipyridamole plus AMP, and G-CSF, administered either alone or in combination, were evaluated. The drugs were injected to mice in a 4-d treatment regimen starting on d 3 after irradiation and the haematopoietic response was evaluated on d 7, 10, 14, 18 and 24 after irradiation. While the effects of G-CSF on the late maturation stages of blood cells, appearing shortly after the completion of the treatment, were not influenced by dipyridamole plus AMP, positive effects of the combination therapy occurred in the post-irradiation recovery phase which is dependent on the repopulation of haematopoietic stem cells. This was indicated by the significant elevation of counts of granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (GM-CFC) and granulocytic cells in the bone marrow (d 14), of GM-CFC (d 14), granulocytic and erythroid cells (d 14 and 18) in the spleen, and of neutrophils (d 18), monocytes (d 14 and 18) and platelets (d 18) in the peripheral blood. These effects suggest that the repopulation potential of the combination therapy lies in a common multi-lineage cell population. The results of this study implicate the promising possibility to enhance the curative effects of G-CSF under conditions of myelosuppressive state induced by radiation exposure. (au) 43 refs.

  4. Amplified Peroxidase-Like Activity in Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Using Adenosine Monophosphate: Application to Urinary Protein Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Chun; Wang, Yen-Ting; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2017-03-08

    Numerous compounds such as protein and double-stranded DNA have been shown to efficiently inhibit intrinsic peroxidase-mimic activity in Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NP) and other related nanomaterials. However, only a few studies have focused on finding new compounds for enhancing the catalytic activity of Fe3O4 NP-related nanomaterials. Herein, phosphate containing adenosine analogs are reported to enhance the oxidation reaction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and amplex ultrared (AU) for improving the peroxidase-like activity in Fe3O4 NPs. This enhancement is suggested to be a result of the binding of adenosine analogs to Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) sites on the NP surface and from adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) acting as the distal histidine residue of horseradish peroxidase for activating H2O2. Phosphate containing adenosine analogs revealed the following trend for the enhanced activity of Fe3O4 NPs: AMP > adenosine 5'-diphosphate > adenosine 5'-triphosphate. The peroxidase-like activity in the Fe3O4 NPs progressively increased with increasing AMP concentration and polyadenosine length. The Michaelis constant for AMP attached Fe3O4 NPs is 5.3-fold lower and the maximum velocity is 2.7-fold higher than those of the bare Fe3O4 NPs. Furthermore, on the basis of AMP promoted peroxidase mimicking activity in the Fe3O4 NPs and the adsorption of protein on the NP surface, a selective fluorescent turn-off system for the detection of urinary protein is developed.

  5. Blocking CXCR7-mediated adipose tissue macrophages chemotaxis attenuates insulin resistance and inflammation in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hongxia; Zhang, Hu; Zhu, Honglei

    2016-10-28

    Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) have been considered to have a pivotal role in the chronic inflammation development during obesity. Although chemokine-chemokine receptor interaction has been studied in ATMs infiltration, most chemokine receptors remain incompletely understood and little is known about their mechanism of actions that lead to ATMs chemotaxis and pathogenesis of insulin resistance during obesity. In this study, we reported that CXCR7 expression is upregulated in adipose tissue, and specifically in ATMs during obesity. In addition, CXCL11 or CXCL12-induced ATMs chemotaxis is mediated by CXCR7 in obesity but not leanness, whereas CXCR3 and CXCR4 are not involved. Additional mechanism study shows that NF-κB activation is essential in ATMs chemotaxis, and manipulates chemotaxis of ATMs via CXCR7 expression regulation in obesity. Most importantly, CXCR7 neutralizing therapy dose dependently leads to less infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue and thus reduces inflammation and improves insulin sensitivity in obesity. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that blocking CXCR7-mediated ATMs chemotaxis ameliorates insulin resistance and inflammation in obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An alternative smooth particle hydrodynamics formulation to simulate chemotaxis in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avesani, Diego; Dumbser, Michael; Chiogna, Gabriele; Bellin, Alberto

    2016-08-27

    Chemotaxis, the microorganisms autonomous motility along or against the concentration gradients of a chemical species, is an important, yet often neglected factor controlling the transport of bacteria through saturated porous media. For example, chemotactic bacteria could enhance bioremediation by directing their own motion to residual contaminants trapped in low hydraulic conductive zones of contaminated aquifers. The aim of the present work is to develop an accurate numerical scheme to model chemotaxis in saturated porous media and other advective dominating flow systems. We propose to model chemotaxis by using a new class of meshless Lagrangian particle methods we recently developed for applications in fluid mechanics. The method is based on the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) formulation of (Ben Moussa et al., Int Ser Numer Math, 13(1):29-62, 2006), combined with a new Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) reconstruction technique on moving point clouds in multiple space dimensions. The purpose of this new numerical scheme is to fully exploit the advantages of SPH among traditional mesh-based and mesh-free schemes and to overcome drawbacks related to the use of standard SPH for modeling chemotaxis in porous media. First, we test the new scheme against analytical reference solutions. Then, under the assumption of complete mixing at the Darcy scale, we perform two-dimensional conservative solute transport simulations under steady-state flow conditions, to show the capability of the proposed new scheme to model chemotaxis.

  7. Analogs of cyclic AMP as chemoattractants and inhibitors of Dictyostelium chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haastert, P J; Jastorff, B; Pinas, J E; Konijn, T M

    1982-01-01

    Aggregative amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum, D. mucoroides, D. purpureum, and D. rosarium react chemotactically to cyclic AMP (cAMP). We measured the chemotactic activity of 14 cAMP analogs and found that these four species have a similar sensitivity to chemical modifications of cAMP; this suggests that the cAMP receptor is identical in all of these species. Besides the induction of a chemotactic response, cAMP analogs also may delay or prevent cell aggregation. cAMP analogs like N1-O-cAMP, 2'-H-cAMP, and 5'NH-cAMP are chemotactically nearly as active as cAMP and induced no, or only a short, delay of cell aggregation. Other cAMP derivatives, such as 6-Cl-cPMP and 8-Br-cAMP, are chemotactically active only at high concentrations and delayed cell aggregation for several hours. Still other cAMP analogs, which do not induce a chemotactic reaction in D. mucoroides, D. purpureum, and D. rosarium, either prevented cell aggregation [cAMPS(S), cAMPS(R), and 3'-NH-cAMP[ or had no effect on cell aggregation [cAMPN(CH3)2(S) and cAMPN(CH3)2(R)]. cAMP analog 3'-NH-cAMP prevented cell aggregation by the inhibition of chemotaxis, whereas cell locomotion was not affected. Although we cannot provide a satisfactory explantation for these observations, our data suggest that occupation and activation of the cAMP receptors do not always induced a chemotactic response.

  8. Lysophosphatidic acid induces chemotaxis in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiello, Lisa M.; Fotos, Joseph S.; Galileo, Deni S.; Karin, Norm J.

    2006-07-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that has pleiotropic effects on a variety of cell types and enhances the migration of endothelial and cancer cells, but it is not known if this lipid can alter osteoblast motility. We performed transwell migration assays using MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and found LPA to be a potent chemotactic agent. Quantitative time-lapse video analysis of osteoblast migration after wounds were introduced into cell monolayers indicated that LPA stimulated both migration velocity and the average migration distance per cell. LPA also elicited substantial changes in cell shape and actin cytoskeletal structure; lipid-treated cells contained fewer stress fibers and displayed long membrane processes that were enriched in F-actin. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MC3T3-E1 cells express all four known LPA-specific G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-LPA4) with a relative mRNA abundance of LPA1 > LPA4 > LPA2 >> LPA3. LPA-induced changes in osteoblast motility and morphology were antagonized by both pertussis toxin and Ki16425, a subtype-specific blocker of LPA1 and LPA3 receptor function. Cell migration in many cell types is linked to changes in intracellular Ca2+. Ki16425 also inhibited LPA-induced Ca2+ signaling in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a link between LPA-induced Ca2+ transients and osteoblast chemotaxis. Our data show that LPA stimulates MC3T3-E1 osteoblast motility via a mechanism that is linked primarily to the G protein-coupled receptor LPA1.

  9. Neutrophil adhesion and chemotaxis depend on substrate mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannat, Risat A; Hammer, Daniel A [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, 240 Skirkanich Hall, 210 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Robbins, Gregory P; Ricart, Brendon G [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, 311A Towne Building, 220 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Dembo, Micah, E-mail: hammer@seas.upenn.ed [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 44 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2010-05-19

    Neutrophil adhesion to the vasculature and chemotaxis within tissues play critical roles in the inflammatory response to injury and pathogens. Unregulated neutrophil activity has been implicated in the progression of numerous chronic and acute diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma and sepsis. Cell migration of anchorage-dependent cells is known to depend on both chemical and mechanical interactions. Although neutrophil responses to chemical cues have been well characterized, little is known about the effect of underlying tissue mechanics on neutrophil adhesion and migration. To address this question, we quantified neutrophil migration and traction stresses on compliant hydrogel substrates with varying elasticity in a micromachined gradient chamber in which we could apply either a uniform concentration or a precise gradient of the bacterial chemoattractant fMLP. Neutrophils spread more extensively on substrates of greater stiffness. In addition, increasing the stiffness of the substrate leads to a significant increase in the chemotactic index for each fMLP gradient tested. As the substrate becomes stiffer, neutrophils generate higher traction forces without significant changes in cell speed. These forces are often displayed in pairs and focused in the uropod. Increases in the mean fMLP concentration beyond the K{sub D} of the receptor lead to a decrease in chemotactic index on all surfaces. Blocking with an antibody against {beta}{sub 2}-integrins leads to a significant reduction, but not an elimination, of directed motility on stiff materials, but no change in motility on soft materials, suggesting neutrophils can display both integrin-dependent and integrin-independent motility. These findings are critical for understanding how neutrophil migration may change in different mechanical environments in vivo and can be used to guide the design of migration inhibitors that more efficiently target inflammation.

  10. Electrophysiologic effects of adenosine triphosphate on rabbit sinoatrial node pace maker cells via P1 receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RENLei-Ming; LIJun-Xia; SHIChen-Xia; ZHAODing

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the electrophysiologic effects of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) on rabbit sinoatrial node pacemakercells and the receptors related with the action of ATP. METHODS: Intracellular microelectrode method was usedto record the parameters of action potential (AP) in the rabbit sinoatrial nodes. RESULTS: ATP (0.1-3 mmol/L)decreased the rate of pacemaker firing (RPF) by 16 %-43 % and velocity of diastolic depolarization (VDD) by 33 %-67 %, increased the amplitude of AP (APA) by 6 %-9 % and maximal rate of depolarization (Vmax) by 30 %-76 %,shortened APD50 by 7 %-12 % and APD90 by 6.3 %-9 %, concentration-dependently. The effects of ATP, adenos-ine (Ado), and adenosine diphosphate at the same concentration on AP were not different from each other significantly.Neither uridine triphosphate nor, α,β-methylene ATP had significant electrophysiologic effects on the sinoatrialnode of rabbits. Both the electrophysiologic effects of ATP and Ado on pacemaker cells were inhibited by P1receptor antagonist aminophylline 0.1 mmol/L (P0.05). CONCLUSION: There are nofunctional P2X1 and P2Y2 receptors on pacemaker cells of the rabbit sinoatrial nodes, and the electrophysiologiceffects of ATP in the rabbit sinoatrial node pacemaker cells are mediated via P1 receptors by Ado degraded fromATP.

  11. Effect of caffeine and adenosine on G2 repair: mitotic delay and chromosome damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, A; Hernández, P; López-Sáez, J F

    1985-04-01

    Proliferating plant cells treated during the late S period with 5-aminouracil (AU), give the typical response that DNA-damaging agents induce, characterized by: an important mitotic delay, and a potentiation of the chromosome damage by caffeine post-treatment. The study of labelled prophases, after a tritiated thymidine pulse, allowed evaluation of the mitotic delay induced by AU as well as its reversion by caffeine, while chromosome damage was estimated by the percentage of anaphases and telophases showing chromosomal aberrations. Post-treatment with adenosine alone has shown no effect on mitotic delay or chromosomal damage. However, when cells after AU were incubated in caffeine plus adenosine, the chromosome damage potentiation was abolished without affecting the caffeine action on mitotic delay. As a consequence, we postulate that caffeine could have two effects on G2 cells with damaged DNA: the first, to cancel their mitotic delay and the second to inhibit some DNA-repair pathway(s). Only this last effect could be reversed by adenosine.

  12. A High-Affinity Adenosine Kinase from Anopheles Gambiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Cassera; M Ho; E Merino; E Burgos; A Rinaldo-Matthis; S Almo; V Schramm

    2011-12-31

    Genome analysis revealed a mosquito orthologue of adenosine kinase in Anopheles gambiae (AgAK; the most important vector for the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa). P. falciparum are purine auxotrophs and do not express an adenosine kinase but rely on their hosts for purines. AgAK was kinetically characterized and found to have the highest affinity for adenosine (K{sub m} = 8.1 nM) of any known adenosine kinase. AgAK is specific for adenosine at the nucleoside site, but several nucleotide triphosphate phosphoryl donors are tolerated. The AgAK crystal structure with a bound bisubstrate analogue Ap{sub 4}A (2.0 {angstrom} resolution) reveals interactions for adenosine and ATP and the geometry for phosphoryl transfer. The polyphosphate charge is partly neutralized by a bound Mg{sup 2+} ion and an ion pair to a catalytic site Arg. The AgAK structure consists of a large catalytic core in a three-layer {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} sandwich, and a small cap domain in contact with adenosine. The specificity and tight binding for adenosine arise from hydrogen bond interactions of Asn14, Leu16, Leu40, Leu133, Leu168, Phe168, and Thr171 and the backbone of Ile39 and Phe168 with the adenine ring as well as through hydrogen bond interactions between Asp18, Gly64, and Asn68 and the ribosyl 2'- and 3'-hydroxyl groups. The structure is more similar to that of human adenosine kinase (48% identical) than to that of AK from Toxoplasma gondii (31% identical). With this extraordinary affinity for AgAK, adenosine is efficiently captured and converted to AMP at near the diffusion limit, suggesting an important role for this enzyme in the maintenance of the adenine nucleotide pool. mRNA analysis verifies that AgAK transcripts are produced in the adult insects.

  13. ATTENUATION OF ANTI-THY1 GLOMERULONEPHRITIS IN THE RAT BY ANTIINFLAMMATORY PLATELET-INHIBITING AGENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POELSTRA, K; BROUWER, E; BALLER, JFW; HARDONK, MJ; BAKKER, WW

    Although both ecto-ADPase and prostacyclin (PGI2) inhibit platelets and neutrophils, their action in acute glomerulonephritis is unknown. We tested the PGI2 analog Iloprost and 2chloro-adenosine (2Cl-ADO), an analog of adenosine, the end product of nucleotidase activities, during anti-Thy1

  14. Acute effects of alcohol on sleep are mediated by components of homeostatic sleep regulatory system: An Editorial Highlight for 'Lesions of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons attenuates sleepiness and adenosine after alcohol consumption' on page 710.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Noor; McGinty, Dennis

    2017-09-01

    Alcohol causes adenosine buildup, which inhibits wake-active neurons via adenosine A1 receptors thus disinhibiting sleep active neurons and also stimulates sleep-active neurons via A2A receptors, causing sleep. This editorial highlights the study entitled, "Lesions of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons attenuates sleepiness and adenosine after alcohol consumption" by Sharma and colleagues. They report that the wake-promoting basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons play a crucial role in mediating acute alcohol-induced sleep via adenosinergic signaling. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  15. Effects of an induced adenosine deaminase deficiency on T-cell differentiation in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, R.W.

    1985-10-15

    Inherited deficiency of the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) has been found in a significant proportion of patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disease and inherited defect generally characterized by a deficiency of both B and T cells. Two questions are central to understanding the pathophysiology of this disease: (1) at what stage or stages in lymphocyte development are the effects of the enzyme deficiency manifested; (2) what are the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the selective pathogenicity of the lymphoid system. We have examined the stage or stages of rat T-cell development in vivo which are affected by an induced adenosine deaminase deficiency using the ADA inhibitors, erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA) and 2'-deoxycoformycin (DCF). In normal rats given daily administration of an ADA inhibitor, cortical thymocytes were markedly depleted; peripheral lymphocytes and pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (CFU-S) all were relatively unaffected. Since a deficiency of ADA affects lymphocyte development, the regeneration of cortical and medullary thymocytes and their precursors after sublethal irradiation was used as a model of lymphoid development. By Day 5 after irradiation the thymus was reduced to 0.10-0.5% of its normal size; whereas at Days 9 and 14 the thymus was 20-40% and 60-80% regenerated, respectively. When irradiated rats were given daily parenteral injections of the ADA inhibitor plus adenosine or deoxyadenosine, thymus regeneration at Days 9 and 14 was markedly inhibited, whereas the regeneration of thymocyte precursors was essentially unaffected. Thymus regeneration was at least 40-fold lower than in rats given adenosine or deoxyadenosine alone. Virtually identical results were obtained with both ADA inhibitors, EHNA and DCF.

  16. Role of adenosine in tubuloglomerular feedback and acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osswald, H; Vallon, V; Mühlbauer, B

    1996-12-01

    1. Adenosine (ADO) can induce renal vasoconstriction and a fall in glomerular filtration rate. When the rate of ATP hydrolysis prevails over the rate of ATP synthesis the kidney generates ADO at an enhanced rate. 2. Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) is the vascular response to changes of the NaCl concentration in the tubular fluid at the macula densa segment, which is the result of transepithelial electrolyte reabsorption by the proximal tubule and the loop of Henle. 3. TGF can be inhibited by ADO-A1 receptor antagonists and is potentiated by substances that can elevate extracellular ADO concentrations. These observations led to the hypothesis that ADO is an element of the signal transmission processes in the juxtaglomerular apparatus. 4. Renal ischaemia and nephrotoxic substances can induce acute renal failure (ARF). ADO receptor antagonists have been shown to ameliorate renal function in several different models of ARF in laboratory animals and humans. 5. A number of factors, such as extracellular volume contraction, low NaCl diet, angiotensin II and cyclooxygenase inhibitors enhance to a similar extent: (a) the renal vascular response to endogenous and exogenous ADO; (b) the TGF response of the nephron; and (c) the severity of ARF. All three phenomena are susceptible to antagonism by ADO receptor antagonists. 6. Therefore, we conclude that ADO plays a significant role in normal and pathological states of kidney function.

  17. Modulating chemotaxis of lung cancer cells by using electric fields in a microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Chiu; Hsieh, Meng-Hua; Liu, Chung-Chun; Pan, Huei-Jyuan; Liao, Wei-Yu; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Kuo, Po-Ling; Lee, Chau-Hwang

    2014-03-01

    We employed direct-current electric fields (dcEFs) to modulate the chemotaxis of lung cancer cells in a microfluidic cell culture device that incorporates both stable concentration gradients and dcEFs. We found that the chemotaxis induced by a 0.5 μM/mm concentration gradient of epidermal growth factor can be nearly compensated by a 360 mV/mm dcEF. When the effect of chemical stimulation was balanced by the electrical drive, the cells migrated randomly, and the path lengths were largely reduced. We also demonstrated electrically modulated chemotaxis of two types of lung cancer cells with opposite directions of electrotaxis in this device.

  18. The role of cGMP and the rear of the cell in Dictyostelium chemotaxis and cell streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, Douwe M.; van Haastert, Peter J. M.

    2008-01-01

    During chemotaxis, pseudopod extensions lead the cell towards the source of attractant. The role of actin-filled pseudopodia at the front of the cell is well recognized, whereas the function of the rear of the cell in chemotaxis and cell-cell interactions is less well known. Dictyostelium cell

  19. Symmetry breaking in navigating cells : The role of heterotrimeric and monomeric G-proteins in Dictyostelium chemotaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kataria, Rama

    2015-01-01

    Chemotaxis is the property of cells to migrate towards gradients of chemicals. It is a highly dynamic process that involves directional sensing, cellular polarity and cell motility. Chemotaxis is important for all organisms for many processes including, immune reponse, embryo organization and it’s a

  20. ARF1 recruits RAC1 to leading edge in neutrophil chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaki, Yuichi; Onodera, Yasuhito; Higashi, Tsunehito; Horinouchi, Takahiro; Oikawa, Tsukasa; Sabe, Hisataka

    2017-10-02

    The small GTPase ARF1 mediates membrane trafficking mostly from the Golgi, and is essential for the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated chemotaxis of neutrophils. In this process, ARF1 is activated by the guanine nucleotide exchanger GBF1, and is inactivated by the GTPase-activating protein GIT2. Neutrophils generate the Gβγ-PAK1-αPIX-GIT2 linear complex during GPCR-induced chemotaxis, in which αPIX activates RAC1/CDC42, which then employs PAK1. However, it has remained unclear as to why GIT2 is included in this complex. We investigated the association between ARF1 and RAC1/CDC42 during the fMLP-stimulated chemotaxis of HL60 cells. We found that the silencing of GBF1 significantly impaired the recruitment of RAC1 to the leading edges, but not PAK1, αPIX, RAC2, or CDC42. A significant population of RAC1 colocalized with ARF1 at the leading edges in stimulated cells, whereas fMLP activated both ARF1 and ARF5. Consistently, the silencing of ARF1, but not ARF5, impaired the recruitment of RAC1, whereas the silencing of RAC1 did not affect the recruitment of ARF1 to the leading edges. Our results indicated that the activation of ARF1 triggers the plasma membrane recruitment of RAC1 in GPCR-mediated chemotaxis, which is essential for cortical actin remodeling. Thus, membrane remodeling at the leading edges appears to precede actin remodeling in chemotaxis. Together with the fact that GIT2, which inactivates ARF1, is an integral component of the machinery activating RAC1, we proposed a model in which the ARF1-RAC1 linkage enables the regulation of ARF1 by repetitive on/off cycles during GPCR-mediated neutrophil chemotaxis.

  1. GABAB and adenosine receptors mediate enhancement of the K+ current, IAHP, by reducing adenylyl cyclase activity in rat CA3 hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, U; Gähwiler, B H

    1994-11-01

    1. Gamma-aminobuturic acid-B (GABAB) and adenosine A1 receptors, which are expressed in hippocampal pyramidal cells, are linked to pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins known to be coupled negatively to the enzyme adenylyl cyclase. This study investigates the electrophysiological consequences of adenylyl cyclase inhibition in response to stimulation of these receptors. 2. Single-electrode voltage-clamp recordings were obtained from CA3 pyramidal cells in rat hippocampal slice cultures in presence of tetrodotoxin. The calcium-dependent potassium current (IAHP), which is very sensitive to intracellular levels of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), was used as an electrophysiological indicator of adenylyl cyclase activity. 3. Application of baclofen (10 microM), a selective agonist at GABAB receptors, or adenosine (50 microM) each resulted in a transient decrease followed by a significant enhancement in the amplitude of evoked IAHP. The initial reduction in amplitude of IAHP probably reflects inadequacies in voltage clamp of electronically distant dendritic sites, due to the shunting caused by concomitant activation of potassium conductance by baclofen/adenosine. Comparable increases in membrane conductance in response to the GABAA agonist, muscimol, caused a similar reduction in IAHP. The enhancement of IAHP is consistent with an inhibition of constitutively active adenylyl cyclase. 4. The receptor mediating the responses to adenosine was identified as belonging to the A1 subtype on the basis of its sensitivity to the selective antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Adenosine receptors located in the NTS contribute to renal sympathoinhibition during hypotensive phase of severe hemorrhage in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scislo, Tadeusz J; O'Leary, Donal S

    2006-11-01

    Stimulation of nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) A(2a)-adenosine receptors elicits cardiovascular responses quite similar to those observed with rapid, severe hemorrhage, including bradycardia, hypotension, and inhibition of renal but activation of preganglionic adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and pre-ASNA, respectively). Because adenosine levels in the central nervous system increase during severe hemorrhage, we investigated to what extent these responses to hemorrhage may be due to activation of NTS adenosine receptors. In urethane- and alpha-chloralose-anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats, rapid hemorrhage was performed before and after bilateral nonselective or selective blockade of NTS adenosine-receptor subtypes [A(1)- and A(2a)-adenosine-receptor antagonist 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (1 nmol/100 nl) and A(2a)-receptor antagonist ZM-241385 (40 pmol/100 nl)]. The nonselective blockade reversed the response in RSNA (-21.0 +/- 9.6 Delta% vs. +7.3 +/- 5.7 Delta%) (where Delta% is averaged percent change from baseline) and attenuated the average heart rate response (change of -14.8 +/- 4.8 vs. -4.4 +/- 3.4 beats/min). The selective blockade attenuated the RSNA response (-30.4 +/- 5.2 Delta% vs. -11.1 +/- 7.7 Delta%) and tended to attenuate heart rate response (change of -27.5 +/- 5.3 vs. -15.8 +/- 8.2 beats/min). Microinjection of vehicle (100 nl) had no significant effect on the responses. The hemorrhage-induced increases in pre-ASNA remained unchanged with either adenosine-receptor antagonist. We conclude that adenosine operating in the NTS via A(2a) and possibly A(1) receptors may contribute to posthemorrhagic sympathoinhibition of RSNA but not to the sympathoactivation of pre-ASNA. The differential effects of NTS adenosine receptors on RSNA vs. pre-ASNA responses to hemorrhage supports the hypothesis that these receptors are differentially located/expressed on NTS neurons/synaptic terminals controlling different sympathetic outputs.

  3. Endogenous activation of adenosine A(1) receptors accelerates ischemic suppression of spontaneous electrocortical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, Andrei; Ciocan, Dragos; Zagrean, Ana-Maria

    2006-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia induces a rapid suppression of spontaneous brain rhythms prior to major alterations in ionic homeostasis. It was found in vitro during ischemia that the rapidly formed adenosine, resulting from the intracellular breakdown of ATP, may inhibit synaptic transmission via the A(1...... with either 1.25 mg/kg DPCPX dissolved in 2 ml/kg dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or the same volume of DMSO alone, 15 min before the third ischemic episode. Time to electrocortical suppression was estimated based on the decay of the root mean square of two-channel electrocorticographic recordings. During the first...

  4. Generalized Keller-Segel models of chemotaxis. Analogy with nonlinear mean field Fokker-Planck equations

    CERN Document Server

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2008-01-01

    We consider a generalized class of Keller-Segel models describing the chemotaxis of biological populations (bacteria, amoebae, endothelial cells, social insects,...). We show the analogy with nonlinear mean field Fokker-Planck equations and generalized thermodynamics. As an illustration, we introduce a new model of chemotaxis incorporating both effects of anomalous diffusion and exclusion principle (volume filling). We also discuss the analogy between biological populations described by the Keller-Segel model and self-gravitating Brownian particles described by the Smoluchowski-Poisson system.

  5. Vasoconstrictor and vasodilator effects of adenosine in the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B; Schnermann, Jurgen

    2003-01-01

    Adenosine is an ATP breakdown product that in most vessels causes vasodilatation and that contributes to the metabolic control of organ perfusion, i.e., to the match between oxygen demand and oxygen delivery. In the renal vasculature, in contrast, adenosine can produce vasoconstriction, a respons...... activation from changes in vascular adenosine concentration, a characteristic that is ideally suited for the role of renal adenosine as a paracrine factor in the control of glomerular function.......Adenosine is an ATP breakdown product that in most vessels causes vasodilatation and that contributes to the metabolic control of organ perfusion, i.e., to the match between oxygen demand and oxygen delivery. In the renal vasculature, in contrast, adenosine can produce vasoconstriction, a response...... that has been suggested to be an organ-specific version of metabolic control designed to restrict organ perfusion when transport work increases. However, the vasoconstriction elicited by an intravenous infusion of adenosine is only short lasting, being replaced within 1-2 min by vasodilatation. It appears...

  6. Temporal variations of adenosine metabolism in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagoya de Sánchez, V; Hernández-Muñoz, R; Suárez, J; Vidrio, S; Yáñez, L; Aguilar-Roblero, R; Oksenberg, A; Vega-González, A; Villalobos, L; Rosenthal, L; Fernández-Cancino, F; Drucker-Colín, R; Díaz-Muñoz, M

    1996-08-01

    Eight diurnally active (06:00-23:00 h) subjects were adapted for 2 days to the room conditions where the experiments were performed. Blood sampling for adenosine metabolites and metabolizing enzymes was done hourly during the activity span and every 30 min during sleep. The results showed that adenosine and its catabolites (inosine, hypoxanthine, and uric acid), adenosine synthesizing (S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and 5'-nucleotidase), degrading (adenosine deaminase) and nucleotide-forming (adenosine kinase) enzymes as well as adenine nucleotides (AMP, ADP, and ATP) undergo statistically significant fluctuations (ANOVA) during the 24 h. However, energy charge was invariable. Glucose and lactate chronograms were determined as metabolic indicators. The same data analyzed by the chi-square periodogram and Fourier series indicated ultradian oscillatory periods for all the metabolites and enzymatic activities determined, and 24-h oscillatory components for inosine, hypoxanthine, adenine nucleotides, glucose, and the activities of SAH-hydrolase, 5'-nucleotidase, and adenosine kinase. The single cosinor method showed significant oscillatory components exclusively for lactate. As a whole, these results suggest that adenosine metabolism may play a role as a biological oscillator coordinating and/or modulating the energy homeostasis and physiological status of erythrocytes in vivo and could be an important factor in the distribution of purine rings for the rest of the organism.

  7. Adenosine triphosphate concentration in relation to microbial biomass in aquatic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, H.W. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Analyses of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) extracted from a sediment community by the sulfuric acid method are complicated by inhibitions from inorganic and organic compounds. Inhibitions by inorganic compounds are reversible while those by organic compounds are irreversible. The primary inhibition by organic compounds results by complexing with acid-soluble fulvic acids which will prevent the detection of as much as 80% of the ATP present in a sample by the luciferin-luciferase reaction. Analytical techniques were developed to parially circumvent such interferences. Biomass interpretations from ATP concentrations in aquatic systems are complicated by the diversity of the microbiota and by the variability in the carbon to ATP ratio caused by environmental conditions. However, when levels of ATP are considered as a physiological condition of a sedimentary community, this data provide a means to interpret community metabolism not available hitherto.

  8. Adenosine triphosphate concentration in relation to microbial biomass in aquatic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, H.W. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Analyses of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) extracted from a sediment community of an aquatic ecosystem by the sulfuric acid method are complicated by inhibitions from inorganic and organic compounds. Inhibitions by inorganic compounds are reversible while those by organic compounds are irreversible. The primary inhibition by organic compounds results by complexing with acid-soluble fulvic acids which will prevent the detection of as much as 80% of the ATP present in a sample by the luciferin-luciferase reaction. Analytical techniques were developed to partially circumvent such interferences. Biomass interpretations from ATP concentrations in aquatic systems are complicated by the diversity of the microbiota and by the variability in the carbon to ATP ratio caused by environmental conditions. However, when levels of ATP are considered as a physiological condition of a sedimentary community, this data provides a means to interpret community metabolism not available hitherto.

  9. Increased Cortical Extracellular Adenosine Correlates with Seizure Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gompel, Jamie J.; Bower, Mark R.; Worrell, Gregory A.; Stead, Matt; Chang, Su-Youne; Goerss, Stephan J.; Kim, Inyong; Bennet, Kevin E.; Meyer, Fredric B.; Marsh, W. Richard; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Seizures are currently defined by their electrographic features. However, neuronal networks are intrinsically dependent upon neurotransmitters of which little is known regarding their peri-ictal dynamics. Evidence supports adenosine as having a prominent role in seizure termination, as its administration can terminate and reduce seizures in animal models. Further, microdialysis studies in humans suggest adenosine is elevated peri-ictally, but the relationship to the seizure is obscured by its temporal measurement limitations. Because electrochemical techniques can provide vastly superior temporal resolution, we test the hypothesis that extracellular adenosine concentrations rise during seizure termination in an animal model and humans using electrochemistry. Methods White farm swine (n=45) were used in an acute cortical model of epilepsy and 10 human epilepsy patients were studied during intraoperative electrocorticography (Ecog). Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) based fast scan cyclic voltametry (FSCV) and fixed potential amperometry were obtained utilizing an adenosine specific triangular waveform or biosensors respectively. Results Simultaneous Ecog and electrochemistry demonstrated an average adenosine rise of 260% compared to baseline at 7.5 ± 16.9 seconds with amperometry (n=75 events) and 2.6 ± 11.2 seconds with FSCV (n=15 events) prior to electrographic seizure termination. In agreement with these animal data, adenosine elevation prior to seizure termination in a human patient utilizing FSCV was also seen. Significance Simultaneous Ecog and electrochemical recording supports the hypothesis that adenosine rises prior to seizure termination, suggesting that adenosine itself may be responsible for seizure termination. Future work using intraoperative WINCS based FSCV recording may help to elucidate the precise relationship between adenosine and seizure termination. PMID:24483230

  10. Elevation of extracellular adenosine enhances haemopoiesis-stimulating effects of G-CSF in normal and gamma-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, M.; Pospisil, M.; Netikiva, J.; Hola, J. [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

    1997-03-01

    Effects of combined treatment with drugs elevating extracellular adenosine (dipyridamole /DP/, inhibiting the extracellular uptake of adenosine, and adenosine monophosphate /AMP/, an adenosine pro-drug), and G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) on haemopoiesis of normal and gamma-irradiated mice were ascertained. The agents were administered alone or in combination in a 4-day regimen. In normal, unirradiated animals, the haematological endpoints were determined 24 hours after the completion of the treatment. It was shown that the effects of G-CSF, i.e., increases in peripheral blood neutrophils, granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (GM-CFC) and morphologically recognizable granulocyte cells in femoral marrow and a decrease in the marrow erythroid cells, can be enhanced by the combination of DP plus AMP administrated 30 minutes before G-CSF. Furthermore, it was found that the stimulatory action of DP plus AMP was expressed particularly at lower doses of G-CSF (1.5, 3, and 4.5 {mu}g/d). In experiments with irradiated mice, when the 4-day therapeutic regimen was applied on days 3 to 6 following irradiation with the dose of 4 Gy, analogical stimulation of granulopoiesis was observed in the recovery phase on days 14 and 18 after irradiation. As example, see Fig. 1 for counts of granulocyte cells in femoral bone marrow. (authors)

  11. DNA-templated silver nanoclusters based label-free fluorescent molecular beacon for the detection of adenosine deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Ke; Xie, Minhao; Zhu, Xue; Xu, Lan; Yang, Runlin; Huang, Biao; Zhu, Xiaoli

    2014-02-15

    A general and reliable fluorescent molecular beacon is proposed in this work utilizing DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (AgNCs). The fluorescent molecular beacon has been employed for sensitive determination of the concentration of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and its inhibition. A well-designed oligonucleotide containing three functional regions (an aptamer region for adenosine assembly, a sequence complementary to the region of the adenosine aptamer, and an inserted six bases cytosine-loop) is adopted as the core element in the strategy. The enzymatic reaction of adenosine catalyzed by ADA plays a key role as well in the regulation of the synthesis of the DNA-templated AgNCs, i.e. the signal indicator. The intensity of the fluorescence signal may thereby determine the concentration of the enzyme and its inhibitor. The detection limit of the ADA can be lowered to 0.05 UL(-1). Also, 100 fM of a known inhibitor erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine hydrochloride (EHNA) is enough to present distinguishable fluorescence emission. Moreover, since the fluorescent signal indicator is not required to be bound with the oligonucleotide, this fluorescent molecular beacon may integrate the advantages of both the label-free and signal-on strategies.

  12. Adenosine and Preexcitation Variants: Reappraisal of Electrocardiographic Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hussam; Lupo, Pierpaolo; Foresti, Sara; De Ambroggi, Guido; Epicoco, Gianluca; Fundaliotis, Angelica; Cappato, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Intravenous adenosine is a short-acting blocker of the atrioventricular node that has been used to unmask subtle or latent preexcitation, and also to enable catheter ablation in selected patients with absent or intermittent preexcitation. Depending on the accessory pathway characteristics, intravenous adenosine may produce specific electrocardiographic changes highly suggestive of the preexcitation variant. Herein, we view different ECG responses to this pharmacological test in various preexcitation patterns that were confirmed by electrophysiological studies. Careful analysis of electrocardiographic changes during adenosine test, with emphasis on P-delta interval, preexcitation degree, and atrioventricular block, can be helpful to diagnose the preexcitation variant/pattern.

  13. A novel mechanism of soluble HLA-G mediated immune modulation: downregulation of T cell chemokine receptor expression and impairment of chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Morandi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years, many immunoregulatory functions have been ascribed to soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G. Since chemotaxis is crucial for an efficient immune response, we have investigated for the first time the effects of sHLA-G on chemokine receptor expression and function in different human T cell populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: T cell populations isolated from peripheral blood were stimulated in the presence or absence of sHLA-G. Chemokine receptors expression was evaluated by flow cytometry. sHLA-G downregulated expression of i CCR2, CXCR3 and CXCR5 in CD4(+ T cells, ii CXCR3 in CD8(+ T cells, iii CXCR3 in Th1 clones iv CXCR3 in TCR Vdelta2gamma9 T cells, and upregulated CXCR4 expression in TCR Vdelta2gamma9 T cells. sHLA-G inhibited in vitro chemotaxis of i CD4(+ T cells towards CCL2, CCL8, CXCL10 and CXCL11, ii CD8(+ T cells towards CXCL10 and CXCL11, iii Th1 clones towards CXCL10, and iv TCR Vdelta2gamma9 T cells towards CXCL10 and CXCL11. Downregulation of CXCR3 expression on CD4+ T cells by sHLA-G was partially reverted by adding a blocking antibody against ILT2/CD85j, a receptor for sHLA-G, suggesting that sHLA-G downregulated chemokine receptor expression mainly through the interaction with ILT2/CD85j. Follicular helper T cells (T(FH were isolated from human tonsils and stimulated as described above. sHLA-G impaired CXCR5 expression in T(FH and chemotaxis of the latter cells towards CXCL13. Moreover, sHLA-G expression was detected in tonsils by immunohistochemistry, suggesting a role of sHLA-G in local control of T(FH cell chemotaxis. Intracellular pathways were investigated by Western Blot analysis on total extracts from CD4+ T cells. Phosphorylation of Stat5, p70 s6k, beta-arrestin and SHP2 was modulated by sHLA-G treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrated that sHLA-G impairs expression and functionality of different chemokine receptors in T cells. These findings delineate a novel mechanism whereby s

  14. Colorimetric assay for S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase activity and inhibition using fluorosurfactant-capped gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-Hui; Chang, Chung-Wei; Wu, Zong-Han; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2010-11-01

    This study reports a simple colorimetric method for the sensitive detection of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) activity and inhibition using fluorosurfactant-capped gold nanoparticles (FSN-AuNPs). FSN stabilizes the AuNPs against conditions of high ionic strength, and FSN-AuNPs are merely aggregated in the presence of homocysteine (HCys) and cysteine. Because of this feature, FSN-AuNPs were found to be dispersed in the presence of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) that lacks a free thiol group. After SAHH catalyzed the hydrolysis of SAH, the produced HCys molecules were bound to the surface of AuNPs through the formation of Au-S bonds. As a result, the nanoparticle (NP) aggregation occurred through electrostatic attraction between each HCys-attached AuNP. This approach had a minimum detectable concentration of 100 units/L (~6 nM). Additionally, because adenosine analogs are capable of inhibiting SAHH activity, the addition of adenosine analogs to a solution containing SAH and SAHH resulted in the suppression of hydrolyzed SAH-induced NP aggregation. Adenosine analogs exhibited the following trend in the half-maximal inhibitory concentrations: adenosine > adenosine monophosphate > adenosine diphosphate ~ adenosine triphosphate. We have demonstrated that the combination of SAHH inhibition and FSN-AuNPs can be utilized for the selective detection of adenosine.

  15. Possible mechanism of adenosine protection in carbon tetrachloride acute hepatotoxicity. Role of adenosine by-products and glutathione peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagoya de Sánchez, V; Hernández-Muñoz, R; Yáñez, L; Vidrio, S; Díaz-Muñoz, M

    1995-02-01

    Adenosine proved to be an effective hepatoprotector increasing the survival rate of rats receiving lethal doses of CCl4. Searching for the mechanism of action, we found that adenosine transiently prevents the necrotic liver damage associated to an acute CCl4 treatment. The antilipoperoxidative action of the nucleoside was evidenced by a decrease of TBA-reactive products and the diene conjugates elicited by the hepatotoxin. Adenosine's protective effect was demonstrated by reverting the decrease of cytochrome P-450 while preserved intact the activity of the microsomal enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase. CCl4 promoted an increase in the oxidant stress through an enhancement in oxidized glutathione levels. This action was also completely counteracted by the nucleoside. Adenosine was unable to prevent CCl4 activation and, even, increased .CCl3 formation in the presence of PBN in vivo. However, in the presence of the nucleoside, irreversible binding of 14CCl4 to the microsomal lipid fraction of the treated animals was decreased. These results suggest that adenosine protective action might be exerted at the level of the propagation reaction following CCl4 activation. Two possible mechanisms were associated to the nucleoside protection: (1) the peroxide-metabolyzed enzymes, GSH-per, showed a marked increase after 30 minutes of adenosine treatment, which was potentiated by the hepatotoxin, suggesting an important role of this enzyme in the nucleoside's action; (2) the adenosine catabolism induced an increase in uric acid level, and allopurinol, a purine metabolism inhibitor, prevented such elevation as well as the antilipoperoxidative action of adenosine and the increase of GSH-per associated with the nucleoside treatment. These facts strongly suggest that the protective effect elicited by adenosine is not a direct one, but rather is related to its catabolic products, such as uric acid, which has been recognized as a free radical scavenger.

  16. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) and SP-A-derived peptide attenuate chemotaxis of mast cells induced by human β-defensin 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Yasuaki; Takahashi, Motoko; Murata, Masaki; Saito, Atsushi; Takamiya, Rina; Hasegawa, Yoshihiro; Kuronuma, Koji; Chiba, Hirofumi; Hashimoto, Jiro; Sawada, Norimasa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Kuroki, Yoshio; Ariki, Shigeru

    2017-02-08

    Human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) is known to be involved in mast cell activation. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of hBD3-induced mast cell activation have been poorly understood. We previously reported that SP-A and SP-A-derived peptide 01 (SAP01) regulate the function of hBD3. In this study, we focused on the effects of SP-A and SAP01 on the activation of mast cells induced by hBD3. SAP01 directly bound to hBD3. Mast cell-mediated vascular permeability and edema in hBD3 administered rat ears were decreased when injected with SP-A or SAP01. Compatible with the results in rat ear model, both SP-A and SAP01 inhibited hBD3-induced chemotaxis of mast cells in vitro. Direct interaction between SP-A or SAP01 and hBD3 seemed to be responsible for the inhibitory effects on chemotaxis. Furthermore, SAP01 attenuated hBD3-induced accumulation of mast cells and eosinophils in tracheas of the OVA-sensitized inflammatory model. SP-A might contribute to the regulation of inflammatory responses mediated by mast cells during infection.

  17. Cdc42 and Rac family GTPases regulate mode and speed but not direction of primary fibroblast migration during platelet-derived growth factor-dependent chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monypenny, James; Zicha, Daniel; Higashida, Chiharu; Oceguera-Yanez, Fabian; Narumiya, Shuh; Watanabe, Naoki

    2009-05-01

    Cdc42 and Rac family GTPases are important regulators of morphology, motility, and polarity in a variety of mammalian cell types. However, comprehensive analysis of their roles in the morphological and behavioral aspects of chemotaxis within a single experimental system is still lacking. Here we demonstrate using a direct viewing chemotaxis assay that of all of the Cdc42/Rac1-related GTPases expressed in primary fibroblasts, Cdc42, Rac1, and RhoG are required for efficient migration towards platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). During migration, Cdc42-, Rac1-, and RhoG-deficient cells show aberrant morphology characterized as cell elongation and cell body rounding, loss of lamellipodia, and formation of thick membrane extensions, respectively. Analysis of individual cell trajectories reveals that cell speed is significantly reduced, as well as persistence, but to a smaller degree, while the directional response to the gradient of PDGF is not affected. Combined knockdown of Cdc42, Rac1, and RhoG results in greater inhibition of cell speed than when each protein is knocked down alone, but the cells are still capable of migrating toward PDGF. We conclude that, Cdc42, Rac1, and RhoG function cooperatively during cell migration and that, while each GTPase is implicated in the control of morphology and cell speed, these and other Cdc42/Rac-related GTPases are not essential for the directional response toward PDGF.

  18. Characterization of cell surface and extracellular matrix remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense chemotaxis-like 1 signal transduction pathway mutants by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Amanda Nicole; Siuti, Piro; Bible, Amber N; Alexandre, Gladys; Retterer, Scott T; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the regulation of multiple behaviors in response to changes in the environment, including motility patterns, exopolysaccharide production, and cell-to-cell interactions. In Azospirillum brasilense, cell surface properties, including exopolysaccharide production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from A. brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation, suggesting an associated modulation of cell surface properties. Using atomic force microscopy, distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains were detected. Whereas the wild-type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix after 24 h, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition, lectin-binding assays, and comparison of lipopolysaccharides profiles suggest that the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and the cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that disruption of the Che1 pathway is correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix, which likely result from changes in surface polysaccharides structure and/or composition.

  19. Characterization of cell surface and extracellular matrix remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense chemotaxis-like 1 signal transduction pathway mutants by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the regulation of multiple behaviors in response to changes in the environment, including motility patterns, exopolysaccharide production, and cell-to-cell interactions. In Azospirillum brasilense, cell surface properties, including exopolysaccharide production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from A. brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation, suggesting an associated modulation of cell surface properties. Using atomic force microscopy, distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains were detected. Whereas the wild-type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix after 24 h, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition, lectin-binding assays, and comparison of lipopolysaccharides profiles suggest that the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and the cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that disruption of the Che1 pathway is correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix, which likely result from changes in surface polysaccharides structure and/or composition.

  20. Characterization of Cell Surface and EPS Remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense Chemotaxis-like 1 Signal Transduction Pathway mutants by Atomic Force Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, Amanda N [ORNL; Siuti, Piro [ORNL; Bible, Amber [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Alexandre, Gladys [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must quickly sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the modulation of multiple cellular responses, including motility, EPS production, and cell-to-cell interactions. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from Azospirillum brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation. In A. brasilense, cell surface properties, including EPS production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we have detected distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains that are absent in the wild type strain. Whereas the wild type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition and lectin-binding assays suggest that the composition of EPS components in the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that mutations in the Che1 pathway that result in increased flocculation are correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix structure produced by the mutants, including likely changes in the EPS structure and/or composition.

  1. Stimulation of NTS A1 adenosine receptors differentially resets baroreflex control of regional sympathetic outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scislo, Tadeusz J; Ichinose, Tomoko K; O'Leary, Donal S

    2008-01-01

    Previously we showed that pressor and differential regional sympathoexcitatory responses (adrenal > renal >/= lumbar) evoked by stimulation of A(1) adenosine receptors located in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) were attenuated/abolished by baroreceptor denervation or blockade of glutamatergic transmission in the NTS, suggesting A(1) receptor-elicited inhibition of glutamatergic transmission in baroreflex pathways. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that stimulation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors differentially inhibits/resets baroreflex responses of preganglionic adrenal (pre-ASNA), renal (RSNA), and lumbar (LSNA) sympathetic nerve activity. In urethane-chloralose-anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 65) we compared baroreflex-response curves (iv nitroprusside and phenylephrine) evoked before and after bilateral microinjections into the NTS of A(1) adenosine receptor agonist (N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine, CPA; 0.033-330 pmol/50 nl). CPA evoked typical dose-dependent pressor and differential sympathoexcitatory responses and similarly shifted baroreflex curves for pre-ASNA, RSNA, and LSNA toward higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) in a dose-dependent manner; the maximal shifts were 52.6 +/- 2.8, 48.0 +/- 3.6, and 56.8 +/- 6.7 mmHg for pre-ASNA, RSNA, and LSNA, respectively. These shifts were not a result of simple baroreceptor resetting because they were two to three times greater than respective increases in baseline MAP evoked by CPA. Baroreflex curves for pre-ASNA were additionally shifted upward: the maximal increases of upper and lower plateaus were 41.8 +/- 16.4% and 45.3 +/- 8.7%, respectively. Maximal gain (%/mmHg) measured before vs. after CPA increased for pre-ASNA (3.0 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.9 +/- 1.3), decreased for RSNA (4.1 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.3 +/- 0.3), and remained unaltered for LSNA (2.1 +/- 0.2 vs. 2.0 +/- 0.1). Vehicle control did not alter the baroreflex curves. We conclude that the activation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors differentially inhibits

  2. Adenosine Deaminase Activity in Diabetic and Obese Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Health and Visual Sciences ... Abstract. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) commonly associated with severe combined ... The results (mean±) show that the mean values in the test groups were significantly higher than the controls ...

  3. A study of blow-ups in the Keller-Segel model of chemotaxis

    CERN Document Server

    Fatkullin, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    We study the Keller-Segel model of chemotaxis and develop a composite particle-grid numerical method with adaptive time stepping which allows us to accurately resolve singular solutions. The numerical findings (in two dimensions) are then compared with analytical predictions regarding formation and interaction of singularities obtained via analysis of the stochastic differential equations associated with the Keller-Segel model.

  4. Gas/liquid sensing via chemotaxis of Euglena cells confined in an isolated micro-aquarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kazunari; Lee, Jeesoo; Song, Simon; Hara, Masahiko; Maeda, Mizuo

    2013-10-21

    We demonstrate on-chip gas/liquid sensing by using the chemotaxis of live bacteria (Euglena gracilis) confined in an isolated micro-aquarium, and gas/liquid permeation through porous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The sensing chip consisted of one closed micro-aquarium and two separated bypass microchannels along the perimeter of the micro-aquarium. Test gas/liquid and reference samples were introduced into the two individual microchannels separately, and the gas/liquid permeated through the PDMS walls and dissolved in the micro-aquarium water, resulting in a chemical concentration gradient in the micro-aquarium. By employing the closed micro-aquarium isolated from sample flows, we succeeded in measuring the chemotaxis of Euglena for a gas substance quantitatively, which cannot be achieved with the conventional flow-type or hydro-gel-type microfluidic devices. We found positive (negative) chemotaxis for CO2 concentrations below (above) 15%, with 64 ppm as the minimum concentration affecting the cells. We also observed chemotaxis for ethanol and H2O2. By supplying culture medium via the microchannels, the Euglena culture remained alive for more than 2 months. The sensing chip is thus useful for culturing cells and using them for environmental toxicity/nutrition studies by monitoring their motion.

  5. Chemotaxis to cyclic AMP and folic acid is mediated by different G proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesbeke, Fanja; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Wit, René J.W. de; Snaar-Jagalska, B. Ewa

    1990-01-01

    Mutant Frigid A (fgdA) of Dictyostelium discoideum is defective in a functional Gα2 subunit of a G protein and is characterized by a complete blockade of the cyclic AMP-mediated sensory transduction steps, including cyclic AMP relay, chemotaxis and the cyclic GMP response. Folic acid-mediated transm

  6. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa chemotaxis methyltransferase CheR1 impacts on bacterial surface sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Schmidt

    Full Text Available The characterization of factors contributing to the formation and development of surface-associated bacterial communities known as biofilms has become an area of intense interest since biofilms have a major impact on human health, the environment and industry. Various studies have demonstrated that motility, including swimming, swarming and twitching, seems to play an important role in the surface colonization and establishment of structured biofilms. Thereby, the impact of chemotaxis on biofilm formation has been less intensively studied. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has a very complex chemosensory system with two Che systems implicated in flagella-mediated motility. In this study, we demonstrate that the chemotaxis protein CheR1 is a methyltransferase that binds S-adenosylmethionine and transfers a methyl group from this methyl donor to the chemoreceptor PctA, an activity which can be stimulated by the attractant serine but not by glutamine. We furthermore demonstrate that CheR1 does not only play a role in flagella-mediated chemotaxis but that its activity is essential for the formation and maintenance of bacterial biofilm structures. We propose a model in which motility and chemotaxis impact on initial attachment processes, dispersion and reattachment and increase the efficiency and frequency of surface sampling in P. aeruginosa.

  7. Transient dynamic phenotypes as criteria for model discrimination: fold-change detection in Rhodobacter sphaeroides chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadeh, Abdullah; Ingalls, Brian; Sontag, Eduardo

    2013-03-01

    The chemotaxis pathway of the bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides shares many similarities with that of Escherichia coli. It exhibits robust adaptation and has several homologues of the latter's chemotaxis proteins. Recent theoretical results have correctly predicted that the E. coli output behaviour is unchanged under scaling of its ligand input signal; this property is known as fold-change detection (FCD). In the light of recent experimental results suggesting that R. sphaeroides may also show FCD, we present theoretical assumptions on the R. sphaeroides chemosensory dynamics that can be shown to yield FCD behaviour. Furthermore, it is shown that these assumptions make FCD a property of this system that is robust to structural and parametric variations in the chemotaxis pathway, in agreement with experimental results. We construct and examine models of the full chemotaxis pathway that satisfy these assumptions and reproduce experimental time-series data from earlier studies. We then propose experiments in which models satisfying our theoretical assumptions predict robust FCD behaviour where earlier models do not. In this way, we illustrate how transient dynamic phenotypes such as FCD can be used for the purposes of discriminating between models that reproduce the same experimental time-series data.

  8. A Stochastic Model for Chemotaxis Based on the Ordered Extension of Pseudopods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Haastert, Peter J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Many amoeboid cells move by extending pseudopods. Here I present a new stochastic model for chemotaxis that is based on pseudopod extensions by Dictyostelium cells. In the absence of external cues, pseudopod extension is highly ordered with two types of pseudopocs: de novo formation of a pseudopod

  9. NemaCount: quantification of nematode chemotaxis behavior in a browser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Damien M

    2016-06-01

    Nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans offer a very effective and tractable system to probe the underlying mechanisms of diverse sensory behaviors. Numerous platforms exist for quantifying nematode behavior and often require separate dependencies or software. Here I describe a novel and simple tool called NemaCount that provides a versatile solution for the quantification of nematode chemotaxis behavior. The ease of installation and user-friendly interface makes NemaCount a practical tool for measuring diverse behaviors and image features of nematodes such as C. elegans. The main advantage of NemaCount is that it operates from within a modern browser such as Google Chrome or Apple Safari. Any features that change in total number, size, shape, or angular distance between control and experimental preparations are suited to NemaCount for image analysis, while commonly used chemotaxis assays can be quantified, and statistically analyzed using a suite of functions from within NemaCount. NemaCount also offers image filtering options that allow the user to improve object detection and measurements. NemaCount was validated by examining nematode chemotaxis behavior; angular distances of locomotory tracks in C. elegans; and body lengths of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora nematodes. Apart from a modern browser, no additional software is required to operate NemaCount, making NemaCount a cheap, simple option for the analysis of nematode images and chemotaxis behavior.

  10. Homology modeling of the CheW coupling protein of the chemotaxis signaling complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Derek J; Ortega, Davi R; Zhulin, Igor B; Baudry, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    Homology models of the E. coli and T. maritima chemotaxis protein CheW were constructed to assess the quality of structural predictions and their applicability in chemotaxis research: i) a model of E. coli CheW was constructed using the T. maritima CheW NMR structure as a template, and ii) a model of T. maritima CheW was constructed using the E. coli CheW NMR structure as a template. The conformational space accessible to the homology models and to the NMR structures was investigated using molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that even though static homology models of CheW may be partially structurally different from their corresponding experimentally determined structures, the conformational space they can access through their dynamic variations can be similar, for specific regions of the protein, to that of the experimental NMR structures. When CheW homology models are allowed to explore their local accessible conformational space, modeling can provide a rational path to predicting CheW interactions with the MCP and CheA proteins of the chemotaxis complex. Homology models of CheW (and potentially, of other chemotaxis proteins) should be seen as snapshots of an otherwise larger ensemble of accessible conformational space.

  11. Caffeine acts via A1 adenosine receptors to disrupt embryonic cardiac function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela L Buscariollo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that adenosine acts via cardiac A1 adenosine receptors (A1ARs to protect embryos against hypoxia. During embryogenesis, A1ARs are the dominant regulator of heart rate, and A1AR activation reduces heart rate. Adenosine action is inhibited by caffeine, which is widely consumed during pregnancy. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that caffeine influences developing embryos by altering cardiac function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Effects of caffeine and adenosine receptor-selective antagonists on heart rate were studied in vitro using whole murine embryos at E9.5 and isolated hearts at E12.5. Embryos were examined in room air (21% O(2 or hypoxic (2% O(2 conditions. Hypoxia decreased heart rates of E9.5 embryos by 15.8% and in E12.5 isolated hearts by 27.1%. In room air, caffeine (200 µM had no effect on E9.5 heart rates; however, caffeine increased heart rates at E12.5 by 37.7%. Caffeine abolished hypoxia-mediated bradycardia at E9.5 and blunted hypoxia-mediated bradycardia at E12.5. Real-time PCR analysis of RNA from isolated E9.5 and E12.5 hearts showed that A1AR and A2aAR genes were expressed at both ages. Treatment with adenosine receptor-selective antagonists revealed that SCH-58261 (A2aAR-specific antagonist had no affects on heart function, whereas DPCPX (A1AR-specific antagonist had effects similar to caffeine treatment at E9.5 and E12.5. At E12.5, embryonic hearts lacking A1AR expression (A1AR-/- had elevated heart rates compared to A1AR+/- littermates, A1AR-/- heart rates failed to decrease to levels comparable to those of controls. Caffeine did not significantly affect heart rates of A1AR-/- embryos. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data show that caffeine alters embryonic cardiac function and disrupts the normal cardiac response to hypoxia through blockade of A1AR action. Our results raise concern for caffeine exposure during embryogenesis, particularly in pregnancies with increased risk of

  12. Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency – More Than Just an Immunodeficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Victoria Whitmore; Hubert Bobby Gaspar

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is best known as a form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) which results from mutations in the gene encoding adenosine deaminase. Affected patients present with clinical and immunological manifestations typical of a severe combined immunodeficiency. Therapies are currently available that can that target these immunological disturbances and treated patients show varying degrees of clinical improvement. However, there is now a growing body of evidenc...

  13. Low-dose adenosine stress echocardiography: Detection of myocardial viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic-Dikic, Ana; Ostojic, Miodrag; Beleslin, Branko; Nedeljkovic, Ivana; Stepanovic, Jelena; Stojkovic, Sinisa; Petrasinovic, Zorica; Nedeljkovic, Milan; Saponjski, Jovica; Giga, Vojislav

    2003-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of low-dose adenosine stress echocardiography in detection of myocardial viability. Background Vasodilation through low dose dipyridamole infusion may recruit contractile reserve by increasing coronary flow or by increasing levels of endogenous adenosine. Methods Forty-three patients with resting dyssynergy, due to previous myocardial infarction, underwent low-dose adenosine (80, 100, 110 mcg/kg/min in 3 minutes intervals) echocardiography test. Gold standard for myocardial viability was improvement in systolic thickening of dyssinergic segments of ≥ 1 grade at follow-up. Coronary angiography was done in 41 pts. Twenty-seven patients were revascularized and 16 were medically treated. Echocardiographic follow up data (12 ± 2 months) were available in 24 revascularized patients. Results Wall motion score index improved from rest 1.55 ± 0.30 to 1.33 ± 0.26 at low-dose adenosine (p < 0.001). Of the 257 segments with baseline dyssynergy, adenosine echocardiography identified 122 segments as positive for viability, and 135 as necrotic since no improvement of systolic thickening was observed. Follow-up wall motion score index was 1.31 ± 0.30 (p < 0.001 vs. rest). The sensitivity of adenosine echo test for identification of viable segments was 87%, while specificity was 95%, and diagnostic accuracy 90%. Positive and negative predictive values were 97% and 80%, respectively. Conclusion Low-dose adenosine stress echocardiography test has high diagnostic potential for detection of myocardial viability in the group of patients with left ventricle dysfunction due to previous myocardial infarction. Low dose adenosine stress echocardiography may be adequate alternative to low-dose dobutamine test for evaluation of myocardial viability. PMID:12812523

  14. Identification of a Chemoreceptor in Pseudomonas aeruginosa That Specifically Mediates Chemotaxis Toward α-Ketoglutarate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Mora, David; Ortega, Alvaro; Reyes-Darias, José A.; García, Vanina; López-Farfán, Diana; Matilla, Miguel A.; Krell, Tino

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an ubiquitous pathogen able to infect humans, animals, and plants. Chemotaxis was found to be associated with the virulence of this and other pathogens. Although established as a model for chemotaxis research, the majority of the 26 P. aeruginosa chemoreceptors remain functionally un-annotated. We report here the identification of PA5072 (named McpK) as chemoreceptor for α-ketoglutarate (αKG). High-throughput thermal shift assays and isothermal titration calorimetry studies (ITC) of the recombinant McpK ligand binding domain (LBD) showed that it recognizes exclusively α-ketoglutarate. The ITC analysis indicated that the ligand bound with positive cooperativity (Kd1 = 301 μM, Kd2 = 81 μM). McpK is predicted to possess a helical bimodular (HBM) type of LBD and this and other studies suggest that this domain type may be associated with the recognition of organic acids. Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) studies revealed that McpK-LBD is present in monomer-dimer equilibrium. Alpha-KG binding stabilized the dimer and dimer self-dissociation constants of 55 μM and 5.9 μM were derived for ligand-free and αKG-bound forms of McpK-LBD, respectively. Ligand-induced LBD dimer stabilization has been observed for other HBM domain containing receptors and may correspond to a general mechanism of this protein family. Quantitative capillary chemotaxis assays demonstrated that P. aeruginosa showed chemotaxis to a broad range of αKG concentrations with maximal responses at 500 μM. Deletion of the mcpK gene reduced chemotaxis over the entire concentration range to close to background levels and wild type like chemotaxis was recovered following complementation. Real-time PCR studies indicated that the presence of αKG does not modulate mcpK expression. Since αKG is present in plant root exudates it was investigated whether the deletion of mcpK altered maize root colonization. However, no significant changes with respect to the wild type strain

  15. Identification of a Chemoreceptor in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that specifically mediates Chemotaxis towards alpha-Ketoglutarate

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    David Martin-Mora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an ubiquitous pathogen able to infect humans, animals and plants. Chemotaxis was found to be associated with the virulence of this and other pathogens. Although established as a model for chemotaxis research, the majority of the 26 P. aeruginosa chemoreceptors remain functionally un-annotated. We report here the identification of PA5072 (named McpK as chemoreceptor for -ketoglutarate (KG. High-throughput thermal shift assays and isothermal titration calorimetry studies (ITC of the recombinant McpK ligand binding domain (LBD show that it recognizes exclusively -ketoglutarate. The ITC analysis indicated that the ligand bound with positive cooperativity (Kd1=301 µM, Kd2=81 µM. McpK is predicted to possess a helical bimodular (HBM type of LBD and this and other studies suggest that this domain type may be associated with the recognition of organic acids. Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC studies revealed that McpK-LBD is present in a monomer-dimer equilibrium. Alpha-KG binding stabilized the dimer and dimer self-dissociation constants of 55 µM and 5.9 µM were derived for ligand-free and KG-bound forms of McpK-LBD, respectively. Ligand-induced LBD dimer stabilization has been observed for other HBM domain containing receptors and may correspond to a general mechanism of this protein family. Quantitative capillary chemotaxis assays demonstrated that P. aeruginosa showed chemotaxis to a broad range of KG concentrations with maximal responses at 500 µM. Deletion of the mcpK gene reduced chemotaxis over the entire concentration range to close to background levels and wild type like chemotaxis was recovered following complementation. Real-time PCR studies indicated that the presence of KG does not modulate mcpK expression. Since KG is present in plant root exudates it was investigated whether the deletion of mcpK altered maize root colonization. However, no significant changes with respect to the wild

  16. Growth inhibitory effect and apoptosis induced by extracellular ATP and adenosine on human gastric carcinoma cells: involvement of intracellular uptake of adenosine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-xia WANG; Lei-ming REN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine (ADO) on human gastric carcinoma (HGC)-27 cells in vitro and the mechanisms related to the actions of ATP and ADO. Methods: MTT assay was used to determine the reduction of cell viability. The morphological changes of HGC-27 cells induced by ATP or ADO were observed under fluorescence light microscope by acridine orange/ethidium bromide double-stained cells. The internucleosomal fragmentation of genomic DNA was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. The apoptotic rate and cell-cycle analysis after treatment with ATP or ADO was determined by flow cytometry. Results: ATP, ADO and the intermediate metabolites, ADP and AMP, and the agonist of purinergic receptors, reduced cell viability of HGC-27 cells at doses of 0.3 and 1.0 mmol·L-1. The distribution of cell cycle phase and proliferation index (PI) value of HGC-27 cells changed when exposed to ATP or ADO at the concentrations of 0.1,0.3 and 1 mmol/L for 48 h. ATP and ADO both altered the distribution of cell cycle phase via Go/G1-phase arrest and significantly decreased PI value. Under light microscope, the tumor cells exposed to 0.3 mmol·L-1 ATP or ADO displayed morphological changes of apoptosis; a ladder-like pattern of DNA fragmentation obtained from HGC-27 cells treated with 0.1-1 mmol·L-1 ATP or ADO appeared in agarose gel electrophoresis; ATP and ADO induced the apoptosis of HGC-27 cells in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations between 0.03-1 mmol·L-1. The maximum apoptotic rate of HGC-27 cells exposed to ATP or ADO for 48 h was 13.53% or 15.9%, respectively. HGC-27 cell death induced by ATP or ADO was significantly inhibited by dipy-ridamole (10 mmol·L-1), an inhibitor of adenosine transporter, but was not affected by aminophylline, a broad inhibitor of PI receptors and pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2, 4-disulphonic acid tetrasodium salt (30 nmol·L-1), a non-selective antagonist of P2

  17. The A3 adenosine receptor: history and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Tabrizi, Mojgan Aghazadeh; Merighi, Stefania; Gessi, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    By general consensus, the omnipresent purine nucleoside adenosine is considered a major regulator of local tissue function, especially when energy supply fails to meet cellular energy demand. Adenosine mediation involves activation of a family of four G protein-coupled adenosine receptors (ARs): A(1), A(2)A, A(2)B, and A(3). The A(3) adenosine receptor (A(3)AR) is the only adenosine subtype to be overexpressed in inflammatory and cancer cells, thus making it a potential target for therapy. Originally isolated as an orphan receptor, A(3)AR presented a twofold nature under different pathophysiologic conditions: it appeared to be protective/harmful under ischemic conditions, pro/anti-inflammatory, and pro/antitumoral depending on the systems investigated. Until recently, the greatest and most intriguing challenge has been to understand whether, and in which cases, selective A(3) agonists or antagonists would be the best choice. Today, the choice has been made and A(3)AR agonists are now under clinical development for some disorders including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, glaucoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. More specifically, the interest and relevance of these new agents derives from clinical data demonstrating that A(3)AR agonists are both effective and safe. Thus, it will become apparent in the present review that purine scientists do seem to be getting closer to their goal: the incorporation of adenosine ligands into drugs with the ability to save lives and improve human health.

  18. Low-dose adenosine stress echocardiography: Detection of myocardial viability

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    Nedeljkovic Milan

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of low-dose adenosine stress echocardiography in detection of myocardial viability. Background Vasodilation through low dose dipyridamole infusion may recruit contractile reserve by increasing coronary flow or by increasing levels of endogenous adenosine. Methods Forty-three patients with resting dyssynergy, due to previous myocardial infarction, underwent low-dose adenosine (80, 100, 110 mcg/kg/min in 3 minutes intervals echocardiography test. Gold standard for myocardial viability was improvement in systolic thickening of dyssinergic segments of ≥ 1 grade at follow-up. Coronary angiography was done in 41 pts. Twenty-seven patients were revascularized and 16 were medically treated. Echocardiographic follow up data (12 ± 2 months were available in 24 revascularized patients. Results Wall motion score index improved from rest 1.55 ± 0.30 to 1.33 ± 0.26 at low-dose adenosine (p Conclusion Low-dose adenosine stress echocardiography test has high diagnostic potential for detection of myocardial viability in the group of patients with left ventricle dysfunction due to previous myocardial infarction. Low dose adenosine stress echocardiography may be adequate alternative to low-dose dobutamine test for evaluation of myocardial viability.

  19. Adenosine prevents TNFα-induced decrease in endothelial mitochondrial mass via activation of eNOS-PGC-1α regulatory axis.

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    Theodore J Kalogeris

    Full Text Available We tested whether adenosine, a cytoprotective mediator and trigger of preconditioning, could protect endothelial cells from inflammation-induced deficits in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. We examined this question using human microvascular endothelial cells exposed to TNFα. TNFα produced time and dose-dependent decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential, cellular ATP levels, and mitochondrial mass, preceding an increase in apoptosis. These effects were prevented by co-incubation with adenosine, a nitric oxide (NO donor, a guanylate cyclase (GC activator, or a cell-permeant cyclic GMP (cGMP analog. The effects of adenosine were blocked by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, a morpholino antisense oligonucleotide to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, or siRNA knockdown of the transcriptional coactivator, PGC-1α. Incubation with exogenous NO, a GC activator, or a cGMP analog reversed the effect of eNOS knockdown, while the effect of NO was blocked by inhibition of GC. The protective effects of NO and cGMP analog were prevented by siRNA to PGC-1α. TNFα also decreased expression of eNOS, cellular NO levels, and PGC-1α expression, which were reversed by adenosine. Exogenous NO, but not adenosine, rescued expression of PGC-1α in cells in which eNOS expression was knocked down by eNOS antisense treatment. Thus, TNFα elicits decreases in endothelial mitochondrial function and mass, and an increase in apoptosis. These effects were reversed by adenosine, an effect mediated by eNOS-synthesized NO, acting via soluble guanylate cyclase/cGMP to activate a mitochondrial biogenesis regulatory program under the control of PGC-1α. These results support the existence of an adenosine-triggered, mito-and cytoprotective mechanism dependent upon an eNOS-PGC-1α regulatory pathway, which acts to preserve endothelial mitochondrial function and mass during inflammatory challenge.

  20. Amplified fluorescence detection of adenosine via catalyzed hairpin assembly and host-guest interactions between β-cyclodextrin polymer and pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haihua; Yang, Xiaohai; Wang, Kemin; Wang, Qing; Guo, Qiuping; Huang, Jin; Liu, Jianbo; Song, Chunxia

    2016-04-21

    Nowadays, enzyme-free nucleic acid-based signal amplification strategies are frequently utilized in the design of biosensors due to their excellent sensitivity. Developing more extended analytical methods is fundamental for basic studies in the biological and biomedical fields. Herein, we introduce an enzyme-free amplified detection strategy for the small molecule adenosine. The approach is based on adenosine-aptamer binding triggered catalyzed hairpin assembly and host-guest interactions between β-cyclodextrin polymer (β-CDP) and pyrene. Two hairpin probes (probe H1 and probe H2) and an aptamer-trigger/inhibitor duplex probe were employed in the system and the pyrene-labeled probe H1 was chosen as the signal unit. In the absence of adenosine, the aptamer-trigger was inhibited by the inhibitor strand. The hairpin probes were in the closed hairpin formation without activation of the trigger strand. Pyrene labeled at the 5'-termini of the single-stranded stem of probe H1 could be easily trapped in the hydrophobic cavity of β-CDP because of weak steric hindrance, leading to a significant fluorescence enhancement. Once the hairpin assembly was catalyzed by the adenosine-aptamer binding event, a hybridized DNA duplex H1/H2 was created continuously. Pyrene labeled at the 5'-termini of the DNA duplex H1/H2 finds it difficult to enter the cavity of β-CDP due to steric hindrance, leading to a weaker fluorescence signal. Thus, the target could be detected by this simple mix-and-detect amplification method without a need for expensive and perishable protein enzymes. As low as 42 nM of adenosine was detected by this assay, which is comparable to that of some reported colorimetric methods. Meanwhile, the proposed method was further successfully applied to detect adenosine in human serum samples, showing great potential for adenosine detection from complex fluids.

  1. Niflumic acid disrupts marine spermatozoan chemotaxis without impairing the spatiotemporal detection of chemoattractant gradients.

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    Guerrero, Adán; Espinal, Jesús; Wood, Christopher D; Rendón, Juan M; Carneiro, Jorge; Martínez-Mekler, Gustavo; Darszon, Alberto

    2013-03-15

    In many broadcast-spawning marine organisms, oocytes release chemicals that guide conspecific spermatozoa towards them through chemotaxis. In the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus, the chemoattractant peptide speract triggers a train of fluctuations of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in the sperm flagella. Each transient Ca(2+) elevation leads to a momentary increase in flagellar bending asymmetry, known as a chemotactic turn. Furthermore, chemotaxis requires a precise spatiotemporal coordination between the Ca(2+)-dependent turns and the form of chemoattractant gradient. Spermatozoa that perform Ca(2+)-dependent turns while swimming down the chemoattractant gradient, and conversely suppress turning events while swimming up the gradient, successfully approach the center of the gradient. Previous experiments in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus sea urchin spermatozoa showed that niflumic acid (NFA), an inhibitor of several ion channels, drastically altered the speract-induced Ca(2+) fluctuations and swimming patterns. In this study, mathematical modeling of the speract-dependent Ca(2+) signaling pathway suggests that NFA, by potentially affecting hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, Ca(2+)-regulated Cl(-) channels and/or Ca(2+)-regulated K(+) channels, may alter the temporal organization of Ca(2+) fluctuations, and therefore disrupt chemotaxis. We used a novel automated method for analyzing sperm behavior and we identified that NFA does indeed disrupt chemotactic responses of L. pictus spermatozoa, although the temporal coordination between the Ca(2+)-dependent turns and the form of chemoattractant gradient is unaltered. Instead, NFA disrupts sperm chemotaxis by altering the arc length traveled during each chemotactic turning event. This alteration in the chemotactic turn trajectory disorientates spermatozoa at the termination of the turning event. We conclude that NFA disrupts chemotaxis without affecting how the spermatozoa decode

  2. Sinorhizobium meliloti chemoreceptor McpU mediates chemotaxis toward host plant exudates through direct proline sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Benjamin A; Hildreth, Sherry; Helm, Richard F; Scharf, Birgit E

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial chemotaxis is an important attribute that aids in establishing symbiosis between rhizobia and their legume hosts. Plant roots and seeds exude a spectrum of molecules into the soil to attract their bacterial symbionts. The alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti possesses eight chemoreceptors to sense its environment and mediate chemotaxis toward its host. The methyl accepting chemotaxis protein McpU is one of the more abundant S. meliloti chemoreceptors and an important sensor for the potent attractant proline. We established a dominant role of McpU in sensing molecules exuded by alfalfa seeds. Mass spectrometry analysis determined that a single germinating seed exudes 3.72 nmol of proline, producing a millimolar concentration near the seed surface which can be detected by the chemosensory system of S. meliloti. Complementation analysis of the mcpU deletion strain verified McpU as the key proline sensor. A structure-based homology search identified tandem Cache (calcium channels and chemotaxis receptors) domains in the periplasmic region of McpU. Conserved residues Asp-155 and Asp-182 of the N-terminal Cache domain were determined to be important for proline sensing by evaluating mutant strains in capillary and swim plate assays. Differential scanning fluorimetry revealed interaction of the isolated periplasmic region of McpU (McpU40-284) with proline and the importance of Asp-182 in this interaction. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we determined that proline binds with a Kd (dissociation constant) of 104 μM to McpU40-284, while binding was abolished when Asp-182 was substituted by Glu. Our results show that McpU is mediating chemotaxis toward host plants by direct proline sensing.

  3. Direct sensing and signal transduction during bacterial chemotaxis toward aromatic compounds in Comamonas testosteroni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhou; Ni, Bin; Jiang, Cheng-Ying; Wu, Yu-Fan; He, Yun-Zhe; Parales, Rebecca E; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Micro-organisms sense and chemotactically respond to aromatic compounds. Although the existence of chemoreceptors that bind to aromatic attractants and subsequently trigger chemotaxis have long been speculated, such a chemoreceptor has not been demonstrated. In this report, we demonstrated that the chemoreceptor MCP2901 from Comamonas testosteroni CNB-1 binds to aromatic compounds and initiates downstream chemotactic signaling in addition to its ability to trigger chemotaxis via citrate binding. The function of gene MCP2901 was investigated by genetic deletion from CNB-1 and genetic complementation of the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP)-null mutant CNB-1Δ20. Results showed that the expression of MCP2901 in the MCP-null mutant restored chemotaxis toward nine tested aromatic compounds and nine carboxylic acids. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) analyses demonstrated that the ligand-binding domain of MCP2901 (MCP2901LBD) bound to citrate, and weakly to gentisate and 4-hydroxybenzoate. Additionally, ITC assays indicated that MCP2901LBD bound strongly to 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate and 2-hydroxybenzoate, which are isomers of gentisate and 4-hydroxybenzoate respectively that are not metabolized by CNB-1. Agarose-in-plug and capillary assays showed that these two molecules serve as chemoattractants for CNB-1. Through constructing membrane-like MCP2901-inserted Nanodiscs and phosphorelay activity assays, we demonstrated that 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate and 2-hydroxybenzoate altered kinase activity of CheA. This is the first evidence of an MCP binding to an aromatic molecule and triggering signal transduction for bacterial chemotaxis.

  4. Chemotaxis toward carbohydrates and peptides by mixed ruminal protozoa when fed, fasted, or incubated with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, H L; Karnati, S K R; Lyons, M A; Dehority, B A; Firkins, J L

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the well-characterized chemotaxis and migratory behavior between the dorsal and ventral locations of the rumen by isotrichids, we hypothesized that chemotaxis toward soluble nutrients maintains entodiniomorphid protozoa in the particulate fraction. The objectives of these experiments were to compare the dose-responsive chemotaxis (1) toward different glucose concentrations when ruminal samples were harvested from fed versus fasted cows; (2) toward increasing concentrations of glucose compared with xylose when protozoa were harvested from a fed cow; (3) toward peptides of bacterial, protozoal, and soy origin; and (4) toward glucose when mixed ruminal protozoa were previously incubated for 0, 3, or 6h in the presence of emulsified polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; Liposyn II, Hospira, Lake Forest, IL). In experiment 1, isotrichid protozoa decreased chemotaxis toward increasing glucose concentration when cows were fasted. Entodiniomorphids exhibited chemotaxis to similar concentrations of glucose as did isotrichids, but to a lesser magnitude of response. In experiment 2, xylose was chemotactic to both groups. Xylose might draw fibrolytic entodiniomorphid protozoa toward newly ingested feed. In contrast, even though isotrichids should not use xylose as an energy source, they were highly chemoattracted to xylose. In experiment 3, entodiniomorphids were not selectively chemoattracted toward bacterial or protozoal peptides compared with soy peptides. In experiment 4, despite isotrichid populations decreasing in abundance with increasing time of incubation in PUFA, chemotaxis to glucose remained unchanged. In contrast, entodiniomorphids recovered chemotaxis to glucose with increased time of PUFA incubation. Current results support isotrichid chemotaxis to sugars but also our hypothesis that a more moderate chemotaxis toward glucose and peptides explains how they swim in the fluid but pass from the rumen with the potentially digestible fraction of

  5. Activation of NTS A2a adenosine receptors differentially resets baroreflex control of renal vs. adrenal sympathetic nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Tomoko K; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2009-04-01

    The role of nucleus of solitary tract (NTS) A(2a) adenosine receptors in baroreflex mechanisms is controversial. Stimulation of these receptors releases glutamate within the NTS and elicits baroreflex-like decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), whereas inhibition of these receptors attenuates HR baroreflex responses. In contrast, stimulation of NTS A(2a) adenosine receptors increases preganglionic adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (pre-ASNA), and the depressor and sympathoinhibitory responses are not markedly affected by sinoaortic denervation and blockade of NTS glutamatergic transmission. To elucidate the role of NTS A(2a) adenosine receptors in baroreflex function, we compared full baroreflex stimulus-response curves for HR, RSNA, and pre-ASNA (intravenous nitroprusside/phenylephrine) before and after bilateral NTS microinjections of selective adenosine A(2a) receptor agonist (CGS-21680; 2.0, 20 pmol/50 nl), selective A(2a) receptor antagonist (ZM-241385; 40 pmol/100 nl), and nonselective A(1) + A(2a) receptor antagonist (8-SPT; 1 nmol/100 nl) in urethane/alpha-chloralose anesthetized rats. Activation of A(2a) receptors decreased the range, upper plateau, and gain of baroreflex-response curves for RSNA, whereas these parameters all increased for pre-ASNA, consistent with direct effects of the agonist on regional sympathetic activity. However, no resetting of baroreflex-response curves along the MAP axis occurred despite the marked decreases in baseline MAP. The antagonists had no marked effects on baseline variables or baroreflex-response functions. We conclude that the activation of NTS A(2a) adenosine receptors differentially alters baroreflex control of HR, RSNA, and pre-ASNA mostly via non-baroreflex mechanism(s), and these receptors have virtually no tonic action on baroreflex control of these sympathetic outputs.

  6. 1-(beta-D-Erythrofuranosyl)adenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Paul C; Zhao, Hongqiu; Noll, Bruce C; Oliver, Allen G; Serianni, Anthony S

    2010-04-01

    The title compound, also known as beta-erythroadenosine, C(9)H(11)N(5)O(3), (I), a derivative of beta-adenosine, (II), that lacks the C5' exocyclic hydroxymethyl (-CH(2)OH) substituent, crystallizes from hot ethanol with two independent molecules having different conformations, denoted (IA) and (IB). In (IA), the furanose conformation is (O)T(1)-E(1) (C1'-exo, east), with pseudorotational parameters P and tau(m) of 114.4 and 42 degrees, respectively. In contrast, the P and tau(m) values are 170.1 and 46 degrees, respectively, in (IB), consistent with a (2)E-(2)T(3) (C2'-endo, south) conformation. The N-glycoside conformation is syn (+sc) in (IA) and anti (-ac) in (IB). The crystal structure, determined to a resolution of 2.0 A, of a cocrystal of (I) bound to the enzyme 5'-fluorodeoxyadenosine synthase from Streptomyces cattleya shows the furanose ring in a near-ideal (O)E (east) conformation (P = 90 degrees and tau(m) = 42 degrees) and the base in an anti (-ac) conformation.

  7. Inhibitory effects of benzodiazepines on the adenosine A(2B) receptor mediated secretion of interleukin-8 in human mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Kristina; Xifró, Rosa Altarcheh; Hartweg, Julia Lisa; Spitzlei, Petra; Meis, Kirsten; Molderings, Gerhard J; von Kügelgen, Ivar

    2013-01-30

    The activation of adenosine A(2B) receptors in human mast cells causes pro-inflammatory responses such as the secretion of interleukin-8. There is evidence for an inhibitory effect of benzodiazepines on mast cell mediated symptoms in patients with systemic mast cell activation disease. Therefore, we investigated the effects of benzodiazepines on adenosine A(2B) receptor mediated interleukin-8 production in human mast cell leukaemia (HMC1) cells by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The adenosine analogue N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA, 0.3-3 μM) increased interleukin-8 production about 5-fold above baseline. This effect was attenuated by the adenosine A(2B) receptor antagonist MRS1754 (N-(4-cyanophenyl)-2-{4-(2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-2,6-dioxo-1,3-dipropyl-1H-purin-8-yl)phenoxy}-acetamide) 1 μM. In addition, diazepam, 4'-chlorodiazepam and flunitrazepam (1-30 μM) markedly reduced NECA-induced interleukin-8 production in that order of potency, whereas clonazepam showed only a modest inhibition. The inhibitory effect of diazepam was not altered by flumazenil 10 μM or PK11195 (1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide) 10 μM. Diazepam attenuated the NECA-induced expression of mRNA encoding for interleukin-8. Moreover, diazepam and flunitrazepam reduced the increasing effects of NECA on cAMP-response element- and nuclear factor of activated t-cells-driven luciferase reporter gene activities in HMC1 cells. Neither diazepam nor flunitrazepam affected NECA-induced increases in cellular cAMP levels in CHO Flp-In cells stably expressing recombinant human adenosine A(2B) receptors, excluding a direct action of benzodiazepines on human adenosine A(2B) receptors. In conclusion, this is the first study showing an inhibitory action of benzodiazepines on adenosine A(2B) receptor mediated interleukin-8 production in human mast (HMC1) cells. The rank order of potency indicates the involvement of an atypical benzodiazepine binding site.

  8. Sesamin protects against renal ischemia reperfusion injury by promoting CD39-adenosine-A2AR signal pathway in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Gong, Xia; Kuang, Ge; Jiang, Rong; Wan, Jingyuan; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury with high morbidity and mortality due to limited therapy. Here, we examine whether sesamin attenuates renal IRI in an animal model and explore the underlying mechanisms. Male mice were subjected to right renal ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h with sesamin (100 mg/kg) during which the left kidney was removed. Renal damage and function were assessed subsequently. The results showed that sesamin reduced kidney ischemia reperfusion injury, as assessed by decreased serum creatinine (Scr) and Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alleviated tubular damage and apoptosis. In addition, sesamin inhibited neutrophils infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β production in IR-preformed kidney. Notably, sesamin promoted the expression of CD39, A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR), and A2BAR mRNA and protein as well as adenosine production. Furthermore, CD39 inhibitor or A2AR antagonist abolished partly the protection of sesamin in kidney IRI. In conclusion, sesamin could effectively protect kidney from IRI by inhibiting inflammatory responses, which might be associated with promoting the adenosine-CD39-A2AR signaling pathway.

  9. NADH oxidase-dependent CD39 expression by CD8(+) T cells modulates interferon gamma responses via generation of adenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Aiping; Moss, Alan; Rothweiler, Sonja; Longhi, Maria Serena; Wu, Yan; Junger, Wolfgang G; Robson, Simon C

    2015-11-09

    Interferon gamma (IFNγ)-producing CD8(+) T cells (Tc1) play important roles in immunological disease. We now report that CD3/CD28-mediated stimulation of CD8(+) T cells to generate Tc1 cells, not only increases IFNγ production but also boosts the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and augments expression of CD39. Inhibition of NADPH oxidases or knockdown of gp91phox in CD8(+) T cells abrogates ROS generation, which in turn modulates JNK and NFκB signalling with decreases in both IFNγ levels and CD39 expression. CD39(+)CD8(+) T cells substantially inhibit IFNγ production by CD39(-)CD8(+) T cells via the paracrine generation of adenosine, which is operational via adenosine type 2A receptors. Increases in numbers of CD39(+)CD8(+) T cells and associated enhancements in ROS signal transduction are noted in cells from patients with Crohn's disease. Our findings provide insights into Tc1-mediated IFNγ responses and ROS generation and link these pathways to CD39/adenosine-mediated effects in immunological disease.

  10. Involvement of leukotriene B4 receptor 1 signaling in platelet-activating factor-mediated neutrophil degranulation and chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Eric; Stankova, Jana; Rola-Pleszczynski, Marek

    2005-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent lipid mediator of inflammation that can act on human neutrophils. When neutrophils are stimulated with PAF at concentrations greater than 10 nM, a double peak of intracellular calcium mobilization is observed. The second calcium peak observed in PAF-treated neutrophils has already been suggested to come from the production of endogenous leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Here we demonstrate the involvement of endogenous LTB4 production and subsequent activation of the high affinity LTB4 receptor (BLT1) in this second calcium mobilization peak observed after stimulation with PAF. We also show that the second, but not the first peak, could be desensitized by prior exposure to LTB4. Moreover, when neutrophils were pre-treated with pharmacological inhibitors of LTB4 production or with the specific BLT1 antagonist, U75302, PAF-mediated neutrophil degranulation was inhibited by more than 50%. On the other hand, pre-treating neutrophils with the PAF receptor specific antagonist (WEB2086) did not prevent any LTB4-induced degranulation. Also, when human neutrophils were pre-treated with U75302, PAF-mediated chemotaxis was reduced by more than 60%. These data indicate the involvement of BLT1 signaling in PAF-mediated neutrophil activities.

  11. Effect of intermittent umbilical cord occlusion on fetal respiratory activity and brain adenosine in late-gestation sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Carole S; Schaefer, Rachel; White, Susan E; Homan, Jacobus H; Fraher, Laurence; Harding, Richard; Bocking, Alan D

    2002-01-01

    It was hypothesized that intermittent umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) would inhibit ovine fetal breathing movements (FBM) in association with increased cerebral adenosine levels. To test this hypothesis, on two successive days during late gestation (133-134 days; term = 146 days), microdialysis samples were collected from the brains of 10 chronically instrumented fetal sheep during 2-h periods of complete UCO induced every 30 min (Day 1: 2-min UCOs; Day 2: 4-min UCOs). Control fetuses (n = 10) underwent no UCO. Tracheal pressure was measured throughout. This regimen resulted in a decrease in fetal arterial PO2 (PaO2) during each UCO to 7.3 +/- 0.8 mmHg (Pfluid (ECF) adenosine during UCO increased by 219 +/- 215% (Pmechanisms.

  12. Intrathecal clonidine and adenosine: effects on pain and sensory processing in patients with chronic regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauck, Richard L; North, James; Eisenach, James C

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain may be accompanied by hyperalgesia and allodynia, and analgesic interventions may reduce these hypersensitivity phenomena. Preclinical data suggest that intrathecal clonidine and adenosine reduce hypersensitivity, but only clonidine reduces pain; therefore, we tested the effects of these interventions in patients with chronic pain. Twenty-two subjects with pain and hyperalgesia in a lower extremity from complex regional pain syndrome were recruited in a double-blind crossover study to receive intrathecal clonidine, 100 μg, or adenosine, 2 mg. Primary outcome measure was proportion with ≥30% reduction in pain 2 hours after injection, and secondary measures were pain report, areas of hypersensitivity, and temporal summation to heat stimuli. Treatments did not differ in the primary outcome measure (10 met success criterion after clonidine administration and 5 after adenosine administration), although they did differ in pain scores over time, with clonidine having a 3-fold greater effect (P = 0.014). Both drugs similarly reduced areas of hyperalgesia and allodynia by approximately 30% and also inhibited temporal summation. The percentage change in pain report did not correlate with the percentage change in areas of hyperalgesia (P = 0.09, r = 0.08) or allodynia (P = 0.24, r = 0.24) after drug treatment. Both intrathecal clonidine and adenosine acutely inhibit experimentally induced and clinical hypersensitivity in patients with chronic regional pain syndrome. Although these drugs do not differ in analgesia by the primary outcome measure, their difference in effect on pain scores over time and lack of correlation between effect on pain and hypersensitivity suggest that analgesia does not parallel antihyperalgesia with these treatments.

  13. Chloroquine targets pancreatic cancer stem cells via inhibition of CXCR4 and hedgehog signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic, Anamaria; Sørensen, Morten Dræby; Trabulo, Sara Maria

    2014-01-01

    inhibition of hedgehog signaling by decreasing the production of Smoothened, translating into a significant reduction in sonic hedgehog-induced chemotaxis and downregulation of downstream targets in CSCs and the surrounding stroma. Our study demonstrates that via to date unreported effects, chloroquine...

  14. Intracoronary adenosine improves myocardial perfusion in late reperfused myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Myocardial perfusion associates with clinical syndromes and prognosis.Adenosine could improve myocardial perfusion of acute myocardial infarction within 6 hours,but few data are available on late perfusion of myocardial infarction (MI).This study aimed at quantitatively evaluating the value of intracoronary adenosine improving myocardial perfusion in late reperfused MI with myocardial contrast echocardiography(MCE).Methods Twenty-six patients with anterior wall infarcts were divided randomly into 2 groups:adenosine group(n=12) and normal saline group(n=14).Their history of myocardial infarction was about 3-12 weeks.Adenosine or normalsaline was given when the guiding wire crossed the lesion through percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI),then the balloon was dilated and stent(Cypher/Cypher select)was implanted at the lesion.Contrast pulse sequencing MCE with Sonovue contrast via the coronary route was done before PCI and 30 minutes after PCI.Video densitometry and contrast filled-blank area were calculated with the CUSQ off-line software.Heart function and cardiac events were followed up within 30 days.Results Perfusion in the segments of the criminal occlusive coronary artery in the adenosine group was better than that in the saline group(5.71±0.29 vs 4.95±1.22,P<0.05).Ischemic myocardial segment was deminished significantly afterPCI,but the meliorated area was bigger in the adenosine group than in the saline group((1.56±0.60)cm2 vs(1.02±0.56) cm2,P<0.05).The video densitometry in critical segments was also improved significantly in the adenosine group (5.53±0.36 vs 5.26±0.35,P<0.05).Left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF)was improved in all patients after PCI,but EF was not significant between the two groups((67±6)% vs(62±7)%,P>0.05).There was no in-hospital or 30-day major adverse cardiac event(MACE)in the adenosine group but 3 MACE in the saline group in 30 days after PCI.Conclusions Adenosine could improve myocardial microvascular

  15. Differential adenosine sensitivity of diaphragm and skeletal muscle arterioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaker, Aaron; Laughlin, M H

    2002-09-01

    The hyperemic response in exercising skeletal muscle is dependent on muscle fiber-type composition and fiber recruitment patterns, but the vascular control mechanisms producing exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that arterioles from white, low-oxidative skeletal muscle are less responsive to adenosine-induced dilation than are arterioles from diaphragm (Dia) and red, high-oxidative skeletal muscle. Second-order arterioles (2As) were isolated from the white portion of gastrocnemius muscle (WG; low-oxidative, fast-twitch muscle tissue) and two types of high-oxidative skeletal muscle [Dia and red portion of gastrocnemius muscle (RG)] of rats. Results reveal that 2As from all three types of muscle dilated in response to the endothelium-dependent dilator acetylcholine (WG: 48 +/- 3%, Dia: 51 +/- 3%, RG: 74 +/- 3%). In contrast, adenosine dilated only 2As from WG (48 +/- 4%) and Dia (46 +/- 5%) but not those from RG (5 +/- 5%). Thus adenosine-induced dilator responses differed among 2As of these different types of muscle tissue. However, the results do not support our hypothesis because 2As from Dia and WG dilated in response to adenosine, whereas 2As from RG did not. We conclude that the adenosine responsiveness of 2As from rat skeletal muscle cannot be predicted only by the fiber-type composition or oxidative capacity of the skeletal muscle tissue wherein the arteriole lies.

  16. A dual-docking microfluidic cell migration assay (D(2)-Chip) for testing neutrophil chemotaxis and the memory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke; Wu, Jiandong; Xu, Guoqing; Xie, Dongxue; Peretz-Soroka, Hagit; Santos, Susy; Alexander, Murray; Zhu, Ling; Zhang, Michael; Liu, Yong; Lin, Francis

    2017-04-18

    Chemotaxis is a classic mechanism for guiding cell migration and an important topic in both fundamental cell biology and health sciences. Neutrophils are a widely used model to study eukaryotic cell migration and neutrophil chemotaxis itself can lead to protective or harmful immune actions to the body. While much has been learnt from past research about how neutrophils effectively navigate through a chemoattractant gradient, many interesting questions remain unclear. For example, while it is tempting to model neutrophil chemotaxis using the well-established biased random walk theory, the experimental proof was challenged by the cell's highly persistent migrating nature. A special experimental design is required to test the key predictions from the random walk model. Another question that has interested the cell migration community for decades concerns the existence of chemotactic memory and its underlying mechanism. Although chemotactic memory has been suggested in various studies, a clear quantitative experimental demonstration will improve our understanding of the migratory memory effect. Motivated by these questions, we developed a microfluidic cell migration assay (so-called dual-docking chip or D(2)-Chip) that can test both the biased random walk model and the memory effect for neutrophil chemotaxis on a single chip enabled by multi-region gradient generation and dual-region cell alignment. Our results provide experimental support for the biased random walk model and chemotactic memory for neutrophil chemotaxis. Quantitative data analyses provide new insights into neutrophil chemotaxis and memory by making connections to entropic disorder, cell morphology and oscillating migratory response.

  17. Ammonia differentially suppresses the cAMP chemotaxis of anterior-like cells and prestalk cells in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ira N Feit; Erika J Medynski; Michael J Rothrock

    2001-06-01

    A drop assay for chemotaxis to cAMP confirms that both anterior-like cells (ALC) and prestalk cells (pst cells) respond to cAMP gradients. We present evidence that the chemotactic response of both ALC and pst cells is suppressed by ammonia, but a higher concentration of ammonia is required to suppress the response in pst cells. ALC show a chemotactic response to cAMP when moving on a substratum of prespore cells in isolated slug posteriors incubated under oxygen. ALC chemotaxis on a prespore cell substratum is suppressed by the same concentration of ammonia that suppresses ALC chemotaxis on the agar substratum in drop assays. Chemotaxis suppression is mediated by the unprotonated (NH3) species of ammonia. The observed suppression, by ammonia, of ALC chemotaxis to cAMP supports our earlier hypothesis that ammonia is the tip-produced suppressor of such chemotaxis. We discuss implications of ammonia sensitivity of pst cells and ALC with regard to the movement and localization of ALC and pst cells in the slug and to the roles played by ALC in fruiting body formation. In addition, we suggest that a progressive decrease in sensitivity to ammonia is an important part of the maturation of ALC into pst cells.

  18. The Vi capsular polysaccharide enables Salmonella enterica serovar typhi to evade microbe-guided neutrophil chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamding Wangdi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi causes typhoid fever, a disseminated infection, while the closely related pathogen S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium is associated with a localized gastroenteritis in humans. Here we investigated whether both pathogens differ in the chemotactic response they induce in neutrophils using a single-cell experimental approach. Surprisingly, neutrophils extended chemotactic pseudopodia toward Escherichia coli and S. Typhimurium, but not toward S. Typhi. Bacterial-guided chemotaxis was dependent on the presence of complement component 5a (C5a and C5a receptor (C5aR. Deletion of S. Typhi capsule biosynthesis genes markedly enhanced the chemotactic response of neutrophils in vitro. Furthermore, deletion of capsule biosynthesis genes heightened the association of S. Typhi with neutrophils in vivo through a C5aR-dependent mechanism. Collectively, these data suggest that expression of the virulence-associated (Vi capsular polysaccharide of S. Typhi obstructs bacterial-guided neutrophil chemotaxis.

  19. The Vi capsular polysaccharide enables Salmonella enterica serovar typhi to evade microbe-guided neutrophil chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangdi, Tamding; Lee, Cheng-Yuk; Spees, Alanna M; Yu, Chenzhou; Kingsbury, Dawn D; Winter, Sebastian E; Hastey, Christine J; Wilson, R Paul; Heinrich, Volkmar; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2014-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) causes typhoid fever, a disseminated infection, while the closely related pathogen S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is associated with a localized gastroenteritis in humans. Here we investigated whether both pathogens differ in the chemotactic response they induce in neutrophils using a single-cell experimental approach. Surprisingly, neutrophils extended chemotactic pseudopodia toward Escherichia coli and S. Typhimurium, but not toward S. Typhi. Bacterial-guided chemotaxis was dependent on the presence of complement component 5a (C5a) and C5a receptor (C5aR). Deletion of S. Typhi capsule biosynthesis genes markedly enhanced the chemotactic response of neutrophils in vitro. Furthermore, deletion of capsule biosynthesis genes heightened the association of S. Typhi with neutrophils in vivo through a C5aR-dependent mechanism. Collectively, these data suggest that expression of the virulence-associated (Vi) capsular polysaccharide of S. Typhi obstructs bacterial-guided neutrophil chemotaxis.

  20. Chemotaxis of Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1 and Burkholderia cepacia G4 toward chlorinated ethenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardar, Gönül; Barbieri, Paola; Wood, Thomas K

    2005-03-01

    The chemotactic responses of Pseudomonas putida F1, Burkholderia cepacia G4, and Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1 were investigated toward toluene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (trans-DCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC). P. stutzeri OX1 and P. putida F1 were chemotactic toward toluene, PCE, TCE, all DCEs, and VC. B. cepacia G4 was chemotactic toward toluene, PCE, TCE, cis-DCE, 1,1-DCE, and VC. Chemotaxis of P. stutzeri OX1 grown on o-xylene vapors was much stronger than when grown on o-cresol vapors toward some chlorinated ethenes. Expression of toluene-o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) from touABCDEF appears to be required for positive chemotaxis attraction, and the attraction is stronger with the touR (ToMO regulatory) gene.

  1. The effects of nutrient chemotaxis on bacterial aggregation patterns with non-linear degenerate cross diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, J. Francisco; Málaga, Carlos; Plaza, Ramón G.

    2013-11-01

    This paper studies a reaction-diffusion-chemotaxis model for bacterial aggregation patterns on the surface of thin agar plates. It is based on the non-linear degenerate cross diffusion model proposed by Kawasaki et al. (1997) [5] and it includes a suitable nutrient chemotactic term compatible with such type of diffusion, as suggested by Ben-Jacob et al. (2000) [20]. An asymptotic estimation predicts the growth velocity of the colony envelope as a function of both the nutrient concentration and the chemotactic sensitivity. It is shown that the growth velocity is an increasing function of the chemotactic sensitivity. High resolution numerical simulations using Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), which include noise in the diffusion coefficient for the bacteria, are presented. The numerical results verify that the chemotactic term enhances the velocity of propagation of the colony envelope. In addition, the chemotaxis seems to stabilize the formation of branches in the soft-agar, low-nutrient regime.

  2. Metabolism-independent chemotaxis of Pseudomonas sp.strain WBC-3 toward aromatic compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junjie; XIN Yufeng; LIU Hong; WANG Shujun; ZHOU Ningyi

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. Strain WBC-3 utilized methyl parathion or para-nitrophenol (PNP) as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, andenergy, and methyl parathion hydrolase had been previously characterized. Its chemotactic behaviors to aromatics were investigated.The results indicated that strain WBC-3 was attracted to multiple aromatic compounds, including metabolizable or transformablesubstrates PNP, 4-nitrocatehol, and hydroquinone. Disruption of PNP catabolic genes had no effect on its chemotactic behaviors with the same substrates, indicating that the chemotactic response in this swain was metabolism-independent. Furthermore, it was shownthat strain WBC-3 had a constitutive β-ketoadipate chemotaxis system that responded to a broad range of aromatic compounds, whichwas different from the inducible β-ketoadipate chemotaxis described in other Pseudomonas signs.

  3. The A3 adenosine receptor attenuates the calcium rise triggered by NMDA receptors in retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Hu, Huiling; Zhang, Xiulan; Lu, Wennan; Lim, Jason; Eysteinsson, Thor; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Laties, Alan M; Mitchell, Claire H

    2010-01-01

    The A(3) adenosine receptor is emerging as an important regulator of neuronal signaling, and in some situations receptor stimulation can limit excitability. As the NMDA receptor frequently contributes to neuronal excitability, this study examined whether A(3) receptor activation could alter the calcium rise accompanying NMDA receptor stimulation. Calcium levels were determined from fura-2 imaging of isolated rat retinal ganglion cells as these neurons possess both receptor types. Brief application of glutamate or NMDA led to repeatable and reversible elevations of intracellular calcium. The A(3) agonist Cl-IB-MECA reduced the response to both glutamate and NMDA. While adenosine mimicked the effect of Cl-IB-MECA, the A(3) receptor antagonist MRS 1191 impeded the block by adenosine, implicating a role for the A(3) receptor in response to the natural agonist. The A(1) receptor antagonist DPCPX provided additional inhibition, implying a contribution from both A(1) and A(3) adenosine receptors. The novel A(3) agonist MRS 3558 (1'S,2'R,3'S,4'R,5'S)-4-(2-chloro-6-(3-chlorobenzylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl)-2,3-dihydroxy-N-methylbicyclo [3.1.0] hexane-1-carboxamide and mixed A(1)/A(3) agonist MRS 3630 (1'S,2'R,3'S,4'R,5'S)-4-(2-chloro-6-(cyclopentylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl)-2,3-dihydroxy-N-methylbicyclo [3.1.0] hexane-1-carboxamide also inhibited the calcium rise induced by NMDA. Low levels of MRS 3558 were particularly effective, with an IC(50) of 400 pM. In all cases, A(3) receptor stimulation inhibited only 30-50% of the calcium rise. In summary, stimulation of the A(3) adenosine receptor by either endogenous or synthesized agonists can limit the calcium rise accompanying NMDA receptor activation. It remains to be determined if partial block of the calcium rise by A(3) agonists can modify downstream responses to NMDA receptor stimulation.

  4. The Singular Limit of a Chemotaxis-Growth System with General Initial Data

    CERN Document Server

    Alfaro, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    We study the singular limit of a system of partial differential equations which is a model for an aggregation of amoebae subjected to three effects: diffusion, growth and chemotaxis. The limit problem involves motion by mean curvature together with a nonlocal drift term. We consider rather general initial data. We prove a generation of interface property and study the motion of interfaces. We also obtain an optimal estimate of the thickness and the location of the transition layer that develops.

  5. Tracking neutrophil intraluminal crawling, transendothelial migration and chemotaxis in tissue by intravital video microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Najia; Lei, Xi; Liu, Lixin

    2011-09-24

    The recruitment of circulating leukocytes from blood stream to the inflamed tissue is a crucial and complex process of inflammation(1,2). In the postcapillary venules of inflamed tissue, leukocytes initially tether and roll on the luminal surface of venular wall. Rolling leukocytes arrest on endothelium and undergo firm adhesion in response to chemokine or other chemoattractants on the venular surface. Many adherent leukocytes relocate from the initial site of adhesion to the junctional extravasation site in endothelium, a process termed intraluminal crawling(3). Following crawling, leukocytes move across endothelium (transmigration) and migrate in extravascular tissue toward the source of chemoattractant (chemotaxis)(4). Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool for visualizing leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in vivo and revealing cellular and molecular mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment(2,5). In this report, we provide a comprehensive description of using brightfield intravital microscopy to visualize and determine the detailed processes of neutrophil recruitment in mouse cremaster muscle in response to the gradient of a neutrophil chemoattractant. To induce neutrophil recruitment, a small piece of agarose gel (~1-mm(3) size) containing neutrophil chemoattractant MIP-2 (CXCL2, a CXC chemokine) or WKYMVm (Trp-Lys-Tyr-Val-D-Met, a synthetic analog of bacterial peptide) is placed on the muscle tissue adjacent to the observed postcapillary venule. With time-lapsed video photography and computer software ImageJ, neutrophil intraluminal crawling on endothelium, neutrophil transendothelial migration and the migration and chemotaxis in tissue are visualized and tracked. This protocol allows reliable and quantitative analysis of many neutrophil recruitment parameters such as intraluminal crawling velocity, transmigration time, detachment time, migration velocity, chemotaxis velocity and chemotaxis index in tissue. We demonstrate that using this protocol, these

  6. Assessing the chemotaxis behavior of Physarum polycephalum to a range of simple volatile organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacy Costello, Ben P J; Adamatzky, Andrew I

    2013-09-01

    The chemotaxis behavior of the plasmodial stage of the true slime mold Physarum Polycephalum was assessed when given a binary choice between two volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) placed in its environment. All possible binary combinations were tested between 19 separate VOCs selected due to their prevalence and biological activity in common plant and insect species. The slime mold exhibited positive chemotaxis toward a number of VOCs with the following order of preference:   Farnesene > β-myrcene > tridecane > limonene > p-cymene > 3-octanone > β-pinene > m-cresol > benzylacetate > cis-3-hexenylacetate. For the remaining compounds, no positive chemotaxis was observed in any of the experiments, and for most compounds there was an inhibitory effect on the growth of the slime mold. By assessing this lack of growth or failure to propagate, it was possible to produce a list of compounds ranked in terms of their inhibitory effect: nonanal > benzaldehyde > methylbenzoate > linalool > methyl-p-benzoquinone > eugenol > benzyl alcohol > geraniol > 2-phenylethanol. This analysis shows a distinct preference of the slime mold for non-oxygenated terpene and terpene-like compounds (farnesene, β-myrcene, limonene, p-cymene and β-pinene). In contrast, terpene-based alcohols such as geraniol and linalool were found to have a strong inhibitory effect on the slime mold. Both the aldehydes utilized in this study had the strongest inhibitory effect on the slime mold of all the 19 VOCs tested. Interestingly, 3-octanone, which has a strong association with a "fungal odor," was the only compound with an oxygenated functionality where Physarum Polycephalum exhibits distinct positive chemotaxis.

  7. The effects of nutrient chemotaxis on bacterial aggregation patterns with non-linear degenerate cross diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Leyva, J. Francisco; Malaga, Carlos; Plaza, Ramon G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a reaction-diffusion-chemotaxis model for bacterial aggregation patterns on the surface of thin agar plates. It is based on the non-linear degenerate cross diffusion model proposed by Kawasaki et al. (J. of Theor. Biol. 188(2) 1997) and it includes a suitable nutrient chemotactic term compatible with such type of diffusion. High resolution numerical simulations using Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) of the new model are presented, showing that the chemotactic term enhance...

  8. Modeling ant foraging: A chemotaxis approach with pheromones and trail formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Paulo

    2015-11-21

    We consider a continuous mathematical description of a population of ants and simulate numerically their foraging behavior using a system of partial differential equations of chemotaxis type. We show that this system accurately reproduces observed foraging behavior, especially spontaneous trail formation and efficient removal of food sources. We show through numerical experiments that trail formation is correlated with efficient food removal. Our results illustrate the emergence of trail formation from simple modeling principles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemotaxis of Spirochaeta aurantia: involvement of membrane potential in chemosensory signal transduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Goulbourne, E A; Greenberg, E P

    1981-01-01

    The effects of valinomycin and nigericin on sugar chemotaxis in Spirochaeta aurantia were investigated by using a quantitative capillary assay, and the fluorescent cation, 3,3'-dipropyl-2,2'-thiodicarbocyanine iodide was used as a probe to study effects of chemoattractants on membrane potential. Addition of a chemoattractant, D-xylose, to cells in either potassium or sodium phosphate buffer resulted in a transient membrane depolarization. In the presence of valinomycin, the membrane potential...

  10. On blowup dynamics in the Keller-Segel model of chemotaxis

    CERN Document Server

    Dejak, S I; Lushnikov, P M; Sigal, I M

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the (reduced) Keller-Segel equations modeling chemotaxis of bio-organisms. We present a formal derivation and partial rigorous results of the blowup dynamics of solution of these equations describing the chemotactic aggregation of the organisms. Our results are confirmed by numerical simulations and the formula we derive coincides with the formula of Herrero and Vel\\'{a}zquez for specially constructed solutions.

  11. Role of chemotaxis in the transport of bacteria through saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, R.M.; Harvey, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Populations of chemotactic bacteria are able to sense and respond to chemical gradients in their surroundings and direct their migration toward increasing concentrations of chemicals that they perceive to be beneficial to their survival. It has been suggested that this phenomenon may facilitate bioremediation processes by bringing bacteria into closer proximity to the chemical contaminants that they degrade. To determine the significance of chemotaxis in these processes it is necessary to quantify the magnitude of the response and compare it to other groundwater processes that affect the fate and transport of bacteria. We present a systematic approach toward quantifying the chemotactic response of bacteria in laboratory scale experiments by starting with simple, well-defined systems and gradually increasing their complexity. Swimming properties of individual cells were assessed from trajectories recorded by a tracking microscope. These properties were used to calculate motility and chemotaxis coefficients of bacterial populations in bulk aqueous media which were compared to experimental results of diffusion studies. Then effective values of motility and chemotaxis coefficients in single pores, pore networks and packed columns were analyzed. These were used to estimate the magnitude of the chemotactic response in porous media and to compare with dispersion coefficients reported in the field. This represents a compilation of many studies over a number of years. While there are certainly limitations with this approach for ultimately quantifying motility and chemotaxis in granular aquifer media, it does provide insight into what order of magnitude responses are possible and which characteristics of the bacteria and media are expected to be important. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transport genes and chemotaxis in Laribacter hongkongensis: a genome-wide analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Susanna KP

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laribacter hongkongensis is a Gram-negative, sea gull-shaped rod associated with community-acquired gastroenteritis. The bacterium has been found in diverse freshwater environments including fish, frogs and drinking water reservoirs. Using the complete genome sequence data of L. hongkongensis, we performed a comprehensive analysis of putative transport-related genes and genes related to chemotaxis, motility and quorum sensing, which may help the bacterium adapt to the changing environments and combat harmful substances. Results A genome-wide analysis using Transport Classification Database TCDB, similarity and keyword searches revealed the presence of a large diversity of transporters (n = 457 and genes related to chemotaxis (n = 52 and flagellar biosynthesis (n = 40 in the L. hongkongensis genome. The transporters included those from all seven major transporter categories, which may allow the uptake of essential nutrients or ions, and extrusion of metabolic end products and hazardous substances. L. hongkongensis is unique among closely related members of Neisseriaceae family in possessing higher number of proteins related to transport of ammonium, urea and dicarboxylate, which may reflect the importance of nitrogen and dicarboxylate metabolism in this assacharolytic bacterium. Structural modeling of two C4-dicarboxylate transporters showed that they possessed similar structures to the determined structures of other DctP-TRAP transporters, with one having an unusual disulfide bond. Diverse mechanisms for iron transport, including hemin transporters for iron acquisition from host proteins, were also identified. In addition to the chemotaxis and flagella-related genes, the L. hongkongensis genome also contained two copies of qseB/qseC homologues of the AI-3 quorum sensing system. Conclusions The large number of diverse transporters and genes involved in chemotaxis, motility and quorum sensing suggested that the bacterium may

  13. Correlation between blood adenosine metabolism and sleep in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Muñoz, M; Hernández-Muñoz, R; Suárez, J; Vidrio, S; Yááñez, L; Aguilar-Roblero, R; Rosenthal, L; Villalobos, L; Fernández-Cancino, F; Drucker-Colín, R; Chagoya De Sanchez, V

    1999-01-01

    Blood adenosine metabolism, including metabolites and metabolizing enzymes, was studied during the sleep period in human volunteers. Searching for significant correlations among biochemical parameters found: adenosine with state 1 of slow-wave sleep (SWS); activity of 5'-nucleotidase with state 2 of SWS; inosine and AMP with state 3-4 of SWS; and activity of 5'-nucleotidase and lactate with REM sleep. The correlations were detected in all of the subjects that presented normal hypnograms, but not in those who had fragmented sleep the night of the experiment. The data demonstrate that it is possible to obtain information of complex brain operations such as sleep by measuring biochemical parameters in blood. The results strengthen the notion of a role played by adenosine, its metabolites and metabolizing enzymes, during each of the stages that constitute the sleep process in humans.

  14. Neuropharmacology of theophylline induced stuttering: the role of dopamine, adenosine and GABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsessian, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Developmental stuttering is a poorly understood speech disorder that starts out in childhood and some individuals continue to stutter throughout their lives. Stuttering is a disruption in smooth and fluent speech. Some stuttering primarily involves vocal blocks, which are spasms of the laryngeal musculature while prolongations, and repetitions of sound occur in other cases. Acquired stuttering, on the other hand, can occur at all ages and can be caused by brain injury and by pharmacological agents. Theophylline-induced stuttering is form of acquired stuttering. It is a rare side effect of theophylline therapy, but it provides interesting clues to the pharmacological mechanisms involved in stuttering. Theophylline-induced stuttering may involve the disrupt the optimal balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission throughout the brain by inhibiting GABA receptors. The disruption of the optimal balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission can also cause dysfunction in white matter fiber tracts such as those that connect the Broca's area to the motor cortex. This leads to a hyperexitation of the motor cortex which may mimic the motor cortex hyperexitability that exists in developmental stuttering. Theophylline also enhances dopaminergic neurotransmission through the inhibition of adenosine receptors and this may mimic the hyperdopaminergic state that exists in the brain of developmental stutterers. Theophylline causes the greatest release of dopamine in the basal ganglia through the inhibition of adenosine and GABA receptors. This may also cause dysfunction in the basal ganglia similar in some ways to the dysfunction that exits in developmental stuttering. Pharmacological enhancement of dopaminergic neurotransmission by other drugs been reported to cause stuttering in fluent individuals and to aggrevate dysfluency in stutterers.

  15. Design and diversity in bacterial chemotaxis: a comparative study in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher V Rao

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Comparable processes in different species often involve homologous genes. One question is whether the network structure, in particular the feedback control structure, is also conserved. The bacterial chemotaxis pathways in E. coli and B. subtilis both regulate the same task, namely, excitation and adaptation to environmental signals. Both pathways employ many orthologous genes. Yet how these orthologs contribute to network function in each organism is different. To investigate this problem, we propose what is to our knowledge the first computational model for B. subtilis chemotaxis and compare it to previously published models for chemotaxis in E. coli. The models reveal that the core control strategy for signal processing is the same in both organisms, though in B. subtilis there are two additional feedback loops that provide an additional layer of regulation and robustness. Furthermore, the network structures are different despite the similarity of the proteins in each organism. These results demonstrate the limitations of pathway inferences based solely on homology and suggest that the control strategy is an evolutionarily conserved property.

  16. A population-level model from the microscopic dynamics in Escherichia coli chemotaxis via Langevin approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zhuo-Ran; Wu Tai-Lin; Ouyang Qi; Tu Yu-Hai

    2012-01-01

    Recent extensive studies of Escherichia coli (E.coli) chemotaxis have achieved a deep understanding of its microscopic control dynamics.As a result,various quantitatively predictive models have been developed to describe the chemotactic behavior of E.coli motion.However,a population-level partial differential equation (PDE) that rationally incorporates such microscopic dynamics is still insufficient.Apart from the traditional Keller-Segel (K-S) equation,many existing population-level models developed from the microscopic dynamics are integro-PDEs.The difficulty comes mainly from cell tumbles which yield a velocity jumping process.Here,we propose a Langevin approximation method that avoids such a difficulty without appreciable loss of precision.The resulting model not only quantitatively reproduces the results of pathway-based single-cell simulators,but also provides new inside information on the mechanism of E.coli chemotaxis.Our study demonstrates a possible alternative in establishing a simple population-level model that allows for the complex microscopic mechanisms in bacterial chemotaxis.

  17. Self-Generated Chemoattractant Gradients: Attractant Depletion Extends the Range and Robustness of Chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Tweedy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemotaxis is fundamentally important, but the sources of gradients in vivo are rarely well understood. Here, we analyse self-generated chemotaxis, in which cells respond to gradients they have made themselves by breaking down globally available attractants, using both computational simulations and experiments. We show that chemoattractant degradation creates steep local gradients. This leads to surprising results, in particular the existence of a leading population of cells that moves highly directionally, while cells behind this group are undirected. This leading cell population is denser than those following, especially at high attractant concentrations. The local gradient moves with the leading cells as they interact with their surroundings, giving directed movement that is unusually robust and can operate over long distances. Even when gradients are applied from external sources, attractant breakdown greatly changes cells' responses and increases robustness. We also consider alternative mechanisms for directional decision-making and show that they do not predict the features of population migration we observe experimentally. Our findings provide useful diagnostics to allow identification of self-generated gradients and suggest that self-generated chemotaxis is unexpectedly universal in biology and medicine.

  18. Chemotaxis study using optical tweezers to observe the strength and directionality of forces of Leishmania amazonensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzo, Liliana d. Y.; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Ayres, Diana C.; Giorgio, Selma; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2006-08-01

    The displacements of a dielectric microspheres trapped by an optical tweezers (OT) can be used as a force transducer for mechanical measurements in life sciences. This system can measure forces on the 50 femto Newtons to 200 pico Newtons range, of the same order of magnitude of a typical forces induced by flagellar motion. The process in which living microorganisms search for food and run away from poison chemicals is known is chemotaxy. Optical tweezers can be used to obtain a better understanding of chemotaxy by observing the force response of the microorganism when placed in a gradient of attractors and or repelling chemicals. This report shows such observations for the protozoa Leishmania amazomenzis, responsible for the leishmaniasis, a serious tropical disease. We used a quadrant detector to monitor the movement of the protozoa for different chemicals gradient. This way we have been able to observe both the force strength and its directionality. The characterization of the chemotaxis of these parasites can help to understand the infection mechanics and improve the diagnosis and the treatments employed for this disease.

  19. Observing Chemotaxis in Vibrio fischeri Using Soft Agar Assays in an Undergraduate Microbiology Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy R. DeLoney-Marino

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemotaxis, the directed movement of cells towards or away from a chemical, is both an exciting and complicated behavior observed in many bacterial species. Attempting to adequately visualize or demonstrate the chemotaxic response of bacteria in the classroom is difficult at best, with good models to illustrate the concept lacking. The BSL-1 marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri (a.k.a. Aliivibrio fischeri is easy to culture, making it an ideal candidate for experiments in an undergraduate microbiology course. A number of chemoattractants for V. fischeri have been identified, including a variety of sugars, nucleosides, and amino acids (1, 2. Below presents how the soft agar-based chemotaxis assay can be implemented in the undergraduate laboratory. As bacterial cells migrate towards one or more attractants in soft agar, students can directly observe the chemotaxic behavior of V. fischeri without the need to learn complicated techniques or use specialized equipment. Once the bands of bacterial cells are observed, the migration can then be disrupted by the addition of excess attractant to the soft agar, thereby visualizing what happens once cells are no longer in a gradient of attractant. In addition, soft agar plates lacking attractants can be used to visualize the random movements of bacterial cells that are non-chemotaxing. These exercises can be used in the microbiology laboratory to help students understand the complex behavior of bacterial chemotaxis.

  20. Self-organization of the Escherichia coli chemotaxis network imaged with super-resolution light microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Greenfield

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Escherichia coli chemotaxis network is a model system for biological signal processing. In E. coli, transmembrane receptors responsible for signal transduction assemble into large clusters containing several thousand proteins. These sensory clusters have been observed at cell poles and future division sites. Despite extensive study, it remains unclear how chemotaxis clusters form, what controls cluster size and density, and how the cellular location of clusters is robustly maintained in growing and dividing cells. Here, we use photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM to map the cellular locations of three proteins central to bacterial chemotaxis (the Tar receptor, CheY, and CheW with a precision of 15 nm. We find that cluster sizes are approximately exponentially distributed, with no characteristic cluster size. One-third of Tar receptors are part of smaller lateral clusters and not of the large polar clusters. Analysis of the relative cellular locations of 1.1 million individual proteins (from 326 cells suggests that clusters form via stochastic self-assembly. The super-resolution PALM maps of E. coli receptors support the notion that stochastic self-assembly can create and maintain approximately periodic structures in biological membranes, without direct cytoskeletal involvement or active transport.

  1. A diffusive virus infection dynamic model with nonlinear functional response, absorption effect and chemotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ma, Wanbiao; Lai, Xiulan

    2017-01-01

    From a biological perspective, a diffusive virus infection dynamic model with nonlinear functional response, absorption effect and chemotaxis is proposed. In the model, the diffusion of virus consists of two parts, the random diffusion and the chemotactic movement. The chemotaxis flux of virus depends not only on their own density, but also on the density of infected cells, and the density gradient of infected cells. The well posedness of the proposed model is deeply investigated. For the proposed model, the linear stabilities of the infection-free steady state E0 and the infection steady state E* are extensively performed. We show that the threshold dynamics can be expressed by the basic reproduction number R0 of the model without chemotaxis. That is, the infection-free steady state E0 is globally asymptotically stable if R0 virus is uniformly persistent if R0 > 1. In addition, we use the cross iteration method and the Schauder's fixed point theorem to prove the existence of travelling wave solutions connecting the infection-free steady state E0 and the infection steady state E* by constructing a pair of upper-lower solutions. At last, numerical simulations are presented to confirm theoretical findings.

  2. The effects of caffeine on sleep in Drosophila require PKA activity, but not the adenosine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mark N; Ho, Karen; Crocker, Amanda; Yue, Zhifeng; Koh, Kyunghee; Sehgal, Amita

    2009-09-02

    Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed stimulants in the world and has been proposed to promote wakefulness by antagonizing function of the adenosine A2A receptor. Here, we show that chronic administration of caffeine reduces and fragments sleep in Drosophila and also lengthens circadian period. To identify the mechanisms underlying these effects of caffeine, we first generated mutants of the only known adenosine receptor in flies (dAdoR), which by sequence is most similar to the mammalian A2A receptor. Mutants lacking dAdoR have normal amounts of baseline sleep, as well as normal homeostatic responses to sleep deprivation. Surprisingly, these mutants respond normally to caffeine. On the other hand, the effects of caffeine on sleep and circadian rhythms are mimicked by a potent phosphodiesterase inhibitor, IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine). Using in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging, we find that caffeine induces widespread increase in cAMP levels throughout the brain. Finally, the effects of caffeine on sleep are blocked in flies that have reduced neuronal PKA activity. We suggest that chronic administration of caffeine promotes wakefulness in Drosophila, at least in part, by inhibiting cAMP phosphodiesterase activity.

  3. Tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles combined with adenosine triphosphate-BODIPY conjugates for the fluorescence detection of adenosine with more than 1000-fold selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Szu-Ying; Shih, Ya-Chen [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Wei-Lung, E-mail: tsengwl@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan (China); School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China); Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan (China); Center for Stem Cell Research, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-01

    Graphical abstract: A simple, enzyme-free, label-free, sensitive and selective system was developed for detecting adenosine based on the use of Tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles as an efficient quencher for boron dipyrromethene-conjugated adenosine 5′-triphosphate and as a recognition element for adenosine. - Highlights: • The proposed method can detect adenosine with more than 1000-fold selectivity. • The analysis of adenosine is rapid (∼6 min) using the proposed method. • This method provided better sensitivity for adenosine as compared to aptamer-based sensors. • This method can be applied for the determination of adenosine in urine. - Abstract: This study describes the development of a simple, enzyme-free, label-free, sensitive, and selective system for detecting adenosine based on the use of Tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Tween 20-AuNPs) as an efficient fluorescence quencher for boron dipyrromethene-conjugated adenosine 5′-triphosphate (BODIPY-ATP) and as a recognition element for adenosine. BODIPY-ATP can interact with Tween 20-AuNPs through the coordination between the adenine group of BODIPY-ATP and Au atoms on the NP surface, thereby causing the fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP through the nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) effect. When adenosine attaches to the NP surface, the attached adenosine exhibits additional electrostatic attraction to BODIPY-ATP. As a result, the presence of adenosine enhances the efficiency of AuNPs in fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP. The AuNP-induced fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP progressively increased with an increase in the concentration of adenosine; the detection limit at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for adenosine was determined to be 60 nM. The selectivity of the proposed system was more than 1000-fold for adenosine over any adenosine analogs and other nucleotides. The proposed system combined with a phenylboronic acid-containing column was successfully applied to the

  4. Methodical Challenges and a Possible Resolution in the Assessment of Receptor Reserve for Adenosine, an Agonist with Short Half-Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Zsuga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The term receptor reserve, first introduced and used in the traditional receptor theory, is an integrative measure of response-inducing ability of the interaction between an agonist and a receptor system (consisting of a receptor and its downstream signaling. The underlying phenomenon, i.e., stimulation of a submaximal fraction of receptors can apparently elicit the maximal effect (in certain cases, provides an opportunity to assess the receptor reserve. However, determining receptor reserve is challenging for agonists with short half-lives, such as adenosine. Although adenosine metabolism can be inhibited several ways (in order to prevent the rapid elimination of adenosine administered to construct concentration–effect (E/c curves for the determination, the consequent accumulation of endogenous adenosine biases the results. To address this problem, we previously proposed a method, by means of which this bias can be mathematically corrected (utilizing a traditional receptor theory-independent approach. In the present investigation, we have offered in silico validation of this method by simulating E/c curves with the use of the operational model of agonism and then by evaluating them using our method. We have found that our method is suitable to reliably assess the receptor reserve for adenosine in our recently published experimental setting, suggesting that it may be capable for a qualitative determination of receptor reserve for rapidly eliminating agonists in general. In addition, we have disclosed a possible interference between FSCPX (8-cyclopentyl-N3-[3-(4-(fluorosulfonylbenzoyloxypropyl]-N1-propylxanthine, an irreversible A1 adenosine receptor antagonist, and NBTI (S-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl-6-thioinosine, a nucleoside transport inhibitor, i.e., FSCPX may blunt the effect of NBTI.

  5. Emergent collective chemotaxis without single-cell gradient sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camley, Brian A.; Zimmermann, Juliane; Levine, Herbert; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Many eukaryotic cells chemotax, sensing and following chemical gradients. However, experiments have shown that even under conditions when single cells cannot chemotax, small clusters may still follow a gradient. This behavior has been observed in neural crest cells, in lymphocytes, and during border cell migration in Drosophila, but its origin remains puzzling. Here, we propose a new mechanism underlying this “collective guidance”, and study a model based on this mechanism both analytically and computationally. Our approach posits that contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL), where cells polarize away from cell-cell contact, is regulated by the chemoattractant. Individual cells must measure the mean attractant value, but need not measure its gradient, to give rise to directional motility for a cell cluster. We present analytic formulas for how cluster velocity and chemotactic index depend on the number and organization of cells in the cluster. The presence of strong orientation effects provides a simple test for our theory of collective guidance. PMID:26991203

  6. Exosomes Mediate LTB4 Release during Neutrophil Chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritankar Majumdar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukotriene B4 (LTB4 is secreted by chemotactic neutrophils, forming a secondary gradient that amplifies the reach of primary chemoattractants. This strategy increases the recruitment range for neutrophils and is important during inflammation. Here, we show that LTB4 and its synthesizing enzymes localize to intracellular multivesicular bodies that, upon stimulation, release their content as exosomes. Purified exosomes can activate resting neutrophils and elicit chemotactic activity in a LTB4 receptor-dependent manner. Inhibition of exosome release leads to loss of directional motility with concomitant loss of LTB4 release. Our findings establish that the exosomal pool of LTB4 acts in an autocrine fashion to sensitize neutrophils towards the primary chemoattractant, and in a paracrine fashion to mediate the recruitment of neighboring neutrophils in trans. We envision that this mechanism is used by other signals to foster communication between cells in harsh extracellular environments.

  7. The Use of Adenosine Agonists to Treat Nerve Agent-Induced Seizure and Neuropathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    kainate, adenosine and neuropeptide Y receptors. Neurochemical Research. 28: 1501-1515. 23. Bjorness, T. E. & R. W. Greene. 2009. Adenosine and sleep ...al. 2004. Adenosine and sleep -wake regulation. Progress in Neurobiology. 73: 379-396. 31. Schubert, P., et al. 1997. Protective mechanisms of...effects of adenosine by caffeine or 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 240: 428-432. 44

  8. Development of coronary vasospasm during adenosine-stress myocardial perfusion CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Jeong Gu; Choi, Seong Hoon; Kang, Byeong Seong; Bang, Min Aeo; Kwon, Woon Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Adenosine is a short-acting coronary vasodilator, and it is widely used during pharmacological stress myocardial perfusion imaging. It has a well-established safety profile, and most of its side effects are known to be mild and transient. Until now, coronary vasospasm has been rarely reported as a side effect of adenosine during or after adenosine stress test. This study reports a case of coronary vasospasm which was documented on stress myocardial perfusion CT imaging during adenosine stress test.

  9. Identification of Archaea-specific chemotaxis proteins which interact with the flagellar apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Judith

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Archaea share with bacteria the ability to bias their movement towards more favorable locations, a process known as taxis. Two molecular systems drive this process: the motility apparatus and the chemotaxis signal transduction system. The first consists of the flagellum, the flagellar motor, and its switch, which allows cells to reverse the rotation of flagella. The second targets the flagellar motor switch in order to modulate the switching frequency in response to external stimuli. While the signal transduction system is conserved throughout archaea and bacteria, the archaeal flagellar apparatus is different from the bacterial one. The proteins constituting the flagellar motor and its switch in archaea have not yet been identified, and the connection between the bacterial-like chemotaxis signal transduction system and the archaeal motility apparatus is unknown. Results Using protein-protein interaction analysis, we have identified three proteins in Halobacterium salinarum that interact with the chemotaxis (Che proteins CheY, CheD, and CheC2, as well as the flagella accessory (Fla proteins FlaCE and FlaD. Two of the proteins belong to the protein family DUF439, the third is a HEAT_PBS family protein. In-frame deletion strains for all three proteins were generated and analyzed as follows: a photophobic responses were measured by a computer-based cell tracking system b flagellar rotational bias was determined by dark-field microscopy, and c chemotactic behavior was analyzed by a swarm plate assay. Strains deleted for the HEAT_PBS protein or one of the DUF439 proteins proved unable to switch the direction of flagellar rotation. In these mutants, flagella rotate only clockwise, resulting in exclusively forward swimming cells that are unable to respond to tactic signals. Deletion of the second DUF439 protein had only minimal effects. HEAT_PBS proteins could be identified in the chemotaxis gene regions of all motile haloarchaea

  10. Renal effects of the novel selective adenosine A1 receptor blocker SLV329 in experimental liver cirrhosis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthold Hocher

    Full Text Available Liver cirrhosis is often complicated by an impaired renal excretion of water and sodium. Diuretics tend to further deteriorate renal function. It is unknown whether chronic selective adenosine A(1 receptor blockade, via inhibition of the hepatorenal reflex and the tubuloglomerular feedback, might exert diuretic and natriuretic effects without a reduction of the glomerular filtration rate. In healthy animals intravenous treatment with the novel A(1 receptor antagonist SLV329 resulted in a strong dose-dependent diuretic (up to 3.4-fold and natriuretic (up to 13.5-fold effect without affecting creatinine clearance. Male Wistar rats with thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis received SLV329, vehicle or furosemide for 12 weeks. The creatinine clearance of cirrhotic animals decreased significantly (-36.5%, p<0.05, especially in those receiving furosemide (-41.9%, p<0.01. SLV329 was able to prevent this decline of creatinine clearance. Mortality was significantly lower in cirrhotic animals treated with SLV329 in comparison to animals treated with furosemide (17% vs. 54%, p<0.05. SLV329 did not relevantly influence the degree of liver fibrosis, kidney histology or expression of hepatic or renal adenosine receptors. In conclusion, chronic treatment with SLV329 prevented the decrease of creatinine clearance in a rat model of liver cirrhosis. Further studies will have to establish whether adenosine A(1 receptor antagonists are clinically beneficial at different stages of liver cirrhosis.

  11. Effect of adenosine cyclophosphate combined with vitamin C therapy on electrocardiogram and serum indexes of children with viral myocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of adenosine cyclophosphate combined with vitamin C therapy on electrocardiogram and serum indexes of children with viral myocarditis. Methods:A total of 110 cases of children with viral myocarditis treated in Pediatrics Department of our hospital from May 2012 to June 2914 were randomly divided into two groups, intervention group received adenosine cyclophosphate+vitamin C combined with conventional treatment, control group received conventional treatment, and then arrhythmia as well as serum myocardial enzymes, inflammatory mediators and signaling molecules of two groups were compared. Results: Cases with sinus tachycardia, premature beat, supraventricular tachycardia, atrioventricular block, sinus bradycardia, QT interval prolongation and ST-T segment change of intervention group were less than those of control group;serum aspartate transaminase, creatine kinase, creatine kinase isoenzyme, lactate dehydrogenase, α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, MIF, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and MCP-1 contents as well as mRNA expression levels of Rho and Rock of intervention group were lower than those of control group, and mRNA expression levels of JAK2 and STAT1 were higher than those of control group. Conclusion:Adenosine cyclophosphate combined with vitamin C therapy can prevent the occurrence of arrhythmia in children with viral myocarditis, protect myocardial cells, inhibit inflammatory response and regulate JAK2-STAT1signaling pathway and Rho/Rock signaling pathway.

  12. The Neurorepellent Slit2 Inhibits Postadhesion Stabilization of Monocytes Tethered to Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukovozov, Ilya; Huang, Yi-Wei; Zhang, Qiuwang; Liu, Guang Ying; Siu, Allan; Sokolskyy, Yaroslav; Patel, Sajedabanu; Hyduk, Sharon J; Kutryk, Michael J B; Cybulsky, Myron I; Robinson, Lisa A

    2015-10-01

    The secreted neurorepellent Slit2, acting through its transmembrane receptor, Roundabout (Robo)-1, inhibits chemotaxis of varied cell types, including leukocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, toward diverse attractants. The role of Slit2 in regulating the steps involved in recruitment of monocytes in vascular inflammation is not well understood. In this study, we showed that Slit2 inhibited adhesion of monocytic cells to activated human endothelial cells, as well as to immobilized ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Microfluidic live cell imaging showed that Slit2 inhibited the ability of monocytes tethered to endothelial cells to stabilize their actin-associated anchors and to resist detachment in response to increasing shear forces. Transfection of constitutively active plasmids revealed that Slit2 inhibited postadhesion stabilization of monocytes on endothelial cells by preventing activation of Rac1. We further found that Slit2 inhibited chemotaxis of monocytes toward CXCL12 and CCL2. To determine whether Slit2 and Robo-1 modulate pathologic monocyte recruitment associated with vascular inflammation and cardiovascular disease, we tested PBMC from patients with coronary artery disease. PBMC from these patients had reduced surface levels of Robo-1 compared with healthy age- and sex-matched subjects, and Slit2 failed to inhibit chemotaxis of PBMC of affected patients, but not healthy control subjects, toward CCL2. Furthermore, administration of Slit2 to atherosclerosis-prone LDL receptor-deficient mice inhibited monocyte recruitment to nascent atherosclerotic lesions. These results demonstrate that Slit2 inhibits chemotaxis of monocytes, as well as their ability to stabilize adhesions and resist detachment forces. Slit2 may represent a powerful new tool to inhibit pathologic monocyte recruitment in vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis.

  13. Elevated Adenosine Induces Placental DNA Hypomethylation Independent of A2B Receptor Signaling in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Aji; Wu, Hongyu; Iriyama, Takayuki; Zhang, Yujin; Sun, Kaiqi; Song, Anren; Liu, Hong; Peng, Zhangzhe; Tang, Lili; Lee, Minjung; Huang, Yun; Ni, Xin; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2017-07-01

    Preeclampsia is a prevalent pregnancy hypertensive disease with both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Emerging evidence indicates that global placental DNA hypomethylation is observed in patients with preeclampsia and is linked to altered gene expression and disease development. However, the molecular basis underlying placental epigenetic changes in preeclampsia remains unclear. Using 2 independent experimental models of preeclampsia, adenosine deaminase-deficient mice and a pathogenic autoantibody-induced mouse model of preeclampsia, we demonstrate that elevated placental adenosine not only induces hallmark features of preeclampsia but also causes placental DNA hypomethylation. The use of genetic approaches to express an adenosine deaminase minigene specifically in placentas, or adenosine deaminase enzyme replacement therapy, restored placental adenosine to normal levels, attenuated preeclampsia features, and abolished placental DNA hypomethylation in adenosine deaminase-deficient mice. Genetic deletion of CD73 (an ectonucleotidase that converts AMP to adenosine) prevented the elevation of placental adenosine in the autoantibody-induced preeclampsia mouse model and ameliorated preeclampsia features and placental DNA hypomethylation. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that elevated placental adenosine-mediated DNA hypomethylation predominantly occurs in spongiotrophoblasts and labyrinthine trophoblasts and that this effect is independent of A2B adenosine receptor activation in both preeclampsia models. Extending our mouse findings to humans, we used cultured human trophoblasts to demonstrate that adenosine functions intracellularly and induces DNA hypomethylation without A2B adenosine receptor activation. Altogether, both mouse and human studies reveal novel mechanisms underlying placental DNA hypomethylation and potential therapeutic approaches for preeclampsia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Adenosine A(3) receptor-induced CCL2 synthesis in cultured mouse astrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittendorp, MC; Boddeke, HWGM; Biber, K

    2004-01-01

    During neuropathological conditions, high concentrations of adenosine are released, stimulating adenosine receptors in neurons and glial cells. It has recently been shown that stimulation of adenosine receptors in glial cells induces the release of neuroprotective substances such as NGF, S-100beta,

  15. DMPD: Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17056121 Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. Hasko ...tml) (.csml) Show Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. PubmedID 17056121 Titl...e Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. Authors Has

  16. The role of glial adenosine receptors in neural resilience and the neurobiology of mood disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, D; Biber, K

    2005-01-01

    Adenosine receptors were classified into A(1)- and A(2)-receptors in the laboratory of Bernd Hamprecht more than 25 years ago. Adenosine receptors are instrumental to the neurotrophic effects of glia cells. Both microglia and astrocytes release after stimulation via adenosine receptors factors that

  17. Adenosine A3 receptor activation is neuroprotective against retinal neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvao, Joana; Elvas, Filipe; Martins, Tiago; Cordeiro, M Francesca; Ambrósio, António Francisco; Santiago, Ana Raquel

    2015-11-01

    Death of retinal neural cells, namely retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), is a characteristic of several retinal neurodegenerative diseases. Although the role of adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) in neuroprotection is controversial, A3R activation has been reported to afford protection against several brain insults, with few studies in the retina. In vitro models (retinal neural and organotypic cultures) and animal models [ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) and partial optic nerve transection (pONT)] were used to study the neuroprotective properties of A3R activation against retinal neurodegeneration. The A3R selective agonist (2-Cl-IB-MECA, 1 μM) prevented apoptosis (TUNEL(+)-cells) induced by kainate and cyclothiazide (KA + CTZ) in retinal neural cultures (86.5 ± 7.4 and 37.2 ± 6.1 TUNEL(+)-cells/field, in KA + CTZ and KA + CTZ + 2-Cl-IB-MECA, respectively). In retinal organotypic cultures, 2-Cl-IB-MECA attenuated NMDA-induced cell death, assessed by TUNEL (17.3 ± 2.3 and 8.3 ± 1.2 TUNEL(+)-cells/mm(2) in NMDA and NMDA+2-Cl-IB-MECA, respectively) and PI incorporation (ratio DIV4/DIV2 3.3 ± 0.3 and 1.3 ± 0.1 in NMDA and NMDA+2-Cl-IB-MECA, respectively) assays. Intravitreal 2-Cl-IB-MECA administration afforded protection against I-R injury decreasing the number of TUNEL(+) cells by 72%, and increased RGC survival by 57%. Also, intravitreal administration of 2-Cl-IB-MECA inhibited apoptosis (from 449.4 ± 37.8 to 207.6 ± 48.9 annexin-V(+)-cells) and RGC loss (from 1.2 ± 0.6 to 8.1 ± 1.7 cells/mm) induced by pONT. This study demonstrates that 2-Cl-IB-MECA is neuroprotective to the retina, both in vitro and in vivo. Activation of A3R may have great potential in the management of retinal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by RGC death, as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy, and ischemic diseases.

  18. Anticonvulsant effect of AMP by direct activation of adenosine A1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzi, Mirko; Coppi, Elisabetta; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Chiarugi, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    Purinergic neurotransmission mediated by adenosine (Ado) type 1 receptors (A1Rs) plays pivotal roles in negative modulation of epileptic seizures, and Ado is thought to be a key endogenous anticonvulsant. Recent evidence, however, indicates that AMP, the metabolic precursor of Ado, also activate A1Rs. Here, we evaluated the antiepileptic effects of AMP adopting in vitro and in vivo models of epilepsy. We report that AMP reversed the increase in population spike (PS) amplitude and the decrease in PS latency induced by a Mg(2+)-free extracellular solution in CA1 neurons of mouse hippocampal slices. The AMP effects were inhibited by the A1R antagonist DPCPX, but not prevented by inhibiting conversion of AMP into Ado, indicating that AMP inhibited per se sustained hippocampal excitatory neurotransmission by directly activating A1Rs. AMP also reduced seizure severity and mortality in a model of audiogenic convulsion. Of note, the anticonvulsant effects of AMP were potentiated by preventing its conversion into Ado and inhibited by DPCPX. When tested in a model of kainate-induced seizure, AMP prolonged latency of convulsions but had no effects on seizure severity and mortality. Data provide the first evidence that AMP is an endogenous anticonvulsant acting at A1Rs.

  19. Contributory role of adenosine deaminase in metabolic syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme of purine metabolism ... as obesity, insulin resistance, fasting hyperglycaemia, lipid abnormalities and ... Body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), Glycated ... regulation of intracellular and extra cellular ... studies have indicated that defective signalling from.

  20. No role of interstitial adenosine in insulin-mediated vasodilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, F; Stallknecht, B

    1999-01-01

    The mechanisms behind the vasodilatory effect of insulin are not fully understood, but nitric oxide plays an important role. We have investigated the possibility that insulin mediates vasodilatation in the human skeletal muscle via an increase in extracellular adenosine concentrations. In eight h...

  1. Adenosine receptor blockade reduces splanchnic hyperemia in cirrhotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S S; Chilton, E L; Pak, J M

    1992-06-01

    To explore a possible role for adenosine in the pathogenesis of the splanchnic hyperemia of cirrhosis, we administered 8-phenyltheophylline, a specific adenosine receptor antagonist, to rats with biliary cirrhosis caused by bile duct ligation and to control sham-operated rats. Micro-Doppler flow studies showed that a 10-mumol/kg dose of 8-phenyltheophylline completely abolished the superior mesenteric hyperemic response to infusions of exogenous adenosine in both cirrhotic and control rats. Analysis of regional blood flows by radioactive microspheres demonstrated that this dose of 8-phenyltheophylline in cirrhotic rats significantly increased portal tributary vascular resistance by 60% and decreased portal tributary blood flow by 26%. This decrease was entirely the result of a 42% reduction in the intestinal blood flow. 8-phenyltheophylline did not affect cardiac output, arterial pressure or any other extrasplanchnic hemodynamic variables in cirrhotic rats. No detectable effect of 8-phenyltheophylline was seen in sham-operated rats. These results suggest that adenosine may be involved in the genesis of splanchnic hyperemia in cirrhotic rats.

  2. Adenosine receptor modulation of seizure susceptibility in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szot, P.

    1987-01-01

    Adenosine is considered to be a neuromodulator or cotransmitter in the periphery and CNS. This neuromodulatory action of adenosine may be observed as an anticonvulsant effect. Dose-response curves for R-phenylisopropyladenosine (PIA), cycohexyladenosine (CHA), 2-chloroadenosine (2-ClAdo), N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) and S-PIA were generated against PTZ seizure thresholds in the rat. The rank order of potency for adenosine agonists to elevate PTZ seizure threshold was R-PIA > 2-ClAdo > NECA > CHA > S-PIA. R-PIA was approximately 80-fold more potent than S-PIA. This 80-fold difference in potency between the diasteriomers of PIA was consistent with an A{sub 1} adenoise receptor-mediated response. The anticonvulsant action of 2-ClAdo was reversed by pretreatment with theoplylline. Chronic administration of theophylline significantly increased the specific binding of {sup 3}H-cyclohexyladenosine in membranes of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of the rat. Chronic exposure to theophylline produced a significant increase in the densities of both the high- and low-affinity forms of A{sub 1} adenosine receptors in the cerebral cortex.

  3. Searching Inhibitors of Adenosine Kinase by Simulation Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Rui-Xin; ZHANG Xing-Long; DONG Xi-Cheng; CHEN Min-Bo

    2006-01-01

    Searching new inhibitors of adenosine kinase (AK) is still drawing attention of experimental scientists. A better and solid model is here proposed by means of simulation methods from different ways, the direct analysis of receptor itself, the conventional 3D-QSAR methods and the integration of docking method and the conventional QSAR analysis.

  4. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... device that measures the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from platelets following aggregation. This measurement is made on platelet-rich plasma using a photometer and a luminescent firefly extract. Simultaneous measurements of platelet aggregation and ATP release are used to evaluate platelet...

  5. CD39/adenosine pathway is involved in AIDS progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nikolova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 infection is characterized by a chronic activation of the immune system and suppressed function of T lymphocytes. Regulatory CD4+ CD25(high FoxP3+CD127(low T cells (Treg play a key role in both conditions. Here, we show that HIV-1 positive patients have a significant increase of Treg-associated expression of CD39/ENTPD1, an ectoenzyme which in concert with CD73 generates adenosine. We show in vitro that the CD39/adenosine axis is involved in Treg suppression in HIV infection. Treg inhibitory effects are relieved by CD39 down modulation and are reproduced by an adenosine-agonist in accordance with a higher expression of the adenosine A2A receptor on patients' T cells. Notably, the expansion of the Treg CD39+ correlates with the level of immune activation and lower CD4+ counts in HIV-1 infected patients. Finally, in a genetic association study performed in three different cohorts, we identified a CD39 gene polymorphism that was associated with down-modulated CD39 expression and a slower progression to AIDS.

  6. Adenosine Receptor Heteromers and their Integrative Role in Striatal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Ferré

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the functional role of adenosine receptor heteromers, we review a series of new concepts that should modify our classical views of neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS. Neurotransmitter receptors cannot be considered as single functional units anymore. Heteromerization of neurotransmitter receptors confers functional entities that possess different biochemical characteristics with respect to the individual components of the heteromer. Some of these characteristics can be used as a “biochemical fingerprint” to identify neurotransmitter receptor heteromers in the CNS. This is exemplified by changes in binding characteristics that are dependent on coactivation of the receptor units of different adenosine receptor heteromers. Neurotransmitter receptor heteromers can act as “processors” of computations that modulate cell signaling, sometimes critically involved in the control of pre- and postsynaptic neurotransmission. For instance, the adenosine A1-A2A receptor heteromer acts as a concentration-dependent switch that controls striatal glutamatergic neurotransmission. Neurotransmitter receptor heteromers play a particularly important integrative role in the “local module” (the minimal portion of one or more neurons and/or one or more glial cells that operates as an independent integrative unit, where they act as processors mediating computations that convey information from diverse volume-transmitted signals. For instance, the adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor heteromers work as integrators of two different neurotransmitters in the striatal spine module.

  7. Attenuation of monocyte chemotaxis--a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of action for the cardio-protective hormone B-type natriuretic peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezeva, Nadezhda; Collier, Patrick; Voon, Victor; Ledwidge, Mark; McDonald, Kenneth; Watson, Chris; Baugh, John

    2013-08-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a prognostic and diagnostic marker for heart failure (HF). An anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective role for BNP was proposed. In cardiovascular diseases including pressure overload-induced HF, perivascular inflammation and cardiac fibrosis are, in part, mediated by monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)1-driven monocyte migration. We aimed to determine the role of BNP in monocyte motility to MCP1. A functional BNP receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA) was identified in human monocytes. BNP treatment inhibited MCP1-induced THP1 (monocytic leukemia cells) and primary monocyte chemotaxis (70 and 50 %, respectively). BNP did not interfere with MCP1 receptor expression or with calcium. BNP inhibited activation of the cytoskeletal protein RhoA in MCP1-stimulated THP1 (70 %). Finally, BNP failed to inhibit MCP1-directed motility of monocytes from patients with hypertension (n = 10) and HF (n = 6) suggesting attenuation of this anti-inflammatory mechanism in chronic heart disease. We provide novel evidence for a direct role of BNP/NPRA in opposing human monocyte migration and support a role for BNP as a cardio-protective hormone up-regulated as part of an adaptive compensatory response to combat excess inflammation.

  8. Attenuation of rodent neuropathic pain by an orally active peptide, RAP-103, which potently blocks CCR2- and CCR5-mediated monocyte chemotaxis and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padi, Satyanarayana S V; Shi, Xiang Q; Zhao, Yuan Q; Ruff, Michael R; Baichoo, Noel; Pert, Candace B; Zhang, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Chemokine signaling is important in neuropathic pain, with microglial cells expressing CCR2 playing a well-established key role. DAPTA, a HIV gp120-derived CCR5 entry inhibitor, has been shown to inhibit CCR5-mediated monocyte migration and to attenuate neuroinflammation. We report here that as a stabilized analog of DAPTA, the short peptide RAP-103 exhibits potent antagonism for both CCR2 (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 4.2 pM) and CCR5 (IC50 0.18 pM) in monocyte chemotaxis. Oral administration of RAP-103 (0.05-1 mg/kg) for 7 days fully prevents mechanical allodynia and inhibits the development of thermal hyperalgesia after partial ligation of the sciatic nerve in rats. Administered from days 8 to 12, RAP-103 (0.2-1 mg/kg) reverses already established hypersensitivity. RAP-103 relieves behavioral hypersensitivity, probably through either or both CCR2 and CCR5 blockade, because by using genetically deficient animals, we demonstrated that in addition to CCR2, CCR5 is also required for the development of neuropathic pain. Moreover, RAP-103 is able to reduce spinal microglial activation and monocyte infiltration, and to inhibit inflammatory responses evoked by peripheral nerve injury that cause chronic pain. Our findings suggest that targeting CCR2/CCR5 should provide greater efficacy than targeting CCR2 or CCR5 alone, and that dual CCR2/CCR5 antagonist RAP-103 has the potential for broad clinical use in neuropathic pain treatment.

  9. Striatal adenosine-cannabinoid receptor interactions in rats over-expressing adenosine A2A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodi, Valentina; Ferrante, Antonella; Ferraro, Luca; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Armida, Monica; Beggiato, Sarah; Pèzzola, Antonella; Bader, Michael; Fuxe, Kjell; Popoli, Patrizia; Domenici, Maria Rosaria

    2016-03-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors (A2 A Rs) and cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1 Rs) are highly expressed in the striatum, where they functionally interact and form A2A /CB1 heteroreceptor complexes. We investigated the effects of CB1 R stimulation in a transgenic rat strain over-expressing A2 A Rs under the control of the neural-specific enolase promoter (NSEA2A rats) and in age-matched wild-type (WT) animals. The effects of the CB1 R agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) were significantly lower in NSEA2A rats than in WT animals, as demonstrated by i) electrophysiological recordings of synaptic transmission in corticostriatal slices; ii) the measurement of glutamate outflow from striatal synaptosomes and iii) in vivo experiments on locomotor activity. Moreover, while the effects of WIN were modulated by both A2 A R agonist (CGS 21680) and antagonists (ZM 241385, KW-6002 and SCH-442416) in WT animals, the A2 A R antagonists failed to influence WIN-mediated effects in NSEA2A rats. The present results demonstrate that in rats with genetic neuronal over-expression of A2 A Rs, the effects mediated by CB1 R activation in the striatum are significantly reduced, suggesting a change in the stoichiometry of A2A and CB1 receptors and providing a strategy to dissect the involvement of A2 A R forming or not forming heteromers in the modulation of striatal functions. These findings add additional evidence for the existence of an interaction between striatal A2 A Rs and CB1 Rs, playing a fundamental role in the regulation of striatal functions. We studied A2A -CB1 receptor interaction in transgenic rats over-expressing adenosine A2A receptors under the control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter (NSEA2A ). In these rats, we demonstrated a reduced effect of the CB1 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 in the modulation of corticostriatal synaptic transmission and locomotor activity, while CB1 receptor expression level did not change with respect to WT rats. A reduction in the expression of A2A -CB1

  10. Use of tailored loading-dose clopidogrel in patients undergoing selected percutaneous coronary intervention based on adenosine diphosphate-mediated platelet aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Kang; L(U) Shu-zheng; ZHU Hua-gang; CHEN Xin; GE Chang-jiang; SONG Xian-tao

    2010-01-01

    Background Adenosine phosphate-mediated platelet aggregation is a prognostic factor for major adverse cardiac events in patients who have undergone selective percutaneous coronary interventions. This study aimed to assess whether an adjusted loading dose of clopidogrel could more effectively inhibit platelet aggregation in patients undergoing selected percutaneous coronary intervention.Methods A total of 205 patients undergoing selected percutaneous coronary intervention were enrolled in this multicenter, prospective, randomized study. Patients receiving domestic clopidogrel (n=104) served as the Talcom (Taijia)group; others (n=101) received Plavix, the Plavix group, Patients received up to 3 additional 300-mg loading doses of clopidogrel to decrease the adenosine phosphate-mediated platelet aggregation index by more than 50% (the primary endpoint) compared with the baseline. The secondary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular events at 12 months.Results Compared with the rational loading dosage, the tailored loading dosage better inhibited platelet aggregation based on a >50% decrease in adenosine phosphate-mediated platelet aggregation (rational loading dosage vs. tailored loading dosage, 48% vs. 73%, P=0.028). There was no significant difference in the eligible index between the Talcom and Plavix groups (47% vs. 49% at 300 mg; 62% vs. 59% at 600 mg; 74% vs. 72% at 900 mg; P >0.05) based on a standard adenosine diphosphate-mediated platelet aggregation decrease of >50%. After 12 months of follow-up, there were no significant differences in major adverse cardiac events (2.5% vs. 2.9%, P=5.43). No acute or subacute stent thrombosis events occurred.Conclusion An adjusted loading dose of clopidogrel could have significant effects on antiplatelet aggregation compared with a rational dose, decreasing 1-year major adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions based on adenosine phosphate-mediated platelet aggregation with no

  11. Hypothermia induced by adenosine 5'-monophosphate attenuates early stage injury in an acute gouty arthritis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhimin; Guo, Weiting; Lu, Shulai; Lv, Wenshan; Li, Changgui; Wang, Yangang; Zhao, Shihua; Yan, Shengli; Tao, Zhenyin; Wang, Yunlong

    2013-08-01

    To investigate whether the hypothermia induced by Adenosine 5'-Monophosphate (5'-AMP) could attenuate early stage injury in a rat acute gouty arthritis model. Ankle joint injection with monosodium urate monohydrate crystals (MSU crystals) in hypothermia rat model which was induced by 5'-AMP and then observe whether hypothermia induced by 5'-AMP could be effectively inhibit the inflammation on acute gouty arthritis in rats. AMP-induced hypothermia has protective effects on our acute gouty arthritis, which was demonstrated by the following criteria: (1) a significant reduction in the ankle swelling (p gouty arthritis model.

  12. Intracellular signalling pathways in the vasoconstrictor response of mouse afferent arterioles to adenosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B. Lærkegaard; Friis, Ulla Glenert; Uhrenholt, Torben Rene

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Adenosine causes vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles of the mouse kidney through activation of adenosine A(1) receptors and Gi-mediated stimulation of phospholipase C. In the present study, we further explored the signalling pathways by which adenosine causes arteriolar vasoconstriction....... METHODS AND RESULTS: Adenosine (10(-7) M) significantly increased the intracellular calcium concentration in mouse isolated afferent arterioles measured by fura-2 fluorescence. Pre-treatment with thapsigargin (2 microM) blocked the vasoconstrictor action of adenosine (10(-7) M) indicating that release...

  13. The Rickettsia prowazekii invasion gene homolog (invA) encodes a Nudix hydrolase active on adenosine (5')-pentaphospho-(5')-adenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaywee, Jariyanart; Xu, WenLian; Radulovic, Suzana; Bessman, Maurice J; Azad, Abdu F

    2002-03-01

    The genomic sequence of Rickettsia prowazekii, the obligate intracellular bacterium responsible for epidemic typhus, reveals an uncharacterized invasion gene homolog (invA). The deduced protein of 18,752 Da contains a Nudix signature, the specific motif found in the Nudix hydrolase family. To characterize the function of InvA, the gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein was purified to near homogeneity and subsequently tested for its enzymatic activity against a series of nucleoside diphosphate derivatives. The purified InvA exhibits hydrolytic activity toward dinucleoside oligophosphates (Np(n)N; n > or = 5), a group of cellular signaling molecules. At optimal pH 8.5, the enzyme actively degrades adenosine (5')-pentaphospho-(5')-adenosine into ATP and ADP with a K(m) of 0.1 mM and k(cat) of 1.9 s(-1). Guanosine (5')-pentaphospho-(5')-guanosine and adenosine-(5')-hexaphospho (5')-adenosine are also substrates. Similar to other Nudix hydrolases, InvA requires a divalent metal cation, Mg(2+) or Zn(2+), for optimal activity. These data suggest that the rickettsial invasion protein likely plays a role in controlling the concentration of stress-induced dinucleoside oligophosphates following bacterial invasion.

  14. 精子趋化运动的研究近况%Current Advances in Sperm Chemotaxis Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷涛

    2012-01-01

    精子趋化作用具有重要的生理功能,体现在这种趋化过程促使大量的精子到达受精部位,从而实现精子与卵子的相遇、顶体反应的发生及精卵融合.近年,人们研究发现精子在趋化运动存在一种新的运动模式 (turn-and-straight 模式).同时,在信号转导方面认为 CatSper 就是孕酮在精子膜上的受体,并参与信号的跨膜转导.%Sperm chemotaxis plays an important physiological role and guides a large number of spermatozoa in their journey towards the egg , further achieving sperm-egg meet, acrosome reaction and sperm-egg fusion. Recently, scientists have found a new movement pattern , turn-and-straight model, guiding the sperm chemotaxis. Meanwhile, it has been believed that CatSper is the membrane receptor for progesterone on the sperm. This review introduces the recent studies on sperm chemotaxis, including the discovery of sperm chemotaxis , and the chemoattractants, movement patterns and molecular mechanisms that are relevant to sperm chemotaxis .

  15. Kinetics of chemotaxis, cytokine, and chemokine release of NR8383 macrophages after exposure to inflammatory and inert granular insoluble particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schremmer, I; Brik, A; Weber, D G; Rosenkranz, N; Rostek, A; Loza, K; Brüning, T; Johnen, G; Epple, M; Bünger, J; Westphal, G A

    2016-11-30

    Accumulation of macrophages and neutrophil granulocytes in the lung are key events in the inflammatory response to inhaled particles. The present study aims at the time course of chemotaxis in vitro in response to the challenge of various biopersistent particles and its functional relation to the transcription of inflammatory mediators. NR8383 rat alveolar macrophages were challenged with particles of coarse quartz, barium sulfate, and nanosized silica for one, four, and 16h and with coarse and nanosized titanium dioxide particles (rutile and anatase) for 16h only. The cell supernatants were used to investigate the chemotaxis of unexposed NR8383 macrophages. The transcription of inflammatory mediators in cells exposed to quartz, silica, and barium sulfate was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Challenge with quartz, silica, and rutile particles induced significant chemotaxis of unexposed NR8383 macrophages. Chemotaxis caused by quartz and silica was accompanied by an elevated transcription of CCL3, CCL4, CXCL1, CXCL3, and TNFα. Quartz exposure showed an earlier onset of both effects compared to the nanosized silica. The strength of this response roughly paralleled the cytotoxic effects. Barium sulfate and anatase did not induce chemotaxis and barium sulfate as well caused no elevated transcription. In conclusion, NR8383 macrophages respond to the challenge with inflammatory particles with the release of chemotactic compounds that act on unexposed macrophages. The kinetics of the response differs between the various particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fast-scan Cyclic Voltammetry for the Characterization of Rapid Adenosine Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Michael D; Venton, B Jill

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a signaling molecule and downstream product of ATP that acts as a neuromodulator. Adenosine regulates physiological processes, such as neurotransmission and blood flow, on a time scale of minutes to hours. Recent developments in electrochemical techniques, including fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), have allowed direct detection of adenosine with sub-second temporal resolution. FSCV studies have revealed a novel mode of rapid signaling that lasts only a few seconds. This rapid release of adenosine can be evoked by electrical or mechanical stimulations or it can be observed spontaneously without stimulation. Adenosine signaling on this time scale is activity dependent; however, the mode of release is not fully understood. Rapid adenosine release modulates oxygen levels and evoked dopamine release, indicating that adenosine may have a rapid modulatory role. In this review, we outline how FSCV can be used to detect adenosine release, compare FSCV with other techniques used to measure adenosine, and present an overview of adenosine signaling that has been characterized using FSCV. These studies point to a rapid mode of adenosine modulation, whose mechanism and function will continue to be characterized in the future.

  17. Caffeine prevents antihyperalgesic effect of gabapentin in an animal model of CRPS-I: evidence for the involvement of spinal adenosine A1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Daniel F; Prado, Marcos R B; Daruge-Neto, Eduardo; Batisti, Ana P; Emer, Aline A; Mazzardo-Martins, Leidiane; Santos, Adair R S; Piovezan, Anna P

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to determine whether 3 weeks of gabapentin treatment is effective in alleviating neuropathic pain-like behavior in animal models of complex regional pain syndrome type-I and partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). We investigated the contribution of adenosine subtypes to the antihyperalgesic effect of gabapentin by examining the effect of caffeine, a non-selective adenosine A1 and A2 receptor antagonist or 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX), a selective adenosine A1 subtype receptor antagonist on this effect. Neuropathic pain was produced by unilateral prolonged hind paw ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) or PSNL procedures which resulted in stimulus-evoked mechanical hyperalgesia. After procedures, animals received gabapentin (10, 30, or 100 mg/kg intraperitoneal, respectively), caffeine (10 mg/kg intraperitoneal or 150 nmol intrathecally) or DPCPX (3 µg intrathecally) alone or in combination. Mice were tested for tactile mechanical hyperalgesia at 1, 2, and 3 weeks following procedures. Gabapentin produced dose-related inhibition of mechanical hyperalgesia over a 3-week period, and this effect was blocked by concomitant caffeine or DPCPX administration 1 week after injuries. The results of this study demonstrated that the mechanism through which gabapentin produces its effect may involve the activation of adenosine A1 subtype receptor.

  18. Effect in vitro of the Phenobarbital on the Activity of the Enzyme Adenosine Triphosphatase (ATPase of Sodium and Potassium Dependent in Human Placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María De Jesús Sánchez Bouza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most of the drugs can pass to the fetus through the placenta, conditioning alterations of the development and fetal growth. Objective: To evaluate the effect in vitro of Phenobarbital on the activity of adenosine triphosphatase of sodium and potassium dependent in human placenta. Method: A study in vitro was carried out, in total homogenizes of placentas coming from 30 mothers that were assisted in the Gynecological and Obstetric Educational Provincial Hospital ¨Mariana Grajales¨, in Santa Clara, during the period March-July 1993. Phenobarbital was administered in concentrations of 0,1 mg/ml, 0,15 mg/ml and 0,2 mg/ml, keeping in mind the therapeutic dose to which was prescribed. The analyzed variables were: enzymatic activity and inhibition type. Results: The enzymatic activity of the adenosine triphosphatase of sodium and potassium dependent, diminished in a significant way, proportionally with the diminishment of the administered concentration of Phenobarbital. The inhibitory effect of the drug also turned out to be dependent of the concentration, presenting a major inhibition as the dose was increased. Conclusion: Phenobarbital produced highly significant decrease in the activity of adenosine triphosphatase of sodium and dependent potassium. This inhibition is of competitive type.

  19. Post-ischemic treatment of WIB801C, standardized Cordyceps extract, reduces cerebral ischemic injury via inhibition of inflammatory cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sunyoung; Cho, Geum-Sil; Ryu, Sangwoo; Kim, Hoon J; Song, Hwa Young; Yune, Tae Y; Ju, Chung; Kim, Won-Ki

    2016-06-20

    infarct volume and neurobehavioral deficits by WIB801C was also observed in rats subjected to pMCAO. In summary, post-ischemic treatment of WIB801C reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells into ischemic lesions via inhibition of chemotaxis, which confers long-lasting histological and neurological protection in ischemic brain. WIB801C may be a promising anti-ischemic drug candidate with clinically relevant therapeutic time window and safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modulation of synaptic transmission by adenosine in layer 2/3 of the rat visual cortex in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, N M; Zhang, P; Ilin, V; Chistiakova, M; Volgushev, M

    2014-02-28

    Adenosine is a wide-spread endogenous neuromodulator. In the central nervous system it activates A1 and A2A receptors (A1Rs and A2ARs) which have differential distributions, different affinities to adenosine, are coupled to different G-proteins, and have opposite effects on synaptic transmission. Although effects of adenosine are studied in detail in several brain areas, such as the hippocampus and striatum, the heterogeneity of the effects of A1R and A2AR activation and their differential distribution preclude generalization over brain areas and cell types. Here we study adenosine's effects on excitatory synaptic transmission to layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in slices of the rat visual cortex. We measured effects of bath application of adenosine receptor ligands on evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials (mEPSPs), and membrane properties. Adenosine reduced the amplitude of evoked EPSPs and excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), and reduced frequency of mEPSPs in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner. Concurrent with EPSP/C amplitude reduction was an increase in the paired-pulse ratio. These effects were blocked by application of the selective A1R antagonist DPCPX (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine), suggesting that activation of presynaptic A1Rs suppresses excitatory transmission by reducing release probability. Adenosine (20μM) hyperpolarized the cell membrane from -65.3±1.5 to -67.7±1.8mV, and reduced input resistance from 396.5±44.4 to 314.0±36.3MOhm (∼20%). These effects were also abolished by DPCPX, suggesting postsynaptic A1Rs. Application of the selective A2AR antagonist SCH-58261 (2-(2-furanyl)-7-(2-phenylethyl)-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-a-mine) on the background of high adenosine concentrations revealed an additional decrease in EPSP amplitude. Moreover, application of the A2AR agonist CGS-21680 (4-[2-[[6-amino-9-(N-ethyl-β-d-ribofuranuronamidosyl)-9H

  1. A Discrete Velocity Kinetic Model with Food Metric: Chemotaxis Traveling Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun-Ho; Kim, Yong-Jung

    2017-02-01

    We introduce a mesoscopic scale chemotaxis model for traveling wave phenomena which is induced by food metric. The organisms of this simplified kinetic model have two discrete velocity modes, [Formula: see text] and a constant tumbling rate. The main feature of the model is that the speed of organisms is constant [Formula: see text] with respect to the food metric, not the Euclidean metric. The uniqueness and the existence of the traveling wave solution of the model are obtained. Unlike the classical logarithmic model case there exist traveling waves under super-linear consumption rates and infinite population pulse-type traveling waves are obtained. Numerical simulations are also provided.

  2. The chemical-in-plug bacterial chemotaxis assay is prone to false positive responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Mandy J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical-in-plug assays are commonly used to study bacterial chemotaxis, sometimes in the absence of stringent controls. Results We report that non-chemotactic and non-motile mutants in two distinct bacterial species (Shewanella oneidensis and Helicobacter pylori show apparent zones of accumulation or clearing around test plugs containing potential attractants or repellents, respectively. Conclusions Our results suggest that the chemical-in-plug assay should be used with caution, that non-motile or non-chemotactic mutants should be employed as controls, and that results should be confirmed with other types of assays.

  3. Adenosine receptor control of cognition in normal and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine and adenosine receptors (ARs) are increasingly recognized as important therapeutic targets for controlling cognition under normal and disease conditions for its dual roles of neuromodulation as well as of homeostatic function in the brain. This chapter first presents the unique ability of adenosine, by acting on the inhibitory A1 and facilitating A2A receptor, to integrate dopamine, glutamate, and BNDF signaling and to modulate synaptic plasticity (e.g., long-term potentiation and long-term depression) in brain regions relevant to learning and memory, providing the molecular and cellular bases for adenosine receptor (AR) control of cognition. This led to the demonstration of AR modulation of social recognition memory, working memory, reference memory, reversal learning, goal-directed behavior/habit formation, Pavlovian fear conditioning, and effort-related behavior. Furthermore, human and animal studies support that AR activity can also, through cognitive enhancement and neuroprotection, reverse cognitive impairments in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease, and schizophrenia. Lastly, epidemiological evidence indicates that regular human consumption of caffeine, the most widely used psychoactive drug and nonselective AR antagonists, is associated with the reduced cognitive decline in aging and AD patients, and with the reduced risk in developing PD. Thus, there is a convergence of the molecular studies revealing AR as molecular targets for integrating neurotransmitter signaling and controlling synaptic plasticity, with animal studies demonstrating the strong procognitive impact upon AR antagonism in normal and disease brains and with epidemiological and clinical evidences in support of caffeine and AR drugs for therapeutic modulation of cognition. Since some of adenosine A2A receptor antagonists are already in phase III clinical trials for motor benefits in PD patients with remarkable safety profiles

  4. Expression of the gltP gene of Escherichia coli in a glutamate transport-deficient mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides restores chemotaxis to glutamate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.H J; van der Heide, T.; Tolner, B; Driessen, A.J.M.; Konings, W.N

    1995-01-01

    Rhodobacter sphaeroides is chemotactic to glutamate and most other amino acids. In Escherichia coli, chemotaxis involves a membrane-bound sensor that either binds the amino acid directly or interacts with the binding protein loaded with the amino acid. In R. sphaeroides, chemotaxis is thought to req

  5. Computational modeling reveals that a combination of chemotaxis and differential adhesion leads to robust cell sorting during tissue patterning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhen Tan

    Full Text Available Robust tissue patterning is crucial to many processes during development. The "French Flag" model of patterning, whereby naïve cells in a gradient of diffusible morphogen signal adopt different fates due to exposure to different amounts of morphogen concentration, has been the most widely proposed model for tissue patterning. However, recently, using time-lapse experiments, cell sorting has been found to be an alternative model for tissue patterning in the zebrafish neural tube. But it remains unclear what the sorting mechanism is. In this article, we used computational modeling to show that two mechanisms, chemotaxis and differential adhesion, are needed for robust cell sorting. We assessed the performance of each of the two mechanisms by quantifying the fraction of correct sorting, the fraction of stable clusters formed after correct sorting, the time needed to achieve correct sorting, and the size variations of the cells having different fates. We found that chemotaxis and differential adhesion confer different advantages to the sorting process. Chemotaxis leads to high fraction of correct sorting as individual cells will either migrate towards or away from the source depending on its cell type. However after the cells have sorted correctly, there is no interaction among cells of the same type to stabilize the sorted boundaries, leading to cell clusters that are unstable. On the other hand, differential adhesion results in low fraction of correct clusters that are more stable. In the absence of morphogen gradient noise, a combination of both chemotaxis and differential adhesion yields cell sorting that is both accurate and robust. However, in the presence of gradient noise, the simple combination of chemotaxis and differential adhesion is insufficient for cell sorting; instead, chemotaxis coupled with delayed differential adhesion is required to yield optimal sorting.

  6. Transducer like proteins of Campylobacter jejuni 81-176: role in chemotaxis and colonization of the chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekhar, Kshipra; Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Pina-Mimbela, Ruby; Kassem, Issmat I; Jeon, Byeong H; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Transducer Like Proteins (Tlps), also known as methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP), enable enteric pathogens to respond to changing nutrient levels in the environment by mediating taxis toward or away from specific chemoeffector molecules. Despite recent advances in the characterization of chemotaxis responses in Campylobacter jejuni, the impact of Tlps on the adaptation of this pathogen to disparate niches and hosts is not fully characterized. The latter is particularly evident in the case of C. jejuni 81-176, a strain that is known to be highly invasive. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic group C Tlps (Tlp5, 6, and 8) were not extensively evaluated. Here, we investigated the role of C. jejuni 81-176 Tlps in chemotaxis toward various substrates, biofilm formation, in vitro interaction with human intestinal cells, and chicken colonization. We found that the Δtlp6 and Δtlp10 mutants exhibited decreased chemotaxis toward aspartate, whereas the Δtlp6 mutant displayed a decreased chemotaxis toward Tri-Carboxylic Acid (TCA) cycle intermediates such as pyruvate, isocitrate, and succinate. Our findings also corroborated that more than one Tlp is involved in mediating chemotaxis toward the same nutrient. The deletion of tlps affected important phenotypes such as motility, biofilm formation, and invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells (INT-407). The Δtlp8 mutant displayed increased motility in soft agar and showed decreased biofilm formation. The Δtlp8 and Δtlp9 mutants were significantly defective in invasion in INT-407 cells. The Δtlp10 mutant was defective in colonization of the chicken proximal and distal gastrointestinal tract, while the Δtlp6 and Δtlp8 mutants showed reduced colonization of the duodenum and jejunum. Our results highlight the importance of Tlps in C. jejuni's adaptation and pathobiology.

  7. Transducer Like Proteins of Campylobacter jejuni 81-176: Role in chemotaxis and colonization of the chicken gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gireesh eRajashekara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Transducer Like Proteins (Tlps, also known as Methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP, enable enteric pathogens to respond to changing nutrient levels in the environment by mediating taxis towards or away from specific chemoeffector molecules such as nutrients. Despite recent advances in the characterization of chemotaxis responses in Campylobacter jejuni, the impact of Tlps on the adaptation of this pathogen to disparate niches and hosts is not fully characterized. The latter is particularly evident in the case of C. jejuni 81-176, a strain that is known to be highly invasive. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic group C Tlps (Tlp5, 6, and 8 was not extensively evaluated. Here, we investigated the role of C. jejuni 81-176 Tlps in chemotaxis towards various substrates, biofilm formation, in vitro interaction with human intestinal cells, and chicken colonization. We found that the ∆tlp6 and ∆tlp10 mutants exhibited decreased chemotaxis towards aspartate whereas the ∆tlp6 mutant displayed a decreased chemotaxis towards Tri-Carboxylic Acid (TCA cycle intermediates such as pyruvate, isocitrate, and succinate. Our findings also corroborated that more than one Tlp is involved in mediating chemotaxis towards the same nutrient. The deletion of tlps affected important phenotypes such as motility, biofilm formation, and invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells (INT-407. The ∆tlp8 mutant displayed increased motility in soft agar and showed decreased biofilm formation. The ∆tlp8 and ∆tlp9 mutants were significantly defective in invasion in INT-407 cells. The ∆tlp10 mutant was defective in colonization of the chicken proximal and distal gastrointestinal tract, while the ∆tlp6 and ∆tlp8 mutants showed reduced colonization of the duodenum and jejunum. Our results highlight the importance of Tlps in C. jejuni’s adaptation and pathobiology.

  8. Monocyte function in intravenous drug abusers with lymphadenopathy syndrome and in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: selective impairment of chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, G; Bottazzi, B; Acero, R; Bersani, L; Rossi, V; Introna, M; Lazzarin, A; Galli, M; Mantovani, A

    1985-01-01

    We have investigated monocyte function in 17 intravenous drug abusers with the clinical and laboratory features of lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS). LAS patients had normal numbers of circulating monocytes. Monocytes from LAS patients were comparable to cells from normal donors in terms of phagocytosis of latex beads, interleukin-1 secretion, O2- release and killing of antibody-sensitized lymphoma cells or actinomycin D pretreated WEHI 164 cells. In contrast 13 out of 17 LAS subjects tested in this respect as well as six out of nine AIDS patients showed a marked defect of monocyte chemotaxis. Thus monocytes from patients with LAS or AIDS have a selective defect of monocyte chemotaxis. PMID:2998656

  9. NahY, a Catabolic Plasmid-Encoded Receptor Required for Chemotaxis of Pseudomonas putida to the Aromatic Hydrocarbon Naphthalene

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida G7 exhibits chemotaxis to naphthalene, but the molecular basis for this was not known. A new gene, nahY, was found to be cotranscribed with meta cleavage pathway genes on the NAH7 catabolic plasmid for naphthalene degradation. The nahY gene encodes a 538-amino-acid protein with a membrane topology and a C-terminal region that resemble those of chemotaxis transducer proteins. A P. putida G7 nahY mutant grew on naphthalene but was not chemotactic to this aromatic hydrocarbon....

  10. Insulin-increased L-arginine transport requires A(2A adenosine receptors activation in human umbilical vein endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Guzmán-Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Adenosine causes vasodilation of human placenta vasculature by increasing the transport of arginine via cationic amino acid transporters 1 (hCAT-1. This process involves the activation of A(2A adenosine receptors (A(2AAR in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Insulin increases hCAT-1 activity and expression in HUVECs, and A(2AAR stimulation increases insulin sensitivity in subjects with insulin resistance. However, whether A(2AAR plays a role in insulin-mediated increase in L-arginine transport in HUVECs is unknown. To determine this, we first assayed the kinetics of saturable L-arginine transport (1 minute, 37°C in the absence or presence of nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI, 10 µmol/L, adenosine transport inhibitor and/or adenosine receptors agonist/antagonists. We also determined hCAT-1 protein and mRNA expression levels (Western blots and quantitative PCR, and SLC7A1 (for hCAT-1 reporter promoter activity. Insulin and NBTI increased the extracellular adenosine concentration, the maximal velocity for L-arginine transport without altering the apparent K(m for L-arginine transport, hCAT-1 protein and mRNA expression levels, and SLC7A1 transcriptional activity. An A2AAR antagonist ZM-241385 blocked these effects. ZM241385 inhibited SLC7A1 reporter transcriptional activity to the same extent in cells transfected with pGL3-hCAT-1(-1606 or pGL3-hCAT-1(-650 constructs in the presence of NBTI + insulin. However, SLC7A1 reporter activity was increased by NBTI only in cells transfected with pGL3-hCAT-1(-1606, and the ZM-241385 sensitive fraction of the NBTI response was similar in the absence or in the presence of insulin. Thus, insulin modulation of hCAT-1 expression and activity requires functional A(2AAR in HUVECs, a mechanism that may be applicable to diseases associated with fetal insulin resistance, such as gestational diabetes.

  11. Adenosine gates synaptic plasticity at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kimberly A.; Nicoll, Roger A.; Schmitz, Dietmar

    2003-11-01

    The release properties of synapses in the central nervous system vary greatly, not only across anatomically distinct types of synapses but also among the same class of synapse. This variation manifests itself in large part by differences in the probability of transmitter release, which affects such activity-dependent presynaptic forms of plasticity as paired-pulse facilitation and frequency facilitation. This heterogeneity in presynaptic function reflects differences in the intrinsic properties of the synaptic terminal and the activation of presynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. Here we show that the unique presynaptic properties of the hippocampal mossy fiber synapse are largely imparted onto the synapse by the continuous local action of extracellular adenosine at presynaptic A1 adenosine receptors, which maintains a low basal probability of transmitter release.

  12. Expression of human adenosine deaminase in murine hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, J W; MacGregor, G R; Wager-Smith, K; Fletcher, F A; Moore, K A; Hawkins, D; Villalon, D; Chang, S M; Caskey, C T

    1988-01-01

    Multiple replication-defective retrovirus vectors were tested for their ability to transfer and express human adenosine deaminase in vitro and in vivo in a mouse bone marrow transplantation model. High-titer virus production was obtained from vectors by using both a retrovirus long terminal repeat promoter and internal transcriptional units with human c-fos and herpes virus thymidine kinase promoters. After infection of primary murine bone marrow with one of these vectors, human adenosine deaminase was detected in 60 to 85% of spleen colony-forming units and in the blood of 14 of 14 syngeneic marrow transplant recipients. This system offers the opportunity to assess methods for increasing efficiency of gene transfer, for regulation of expression of foreign genes in hematopoietic progenitors, and for long-term measurement of the stability of expression in these cells. Images PMID:3072474

  13. Adenosine-mediated modulation of ventral horn interneurons and spinal motoneurons in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witts, Emily C; Nascimento, Filipe; Miles, Gareth B

    2015-10-01

    Neuromodulation allows neural networks to adapt to varying environmental and biomechanical demands. Purinergic signaling is known to be an important modulatory system in many parts of the CNS, including motor control circuitry. We have recently shown that adenosine modulates the output of mammalian spinal locomotor control circuitry (Witts EC, Panetta KM, Miles GB. J Neurophysiol 107: 1925-1934, 2012). Here we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying this adenosine-mediated modulation. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on ventral horn interneurons and motoneurons within in vitro mouse spinal cord slice preparations. We found that adenosine hyperpolarized interneurons and reduced the frequency and amplitude of synaptic inputs to interneurons. Both effects were blocked by the A1-type adenosine receptor antagonist DPCPX. Analysis of miniature postsynaptic currents recorded from interneurons revealed that adenosine reduced their frequency but not amplitude, suggesting that adenosine acts on presynaptic receptors to modulate synaptic transmission. In contrast to interneurons, recordings from motoneurons revealed an adenosine-mediated depolarization. The frequency and amplitude of synaptic inputs to motoneurons were again reduced by adenosine, but we saw no effect on miniature postsynaptic currents. Again these effects on motoneurons were blocked by DPCPX. Taken together, these results demonstrate differential effects of adenosine, acting via A1 receptors, in the mouse spinal cord. Adenosine has a general inhibitory action on ventral horn interneurons while potentially maintaining motoneuron excitability. This may allow for adaptation of the locomotor pattern generated by interneuronal networks while helping to ensure the maintenance of overall motor output.

  14. Evidence for an A1-adenosine receptor in the guinea-pig atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    1 The purpose of this study was to determine whether the adenosine receptor that mediates a decrease in the force of contraction of the guinea-pig atrium is of the A1- or A2-sub-type. 2 Concentration-response curves to adenosine and a number of 5'- and N6-substituted analogues were constructed and the order of potency of the purines was: 5'-N-cyclopropylcarboxamide adenosine (NCPCA) = 5'-N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine (NECA) greater than N6cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) greater than L-N6-phenylisopropyl adenosine (L-PIA) = 2-chloroadenosine- greater than adenosine greater than D-N6-phenylisopropyl adenosine (D-PIA). 3 The difference in potency between the stereoisomers D- and L-PIA was over 100 fold. 4 The adenosine transport inhibitor, dipyridamole, potentiated submaximal responses to adenosine but had no significant effect on those evoked by the other purines. 5 Theophylline antagonized responses evoked by all purines, and with D-PIA revealed a positive inotropic effect that was abolished by atenolol. 6 The results indicate the existence of an adenosine A1-receptor in the guinea-pig atrium. PMID:6297647

  15. Adenosine receptors and stress : Studies using methylmercury, caffeine and hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Brain development is a precisely organized process that can be disturbed by various stress factors present in the diet (e.g. exposure to xenobiotics) as well as insults such as decreased oxygen supply. The consequent adverse changes in nervous system function may not necessarily be apparent until a critical age when neurodevelopmental defects may be unmasked by a subsequent challenge. Adenosine and its receptors (AR) (A1, A2A, A2B and A3) which participate in the brain stres...

  16. Synthesis of novel chromene scaffolds for adenosine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marta; Areias, Filipe; Castro, Marian; Brea, Jose; Loza, María I; Proença, Fernanda

    2011-06-07

    A one-pot procedure was developed for the synthesis of novel 3-[amino(methoxy)methylene]-2-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-4-yl)-3-cyanoacetamides and chromeno[3,4-c]pyridine-1-carbonitriles from the reaction of 2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbonitriles and cyanoacetamides. These chromene derivatives were identified as new scaffolds for adenosine receptors and the hits 3a, 3c, 5a, and 5b were found.

  17. Severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Waqar; Batool, Asma; Ahmed, Tahir Aziz; Bashir, Muhammad Mukarram

    2012-03-01

    Severe Combined Immunodeficiency is the term applied to a group of rare genetic disorders characterised by defective or absent T and B cell functions. Patients usually present in first 6 months of life with respiratory/gastrointestinal tract infections and failure to thrive. Among the various types of severe combined immunodeficiency, enzyme deficiencies are relatively less common. We report the case of a 6 years old girl having severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiency.

  18. Pharmacology of the Adenosine A3 Receptor in the Vasculature and Essential Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Fen; Low, Leanne M.; Rose’Meyer, Roselyn B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Essential hypertension is considered to be a multifactorial disorder and its aetiology has yet to be clearly identified. As the adenosine receptors have a significant role in mediating vasodilation, alterations in their structures or signalling pathways may be involved in the development of hypertension. This study aimed to measure the expression of adenosine A3 receptors in a range of cardiovascular tissues and determine whether they could be altered with essential hypertension, and to functionally test responses to adenosine A3 receptor agonists in coronary blood vessels using the isolated perfused heart preparation. Methods mRNA samples from cardiovascular tissues and a range of blood vessels were collected from 10 week old male spontaneously hypertensive rats and age-gender matched Wistar rats (n = 8). The Langendorff heart perfusion preparation was used to characterise adenosine A3 receptor mediated coronary vasodilation in the rat heart. Results Adenosine A3 receptor agonists induced coronary vasodilation. The expression of adenosine A3 receptors in cardiovascular tissues was altered in a tissue-specific pattern. Specifically, down-regulation of adenosine A3 receptor expression occurred in hypertensive hearts, which might be associated with attenuated vasodilator responses observed in coronary vessels to adenosine A3 receptor agonists. Conclusions This study demonstrated alterations in the expression of adenosine A3 receptors occurred in a tissue specific mode, and reduced adenosine A3 receptor mediated coronary vasodilation in hearts from spontaneously hypertensive rats. Our findings with regard to changes in the adenosine A3 receptor in hypertensive hearts suggest that adenosine A3 receptor might play a role in the physiopathology of essential hypertension and potentially open the way to pharmacologic manipulation of vasomotor activity by the use of adenosine A3 receptor agonists. PMID:26907173

  19. 辛伐他汀抑制肝星状细胞活化及其对腺苷酸活化蛋白激酶活性的影响%Simvastatin inhibits activation of hepatic stellate cells and promotes activation of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹伟; 闫蕾; 王玮; 赵彩彦

    2012-01-01

    the underlying molecular mechanism ofthe cholesterol-blocking drug,simvastatin,in treating nonalcoholic fatty liver fibrosis.Method A rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver fibrosis was established by feeding Wistar rats a fat-rich diet.After treatment with simvastatin (4 mg/kg/day),liver histological specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome for microscopic analysis.Expression of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-alpha (AMPKα) was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR; for mRNA) and Western blotting (protein).The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC),triglycerides (TG),alanine aminotransferase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (AST),and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFa) were measured by standard biochemical assays.The human hepatic stellate cell line,LX-2 (quiescent or activated),was treated with transforming growth factor-beta l (TGF-β1) alone,simvastatin alone,or TGF-β1 +simvastatin.RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine changes in AMPKα mRNA and protein expression,respectively.Results In the rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver fibrosis,the extent of pathological changes in hepatic tissues correlated with severity of disease progression.The levels of serum TC,TG,ALT,AST and TNFα were increased significantly in model rats (vs.healthy controls; all,P< 0.01).AMPKα mRNA expression and activity was significantly decreased in model rats (vs.healthy controls; P< 0.01 and P< 0.05,respectively).Simvastatin,treatment significantly improved all of these parameters in model rats (vs.untreated model rats; all,P< 0.05).In vitro simvastatin treatment of human HSCs significantly increased AMPKα activity (quiescent LX-2:0.93 -0.10 vs.0.72±0.09,activated LX-2:0.72±0.10 vs.0.54±0.10,q=7.00,6.00; all,P<0.01),decreased a-smooth muscle actin expression (mRNA:0.30±0.02 vs.0.36±0.02,protein:0.30±0.03 vs.0.38±0.02,q=11.245,11.216; all,P<0.01),and decreased collagen I expression

  20. Inhibition of neutrophil migration and oxygen free radical release by metipranolol and timolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djanani, Angela; Kaneider, Nicole C; Meierhofer, Christian; Sturn, Daniel; Dunzendorfer, Stefan; Allmeier, Helmut; Wiedermann, Christian J

    2003-08-01

    Propanolol and metoprolol exert adrenoceptor-independent effects including scavenging of free radicals and inhibition of protein kinase C leading to inhibition of leukocyte migration and radical release as a consequence. Whether topically used metipranolol and timolol exert such effects is unknown. Neutrophil chemotaxis was tested using modified Boyden microchemotaxis chambers. Respiratory burst activity of neutrophils was detected fluorometrically. Radical scavenging properties were tested using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. Metipranolol and timolol inhibited neutrophil chemotaxis at doses in the micromolar range, oxygen free radical production triggered with formyl-Met-Leu-Phe was inhibited at higher concentration. Protein kinase C involvement, suggested to trigger free radical production with phorbol myristate acetate, was antagonized. A direct radical scavenging effect of the beta-blockers was also seen. Inhibition of neutrophil chemotaxis and free radical production is a novel mode of action of metipranolol and timolol that may be relevant for beneficial effects in the topical treatment of eye disease. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. An orphan chemotaxis sensor regulates virulence and antibiotic tolerance in the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Pearl McLaughlin

    Full Text Available The synthesis of virulence factors by pathogenic bacteria is highly regulated and occurs in response to diverse environmental cues. An array of two component systems (TCSs serves to link perception of different cues to specific changes in gene expression and/or bacterial behaviour. Those TCSs that regulate functions associated with virulence represent attractive targets for interference in anti-infective strategies for disease control. We have previously identified PA2572 as a putative response regulator required for full virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the opportunistic human pathogen, to Galleria mellonella (Wax moth larvae. Here we have investigated the involvement of candidate sensors for signal transduction involving PA2572. Mutation of PA2573, encoding a probable methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein, gave rise to alterations in motility, virulence, and antibiotic resistance, functions which are also controlled by PA2572. Comparative transcriptome profiling of mutants revealed that PA2572 and PA2573 regulate expression of a common set of 49 genes that are involved in a range of biological functions including virulence and antibiotic resistance. Bacterial two-hybrid analysis indicated a REC-dependent interaction between PA2572 and PA2573 proteins. Finally expression of PA2572 in the PA2573 mutant background restored virulence to G. mellonella towards wild-type levels. The findings indicate a role for the orphan chemotaxis sensor PA2573 in the regulation of virulence and antibiotic tolerance in P. aeruginosa and indicate that these effects are exerted in part through signal transduction involving PA2572.

  2. Subtle CXCR3-Dependent Chemotaxis of CTLs within Infected Tissue Allows Efficient Target Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariotti, Silvia; Beltman, Joost B; Borsje, Rianne; Hoekstra, Mirjam E; Halford, William P; Haanen, John B A G; de Boer, Rob J; Schumacher, Ton N M

    2015-12-01

    It is well established how effector T cells exit the vasculature to enter the peripheral tissues in which an infection is ongoing. However, less is known regarding how CTLs migrate toward infected cells after entry into peripheral organs. Recently, it was shown that the chemokine receptor CXCR3 on T cells has an important role in their ability to localize infected cells and to control vaccinia virus infection. However, the search strategy of T cells for virus-infected targets has not been investigated in detail and could involve chemotaxis toward infected cells, chemokinesis (i.e., increased motility) combined with CTL arrest when targets are detected, or both. In this study, we describe and analyze the migration of CTLs within HSV-1-infected epidermis in vivo. We demonstrate that activated T cells display a subtle distance-dependent chemotaxis toward clusters of infected cells and confirm that this is mediated by CXCR3 and its ligands. Although the chemotactic migration is weak, computer simulations based on short-term experimental data, combined with subsequent long-term imaging indicate that this behavior is crucial for efficient target localization and T cell accumulation at effector sites. Thus, chemotactic migration of effector T cells within peripheral tissue forms an important factor in the speed with which T cells are able to arrive at sites of infection.

  3. CYP4F18-Deficient Neutrophils Exhibit Increased Chemotaxis to Complement Component C5a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Vaivoda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CYP4Fs were first identified as enzymes that catalyze hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4. CYP4F18 has an unusual expression in neutrophils and was predicted to play a role in regulating LTB4-dependent inflammation. We compared chemotaxis of wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout neutrophils using an in vitro assay. There was no significant difference in the chemotactic response to LTB4, but the response to complement component C5a increased 1.9–2.25-fold in knockout cells compared to wild-type (P < 0.01. This increase was still observed when neutrophils were treated with inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis. There were no changes in expression of other CYP4 enzymes in knockout neutrophils that might compensate for loss of CYP4F18 or lead to differences in activity. A mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate colitis was used to investigate the consequences of increased C5a-dependent chemotaxis in vivo, but there was no significant difference in weight loss, disease activity, or colonic tissue myeloperoxidase between wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout mice. This study demonstrates the limitations of inferring CYP4F function based on an ability to use LTB4 as a substrate, points to expanding roles for CYP4F enzymes in immune regulation, and underscores the in vivo challenges of CYP knockout studies.

  4. Sinorhizobium meliloti chemotaxis to quaternary ammonium compounds is mediated by the chemoreceptor McpX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Benjamin A; Karl Compton, K; Castañeda Saldaña, Rafael; Arapov, Timofey D; Keith Ray, W; Helm, Richard F; Scharf, Birgit E

    2017-01-01

    The bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti is attracted to seed exudates of its host plant alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Since quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are exuded by germinating seeds, we assayed chemotaxis of S. meliloti towards betonicine, choline, glycine betaine, stachydrine and trigonelline. The wild type displayed a positive response to all QACs. Using LC-MS, we determined that each germinating alfalfa seed exuded QACs in the nanogram range. Compared to the closely related nonhost species, spotted medic (Medicago arabica), unique profiles were released. Further assessments of single chemoreceptor deletion strains revealed that an mcpX deletion strain displayed little to no response to these compounds. Differential scanning fluorimetry showed interaction of the isolated periplasmic region of McpX (McpX(PR) and McpX34-306 ) with QACs. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments revealed tight binding to McpX(PR) with dissociation constants (Kd ) in the nanomolar range for choline and glycine betaine, micromolar Kd for stachydrine and trigonelline and a Kd in the millimolar range for betonicine. Our discovery of S. meliloti chemotaxis to plant-derived QACs adds another role to this group of compounds, which are known to serve as nutrient sources, osmoprotectants and cell-to-cell signalling molecules. This is the first report of a chemoreceptor that mediates QACs taxis through direct binding.

  5. Modeling chemotaxis reveals the role of reversed phosphotransfer and a bi-functional kinase-phosphatase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus J Tindall

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how multiple signals are integrated in living cells to produce a balanced response is a major challenge in biology. Two-component signal transduction pathways, such as bacterial chemotaxis, comprise histidine protein kinases (HPKs and response regulators (RRs. These are used to sense and respond to changes in the environment. Rhodobacter sphaeroides has a complex chemosensory network with two signaling clusters, each containing a HPK, CheA. Here we demonstrate, using a mathematical model, how the outputs of the two signaling clusters may be integrated. We use our mathematical model supported by experimental data to predict that: (1 the main RR controlling flagellar rotation, CheY(6, aided by its specific phosphatase, the bifunctional kinase CheA(3, acts as a phosphate sink for the other RRs; and (2 a phosphorelay pathway involving CheB(2 connects the cytoplasmic cluster kinase CheA(3 with the polar localised kinase CheA(2, and allows CheA(3-P to phosphorylate non-cognate chemotaxis RRs. These two mechanisms enable the bifunctional kinase/phosphatase activity of CheA(3 to integrate and tune the sensory output of each signaling cluster to produce a balanced response. The signal integration mechanisms identified here may be widely used by other bacteria, since like R. sphaeroides, over 50% of chemotactic bacteria have multiple cheA homologues and need to integrate signals from different sources.

  6. Using light to shape chemical gradients for parallel and automated analysis of chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sean R; Yang, Hee Won; Bonger, Kimberly M; Guignet, Emmanuel G; Wandless, Thomas J; Meyer, Tobias

    2015-04-23

    Numerous molecular components have been identified that regulate the directed migration of eukaryotic cells toward sources of chemoattractant. However, how the components of this system are wired together to coordinate multiple aspects of the response, such as directionality, speed, and sensitivity to stimulus, remains poorly understood. Here we developed a method to shape chemoattractant gradients optically and analyze cellular chemotaxis responses of hundreds of living cells per well in 96-well format by measuring speed changes and directional accuracy. We then systematically characterized migration and chemotaxis phenotypes for 285 siRNA perturbations. A key finding was that the G-protein Giα subunit selectively controls the direction of migration while the receptor and Gβ subunit proportionally control both speed and direction. Furthermore, we demonstrate that neutrophils chemotax persistently in response to gradients of fMLF but only transiently in response to gradients of ATP. The method we introduce is applicable for diverse chemical cues and systematic perturbations, can be used to measure multiple cell migration and signaling parameters, and is compatible with low- and high-resolution fluorescence microscopy. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  7. Laminar flow assisted anisotropic bacteria absorption for chemotaxis delivery of bacteria-attached microparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Keon; Oh, Darong; Son, Seok Young; Yoo, Hyung Jung; Song, Byeonghwa; Cho, Dong-il Dan; Seo, Jong-Mo; Kim, Sung Jae

    2016-12-01

    The concepts of microrobots has been drawn significant attentions recently since its unprecedented applicability in nanotechnology and biomedical field. Bacteria attached microparticles presented in this work are one of pioneering microrobot technology for self-propulsion or producing kinetic energy from ambient for their motions. Microfluidic device, especially utilizing laminar flow characteristics, were employed for anisotropic attachment of Salmonella typhimurium flagellated chemotactic bacteria to 30 um × 30 um and 50 um × 50 um microparticles that made of biodegradable polymer. Any toxic chemicals or harmful treatments were excluded during the attachment process and it finished within 100 s for the anisotropic attachment. The attachments were directly confirmed by fluorescent intensity changes and SEM visualization. Chemotaxis motions were tracked using aspartate and the maximum velocity of the bacteria-attached microrobot was measured to be 5 um/s which is comparable to prior state of art technologies. This reusable and scalable method could play a key role in chemotaxis delivery of functional microparticles such as drug delivery system.

  8. A hybrid two-component system protein from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 was involved in chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanhua; Tu, Ran; Wu, Lixian; Hong, Yuanyuan; Chen, Sanfeng

    2011-09-20

    We here report the sequence and functional analysis of org35 of Azospirillum brasilense Sp7, which was originally identified to be able to interact with NifA in yeast-two-hybrid system. The org35 encodes a hybrid two-component system protein, including N-terminal PAS domains, a histidine kinase (HPK) domain and a response regulator (RR) domain in C-terminal. To determine the function of the Org35, a deletion-insertion mutant in PAS domain [named Sp7353] and a complemental strain Sp7353C were constructed. The mutant had reduced chemotaxis ability compared to that of wild-type, and the complemental strain was similar to the wild-type strain. These data suggested that the A. brasilense org35 played a key role in chemotaxis. Variants containing different domains of the org35 were expressed, and the functions of these domains were studied in vitro. Phosphorylation assays in vitro demonstrated that the HPK domain of Org35 possessed the autokinase activity and that the phosphorylated HPK was able to transfer phosphate groups to the RR domain. The result indicated Org35 was a phosphorylation-communicating protein.

  9. Exponential signaling gain at the receptor level enhances signal-to-noise ratio in bacterial chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Neumann

    Full Text Available Cellular signaling systems show astonishing precision in their response to external stimuli despite strong fluctuations in the molecular components that determine pathway activity. To control the effects of noise on signaling most efficiently, living cells employ compensatory mechanisms that reach from simple negative feedback loops to robustly designed signaling architectures. Here, we report on a novel control mechanism that allows living cells to keep precision in their signaling characteristics - stationary pathway output, response amplitude, and relaxation time - in the presence of strong intracellular perturbations. The concept relies on the surprising fact that for systems showing perfect adaptation an exponential signal amplification at the receptor level suffices to eliminate slowly varying multiplicative noise. To show this mechanism at work in living systems, we quantified the response dynamics of the E. coli chemotaxis network after genetically perturbing the information flux between upstream and downstream signaling components. We give strong evidence that this signaling system results in dynamic invariance of the activated response regulator against multiplicative intracellular noise. We further demonstrate that for environmental conditions, for which precision in chemosensing is crucial, the invariant response behavior results in highest chemotactic efficiency. Our results resolve several puzzling features of the chemotaxis pathway that are widely conserved across prokaryotes but so far could not be attributed any functional role.

  10. Directed transport of bacteria-based drug delivery vehicles: bacterial chemotaxis dominates particle shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahari, Ali; Traore, Mahama A; Scharf, Birgit E; Behkam, Bahareh

    2014-10-01

    Several attenuated and non-pathogenic bacterial species have been demonstrated to actively target diseased sites and successfully deliver plasmid DNA, proteins and other therapeutic agents into mammalian cells. These disease-targeting bacteria can be employed for targeted delivery of therapeutic and imaging cargos in the form of a bio-hybrid system. The bio-hybrid drug delivery system constructed here is comprised of motile Escherichia coli MG1655 bacteria and elliptical disk-shaped polymeric microparticles. The transport direction for these vehicles can be controlled through biased random walk of the attached bacteria in presence of chemoattractant gradients in a process known as chemotaxis. In this work, we utilize a diffusion-based microfluidic platform to establish steady linear concentration gradients of a chemoattractant and investigate the roles of chemotaxis and geometry in transport of bio-hybrid drug delivery vehicles. Our experimental results demonstrate for the first time that bacterial chemotactic response dominates the effect of body shape in extravascular transport; thus, the non-spherical system could be more favorable for drug delivery applications owing to the known benefits of using non-spherical particles for vascular transport (e.g. relatively long circulation time).

  11. Global Solutions in the Species Competitive Chemotaxis System with Inequal Diffusion Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaihuo Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to studying the two-species competitive chemotaxis system with signal-dependent chemotactic sensitivities and inequal diffusion rates u1t=Δu1-∇·u1χ1v∇v+μ1u11-u1-a1u2, x∈Ω,  t>0, u2t=Δu2-∇·u2χ2v∇v+μ2u21-a2u1-u2, x∈Ω,  t>0, vt=τΔv-γv+u1+u2, x∈Ω,  t>0, under homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions in a bounded and regular domain Ω⊂Rn  (n≥1. If the nonnegative initial date (u10,u20,v0∈(C1(Ω¯3 and v0∈(v_,v¯ where the constants v¯>v_≥0, the system possesses a unique global solution that is uniformly bounded under some suitable assumptions on the chemotaxis sensitivity functions χ1(v, χ2(v and linear chemical production function -γv+u1+u2.

  12. Adenosine receptors in post-mortem human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S; Xuereb, J H; Askalan, R; Richardson, P J

    1992-01-01

    1. Adenosine A2-like binding sites were characterized in post-mortem human brain membranes by examining several compounds for their ability to displace [3H]-CGS 21680 (2[p-(2 carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine) binding. 2. Two A2-like binding sites were identified in the striatum. 3. The more abundant striatal site was similar to the A2a receptor previously described in rat striatum, both in its pharmacological profile and striatal localization. 4. The less abundant striatal site had a pharmacological profile similar to that of the binding site characterized in the other brain regions examined. This was intermediate in character between A1 and A2 and may represent another adenosine receptor subtype. 5. The co-purification of [3H]-CGS 21680 binding during immunoisolation of human striatal cholinergic membranes was used to assess the possible cholinergic localization of A2-like binding sites in the human striatum. Only the more abundant striatal site co-purified with cholinergic membranes. This suggests that this A2a-like site is present on cholinergic neurones in the human striatum.

  13. Identification of widespread adenosine nucleotide binding in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansong, Charles; Ortega, Corrie; Payne, Samuel H.; Haft, Daniel H.; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Lewis, Michael P.; Ollodart, Anja R.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Shukla, Anil K.; Fortuin, Suereta; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Grundner, Christoph; Wright, Aaron T.

    2013-01-24

    The annotation of protein function is almost completely performed by in silico approaches. However, computational prediction of protein function is frequently incomplete and error prone. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), ~25% of all genes have no predicted function and are annotated as hypothetical proteins. This lack of functional information severely limits our understanding of Mtb pathogenicity. Current tools for experimental functional annotation are limited and often do not scale to entire protein families. Here, we report a generally applicable chemical biology platform to functionally annotate bacterial proteins by combining activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) and quantitative LC-MS-based proteomics. As an example of this approach for high-throughput protein functional validation and discovery, we experimentally annotate the families of ATP-binding proteins in Mtb. Our data experimentally validate prior in silico predictions of >250 ATPases and adenosine nucleotide-binding proteins, and reveal 73 hypothetical proteins as novel ATP-binding proteins. We identify adenosine cofactor interactions with many hypothetical proteins containing a diversity of unrelated sequences, providing a new and expanded view of adenosine nucleotide binding in Mtb. Furthermore, many of these hypothetical proteins are both unique to Mycobacteria and essential for infection, suggesting specialized functions in mycobacterial physiology and pathogenicity. Thus, we provide a generally applicable approach for high throughput protein function discovery and validation, and highlight several ways in which application of activity-based proteomics data can improve the quality of functional annotations to facilitate novel biological insights.

  14. Effects of aqueous extract from Silybum marianum on adenosine deaminase activity in cancerous and noncancerous human gastric and colon tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır Öztürk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigation of possible effects of Silybum marianum extract (SME on adenosine deaminase (ADA activity in cancerous and noncancerous human gastric and colon tissues to obtain information about possible mechanism of anticancer action of S. marianum. Materials and Methods: Cancerous and noncancerous human gastric and colon tissues removed from patients by surgical operations were used in the studies. The extract was prepared in distilled water. Before and after treatment with the extract, ADA activities in the samples were measured. Results: ADA activity was found to be lowered significantly in cancerous gastric tissues but not in noncancerous gastric tissues after treatment with the SME. In the colon tissues, ADA activities were however found to increase after the treatment of SME. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the aqueous extract from S. marianum inhibits ADA activity in cancerous gastric tissues significantly. It is suggested that in addition to other proposed mechanisms, accumulated adenosine due to the inhibition of ADA might also play a part in the anticancer properties of the S. marianum.

  15. The Effects of the Adenosine Receptor Antagonists on the Reverse of Cardiovascular Toxic Effects Induced by Citalopram In-Vivo Rat Model of Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükdeligöz, Müjgan; Hocaoğlu, Nil; Oransay, Kubilay; Tunçok, Yeşim; Kalkan, Şule

    2015-01-01

    Background: Citalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that requires routine cardiac monitoring to prevent a toxic dose. Prolongation of the QT interval has been observed in acute citalopram poisoning. Our previous experimental study showed that citalopram may be lead to QT prolongation by stimulating adenosine A1 receptors without affecting the release of adenosine. Aims: We examined the effects of adenosine receptor antagonists in reversing the cardiovascular toxic effects induced by citalopram in rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Rats were divided into three groups randomly (n=7 for each group). Sodium cromoglycate (20 mg/kg) was administered to all rats to inhibit adenosine A3 receptor mast cell activation. Citalopram toxicity was achieved by citalopram infusion (4 mg/kg/min) for 20 minutes. After citalopram infusion, in the control group (Group 1), rats were given an infusion of dextrose solution for 60 minutes. In treatment groups, the selective adenosine A1 antagonist DPCPX (Group 2, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, 20 μg/kg/min) or the selective A2a antagonist CSC (Group 3, 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine, 24 μg/kg/min) was infused for 60 minutes. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), QRS duration and QT interval measurements were followed during the experiment period. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison tests. Results: Citalopram infusion reduced MAP and HR and prolonged the QT interval. It did not cause any significant difference in QRS duration in any group. When compared to the control group, DPCPX after citalopram infusion shortened the prolongation of the QT interval after 40, 50 and 60 minutes (p<0.01). DPCPX infusion shortened the prolongation of the QT interval at 60 minutes compared with the CSC group (p<0.05). CSC infusion shortened the prolongation of the QT at 60 minutes compared with the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: DPCPX improved QT interval

  16. HIV-1 infected lymphoid organs upregulate expression and release of the cleaved form of uPAR that modulates chemotaxis and virus expression.