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Sample records for adenomatous hyperplasia arising

  1. Multifocal Adenomatous Oncocytic Hyperplasia of the Parotid Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuichi; Harada, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tadao K.; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Yuri, Takashi; Takasu, Kosho; Tsubura, Airo; Shikata, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    Multifocal adenomatous oncocytic hyperplasia (MAOH) is a non-neoplastic lesion that is classified as oncocytosis. MAOH is a rare entity of the parotid gland and accounts for approximately 0.1% of salivary gland lesions. Here, we report a case of MAOH of the parotid gland. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who presented with discomfort at the left side of her neck. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the parotid gland revealed a loose sheet-like cluster of round to polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm against a hemorrhagic background. The cells had round to oval, centrally located nuclei with granular chromatin and without distinct nucleoli. Histologically, the lesion was formed of many variable-sized nodules, comprising oncocyte-like cells with small round nuclei and eosinophilic granular cytoplasm that was positive for mitochondrial antibodies. The diagnosis of MAOH is difficult to make by cytology alone, because the findings overlap with those of other oncocytic lesions. In particular, the cytological findings of MAOH have not been sufficiently reported to date. A correlation of cytology and histology was expected. PMID:25580104

  2. Multifocal Adenomatous Oncocytic Hyperplasia of the Parotid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Kinoshita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multifocal adenomatous oncocytic hyperplasia (MAOH is a non-neoplastic lesion that is classified as oncocytosis. MAOH is a rare entity of the parotid gland and accounts for approximately 0.1% of salivary gland lesions. Here, we report a case of MAOH of the parotid gland. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who presented with discomfort at the left side of her neck. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the parotid gland revealed a loose sheet-like cluster of round to polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm against a hemorrhagic background. The cells had round to oval, centrally located nuclei with granular chromatin and without distinct nucleoli. Histologically, the lesion was formed of many variable-sized nodules, comprising oncocyte-like cells with small round nuclei and eosinophilic granular cytoplasm that was positive for mitochondrial antibodies. The diagnosis of MAOH is difficult to make by cytology alone, because the findings overlap with those of other oncocytic lesions. In particular, the cytological findings of MAOH have not been sufficiently reported to date. A correlation of cytology and histology was expected.

  3. Chondroitin sulfate iron colloid as MR contrast agent in differentiation between hepatocellular carcinoma and adenomatous hyperplasia

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    Suto, Y. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Kato, T. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Matsuo, T. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Kamba, M. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Shimatani, Y. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Ohuchi, Y. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Nakamura, K. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Ohta, Y. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    Using a 1.5 T MR imaging unit, T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained before and after i.v. administration of chondroitin sulfate iron colloid (CSIC) in order to differentiate hepatocellular carcinoma (n=20) from adenomatous hyperplasia without atypia (n=16). Differentiation was made from the tumor-liver contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and visual evaluation of the nodule, with reference to signal intensity relative to that of the surrounding liver. The CNR of adenomatous hyperplasia was on T1-weighted images significantly decreased after CSIC administration (p<0.01). On T2-weighted images, there was no significant difference in CNR after CSIC administration. On the other hand, the CNR of hepatocellular carcinoma was significantly increased after CSIC administration on both T1- and T2-weighted images (p<0.01). CSIC reflects intratumor reticuloendothelial cellular functions, and is therefore useful in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from adenomatous hyperplasia without atypia. (orig.).

  4. Invasive adenocarcinoma arising from a mixed hyperplastic/adenomatous polyp and synchronous transverse colon cancer.

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    Chen, Chuang-Wei; Hsiao, Koung-Hong; Yue, Chung-Tai; Wang, Chia-Chi

    2013-08-28

    An admixture of hyperplastic and adenomatous components within the same polyp is unusual. Adenocarcinoma arising from a mixed hyperplastic/adenomatous polyp (MHAP) occurs even more rarely. We report the first case of a 59-year-old male who presented with invasive adenocarcinoma originating from a MHAP at a sigmoid colon and synchronous transverse colon cancer.

  5. Invasive adenocarcinoma arising from a mixed hyperplastic/adenomatous polyp and synchronous transverse colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chuang-Wei; Hsiao, Koung-Hong; Yue, Chung-Tai; Wang, Chia-Chi

    2013-01-01

    An admixture of hyperplastic and adenomatous components within the same polyp is unusual. Adenocarcinoma arising from a mixed hyperplastic/adenomatous polyp (MHAP) occurs even more rarely. We report the first case of a 59-year-old male who presented with invasive adenocarcinoma originating from a MHAP at a sigmoid colon and synchronous transverse colon cancer.

  6. Conjunctival lymphoma arising from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia

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    Fukuhara Junichi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extra nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL of the conjunctiva typically arises in the marginal zone of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. The pathogenesis of conjunctival EMZL remains unknown. We describe an unusual case of EMZL arising from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH of the conjunctiva. A 35-year-old woman had fleshy salmon-pink conjunctival tumors in both eyes, oculus uterque (OU. Specimens from conjunctival tumors in the right eye, oculus dexter (OD, revealed a collection of small lymphoid cells in the stroma. Immunohistochemically, immunoglobulin (Ig light chain restriction was not detected. In contrast, diffuse atypical lymphoid cell infiltration was noted in the left eye, oculus sinister (OS, and positive for CD20, a marker for B cells OS. The tumors were histologically diagnosed as RLH OD, and EMZL OS. PCR analysis detected IgH gene rearrangement in the joining region (JH region OU. After 11 months, a re-biopsy specimen demonstrated EMZL based on compatible pathological and genetic findings OD, arising from RLH. This case suggests that even if the diagnosis of the conjunctival lymphoproliferative lesions is histologically benign, confirmation of the B-cell clonality by checking IgH gene rearrangement should be useful to predict the incidence of malignancy.

  7. Tubercular thyroiditis with multinodular goitre with adenomatous hyperplasia: a rare coexistence.

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    Chaurasia, Jai Kumar; Garg, Cheena; Agarwal, Arjun; Naim, Mohammed

    2013-09-25

    A 32-year-old Indian woman presented with swelling in the anterior part of the neck for the last 3 years. Clinical and radiological examination and fine needle aspiration cytology suggested the diagnosis of multinodular goitre. A subtotal thyroidectomy was performed by the surgeon and the specimen was submitted for the final diagnosis. Histological examination of the specimen revealed multiple caseating tubercular granulomas coexistent with multinodular goitre and adenomatous hyperplasia. The sections demonstrated acid-fast tubercle bacteria, confirming the diagnosis of tubercular thyroiditis. This case emphasises that tubercular thyroiditis should always be considered in patients with thyroid swelling or nodule, in countries where the prevalence of tuberculosis is high.

  8. Filiform serrated adenomatous polyposis arising in a diverted rectum of an inflammatory bowel disease patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise; Mogensen, Anne Mellon; Jespersen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Klarskov L, Mogensen AM, Jespersen N, Ingeholm P, Holck S. Filiform serrated adenomatous polyposis arising in a diverted rectum of an inflammatory bowel disease patient. APMIS 2011; 119: 393-8. A 54-year-old man, previously colectomized for inflammatory bowel disease, developed carcinoma in the i......Klarskov L, Mogensen AM, Jespersen N, Ingeholm P, Holck S. Filiform serrated adenomatous polyposis arising in a diverted rectum of an inflammatory bowel disease patient. APMIS 2011; 119: 393-8. A 54-year-old man, previously colectomized for inflammatory bowel disease, developed carcinoma...... during the adenoma carcinoma sequence included the acquisition of CK7 expression in the malignant portion. Gastric mucin may play a role in the initial step of the neoplastic evolution and CK7 may denote neoplastic progression. This case confirms the notion of a widely variegated morphology of precursor...

  9. Biochemical and immunohistochemical estrogen and progesterone receptors in adenomatous hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma: correlations with stage and other clinicopathologic features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, A L; Lyndrup, J

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates clinicopathologic associations of estrogen and progesterone receptor content in endometrial carcinoma. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred fifty-two patients with endometrial cancer and 12 with adenomatous hyperplasia were included. Dextran-coated charcoal receptor assay...... receptor dextran-coated charcoal values and immunohistochemical histologic scores correlated inversely (p dextran-coated charcoal values was independent...

  10. Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia of the lung: correlation between high-resolution CT findings and histopathologic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, S.; Takashima, S.; Li, F.; Yang, Z.G.; Maruyama, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Wang, J.C.; Sone, S.; Honda, T.

    2001-01-01

    We describe herein the CT features of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) of the lung and its histopathological characteristics. Among 17,919 individuals screened for lung cancer by CT scanning, ten AAH nodules were detected in nine asymptomatic subjects. On high-resolution CT, the lesions measured from 6 x 6 mm to 15 x 17 mm and their CT number ranged from -500 to -760 HU. The AAHs appeared as round nodules with smooth and distinct borders and showed a ground-glass opacity. Plain chest radiographs failed to identify all lesions. Histopathologically, AAH lesions showed atypical epithelial cell proliferation along slightly thickened alveolar septa. Whereas it is often easy to differentiate these nodules from inflammatory and benign lung lesions, histopathological examination remains at present the only method to differentiate AAH from lung cancers. (orig.)

  11. Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia of the lung: correlation between high-resolution CT findings and histopathologic features

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    Kawakami, S.; Takashima, S.; Li, F.; Yang, Z.G.; Maruyama, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Wang, J.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Sone, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Azumi General Hospital, Ikeda, Nagano (Japan); Honda, T. [Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    We describe herein the CT features of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) of the lung and its histopathological characteristics. Among 17,919 individuals screened for lung cancer by CT scanning, ten AAH nodules were detected in nine asymptomatic subjects. On high-resolution CT, the lesions measured from 6 x 6 mm to 15 x 17 mm and their CT number ranged from -500 to -760 HU. The AAHs appeared as round nodules with smooth and distinct borders and showed a ground-glass opacity. Plain chest radiographs failed to identify all lesions. Histopathologically, AAH lesions showed atypical epithelial cell proliferation along slightly thickened alveolar septa. Whereas it is often easy to differentiate these nodules from inflammatory and benign lung lesions, histopathological examination remains at present the only method to differentiate AAH from lung cancers. (orig.)

  12. Genomic Landscape of Atypical Adenomatous Hyperplasia Reveals Divergent Modes to Lung Adenocarcinoma.

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    Sivakumar, Smruthy; Lucas, F Anthony San; McDowell, Tina L; Lang, Wenhua; Xu, Li; Fujimoto, Junya; Zhang, Jianjun; Futreal, P Andrew; Fukuoka, Junya; Yatabe, Yasushi; Dubinett, Steven M; Spira, Avrum E; Fowler, Jerry; Hawk, Ernest T; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Scheet, Paul; Kadara, Humam

    2017-11-15

    There is a dearth of knowledge about the pathogenesis of premalignant lung lesions, especially for atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH), the only known precursor for the major lung cancer subtype adenocarcinoma (LUAD). In this study, we performed deep DNA and RNA sequencing analyses of a set of AAH, LUAD, and normal tissues. Somatic BRAF variants were found in AAHs from 5 of 22 (23%) patients, 4 of 5 of whom had matched LUAD with driver EGFR mutations. KRAS mutations were present in AAHs from 4 of 22 (18%) of patients. KRAS mutations in AAH were only found in ever-smokers and were exclusive to BRAF -mutant cases. Integrative analysis revealed profiles expressed in KRAS -mutant cases ( UBE2C, REL ) and BRAF -mutant cases ( MAX ) of AAH, or common to both sets of cases (suppressed AXL ). Gene sets associated with suppressed antitumor (Th1; IL12A, GZMB ) and elevated protumor ( CCR2, CTLA-4 ) immune signaling were enriched in AAH development and progression. Our results reveal potentially divergent BRAF or KRAS pathways in AAH as well as immune dysregulation in the pathogenesis of this premalignant lung lesion. Cancer Res; 77(22); 6119-30. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. A typical adenomatous hyperplasia of the lung: correlation of radiographic and pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianwei; Ma Xiaohong; Wu Ning; Zhang Hongtu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study radiographic features of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) of lung and correlate them with their pathologic findings, so as to improve the imaging diagnose. Methods: The imaging features of 8 patients with pathology- proved AAH were reviewed. All patients were women with age ranging from 35 to 74 years. All cases had chest radiography and HRCT. The radiographic findings were studied retrospectively and correlated with those of pat hology. Results: On chest X-ray, the foci in five patients presented as nodule-like area of a bit high attenuation, while the chest radiograph in the other three patients were negative. On HRCT, all 8 patients presented as non-solid nodules. All lesions were round or oval shaped with well-defined margin (n=4) or poor-defined margin (n=3). The greatest dimension of the lesions ranged from 5.0 mm to 20.0 mm. Their CT value ranged from -362.7 HU to -485.6 HU, the mean CT value was (-423.0 ± 47.0) HU. Air bronchograms and/or bubbles were seen in 5 lesions. Coarse spiculation and pleural tag was not seen in any lesion. Before operation, all the nodules did not change in size over a follow-up period from one month to six months. Pathologic findings showed atypical epithelial cell proliferation along thickened alveolar septa without alveolar collapse. Conclusion: AAH should be considered in cases with the following features: (1) nodules ate found in lung cancer screening or incidentally detected; (2) the diameter of the nodule is usually less than 10 mm; (3) the lesion presented as non-solid nodule on HRCT, air bronchogram and/or bubble sign can be seen; (4) no coarse spiculation and plural tag was seen. (authors)

  14. Nodular Hyperplasia Arising from the Lateral Aberrant Thyroid Tissue: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Min Hye; Park, Jeong Seon; Lee, Young Jun

    2012-01-01

    The presence of aberrant thyroid tissue in the lateral neck is very rare. In addition, nodular hyperplasia in ectopic thyroid has rarely been reported. Due to the unusual location, the presence of lateral aberrant thyroid tissue could be misdiagnosed as a lymphadenopathy, neurogenic tumor, etc. We report on a case of nodular hyperplasia arising from the right lateral aberrant thyroid tissue.

  15. Adenomatous-Dominant Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (AdBPH) as a Predictor for Clinical Success Following Prostate Artery Embolization: An Age-Matched Case–Control Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M. W.; Boardman, P.; Macdonald, A. C.; Taylor, N.; Macpherson, R.; Crew, J.; Tapping, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    PurposeTo investigate the clinical impact of performing prostate artery embolization (PAE) on patients with adenomatous-dominant benign prostatic hyperplasia (AdBPH).Materials and MethodsTwelve patients from the ongoing proSTatic aRtery EmbolizAtion for the treatMent of benign prostatic hyperplasia (STREAM) trial were identified as having AdBPH; defined as two or more adenomas within the central gland of ≥1 cm diameter on multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI). These patients were age-matched with patients from the STREAM cohort, without AdBPH. Patients were followed up with repeat MP-MRI at 3 months and 1 year. International prostate symptom score (IPSS), international index for erectile function (IIEF), and quality of life assessment from the IPSS and EQ-5D-5S questionnaires were recorded pre-PAE and at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year.ResultsThe mean age of patients was 68 (61–76). All patients had PAE as a day-case procedure. The technical success in the cohort was 23/24 (96%). There was a significant reduction in prostate volume following embolization with a median reduction of 34% (30–55) in the AdBPH group, compared to a mean volume reduction of 22% (9–44) in the non-AdBPH group (p = 0.04). There was a significant reduction in IPSS in the AdBPH group following PAE when compared with the control group [AdBPH median IPSS 8 (3–15) vs. non-AdBPH median IPSS 13 (8–18), p = 0.01]. IPSS QOL scores significantly improved in the AdBPH group (p = 0.007). There was no deterioration in sexual function in either group post-PAE.ConclusionsThis is the first time that AdBPH has been identified as being a predictor of clinical success following PAE.

  16. Adenomatous-Dominant Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (AdBPH) as a Predictor for Clinical Success Following Prostate Artery Embolization: An Age-Matched Case–Control Study

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    Little, M. W., E-mail: m.little@doctors.org.uk; Boardman, P.; Macdonald, A. C.; Taylor, N.; Macpherson, R. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital (United Kingdom); Crew, J. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Urology, Churchill Hospital (United Kingdom); Tapping, C. R., E-mail: crtapping@doctors.org.uk [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    PurposeTo investigate the clinical impact of performing prostate artery embolization (PAE) on patients with adenomatous-dominant benign prostatic hyperplasia (AdBPH).Materials and MethodsTwelve patients from the ongoing proSTatic aRtery EmbolizAtion for the treatMent of benign prostatic hyperplasia (STREAM) trial were identified as having AdBPH; defined as two or more adenomas within the central gland of ≥1 cm diameter on multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI). These patients were age-matched with patients from the STREAM cohort, without AdBPH. Patients were followed up with repeat MP-MRI at 3 months and 1 year. International prostate symptom score (IPSS), international index for erectile function (IIEF), and quality of life assessment from the IPSS and EQ-5D-5S questionnaires were recorded pre-PAE and at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year.ResultsThe mean age of patients was 68 (61–76). All patients had PAE as a day-case procedure. The technical success in the cohort was 23/24 (96%). There was a significant reduction in prostate volume following embolization with a median reduction of 34% (30–55) in the AdBPH group, compared to a mean volume reduction of 22% (9–44) in the non-AdBPH group (p = 0.04). There was a significant reduction in IPSS in the AdBPH group following PAE when compared with the control group [AdBPH median IPSS 8 (3–15) vs. non-AdBPH median IPSS 13 (8–18), p = 0.01]. IPSS QOL scores significantly improved in the AdBPH group (p = 0.007). There was no deterioration in sexual function in either group post-PAE.ConclusionsThis is the first time that AdBPH has been identified as being a predictor of clinical success following PAE.

  17. Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia Associated with Venous Pool Arising in the Lower Lip: A Case Report

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    Hisanobu Yonezawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia is a benign nonneoplastic vascular lesion that consists of endothelial cells with abundant vascular tissue with papillary proliferation. An adult female had a painless growing dark red nodule on the left side of the lower lip and often touched and gnawed at it for more than 4 years. The lesion was a tender, smooth mass approximately 1 cm in diameter without discoloration reaction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lesion showed specific findings. She was diagnosed clinically as having mimicked hemangioma, and the lesion was totally excised under local anesthesia. Histopathological examination revealed that papillary proliferated endothelial cells with venous pool, and the lesion was diagnosed as intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia associated with venous pool. There has been no recurrence for more than 1 year. Despite the benign nature of this lesion, it could have been mistaken for a malignant tumor because of its clinical course and radiologic findings.

  18. Focal epithelial hyperplasia arising after delivery of metal-ceramic fixed dental prosthesis.

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    Park, Min-Woo; Cho, Young-Ah; Kim, Soung-Min; Myoung, Hoon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Lee, Suk-Keun

    2014-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced alteration of the oral mucosa that presents with a clinically distinct appearance. While other HPV-infected lesions such as squamous papilloma, verruca vulgaris, and condyloma acuminatum involve the skin, oral mucosa, and genital mucosa, FEH occurs only in the oral mucosa. The affected oral mucosa exhibits multiple papules and nodules with each papule/nodule being flat-topped or sessile. The affected region resembles the normal color of oral mucosa rather than appearing as a white color since the epithelial surface is not hyperkeratinized. Almost all cases present with multiple sites of occurrence. This rare, benign epithelial proliferation is related to low-risk HPV, especially HPV-13 and -32, and is not transformed into carcinoma. We report a case of FEH that arose on the attached gingiva of an East Asian male adult related to prosthesis without detection of any HPV subtype in HPV DNA chip and sequencing.

  19. Thin-section computed tomography–histopathologic comparisons of pulmonary focal interstitial fibrosis, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, adenocarcinoma in situ, and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma with pure ground-glass opacity

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    Si, Ming-Jue, E-mail: smjsh@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 280, Mohe Road, Shanghai 201999 (China); Tao, Xiao-Feng, E-mail: taoxiaofeng1963@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 280, Mohe Road, Shanghai 201999 (China); Du, Guang-Ye, E-mail: 715376158@qq.com [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 280, Mohe Road, Shanghai 201999 (China); Cai, Ling-Ling, E-mail: caill_00@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 280, Mohe Road, Shanghai 201999 (China); Han, Hong-Xiu, E-mail: hanhongxiu@hotmail.com [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 280, Mohe Road, Shanghai 201999 (China); Liang, Xi-Zi, E-mail: liangxizish@hotmail.com [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 280, Mohe Road, Shanghai 201999 (China); Zhao, Jiang-Min, E-mail: zhaojiangmin1962@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 280, Mohe Road, Shanghai 201999 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Objective: To retrospectively compare focal interstitial fibrosis (FIF), atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH), adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) with pure ground-glass opacity (GGO) using thin-section computed tomography (CT). Materials and methods: Sixty pathologically confirmed cases were reviewed including 7 cases of FIF, 17 of AAH, 23of AIS, and 13 of MIA. All nodules kept pure ground glass appearances before surgical resection and their last time of thin-section CT imaging data before operation were collected. Differences of patient demographics and CT features were compared among these four types of lesions. Results: FIF occurred more frequently in males and smokers while the others occurred more frequently in female nonsmokers. Nodule size was significant larger in MIA (P < 0.001, cut-off value = 7.5 mm). Nodule shape (P = 0.045), margin characteristics (P < 0.001), the presence of pleural indentation (P = 0.032), and vascular ingress (P < 0.001) were significant factors that differentiated the 4 groups. A concave margin was only demonstrated in a high proportion of FIF at 85.7% (P = 0.002). There were no significant differences (all P > 0.05) in age, malignant history, attenuation value, location, and presence of bubble-like lucency. Conclusion: A nodule size >7.5 mm increases the possibility of MIA. A concave margin could be useful for differentiation of FIF from the other malignant or pre-malignant GGO nodules. The presence of spiculation or pleural indentation may preclude the diagnosis of AAH.

  20. Familial adenomatous polyposis.

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    Burn, J; Chapman, P D; Eastham, E J

    1994-01-01

    Abstract Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterized by the development of many tens to thousands of adenomas in the rectum and colon during the second decade of life. FAP has an incidence at birth of about 1/8,300, it manifests equally in both sexes, and accounts for less than 1% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. In the European Union, prevalence has been estimated at 1/11,300-37,600. Most patients are asymptomatic for years until the adenomas are large and numerous, and cause rect...

  1. Familial adenomatous polyposis

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    Rozen Paul

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP is characterized by the development of many tens to thousands of adenomas in the rectum and colon during the second decade of life. FAP has an incidence at birth of about 1/8,300, it manifests equally in both sexes, and accounts for less than 1% of colorectal cancer (CRC cases. In the European Union, prevalence has been estimated at 1/11,300-37,600. Most patients are asymptomatic for years until the adenomas are large and numerous, and cause rectal bleeding or even anemia, or cancer develops. Generally, cancers start to develop a decade after the appearance of the polyps. Nonspecific symptoms may include constipation or diarrhea, abdominal pain, palpable abdominal masses and weight loss. FAP may present with some extraintestinal manifestations such as osteomas, dental abnormalities (unerupted teeth, congenital absence of one or more teeth, supernumerary teeth, dentigerous cysts and odontomas, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE, desmoid tumors, and extracolonic cancers (thyroid, liver, bile ducts and central nervous system. A less aggressive variant of FAP, attenuated FAP (AFAP, is characterized by fewer colorectal adenomatous polyps (usually 10 to 100, later age of adenoma appearance and a lower cancer risk. Some lesions (skull and mandible osteomas, dental abnormalities, and fibromas on the scalp, shoulders, arms and back are indicative of the Gardner variant of FAP. Classic FAP is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and results from a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis (APC gene. Most patients (~70% have a family history of colorectal polyps and cancer. In a subset of individuals, a MUTYH mutation causes a recessively inherited polyposis condition, MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP, which is characterized by a slightly increased risk of developing CRC and polyps/adenomas in both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Diagnosis is based on a

  2. Endometrial Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperplasia? The most common sign of hyperplasia is abnormal uterine bleeding. If you have any of the following, you ... endometrial hyperplasia diagnosed? There are many causes of abnormal uterine bleeding. If you have abnormal bleeding and you are ...

  3. The adenomatous polyposis coli protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Näthke, I S

    1999-01-01

    Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are associated with most colorectal cancers. The APC protein has been implicated in many aspects of tumour development. This article will discuss recent data suggesting that APC may have multiple functions in the cell. First, APC is a component of the Wnt signalling pathway; second, APC may have a role in cell migration; finally, APC may regulate proliferation and apoptosis.

  4. Analysis of mtDNA sequence variants in colorectal adenomatous polyps

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    Grizzle William

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Colorectal tumors mostly arise from sporadic adenomatous polyps. Polyps are defined as a mass of cells that protrudes into the lumen of the colon. Adenomatous polyps are benign neoplasms that, by definition display some characteristics of dysplasia. It has been shown that polyps were benign tumors which may undergo malignant transformation. Adenomatous polyps have been classified into three histologic types; tubular, tubulovillous, and villous with increasing malignant potential. The ability to differentially diagnose these colorectal adenomatous polyps is important for therapeutic intervention. To date, little efforts have been directed to identifying genetic changes involved in adenomatous polyps. This study was designed to examine the relevance of mitochondrial genome alterations in the three adenomatous polyps. Using high resolution restriction endonucleases and PCR-based sequencing, fifty-seven primary fresh frozen tissues of adenomatous polyps (37 tumors and 20 matched surrounding normal tissues obtained from the southern regional Cooperative Human Tissue Network (CHTN and Grady Memorial Hospital at Atlanta were screened with three mtDNA regional primer pairs that spanned 5.9 kbp. Results from our data analyses revealed the presence of forty-four variants in some of these mitochondrial genes that the primers spanned; COX I, II, III, ATP 6, 8, CYT b, ND 5, 6 and tRNAs. Based on the MITODAT database as a sequence reference, 25 of the 44 (57% variants observed were unreported. Notably, a heteroplasmic variant C8515G/T in the MT-ATP 8 gene and a germline variant 8327delA in the tRNAlys was observed in all the tissue samples of the three adenomatous polyps in comparison to the referenced database sequence. A germline variant G9055A in the MT-ATP 6 gene had a frequency of 100% (17/17 in tubular and 57% (13/23 in villous adenomas; no corresponding variant was in tubulovillous adenomas. Furthermore, A9006G variant at MT-ATP 6 gene was

  5. Familial adenomatous polyposis. Report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso Marquez, Lisset; Tusen Toledo, Yunia; Chao Gonzalez, Lissette; Alonso Soto, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis is an inherited disease characterized by the appearance of multiple colorectal adenomas by the teenagers and with an incidence of colorectal cancer approaching 100%. We present herein a 39-years-old man with an atypical form of the disease, an attenuated variant, and we comment the importance of management guidelines for surveillance of the patients and their families

  6. Benign colonic metaplasia at a previous stoma site in a patient without adenomatous polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Megan; Patrawala, Samit; Vogt, Adam; Kelleher, Michael; Lee, Michael; Parker, Douglas C

    2016-03-01

    There are few reported cases of cutaneous intestinal metaplasia or primary adenocarcinoma arising at the ileostomy site following panproctocolectomy. These complications have been seen almost exclusively in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, benign intraepidermal colonic mucosa at a reversed ileostomy site in a patient without familial adenomatous polyposis or IBD has not been documented. We report a case of a 51-year-old female with a history of colonic adenocarcinoma who presented with pruritic, erythematous, scaly plaques on the right lower abdomen, present since reversal of her ileostomy in 2007. Skin biopsy revealed benign foci of colonic epithelium with no evidence of adenomatous change. Benign intraepidermal colonic mucosa was diagnosed based on histopathologic findings and immunohistochemistry. To our knowledge, this is the first case of intraepidermal benign colonic metaplasia forming in a patient following ostomy reversal. The case emphasizes the importance of patient education and physical examination of the stoma or stoma remnants for detection of unusual or changing lesions due to the risk for malignant transformation. It also demonstrates that benign colonic mucosa should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating lesions near ileostomy sites, regardless of whether the patient has a history of familial adenomatous polyposis or IBD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Causes of death in familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, T S; Juel, K; Bülow, S

    1999-01-01

    The prognosis in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has improved over the past decades owing to a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer, resulting from effective early screening. During the same period several polyposis registers have recorded an increasing number of deaths due to du...... to duodenal/periampullary cancer and desmoid tumours. The aim of this study was to examine the causes of death with special emphasis on duodenal/periampullary cancer.......The prognosis in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has improved over the past decades owing to a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer, resulting from effective early screening. During the same period several polyposis registers have recorded an increasing number of deaths due...

  8. Familial adenomatous polyposis: from bedside to benchside.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, M J

    2012-02-03

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a dominantly inherited cancer-predisposition syndrome with an incidence of between 1:17,000 and 1:5,000. The condition has been causally linked to mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene located at 5q21. Virtually all mutations in the APC gene are truncating mutations, resulting in loss of function of the APC protein. Spontaneous germline mutation of this gene occurs frequently and accounts for the high incidence of FAP. The gene is somatically mutated at an early point in the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma progression. Somatic mutations of the APC gene are also frequently observed in a variety of other human carcinomas. Isolation of the APC gene has led to the recognition of genotype-phenotype correlations and, together with protein studies, has helped to elucidate the structure and function of the APC protein. This report aims to take the reader from a clinical appreciation to a molecular understanding of FAP.

  9. APC gene mutations and extraintestinal phenotype of familial adenomatous polyposis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giardiello, F. M.; Petersen, G. M.; Piantadosi, S.; Gruber, S. B.; Traboulsi, E. I.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Muro, K.; Krush, A. J.; Booker, S. V.; Luce, M. C.; Laken, S. J.; Kinzler, K. W.; Vogelstein, B.; Hamilton, S. R.

    1997-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by germline mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene on chromosome 5q. This study assessed genotype-phenotype correlations for extraintestinal lesions in FAP. Mutations of the APC gene were compared with the occurrence of seven

  10. The genetic basis of colonic adenomatous polyposis syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talseth-Palmer, Bente A

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common forms of cancer worldwide and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) accounts for approximately 1% of all CRCs. Adenomatous polyposis syndromes can be divided into; familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) - classic FAP and attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (AFAP), MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP), NTHL1-associated polyposis (NAP) and polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis (PPAP). The polyposis syndromes genetics and clinical manifestation of disease varies and cases with clinical diagnosis of FAP might molecularly show a different diagnosis. This review examines different aspects of the adenomatous polyposis syndromes genetics and clinical manifestation of disease; in addition the genotype-phenotype and modifier alleles of FAP will be discussed. New technology has made it possible to diagnose some of the APC mutation negative patients into their respective syndromes. There still remain many molecularly undiagnosed adenomatous polyposis patients indicating that there remain causative genes to be discovered and with today's technology these are expected to be identified in the near future. The knowledge about the role of modifier alleles in FAP will contribute to improved pre-symptomatic diagnosis and treatment. New novel mutations will continually be discovered in genes already associated with disease and new genes will be discovered that are associated with adenomatous polyposis. The search for modifier alleles in FAP should be made a priority.

  11. Adrenal medullary hyperplasia. Hyperplasia-pheochromocytoma sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, K; Mizuseki, K; Kondo, T; Ohoka, H; Mannami, M; Kawai, K

    1990-09-01

    We present a case of unilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia in a 63-year-old woman with clinical signs and symptoms of pheochromocytoma unassociated with multiple endocrine neoplasia. The surgically removed adrenal gland revealed diffuse medullary hyperplasia with multiple micronodules measuring up to 2 mm. The micronodules were composed of enlarged chromaffin cells with atypia, histologically similar to those of pheochromocytoma, forming small solid alveolar patterns separated by a fibrovascular stroma. Removal of the hyperplastic adrenal gland resulted in disappearance of paroxysmal nocturnal hypertension and palpitation. These results suggest that diffuse and nodular medullary hyperplasia is the precursor of pheochromocytoma.

  12. Immunopurification of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor gene encodes a 2843 residue (310 kDa) protein. APC is a multifunctional protein involved in the regulation of β-catenin/Wnt signalling, cytoskeletal dynamics and cell adhesion. APC mutations occur in most colorectal cancers and typically result in truncation of the C-terminal half of the protein. Results In order to investigate the biophysical properties of APC, we have generated a set of monoclonal antibodies which enable purification of recombinant forms of APC. Here we describe the characterisation of these anti-APC monoclonal antibodies (APC-NT) that specifically recognise endogenous APC both in solution and in fixed cells. Full-length APC(1–2843) and cancer-associated, truncated APC proteins, APC(1–1638) and APC(1–1311) were produced in Sf9 insect cells. Conclusions Recombinant APC proteins were purified using a two-step affinity approach using our APC-NT antibodies. The purification of APC proteins provides the basis for detailed structure/function analyses of full-length, cancer-truncated and endogenous forms of the protein. PMID:24156781

  13. Dental anomalies in pediatric patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septer, Seth; Bohaty, Brenda; Onikul, Robin; Kumar, Vandana; Williams, Karen B; Attard, Thomas M; Friesen, Craig A; Friesen, Lynn Roosa

    2018-04-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis patients often present with non-malignant extra-intestinal manifestations which include dental anomalies that may be evident prior to the appearance of the colonic adenomas. The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence and type of dental anomalies and the relationships between gene mutations and dental anomalies in these patients. Twenty-two pediatric familial adenomatous polyposis patients and 46 controls, who were age and gender matched participated. Familial adenomatous polyposis patient's had a dental examination with panoramic radiograph and medical record review for age at diagnosis, the presence of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene mutation, and determination of other extra-intestinal manifestations on the body. The control group was identified from a retrospective chart review and selected if there was a current panoramic radiograph. The only significant difference between familial adenomatous polyposis patients and controls were the presence of jaw osteomas and sclerosis (p = .0001). Patients with a mutation in, or upstream of codon 1309 had a higher frequency of osteomas (77.8%) and jaw-bone sclerosis (44.4%), and 77% of these had at least one dental anomaly. This preliminary study showed an association between a genetic variant at, or upstream of codon 1309, and radiographic dental anomalies.

  14. Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia With Eosinophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rath Namita

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia is a disease of the occident. It is mainly seen in middle aged women. It presents as multiple small pink or purple popular or nodular eruptions, in the head and neck area. Lesions of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia are often confused with lesions of Kimura’s disease, which is more common in young males. We report a case of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia in a 34 year old female. The patient is responding to monthly intralesional triamcinolone acetate along with cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen. This case is being reported due to its rarity in Indian patients.

  15. Mutation analysis of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in Danish patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Marie Luise; Ripa, Rasmus S; Bülow, Steffen

    2004-01-01

    Development of one hundred or more adenomas in the colon and rectum is diagnostic for the dominantly inherited, autosomal disease Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). It is possible to identify a mutation in the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) gene in approximately 80% of the patients, and almost...... 1,000 different pathogenic mutations have been identified in the APC gene up till now. We report 12 novel and 24' previously described germline APC mutations from 48 unrelated Danish families. Four families with the mutation localized in the 3' region of the gene showed great variance in phenotypic...

  16. Small bowel endoscopy in familial adenomatous polyposis and Lynch syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, Jan Jacob

    Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and patients with Lynch syndrome have an increased risk of developing small intestinal neoplasia. In both conditions, the lifetime risk to develop small bowel cancer is estimated to be around 5%. In FAP, this risk is associated with the degree of

  17. Guidelines for the clinical management of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasen, H.F.; Moslein, G.; Alonso, A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a well-described inherited syndrome, which is responsible for cancer (CRC) cases. The syndrome is characterised by the development of hundreds to thousands of adenomas in the colorectum. Almost all patients will develop CRC...... if they are not identified and treated at an early stage. The syndrome is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and caused by mutations in the APC gene. Recently, a second gene has been identified that also gives rise to colonic adenomatous polyposis, although the phenotype is less severe than typical FAP. The gene...... is the MUTYH gene and the inheritance is autosomal recessive. In April 2006 and February 2007, a workshop was organised in Mallorca by European experts on hereditary gastrointestinal cancer aiming to establish guidelines for the clinical management of FAP and to initiate collaborative studies. Thirty...

  18. Subareolar Sclerosing Ductal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Esther; D'Alfonso, Timothy M; Arafah, Maria; Marrero Rolon, Rebecca; Ginter, Paula S; Hoda, Syed A

    2017-02-01

    Subareolar sclerosing duct hyperplasia (SSDH) remains to be fully characterized nearly 20 years after initial description. Thirty-five SSDH cases diagnosed over a 16-year period (January 2000 to December 2015) were reviewed. All patients were female (mean age = 59 years, range = 18-80) who had presented with a unilateral solitary lesion (left 22, right 13) with a mean size of 1.3 cm (range = 0.4-3.0 cm), and showed florid and papillary epithelial hyperplasia with dense sclerosis without involvement of nipple or areolar epidermis. Significant lesions concurrent within SSDH included low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma (n = 1), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS; n = 1), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS; n = 1), and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH; n = 13). No case of SSDH recurred in a mean follow-up of 44 months (range = 6-189). Subsequent significant lesions occurred in 6 patients: DCIS (n = 3; ipsilateral 2, contralateral 1), ipsilateral ADH (n = 2), and ipsilateral atypical lobular hyperplasia (n = 1). Long-term follow-up for patients with SSDH is indicated as DCIS can occur subsequently in either breast.

  19. Multifocal Epithelial Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Caitlin; Alexander, Sherene; Prabhu, Neeta

    2017-01-15

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare disease associated with human papilloma virus types 13 and 32. Diagnosis is based on clinical and histopathological findings, and most lesions are asymptomatic and regress spontaneously with time. The purpose of this paper is to describe a five-year-old girl who presented with multiple intraoral lesions on the buccal mucosa and tongue, which regressed spontaneously in 15 months.

  20. Familiær adenomatøs polypose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomally dominant disease characterized by early development of up to thousands of colorectal adenomas and colorectal carcinoma in untreated patients. Extra-colonic manifestations include duodenal adenomatosis and desmoid development. Due...... to identification of gene carriers by DNA analysis or endoscopy the prognosis is good after early colectomy, but life-long surveillance of the rectum and the duodenum is necessary. The Danish Polyposis Register coordinates prophylactic examination and treatment in the families, and serves as basis for research....

  1. Adenomas of the common bile duct in familial adenomatous polyposis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mao-Lin; Pan, Jun-Yong; Bai, Yan-Nan; Lai, Zhi-De; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Yao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or Gardner’s syndrome is often accompanied by adenomas of the stomach and duodenum. We experienced a case of adenomas of the common bile duct in a 40-year-old woman with FAP presenting with acute cholangitis. Only 8 cases of adenomas or adenocarcinoma of the common bile duct have been reported in the literature in patients with FAP or Gardner’s syndrome. Those patients presented with acute cholangitis or pancreatitis. Local excision or Whipple procedure may be the reasonable surgical option. PMID:25780319

  2. [Surgical aspects of indications and techniques for adenomatous polyposis variants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möslein, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    Due to the advances in molecular genetic diagnostics of adenomatous polyposis variants, identification of patients with a genetic predisposition and their at risk relatives is becoming increasingly important in clinical practice. Precise knowledge of the specific risk profile is gaining significance especially for surgeons and requires a clinically differentiated approach in order to correctly identify the indications for prophylactic surgery. In this article reference will be made to the technical details of the pouch operation rather than the decision-making process per se, since this has become common knowledge for specialized colorectal surgeons. Besides the more commonly known polyposis syndromes, such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), surgeons should nowadays at least be able to clinically distinguish between attenuated and classical variants of FAP, be aware of MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) and also the new polyposis syndrome polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis (PPAP). Surgeons should be familiar with the specific indications and extent of surgery for prophylactic organ removal in the lower gastrointestinal tract in order to be able to competently advise patients.

  3. Glycoprotein expression by adenomatous polyps of the colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roney, Celeste A.; Xie, Jianwu; Xu, Biying; Jabour, Paul; Griffiths, Gary; Summers, Ronald M.

    2008-03-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. Specificity in diagnostic imaging for detecting colorectal adenomas, which have a propensity towards malignancy, is desired. Adenomatous polyp specimens of the colon were obtained from the mouse model of colorectal cancer called adenomatous polyposis coli-multiple intestinal neoplasia (APC Min). Histological evaluation, by the legume protein Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-1), determined expression of the glycoprotein α-L-fucose. FITC-labelled UEA-1 confirmed overexpression of the glycoprotein by the polyps on fluorescence microscopy in 17/17 cases, of which 13/17 included paraffin-fixed mouse polyp specimens. In addition, FITC-UEA-1 ex vivo multispectral optical imaging of 4/17 colonic specimens displayed over-expression of the glycoprotein by the polyps, as compared to non-neoplastic mucosa. Here, we report the surface expression of α-L-fucosyl terminal residues by neoplastic mucosal cells of APC specimens of the mouse. Glycoprotein expression was validated by the carbohydrate binding protein UEA-1. Future applications of this method are the development of agents used to diagnose cancers by biomedical imaging modalities, including computed tomographic colonography (CTC). UEA-1 targeting to colonic adenomas may provide a new avenue for the diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma by CT imaging.

  4. Wireless capsule endoscopy in adolescents with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Debora; Ballardini, Giovanni; Ferrari, Andrea; Delconte, Gabriele; Signoroni, Stefano; Sala, Paola; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Bertario, Lucio; Vitellaro, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines for surveillance in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) recommend mutation carriers to undergo periodic colorectal examination starting in the early teens. Performing colonoscopy in children may lead to complications. Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has been introduced recently to evaluate both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, and seems suitable as a first screening examination for adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pros and cons of WCE. This was a retrospective review of a single institution database of adolescent patients with FAP identified through the Hereditary Colorectal Tumor Registry between 2007 and 2013. The main outcomes were identification of upper and lower gastrointestinal tract polyps, tolerance of the examination, and number and size of polyps. Of 46 adolescent patients with FAP, 14 (30.4%) patients carrying adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC) mutation, 6 male and 8 female, age (median, range) 12 (10-17) years, body mass index 19 (13-24), underwent WCE as first screening examination. The examination was completed in 13 patients (93.3%). Wireless capsule endoscopy identified the duodenal papilla in 4 patients and colonic and rectal polyps in all 13 patients. In 7 patients, fewer than 25 polyps were identified. No complications were recorded related to the use of the video capsule. Wireless capsule endoscopy is feasible and well-tolerated as a first screening examination in adolescent patients. It cannot be used as alternative to the colonoscopy, but could improve compliance with colonoscopy, and increase early adherence to a surveillance program.

  5. Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Feldman Witchel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and “on-time” puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH.

  6. [Changes in prostatic circulation in response to laser therapy and magnetic therapy in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The results of preoperative preparation were analysed in 59 patients with prostatic benign hyperplasia (PBH) subjected to TUR. Treatment outcomes were assessed by transrectal ultrasound (color Doppler mapping) in two groups of patients. Group 1 received combined therapy including transrectal laser radiation of the prostate, group 2--transrectal magnetotherapy. The analysis showed that laser radiation reduced insignificantly the size of the prostate and adenomatous node, improved microcirculation and circulation in the prostate. This resulted in relief of inflammation and reduction of the number of postoperative inflammatory complications. Transrectal magnetotherapy has a positive effect on vascularization and hemodynamics of the prostate, local immunity, contamination of the tissues with pathogenic flora.

  7. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP and Other Polyposis Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Rodney J

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been significant advances in our knowledge about the molecular changes that precede and accompany the development of inherited predispositions to colorectal cancer. In this review the clinical relationship to the molecular changes associated with the polyposis syndromes is presented. The aim is to put into context the diverse findings that have been shown to be associated with the development of colorectal cancer in persons who harbor a predisposition to develop disease at unusually early ages. The main focus will be on familial adenomatous polyposis as it serves as a model disease and is the most extensively studied of all of the polyposis syndromes. In addition some information is provided that explains the relationship between a germline change in one gene and what consequences that can have for a particular cell and the development of disease.

  8. Papillary tubal hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurman, Robert J; Vang, Russell; Junge, Jette

    2011-01-01

    , designated "papillary tubal hyperplasia (PTH)," characterized by small rounded clusters of tubal epithelial cells and small papillae, with or without associated psammoma bodies, that are present within the tubal lumen and which are frequently associated with APSTs. Twenty-two cases in this study were...... with an ovarian tumor. PTH was found in 20 (91%) of the 22 cases in the Danish study. On the basis of this association of PTH with APSTs with implants and the close morphologic resemblance of PTH, not only to primary ovarian APSTs but also to noninvasive epithelial implants and endosalpingiosis, we speculate...... of ovarian and extraovarian low-grade serous proliferations (APST, noninvasive epithelial implants, and endosalpingiosis) that postulates that all of these lesions are derived from PTH, which appears to be induced by chronic inflammation. If this hypothesis is confirmed, it can be concluded that low...

  9. Evaluation of management of desmoid tumours associated with familial adenomatous polyposis in Dutch patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, M. H.; Mathus-Vliegen, E. M.; Baeten, C. G.; Nagengast, F. M.; van der Bijl, J.; van Dalsen, A. D.; Kleibeuker, J. H.; Dekker, E.; Langers, A. M.; Vecht, J.; Peters, F. T.; van Dam, R.; van Gemert, W. G.; Stuifbergen, W. N.; Schouten, W. R.; Gelderblom, H.; Vasen, H. F. A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment of desmoid tumours is controversial. We evaluated desmoid management in Dutch familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients. METHODS: Seventy-eight FAP patients with desmoids were identified from the Dutch Polyposis Registry. Data on desmoid morphology, management,

  10. Malignant transformation of nodular hyperplasia in the thyroid: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, Hyun Sin; Kim, Dong Wook; Yoon, Hye Kyoung

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid carcinogenesis is traditionally thought to originate 'de novo'. However, it is debatable whether a malignant transformation can possibly arise from a benign thyroid nodule, as suggested for the malignant transformation of a thyroid adenoma. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have been performed addressing the malignant transformation of nodular hyperplasia in the thyroid gland. Here, we report a case of nodular hyperplasia with focally malignant degeneration

  11. Papillary endothelial hyperplasia in angiokeratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Anurag; Sayal, Satish Kumar; Raman, Deep Kumar; Sood, Aradhana

    2003-01-01

    Papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson's tumour) is a reactive proliferation of endothelium producing papillary structures with fibrovascular cores. Dilatation, stasis and accompanying inflammation have been incriminated as the inciting events, evident by the presence of this lesion in haemorrhoids, urethral caruncles and laryngeal polyps. We present here a case of papillary endothelial hyperplasia in angiokeratoma hitherto undescribed despite sharing common etiopathogenetic features of dilatation and stasis with other aforementioned lesions.

  12. Mandibular pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warter, A; Walter, P; Meyer, C; Barrière, P; Galatir, L; Wilk, A

    2000-08-01

    Three unusual cases of pseudocarcinomatous (pseudoepitheliomatous) hyperplasia (PH) affecting chronic osteomyelitic mandibular sequestra are reported to highlight the differences with the various squamous neoplasms which occur in that site. In two patients carrying a mandibular graft following the excision of an ameloblastoma, mucosal ulcers resulted in chronic osteomyelitis. In a third patient, an apical dental infection was associated with fistulated osteomyelitis. Histology of the three sequestra showed an intraosseous squamous proliferation. It was characterized by a peripheral involvement of medullary spaces, the more mature epithelial layer covering the bone trabeculae without intervening stroma, and the basal type epithelial layer surrounding a central fibrovascular core. There were no histological or cytological signs of malignancy. PH shows an inverted pattern when compared with the centro-medullary tumoural islands seen in the various oral or odontogenic squamous neoplasms which occur in the jaws. The lack of signs of malignancy distinguish PH from common squamous cell carcinomas. A short clinical course is an important feature in the distinction of PH from the well differentiated squamous cell carcinomas which may develop in fistulated chronic osteomyelitis.

  13. Cardiac mesothelial papillary hyperplasia in four dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirejczyk, Shannon G; Burnum, Anne L; Brown, Corrie C; Sakamoto, Kaori; Rissi, Daniel R

    2018-05-01

    Mesothelial papillary hyperplasia (MPH) has been described as an incidental finding on the epicardial surface of clinically normal laboratory Beagle dogs. We describe MPH in 4 dogs diagnosed with acute cardiac tamponade (1 case) or chronic cardiac disease (3 cases). Cardiac MPH appeared as distinct, soft, irregular villous plaques on the epicardial surface of the auricles and occasionally the ventricles. Histologically, areas of MPH were composed of multiple papillary fronds arising from the epicardial surface and projecting into the pericardial space. Fronds were covered by cuboidal and occasionally vacuolated mesothelial cells and were supported by loose fibrovascular stroma with various degrees of edema and inflammation. Although these may represent incidental findings with no clinical significance, the gross appearance warrants differentiation from other conditions. Additional insight into the pathogenesis of MPH is needed to fully understand its significance in the face of concurrent cardiac disease.

  14. Role of quantitative chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging and chemical shift subtraction technique in discriminating adenomatous from non adenomatous adrenal solid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed H. Afifi

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The signal intensity index and adrenal to spleen ratio are the most reliable quantitative chemical shift MRI methods in differentiation of adrenal adenomas from other non-adenomatous adrenal solid lesions. Chemical shift subtraction MRI is a recent technique that gives highly confident discrimination between two categories of pathology without using of any reference organ.

  15. Immunohistochemical expression of Insulin-like growth factor-1, Transforming growth factor-beta1, and Vascular endothelial growth factor in parathyroid adenoma and hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamide Sayar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF are commonly studied growth factors, but little data are available on the immunohistochemical expression of these factors in parathyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: Tissue specimens from 36 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (P-HPT (26 adenomas and 10 primary hyperplasias were examined. Normal parathyroid tissue adjacent to the adenoma or area of hyperplasia was used as control tissue. Preoperative laboratory testing [serum Ca and P, creatinine and parathormone levels (PTH] which led to the diagnosis of P-HPT had been performed, the size and weight of the parathyroid glands measured, and postoperative serum PTH levels determined. Paraffin-embedded parathyroid tissue specimens were stained with antibodies to IGF-1, VEGF, and TGF-β1 using standard immunohistochemical procedures. Results: IGF-1 immunoreactivity was seen in 50% of hyperplasia and in 46% of adenoma samples, but in 87% of normal parathyroid tissue in the vicinity of the adenomas (P = 0.005. TGF-β1 immunoreactivity was observed in 90% of hyperplasia, in 92% of adenoma samples, and in 95% of normal tissues around adenomas. VEGF immunoreactivity was observed in 70% of hyperplastic and 65% of adenomatous tissues, as well as in 54% of normal tissues in the vicinity of the adenoma. No significant differences in the expression of IGF-1, TGF-β1, and VEGF were observed between primary adenomas compared to hyperplasia samples (P > 0.05. Conclusions: Parathyroid tissue is clearly a site for production of IGF-1, TGF-β1, and VEGF. IGF-1 receptor activity was higher in normal parathyroid tissue compared to hyperplastic and adenomatous tissue.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support and Research Foundation: Genetic Changes Found in Cushing's Disease, Adrenal Tumors, and Adrenal Hyperplasia MalaCards: acth-independent ... macronodular adrenal hyperplasia 2 Merck Manual (Home Edition): Cushing ... Adrenal Diseases Foundation: Cushing's Syndrome Orphanet: Cushing syndrome due to ...

  17. Adenomatoid hyperplasia of lower lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaganjot Kaur Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenomatoid hyperplasia (AH is an uncommon, non-neoplastic swelling on the palate caused due to hyperplasia of the mucinous acini. The lesion clinically presents as a sessile tumor-like nodule resembling pleomorphic adenoma. Histopathologic findings include lobules of enlarged mucinous acini which are filled with secretory granules. The nuclei are squeezed to the basal portions, associated with focal inflammation and ductal dilatation, and a history of trauma is often elicited. Here, we report a rare case of AH of the lower lip in a 20-year-old male patient, which mimics a mucous retention cyst or mucocele.

  18. Thymic hyperplasia in Graves′ disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kotwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graves′ disease is an autoimmune thyroid condition characterized by the production of autoantibodies against the thyrotropin receptor. It is known to be associated with autoimmune conditions such as myasthenia gravis, Addison′s disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and vitiligo. We present a case of rare autoimmune association of Graves′ disease with thymic hyperplasia which regressed after treatment with antithyroid drugs. Exact pathophysiology of thymic hyperplasia in Graves′ is not well understood; it is likely to be the result of rather than the cause of Graves′ disease.

  19. Shifts in the Fecal Microbiota Associated with Adenomatous Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Vanessa L; Chen, Jun; Johnson, Stephen; Harrington, Sean C; Yab, Tracy C; Smyrk, Thomas C; Nelson, Heidi; Boardman, Lisa A; Druliner, Brooke R; Levin, Theodore R; Rex, Douglas K; Ahnen, Dennis J; Lance, Peter; Ahlquist, David A; Chia, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Adenomatous polyps are the most common precursor to colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. We sought to learn more about early events of carcinogenesis by investigating shifts in the gut microbiota of patients with adenomas. We analyzed 16S rRNA gene sequences from the fecal microbiota of patients with adenomas (n = 233) and without (n = 547). Multiple taxa were significantly more abundant in patients with adenomas, including Bilophila, Desulfovibrio, proinflammatory bacteria in the genus Mogibacterium, and multiple Bacteroidetes species. Patients without adenomas had greater abundances of Veillonella, Firmicutes (Order Clostridia), and Actinobacteria (family Bifidobacteriales). Our findings were consistent with previously reported shifts in the gut microbiota of colorectal cancer patients. Importantly, the altered adenoma profile is predicted to increase primary and secondary bile acid production, as well as starch, sucrose, lipid, and phenylpropanoid metabolism. These data hint that increased sugar, protein, and lipid metabolism along with increased bile acid production could promote a colonic environment that supports the growth of bile-tolerant microbes such as Bilophilia and Desulfovibrio In turn, these microbes may produce genotoxic or inflammatory metabolites such as H 2 S and secondary bile acids, which could play a role in catalyzing adenoma development and eventually colorectal cancer. This study suggests a plausible biological mechanism to explain the links between shifts in the microbiota and colorectal cancer. This represents a first step toward resolving the complex interactions that shape the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of colorectal cancer and may facilitate personalized therapeutics focused on the microbiota. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(1); 85-94. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Florid reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of terminal ileum

    OpenAIRE

    Kanakala, Venkatesh; Birch, Peter; Kasaraneni, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    Florid lymphoid hyperplasia in the terminal ileum can present to surgeons as an acute abdominal pain. Only few cases were reported in the literature. Our case illustrates that a rare case of florid lymphoid hyperplasia can present to surgeons as acute appendicitis. During the operation the gross appearance may mimic Crohn’s disease. A limited resection is sufficient to clinch the diagnosis of florid lymphoid hyperplasia / Crohn’s disease. In florid lymphoid hyperplasia limited resection may b...

  1. Family history, surgery, and APC mutation are risk factors for desmoid tumors in familial adenomatous polyposis: an international cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieuwenhuis, Marry H; Lefevre, Jérémie H; Bülow, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Ability to identify patients with familial adenomatous polyposis who have a high risk of developing desmoid tumors may affect decisions in clinical practice.......Ability to identify patients with familial adenomatous polyposis who have a high risk of developing desmoid tumors may affect decisions in clinical practice....

  2. Multi-focal lobular carcinoma in situ arising in benign phylodes tumor: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Taeg Ki; Choi, Chang Hwan; Kim, Youn Jeong; Kim, Mi Young; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu

    2015-01-01

    Coexistent breast malignancy arising in phyllodes tumor is extremely rare, and most of them are incidental reports after surgical excision. Coexistent malignancy in phyllodes tumor can vary from in-situ to invasive carcinoma. Lobular neoplasia is separated into atypical lobular hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). LCIS is known to have a higher risk of developing invasive cancer. We reported imaging findings of multifocal LCIS arising in benign phyllodes tumor

  3. Multi-focal lobular carcinoma in situ arising in benign phylodes tumor: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taeg Ki; Choi, Chang Hwan; Kim, Youn Jeong; Kim, Mi Young; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu [Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Coexistent breast malignancy arising in phyllodes tumor is extremely rare, and most of them are incidental reports after surgical excision. Coexistent malignancy in phyllodes tumor can vary from in-situ to invasive carcinoma. Lobular neoplasia is separated into atypical lobular hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). LCIS is known to have a higher risk of developing invasive cancer. We reported imaging findings of multifocal LCIS arising in benign phyllodes tumor.

  4. p53 alterations in atypical alveolar hyperplasia of the human lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slebos, R. J.; Baas, I. O.; Clement, M. J.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Askin, F. B.; Hruban, R. H.; Westra, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    Atypical alveolar hyperplasia (AAH) is a potential precursor lesion from which lung adenocarcinomas arise and may be a good target for studying the early events of lung tumorigenesis. We have previously shown that AAHs are neoplastic epithelial proliferations that often harbor activating mutations

  5. The outcome of familial adenomatous polyposis in the absence of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Afr Med J 1995; 85: 272-276. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) almost always leads to large-bowel cancer unless prophylactic surgery is performed. The results of treating large numbers of patients with FAP are usually reported from polyposis registries. Such registries have two main functions. Firstly they identify,.

  6. Attitudes toward genetic testing in childhood and reproductive decision-making for familial adenomatous polyposis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, K.F.L.; Aaronson, N.K.; Vasen, H.F.A.; Verhoef, S.; Gundy, C.M.; Bleiker, E.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood DNA testing, prenatal diagnosis (PND) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) are available for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). However, the use of PND and PGD is controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes toward, and experiences with, childhood DNA

  7. Desmoid tumors in a dutch cohort of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Marry H.; de Vos Tot Nederveen Cappel, Wouter; Botma, Akke; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M. H.; Dekker, Evelien; Dees, Jan; Wijnen, Juul; Vasen, Hans F. A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Desmoid tumors are a severe extracolonic manifestation in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Identification of risk factors might be helpful in the management of FAP patients with such tumors. The aim of this study was to assess potential risk factors for the development of

  8. A proposed staging system and stage-specific interventions for familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynch, Patrick M; Morris, Jeffrey S; Wen, Sijin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is not possible to accurately count adenomas in many patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Nevertheless, polyp counts are critical in evaluating each patient's response to interventions. However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration no longer recognizes the decrease ...

  9. Genotype predicting phenotype in familial adenomatous polyposis: a practical application to the choice of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieuwenhuis, Marry H; Bülow, Steffen; Björk, Jan

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Genetic information may help preoperatively select patients with familial adenomatous polyposis for either colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis or proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Although complicated, the latter procedure has a low long-term risk of rectal cancer. MET...

  10. Tumour Suppressor Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) localisation is regulated by both Kinesin-1 and Kinesin-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, Peter T; Gumy, Laura F; Bola, Becky; Anderson, Beverley; Wozniak, Marcin J; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Allan, Victoria J

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules and their associated proteins (MAPs) underpin the polarity of specialised cells. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is one such MAP with a multifunctional agenda that requires precise intracellular localisations. Although APC has been found to associate with kinesin-2 subfamily members,

  11. Culture of primary epithelial adenoma cells from familial adenomatous polyposis patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fostira, F.; Apessos, A.; Oikonomou, E.; Kouklis, P.; Baratsis, S.; Manifikos, G.; Anděra, Ladislav; Yannoukakos, D.; Pintzas, A.; Nasioulas, G.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 28, 2A (2008), s. 843-846 ISSN 0250-7005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : colorectal neoplasia * adenomatous polyposis coli * epithelial cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.390, year: 2008

  12. Decision analysis in the management of duodenal adenomatosis in familial adenomatous polyposis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasen, H. F.; Bülow, S.; Myrhøj, T.; Mathus-Vliegen, L.; Griffioen, G.; Buskens, E.; Taal, B. G.; Nagengast, F.; Slors, J. F.; de Ruiter, P.

    1997-01-01

    Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis are not only at high risk of developing adenomas in the colorectum but a substantial number of patients also develop polyps in the duodenum. Because treatment of duodenal polyps is extremely difficult and it is unknown how many patients ultimately develop

  13. Evaluation of 28 years of surgical treatment of children and young adults with familial adenomatous polyposis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, Klaske A. C.; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M. H.; Taminiau, Jan A. J. M.; ten Kate, Fibo J. W.; Slors, J. Frederick M.; Tabbers, Merit M.; Aronson, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In this retrospective study, 28 years of surgical treatment of children and young adults with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) was analyzed. Methods: Forty-three patients were operated on before the age of 26 years. Endoscopic aspects, operative data, and complications were analyzed,

  14. Evaluation of 28 years of surgical treatment of children and young adults with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, K.A.; Mathus-Vliegen, E.M.H.; Taminiau, J.A.; Kate, F.J. ten; Slors, J.F.M.; Tabbers, M.M.; Aronson, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this retrospective study, 28 years of surgical treatment of children and young adults with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) was analyzed. METHODS: Forty-three patients were operated on before the age of 26 years. Endoscopic aspects, operative data, and complications were analyzed,

  15. Desmoid tumors in a dutch cohort of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, M.H.; Vos to Nederveen Cappel, de W.; Botma, A.; Nagengast, F.M.; Kleibeuker, J.H.; Mathus-Vliegen, E.M.; Dekker, E.; Dees, J.; Wijnen, J.; Vasen, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Background & Aims: Desmoid tumors are a severe extracolonic manifestation in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Identification of risk factors might be helpful in the management of FAP patients with such tumors. The aim of this study was to assess potential risk factors for the development of

  16. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with follicular mucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular mucinosis occurring along with angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophils (ALHE has been described in a 54-year-old female. The patient presented with pruritic erythematous papules on the left frontoparietal scalp. Histopathological examination showed prominent blood vessels in the dermis lined by plump histiocytoid endothelial cells that were surrounded by a dense lymphoid infiltrate with numerous eosinophils; these findings are typical of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophils. Features of follicular mucinosis were observed in the same section with several hyperplastic follicular infundibula containing pools of mucin in the infundibular epithelium. The concurrent occurrence of these two distinct histopathological patterns in the same biopsy specimen has been described in only three cases to date.

  17. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Avaria E.; María José Vargas F.; Loreto Triviño F.; Andrea Gleisner E.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disease whose main cause is the deficiency of 21-hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of cortisol and aldosterone. There are two forms of CAH, a classical and nonclassical form, being the first objective of analysis in the clinical case. Its clinical manifestations vary in severity, depending on the level of hormone deficiency. Within the classic is described the salt-wasting form, whose consequences are ...

  18. Prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun EM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eun Mi Chun, Seo Woo Kim, So Yeon Lim Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Colorectal adenomatous polyps are precancerous lesions of colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients and determine whether COPD is associated with colorectal malignant potential.Methods: Subjects who had undergone post-bronchodilator spirometry and colonoscopy and were 40 years or older were selected from the hospital database. COPD was defined as a spirometry in which the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC is <0.7 in post-bronchodilator spirometry. The non-COPD group was matched for both age and sex, and were defined as having an FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC ≥0.7 in spirometry. Finally, 333 patients were retrospectively reviewed; of this group, 82 patients had COPD.Results: Among the subjects, 201 patients (60% were nonsmokers, while 78 (23% were current smokers. The prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps was 39% (98/251 in the non-COPD group and 66% (54/82 in the COPD group. Among 54 patients with adenomatous polyps in the COPD group, 47 had tubular adenoma and seven had villous adenoma. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that only COPD patients whom matched to the criteria of COPD by pulmonary function test (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.1–3.8; P=0.019 were independently associated with colorectal malignant potential.Conclusion: The risk of colorectal malignant potential in the COPD group was higher than in the non-COPD group. We may suggest that COPD patients should consider regular colonoscopic evaluation to screen for premalignant colon polyps regardless of smoking. Keywords: COPD, colorectal adenomatous polyp, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary

  19. Sulfate-reducing bacteria colonize pouches formed for ulcerative colitis but not for familial adenomatous polyposis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, M

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis remains the "gold standard" in surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. Pouchitis occurs mainly in patients with a background of ulcerative colitis, although the reasons for this are unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize differences in pouch bacterial populations between ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous pouches. METHODS: After ethical approval was obtained, fresh stool samples were collected from patients with ulcerative colitis pouches (n = 10), familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 7) pouches, and ulcerative colitis ileostomies (n = 8). Quantitative measurements of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were performed. RESULTS: Sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from 80 percent (n = 8) of ulcerative colitis pouches. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were absent from familial adenomatous polyposis pouches and also from ulcerative colitis ileostomy effluent. Pouch Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides sp, and Clostridium perfringens counts were increased relative to ileostomy counts in patients with ulcerative colitis. Total pouch enterococci and coliform counts were also increased relative to ileostomy levels. There were no significant quantitative or qualitative differences between pouch types when these bacteria were evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Sulfate-reducing bacteria are exclusive to patients with a background of ulcerative colitis. Not all ulcerative colitis pouches harbor sulfate-reducing bacteria because two ulcerative colitis pouches in this study were free of the latter. They are not present in familial adenomatous polyposis pouches or in ileostomy effluent collected from patients with ulcerative colitis. Total bacterial counts increase in ulcerative colitis pouches after stoma closure. Levels of Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides sp, Clostridium perfringens, enterococci, and coliforms were similar in both pouch groups. Because sulfate-reducing bacteria are

  20. Somatic APC mosaicism and oligogenic inheritance in genetically unsolved colorectal adenomatous polyposis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarella, Michele; Miccoli, Sara; Prossomariti, Anna; Pippucci, Tommaso; Bonora, Elena; Buscherini, Francesco; Palombo, Flavia; Zuntini, Roberta; Balbi, Tiziana; Ceccarelli, Claudio; Bazzoli, Franco; Ricciardiello, Luigi; Turchetti, Daniela; Piazzi, Giulia

    2018-03-01

    Germline variants in the APC gene cause familial adenomatous polyposis. Inherited variants in MutYH, POLE, POLD1, NTHL1, and MSH3 genes and somatic APC mosaicism have been reported as alternative causes of polyposis. However, ~30-50% of cases of polyposis remain genetically unsolved. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the genetic causes of unexplained adenomatous polyposis. Eight sporadic cases with >20 adenomatous polyps by 35 years of age or >50 adenomatous polyps by 55 years of age, and no causative germline variants in APC and/or MutYH, were enrolled from a cohort of 56 subjects with adenomatous colorectal polyposis. APC gene mosaicism was investigated on DNA from colonic adenomas by Sanger sequencing or Whole Exome Sequencing (WES). Mosaicism extension to other tissues (peripheral blood, saliva, hair follicles) was evaluated using Sanger sequencing and/or digital PCR. APC second hit was investigated in adenomas from mosaic patients. WES was performed on DNA from peripheral blood to identify additional polyposis candidate variants. We identified APC mosaicism in 50% of patients. In three cases mosaicism was restricted to the colon, while in one it also extended to the duodenum and saliva. One patient without APC mosaicism, carrying an APC in-frame deletion of uncertain significance, was found to harbor rare germline variants in OGG1, POLQ, and EXO1 genes. In conclusion, our restrictive selection criteria improved the detection of mosaic APC patients. In addition, we showed for the first time that an oligogenic inheritance of rare variants might have a cooperative role in sporadic colorectal polyposis onset.

  1. Unilateral Condylar Hyperplasia of the Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malachovsky I

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Condylar hyperplasia (CH of the mandible is a rare pathology that occurs at the head of the condyle and can lead to facial asymmetry affecting occlusion and possible association with pain and dysfunction. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia is an uncommon condition of unknown aetiology, proper diagnosis of which has to be established, as the patients may look for surgical help. A rare case of unilateral condylar hyperplasia of the mandible is reported here.

  2. Lipomatosis: a diverse form of hemifacial hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Preeti Chawla; Umarji, Hemant R.; Arora, Aman; Ramaswami, Easwaran

    2012-01-01

    A case of hemifacial hyperplasia that presented with muscular, skeletal, and dental hyperplasia along with lipomatous infiltration was described. Advanced imaging was useful in identifying the lipomatous infiltration present in the lesion, which raises the possibility of lipomatosis having a diverse presentation in hemifacial hyperplasia. As there was a scarcity of related literature in the field of dentomaxillofacial radiology, this report would make us familiar with its computed tomographic and magnetic resonance image findings.

  3. Focal nodular hyperplasia: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Antoniou, A.; Hatziioannou, A.; Smyrniotis, V.; Trakadas, S.; Lahanis, S.; Vlahos, L. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Athens (Greece)

    2001-02-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia is an uncommon benign hepatic tumor that continues to pose diagnostic dilemmas. Imaging techniques are of great value in diagnosis of this tumor. In this article we present the US, CT, MR imaging, scintigraphy, and angiography findings. The demonstration of a central vascular scar is very helpful. Although the radiologic features may be diagnostic, many atypical cases must be differentiated from other benign or malignant hepatic tumors. In these cases excisional biopsy and histopathologic examination are necessary to determine a definite diagnosis. (orig.)

  4. Focal nodular hyperplasia: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Antoniou, A.; Hatziioannou, A.; Smyrniotis, V.; Trakadas, S.; Lahanis, S.; Vlahos, L.

    2001-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia is an uncommon benign hepatic tumor that continues to pose diagnostic dilemmas. Imaging techniques are of great value in diagnosis of this tumor. In this article we present the US, CT, MR imaging, scintigraphy, and angiography findings. The demonstration of a central vascular scar is very helpful. Although the radiologic features may be diagnostic, many atypical cases must be differentiated from other benign or malignant hepatic tumors. In these cases excisional biopsy and histopathologic examination are necessary to determine a definite diagnosis. (orig.)

  5. Unilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia: Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.F. Kotb

    2016-07-26

    Jul 26, 2016 ... Abstract. Introduction: Nodular adrenal hyperplasia is one of rare causes of adrenocortical hyperplasia. The disease usually presents bilaterally. Few publications discussed the possibility of unilateral disease, in association with hyperaldosteronism or Cushing syndrome. Case series: We are reporting 3 ...

  6. Proteus syndrome: association with gingival hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendorf, T M; Hanslo, B

    1995-09-01

    A 9-year old Black boy with gigantism of the hands and feet, and recurrent gingival hyperplasia, diagnosed as Proteus syndrome is presented. The oral manifestations of this syndrome are described. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of gingival hyperplasia associated with Proteus syndrome.

  7. Neuronal hyperplasia in the anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, C; Schrøder, H D

    1990-01-01

    In a consecutive series of minor surgical specimens from the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was found in nine of 56 haemorrhoidectomy specimens and in four of 23 fibrous polyps. In an additional series of 14 resections of the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was present in six cases, of which f...

  8. Constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency syndrome presenting as colonic adenomatous polyposis: clues from the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasperson, K W; Samowitz, W S; Burt, R W

    2011-10-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by hematologic malignancies, brain tumors, Lynch syndrome-associated cancers and skin manifestations reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). In contrast to Lynch syndrome, CMMR-D syndrome is exceptionally rare, onset typically occurs in infancy or early childhood and, as described in this report, may also present with colonic polyposis suggestive of attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (AFAP) or MUTYH associated polyposis (MAP). Here we describe two sisters with CMMR-D syndrome due to germline bi-allelic MSH6 mutations. Both sisters are without cancer, are older than typical for this condition, have NF1 associated features and a colonic phenotype suspicious for an attenuated polyposis syndrome. This report highlights the role of skin examinations in leading to an underlying genetic diagnosis in individuals with colonic adenomatous polyposis, but without mutations associated with AFAP or MAP. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Familial adenomatous polyposis patients without an identified APC germline mutation have a severe phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, M L; Ripa, R; Knudsen, Anne Louise

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Development of more than 100 colorectal adenomas is diagnostic of the dominantly inherited autosomal disease familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Germline mutations can be identified in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in approximately 80% of patients. The APC protein...... comprises several regions and domains for interaction with other proteins, and specific clinical manifestations are associated with the mutation assignment to one of these regions or domains. AIMS: The phenotype in patients without an identified causative APC mutation was compared with the phenotype...... in patients with a known APC mutation and with the phenotypes characteristic of patients with mutations in specific APC regions and domains. PATIENTS: Data on 121 FAP probands and 149 call up patients from 70 different families were extracted from the Danish Polyposis register. METHODS: Differences in 16...

  10. A rear case of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia; Radiologic and histopathologic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Suk; Cha, Eun Jung [Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Multilocular thymic cysts are rare and acquired lesions induced by an inflammatory arising within the thymus. We report a rare case of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia in a 59-year-old female. Chest CT and MRI revealed a large multilocular cystic mass, which contains thick septa and nodules in the thymus. F-18 FDG PET/CT showed almost no FDG uptake of the multilocular cystic mass but moderate FDG uptake of the solid nodules. Extended total thymectomy was performed. Histopathological findings revealed follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of thymic tissue but no neoplastic lesion. Based on these findings, diagnosis of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia was made. This is a rare case that preoperatively was difficult to diagnose.

  11. Laparoscopic Restorative Total Proctocolectomy With Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    OpenAIRE

    Palanivelu, C.; Jani, Kalpesh; Sendhilkumar, K.; Parthasarathi, R.; Senthilnathan, P.; Maheshkumar, G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Familial adenomatous polyposis is a hereditary disease characterized by the presence of thousands of colonic adenomas, which, if untreated, invariably undergo malignant transformation. Because this disease manifests at a young age, the laparoscopic approach to perform surgery would be desirable due to its cosmetic benefits. We describe our experience with this procedure and review the literature on the topic. Methods: This is a case series of 15 patients who underwent restorative ...

  12. Sulphomucin expression in ileal pouches: emerging differences between ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis pouches.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bambury, Niamh

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: We characterized the expression of sialomucin and sulphomucin in pouches fashioned for familial adenomatous polyposis and ulcerative colitis. We correlated sulphomucin expression with bacterial colonization and mucosal inflammation. METHODS: Ethical approval and informed consent were obtained. Mucosal biopsies from 9 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and 12 with ulcerative colitis were obtained. Sulphomucin levels were assessed by using the high iron-diamine stain. Mucous gel layer composition was correlated with villous height, crypt depth, and total mucosal thickness. Mucous gel layer composition was correlated with acute and chronic inflammatory infiltrates. Colonization by a panel of seven bacterial species (including sulphate reducing bacteria) was established and correlated with sulphomucin levels. RESULTS: High-iron-diamine positivity (i.e., sulphomucin expression) was greater in ulcerative colitis pouch mucous gel (2.083 +\\/- 0.5 vs. 0.556 +\\/- 0.4, P = 0.003). Sulphomucin expression correlated with reduced crypt depth, villous height, and total mucosal thickness. In the ulcerative colitis group, chronic inflammatory infiltrate scores were significantly greater for high-iron-diamine-positive patients. Colonization by sulphate reducing bacteria was increased in high-iron-diamine-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: Sulphomucin expression is increased in the mucous gel layer of the ulcerative colitis pouch compared with that of the familial adenomatous polyposis pouch. Sulphomucin expression is associated with colonization by sulphate-reducing bacteria and increased chronic inflammation.

  13. Colorectal adenomatous polyposis syndromes: Genetic determinism, clinical presentation and recommendations for care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buecher, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal adenomatous polyposis constitutes a diverse group of disorders with different modes of inheritance. Molecular diagnosis of this condition has become more complex. In fact, somatic mosaicism for APC mutations now appears to be more frequent than previously thought and rare germline alterations of this gene may be implicated in patients tested negative for "classical" APC mutations (point mutations and large genomic rearrangements). Moreover, the knowledge concerning several aspects of the MUTYH-associated polyposis has improved since its first description in 2002 and germline mutations in new genes have recently been implicated in some cases of unexplained adenomatous polyposis. Genetic testing in probands and their relatives should be conducted in the context of pre- and post-test genetic counseling. The recent advent of New Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques affords the opportunity to rapidly screen patients for a comprehensive panel of colorectal cancer susceptibility genes in a cost-effective fashion. This type of approach will probably replace the classical sequential approach based on clinical presumptive diagnoses in the near future. The risk of colorectal cancer is very high in affected patients in the absence of appropriate care. Clinical management is complex and should be provided in centers with special expertise in these diseases. This review focuses on the various colorectal adenomatous polyposis syndromes with special attention to more innovative and important aspects. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Laparoscopic restorative total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis for familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivelu, C; Jani, Kalpesh; Sendhilkumar, K; Parthasarathi, R; Senthilnathan, P; Maheshkumar, G

    2008-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis is a hereditary disease characterized by the presence of thousands of colonic adenomas, which, if untreated, invariably undergo malignant transformation. Because this disease manifests at a young age, the laparoscopic approach to perform surgery would be desirable due to its cosmetic benefits. We describe our experience with this procedure and review the literature on the topic. This is a case series of 15 patients who underwent restorative proctocolectomy with ileo-anal pouch anastomosis for familial adenomatous polyposis between 2000 and 2007. The salient operative steps are described. There were 9 males and 6 females, 32 to 52 years of age, with an average age of 44.8 years. The median body mass index was 21.5 (range, 17 to 28). Rectal cancer was already present in 4 patients at the time of diagnosis. The median operating time was 225 minutes. Mean blood loss was 60 mL, with none of the patients requiring perioperative blood transfusion. None of the surgeries required conversion to the open approach. Bowel function resumed on the second postoperative day in 12 patients and on the third postoperative day in 3 patients. The median hospital stay was 8 days. Postoperatively, there was no mortality and no serious morbidity. Laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis is a feasible surgery for familial adenomatous polyposis, and considering its cosmetic benefit, is a desirable option for this group of predominantly young patients.

  15. A case series of intestinal adenomatous polyposis of unidentified etiology; a late effect of irradiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigter, Lisanne Sara; Kallenberg, Frank G. J.; Bastiaansen, Barbara; Os, Theo A. M. van; Leeuwen, Floor E. van; Leerdam, Monique Esther van; Dekker, Evelien

    2016-01-01

    In a large number of patients with multiple gastrointestinal adenomatous polyps, no causal germline mutation can be found. Non-genetic factors may contribute to the development of adenomatous polyps in these unexplained polyposis patients. In the development of gastrointestinal cancer, prior exposure to abdominal radiotherapy has been identified as such a factor, as it increases the gastrointestinal cancer risk in cancer survivors. A relationship of radiotherapy with intestinal polyposis, however, has not yet been described. Despite the increased cancer risk, these cancer survivors do not receive gastrointestinal screening recommendations. This case series describes three patients with adenomatous polyposis after abdominal radiotherapy. Patient 1 was diagnosed with testicular cancer at the age of 31 and was treated with hemicastration, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Thirty-nine years later, he was diagnosed with more than 30 colonic adenomas. Additionally, gastroduodenoscopy revealed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in the antrum of the stomach. Patient 2 was diagnosed with a nephroblastoma at the age of 10, which was resected and treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. At age 36, a rectal adenocarcinoma was diagnosed and treated by radiotherapy and a total mesorectal excision. During 11 years of surveillance endoscopies, 21 colonic adenomas and three duodenal adenomas were detected. Patient 3 was diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma at the age of 20 and treated with radiotherapy, followed by chemotherapy for a recurrence 3 years later. At age 62, a subtotal colectomy was performed because of colonic polyposis: 36 adenomas were detected. During screening gastro-duodenoscopy, three duodenal adenomas were detected. In all three patients, germline analysis did not reveal a mutation in the APC and MYH genes. The gastric and rectal cancer were both microsatellite stable. This report describes three patients with adenomatous polyposis, of which two developed a

  16. Carcinoma arising in thyroglossal remnants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuuren, P. A.; Balm, A. J.; Gregor, R. T.; Hilgers, F. J.; Loftus, B. M.; Delprat, C. C.; Rutgers, E. J.

    1994-01-01

    Three patients with a papillary carcinoma arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst are presented and the literature is reviewed. This rare malignancy is seen mostly in women between the ages of 20 and 50 years. The distribution of carcinoma subtypes differs from that of thyroid carcinomas and

  17. Adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N'Senda, P.; Dahan, H.; Tubiana, J.M.; Arrive, L.; Wendum, D.; Balladur, P.

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis. Both CT and MR scans demontrated a huge heterogeneous mass containing septated, thick-walled cystic lesions. After enlarged right hepatectomy, the patient was asymptomatic with no abnormalities at liver and abdominal CT scan at 2-year follow-up. (orig.)

  18. Endogeneously arising network allocation rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study endogenously arising network allocation rules. We focus on three allocation rules: the Myerson value, the position value and the component-wise egalitarian solution. For any of these three rules we provide a characterization based on component efficiency and some balanced

  19. Adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N' Senda, P.; Dahan, H.; Tubiana, J.M.; Arrive, L. [Service de Radiologie, Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France); Wendum, D. [Service d' Anatomie Pathologie, Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France); Balladur, P. [Service de Chirurgie Digestive et Generale, Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-08-01

    We report a case of adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis. Both CT and MR scans demontrated a huge heterogeneous mass containing septated, thick-walled cystic lesions. After enlarged right hepatectomy, the patient was asymptomatic with no abnormalities at liver and abdominal CT scan at 2-year follow-up. (orig.)

  20. Prognostic significance of atypical papillary urothelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierczynski, Sharon L; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2002-05-01

    Typical papillary hyperplasia, a recently recognized precursor lesion to low-grade papillary urothelial neoplasms, consists of undulating folds of cytologically benign urothelium. Well-developed, branching fibrovascular cores of a papillary neoplasm are not evident. We have noted lesions with the architectural pattern of papillary hyperplasia; however, the overlying urothelium demonstrated varying degrees of cytologic atypia. We identified 15 cases of atypical papillary hyperplasia (13 males, 2 females, age 55 to 92) with overlying urothelium showing cytologic atypia. Of these cases, 8 (53%) were received in consultation. Of the 15 cases, 8 exhibited overlying flat carcinoma in situ (CIS), 4 had overlying dysplasia, and 3 were transitional between papillary hyperplasia with atypia and the earliest lesions of papillary neoplasia. Of these cases, 5 patients had multiple specimens with atypical papillary hyperplasia (range, 2 to 8) over time. Concurrent to the diagnosis of atypical papillary hyperplasia, there were 25 different urothelial lesions: CIS (n = 11), papilloma (n = 1), papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential with CIS (n = 1), high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (n = 10; 3 with CIS), small-cell carcinoma (n = 1), and infiltrating urothelial carcinoma (n = 1). Of 11 patients with known prior history, 2 had 12 prior urothelial neoplasms (9 low-grade papillary neoplasms, 2 papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential, and 1 high-grade papillary cancer). Of 10 patients with atypical papillary hyperplasia and a minimum of 1 year of follow-up, 9 had 19 recurrences: CIS (n = 4), papilloma (n = 1), papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential (n = 1), infiltrating urothelial carcinoma (n = 3; 1 with CIS), and high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (n = 10; 5 with invasion and 2 with CIS). Whether the papillary hyperplasia had overlying CIS or dysplasia did not affect the correlation with urothelial neoplasms. Immunohistochemical analysis

  1. Claudin-4 Deficiency Results in Urothelial Hyperplasia and Lethal Hydronephrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Harumi; Hamazaki, Yoko; Noda, Yumi; Oshima, Masanobu; Minato, Nagahiro

    2012-01-01

    Claudin (Cld)-4 is one of the dominant Clds expressed in the kidney and urinary tract, including selective segments of renal nephrons and the entire urothelium from the pelvis to the bladder. We generated Cldn4 −/− mice and found that these mice had increased mortality due to hydronephrosis of relatively late onset. While the renal nephrons of Cldn4 −/− mice showed a concomitant diminution of Cld8 expression at tight junction (TJ), accumulation of Cld3 at TJ was markedly enhanced in compensation and the overall TJ structure was unaffected. Nonetheless, Cldn4 −/− mice showed slightly yet significantly increased fractional excretion of Ca2+ and Cl−, suggesting a role of Cld4 in the specific reabsorption of these ions via a paracellular route. Although the urine volume tended to be increased concordantly, Cldn4 −/− mice were capable of concentrating urine normally on dehydration, with no evidence of diabetes insipidus. In the urothelium, the formation of TJs and uroplaques as well as the gross barrier function were also unaffected. However, intravenous pyelography analysis indicated retarded urine flow prior to hydronephrosis. Histological examination revealed diffuse hyperplasia and a thickening of pelvic and ureteral urothelial layers with markedly increased BrdU uptake in vivo. These results suggest that progressive hydronephrosis in Cldn4 −/− mice arises from urinary tract obstruction due to urothelial hyperplasia, and that Cld4 plays an important role in maintaining the homeostatic integrity of normal urothelium. PMID:23284964

  2. Nocturia and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laketić Darko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Nocturia often occurs in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of nocturia in patients with BPH. Nocturia and other factors associated with it were also investigated. Methods. Forty patients with the confirmed diagnosis of BPH were studied. Transurethral and transvesical prostatectomy were performed in all the patients. Symptoms were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score before, as well as three and six months after the surgery. All the results were compared with the control group. Results. There was no statistically significant difference between the patients before and after the surgery regarding nocturia. There was, however, a statistically significant difference between the operated patients and the control group regarding nocturia, as well as a statistically significant correlation between noctruia and the age of the patients in both the investigated and the control group. A correlation also existed between nocturia and the prostatic size. Conclusion. There was no statistically significant improvement in symptoms of nocturia after the surgery. It is necessary to be very careful in decision making in patients with nonabsolute indiction for surgery and isolated bothersome symptom of nocturia. Age of a patient should also be considered in the evaluation of favorable result of the surgery because of a significant correlation between noctura and the age of a patient.

  3. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Unresolved Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; Poppas, Dix; Ghizzoni, Lucia; New, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a family of disorders that comes from enzymatic deficiencies in cortisol production, with 21-hydroxylase deficiency causing ∼90% of cases. Distinction is made between the severe classical form and milder nonclassical form of CAH. Molecular genetic analysis is used to confirm the hormonal diagnosis. A high rate of genotype-phenotype disconcordance has been found in 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The goal of treatment is to replace with synthetic glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids and suppress adrenal androgen production. The treatment of patients affected with nonclassical CAH, particularly males, remains controversial. Variable synthetic glucocorticoids are used and new modes of glucocorticoid delivery are under investigation. To improve height, growth hormone and other adjuvant therapies are employed. Long-term outcomes of genital surgery using modern techniques in females affected with classical CAH continue to be investigated. Prenatal treatment with dexamethasone is available to avoid ambiguous genitalia in these females. Although studies have shown its safety to mother and fetus, prenatal treatment is still regarded as experimental. Currently, prenatal diagnosis of CAH can only be obtained through invasive methods. Recently, the detection of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma has made it possible to make this diagnosis earlier and noninvasively. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Kinetics of vein graft hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwolak, R.M.; Adams, M.C.; Clowes, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Human aortocoronary vein grafts fail due to accelerated occlusive disease. The possibility that this is related to cellular hyperplasia was investigated in a rabbit model where kinetics of vein graft thickening, endothelial (EC) repair, and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation were measured from 2 days to 24 weeks after implanting jugular vein segments in the carotid artery. Immediately after graft placement focal EC denudation was observed. These defects were repaired within 1 week and did not recur. By 4 weeks intimal area had increased 30 fold from 0.028 +/- 0.004 to 0.705 +/- 0.021 mm 2 , and a 24 weeks was 0.93 +/- 0.21 mm 2 . This response did not produce a reduction in graft lumen area. EC and SMC thymidine-labeling index were measured by en face and cross-section autoradiography after injection of 3 H-thymidine and perfusion fixation. Despite rapid EC surface repair EC labeling index remained elevated and only returned to normal levels at 12 weeks; SMC labeling was 10 fold greater than baseline even at 24 weeks (0.22% vs 0.02%). SMC mass demonstrated morphometrically increased between 2 and 12 weeks. Intimal thickening in vein grafts is due to SMC proliferation and develops after the EC layer has been restored. In contrast, intimal SMC proliferate in damaged arteries when the EC layer is absent and cease when the EC layer is regenerated

  5. Phosphorylation near nuclear localization signal regulates nuclear import of adenomatous polyposis coli protein

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fang; White, Raymond L.; Neufeld, Kristi L.

    2000-01-01

    Mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene is an early step in the development of colorectal carcinomas. APC protein is located in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. The objective of this study was to define the nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in APC protein. APC contains two potential NLSs comprising amino acids 1767–1772 (NLS1APC) and 2048–2053 (NLS2APC). Both APC NLSs are well conserved among human, mouse, rat, and fly. NLS1APC and NLS2APC each w...

  6. Rare mutations predisposing to familial adenomatous polyposis in Greek FAP patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalatos, Markos; Fountzilas, George; Agnantis, Niki J; Nasioulas, Georgios; Apessos, Angela; Dauwerse, Hans; Velissariou, Voula; Psychias, Aristidis; Koliopanos, Alexander; Petropoulos, Konstantinos; Triantafillidis, John K; Danielidis, Ioannis

    2005-01-01

    Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) is caused by germline mutations in the APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) gene. The vast majority of APC mutations are point mutations or small insertions / deletions which lead to truncated protein products. Splicing mutations or gross genomic rearrangements are less common inactivating events of the APC gene. In the current study genomic DNA or RNA from ten unrelated FAP suspected patients was examined for germline mutations in the APC gene. Family history and phenotype were used in order to select the patients. Methods used for testing were dHPLC (denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography), sequencing, MLPA (Multiplex Ligation – dependent Probe Amplification), Karyotyping, FISH (Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization) and RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription – Polymerase Chain Reaction). A 250 Kbp deletion in the APC gene starting from intron 5 and extending beyond exon 15 was identified in one patient. A substitution of the +5 conserved nucleotide at the splice donor site of intron 9 in the APC gene was shown to produce frameshift and inefficient exon skipping in a second patient. Four frameshift mutations (1577insT, 1973delAG, 3180delAAAA, 3212delA) and a nonsense mutation (C1690T) were identified in the rest of the patients. Screening for APC mutations in FAP patients should include testing for splicing defects and gross genomic alterations

  7. Assessing barriers to a rational chemoprevention trial design in young patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanna P; Howells, Lynne M; Brown, Karen; Thomas, Anne L

    2017-07-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis coli (FAP) is an autosomal dominant condition caused by a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene. Colonic adenomas form and almost all patients will develop colorectal cancer if they are not managed at an early stage. The safest preventive strategy is surgical resection of the colon, most commonly performed in late teenage years. There is a paucity of trials investigating the use of primary chemoprevention to delay polyp formation in paediatric FAP. There are extensive preclinical and early clinical data demonstrating that curcumin may be a safe and effective chemotherapeutic agent in reducing the polyp burden in this disease. We ultimately proposed to design and conduct a clinical study to assess whether curcumin treatment delays the need for surgery and/or prevents cancer in young patients with FAP. Research into clinical trial protocols has demonstrated that assessing patients' perceptions at the initial stage leads to better outcomes. We therefore conducted a questionnaire study of patients and parents of children affected by FAP to gain information to aid the protocol design. Results demonstrated that there are some FAP patients for whom this study is relevant and desirable. Those with a personal history of curcumin use reported that it was well tolerated. However, the response rate was poor (25%), indicating that there are potential difficulties ensuring adequate recruitment to the proposed trial. This report draws on lessons learnt from prior trials and the findings from the questionnaire to outline the challenges faced in designing such a study.

  8. Contribution of APC and MUTYH mutations to familial adenomatous polyposis susceptibility in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Janos; Kovacs, Marietta Eva; Matrai, Zoltan; Orosz, Enikő; Kásler, Miklós; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Olah, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a colorectal cancer predisposition syndrome with considerable genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, defined by the development of multiple adenomas throughout the colorectum. FAP is caused either by monoallelic mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene APC, or by biallelic germline mutations of MUTYH, this latter usually presenting with milder phenotype. The aim of the present study was to characterize the genotype and phenotype of Hungarian FAP patients. Mutation screening of 87 unrelated probands from FAP families (21 of them presented as the attenuated variant of the disease, showing APC were identified in 65 patients (75 %), including nine cases (37.5 %) with large genomic alterations. Twelve of the point mutations were novel. In addition, APC-negative samples were also tested for MUTYH mutations and we were able to identify biallelic pathogenic mutations in 23 % of these cases (5/22). Correlations between the localization of APC mutations and the clinical manifestations of the disease were observed, cases with a mutation in the codon 1200-1400 region showing earlier age of disease onset (p APC- and MUTYH-associated FAP in our cohort: the age at onset of polyposis was significantly delayed for biallelic MUTYH mutation carriers as compared to patients with an APC mutation. Our data represent the first comprehensive study delineating the mutation spectra of both APC and MUTYH in Hungarian FAP families, and underscore the overlap between the clinical characteristics of APC- and MUTYH-associated phenotypes, necessitating a more appropriate clinical characterization of FAP families.

  9. APC promoter 1B deletion in seven American families with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, A K; Tuohy, T M F; Sargent, N R; Smith, L J; Burt, R W; Neklason, D W

    2015-10-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a colorectal cancer predisposition syndrome caused by mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Clinical genetic testing fails to identify disease causing mutations in up to 20% of clinically apparent FAP cases. Following the inclusion of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) probes specific for APC promoter 1B, seven probands were identified with a deletion of promoter 1B. Using haplotype analysis spanning the APC locus, the seven families appear to be identical by descent from a common founder. The clinical phenotype of 19 mutation carriers is classical FAP with colectomy at an average age of 24. The majority of cases had a large number of duodenal and gastric polyps. Measurements of allele-specific expression of APC mRNA using TaqMan assay confirmed that relative expression in the allele containing the promoter 1B deletion was reduced 42-98%, depending on tissue type. This study confirms the importance of APC promoter deletions as a cause of FAP and identifies a founder mutation in FAP patients from the United States. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Tablets or scalpel: Pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Imran Siddiqi, MBBS, MRCP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. Pituitary hyperplasia and pituitary masses cannot be reliably differentiated on imaging alone, despite significant improvement in imaging quality in recent years.

  11. Neoplasia versus hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen; Larsen, J.N.B.; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography......ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography...

  12. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis.

  13. Thymic hyperplasia - clinical course and imaging diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drebov, R.; Panov, M.; Totev, M.; Deliverski, T.; Tcandev, I.; Velkovski, I.

    2006-01-01

    The real thymic hyperplasia is benign disease sometimes simulating malignant tumours. The aim of this study is to analyse the clinical symptoms of real thymic hyperplasia and the results from imaging diagnostic based on our clinical material. Clinical material include 27 children, aged from two months to 15 years, admitted in department of thoracic surgery, for a period of 20 years (1985 - 2004). We retrospectively analyze the clinical signs and results from X-ray investigation, CT (Siemens Somatom DRG and Philips Secura) and echocardiography (Acuson TX, 5 and 7 MHz). We discuss the diagnostic value of different methods as well as typical and atypical findings. (authors)

  14. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  15. Hereditary pituitary hyperplasia with infantile gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläsker, Sven; Vortmeyer, Alexander O; Lafferty, Antony R A; Hofman, Paul L; Li, Jie; Weil, Robert J; Zhuang, Zhengping; Oldfield, Edward H

    2011-12-01

    We report hereditary pituitary hyperplasia. The objective of the study was to describe the results of the clinical and laboratory analysis of this rare instance of hereditary pituitary hyperplasia. The study is a retrospective analysis of three cases from one family. The study was conducted at the National Institutes of Health, a tertiary referral center. A mother and both her sons had very early-onset gigantism associated with high levels of serum GH and prolactin. The condition was treated by total hypophysectomy. We performed clinical, pathological, and molecular evaluations, including evaluation basal and provocative endocrine testing, neuroradiological assessment, and assessment of the pituitary tissue by microscopic evaluation, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. All three family members had very early onset of gigantism associated with abnormally high serum levels of GH and prolactin. Serum GHRH levels were not elevated in either of the boys. The clinical, radiographic, surgical, and histological findings indicated mammosomatotroph hyperplasia. The pituitary gland of both boys revealed diffuse mammosomatotroph hyperplasia of the entire pituitary gland without evidence of adenoma. Prolactin and GH were secreted by the same cells within the same secretory granules. Western blot and immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression of GHRH in clusters of cells distributed throughout the hyperplastic pituitary of both boys. This hereditary condition seems to be a result of embryonic pituitary maldevelopment with retention and expansion of the mammosomatotrophs. The findings suggest that it is caused by paracrine or autocrine pituitary GHRH secretion during pituitary development.

  16. Dento-osseous anomalies associated to familial adenomatous polyposis mimicking florid cemento-osseous dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Fabiana Tolentino; Leite, André Ferreira; de Souza Figueiredo, Paulo Tadeu; Melo, Nilce Santos; Sousa, João Batista; Almeida, Rômulo; Acevedo, Ana Carolina; Silva Guerra, Eliete Neves

    2012-12-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a colorectal cancer syndrome characterized by the development of multiple polyps of the colon and rectum with high risk of malignant transformation. The extraintestinal manifestations such as dento-osseous changes are associated with FAP. This is a case report of a 36-year-old female patient who was referred for dental treatment with the initial diagnosis of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD). However, the association of the imaging dento-osseous findings with the medical history confirmed the diagnosis of FAP. The paper illustrates the clinical characteristics and imaging findings associated with FAP, and also discusses misdiagnosis based exclusively on imaging features. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A metabolic switch controls intestinal differentiation downstream of Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Imelda T; Delacruz, Richard Glenn C; Miller, Braden N; Hill, Shauna; Olson, Kristofor A; Gabriel, Ana E; Boyd, Kevin; Satterfield, Christeena; Remmen, Holly Van; Rutter, Jared; Jones, David A

    2017-04-11

    Elucidating signaling pathways that regulate cellular metabolism is essential for a better understanding of normal development and tumorigenesis. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1) , a crucial player in pyruvate metabolism, is downregulated in colon adenocarcinomas. Utilizing zebrafish to examine the genetic relationship between MPC1 and Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), a key tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer, we found that apc controls the levels of mpc1 and that knock down of mpc1 recapitulates phenotypes of impaired apc function including failed intestinal differentiation. Exogenous human MPC1 RNA rescued failed intestinal differentiation in zebrafish models of apc deficiency. Our data demonstrate a novel role for apc in pyruvate metabolism and that pyruvate metabolism dictates intestinal cell fate and differentiation decisions downstream of apc .

  18. Colorectal Adenomatous Polyposis: Heterogeneity of Susceptibility Gene Mutations and Phenotypes in a Cohort of Italian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marabelli, Monica; Molinaro, Valeria; Abou Khouzam, Raefa; Berrino, Enrico; Panero, Mara; Balsamo, Antonella; Venesio, Tiziana; Ranzani, Guglielmina Nadia

    2016-12-01

    Colorectal adenomatous polyposis entailing cancer predisposition is caused by constitutional mutations in different genes. APC is associated with the familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP/AFAP) and MUTYH with the MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP), while POLE and POLD1 mutations cause the polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis (PPAP). We screened for mutations in patients with multiple adenomas/FAP: 121 patients were analyzed for APC and MUTYH mutations, and 36 patients were also evaluated for POLE and POLD1 gene mutations. We found 20 FAP/AFAP, 15 MAP, and no PPAP subjects: pathogenic mutations proved to be heterogeneous, and included 5 APC and 1 MUTYH novel mutations. The mutation detection rate was significantly different between patients with 5-100 polyps and those with >100 polyps (p = 8.154 × 10 -7 ), with APC mutations being associated with an aggressive phenotype (p = 1.279 × 10 -9 ). Mean age at diagnosis was lower in FAP/AFAP compared to MAP (p = 3.055 × 10 -4 ). Mutation-negative probands showed a mean age at diagnosis that was significantly higher than FAP/AFAP (p = 3.46986 × 10 -7 ) and included 45.3% of patients with <30 polyps and 70.9% of patients with no family history. This study enlarges the APC and MUTYH mutational spectra, and also evaluated variants of uncertain significance, including the MUTYH p.Gln338His mutation. Moreover this study underscores the phenotypic heterogeneity and genotype-phenotype correlations in a cohort of Italian patients.

  19. Predictive gene signatures: molecular markers distinguishing colon adenomatous polyp and carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice E Drew

    Full Text Available Cancers exhibit abnormal molecular signatures associated with disease initiation and progression. Molecular signatures could improve cancer screening, detection, drug development and selection of appropriate drug therapies for individual patients. Typically only very small amounts of tissue are available from patients for analysis and biopsy samples exhibit broad heterogeneity that cannot be captured using a single marker. This report details application of an in-house custom designed GenomeLab System multiplex gene expression assay, the hCellMarkerPlex, to assess predictive gene signatures of normal, adenomatous polyp and carcinoma colon tissue using archived tissue bank material. The hCellMarkerPlex incorporates twenty-one gene markers: epithelial (EZR, KRT18, NOX1, SLC9A2, proliferation (PCNA, CCND1, MS4A12, differentiation (B4GANLT2, CDX1, CDX2, apoptotic (CASP3, NOX1, NTN1, fibroblast (FSP1, COL1A1, structural (ACTG2, CNN1, DES, gene transcription (HDAC1, stem cell (LGR5, endothelial (VWF and mucin production (MUC2. Gene signatures distinguished normal, adenomatous polyp and carcinoma. Individual gene targets significantly contributing to molecular tissue types, classifier genes, were further characterised using real-time PCR, in-situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry revealing aberrant epithelial expression of MS4A12, LGR5 CDX2, NOX1 and SLC9A2 prior to development of carcinoma. Identified gene signatures identify aberrant epithelial expression of genes prior to cancer development using in-house custom designed gene expression multiplex assays. This approach may be used to assist in objective classification of disease initiation, staging, progression and therapeutic responses using biopsy material.

  20. Pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Guerra, Yohani; Molina Cuevas, Vivian; Oyarzabal Yera, Ambar; Mas Ferreiro, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease in over 50 years-old men consisting in uncontrolled and benign growth of prostatic gland that leads to lower urinary tract symptoms. The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia is multifactoral involving the increased conversion of testosterone in dihydrotestosterone by the prostatic 5α-reductase action, which brought about events that encourage the prostate growth (static component) and the increase of the bladder and prostate smooth muscle tone (dynamic component) regulated by the aα 1 -adrenoceptors (ADR). The pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia includes the prostatic 5aα-reductase inhibitors, the aα 1 -adrenoreceptor blockers, their combined therapy and the phytotherapy. This paper was aimed at presenting the most relevant aspects of the pharmacology of drugs used for treating the benign prostatic hyperplasia, and providing elements to analyze their efficacy, safety and tolerability. To this end, a review was made of the different drugs for the treatment of this pathology and they were grouped according to their mechanism of action. Natural products were included as lipid extracts from Serenoa repens and Pygeum africanum as well as D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, with proved beneficial effects on the main etiological factors of benign prostatic hyperplasia. D-004 is a prostatic 5a-reductase inhibitor, an aα 1 -adrenoceptor antagonist, aα 5-lipooxygenase inhibitor and has antioxidant action, all of which reveals a multifactoral mechanism. The results achieved till now indicate that D-004 is a safe and well-tolerated product

  1. Thermal coagulation-induced changes of the optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro in the spectral range 400-1100 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao Huilan; Xing Da; Wei Huajiang; Gu Huaimin; Wu Guoyong; Lu Jianjun

    2008-01-01

    The absorption coefficients, the reduced scattering coefficients and the optical penetration depths for native and coagulated human normal and adenomatous colon tissues in vitro were determined over the range of 400-1100 nm using a spectrophotometer with an internal integrating sphere system, and the inverse adding-doubling method was applied to calculate the tissue optical properties from diffuse reflectance and total transmittance measurements. The experimental results showed that in the range of 400-1100 nm there were larger absorption coefficients (P < 0.01) and smaller reduced scattering coefficients (P < 0.01) for adenomatous colon tissues than for normal colon tissues, and there were smaller optical penetration depths for adenomatous colon tissues than for normal colon tissues, especially in the near-infrared wavelength. Thermal coagulation induced significant increase of the absorption coefficients and reduced scattering coefficients for the normal and adenomatous colon tissues, and significantly reduced decrease of the optical penetration depths for the normal and adenomatous colon tissues. The smaller optical penetration depth for coagulated adenomatous colon tissues is a disadvantage for laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). It is necessary to adjust the application parameters of lasers to achieve optimal therapy

  2. Flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia: carcinoma underestimation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingegnoli, Anna; d'Aloia, Cecilia; Frattaruolo, Antonia; Pallavera, Lara; Martella, Eugenia; Crisi, Girolamo; Zompatori, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the underestimation rate of carcinoma upon surgical biopsy after a diagnosis of flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia and 11-gauge vacuum-assisted breast biopsy. A retrospective review was conducted of 476 vacuum-assisted breast biopsy performed from May 2005 to January 2007 and a total of 70 cases of atypia were identified. Fifty cases (71%) were categorized as pure atypical ductal hyperplasia, 18 (26%) as pure flat epithelial atypia and two (3%) as concomitant flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia. Each group were compared with the subsequent open surgical specimens. Surgical biopsy was performed in 44 patients with atypical ductal hyperplasia, 15 patients with flat epithelial atypia, and two patients with flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia. Five cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia were upgraded to ductal carcinoma in situ, three cases of flat epithelial atypia yielded one ductal carcinoma in situ and two cases of invasive ductal carcinoma, and one case of flat epithelial atypia/atypical ductal hyperplasia had invasive ductal carcinoma. The overall rate of malignancy was 16% for atypical ductal hyperplasia (including flat epithelial atypia/atypical ductal hyperplasia patients) and 20% for flat epithelial atypia. The presence of flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia at biopsy requires careful consideration, and surgical excision should be suggested.

  3. Epidemiology of clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Bin Lim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is one of the most common diseases in ageing men and the most common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. The prevalence of BPH increases after the age of 40 years, with a prevalence of 8%–60% at age 90 years. Some data have suggested that there is decreased risk among the Asians compared to the western white population. Genetics, diet and life style may play a role here. Recent reports suggest the strong relationship of clinical BPH with metabolic syndrome and erectile dysfunction, as well as the possible role of inflammation as a cause of the prostatic hyperplasia. Lifestyle changes including exercise and diet are important strategies in controlling this common ailment.

  4. The prevalence of high dysplastic colonic adenomatous polyps in a 3 year endoscopic retrospective study from a single clinical center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru C. Septimiu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many colon neoplastic tumors come from the malignancy of adenomatous polyps (70%-90% that were not timely diagnosed in order to be resected. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study regarding the incidence of adenomatous polyps during 1.000 consecutive colonoscopies performed in our Upper and Lower Digestive Endoscopy Laboratory during a three-year period. Results: During these colonoscopies, some targeted polyps were biopsied or completely removed and the samples had been sent to a complete anatomopathological examination. Taking into consideration the results, the polyps were classified after the histological type and the form of dysplasia, in order to determine the polyp forms that present a high risk of malignancy. Conclusion: Given the rather high frequency of malignant polyps discovered during our study, we highly recommend colonoscopy as a method of choice for routine monitoring of selected cases.

  5. Fibro-epithelial hyperplasia mimicking mucocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, K; Singh, B D; Dubey, A; Avinash, A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of chronic local irritation have been seen commonly in the form of fibroma or mucocele in children. We report a ten year old girl with the chief complaint of swelling in the lower right region of labial mucosa which was diagnosed clinically as mucocele and histologically as fibro-epithelial hyperplasia. Surgical excision was done under local anesthesia with no post-operative complication.

  6. Conditional Deletion of Pten Causes Bronchiolar Hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Davé, Vrushank; Wert, Susan E.; Tanner, Tiffany; Thitoff, Angela R.; Loudy, Dave E.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    Tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid phosphatase that regulates multiple cellular processes including cell polarity, migration, proliferation, and carcinogenesis. In this work, we demonstrate that conditional deletion of Pten (PtenΔ/Δ) in the respiratory epithelial cells of the developing mouse lung caused epithelial cell proliferation and hyperplasia as early as 4 to 6 weeks of age. While bronchiolar cell differentiation was normal, as in...

  7. Metformin for endometrial hyperplasia: a Cochrane protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Naomi S; Oliver, Thomas R W; Shiwani, Hunain; Saner, Juliane R F; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Atiomo, William

    2016-08-16

    Endometrial hyperplasia is a precancerous lesion of the endometrium, commonly presenting with uterine bleeding. If managed expectantly, it frequently progresses to endometrial carcinoma, rates of which are increasing dramatically worldwide. However, the established treatment for endometrial hyperplasia (progestogens) involves multiple side effects and leaves the risk of recurrence. Metformin is the most commonly used oral hypoglycaemic agent in type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has also been linked to the reversal of endometrial hyperplasia and may therefore contribute to decreasing the prevalence of endometrial carcinoma without the fertility and side effect consequences of current therapies. However, the efficacy and safety of metformin being used for this therapeutic target is unclear and, therefore, this systematic review will aim to determine this. We will search the following trials and databases with no language restrictions: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; PubMed; Google Scholar; ClinicalTrials.gov; the WHO International Trials Registry Platform portal; OpenGrey and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS). We will include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of use of metformin compared with a placebo or no treatment, conventional medical treatment (eg, progestogens) or any other active intervention. Two review authors will independently assess the trial eligibility, risk of bias and extract appropriate data points. Trial authors will be contacted for additional data. The primary review outcome is the regression of endometrial hyperplasia histology towards normal histology. Secondary outcomes include hysterectomy rate; abnormal uterine bleeding; quality of life scores and adverse reactions to treatments. Dissemination of the completed review will be through the Cochrane

  8. Low-level APC mutational mosaicism is the underlying cause in a substantial fraction of unexplained colorectal adenomatous polyposis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spier, Isabel; Drichel, Dmitriy; Kerick, Martin; Kirfel, Jutta; Horpaopan, Sukanya; Laner, Andreas; Holzapfel, Stefanie; Peters, Sophia; Adam, Ronja; Zhao, Bixiao; Becker, Tim; Lifton, Richard P; Perner, Sven; Hoffmann, Per; Kristiansen, Glen; Timmermann, Bernd; Nöthen, Markus M; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Schweiger, Michal R; Aretz, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    In 30-50% of patients with colorectal adenomatous polyposis, no germline mutation in the known genes APC, causing familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH, causing MUTYH-associated polyposis, or POLE or POLD1, causing polymerase-proofreading-associated polyposis can be identified, although a hereditary aetiology is likely. This study aimed to explore the impact of APC mutational mosaicism in unexplained polyposis. To comprehensively screen for somatic low-level APC mosaicism, high-coverage next-generation sequencing of the APC gene was performed using DNA from leucocytes and a total of 53 colorectal tumours from 20 unrelated patients with unexplained sporadic adenomatous polyposis. APC mosaicism was assumed if the same loss-of-function APC mutation was present in ≥ 2 anatomically separated colorectal adenomas/carcinomas per patient. All mutations were validated using diverse methods. In 25% (5/20) of patients, somatic mosaicism of a pathogenic APC mutation was identified as underlying cause of the disease. In 2/5 cases, the mosaic level in leucocyte DNA was slightly below the sensitivity threshold of Sanger sequencing; while in 3/5 cases, the allelic fraction was either very low (0.1-1%) or no mutations were detectable. The majority of mosaic mutations were located outside the somatic mutation cluster region of the gene. The present data indicate a high prevalence of pathogenic mosaic APC mutations below the detection thresholds of routine diagnostics in adenomatous polyposis, even if high-coverage sequencing of leucocyte DNA alone is taken into account. This has important implications for both routine work-up and strategies to identify new causative genes in this patient group. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Kane, Christopher; Shinohara, Katsuto; Neuhaus, John; Hudes, Esther S; Goldberg, Harley; Avins, Andrew L

    2006-02-09

    Saw palmetto is used by over 2 million men in the United States for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and is commonly recommended as an alternative to drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration. In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 225 men over the age of 49 years who had moderate-to-severe symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia to one year of treatment with saw palmetto extract (160 mg twice a day) or placebo. The primary outcome measures were changes in the scores on the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI) and the maximal urinary flow rate. Secondary outcome measures included changes in prostate size, residual urinary volume after voiding, quality of life, laboratory values, and the rate of reported adverse effects. There was no significant difference between the saw palmetto and placebo groups in the change in AUASI scores (mean difference, 0.04 point; 95 percent confidence interval, -0.93 to 1.01), maximal urinary flow rate (mean difference, 0.43 ml per minute; 95 percent confidence interval, -0.52 to 1.38), prostate size, residual volume after voiding, quality of life, or serum prostate-specific antigen levels during the one-year study. The incidence of side effects was similar in the two groups. In this study, saw palmetto did not improve symptoms or objective measures of benign prostatic hyperplasia. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00037154.). Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  10. Rh-I-UEA-1 Polymerized Liposomes Target and Image Adenomatous Polyps in the APCMin/+ Mouse Using Optical Colonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste A. Roney

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutated adenomatous polyposis coli (APC genes predispose transformations to neoplasia, progressing to colorectal carcinoma. Early detection facilitates clinical management and therapy. Novel lectin-mediated polymerized targeted liposomes (Rh-I-UEA-1, with polyp specificity and incorporated imaging agents were fabricated to locate and image adenomatous polyps in APCMin/+ mice. The biomarker α-l-fucose covalently joins the liposomal conjugated lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA-1, via glycosidic linkage to the polyp mucin layer. Multispectral optical imaging (MSI corroborated a global perspective of specific binding (rhodamine B 532 nm emission, 590–620 nm excitation of targeted Rh-I-UEA-1 polymerized liposomes to polyps with 1.4-fold labeling efficiency. High-resolution coregistered optical coherence tomography (OCT and fluorescence molecular imaging (FMI reveal the spatial correlation of contrast distribution and tissue morphology. Freshly excised APCMin bowels were incubated with targeted liposomes (UEA-1 lectin, control liposomes (no lectin, or iohexol (Omnipaque and imaged by the three techniques. Computed tomographic quantitative analyses did not confirm that targeted liposomes more strongly bound polyps than nontargeted liposomes or iohexol (Omnipaque alone. OCT, with anatomic depth capabilities, along with the coregistered FMI, substantiated Rh-I-UEA-1 liposome binding along the mucinous polyp surface. UEA-1 lectin denotes α-l-fucose biomarker carbohydrate expression at the mucin glycoprotein layer; Rh-I-UEA-1 polymerized liposomes target and image adenomatous polyps in APCMin mice.

  11. [Rare indication of cephalic duodenopancreatectomy with total gastrectomy--periampullary carcinoma in moderate form of familial adenomatous polyposis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stănciulea, Oana; Preda, Carmen; Herlea, V; Popa, Monica; Ulmeanu, D; Vasilescu, C

    2007-01-01

    We present the case of a 52 years old man, with significant familial history, diagnosed with familial adenomatous polyposis-attenuated form, with no clinical and endoscopic surveillance until 2001 when he was admitted for an upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage episode. Upper gastrointestinal scopy revealed duodenal adenomatous polyps and gastric hyperplastic polyps. The patient underwent duodenopancreatectomy with total gastrectomy. The histopathological exam revealed duodenal G2 adenocarcinoma pT3N0, and gastric hyperplastic polyps with no signs of dysplasia. The surgical procedure was followed by chemotherapy. In 2002 the patient was admitted for rectal bleeding and colonoscopy showed 2 sigmoid polyps, appropriate for endoscopic removal and a poly-lobate polyp in the transverse colon. The patient underwent transverse colectomy (the histopathological exam--in situ carcinoma). March 2003--the patient underwent endoscopic removal for a rectal polyp (histopathological exam: moderate dysplasia). In 2005 was noted a pulmonary nodule, located in the postero-apical segment of upper left lobe, for which left superior lobe resection was performed (the histopathological exam: metastatic adenocarcinoma). In May 2006 was performed an exploratory laparotomy. Intraoperatively were noted: peritoneal carcinomatosis and multiple liver metastasis. The surgical procedure recommended in patients with attenuated form of familial adenomatous polyposis and suspect periampullary lesions is duodenopancreatectomy. The particularity of the case is the association of total gastrectomy for gastric hyperplastic polyps.

  12. Aspirin augments the expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein by suppression of IKKβ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashida, Noboru; Kishihata, Masako; Tien, Dat Nguyen; Kamei, Kaeko; Kimura, Takeshi; Yokode, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Clinical studies revealed aspirin inhibits cancer, but the mechanism is not known. • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a well-known tumor-suppressing gene. • We found aspirin up-regulates the protein of APC. • Aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, an essential kinase in NFκB activation. • The deletion of IKKβ significantly increases the expression of APC protein. - Abstract: Aspirin has been widely used as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory medicine for long. In addition to these traditional effects, clinical studies suggest that aspirin can protect against cancer, but its mechanism has not been explored. To unveil it, we identified the proteins up- or down-regulated after incubation with aspirin by using proteomics analysis with Nano-flow LC/MALDI-TOF system. Interestingly, the analysis identified the protein of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) as one of the most up-regulated protein. APC regulates cell proliferation or angiogenesis, and is widely known as a tumor-suppressing gene which can cause colorectal cancer when it is mutated. Western blots confirmed this result, and real-time PCR indicated it is transcriptionally regulated. We further tried to elucidate the molecular mechanism with focusing on IKKβ. IKKβ is the essential kinase in activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), major transcriptional factors that regulate genes responsible for inflammation or immune response. Previous reports indicated that aspirin specifically inhibits IKKβ activity, and constitutively active form of IKKβ accelerates APC loss. We found that aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, and the deletion of IKKβ by siRNA increases the expression of APC in HEK294 cells. Finally, we observed similar effects of aspirin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these results reveal that aspirin up-regulates the expression of APC via the suppression of IKKβ. This can be a mechanism how aspirin prevents cancer at

  13. Aspirin augments the expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein by suppression of IKKβ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashida, Noboru, E-mail: nashida@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kishihata, Masako [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tien, Dat Nguyen [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kamei, Kaeko [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kimura, Takeshi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Yokode, Masayuki [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • Clinical studies revealed aspirin inhibits cancer, but the mechanism is not known. • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a well-known tumor-suppressing gene. • We found aspirin up-regulates the protein of APC. • Aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, an essential kinase in NFκB activation. • The deletion of IKKβ significantly increases the expression of APC protein. - Abstract: Aspirin has been widely used as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory medicine for long. In addition to these traditional effects, clinical studies suggest that aspirin can protect against cancer, but its mechanism has not been explored. To unveil it, we identified the proteins up- or down-regulated after incubation with aspirin by using proteomics analysis with Nano-flow LC/MALDI-TOF system. Interestingly, the analysis identified the protein of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) as one of the most up-regulated protein. APC regulates cell proliferation or angiogenesis, and is widely known as a tumor-suppressing gene which can cause colorectal cancer when it is mutated. Western blots confirmed this result, and real-time PCR indicated it is transcriptionally regulated. We further tried to elucidate the molecular mechanism with focusing on IKKβ. IKKβ is the essential kinase in activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), major transcriptional factors that regulate genes responsible for inflammation or immune response. Previous reports indicated that aspirin specifically inhibits IKKβ activity, and constitutively active form of IKKβ accelerates APC loss. We found that aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, and the deletion of IKKβ by siRNA increases the expression of APC in HEK294 cells. Finally, we observed similar effects of aspirin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these results reveal that aspirin up-regulates the expression of APC via the suppression of IKKβ. This can be a mechanism how aspirin prevents cancer at

  14. [Primary hyperaldosteronism due to unilateral adrenal hyperplasia with surgical resolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Puchol, O; Garzón-Pastor, S; Salom-Vendrell, C; Hernández-Mijares, A

    Unilateral adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause of primary hyperaldosteronism (around a 3%) that has surgical treatment. A case of a patient with hypertension resistant to conventional therapy in treatment with 7 drugs who presented with primary hyperaldosteronism due to unilateral adrenal hyperplasia is presented. A left adrenalectomy was performed, and the patient had a good clinical response, with no need of any drug after 2 years of surgery. Unilateral adrenal hyperplasia is a different entity and it is not an asymmetric variant of the bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. In the study of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism and imaging tests with absence of adenoma is a diagnosis that must be considered before cataloguing patients with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and start a medical treatment, because unilateral adrenal hyperplasia would have a surgical resolution. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Denture hyperplasia with areas simulating oral inverted ductal papilloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz; Jorge, Jacks; Rangel, Ana Lúcia Carrinho Ayrosa; León, Jorge Esquiche; Almeida, Oslei Paes de

    2005-07-01

    Denture hyperplasia is a reactive lesion of the oral mucosa, usually associated to an ill-fitting denture. This lesion is easily diagnosed and in some cases distinct microscopic variations such as osseous, oncocytic and squamous metaplasia may be found. These metaplastic alterations probably are associated with the lymphocytic infiltrate usually present in denture hyperplasia. We present a case of denture hyperplasia containing salivary gland tissue with ductal alterations mimicking an oral inverted ductal papilloma.

  16. Multidetector-row CT duodenography in familial adenomatous polyposis: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.A.; Halligan, S.; Moore, L.; Saunders, B.P.; Gallagher, M.; Phillips, R.K.S.; Bartram, C.I.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility of using multidetector-row computed tomography (CT) duodenography to stage duodenal polyposis in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six patients underwent multidetector-row CT duodenography before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. A single-blinded radiologist used a surface shaded three-dimensional endoluminal fly though and two-dimensional axial and multiplanar reformats to assign a score for maximum polyp size and number based on the Spigelman classification. Comparison was made with the corresponding Spigelman scores obtained from subsequent endoscopy. RESULTS: CT duodenography was technically successful in five of six patients. The CT derived Spigelman score based on maximum polyp size was accurate in all five patients. The CT derived Spigelman score based on polyp number was accurate in only two cases: Polyp number was overestimated in one patient and underestimated in a further two. In retrospect, fine carpeting of tiny duodenal polyps was poorly visualized with CT. CONCLUSIONS: CT duodenography is technically feasible and accurately predicts maximum polyp size but CT estimates of polyp number are relatively inaccurate. CT duodenography potentially has a useful role for duodenal surveillance in those patients intolerant of conventional endoscopy

  17. Two Metachronous Neoplasms in the Radiotherapy Fields of a Young Man With Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A. Williams BS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is recognized that various radiation-induced malignancies often follow childhood radiotherapy. Radiation-induced neoplasms have been shown to occur with increased frequency in syndromes due to mutated tumor suppressor genes. There exist no recommendations for the management of cancer patients with germline APC gene mutations. Preclinical data suggest that APC gene mutations cause enhanced radiosensitivity, but no clinical observations exist that show that patients with this mutation are at higher risk for radiation-induced malignancies. Results: We report the case of a 32-year-old man with a genetic diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP who initially presented at age 10 with a medulloblastoma treated with radiotherapy and surgery. Radiation-induced papillary thyroid carcinoma followed 13 years later. Finally, radiation-induced soft tissue osteosarcoma occurred with widespread metastasis 20 years thereafter. Conclusions: This is the first report of 2 malignancies in the prior radiotherapy fields of a patient with a genetic diagnosis of FAP. More important, this suggests that APC-defective cells are at an enhanced sensitivity to the carcinogenic effects of radiotherapy compared with APC-proficient cells. This could argue for genetic screening in affected members of these families and for creation of treatment recommendations to more seriously consider the risks of radiation therapy.

  18. Current status of prophylactic surgical treatment for familial adenomatous polyposis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamadera, Masato; Ueno, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hirotoshi; Konishi, Tsuyoshi; Ishida, Fumio; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Hinoi, Takao; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Tomita, Naohiro; Ishida, Hideyuki; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2017-06-01

    We conducted this study to clarify the current clinical practice of prophylactic colectomy for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) in Japan. This retrospective multi-center cohort study involved 23 specialized institutions for colorectal disease in Japan. We analyzed the records of 147 patients who underwent prophylactic surgical treatment between 2000 and 2012. Patients were divided into Group 1 (2000-2006) and Group 2 (2007-2012) based on their date of surgery. Age at the time of prophylactic surgery was 27 and 31 years in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. The proportion of attenuated FAP was significantly lower in Group 2 than in Group 1 (1.0 vs. 13 %, respectively). Pathological examination revealed an increased incidence of malignant polyps in the resected specimens from Group 2 patients (10 vs. 23 %, respectively; P = 0.034). Laparoscopic surgery was more frequent in Group 2 than in Group 1 (61 vs. 40 %, respectively). There was no surgical mortality in either group. Prophylactic surgery for FAP results in good short-term surgical outcomes in Japan. The current surgical approach is characterized by limited surgical indications for patients with attenuated FAP, delayed timing of colectomy, and the increasing standardization of laparoscopic surgery.

  19. Clinical and genetic characterization of classical forms of familial adenomatous polyposis: a Spanish population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, B; González, S; Sánchez-Tomé, E; Blanco, I; Mercadillo, F; Letón, R; Benítez, J; Robledo, M; Capellá, G; Urioste, M

    2011-04-01

    Classical familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterized by the appearance of >100 colorectal adenomas. We screened the APC and MUTYH genes for mutations and evaluated the genotype-phenotype correlation in 136 Spanish classical FAP families. APC/MUTYH mutations were detected in 107 families. Sixty-four distinct APC point mutations were detected in 95 families of which all were truncating mutations. A significant proportion (39.6%) had not been previously reported. Mutations were spread over the entire coding region and great rearrangements were identified in six families. Another six families exhibited biallelic MUTYH mutations. No APC or MUTYH mutations were detected in 29 families. These APC/MUTYH-negative families showed clinical differences with the APC-positive families. A poor correlation between phenotype and mutation site was observed. Our results highlight that a broad approach in the genetic study must be considered for classical FAP due to involvement of both APC and MUTYH and the heterogeneous spectrum of APC mutations observed in this Spanish population. The scarcely consistent genotype-phenotype correlation does not allow making specific recommendations regarding screening and management. Differences observed in APC/MUTYH-negative families may reflect a genetic basis other than mutations in APC and MUTYH genes for FAP predisposition. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology.

  20. Primary extradural meningioma arising from the calvarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ravi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas are the most common intracranial tumours. Meningiomas arising at other locations are termed primary extradural meningiomas (EDM and are rare. Here we report a case of EDM arising from the calvarium – a primary calvarial meningioma (PCM.

  1. Esophageal leiomyoma arising in an epiphrenic diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, S.

    1988-01-01

    A 32-year old woman was found at surgery to have an esophageal leiomyoma arising within an epiphrenic diverticulum. These uncommon conditions may rarely occur together, causing difficulty in diagnosis of the leiomyoma. Other neoplasms may also arise in an epiphrenic diverticulum and should be borne in mind in this situation. (orig.)

  2. Hypophysiary hyperplasia secondary to primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Jorge; Polania, Diana Ligia; Builes, Carlos Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    This is a 43 years old woman, complaining of galactorhea, headache and hyperprolactinaemia. A large macro adenoma of the pituitary with extensive suprasellar extension and displacement of the optic chiasm was detected on MRI and primary hypothyroidism was found. After treatment with levothyroxine for four months, her TSH and prolactin levels returned to normal, her symptoms improved and a marked shrinkage of the selar lesion was observed. The visual fields returned to normal. This is a case of pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism

  3. Urodynamic implications of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K M; Andersen, J T

    1990-01-01

    By the age of 60, about 70% of men have developed benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and 85%-95% of these have symptomatic dysfunction of the lower urinary tract, 10%-20% undergoing prostatectomy. Although transurethral resection of the prostate is generally considered to be a safe and effective...... instability has no bearing on the postoperative result. Measurement of urinary flow, in contrast, is of predictive value in BPH, patients in whom the maximum urinary flow before surgery is more than 15 ml/s having significantly worse results of surgery than those with a maximum urinary flow of less than 15 ml...

  4. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; New, Maria I

    2016-06-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a monogenic disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis. To prevent genital ambiguity, in girls, prenatal dexamethasone treatment is administered early in the first trimester. Prenatal genetic diagnosis of CAH and fetal sex determination identify affected female fetuses at risk for genital virilization. Advancements in prenatal diagnosis are owing to improved understanding of the genetic basis of CAH and improved technology. Cloning of the CYP21A2 gene ushered in molecular genetic analysis as the current standard of care. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis allows for targeted treatment and avoids unnecessary treatment of males and unaffected females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Androgen receptor and immune inflammation in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kouji; Li, Lei; Chang, Chawnshang

    2014-01-01

    Both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa) are frequent diseases in middle-aged to elderly men worldwide. While both diseases are linked to abnormal growth of the prostate, the epidemiological and pathological features of these two prostate diseases are different. BPH nodules typically arise from the transitional zone, and, in contrast, PCa arises from the peripheral zone. Androgen deprivation therapy alone may not be sufficient to cure these two prostatic diseases due to its undesirable side effects. The alteration of androgen receptor-mediated inflammatory signals from infiltrating immune cells and prostate stromal/epithelial cells may play key roles in those unwanted events. Herein, this review will focus on the roles of androgen/androgen receptor signals in the inflammation-induced progression of BPH and PCa. PMID:26594314

  6. Unilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia: Case series | Kot | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Nodular adrenal hyperplasia is one of rare causes of adrenocortical hyperplasia. The disease usually presents bilaterally. Few publications discussed the possibility of unilateral disease, in association with hyperaldosteronism or Cushing syndrome. Case series: We are reporting 3 cases of radiologically ...

  7. Amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia in chronic renal failure: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amlodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that is used in the management of both hypertension and angina. Amlodipine induced side effects are headache, dizziness, edema, flushing, palpitations, and rarely gingival hyperplasia. The exact reason of amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia is not known.

  8. An extensive denture‑induced hyperplasia of maxilla | Veena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elimination of the inflammation and excision of the lesion is the treatment of choice. Denture induced hyperplasia in right maxillary buccal vestibule in a middle age old female patient was presented. Surgical excision was done and new denture was fabricated. Keywords: Denture hyperplasia, Denture, Epulis fissuratum ...

  9. Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia of Orbit in Young Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia of Orbit in Young Male. Somen Misra, Akshay Bhandari, Sagar Chaudhari, Neeta Misra, Pratik Gogri, Parag Tupe. Abstract. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is an uncommon benign clinical entity characterized by the presence of a variable number of ...

  10. Case Report: Giant Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in a Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (GBPH) is an uncommon pathology of the prostate gland. Up to date, only 17 cases have been described with specimen weights exceeding 500 g in the world literature. We report the successful removal of the largest ever benign prostatic hyperplasia (800 g) via transvesical prostatectomy ...

  11. Cyclooxygenase 2 Promotes Parathyroid Hyperplasia in ESRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Qiu, Junsi; Li, Haiming; Lu, Yanwen; Wang, Xiaoyun; Yang, Junwei; Wang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Liyin; Gu, Yong; Hao, Chuan-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the PTG underlies the secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) observed in CKD, but the mechanism underlying this hyperplasia is incompletely understood. Because aberrant cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression promotes epithelial cell proliferation, we examined the effects of COX2 on the parathyroid gland in uremia. In patients with ESRD who underwent parathyroidectomy, clusters of cells within the parathyroid glands had increased COX2 expression. Some COX2-positive cells exhibited two nuclei, consistent with proliferation. Furthermore, nearly 78% of COX2-positive cells expressed proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In the 5/6-nephrectomy rat model, rats fed a high-phosphate diet had significantly higher serum PTH levels and larger parathyroid glands than sham-operated rats. Compared with controls, the parathyroid glands of uremic rats exhibited more PCNA-positive cells and greater COX2 expression in the chief cells. Treatment with COX2 inhibitor celecoxib significantly reduced PCNA expression, attenuated serum PTH levels, and reduced the size of the glands. In conclusion, COX2 promotes the pathogenesis of hyperparathyroidism in ESRD, suggesting that inhibiting the COX2 pathway could be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:21335517

  12. Laparoscopic Partial Hepatectomy of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Sakata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Focal nodular hyperplasia is a benign liver lesion incidentally discovered with increasing frequency because of the proliferation of imaging studies. Radiographic characterization can diagnose this pathologic lesion and nonoperative therapy is the standard of care. However, surgical resection may be required for diagnostic reasons or symptomatic patients. Depending on the anatomic location of the lesion, biopsy and/or resection can be performed laparoscopically. We herein report the case of a 26-year-old Japanese woman with a hepatic tumor who required a medical examination. Her medical history was negative for alcohol abuse, oral contraceptive administration and trauma. Clinical examination showed no significant symptoms. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass located in the left lateral segment of the liver with a diameter of about 40 mm. It was difficult to diagnose the tumor definitively from these imaging studies, so we performed laparoscopic partial hepatectomy with successive firing of endoscopic staplers. The histopathological diagnosis was focal nodular hyperplasia. Surgical procedures and postoperative course were uneventful and the patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 5.

  13. Conditional deletion of Pten causes bronchiolar hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davé, Vrushank; Wert, Susan E; Tanner, Tiffany; Thitoff, Angela R; Loudy, Dave E; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2008-03-01

    Tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid phosphatase that regulates multiple cellular processes including cell polarity, migration, proliferation, and carcinogenesis. In this work, we demonstrate that conditional deletion of Pten (Pten(Delta/Delta)) in the respiratory epithelial cells of the developing mouse lung caused epithelial cell proliferation and hyperplasia as early as 4 to 6 weeks of age. While bronchiolar cell differentiation was normal, as indicated by beta-tubulin and FOXJ1 expression in ciliated cells and by CCSP expression in nonciliated cells, cell proliferation (detected by expression of Ki-67, phospho-histone-H3, and cyclin D1) was increased and associated with activation of the AKT/mTOR survival pathway. Deletion of Pten caused papillary epithelial hyperplasia characterized by a hypercellular epithelium lining papillae with fibrovascular cores that protruded into the airway lumens. Cell polarity, as assessed by subcellular localization of cadherin, beta-catenin, and zonula occludens-1, was unaltered. PTEN is required for regulation of epithelial cell proliferation in the lung and for the maintenance of the normal simple columnar epithelium characteristics of bronchi and bronchioles.

  14. Attitudes toward genetic testing in childhood and reproductive decision-making for familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, Kirsten F L; Aaronson, Neil K; Vasen, Hans F A; Verhoef, Senno; Gundy, Chad M; Bleiker, Eveline M A

    2010-02-01

    Childhood DNA testing, prenatal diagnosis (PND) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) are available for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). However, the use of PND and PGD is controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes toward, and experiences with, childhood DNA testing, PND and PGD among members of families at high risk for FAP. In this nationwide, cross-sectional study, questionnaires were sent to individuals from families at high risk for FAP assessing attitudes toward and experiences with childhood testing, PND and PGD, as well as several sociodemographic, clinical and psychosocial variables. Of the individuals from FAP families invited to participate in the study, 525 members participated (response rate=64%). Most parents who had children who were minors (n=93) (82%) were satisfied with the DNA testing procedure. One-third of all individuals wanted DNA testing for their children before age 12. Forty percent of FAP patients indicated that the disease influenced their desire to have children. Only 15% considered termination of pregnancy for FAP acceptable. Approximately 30% of individuals with a FAP diagnosis and their partners considered PND and PGD as acceptable for themselves. A positive attitude was associated with higher levels of guilt and a positive attitude toward termination of pregnancy. Importantly, of those with FAP at childbearing age, 84% had had no previous information at all about either PND or PGD. Future efforts should be aimed at educating FAP family members about reproductive options, allowing them to make an informed choice about family planning. Routine discussion of all reproductive options with a medical specialist should be encouraged.

  15. Issues arising in applying the BSS concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.

    1997-01-01

    The following issues are discussed arising in applying the basic safety standard concepts: terminology, naturally occurring radionuclides, the exemption and clearance levels, management of very low level wastes, transboundary movements, the waste convention

  16. Adenoid basal hyperplasia of the uterine cervix: a lesion of reserve cell type, distinct from adenoid basal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdraon, Olivier; Cornélius, Aurélie; Farine, Marie-Odile; Boulanger, Loïc; Wacrenier, Agnès

    2012-12-01

    Adenoid basal hyperplasia is an underrecognized cervical lesion, resembling adenoid basal carcinoma, except the absence of deep invasion into the stroma. We report a series of 10 cases, all extending less than 1 mm from the basement membrane. Our results support the hypothesis that adenoid basal hyperplasia arises from reserve cells of the cervix. Lesions were found close to the squamocolumnar junction, in continuity with the nearby subcolumnar reserve cells. They shared the same morphology and immunoprofile using a panel of 4 antibodies (keratin 5/6, keratin 14, keratin 7 and p63) designed to differentiate reserve cells from mature squamous cells and endocervical columnar cells. We detected no human papillomavirus infection by in situ hybridization targeting high-risk human papillomavirus, which was concordant with the absence of immunohistochemical p16 expression. We demonstrated human papillomavirus infection in 4 (80%) of 5 adenoid basal carcinoma, which is in the same range as previous studies (88%). Thus, adenoid basal hyperplasia should be distinguished from adenoid basal carcinoma because they imply different risk of human papillomavirus infection and of subsequent association with high-grade invasive carcinoma. In our series, the most reliable morphological parameters to differentiate adenoid basal hyperplasia from adenoid basal carcinoma were the depth of the lesion and the size of the lesion nests. Furthermore, squamous differentiation was rare in adenoid basal hyperplasia and constant in adenoid basal carcinoma. Finally, any mitotic activity and/or an increase of Ki67 labeling index should raise the hypothesis of adenoid basal carcinoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Management of benign prostatic hyperplasia with silodosin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Yamanishi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Tomonori Yamanishi1, Tomoya Mizuno1, Takao Kamai1, Ken-ichiro Yoshida1, Ryuji Sakakibara2, Tomoyuki Uchiyama31Department of Urology, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi, Japan; 2Department of Neurology, Sakura Hospital, Toho University, Toho, Japan; 3Department of Neurology, Chiba University, Chiba, JapanAbstract: It has been reported that blockade of α1A-adrenoceptor (AR relieves bladder outlet obstruction, while blockade of α1D-AR is believed to alleviate storage symptoms due to detrusor overactivity. Silodosin, (--1-(3-hydroxypropyl-5-[(2R-2-({2-[2-(2,2,2trifluoroethoxy phenoxy]ethyl}aminopropyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole-7- carboxamide, is a new α1A-AR selective antagonist. Silodosin is highly selective for the α1A-AR subtype, showing an affinity for the α1A-AR that is 583- and 55.5-fold higher than its affinity for the α1B- and α1D-ARs, respectively. In randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III studies performed in Japan and the United States, silodosin has been shown to be effective for both storage and voiding symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Early effects of silodosin (after 2–6 hours or day 1 on lower urinary tract symptoms have also been reported. In urodynamic studies, detrusor overactivity disappeared in 40% and improved in 35% of patients after administration. In pressure flow studies, the grade of obstruction on the International Continence Society nomogram showed improvement in 56% of patients. The rate of adverse events in the silodosin, tamsulosin and placebo groups was 88.6%, 82.3%, and 71.6%, respectively. The most common adverse event was (mostly mild abnormal ejaculation (28.1%. However, few patients (2.8% discontinued silodosin because of abnormal ejaculation. Orthostatic hypotension showed a similar incidence in the silodosin (2.6% and placebo (1.5% groups. In conclusion, silodosin improves detrusor overactivity and obstruction and thus may be effective for both storage and voiding

  18. Prevalence of clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.W. Ojewola

    2017-04-29

    Apr 29, 2017 ... Subjects and methods: This is a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted ... and BPH among countries, possibly arising from cultural or lin- ..... reported prevalence 21.0% in Jeju Island, South Korea [5] and of.

  19. Giant fibroadenomatoid hyperplasia of the breast: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xin-Lu; Ren, Wei-Dong; Shi, Tie-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Fibroadenomatoid hyperplasia of the breast (FAHB) is a rare benign breast lesion and its clinical features are similar to fibroadenoma and fibrocystic changes. FAHB has been previously termed sclerosing lobular hyperplasia, fibroadenomatosis, fibroadenomatoid change, or fibroadenomatoid mastopathy. Typically, FAHB is derived from stroma and epithelia. The pathologic characteristics of FAHB are microfocal lobulocentric proliferation of stroma accompanied by epithelial and myoepithelial components resembling similar histological changes, as found in fibroadenoma, apocrine hyperplasia, intraductal hyperplasia, and lobular hyperplasia. FAHB could be present as a localized or diffused pattern in pathology. Most cases show no well-circumscribed mass lesions and no apparent capsules; it is usually identified as an incidental finding in other benign lesions or in random sampling in cancerous breast tissues. FAHB is categorized as a benign proliferative breast disease and it has previously been reported; however, the authors believe this study may be the first case with two giant masses reported. Fiber adenoma hyperplasia is a rare cystic hyperplasia of breast pathology and its ultrasonographic manifestations are easily confused with breast cancer. Comparative MRI ultrasound analysis will help make the differential diagnosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Saw palmetto and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Edward M; Gerber, Glenn S

    2004-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common health issue that affects 8% of all men at the age of 40, 60% of men in their 70s, and 90% of those greater than 80 years of age. One-fourth of these men will develop moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms that greatly affect their quality of life. Recent evidence suggests that the use of saw palmetto leads to improvements in urinary function for those suffering from BPH. The favorable comparison of saw palmetto with tamsulosin, a well-known first line agent in the treatment of urinary tract symptoms, demonstrates promise towards a beneficial effect of this herbal agent, with very few, if any, adverse effects. However, what degree of this beneficial activity is due to placebo effects is yet to be determined. In addition, the precise mechanism of action of saw palmetto in men with BPH remains unclear.

  1. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Treatment and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Kamoun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH describes a group of autosomal recessive disorders where there is impairment of cortisol biosynthesis. CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency accounts for 95% of cases and shows a wide range of clinical severity. Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapies are the mainstays of treatment of CAH. The optimal treatment for adults with CAH continues to be a challenge. Important long-term health issues for adults with CAH affect both men and women. These issues may either be due to the disease or to steroid treatment and may affect final height, fertility, cardiometabolic risk, bone metabolism, neuro-cognitive development and the quality-of-life. Patients with CAH should be regularly followed-up from childhood to adulthood by multidisciplinary teams who have knowledge of CAH. Optimal replacement therapy, close clinical and laboratory monitoring, early life-style interventions, early and regular fertility assessment and continuous psychological management are needed to improve outcome.

  2. Epithelial hyperplasia in human polycystic kidney diseases. Its role in pathogenesis and risk of neoplasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, J.; Evan, A. P.; Gardner, K. D.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of tubular epithelial hyperplasia in polycystic kidney diseases has become apparent during the last decade. Micropapillary hyperplasia occurs in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, in localized cystic disease, and in acquired cystic disease. Neoplastic or severely dysplastic epithelial hyperplasia occurs in von Hippel-Lindau disease. A histopathologically distinctive epithelial hyperplasia occurs in tuberous sclerosis. In each of these conditions, epithelial hyperplas...

  3. Presence of c.3956delC mutation in familial adenomatous polyposis patients from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Nunes, Caroline Aquino; Alcântara, Diego di Felipe Ávila; Lima-Júnior, Sérgio Figueiredo; Cavalléro, Sandro Roberto de Araújo; Rey, Juan Antonio; Pinto, Giovanny Rebouças; de Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez

    2015-08-21

    To characterize APC gene mutations and correlate them with patient phenotypes in individuals diagnosed with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) in northern Brazil. A total of 15 individuals diagnosed with FAP from 5 different families from the north of Brazil were analyzed in this study. In addition to patients with histopathological diagnosis of FAP, family members who had not developed the disease were also tested in order to identify mutations and for possible genetic counseling. All analyzed patients or their guardians signed a consent form approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the João de Barros Barreto University Hospital (Belem, Brazil). DNA extracted from the peripheral blood of a member of each of the affected families was subjected to direct sequencing. The proband of each family was sequenced to identify germline mutations using the Ion Torrent platform. To validate the detected mutations, Sanger sequencing was also performed. The samples from all patients were also tested for the identification of mutations by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction using the amplification refractory mutation system. Through interviews with relatives and a search of medical records, it was possible to construct genograms for three of the five families included in the study. All 15 patients from the five families with FAP exhibited mutations in the APC gene, and all mutations were detected in exon 15 of the APC gene. In addition to the patients with a histological diagnosis of FAP, family members without disease symptoms showed the mutation in the APC gene. In the present study, we detected two of the three most frequent germline mutations in the literature: the mutation at codon 1309 and the mutation at codon 1061. The presence of c.3956delC mutation was found in all families from this study, and suggests that this mutation was introduced in the population of the State of Pará through ancestor immigration (i.e., a de novo mutation that arose in one

  4. Oestrogen receptor beta isoform expression in sporadic colorectal cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis and progressive stages of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanato Filho, Paulo Roberto; Aguiar Júnior, Samuel; Begnami, Maria Dirlei; Kuasne, Hellen; Spencer, Ranyell Matheus; Nakagawa, Wilson Toshihiko; Bezerra, Tiago Santoro; Kupper, Bruna Catin; Takahashi, Renata Maymi; Barros Filho, Mateus; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; Lopes, Ademar

    2017-11-13

    Among the sex hormones, oestrogen may play a role in colorectal cancer, particularly in conjunction with oestrogen receptor-β (ERβ). The expression of ERβ isoform variants and their correlations with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome and sporadic colorectal carcinomas are poorly described. This study aimed to investigate the expression levels of the ERβ1, ERβ2, ERβ4 and ERβ5 isoform variants using quantitative RT-PCR (921 analyses) in FAP, normal mucosa, adenomatous polyps and sporadic colorectal carcinomas. Decreased expression of ERβ isoforms was identified in sporadic polyps and in sporadic colorectal cancer as well as in polyps from FAP syndrome patients compared with normal tissues (p colorectal carcinomas were compared to normal mucosa tissues. These findings suggest an association of the ERβ isoform variants in individuals affected by germline mutations of the APC gene. Progressively decreased expression of ERβ was found in polyps at early stages of low-grade dysplasia, followed by T1-T2 and T3-T4 tumours (p colorectal cancer, the loss of expression was an independent predictor of recurrence, and ERβ1 and ERβ5 expression levels were associated with better disease-free survival (p = 0.002). These findings may provide a better understanding of oestrogens and their potential preventive and therapeutic effects on sporadic colorectal cancer and cancers associated with FAP syndrome.

  5. Lymphangioma circumscriptum, angiokeratoma, or superficial vascular ectasia with epithelial hyperplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulas, Nikolaos; Tosios, Konstantinos I; Argyris, Prokopios; Koutlas, Ioannis G; Sklavounou, Alexandra

    2014-08-01

    We report a case of lymphangioma circumscriptum (cavernous lymphangioma with epithelial hyperplasia) in a 12-year-old girl, presenting as a papillary tumor on the right dorsal side of her tongue. Microscopic examination found cavernous vascular channels lined by a single layer of CD31(+), podoplanin-positive, CD34(-) endothelial cells that occupied the papillary lamina propria and were accompanied by epithelial hyperplasia. A review of the literature on oral vascular tumors with epithelial hyperplasia, namely, lymphangioma circumscriptum and angiokeratoma, provided information that draws into question the use of these terms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Endometrial hyperplasia in hysteroscopy, Report of 363 cases of hysteroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghahosseyni M

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Hysteroscopy is a new and precise method for evaluating of uterus, so it is valuable in evaluating infertile women. In 18 months, 363 hysteroscopies were done on patients who were visited in IVF center of Shariati Hospital for treatment of infertility. Incidence of abnormal hysteroscopy was 18%. 32% of these abnormal hysteroscopies was endometrial hyperplasia. In evaluating of laparoscopy and other factors of these patients there was a statistically significant relation between diagnosis of PCOD (polycystic ovary disease and endometrial hyperplasia (P<0.008, but there is no significant relation between other diagnoses like endometriosis and endometrial hyperplasia (P<0.4.

  7. Maxillary sinus marrow hyperplasia in sickle cell anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.; Slovis, T.L.; Whitten-Shurney, W.

    1995-01-01

    Marrow hyperplasia is a sequela of sickle cell anemia (SCA) and may be seen in the skull in children after 5 years of age. The facial bones, except for the mandible and orbits, are usually not involved. We report an unusual case of a 28-month-old black boy with SCA who presented with extensive marrow hyperplasia of the maxillary sinuses in addition to severe calvarial and mandibular changes. The imaging characteristics on CT (similar to other sites of marrow hyperplasia) and MR (low signal on both T 1 and T 2 sequences) should aid in making the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  8. Maxillary sinus marrow hyperplasia in sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M; Slovis, T L; Whitten-Shurney, W

    1995-11-01

    Marrow hyperplasia is a sequela of sickle cell anemia (SCA) and may be seen in the skull in children after 5 years of age [1]. The facial bones, except for the mandible and orbits, are usually not involved [1-3]. We report an unusual case of a 28-month-old black boy with SCA who presented with extensive marrow hyperplasia of the maxillary sinuses in addition to severe calvarial and mandibular changes. The imaging characteristics on CT (similar to other sites of marrow hyperplasia) and MR (low signal on both T1 and T2 sequences) should aid in making the correct diagnosis.

  9. Maxillary sinus marrow hyperplasia in sickle cell anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, M. [Dept. of Imaging, Children`s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States); Slovis, T.L. [Dept. of Imaging, Children`s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States); Whitten-Shurney, W. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Children`s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Marrow hyperplasia is a sequela of sickle cell anemia (SCA) and may be seen in the skull in children after 5 years of age. The facial bones, except for the mandible and orbits, are usually not involved. We report an unusual case of a 28-month-old black boy with SCA who presented with extensive marrow hyperplasia of the maxillary sinuses in addition to severe calvarial and mandibular changes. The imaging characteristics on CT (similar to other sites of marrow hyperplasia) and MR (low signal on both T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} sequences) should aid in making the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Fibroadenoma with "immature-like" type of usual ductal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezić, Joško; Karaman, Ivana; Kunac, Nenad

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a case of the breast fibroadenoma with foci of so-called immature variant of the conventional ductal hyperplasia. This type of usual ductal hyperplasia is histologically characterised by encircling intraductal proliferation of large cells with pale to amphophilic cytoplasm and large nuclei which vary in shape and in staining quality of the chromatin. We showed here, using the cytokeratin immunohistochemistry, that the proliferating cells were not of immature but rather mature immunohistochemical phenotype. Because of the presented discordance between immature histology and mature immunohistological profile we suggest that this rare type of usual ductal hyperplasia should be called "immature-like".

  11. Cutaneous osteosarcoma arising from a burn scar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min A.; Yi, Jaehyuck [Kyungpook National University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Jong Min [Kyungpook National University, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Tumors that develop in old burn scars are usually squamous cell carcinomas. Sarcomas have also been reported, albeit rarely. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of an extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising in a prior burn scar reported in the English-language literature, mainly discussing the clinicopathological features. Herein, we present a case of cutaneous osteosarcoma visualized as a mineralized soft-tissue mass arising from the scar associated with a previous skin burn over the back. This seems to be the first report describing the imaging features of a cutaneous osteosarcoma from an old burn scar. (orig.)

  12. MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the urinary bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...

  13. A Case of Adenomyomatous Hyperplasia of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakatsu Numata

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Adenomyomatous hyperplasia is rarely found in the extrahepatic bile duct. A 54-year-old man was referred to our center with a diagnosis of extrahepatic bile duct stenosis which had been detected by endoscopic retrograde choloangiopancreatography. Abdominal computed tomography revealed thickening of the wall of the middle extrahepatic bile duct, however no malignant cells were detected by cytology. Since bile duct carcinoma could not be ruled out, we performed resection of the extrahepatic duct accompanied by lymph node dissection. Histopathologically, the lesion was diagnosed as adenomyomatous hyperplasia of the extrahepatic bile duct. Present and previously reported cases showed the difficulty of making a diagnosis of adenomyomatous hyperplasia of the extrahepatic bile duct preoperatively or intraoperatively. Therefore, when adenomyomatous hyperplasia is suspected, a radical surgical procedure according to malignant disease may be necessary for definitive diagnosis.

  14. Amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia in chronic renal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Keywords: Amlodipine, gingival hyperplasia, chronic renal failure. African Health ... for the treatment of hypertension and angina. Pharmacokinetic ... patient appealed to the dentist at first. ... Am Heart J. 1989 Nov; 118(5 Pt 2):. 1100-1103. 2.

  15. MRI evaluation of pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chunjing; Shu Jin'er; Li Huimin; Sheng Sanlan; Lu Jinhua

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the MRI manifestations of the pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism and to improve the differential diagnosis of secondary pituitary hyperplasia and pituitary tumors. Methods: The MRI findings of pituitary hyperplasia in 10 documented primary hypothyroidism patients (male 3, female 7; age range: 9-15 years) were reviewed. The pulse sequences using a 1.0T MR scanner included coronal and sagittal T 1 W, coronal T 2 W and coronal contrast-enhanced T 1 W in all patients. Results: The pituitary gland was markedly enlarged with mean height of 15.5 mm (11-23 mm). Central bulging of pituitary gland was seen in all 10 patients with mild displacement of the infundibulum in 3 and sellar enlargement in 5. All glands had homogeneous MR signal intensities and contrast enhancement. Conclusion: Pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism has characteristic MR features of central bulging with homogeneous signal intensities and contrast enhancement. (authors)

  16. Evaluation of Ovarian Lesions Inducing Endometrial Hyperplasia or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    ovaries featured stromal hyperplasia and 7.7% showed granulosa cell tumor. Only one (1.9%) ... oligomenorrhea and dysfunctional uterine bleeding.[1] Later. Smith et ..... Magnetic resonance imaging findings of ovarian stromal hyperthecosis.

  17. Cellular schwannoma arising from sigmoid mesocolon presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schwannomas are a type of peripheral nerve sheath tumors with clinically indolent behavior. Though, they can occur anywhere in body, the incidence in retroperitoneum, mediastinum, and pelvis is exceedingly rare. We present a case of a 58‑year‑old female with a massive twisted tumor arising from sigmoid mesocolon.

  18. Cellular Schwannoma Arising from Sigmoid Mesocolon Presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schwannomas are a type of peripheral nerve sheath tumors with clinically indolent behavior. Though, they can occur anywhere in body, the incidence in retroperitoneum, mediastinum, and pelvis is exceedingly rare. We present a case of a 58‑year‑old female with a massive twisted tumor arising from sigmoid mesocolon.

  19. ARISE: American renaissance in science education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-14

    The national standards and state derivatives must be reinforced by models of curricular reform. In this paper, ARISE presents one model based on a set of principles--coherence, integration of the sciences, movement from concrete ideas to abstract ones, inquiry, connection and application, sequencing that is responsive to how people learn.

  20. Microinvasive lobular carcinoma arising in a fibroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brian D; Quinn, Cecily M

    2013-08-01

    A 51-year-old woman had a 35 mm circumscribed calcified lesion identified on screening mammography, designated R4. Excision showed a fibroadenoma with multiple foci of lobular neoplasia (atypical lobular hyperplasia and classical lobular carcinoma in situ [LCIS]). A focus of microinvasive lobular carcinoma (MILC) was also present, confirmed on immunohistochemistry. The MILC cells were ER positive, Her-2-negative, and e-cadherin negative. Microinvasive carcinoma, defined as "invasive carcinoma with no focus measuring >1 mm" (TNM UICC 7th edition) is usually encountered in ductal carcinoma in situ but may occur with classical, florid, or pleomorphic LCIS. In one series MILC constituted 0.4% of all invasive lobular carcinomas and was present in 0.4% of all LCIS. MILC is a histologically subtle lesion, the identification of which lends further weight to the concept of lobular neoplasia as a precursor lesion. MILC has been observed in hamartoma but, to our knowledge, has not previously been reported in fibroadenoma.

  1. Paediatric cyclical Cushing's disease due to corticotroph cell hyperplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noctor, E

    2015-06-01

    Cushing\\'s disease is very rare in the paediatric population. Although uncommon, corticotroph hyperplasia causing Cushing\\'s syndrome has been described in the adult population, but appears to be extremely rare in children. Likewise, cyclical cortisol hypersecretion, while accounting for 15 % of adult cases of Cushing\\'s disease, has only rarely been described in the paediatric population. Here, we describe a very rare case of a 13-year old boy with cyclical cortisol hypersecretion secondary to corticotroph cell hyperplasia.

  2. Quality of life after total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis or proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for familial adenomatous polyposis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijvendijk, P.; Slors, J. F.; Taat, C. W.; Oosterveld, P.; Sprangers, M. A.; Obertop, H.; Vasen, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of postoperative health status is important in decision-making about the type of operation necessary in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). This study compared the quality of life (QoL) between patients with an ileorectal anastomosis (group 1) and those with an

  3. Rapidly progressive adenomatous polyposis in a patient with germline mutations in both the APC and MLH1 genes: the worst of two worlds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, R; Rijcken, FE; Koornstra, JJ; Hollema, H; Fodde, R; Menko, F.H.; Sijmons, RH; Bijleveld, CM; Kleibeuker, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    The two most common inherited forms of colorectal cancer are familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. Simultaneous inheritance of both an APC gene mutation and a mismatch repair gene (for example, MLH1) mutation has never been described. In the present case

  4. Clinical characteristics and outcomes in familial adenomatous polyposis patients with a long-term treatment of celecoxib: a matched cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Kui; Gutierrez, Lia P; Bülow, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a rare genetic disease. Without treatment, FAP patients have a 100% lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of celecoxib treatment in prolonging the time to FAP-related events and to document the safety...

  5. The role of high-resolution endoscopy and narrow-band imaging in the evaluation of upper GI neoplasia in familial adenomatous polyposis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Ceron, Maria; van den Broek, Frank J. C.; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M.; Boparai, Karam S.; van Eeden, Susanne; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2013-01-01

    The Spigelman classification stratifies cancer risk in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients with duodenal adenomatosis. High-resolution endoscopy (HRE) and narrow-band imaging (NBI) may identify lesions at high risk. To compare HRE and NBI for the detection of duodenal and gastric polyps

  6. Adenocarcinoma in the anal canal after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for familial adenomatous polyposis using a double-stapled technique: report of two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouenraets, Bart C.; van Duijvendijk, Peter; Bemelman, Willem A.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Slors, J. Frederik M.

    2004-01-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is thought to abolish the risk of colorectal adenoma development in patients suffering from familial adenomatous polyposis. Both after mucosectomy with a handsewn anastomosis and after a double-stapled anastomosis, rectal mucosa is

  7. Clinical and pathological aspects of epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gîrtan, Mihaela; Stăniceanu, Florica; Zurac, Sabina; Laba, Elisabeta; Forna, Norina

    2008-01-01

    In many cases, the oral health status indicates the general status of the body. 90% of the disorders of the body also manifest at the level of the oral cavity, which means that the dentist can draw the attention of a certain health problem. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a high prevalence of the lesions of the oral mucous, especially lichen planus, recurrent aphthous stomatitis or oral candidiasis. We present here a case of diabetes mellitus with hyperplasic lesion at the level of the inferior vestibule, extended to the right jugal mucosa. The lesion appeared pursuant to the application of removable prosthetics. The biopsy specimen was examined using normal and special staining (HE Hematoxiline - eosine, Van Gieson VG) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). In the HE stain, an epithelial hyperplasia was noticed as a result of the proliferation of the basal cells, associated with hyperkeratosis (parakeratosis or orthokeratosis). A moderated inflammatory limphoplasmocitary infiltrate, composed by lymphocytes and plasma cells, was present within the hyperplasic chorion. The immunohistochemical reactions revealed Ki-67 positive nuclei in the basal and suprabasal strata (indicating an increased proliferating activity); rare p53 positive nuclei in the basal stratum (indicating a suppressive action on the cell proliferation); CD3/CD8 positive cells in the inflammatory infiltrate (indicating an important number of T suppressor lymphocytes in the inflammatory infiltrate). In conclusion, diabetes mellitus is a disease which frequently determines major modifications at the level of the oral cavity. Interdisciplinary collaboration between the pathologist and the dentist is necessary for adequate diagnosis and successful treatment.

  8. New technologies in benign prostatic hyperplasia management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William W

    2016-05-01

    Surgical debulking of the adenoma/transition zone has been the fundamental principle which underpins transurethral resection of the prostate - still acknowledged to be the gold-standard therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, there has been a recent resurgence in development of new BPH technologies driven by enhanced understanding of prostate pathophysiology, development of new ablative technologies, and the need for less morbid alternatives as the mean age and complexity of the treatment population continues to increase. The objective of this review is to highlight new BPH technologies and review their available clinical data with specific emphasis on unique features of the technology, procedural effectiveness and safety, and potential impact on current treatment paradigms. New technologies have emerged that alter the shape of the prostate to decrease urinary obstruction and enhance delivery of a lethal thermal dose by steam injection into the transition zone of the prostate. Energy can be delivered to the prostate via a beam of high-pressure saline or focused acoustic energy to mechanically disintegrate prostate tissue. Methods of cell death are being targeted with selectivity by the arterial supply with embolization and specific to prostate cells via injectable biological therapies. A number of new technologies are at various stages of development and improve on the transurethral resection of the prostate paradigm by moving closer to the ideal BPH therapy which is definitive, can be performed in minutes, in the office setting, with only local anesthesia and oral sedation.

  9. Cutaneous Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia in a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michishita, M; Katori, Y; Sasaki, H; Obara, R D; Furumoto, R; Kato, M; Nakahira, R; Yoshimura, H; Soeta, S; Ishiwata, T; Takahashi, K

    2017-07-01

    A 5-year-old male miniature dachshund was presented with a dermal nodule on the left forelimb that increased to 5 mm in diameter over a 2-month period. Grossly, the nodule was firm, and both the external and cut surfaces were homogeneously pale pink in colour. Microscopically, the nodule was comprised of mainly plump endothelial cells and inflammatory cells; among the latter, lymphocytes were predominant, with few scattered plasma cells, mast cells and macrophages. Lymphoid follicles with germinal centres were often observed. Mitotic figures were not observed amongst the endothelial cells. Immunohistochemically, the endothelial cells were positive for vimentin, factor VIII-related antigen and CD31, and the surrounding cells were positive for smooth muscle actin. Lymphocytes expressed CD3 or BLA36. These findings led to a diagnosis of cutaneous angiolymphoid hyperplasia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a cutaneous proliferative disorder comprising an admixture of proliferating vascular endothelial cells and lymphocytic infiltration with follicle formation in a dog. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmandari, Evangelia; Brook, Charles G D; Hindmarsh, Peter C

    2004-11-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders resulting from deficiency of one of the five enzymes required for synthesis of cortisol in the adrenal cortex. The most common form of the disease is classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency, which is characterized by decreased synthesis of glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids, adrenal hyperandrogenism and impaired development and function of the adrenal medulla. The clinical management of classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency is often suboptimal, and patients are at risk of developing in tandem iatrogenic hypercortisolism and/or hyperandogenism. Limitations of current medical therapy include the inability to control hyperandrogenism without employing supraphysiologic doses of glucocorticoid, hyperresponsiveness of the hypertrophied adrenal glands to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and difficulty in suppressing ACTH secretion from the anterior pituitary. Puberty imposes increased difficulty in attaining adrenocortical suppression despite optimal substitution therapy and adherence to medical treatment. Alterations in the endocrine milieu at puberty may influence cortisol pharmacokinetics and, consequently, the handling of hydrocortisone used as replacement therapy. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant increase in cortisol clearance at puberty and a shorter half-life of free cortisol in pubertal females compared with males. Furthermore, children with classic CAH have elevated fasting serum insulin concentrations and insulin resistance. The latter may further enhance adrenal and/or ovarian androgen secretion, decrease the therapeutic efficacy of glucocorticoids and contribute to later development of the metabolic syndrome and its complications.

  11. Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ahmed; Yuen, Tony; Sun, Li; Yau, Mabel; Barhan, Ariella; Zaidi, Mone; Lo, Y M Dennis; New, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    A major hallmark of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is genital ambiguity noted at birth in affected females, which leads to psychological and psychosexual issues in adult life. Attempts to correct genital ambiguity through surgical intervention have been partially successful. Fetal hyperandrogenemia and genital ambiguity have been shown to be preventable by prenatal administration of low-dose dexamethasone initiated before the 9th week of gestation. In 7 of 8 at-risk pregnancies, the unaffected fetus is unnecessarily exposed to dexamethasone for weeks until the diagnosis of classical CAH is ruled out by invasive procedures. This therapeutic dilemma calls for early prenatal diagnosis so that dexamethasone treatment can be directed to affected female fetuses only. We describe the utilization of cell-free fetal DNA in mothers carrying at-risk fetuses as early as 6 gestational weeks by targeted massively parallel sequencing of the genomic region including and flanking the CYP21A2 gene. Our highly personalized and innovative approach should permit the diagnosis of CAH before genital development begins, therefore restricting the purposeful administration of dexamethasone to mothers carrying affected females. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Nonclassical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Cuhaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH is 21-hydroxylase (21-OH deficiency due to mutation of the CYP21A2 gene. Patients with nonclassical CAH (NC-CAH are usually asymptomatic at birth and typically present in late childhood, adolescence, or adulthood with symptoms of excessive androgen secretion. Subfertility is relative in NC-CAH, but the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage is higher. Here, we report a previously undiagnosed female who gave birth to a normal male child and is planning to become pregnant again. Case Report. A 32-year-old female was referred to our clinic for obesity. Her medical history revealed that she had had three pregnancies. She was planning to become pregnant again. Her laboratory results revealed that she had NC-CAH. Since her husband is the son of her aunt and she had miscarriages and intrauterin exitus in her history, their genetic analyses were performed. Conclusion. Since most patients with NC-CAH have a severe mutation, these patients may give birth to a child with the classical CAH (C-CAH if their partner is also carrying a severe mutation. Females with NC-CAH who desire pregnancy must be aware of the risk of having an infant with C-CAH.

  13. Papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson's tumor) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liné, A; Sanchez, J; Jayyosi, L; Birembaut, P; Ohl, X; Poli-Mérol, M-L; François, C

    2017-06-01

    The intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH/Masson's tumor) is a rare benign tumor of the skin and subcutaneous vessels. We report, in four pediatric cases, clinical presentation, care (diagnostic and surgical) of Masson's tumor in children. Two boys (two years) and two girls (four and six years) showed a pain subcutaneous tumor (one to five centimeters). They were in the transverse abdominal muscle, between two metatarsals, at the front of thigh and in the axilla. Imaging performed (MRI, Doppler ultrasound) evoked either a hematoma, a lymphangioma or hemangioma. The indication for removal was selected from pain and/or parental concern. The diagnosis was histologically. A lesion persisted in residual form (incomplete initial resection), and is currently not scalable for eleven years. This tumor is characterized by excessive proliferation and papillary endothelial cells in the vessels, following a thrombotic event. It is found mainly in adults (no specific age), and preferentially localizes in the face and limbs. The clinical differential diagnosis of this tumor is angiosarcoma. The imagery has not allowed in our series to diagnose but still essential to eliminate differential diagnoses. Only surgical excision with histological examination can differentiate. Our study emphasizes the possibility of pediatric cases with two cases of unusual locations (abdominal and axilla). Clinical presentations we met, now lead us to direct our histologist looking for a Masson tumor in any child with a subcutaneous tumor and/or intramuscular pain, sudden onset, and vascular appearance (after excluding an arteriovenous malformation). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of arterial intimal hyperplasia: review and hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbotin Vladimir M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a prodigious investment of funds, we cannot treat or prevent arteriosclerosis and restenosis, particularly its major pathology, arterial intimal hyperplasia. A cornerstone question lies behind all approaches to the disease: what causes the pathology? Hypothesis I argue that the question itself is misplaced because it implies that intimal hyperplasia is a novel pathological phenomenon caused by new mechanisms. A simple inquiry into arterial morphology shows the opposite is true. The normal multi-layer cellular organization of the tunica intima is identical to that of diseased hyperplasia; it is the standard arterial system design in all placentals at least as large as rabbits, including humans. Formed initially as one-layer endothelium lining, this phenotype can either be maintained or differentiate into a normal multi-layer cellular lining, so striking in its resemblance to diseased hyperplasia that we have to name it "benign intimal hyperplasia". However, normal or "benign" intimal hyperplasia, although microscopically identical to pathology, is a controllable phenotype that rarely compromises blood supply. It is remarkable that each human heart has coronary arteries in which a single-layer endothelium differentiates early in life to form a multi-layer intimal hyperplasia and then continues to self-renew in a controlled manner throughout life, relatively rarely compromising the blood supply to the heart, causing complications requiring intervention only in a small fraction of the population, while all humans are carriers of benign hyperplasia. Unfortunately, this fundamental fact has not been widely appreciated in arteriosclerosis research and medical education, which continue to operate on the assumption that the normal arterial intima is always an "ideal" single-layer endothelium. As a result, the disease is perceived and studied as a new pathological event caused by new mechanisms. The discovery that normal

  15. Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia (Masson’s Tumor) of the Radial Artery: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, Christopher; Olsen, Daniel; Morris, Christopher; Bertges, Daniel; Najarian, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH), often referred to as Masson’s tumor, is a benign non-neoplastic vascular lesion of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Although it is rare, knowledge of the existence of IPEH is important as it can mimic other benign and malignant tumors, most notably angiosarcoma. IPEH remains an incompletely understood entity; however, most consider it to be the result of reactive endothelial proliferation following thrombus formation within a vessel, vascular malformation, or adjacent to a vessel. In this article, we report a case of IPEH arising within an arteriovenous malformation of the radial artery and present accompanying multimodality imaging and pathology figures. We will also describe the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, histology, imaging features, and management of IPEH.

  16. Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia (Masson’s Tumor) of the Radial Artery: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, Christopher, E-mail: Christopher.stark@uvmhealth.org [University of Vermont Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Olsen, Daniel [Mayo Clinic, Department of Pathology (United States); Morris, Christopher [University of Vermont Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Bertges, Daniel [University of Vermont Medical Center, Department of Surgery (United States); Najarian, Kenneth [University of Vermont Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH), often referred to as Masson’s tumor, is a benign non-neoplastic vascular lesion of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Although it is rare, knowledge of the existence of IPEH is important as it can mimic other benign and malignant tumors, most notably angiosarcoma. IPEH remains an incompletely understood entity; however, most consider it to be the result of reactive endothelial proliferation following thrombus formation within a vessel, vascular malformation, or adjacent to a vessel. In this article, we report a case of IPEH arising within an arteriovenous malformation of the radial artery and present accompanying multimodality imaging and pathology figures. We will also describe the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, histology, imaging features, and management of IPEH.

  17. Occupancy statistics arising from weighted particle rearrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huillet, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    The box-occupancy distributions arising from weighted rearrangements of a particle system are investigated. In the grand-canonical ensemble, they are characterized by determinantal joint probability generating functions. For doubly non-negative weight matrices, fractional occupancy statistics, generalizing Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics, can be defined. A spatially extended version of these balls-in-boxes problems is investigated

  18. Security risks arising from portable storage devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molotsi, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available of the security risks arising from the use of PSDs, and further provides possible security countermeasures to help organisations and users to protect their digital assets. APPROACH Literature review: ? To investigate security risks posed by PSDs... technology in the workplace. International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics. 3(1): 73?81 [3] Kim, K., Kim, E. & Hong S. (2009). Privacy information protection in portable device. Proceedings of International Conference on Convergence...

  19. Oestrogen receptor beta isoform expression in sporadic colorectal cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis and progressive stages of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanato Filho, Paulo Roberto; Aguiar Júnior, Samuel; Begnami, Maria Dirlei

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among the sex hormones, oestrogen may play a role in colorectal cancer, particularly in conjunction with oestrogen receptor-β (ERβ). The expression of ERβ isoform variants and their correlations with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome and sporadic colorectal carcinomas...... was identified in sporadic polyps and in sporadic colorectal cancer as well as in polyps from FAP syndrome patients compared with normal tissues (p expression in polyps (p ..., no differences were observed when sporadic colorectal carcinomas were compared to normal mucosa tissues. These findings suggest an association of the ERβ isoform variants in individuals affected by germline mutations of the APC gene. Progressively decreased expression of ERβ was found in polyps at early stages...

  20. Exophytic oral verrucous hyperplasia: a new entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shankargouda; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Raj, Thirumal; Sanketh, D S; Rao, Roopa S

    2016-11-01

    Exophytic oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) is a new entity described by an expert working group from South Asia. First reported in Taiwan, there are no reports so far from an Indian population. The aim was to use the microscopic features described by the expert group to differentiate OVH from other oral verruco-papillary lesions in an Indian archive. In a retrospective multicentre study, using pathology archives, 188 verruco-papillary lesions were retrieved from pathology archives. A proforma listing histopathological criteria for OVH based on published guidelines (Annals of Dentistry, University of Malaya, 2013) was used. Patients' demographic and clinical data were transcribed from patient charts. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine associations between clinical and histopathological features. Of 188 oral verruco-papillary lesions that were evaluated, based on microscopic features the cases were reclassified as OVH (57), verrucous carcinoma (VC) (84), oral squamous cell carcinoma (16), and other verruco-papillary lesions (31). Both OVH (70%) and VC (60%) showed male predominance and commonly affected buccal mucosa (OVH 74% and VC 57%). Absence of downward growth of the hyperplastic epithelium into lamina propria when compared with the level of the basement membrane of the adjacent normal epithelium was a distinct feature in OVH. Keratin plugging, epithelial dysplasia and subepithelial lymphocytic infiltration were found to be significantly different (P < 0.05) in OVH versus VC. The sample size of other verruco-papillary lesions was insufficient for statistical comparison. Apart from the absence of an endophytic growth pattern in OVH, we noted the presence of dysplasia in OVH. This significant observation does institute a debate as to whether this enigmatic lesion could possibly be a precedent of oral squamous or verrucous carcinoma. We propose OVH is a distinct entity in our Indian population and should be considered in the classification of oral

  1. Chromosomal aberrations in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Altok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the chromosomal changes in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Materials and Methods: A total of 54 patients diagnosed with clinical BPH underwent transurethral prostate resection to address their primary urological problem. All patients were evaluated by use of a comprehensive medical history and rectal digital examination. The preoperative evaluation also included serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA measurement and ultrasonographic measurement of prostate volume. Prostate cancer was detected in one patient, who was then excluded from the study. We performed conventional cytogenetic analyses of short-term cultures of 53 peripheral blood samples obtained from the BPH patients. Results: The mean (±standard deviation age of the 53 patients was 67.8±9.4 years. The mean PSA value of the patients was 5.8±7.0 ng/mL. The mean prostate volume was 53.6±22.9 mL. Chromosomal abnormalities were noted in 5 of the 53 cases (9.4%. Loss of the Y chromosome was the most frequent chromosomal abnormality and was observed in three patients (5.7%. There was no statistically significant relationship among age, PSA, prostate volume, and chromosomal changes. Conclusions: Loss of the Y chromosome was the main chromosomal abnormality found in our study. However, this coexistence did not reach a significant level. Our study concluded that loss of the Y chromosome cannot be considered relevant for the diagnosis of BPH as it is for prostate cancer. Because BPH usually occurs in aging men, loss of the Y chromosome in BPH patients may instead be related to the aging process.

  2. Kapteyn series arising in radiation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I; Tautz, R C

    2008-01-01

    In discussing radiation from multiple point charges or magnetic dipoles, moving in circles or ellipses, a variety of Kapteyn series of the second kind arises. Some of the series have been known in closed form for a hundred years or more, others appear not to be available to analytic persuasion. This paper shows how 12 such generic series can be developed to produce either closed analytic expressions or integrals that are not analytically tractable. In addition, the method presented here may be of benefit when one has other Kapteyn series of the second kind to consider, thereby providing an additional reason to consider such series anew

  3. CT findings of lymphofollicular thymic hyperplasia in adult myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fugeng; Wei Jiahu; Pan Jishu; Zhou Cheng; Chen Qihang; Yu Jingying; Wu Guogeng; Xu Xianhao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the CT findings of lymphofollicular thymic hyperplasia in adult myasthenia gravis (MG). Methods: The CT findings of thymus area of 134 adult patients with lymphofollicular thymic hyperplasia in MG were reviewed, all of them with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis, and compared with the CT findings of 165 normal subjects. Results: In the group of patient, CT showed enlargement of thymus in 31 patients, 5 patients had nodule or mass ( 3 cm) and 9 patients (6.7%) had normal size thymus with soft-tissue density, it can considered with thymic hyperplasia. The spotty or streak shadow showed in other patients, though it could not be certain diagnosed as thymic hyperplasia, but could not be except it. The thymus area tissue complete replacement by fatty density were not found in patient group. The CT findings of patients had marked difference when compared with group of normal subjects (P<0.01), except the spotty or streak shadows. Conclusion: CT scan is an important method in diagnosing thymic lymphofollicular hyperplasia of MG in adult. (authors)

  4. Lobular intraepithelial neoplasia arising within breast fibroadenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Fibroadenomas are the second most common breast pathology occurring in young women under the age of 35 years old. Fibroadenomas can be classified as simple or complex according to histological features. Complex fibroadenomas differ from simple fibroadenomas because of the presence of cysts (3 mm), sclerosing adenosis, epithelial calcifications, or papillary apocrine changes. Most fibroadenomas are clinically identifiable. In 25% of cases, fibroadenomas are non-palpable and are diagnosed with mammography and ultrasound. Differential diagnosis with well differentiated breast cancer is often necessary, particularly with medullary or mucinous tumors. Calcification findings within fibroadenomas by mammogram have to be investigated. The age of a lump is usually reflected by calcifications. Microcalcification can hide foci of carcinoma in situ when they are small, branching type, and heterogeneous. However, many morphological possibilities may not be reliable for deciding whether a certain calcification is the product of a malignant or a benign process. From a radiological point of view, fibroadenomas containing foci of carcinoma in situ can be indistinguishable from benign lesions, even if the incidence of carcinoma within fibroadenomas is estimated as 0.1–0.3%, and it could be a long-term risk factor for invasive breast cancer. Case presentation A 44-year-old woman presented with a 1.5-cm palpable, smooth, mobile lump in the lower-inner quadrant of her right breast. Standard mediolateral oblique and craniocaudal mammograms showed a cluster of eccentric popcorn-like calcifications within the fibroadenoma. After lumpectomy, a definitive histological examination confirmed the intra-operative diagnosis of a benign mass. However, lobular intraepithelial neoplasia foci were found, surrounded by atypical lobular hyperplasia. Conclusions The possibility of an old benign breast lump might be supported by fine needle aspiration biopsy or core biopsy before initiating

  5. Spinal cord injury arising in anaesthesia practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, D W; Bedforth, N M; Hardman, J G

    2018-01-01

    Spinal cord injury arising during anaesthetic practice is a rare event, but one that carries a significant burden in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury. We will then discuss injuries relating to patient position, spinal cord hypoperfusion and neuraxial techniques. The most serious causes of spinal cord injury - vertebral canal haematoma, spinal epidural abscess, meningitis and adhesive arachnoiditis - will be discussed in turn. For each condition, we draw attention to practical, evidence-based measures clinicians can undertake to reduce their incidence, or mitigate their severity. Finally, we will discuss transient neurological symptoms. Some cases of spinal cord injury during anaesthesia can be ascribed to anaesthesia itself, arising as a direct consequence of its conduct. The injury to a spinal nerve root by inaccurate and/or incautious needling during spinal anaesthesia is an obvious example. But in many cases, spinal cord injury during anaesthesia is not caused by, related to, or even associated with, the conduct of the anaesthetic. Surgical factors, whether direct (e.g. spinal nerve root damage due to incorrect pedicle screw placement) or indirect (e.g. cord ischaemia following aortic surgery) are responsible for a significant proportion of spinal cord injuries that occur concurrently with the delivery of regional or general anaesthesia. © 2018 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Hyperplasia of elastic tissue in hepatic schistosomal fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilton A. Andrade

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Elastic tissue hyperplasia, revealed by means of histological, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural methods, appeared as a prominent change in surgical liver biopsies taken from 61 patients with schistosomal periportal and septal fibrosis. Such hyperplasia was absent in ecperimental murine schistosomiasis, including mice with "pipe-stem" fibrosis. Displaced connective tissue cells in periportal areas, such as smooth muscle cells, more frequently observed in human material, could be the site of excessive elastin synthesis, and could explain the differences observed in human and experimental materials. Elastic tissue, sometimes represented by its microfibrillar components, also appeared to be more condensed in areas of matrix (collagen degradation, suggesting a participation of this tissue in the remodelling of the extracellular matrix. By its rectratile properties elastic tissue hyperplasia in hepatic schistosomiasis can cause vascular narrowing and thus play a role in the pathogenesis of portal hypeertension.

  7. Mutations of the KRAS oncogene in endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesława Niklińska

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and clinicopathological significance of KRAS point mutation in endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. We analysed KRAS in 11 cases of complex atypical hyperplasia and in 49 endometrial carcinomas using polymerase chain reaction associated with restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFPL. Point mutations at codon 12 of KRAS oncogene were identified in 7 of 49 (14,3% tumor specimens and in 2 of 11 (18,2% hyperplasias. No correlation was found between KRAS gene mutation and age at onset, histology, grade of differentiation and clinical stage. We conclude that KRAS mutation is a relatively common event in endometrial carcinogenesis, but with no prognostic value.

  8. DOES HYPOGONADISM ON RESULTS TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sigaev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of hypogonadism on the results of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH remains unexplored. At the survey included 98 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia who underwent TURP. Revealed that the postoperative period in patients characterized by a significant decrease in the level of performance testosteronemii in all cases, and against the background of hypogonadism accompanied by the development of more complications. Preoperative correction of hypogonadism for 2 weeks prior to surgery allows a 2-3 times lower risk of postoperative complications. 

  9. Adenocarcinoma arising in female urethral diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patanaphan, V.; Prempree, T.; Sewchand, W.; Hafiz, M.A.; Jaiwatana, J.

    1983-01-01

    Cancer arising from a female urethral diverticulum is rare, and because of its rarity, a review of the medical literature reveals significant nonuniformity in its management. We report an additional 2 cases of this disease, one of which has an even rarer feature of being mucin-producing. The management of our 2 cases is presented in detail and in line with the management of female urethral cancer. From our extensive literature search, diverticulectomy alone showed poor results with the highest rate of recurrence (67%). Extensive surgery, either in the form of cystourethrectomy or anterior exenteration, offered results comparable with those of combined therapy (diverticulectomy and full course of irradiation for early cases; preoperative irradiation followed by cystourethrectomy for late cases). Individualization of radiation treatment and cooperative effort between urologist and radiation oncologist are essential if best results are to be achieved

  10. Microbial diversity arising from thermodynamic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großkopf, Tobias; Soyer, Orkun S

    2016-01-01

    The microbial world displays an immense taxonomic diversity. This diversity is manifested also in a multitude of metabolic pathways that can utilise different substrates and produce different products. Here, we propose that these observations directly link to thermodynamic constraints that inherently arise from the metabolic basis of microbial growth. We show that thermodynamic constraints can enable coexistence of microbes that utilise the same substrate but produce different end products. We find that this thermodynamics-driven emergence of diversity is most relevant for metabolic conversions with low free energy as seen for example under anaerobic conditions, where population dynamics is governed by thermodynamic effects rather than kinetic factors such as substrate uptake rates. These findings provide a general understanding of the microbial diversity based on the first principles of thermodynamics. As such they provide a thermodynamics-based framework for explaining the observed microbial diversity in different natural and synthetic environments. PMID:27035705

  11. Microbial diversity arising from thermodynamic constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großkopf, Tobias; Soyer, Orkun S

    2016-11-01

    The microbial world displays an immense taxonomic diversity. This diversity is manifested also in a multitude of metabolic pathways that can utilise different substrates and produce different products. Here, we propose that these observations directly link to thermodynamic constraints that inherently arise from the metabolic basis of microbial growth. We show that thermodynamic constraints can enable coexistence of microbes that utilise the same substrate but produce different end products. We find that this thermodynamics-driven emergence of diversity is most relevant for metabolic conversions with low free energy as seen for example under anaerobic conditions, where population dynamics is governed by thermodynamic effects rather than kinetic factors such as substrate uptake rates. These findings provide a general understanding of the microbial diversity based on the first principles of thermodynamics. As such they provide a thermodynamics-based framework for explaining the observed microbial diversity in different natural and synthetic environments.

  12. Radioisotopes: problems of responsibility arising from medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupon, Michel.

    1978-09-01

    Radioisotopes have brought about great progress in the battle against illnesses of mainly tumoral origin, whether in diagnosis (nuclear medicine) or in treatment (medical radiotherapy). They are important enough therefore to warrant investigation. Such a study is attempted here, with special emphasis, at a time when medical responsibility proceedings are being taken more and more often on the medicolegal problems arising from their medical use. It is hoped that this study on medical responsibility in the use of radioisotopes will have shown: that the use of radioisotopes for either diagnosis or therapy constitutes a major banch of medicine; that this importance implies an awareness by the practitioner of a vast responsibility, especially in law where legislation to ensure protection as strict as in the field of ionizing radiations is lacking. The civil responsibility of doctors who use radioisotopes remains to be defined, since for want of adequate jurisprudence we are reduced to hypotheses based on general principles [fr

  13. High grade angiosarcoma arising in fibroadenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Primary angiosarcoma of the breast is a rare tumour that account for fewer than 0.05% of all malignant mammary tumours. Angiosarcoma may have an perfidious clinical onset. Radiologic findings are often nonspecific and may appear completely normal in one-third of cases with primary angiosarcoma. The prognosis is usually poor because of the high rates of local recurrence and early development of metastases. Aggressive surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment. The role of adjuvant therapy has not yet been well established. Here we present a case of a 53 year old, postmenopausal women with primary angiosarcoma arising in fibroadenoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case described in the literature to date. PMID:22185665

  14. Periorbital nodular fasciitis arising during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon N Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodular fasciitis (NF is a benign proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts that rarely occurs in the periorbital region. We report what we believe to be the first case of periorbital NF associated with pregnancy. A case of intravascular fasciitis, a NF variant, has been reported during pregnancy, but it was not located in the periorbital region. A weak presence of estrogen receptors has been reported in NF. This may make it more susceptible to the hormone-related changes during pregnancy and contribute to the development of the lesion by stimulating fibroblasts and smooth muscle cell types. Although rare, NF should be considered in the differential diagnosis of periorbital soft-tissue masses arising during pregnancy.

  15. Airborne iodine-125 arising from surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, C.S.; Hilditch, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of airborne 125 I were made during the subdivision of 740 MBq stocks of 125 I iodide solution in a hospital dispensary. Within the fume cupboard the mean airborne 125 I concentration was 3.5 +- 2.9 kBqm -3 . No airborne concentration contamination was found outside the fume cupboard during these dispensing sessions. The airborne 125 I concentration arising from deliberate surface contamination (50 μl, 3.7-6.3 MBq) of the top of a lead pot was measured at a height simulating face level at an open work bench. There was a progressive fall in airborne concentration over seven days but even then the level was still significantly above background. Measurements made with the extraction system of the fume cupboard in operation were 2-3 times lower. (U.K.)

  16. Survival of mutations arising during invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Judith R

    2010-03-01

    When a neutral mutation arises in an invading population, it quickly either dies out or 'surfs', i.e. it comes to occupy almost all the habitat available at its time of origin. Beneficial mutations can also surf, as can deleterious mutations over finite time spans. We develop descriptive statistical models that quantify the relationship between the probability that a mutation will surf and demographic parameters for a cellular automaton model of surfing. We also provide a simple analytic model that performs well at predicting the probability of surfing for neutral and beneficial mutations in one dimension. The results suggest that factors - possibly including even abiotic factors - that promote invasion success may also increase the probability of surfing and associated adaptive genetic change, conditioned on such success.

  17. Inactivation of promoter 1B of APC causes partial gene silencing: evidence for a significant role of the promoter in regulation and causative of familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohlin, A; Engwall, Y; Fritzell, K

    2011-01-01

    inactivation of promoter 1B is disease causing in FAP; (ii) expression of transcripts from promoter 1B is generated at considerable higher levels compared with 1A, demonstrating a hitherto unknown importance of 1B; (iii) adenoma formation in FAP, caused by impaired function of promoter 1B, does not require......Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by germline mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Two promoters, 1A and 1B, have been recognized in APC, and 1B is thought to have a minor role in the regulation of the gene. We have identified a novel deletion encompassing half...... of this promoter in the largest family (Family 1) of the Swedish Polyposis Registry. The mutation leads to an imbalance in allele-specific expression of APC, and transcription from promoter 1B was highly impaired in both normal colorectal mucosa and blood from mutation carriers. To establish the significance...

  18. The prevention of benign prostatic hyperplasia (bph).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, W G

    2017-03-01

    Barry Marshall and Robin Warren were the first to show that the chronic diseases (gastric ulcer and chronic gastritis) were caused by an infection (Helicobacter pylori). The chronic disease benign prostatic hyperplasia belongs to the same ilk, except that the infection process is much more subtle and complex. The enzyme Phospholipase D (PLD) which is attached to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli (E. coli) has now been almost completely proven to be the basic cause of BPH. The evidence for this process is now extremely strong and compelling. PLD obtained from the organism Streptomyces chromofuscus has been used in past research because of its PLD content. It is commercially available. In vitro, on a culture of prostatic smooth muscle, PLD stimulated the production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) which acted on and caused substantial growth of that muscle in accordance with the quantity of PLD/ LPA generated. It has been asserted that repeated colonization by E. coli of the transitional zone of the prostate gland and the release of PLD following repeated destruction of these colonized bacteria, is the basic cause of BPH. The evidence for colonizing and re-colonizing infection is now overwhelming. PLD is a simple lipid consisting of a phosphate, glycerol and a fatty acid. After absorption into the prostatic stroma (which consists of connective tissue and of smooth muscle), it stimulates the production of LPA which, in turn, apart from directly stimulating prostatic smooth muscle, also acts on the connective tissue in the prostate and induces a complex mixture of growth regulatory proteins, which include members of the fibroblast, insulin-like and growth transforming factor families and implicates autocrine hormones acting on the stroma and paracrine hormones acting on epithelium. Also involved, are a variety of interleukins and other inflammatory cell cytokines, secreted by the stroma, which may further promote autocrine/paracrine proliferation of BPH cells

  19. Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia of Orbit in Young Male

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [3] The etiology of. Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia of Orbit in Young Male. Somen Misra, Akshay Bhandari, Sagar Chaudhari, Neeta Misra, Pratik Gogri, Parag Tupe. Department of Ophthalmology, Rural Medical .... blood eosinophilia, and nephrotic syndrome due to IgE deposition in the renal glomeruli.

  20. Epidemiology and management of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractBenign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common non-cancerous form of cell growth in men and usually begins with the formation of microscopic nodules in younger men. As BPH progresses, overgrowth occurs in the central area of the prostate, called the transition zone, which wraps

  1. High condylectomy for the treatment of mandibular condylar hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghawsi, Sodaba; Aagaard, Esben; Thygesen, Torben Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular condylar hyperplasia (MCH) is a rare, idiopathic disorder, which can cause both functional and aesthetic problems. MCH has often been described in the literature, but a comprehensive analysis of the current literature on MCH has not been undertaken. This study presents a systematic rev...

  2. Two Cases of. Cushing's Syndrome tumour and bilateral hyperplasia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two patients, one with Cushing's syndrome and one with Cushing's disease, are presented. In the first case the syndrome was caused by a tumour of the right suprarenal gland which was treated by unilateral adrenalectomy, and the second case was diagnosed as hyperplasia of the left suprarenal gland, eventually leading ...

  3. A mouse model of mammary hyperplasia induced by oral hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods and Materials: To address the mechanism, we developed a mouse model of mammary hyperplasia. We gave mice estradiol valerate tablets and progesterone capsules sequentially for one month by intragastric administration. Results: Mice treated by this method had a series of pathological changes which are ...

  4. Effect of Prunella vulgaris L extract on hyperplasia of mammary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p < 0.01) in rats treated with highdose PVE. Conclusion: These results suggest that PVE exerts anti-HMG effect in rats induced by estrogen and progestogen. Keywords: Prunella vulgaris L; Anti-inflammatory; Anti-hyperplasia of mammary gland ...

  5. Management of experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The usefulness of diet containing Telfairia occidentalis seeds, in managing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats was studied. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups. BPH was induced by sub-cutaneous injection of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol valerate (ratio, 10:1) every other day for ...

  6. Pituitary hyperplasia secondary to hypothyroidism in an adolescent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capiel, Carlos A. h; Bouzas, Carlos A.; Mondino, Ana

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of a 14 years old patient with growth arrest and laboratory evidence of hypothyroidism. MR revealed pituitary enlargement simulating macro adenoma. Thyroid replacement therapy resulted in regression of the pituitary size. Awareness of MR appearance of pituitary hyperplasia in children and juvenile patients with laboratory evidence of hypothyroidism might avoid misdiagnosis for pituitary tumor. (author)

  7. Gingival hyperplasia induced by diphenylhydantoin in a gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, D; Oosterhuis, J

    1979-11-01

    An adult male lowland gorilla had been treated with diphenylhydantoin for 6 months following several acute convulsive episodes. The gorilla remained clinically normal during that period. Then, for no apparent reason, it refused its usual diet. Physical examination revealed acute inflammatory gingival hyperplasia. Full mouth gingivectomy and antibiotic and analgesic therapy resolved the oral inflammation and the anorexia.

  8. Radiological findings of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Jeong; Shin, Joo Yong; Lee, Hee Jung; Lee, Jin Hee; Sohn, Cheol Ho; Lee, Sung Moon; Kim, Hong; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Ji

    2001-01-01

    Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the marked accumulation of lipids and cholesterol in the adrenal cortex, and the failure of adrenal steroids to synthesise. We report the ultrasound (US), computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in a four-day-old female neonate with CLAH

  9. Thymic hyperplasia in a patient with Grave's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, Amira A; Klii, Rim R; Salem, Randa R; Kochtali, Ines I; Golli, Mondher M; Mahjoub, Silvia S

    2012-02-09

    Hyperplastic changes of the thymus may be found in patients with Graves' disease. However, this rarely presents as an anterior mediastinal mass, particularly among adults. In this report, we describe a 46-year old woman with Graves' disease and thymic hyperplasia.

  10. Thymic hyperplasia in a patient with Grave's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzaoui Amira A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyperplastic changes of the thymus may be found in patients with Graves' disease. However, this rarely presents as an anterior mediastinal mass, particularly among adults. In this report, we describe a 46-year old woman with Graves' disease and thymic hyperplasia.

  11. reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia of the oral mucosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-02-02

    Feb 2, 2009 ... cases(0.9%) were those of denture irritation hyperplasia. The age ... reported to have recurred and all of them were gingival lesions. ... grade chronic irritations to the oral mucosa such as ..... J. Periodontal.1980; 51: 55-61. 7.

  12. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulska, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction.

  13. Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Pakulska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extremely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction. Med Pr 2015;66(1:99–117

  14. Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Robert A; Dannenberg, Hilde; Robertus, Jan-Lukas; van Ginkel, Robert J

    2012-07-16

    Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (CLM) is a very rare smooth muscle tumour that accounts for about 2-3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. Although the development of various malignancies in scar tissue is well known, we report the first case of a CLM developing in a small pox scar. A 66-year-old man presented with a painless, slow-growing lump in a small pox scar on his left shoulder. Histological biopsies showed the lesion to be a primary, well-differentiated cutaneous leiomyosarcoma. A CT scan of the thorax was conducted, which showed no signs of metastases. The complete lesion was then surgically excised, and histopathological examination revealed a radically excised cutaneous type leiomyosarcoma After 13 months' review the patient was doing well with no evidence of tumour recurrence. This is the first report of a CLM arising in a small pox scar. Although the extended time interval between scarring and malignant changes makes it difficult to advise strict follow-up for patients with small pox scars, one should be aware that atypical changes and/or symptoms occurring in a small pox scar could potentially mean malignant transformation.

  15. Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol Robert A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (CLM is a very rare smooth muscle tumour that accounts for about 2–3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. Although the development of various malignancies in scar tissue is well known, we report the first case of a CLM developing in a small pox scar. Case presentation A 66-year-old man presented with a painless, slow-growing lump in a small pox scar on his left shoulder. Histological biopsies showed the lesion to be a primary, well-differentiated cutaneous leiomyosarcoma. A CT scan of the thorax was conducted, which showed no signs of metastases. The complete lesion was then surgically excised, and histopathological examination revealed a radically excised cutaneous type leiomyosarcoma After 13 months’ review the patient was doing well with no evidence of tumour recurrence. Conclusions This is the first report of a CLM arising in a small pox scar. Although the extended time interval between scarring and malignant changes makes it difficult to advise strict follow-up for patients with small pox scars, one should be aware that atypical changes and/or symptoms occurring in a small pox scar could potentially mean malignant transformation.

  16. Chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, W.J.; Million, R.R.; Cassisi, N.J.; Singleton, G.T.

    1982-01-01

    Eighteen patients with chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures were evaluated and treated at the University of Florida. Seventeen patients have each been followed a minimum of 3 years. Patients were retrospectively staged as having ''local'' or ''advanced'' disease, depending on the presence or absence of bone destruction and/or cranial nerve involvement. Fourteen of the patients received radiation therapy as all or part of their therapy; 6 patients were treated with radiation therapy alone, 3 patients were irradiated immediately postoperatively for residual disease, and 5 patients had radiation therapy for recurrence after operation. They were treated with cobalt-60 radiation with doses ranging from 3760 to 5640 rad. All irradiated patients demonstrated evidence of tumor regression, and none have had tumor recurrence with followup of 3-12 years. Of the 8 patients with cranial nerve paralysis prior to therapy, 5 had return of function of 1 or more cranial nerves. One of 6 patients treated initially with radiation therapy had a complication, while 6 of 8 patients irradiated postoperatively had complications. None of the complications were fatal. Three patients treated by operation for early disease limited to the hypotympanum had the disease controlled for 11-12 years. Guidelines for the selection of initial therapy are discussed

  17. Radiological emergencies arising from accidents in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzan, A.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety and Health Protection Directorate (DISP) of ENEA has organized a structure of officers and technicians on call whenever an accident related to the activity of ENEA-DISP should occur. The most frequent events arise from natural misfortunes, crime, and deficiencies in public services. As regards technical operations such as measurements, removals, decontaminations and transport, DISP requests utilization of the different structures and equipment available to ENEA research centres and, in particular and most frequently, of the Safety and Radioprotection Division of the main ENEA centre: the Casaccia Research Centre. The technicians of this division are always available via telephone or radio, with the firm duty to be present within one hour from the call. The co-operation between these two structures enables timely and efficient intervention in many circumstances so that population and environmental risks can be avoided. Typical accidental situations are earthquakes, adverse atmospheric events, landslides, collapses, railway and road accidents, lost sources discovery, and seizure of illegally detained sources by judicial power. The paper briefly describes some of the situations which have occurred, and the actions carried out to recover sources and to re-establish safe environmental conditions. (author)

  18. Role of Hyperplasia of Gingival Lymphatics in Periodontal Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakou, P; Bletsa, A; Yassin, M A; Karlsen, T V; Wiig, H; Berggreen, E

    2017-04-01

    Lymphatic vessels are important for maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis and afferent antigen transport. In chronic inflammation, lymphangiogenesis takes place and is characterized by lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation and lymphatic hyperplasia. Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) is the main known lymphangiogenic growth factor, and its expression is increased in periodontitis, a common chronic infectious disease that results in tissue destruction and alveolar bone loss. The role of lymphangiogenesis during development of periodontitis is unknown. Here, we test if transgenic overexpression of epithelial VEGFC in a murine model is followed by hyperplasia of lymphatic vessels in oral mucosa and if the lymphatic drainage capacity is altered. We also test if lymphatic hyperplasia protects against periodontal disease development. Transgenic keratin 14 (K14)-VEGFC mice had significant hyperplasia of lymphatics in oral mucosa, including gingiva, without changes in blood vessel vasculature. The basal lymph flow was normal but slightly lower than in wild-type mice when oral mucosa was challenged with lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis. Under normal conditions, K14-VEGFC mice exhibited an increased number of neutrophils in gingiva, demonstrated enhanced phagocyte recruitment in the cervical lymph nodes, and had more alveolar bone when compared with their wild-type littermates. After induction of periodontitis, no strain differences were observed in the periodontal tissues with respect to granulocyte recruitment, bone resorption, angiogenesis, cytokines, and bone-related protein expressions or in draining lymph node immune cell proportions and vascularization. We conclude that overexpression of VEGFC results in hyperplastic lymphatics, which do not enhance lymphatic drainage capacity but facilitate phagocyte transport to draining lymph nodes. Hyperplasia of lymphatics does not protect against development of ligature-induced periodontitis.

  19. Sarpogrelate hydrochloride reduced intimal hyperplasia in experimental rabbit vein graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Akio; Komori, Kimihiro; Hattori, Keisuke; Yamanouchi, Dai; Kajikuri, Junko; Itoh, Takeo

    2009-05-01

    The selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist sarpogrelate has been clinically used for treatment in atherosclerotic diseases. However, it remains unknown whether administration of sarpogrelate inhibits intimal hyperplasia seen in autologous vein grafts. Therefore, we sought to clarify this question using an experimental rabbit vein graft model. Male rabbits were divided into two groups: a control group and a sarpogrelate-treated group. The jugular vein was interposed in the carotid artery in reversed fashion for 4 weeks and intimal hyperplasia of the grafted vein was measured (n = 8, in each group). Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was tested by precontraction with prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha), 5 muM) (n = 5, in each). endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression and superoxide production of these veins were also assessed. The suppression of intimal hyperplasia was significantly greater in the sarpogrelate-treated group than in the control group. ACh induced an endothelium-dependent relaxation in the sarpogrelate-treated group (but not in the control group). In endothelium-intact strips from the sarpogrelate-treated group, the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor nitroarginine enhanced the PGF(2alpha)-induced contraction and blocked the ACh-induced relaxation. Immunoreactive eNOS protein expression was similar between the two groups but superoxide production (estimated from ethidium fluorescence) in endothelial cells was significantly smaller in the sarpogrelate-treated group. The present results indicate that in vivo blockade of 5-HT(2A) receptors leads to an inhibition of intimal hyperplasia in rabbit vein graft. It is suggested that an increased function of endothelium-derived NO through a reduction in endothelial superoxide production may be a possible underlying mechanism for this. These novel findings support the clinical usefulness of sarpogrelate for preventing intimal hyperplasia in vein graft after bypass

  20. Attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis and Muir-Torre syndrome linked to compound biallelic constitutional MYH gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, G; Ponz de Leon, M; Maffei, S; Pedroni, M; Losi, L; Di Gregorio, C; Gismondi, V; Scarselli, A; Benatti, P; Roncari, B; Seidenari, S; Pellacani, G; Varotti, C; Prete, E; Varesco, L; Roncucci, L

    2005-11-01

    Attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis and Muir-Torre syndrome linked to compound biallelic constitutional MYH gene mutations.Peculiar dermatologic manifestations are present in several heritable gastrointestinal disorders. Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS) is a genodermatosis whose peculiar feature is the presence of sebaceous gland tumors associated with visceral malignancies. We describe one patient in whom multiple sebaceous gland tumors were associated with early onset colon and thyroid cancers and attenuated polyposis coli. Her family history was positive for colonic adenomas. She had a daughter presenting with yellow papules in the forehead region developed in the late infancy. Skin and visceral neoplasms were tested for microsatellite instability and immunohistochemical status of mismatch repair (MMR), APC and MYH proteins. The proband colon and skin tumors were microsatellite stable and showed normal expression of MMR proteins. Cytoplasmic expression of MYH protein was revealed in colonic cancer cells. Compound heterozygosity due to biallelic mutations in MYH, R168H and 379delC, was identified in the proband. The 11-year-old daughter was carrier of the monoallelic constitutional mutation 379delC in the MYH gene; in the sister, the R168H MYH gene mutation was detected. This report presents an interesting case of association between MYH-associated polyposis and sebaceous gland tumors. These findings suggest that patients with MTS phenotype that include colonic polyposis should be screened for MYH gene mutations.

  1. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) regulates miR17-92 cluster through β-catenin pathway in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajuan; Lauriola, Mattia; Kim, Donghwa; Francesconi, Mirko; D'Uva, Gabriele; Shibata, Dave; Malafa, Mokenge P; Yeatman, Timothy J; Coppola, Domenico; Solmi, Rossella; Cheng, Jin Q

    2016-09-01

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutation is the most common genetic change in sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). Although deregulations of miRNAs have been frequently reported in this malignancy, APC-regulated miRNAs have not been extensively documented. Here, by using an APC-inducible cell line and array analysis, we identified a total of 26 deregulated miRNAs. Among them, members of miR-17-92 cluster were dramatically inhibited by APC and induced by enforced expression of β-catenin. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activated β-catenin resulted from APC loss binds to and activates the miR-17-92 promoter. Notably, enforced expression of miR-19a overrides APC tumor suppressor activity, and knockdown of miR-19a in cancer cells with compromised APC function reduced their aggressive features in vitro. Finally, we observed that expression of miR-19a significantly correlates with β-catenin levels in colorectal cancer specimens, and it is associated to the aggressive stage of tumor progression. Thus, our study reveals that miR-17-92 cluster is directly regulated by APC/β-catenin pathway and could be a potential therapeutic target in colon cancers with aberrant APC/β-catenin signaling.

  2. [miR-182 promotes cell proliferation of cervical cancer cells by targeting adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Ying; Li, Jianping; Dang, Yunzhi; Zhang, Rui; Wei, Lichun; Shi, Mei

    2018-02-01

    Objective To investigate the role and mechanism of microRNA-182 (miR-182) in the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. Methods With liposome-mediated transient transfection method, the level of miR-182 in HeLa and SiHa cells was increased or decreased. CCK-8 assay and colony formation assay were used to observe the effect of miR-182 on the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. Using bioinformatics predictions, real-time quantitative PCR, and dual luciferase reporter assay, we clarified the role of miR-182 in posttranscriptional regulation of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene and its effect on the downstream molecules (c-Myc and cyclin D1) of Wnt singling pathway. Results Up-regulation of miR-182 significantly promoted the proliferation of cervical cancer cells, while down-regulation of miR-182 significantly inhibited the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. Over-expression of miR-182 inhibited the expression of APC gene in cervical cancer cells and the regulation of miR-182 affected the expression of canonical Wnt signaling pathway downstream molecules in cervical cancer cells. Conclusion The miR-182 stimulates canonical Wnt signaling pathway by targeting APC gene and enhances the proliferation of cervical cancer cells.

  3. Sclerosing lobular hyperplasia of breast: cytomorphologic and histomorphologic features: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapur Payal

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammary sclerosing lobular hyperplasia is an uncommon benign lesion of adolescent and young women. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of mammary sclerosing lobular hyperplasia is said to show characteristic features that include an absence of stromal fragments. Case presentation In this article, we describe a case of sclerosing lobular hyperplasia that occurred in the right breast of a 12-year-old girl. Fine-needle aspiration cytology showed some fibroadenoma-like features including the presence of stromal fragments, while branched tubular fragments were not seen. The diagnosis of sclerosing lobular hyperplasia was made on histologic examination that showed preserved acinar architecture with lobular hyperplasia and sclerosis of intralobular and interlobular stroma. Conclusion Fine-needle aspiration cytology features of mammary sclerosing lobular hyperplasia are not diagnostic and overlap with those of fibroadenoma; however, a distinction between the two benign entities is of no clinical significance. The definitive diagnosis of sclerosing lobular hyperplasia requires histopathologic evaluation.

  4. Primary extradural meningioma arising from the calvarium | Ravi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meningiomas are the most common intracranial tumours. Meningiomas arising at other locations are termed primary extradural meningiomas (EDMs) and are rare. Here we report a case of EDM arising from the calvarium – a primary calvarial meningioma (PCM).

  5. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Jung; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae; Choi, Jeong Hee

    2003-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic cyst is uncommon. The diagnosis of carcinoma arising in a cyst requires that there must be an area of microscopic transition from the benign epithelial cyst lining to the invasive squamous cell carcinoma. We report a histopathologically proven case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a residual mandibular cyst in a 54-year-old woman.

  6. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalayani, Parichehr; Tavakoli, Payam; Eftekhari, Mehdi; Haghighi, Mohammad Akhondzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia or Heck's disease is an infrequent asymptomatic condition caused by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32 affecting the mucous membrane of the mouth and is commonly seen in young individuals. Firstly, it was described in Indians and Eskimos, but it exists in various populations. We present three cases of Heck's disease in an Afghan immigrant family group living in Iran that seem to have familial predominance. The disease was identified as oral focal epithelial hyperplasia on the basis of histopathologic and clinical findings. The lesions were reduced significantly after 4 months of good oral hygiene. Dentists should be familiar with the clinical manifestations of these types of lesions that affect the oral cavity. In fact, histopathologic assessment and clinical observation are necessary to establish the diagnosis.

  7. Atypical epithelial hyperplasia of the breast: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Ludivine; Racin, Adelaïde; Brousse, Susie; Beltjens, Françoise; Cauchois, Aurélie; Levêque, Jean; Coutant, Charles; Lavoué, Vincent

    2016-09-01

    Atypical epithelial hyperplasia (AEH) of the breast is considered benign histological lesions with breast cancer risk. This review focuses on clinical signification and management of AEH that remains controversial. A review of published studies was performed using medline database. In this review, we fully describe the current evidence available. In particular, we describe 1) data from immunohistochemistry and molecular studies that suggest AEH is a precursor of breast cancer; 2) epidemiological studies demonstrate low rate of breast cancer in women with AEH; 3) surgical excision is necessary after diagnosis of AEH, such as lobular carcinoma in situ or atypical ductal hyperplasia, on core needle biopsy; 4) although current recommendations are evolving to fewer (if not no) excisions for flat epithelial with atypia and classic lobular neoplasia found on percutaneous biopsy (without radiologic indications for excision). Expert commentary: HEA management steel need prospective evidences, but recent retrospective data give some clue for less invasive management for some of HEA.

  8. Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia: a forgotten condition in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Nafiseh; Mortazavi, Hamed; Taghavi, Nasim; Baharvand, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia (MEH), also known as focal epithelial hyperplasia and Heck disease, is a relatively rare condition caused by the human papillomavirus. This case report describes a 92-year-old man who presented with multiple, asymptomatic, circumscribed, soft, flattened papules in different sizes on the retrocommissure of his lower lip. The lesions were of 2 months' duration and had the same coloration as the adjacent normal mucosa. Histopathologic examination showed orthokeratinized stratified squamous epithelium with acanthosis, some areas of club-shaped rete ridges, and a few superficial epithelial cells with koilocytic changes and a mitosoid-like appearance. A diagnosis of MEH was established. Although MEH tends to occur in the first 2 decades of life, it can be encountered in elderly patients as well.

  9. Clinical outcomes of childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottern, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to explore the relationship between childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia and the subsequent development of thyroid gland and other head and neck disorders. All individuals under 18 years of age who were x-irradiated for lymphoid hyperplasia during the years 1938-69 at Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston comprised the exposed population. The comparison group consisted of non-exposed, surgically treated individuals. The study included a health questionnaire and a clinical examination component. A history of thyroid cancer was reported by 11 exposed subjects and no non-exposed subjects. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios of thyroid cancer were seen for both exposed males and females, 19.9 and 12.1, respectively. The average thyroid radiation dose was 25.8 rads and the mean latency period was 17.3 years

  10. US findings of fibroadenomatoid hyperplasia of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Mi Gyung; Hwang, Mi Soo; Lee, Jae Kyo; Park, Bok Hwan [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic appearance of fibroadenomatoid hyperplasia of the breast. We retrospectively reviewed US findings including size, shape, border, boundary echo, internal echo, posterior echo, lateral echo, and transverse/anteroposterior diameter of 19 patients (mean age 36.6 years) with pathologically proven fibrodenomatoid hyperplasia. Mammogramas were available in 18 patients. On US size, shape, border, internal echo, boundary echo, posterior echo, lateral echo, the ratio of transverse to anteroposterior diameter were analyzed by two radiologist in agreement. Fifteen of 19 patients presented with palpable masses. On US, the mean size of the masses was 13 mm (range, 4-26 mm). The shape of lesions were round to oval in 10 cases (53%), lobulated in 6 cases (32%), irregular in 3 cases (15%). The borders of the lesions were sharp-well defined in 11 cases (58%), unsharp-ill defined in 8 cases (42%). Fourteen cases(74%) showed fine homogeneous internal echo and 5 cases (26%) showed coarse heterogeneous internal echo. Nonexistent or regular fine boundary echo was shown in 11 cases (58%) and irregular thick boundary echo was shown in 8 cases (42%).Posterior sonic enhancement was shown in 10 cases (53%), posterior sonic shadowing in 6 cases (32%). And three cases (15%) showed no posterior echo. Marked lateral echo was demonstrated in 11 cases (58%). The transverse/anteroposterior diameter ratio ranged between 1.0 and 1.5 in 1 case (5.5%), below 1.0 in 1 case (5.5%), and above 1.5 and 17 cases (89%). Mammogram showed no abnormality in ten patients with dense breast, mass like density in seven patients, and clustered microcalcification in one patient. Fibroadenomatoid hyperplasia was usually presented in fourth decade as a palpable breast mass and common US findings were similar to fibroadenoma. However, histopathologic confirmation was needed for the diagnosis because fibroadenomatoid hyperplasia sometimes showed the US features of malignancy.

  11. Clinical, chromosomal and endocrine studies for congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.E.; Shousha, M.; Hafez, M.

    2006-01-01

    Severe forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia are potentially fatal if unrecognized and untreated. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical presentation together with the chromosomal and laboratory associations in this syndrome. Twenty four patients diagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia were referred from Children's Hospital, Cairo University, Egypt, for hormonal and chromosomal workup. The age ranged from eight months to 19 years with mean age of 3.18 years. Twenty two patients were diagnosed as classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) syndrome. Severe salt wasting form was present in ten patients whereas simple virilisation was the presenting manifestation in twelve patients. Two patients presented as late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LOCAH). The sex of rearing was female in 18 cases and male in six cases. Genitography and sonography confirmed the presence of female internal organs in all cases. Advanced bone age was evident by radiographic studies. Although the karyotyping was 46,XX in all cases, the diagnosed correct sex was delayed in six cases. Serum concentrations of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17.OH.P), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), delta, 4-androstenedione (D4A), testosterone (T) and 11-deoxycortisol were all elevated as compared to controls. It was found that the adrenal androgens DHEAS, D4A and T were more elevated in salt losers when compared to simple virilising patients. However, this difference was statistically non-significant. The present study demonstrates that the clinical examination and laboratory investigations are necessary for the early detection and treatment of these cases to avoid major medical and psychological problems for the patients and their parents

  12. Clinical, Chromosomal and Endocrine Studies for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shousha, M.A.; Somaya, E.T.; Attia, M.

    2007-01-01

    Several forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia are potentially fatal if unrecognized and untreated. The aim of this study is to throw light on the clinical presentation together with chromosomal and laboratory associations in this syndrome. Twenty four patients diagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia were referred from the Diabetic Endocrine Metabolic Pediatric Unit [DEMPU], Children's Hospital, Cairo University for hormonal and chromosomal workup. Twenty two patients were diagnosed as classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) syndrome. Sever salt wasting form was present in ten patients whereas simple virilization was the presenting manifestation in twelve patients. Two patients presented as late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LOCAH). The mean age was 3.18 years, ranging from eight months to 19 years. The sex of rearing was Female in 18 cases and male in six cases. Genitography and sonography confirmed the presence of female internal organs in all cases. Advanced bone age was evident by radiographic studies. Although the karyotyping was (46,XX) in all cases, the correct sex diagnosis was delayed in 6 cases. Serum concentrations of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17.OH.P); Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS); Delta,4-androstenedione (D 4 A); Testosterone and 11-deoxycortisol were all elevated in relation to controls. We found that the adrenal androgens DHEAS, delta 4A, and T were more elevated in salt losers when compared to simple virilizing patients. However, this difference was not of statistical significance. The present study demonstrates that clinical examination and laboratory investigations are necessary for early detection and treatment of hese cases to avoid major medical and psychological problems for the patients and their parents.

  13. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia with localized aggressive periodontitis and amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajlan, Sumaiah Abdulbaqi

    2015-11-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an inherited medical condition that implies defects in steroid biosynthesis. The dental findings of a female patient with CAH are reported. The patient suffered from severe periodontal tissue destruction, obvious enamel defects, as well as some occlusal problems. The management approach is presented and the possibility of interrelation of her dental findings with her medical condition is discussed. © 2015 Japanese Teratology Society.

  14. Recent advances in treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rij, Simon; Gilling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), often identified as a worsening ability of a male to pass urine, is a significant problem for men in our society. In 2015, the use of personalised medicine is tailoring treatment to individual patient needs and to genetic characteristics. Technological advances in surgical treatment are changing the way BPH is treated and are resulting in less morbidity. The future of BPH treatments is exciting, and a number of novel techniques are currently under clinical trial.

  15. Recent advances in treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    van Rij, Simon; Gilling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), often identified as a worsening ability of a male to pass urine, is a significant problem for men in our society. In 2015, the use of personalised medicine is tailoring treatment to individual patient needs and to genetic characteristics. Technological advances in surgical treatment are changing the way BPH is treated and are resulting in less morbidity. The future of BPH treatments is exciting, and a number of novel techniques are currently under ...

  16. Pituitary hyperplasia: a complication of the pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyle MA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mary-Anne Doyle, Heather A Lochnan Division of Endocrinology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada Objective: “The pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine” has been used to describe patients with hypothyroidism who fail to comply with their treatment. We describe a unique case of a 32-year-old with hypothyroidism who developed pituitary hyperplasia and hyperprolactinemia secondary to the pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine. Investigations and treatment: After baseline thyroid-function tests were performed, the patient was administered levothyroxine 0.5 mg under the supervision of a registered nurse. Thyroid function testing was repeated at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes. Arrangements were made for further daily supervised loading of levothyroxine 0.1 mg. Results: With the administration of 0.5 mg levothyroxine, free thyroxine levels increased by 120 minutes, and with daily supervised dosing of 0.1 mg there was normalization of the thyroid hormone levels and a reduction of thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Maintenance of thyroid-stimulating hormone < 15 mU/L for 2 weeks led to a reduction in prolactin levels and regression in the size of the pituitary on magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion: If left untreated, these patients face significant morbidity and are at risk of developing pituitary hyperplasia, complications from an increase in pituitary size, hyperprolactinemia, and potentially myxedema coma. Recognizing pituitary hyperplasia and hyperprolactinemia as a complication from the pseudomalabsorption of levothyroxine may prevent the potential of a misdiagnosis of a prolactinoma leading to unnecessary investigations and inappropriate treatment. Patient awareness of this serious complication and the rapid, demonstrable resolution with adequate thyroid hormone replacement may provide motivation to comply with supervised dosing of levothyroxine. It has also been suggested that supervised treatment enables the individual to maintain their patient

  17. Adenomatous polyposis coli is required for early events in the normal growth and differentiation of the developing cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price David J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc is a large multifunctional protein known to be important for Wnt/β-catenin signalling, cytoskeletal dynamics, and cell polarity. In the developing cerebral cortex, Apc is expressed in proliferating cells and its expression increases as cells migrate to the cortical plate. We examined the consequences of loss of Apc function for the early development of the cerebral cortex. Results We used Emx1Cre to inactivate Apc specifically in proliferating cerebral cortical cells and their descendents starting from embryonic day 9.5. We observed reduction in the size of the mutant cerebral cortex, disruption to its organisation, and changes in the molecular identity of its cells. Loss of Apc leads to a decrease in the size of the proliferative pool, disrupted interkinetic nuclear migration, and increased apoptosis. β-Catenin, pericentrin, and N-cadherin proteins no longer adopt their normal high concentration at the apical surface of the cerebral cortical ventricular zone, indicating that cell polarity is disrupted. Consistent with enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signalling resulting from loss of Apc we found increased levels of TCF/LEF-dependent transcription and expression of endogenous Wnt/β-catenin target genes (Axin2 (conductin, Lef1, and c-myc in the mutant cerebral cortex. In the Apc mutant cerebral cortex the expression of transcription factors Foxg1, Pax6, Tbr1, and Tbr2 is drastically reduced compared to normal and many cells ectopically express Pax3, Wnt1, and Wt1 (but not Wnt2b, Wnt8b, Ptc, Gli1, Mash1, Olig2, or Islet1. This indicates that loss of Apc function causes cerebral cortical cells to lose their normal identity and redirect to fates normally found in more posterior-dorsal regions of the central nervous system. Conclusion Apc is required for multiple aspects of early cerebral cortical development, including the regulation of cell number, interkinetic nuclear migration, cell polarity, and

  18. High-resolution Melting Analysis for Gene Scanning of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) Gene With Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Sian; Lin, Chien-Yu; Yang, Shu-Fen; Ho, Cheng Mao; Chang, Jan-Gowth

    2016-02-01

    There have been many different mutations reported for the large adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene. APC mutations result in inactivation of APC tumor suppressor action, allowing the progression of tumorigenesis. The present study utilized a highly efficient method to identify APC mutations and investigated the association between the APC genetic variants Y486Y, A545A, T1493T, and D1822V and susceptibility to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was used to characterize APC mutations. Genomic DNA was extracted from 83 patient specimens of OSCC and 50 blood samples from healthy control subjects. The 14 exons and mutation cluster region of exon 15 were screened by HRM analysis. All mutations were confirmed by direct DNA sequencing. Three mutations and 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in this study. The mutations were c.573T>C (Y191Y) in exon 5, c.1005A>G (L335L) in exon 9, and c.1488A>T (T496T) in exon 11. Two SNPs, c.4479G>A (T1493T) and c.5465A>T (D1822V), were located in exon 15, whereas c.1458T>C (Y486Y) and c.1635G>A (A545A) were located in exon 11 and 13, respectively. There was no observed association between OSCC risk and genotype for any of the 4 APC SNPs. The mutation of APC is rare in Taiwanese patients with OSCC. HRM analysis is a reliable, accurate, and fast screening method for APC mutations.

  19. SPDEF regulates goblet cell hyperplasia in the airway epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwon-Sik; Korfhagen, Thomas R.; Bruno, Michael D.; Kitzmiller, Joseph A.; Wan, Huajing; Wert, Susan E.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.; Chen, Gang; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    Goblet cell hyperplasia and mucous hypersecretion contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic pulmonary diseases including cystic fibrosis, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In the present work, mouse SAM pointed domain-containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) mRNA and protein were detected in subsets of epithelial cells lining the trachea, bronchi, and tracheal glands. SPDEF interacted with the C-terminal domain of thyroid transcription factor 1, activating transcription of genes expressed selectively in airway epithelial cells, including Sftpa, Scgb1a1, Foxj1, and Sox17. Expression of Spdef in the respiratory epithelium of adult transgenic mice caused goblet cell hyperplasia, inducing both acidic and neutral mucins in vivo, and stainined for both acidic and neutral mucins in vivo. SPDEF expression was increased at sites of goblet cell hyperplasia caused by IL-13 and dust mite allergen in a process that was dependent upon STAT-6. SPDEF was induced following intratracheal allergen exposure and after Th2 cytokine stimulation and was sufficient to cause goblet cell differentiation of Clara cells in vivo. PMID:17347682

  20. Reactive thymic hyperplasia following treatment of ACTH-producing tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, S.; Klose, K.J.; Iwinska-Zelder, J.; Frank, M.; Ehlenz, K.; Kisker, O.

    1997-01-01

    Surgical or conservative treatment of ACTH-producing tumors results in acute drop of the previously excessively high cortisol levels. The following associated pathophysiological changes also occur in the organism's recovery from stress, such as trauma, operation or chemotherapy of tumors. Both cases result in a regeneration of the immune system, which might even be exalted. The corresponding radiographic feature is the 'rebound' enlargement of the thymus occuring about six months after remission of hypercortisolism. Histological examination reveals benign thymus hyperplasia. Especially in cases of still unkown primary tumor the apperance of this anterior mediastinal mass can lead to misdiagnosis. We present the cases of two patients with diffuse thymic hyperplasia following surgical and medical correction of hypercortisolism. One patient suffered from classic Cushing's disease responding to transsphenoidal resection of an ACTH-secreting pituitary microadenoma. Six monsths later CT of the chest incidentally demonstrated an anterior mediastinal mass known as thymic hyperplasia. The second patient presented with an ectopic, still unknown source of ACTH-production. (orig./AJ) [de

  1. Refractory Cushing's disease caused by multinodular ACTH-cell hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, P E; Koppelman, M C; Metcalf, D; Quindlen, E; Kornblith, P L; Strott, C A; Howard, R; Smith, B H

    1982-09-01

    A patient with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism, unresponsive to resection of nodules in the anterior lobe, is described. Histochemical stains of the nodules showed multiple, focal, cellular expansions of the fibrovascular stroma. Transitions between normal and expanded adenohypophysial acini were present. Immunoperoxidase stains for ACTH and other pituitary hormones revealed that these multiple foci contained an excess of ACTH-positive cells. Less than 10% of the cells in these foci were negative for ACTH and positive for other hormones. Serial sections showed that these foci of predominantly ACTH-producing acini were not connected. Clinical, morphological, and immunohistochemical data indicated that ACTH-cell hyperplasia caused Crushing's disease in this patient. Pathologic study of individual cases should concentrate on determining whether hyperplasia or adenoma exist at the time of surgical exploration of the pituitary gland, since this determination is important to proper treatment. Tentative criteria to recognize ACTH-cell hyperplasia are: 1. Multiple foci of ACTH laden cells. 2. A minor subpopulation of cells of alternate hormone series. 3. Expansion without destruction of acini in the adenohypophysis.

  2. Gastrointestinal hyperplasia with altered expression of DNA polymerase beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Yoshizawa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Altered expression of DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta has been documented in a large percentage of human tumors. However, tumor prevalence or predisposition resulting from Pol beta over-expression has not yet been evaluated in a mouse model.We have recently developed a novel transgenic mouse model that over-expresses Pol beta. These mice present with an elevated incidence of spontaneous histologic lesions, including cataracts, hyperplasia of Brunner's gland and mucosal hyperplasia in the duodenum. In addition, osteogenic tumors in mice tails, such as osteoma and osteosarcoma were detected. This is the first report of elevated tumor incidence in a mouse model of Pol beta over-expression. These findings prompted an evaluation of human gastrointestinal tumors with regard to Pol beta expression. We observed elevated expression of Pol beta in stomach adenomas and thyroid follicular carcinomas, but reduced Pol beta expression in esophageal adenocarcinomas and squamous carcinomas.These data support the hypothesis that balanced and proficient base excision repair protein expression and base excision repair capacity is required for genome stability and protection from hyperplasia and tumor formation.

  3. Prognosis of thymectomy in myasthenia gravis patients with thymus hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Liu, Chanchan; Li, Tao; Li, Chengyan

    2017-09-01

    To compare the post-thymectomy prognosis in different conditions of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with thymus hyperplasia. Collecting medical record and carrying out the follow-up study of 123 myasthenia gravis patients with thymus hyperplasia who have underwent thymectomy during the period between 2003 and 2013. Dividing into different groups based on gender, age of onset, duration of disease and Myasthenia Gravis Association of America (MGFA) clinical classification to analyze different prognosis in different groups. Complete stable remission (CSR) was achieved in 71 of 123 patients (59.5%). There is no gender-related difference in achieving CSR. Patients with early onset of MG (≤40 years old) or disease duration less than 12 months had significantly higher CSR rates than those with late onset of MG (>40 years old) or disease duration more than 12 months respectively, while no difference was found in remission rate between MGFA clinical classification I and MGFA II. Myasthenia gravis patients with thymus hyperplasia who had thymectomy are proved to possess greater chance of achieving CSR. The onset age of disease and duration are the prognostic factors.

  4. Broad phenotypic spectrum in familial adenomatous polyposis; from early onset and severe phenotypes to late onset of attenuated polyposis with the first manifestation at age 72

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilbert, Mef; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Ericsson, Mats

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Background Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is typically characterized by multiple colonic polyps and frequent extracolonic features. Whereas the number of colonic polyps has been linked to the APC gene mutation, possible genotype-phenotype correlations largely remain to be defined...... cancer at age 72 as the first manifestation of attenuated FAP. Conclusion With an increasing number of FAP families diagnosed, a broad and variable tumor spectrum and a high frequency of extracolonic manifestations are gradually recognized. We report novel APC mutations and present two FAP cases...

  5. Broad phenotypic spectrum in familial adenomatous polyposis; from early onset and severe phenotypes to late onset of attenuated polyposis with the first manifestation at age 72

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilbert, Mef; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Ericsson, Mats

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Background Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is typically characterized by multiple colonic polyps and frequent extracolonic features. Whereas the number of colonic polyps has been linked to the APC gene mutation, possible genotype-phenotype correlations largely remain to be defined...... of extracolonic manifestations was identified in most of these individuals. Two sisters with an insertion in codon 528 (c.1582_1583insGC) both showed severe phenotypes with classical polyposis, upper gastrointestinal polyps and thyroid cancer. A woman with a 3'APC mutation (c.5030_5031insAA) developed colon...

  6. Preoperative diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ arising within a mammary fibroadenoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooe, Asako; Takahara, Sachiko; Sumiyoshi, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Shiba, Eiichi; Kawai, Jun

    2011-07-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common form of benign breast tumor and the most common breast tumor in women under 30 years of age. However, carcinoma arising within a fibroadenoma is unusual, with over 100 cases reported in the literature. Histological diagnosis is typically unexpected. A 46-year-old female with no family history of breast malignancies was admitted for an elastic hard lump in the upper-outer quadrant of her right breast. At a clinic that she visited previously, her condition was diagnosed by core needle biopsy with four specimens showing fibroadenoma with borderline atypical ductal hyperplasia at pathology. Excisional biopsy was recommended for pathological diagnosis. The patient requested a definitive diagnosis and alternative treatment to tumorectomy. More biopsy specimens were needed for pathological diagnosis; therefore, ultrasonography-guided vacuum-assisted core needle biopsies were obtained, confirming ductal carcinoma in situ with questionable microinvasion of intracanalicular- and pericanalicular-type fibroadenoma. Right breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy were immediately performed for radical therapy. We present this case to increase awareness of this entity and stress the need for histological evaluation of some breast masses.

  7. Immunolocalization of osteopontin in dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas arising from oral epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, Thara; Janardhanan, Mahija; Rakesh, S; Savithri, Vindhya; Unnikrishnan, U G

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains one of the most efficient ways to ensure patient survival and improved quality of life. Although specific biomarkers related to OSCC have been investigated, a useful biomarker that assesses the transition potential of potentially malignant lesion to OSCC remains to be found. Osteopontin (OPN) has been recognized as an important factor in tumorigenesis and their expression in OSCC have been investigated earlier. In the present study, evaluation of OPN expression in premalignant and malignant lesions has been carried out to assess their possible role as a biomarker in the early diagnosis and prognosis of OSCC. The objective of this study is to evaluate the role of OPN as a biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of OSCC. The study group consisted of archival paraffin-embedded blocks of ten cases each of varying grades of OSCC, oral epithelial dysplasias and epithelial hyperplasias. Sections were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for the biomarker OPN. A positive OPN expression was noticed in epithelial dysplasias and SCC arising from the oral epithelium. A progressive increase in the intensity of staining was seen with increasing grades of dysplasias and a decrease in OPN expression with an increase in grades was observed in OSCC. The expression of OPN in full thickness of epithelium in severe dysplasias, carcinoma in situ, and in the superficial epithelium of OSCC suggest the possibility of considering OPN expression in full epithelial thickness in dysplasias as an indicator for malignant transformation.

  8. Sonic hedgehog-induced histone deacetylase activation is required for cerebellar granule precursor hyperplasia in medulloblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Joon Lee

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma, the most common pediatric brain tumor, is thought to arise from deregulated proliferation of cerebellar granule precursor (CGP cells. Sonic hedgehog (Shh is the primary mitogen that regulates proliferation of CGP cells during the early stages of postnatal cerebellum development. Aberrant activation of Shh signaling during this time has been associated with hyperplasia of CGP cells and eventually may lead to the development of medulloblastoma. The molecular targets of Shh signaling involved in medulloblastoma formation are still not well-understood. Here, we show that Shh regulates sustained activation of histone deacetylases (HDACs and that this activity is required for continued proliferation of CGP cells. Suppression of HDAC activity not only blocked the Shh-induced CGP proliferation in primary cell cultures, but also ameliorated aberrant CGP proliferation at the external germinal layer (EGL in a medulloblastoma mouse model. Increased levels of mRNA and protein of several HDAC family members were found in medulloblastoma compared to wild type cerebellum suggesting that HDAC activity is required for the survival/progression of tumor cells. The identification of a role of HDACs in the early steps of medulloblastoma formation suggests there may be a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors in this disease.

  9. Wilms tumor arising in extracoelomic paravertebral soft tissues.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulligan, Linda

    2012-02-01

    Extrarenal Wilms tumor (ERWT) is a well-established entity which most commonly arises within the genitourinary tract, including intracoelomic paranephric soft tissue. Rarely, ERWT arises within teratoma, and it tends to occur predominantly in distinct settings, such as females with spinal defects and males with testicular teratomas. We report a unique ERWT arising within an extracoelomic teratoma of the paraspinal musculature, thereby expanding the range of reported locations for this unusual tumor.

  10. Thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia in IFN-gamma deficient NOD.H-2h4 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shiguang; Sharp, Gordon C; Braley-Mullen, Helen

    2006-01-01

    The role of inflammatory cells in thyroid epithelial cell (thyrocyte) hyperplasia is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that thyrocyte hyperplasia in IFN-gamma-/- NOD.H-2h4 mice has an autoimmune basis. After chronic exposure to increased dietary iodine, 60% of IFN-gamma-/- mice had severe thyrocyte hyperplasia with minimal or moderate lymphocyte infiltration, and thyroid dysfunction with reduced serum T4. All mice produced anti-thyroglobulin autoantibody. Some wild-type NOD.H-2h4 mice had isolated areas of thyrocyte hyperplasia with predominantly lymphocytic infiltration, whereas IL-4-/- and 50% of wild-type NOD.H-2h4 mice developed lymphocytic thyroiditis but no thyrocyte hyperplasia. Both thyroid infiltrating inflammatory cells and environmental factors (iodine) were required to induce thyrocyte hyperplasia. Splenocytes from IFN-gamma-/- mice with thyrocyte hyperplasia, but not splenocytes from naïve IFN-gamma-/- mice, induced hyperplasia in IFN-gamma-/- NOD.H-2h4.SCID mice. These results may provide clues for understanding the mechanisms underlying development of epithelial cell hyperplasia not only in thyroids but also in other tissues and organs.

  11. Solitary Fibrous Tumor Arising from Stomach: CT Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hee; Kwon, Jieun; Park, Jong-pil; Park, Mi-Suk; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang

    2007-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors are spindle-cell neoplasms that usually develop in the pleura and peritoneum, and rarely arise in the stomach. To our knowledge, there is only one case reporting a solitary fibrous tumor arising from stomach in the English literature. Here we report the case of a 26-year-old man with a large solitary fibrous tumor arising from the stomach which involved the submucosa and muscular layer and resembled a gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the stomach, based on what was seen during abdominal computed tomography. A solitary fibrous tumor arising from the stomach, although rare, could be considered as a diagnostic possibility for gastric submucosal tumors. PMID:18159603

  12. Ursodeoxycholic acid counteracts celecoxib in reduction of duodenal polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis: a multicentre, randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to prophylactic colectomy, mortality in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has changed, with duodenal cancer currently being the main cause of death. Although celecoxib reduces duodenal polyp density in patients with FAP, its long-term use may increase the risk of cardiovascular events and alternatives need to be explored. Preclinical studies suggest that the combination of celecoxib with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a potentially effective strategy. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of celecoxib and UDCA co-treatment on duodenal adenomatosis in patients with FAP. Methods Patients with FAP received celecoxib (400 mg twice daily) and UDCA (1000-2000 mg daily, ~20-30 mg/kg/day, n=19) or celecoxib and placebo (n=18) orally for 6 months. Primary outcome was drug efficacy, assessed by comparing duodenal polyp density at pre- and post-intervention by blinded review of endoscopic recordings. As secondary outcomes, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and COX-2 levels in normal duodenal mucosa were assessed by immunohistochemistry or real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results In intention-to-treat analysis, deceased polyp density was observed after celecoxib/placebo treatment (p=0.029), whereas increased polyp density was observed after celecoxib/UDCA treatment (p=0.014). The difference in change in duodenal polyp density was statistically significant between the groups (p=0.011). No changes in secondary outcomes were observed. Thirty patients (81%) reported one or more adverse events, 16 patients (84%, Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (CTCAE) grade 1–3) treated with celecoxib/UDCA and 14 patients (78%, CTCAE grade 1–2) treated with celecoxib/placebo. Nine patients (24%) discontinued intervention prematurely, 5 patients (26%) treated with celecoxib/UDCA and 4 patients (22%) treated with celecoxib/placebo. Conclusions Celecoxib reduces duodenal

  13. Inactivation of promoter 1B of APC causes partial gene silencing: evidence for a significant role of the promoter in regulation and causative of familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohlin, A; Engwall, Y; Fritzell, K

    2011-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by germline mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Two promoters, 1A and 1B, have been recognized in APC, and 1B is thought to have a minor role in the regulation of the gene. We have identified a novel deletion encompassing half of ...... homozygous inactivation of APC allowing for alternative genetic models as basis for adenoma formation.Oncogene advance online publication, 6 June 2011; doi:10.1038/onc.2011.201....... in a panel of 20 various normal tissues examined. In FAP-related tumors, the APC germline mutation is proposed to dictate the second hit. Mutations leaving two or three out of seven 20-amino-acid repeats in the central domain of APC intact seem to be required for tumorigenesis. We examined adenomas from...... mutation carriers in Family 1 for second hits in the entire gene without any findings, however, loss of the residual expression of the deleterious allele was observed. Three major conclusions of significant importance in relation to the function of APC can be drawn from this study; (i) germline...

  14. The Functional Role of Reactive Stroma in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Isaiah G.; Rowley, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The human prostate gland is one of the only internal organs that continue to enlarge throughout adulthood. The specific mechanisms that regulate this growth, as well as the pathological changes leading to the phenotype observed in the disease benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), are essentially unknown. Recent studies and their associated findings have made clear that many complex alterations occur, involving persistent and chronic inflammation, circulating hormonal level deregulation, and aberrant wound repair processes. BPH has been etiologically characterized as a progressive, albeit discontinuous, hyperplasia of both the glandular epithelial and stromal cell compartments coordinately yielding an expansion of the prostate gland and clinical symptoms. Interestingly, the inflammatory and repair responses observed in BPH are also key components of general wound repair in post-natal tissues. These responses include altered expression of chemokines, cytokines, matrix remodeling factors, chronic inflammatory processes, altered immune surveillance and recognition, as well as the formation of a prototypical ‘reactive’ stroma which is similar to that observed across various fibroplasias and malignancies of a variety of tissue sites. Stromal tissue, both embryonic mesenchyme, and adult reactive stroma myofibroblasts, has been shown to exert potent and functional regulatory control over epithelial proliferation and differentiation as well as immunoresponsive modulation. Thus, the functional biology of a reactive stroma, within the context of an adult disease typified by epithelial and stromal aberrant hyperplasia, is critical to understand within the context of prostate disease and beyond. The mechanisms that regulate reactive stroma biology in BPH represent targets of opportunity for new therapeutic approaches that may extend to other tissue contexts. Accordingly, this review seeks to address the dissection of important factors, signaling pathways, genes, and other

  15. Orally administered nicotine induces urothelial hyperplasia in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodmane, Puttappa R.; Arnold, Lora L.; Pennington, Karen L.; Cohen, Samuel M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rats and mice orally administered with nicotine tartrate for total of 4 weeks. • No treatment-related death or whole body toxicity observed in any of the groups. • Urothelium showed simple hyperplasia in treated rats and mice. • No significant change in BrdU labeling index or SEM classification of urothelium. - Abstract: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for multiple human cancers including urinary bladder carcinoma. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture containing chemicals that are known carcinogens in humans and/or animals. Aromatic amines a major class of DNA-reactive carcinogens in cigarette smoke, are not present at sufficiently high levels to fully explain the incidence of bladder cancer in cigarette smokers. Other agents in tobacco smoke could be excreted in urine and enhance the carcinogenic process by increasing urothelial cell proliferation. Nicotine is one such major component, as it has been shown to induce cell proliferation in multiple cell types in vitro. However, in vivo evidence specifically for the urothelium is lacking. We previously showed that cigarette smoke induces increased urothelial cell proliferation in mice. In the present study, urothelial proliferative and cytotoxic effects were examined after nicotine treatment in mice and rats. Nicotine hydrogen tartrate was administered in drinking water to rats (52 ppm nicotine) and mice (514 ppm nicotine) for 4 weeks and urothelial changes were evaluated. Histopathologically, 7/10 rats and 4/10 mice showed simple hyperplasia following nicotine treatment compared to none in the controls. Rats had an increased mean BrdU labeling index compared to controls, although it was not statistically significantly elevated in either species. Scanning electron microscopic visualization of the urothelium did not reveal significant cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that oral nicotine administration induced urothelial hyperplasia (increased cell proliferation), possibly due to a

  16. Long-term surgical-orthodontic management of hemimandibular hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Samuel C; Goonewardene, Mithran S

    2016-05-01

    Hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH), also known as hemimandibular hypertrophy, is characterised by excessive unilateral three-dimensional growth of the mandible after birth. Vertical unilateral elongation of the mandible becomes clinically evident as a rare form of vertical facial asymmetry. Aberrant growth of the facial skeleton affects the developing dentition and the dental compensatory mechanism is usually unable to maintain optimal occlusal relationships. The resulting malocclusion is effectively managed by combined surgical-orthodontic care to address the facial, skeletal and dental problems that confront clinicians. Orthodontists are advised to assess patients with HH during the post-treatment retention stage for continuing mandibular growth and assess the stability of treatment outcomes with long-term follow-up and records as required. To present a case of hemimandibular hyperplasia treated successfully by combined surgical-orthodontic care and evaluated for stability over a seven-year follow-up period. Surgical-orthodontic management was accomplished in four stages: 1) pre-surgical orthodontic; 21 surgical; 3) post-surgical orthodontic; and 4) post-treatment orthodontic retention. Complete orthodontic records, including extra- and intra-oral photographs, study models, and cephalograms plus panoramic radiographs were taken at the pretreatment, post-treatment, and seven-year orthodontic retention time-points. Facial, skeletal and dental goals were achieved in the three planes of space and the long-term stability of the treatment results was shown during a post-treatment orthodontic retention period of seven years. Hemimandibular hyperplasia is a true growth anomaly which may be managed effectively. Clinicians may expect successful long-term correction and stability by utilising a comprehensive surgical-orthodontic treatment approach.

  17. 32 CFR 537.19 - Demands arising from maritime claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Demands arising from maritime claims. 537.19 Section 537.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.19 Demands arising from maritime claims. (a) It is...

  18. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia – A report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE is an uncommon, reactive vaso-proliferative disease, presenting with painless, vascular nodules in the dermal and subcutaneous tissues, sually seen in the head and neck region. It is characterized clinically by single to multiple red brown dome shaped papules or subcutaneous nodules. Its etiology is unknown and the histology is characterized by hyperplastic blood vessels lined by a hypertrophic endothelium with an inflammatory infiltrate rich in eosinophils. We report three cases of ALHE presenting over the ears and scalp.

  19. Sporadic diffuse segmental interstitial cell of Cajal hyperplasia harbouring two gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST mimicking hereditary GIST syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Costa Neves

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: We describe a diffuse form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia harbouring multifocal GISTs, mimicking diffuse ICC hyperplasia in hereditary GIST syndromes. Detection of somatic c-KIT exon 11 mutation ruled out a hereditary disorder.

  20. Incidence of endometrial hyperplasia in 100 cases presenting with polymenorrhagia/menorrhagia in perimenupausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takreem, A.; Razaq, S.

    2009-01-01

    To study the Incidence of endometrial hyperplasia in perimenupausal women presenting with polymenorrhagia/menorrhagia. This observational study was conducted at Gynae 'B' unit of Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar from January 2000 to December 2001. One hundred consecutive patients who presented at Gynaecology OPD with Polymenorrhagia/ Menorrhagia were registered and incidence of endometrial hyperplasia evaluated in them. All women were above 45 years of age. Post-menopausal bleeding cases were excluded from the study. Out of 100 patients, 15 patients were found to have endometrial hyperplasia, 10 patients (66.6%) simple cystic hyperplasia, 3 patients (20.0%) had adenomotous hyperplasia, 2 patients (13.3%) had atypical hyperplasia, 8 patients (53.3%) with menorrhagia, 1 (6.6%) with polymenorrhagia, and 6 patients (40.0%) with polymenorrhoea. Duration of symptoms was from 4 months to 1 year. Thirteen (86.6%) patients were treated medically, 5 patients (33.33%) needed surgical treatment following medical treatment, 2 patients (13.3%) underwent Total Abdominal Hysterectomy (TAH) and Bilateral Salpingooophorectomy (BSO) who were 51-53 years of age with atypical hyperplasia. endometrial hyperplasia is a pre-malignant condition; if treated in time, incidence can be reduced and early treatment can increase life expectancy and quality in women over age of 45 years. (author)

  1. Periostin contributes to epidermal hyperplasia in psoriasis common to atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Arima

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Periostin plays an important role during epidermal hyperplasia in IMQ-induced skin inflammation, independently of the IL-23–IL-17/IL-22 axis. Periostin appears to be a mediator for epidermal hyperplasia that is common to AD and psoriasis.

  2. The prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome or hyperandrogenism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Nina Sofie Lillegaard; Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne Skovsager

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome may be associated with an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer, but substantial evidence for this remains to be established. We investigated the prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer in a well characterized group of women...... with polycystic ovary syndrome and/or clinical/biochemical hyperandrogenism....

  3. Adrenomegaly and septic adrenal hemorrhage (Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome) in the setting of congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Amin F.; Ford, Kenneth L.; dePrisco, Gregory; Smerud, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia refers to a spectrum of autosomal recessive inherited disorders of steroidogenesis most commonly identified on newborn screenings. We describe a young woman who presented with abdominal pain and on subsequent imaging was found to have features of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Imaging findings, treatment, and potential complications are discussed.

  4. Adrenomegaly and septic adrenal hemorrhage (Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome) in the setting of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Amin F; Ford, Kenneth L; Deprisco, Gregory; Smerud, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia refers to a spectrum of autosomal recessive inherited disorders of steroidogenesis most commonly identified on newborn screenings. We describe a young woman who presented with abdominal pain and on subsequent imaging was found to have features of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Imaging findings, treatment, and potential complications are discussed.

  5. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... starting. For more information, talk with an assisted reproduction specialist at a fertility clinic. How common is ... cancer, along with either a glioblastoma or medulloblastoma brain tumor. Blood tests are available to look for ...

  6. A Rare Case of Diffuse Idiopathic Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Ofikwu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH is a rare clinical condition with only about 100 cases reported in the literature. It is characterized by primary hyperplasia of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs which are specialized epithelial cells located throughout the entire respiratory tract, from the trachea to the terminal airways. DIPNECH appears in various forms that include diffuse proliferation of scattered neuroendocrine cells, small nodules, or a linear proliferation. It is usually seen in middle-aged, nonsmoking women with symptoms of cough, dyspnea, and wheezing. We present a 45-year-old, nonsmoking woman who presented with symptoms of DIPNECH associated with bilateral pulmonary nodules and left hilar adenopathy. Of interest, DIPNECH in our patient was associated with metastatic pulmonary carcinoids, papillary carcinoma of the left breast, oncocytoma and angiomyolipoma of her left kidney, and cortical nodules suggestive of tuberous sclerosis. She had video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS, modified radical mastectomy with reconstruction, and radical nephrectomy. She is currently symptom-free most of the time with over two years of follow-up.

  7. Atypical hyperplasia, proliferative fibrocystic change, and exogenous hormone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zera, R T; Danielson, D; Van Camp, J M; Schmidt-Steinbrunn, B; Hong, J; McCoy, M; Anderson, W R; Linzie, B M; Rodriguez, J L

    2001-10-01

    The association between breast cancer development and exogenous hormone use (EHU) is suggested by indirect clinical evidence. We undertook this study to better define the relationship that EHU has with proliferative fibrocystic change (PFC) and atypical hyperplasia (AH). Women diagnosed with AH without associated carcinoma from January 1990 to December 1999 were compared with control subjects who underwent breast biopsy procedures during the same interval and who were diagnosed with either a proliferative fibrocystic change (PFC) or a nonproliferative fibrocystic change (NPFC). EHU was defined as the use of estrogen or progesterone taken together or separately within 3 months of biopsy. EHU was significantly higher in patients with AH compared with women with NPFC (P =.01). This observation was also significant if all proliferative change (both AH and PFC) was compared with NPFC (P =.03); it was not significant when PFC alone was compared with NPFC. No significant difference in EHU was demonstrated between women with AH and those with PFC. There is strong association between AH and EHU. These results support the theory that a continuum exists between hyperplasia and carcinoma and that EHU may influence the transition from one to the other in an undefined subset of women. We encourage our patients with AH to discontinue EHU.

  8. Cutaneous papillomatous hyperplasia in cyclosporine-A treated beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, W; Sundberg, J P; Lesko, L J; Sauk, J J; McCleary, L B; Hassell, T M

    1989-08-01

    All twelve Beagle dogs undergoing long-term therapy (26 weeks) with the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine-A (30 mg/kg), developed cutaneous papillomatous hyperplasia. By week 7 all dogs developed generalized lesions distributed over the entire body. These occurred as irregular, oval, sessile, unpigmented, firm masses. The incidence and severity of the skin lesions varied among dogs and anatomic site, with no correlation to the blood level of cyclosporine. Microscopic analysis revealed that the epidermis formed short papillary folds on broad fibrovascular stalks and was hyperkeratotic and acanthotic. Mild hyperplasia of hair follicles and sebaceous glands was also evident. A mild diffuse infiltrate of lymphocytes and plasma cells was present in the papillary dermis. No histopathologic changes typical of papillomavirus infection were identified, nor were papillomavirus group-specific antigens or viral DNA detected. Other cutaneous side effects included hyperkeratosis of footpads, increased growth of hair and nails, and hyperkeratinization of the haired skin of the prepuce. All cutaneous lesions regressed spontaneously within 8 weeks following termination of cyclosporine administration. The hyperplastic lesions may have resulted from the action of cyclosporine via the T-lymphocyte system. Conversely a direct action of this drug on epithelial cells may have stimulated proliferation and keratinization.

  9. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: clinical treatment can complicate cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Facio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonists for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH regarding potential risks of complications in the setting of cataract surgery. AIM: To address recommendations, optimal control therapy, voiding symptoms and safety within the setting of cataract surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was performed using MEDLINE with MeSH terms and keywords "benign prostatic hyperplasia", "intraoperative floppy iris syndrome", "adrenergic alpha-antagonist" and "cataract surgery". In addition, reference lists from identified publications were reviewed to identify reports and studies of interest from 2001 to 2009. RESULTS: The first report of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS was observed during cataract surgery in patients taking systemic alpha-1 AR antagonists in 2005. It has been most commonly seen related to use of tamsulosin. Changes of medication and washout periods of up to 2 weeks have been attempted to reduce the risk of complications in the setting of cataract surgery. CONCLUSION: Patients under clinical treatment for BPH should be informed about potential risks of this drug class so that it can be discuss with their healthcare providers, in particular urologist and ophthalmologist, prior to cataract surgery.

  10. Retroperitoneal unicentric Castleman's disease (giant lymph node hyperplasia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaques Waisberg

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Castleman's disease, or giant lymph node hyperplasia, is a rare disorder of the lymphoid tissue that causes lymph node enlargement. It is considered benign in its localized form, but aggressive in the multicentric type. The definitive diagnosis is based on postoperative pathological findings. The aim here was to describe a case of retroperitoneal unicentric Castleman's disease in the retroperitoneum. CASE REPORT: A 61-year old white male with weight loss and listlessness presented with moderate arterial hypertension and leukopenia. Abdominal tomography revealed a 5 x 4 x 5 cm oval mass of low attenuation, with inner calcification and intense enhancement on intravenous contrast, located in the retroperitoneal region, between the left kidney and the aorta, at the renal hilus. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a non-pulsatile solid oval mass situated in the retroperitoneum, adjacent to the left renal hilus. The retroperitoneal lesion was removed in its entirety. Examination of frozen samples revealed benign lymph node tissue and histopathological examination of the surgical sample revealed hyaline-vascular giant lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman's disease. The patient was discharged on the 12th day without significant events. Two months after the operation, the patient was readmitted with severe cardiac insufficiency, acute renal failure and bronchopneumonia, which progressed to acute respiratory insufficiency, sepsis and death.

  11. Fermented dairy products modulate Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W; Chervaux, Christian; Raymond, Benoit; Derrien, Muriel; Brazeilles, Rémi; Kosta, Artemis; Chambaud, Isabelle; Crepin, Valerie F; Frankel, Gad

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated the protective effects of fermented dairy products (FDPs) in an infection model, using the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR). Treatment of mice with FDP formulas A, B, and C or a control product did not affect CR colonization, organ specificity, or attaching and effacing lesion formation. Fermented dairy product A (FDP-A), but neither the supernatant from FDP-A nor β-irradiated (IR) FDP-A, caused a significant reduction in colonic crypt hyperplasia and CR-associated pathology. Profiling the gut microbiota revealed that IR-FDP-A promoted higher levels of phylotypes belonging to Alcaligenaceae and a decrease in Lachnospiraceae (Ruminococcus) during CR infection. Conversely, FDP-A prevented a decrease in Ruminococcus and increased Turicibacteraceae (Turicibacter). Importantly, loss of Ruminococcus and Turicibacter has been associated with susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis. Our results demonstrate that viable bacteria in FDP-A reduced CR-induced colonic crypt hyperplasia and prevented the loss of key bacterial genera that may contribute to disease pathology. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  12. Solitary Fibrous Tumor Arising from Stomach: CT Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung Hee; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Kwon, Jieun; Park, Jong-pil; Park, Mi-Suk; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang

    2007-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors are spindle-cell neoplasms that usually develop in the pleura and peritoneum, and rarely arise in the stomach. To our knowledge, there is only one case reporting a solitary fibrous tumor arising from stomach in the English literature. Here we report the case of a 26-year-old man with a large solitary fibrous tumor arising from the stomach which involved the submucosa and muscular layer and resembled a gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the stomach, based on what was see...

  13. Downstream anastomotic hyperplasia. A mechanism of failure in Dacron arterial grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoGerfo, F W; Quist, W C; Nowak, M D; Crawshaw, H M; Haudenschild, C C

    1983-01-01

    The precise location and progression of anastomotic hyperplasia and its possible relationship to flow disturbances was investigated in femoro-femoral Dacron grafts in 28 dogs. In 13 grafts, the outflow from the end-to-side downstream anastomosis was bidirectional (BDO), and in 15 it was unidirectional (UDO) (distally). Grafts were electively removed at intervals of two to 196 days or at the time of thrombosis. Each anastomosis and adjacent artery was perfusion-fixed and sectioned sagittally. The mean sagittal section was projected onto a digitized pad, and the total area of hyperplasia internal to the arterial internal elastic lamina and within the adjacent graft was integrated by computer. The location of the hyperplasia was compared with previously established sites of flow separation and stagnation. The observation was made that hyperplasia is significantly greater at the downstream, as compared with the upstream, anastomosis in both groups (BDO = p less than 0.001 and UDO = p less than 0.001) (analysis of variance for independent groups). Furthermore, this downstream hyperplasia was progressive with time (BDO p less than 0.01) (UDO p less than 0.01); Spearman Rank Correlation. There was no significant increase in the extent of downstream hyperplasia where flow separation was known to be greater (BDO). Five grafts failed (three BDO, two UDO), as a result of complete occlusion of the downstream anastomosis by fibrous hyperplasia. Transmission electron microscopy showed the hyperplasia to consist of collagen-producing smooth muscle cells. Anastomotic hyperplasia is significantly greater at the downstream anastomosis, is progressive with time, and is the primary cause of failure of Dacron arterial grafts in this model. Quantitative analysis of downstream anastomotic hyperplasia may be a valuable measure of the biocompatibility of Dacron grafts. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6219641

  14. Hyperplasia of epithelium adjacent to transitional cell carcinoma can be induced by growth factors through paracrine pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.I. de Boer (Pim); J.M.J. Rebel (Annemarie); C.D.E.M. Thijssen (C. D E M); M. Vermey; Th.H. van der Kwast (Theo); A.J.M. van den Eijnden-van Raaij (Janny)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractHyperplasia of transitional cell epithelium adjacent to human transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) is a common finding in pathology. This hyperplasia may be a precancerous aberration. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the hyperplasia is due to paracrine action of tumour-derived

  15. Freqüência de pólipos em doentes operados de câncer colorretal Frequency of adenomatous polyps after surgical resection of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pinho ROCHA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução - Estudos epidemiológicos e gênicos mostram que os pólipos colônicos do tipo adenoma são lesões pré-neoplásicas. O seguimento de um paciente com câncer colorretal visa principalmente o diagnóstico e retirada de pólipos adenomatosos. Objetivo - Estudar a freqüência do aparecimento de pólipos adenomatosos em doentes com câncer colorretal em acompanhamento clínico após ressecção tumoral. Casuística e Métodos - Foi estudada, retrospectivamente, a freqüência de pólipos do tipo adenoma em 68 pacientes com idade média de 59 anos, submetidos a cirurgia curativa para tratamento de câncer colorretal e a colonoscopia de controle. Resultados - A incidência de pólipos adenomatosos foi de 18%, sendo maior acima de 45 anos (20% e no cólon esquerdo (38%. Em relação ao tipo histológico, 61% eram tubulares, 22% vilosos e 17% túbulo-vilosos. Discussão - Assim como em outros relatos da literatura, a incidência de pólipos foi superior em indivíduos com mais de 45 anos, sendo em mais da metade do tipo tubular. A freqüência de pólipos foi maior nos dois primeiros anos de acompanhamento.Introduction - Epidemiologic and molecular biologic studies have already demonstrated that adenomatous colonic polyps are precancerous diseases. The main indication of the colonoscopy in the surveillance of colorectal cancer treated patients is the diagnosis and resection of adenomatous polyps. Aim - To study the frequency of adenomatous polyps after surgically resection of colorectal cancer. Material and Methods - Sixty eight patients, mean age 59 years old, with total resection of colorectal cancer, submitted to various colonoscopies during the follow up were studied retrospectively. The histological type and the characteristics of the polyp were described. Results - The frequency of polyps was 18%, being higher in the patients with more than 45 years (20%. The site of the polyps was in the left colon in 38% of the patients with

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranu Patni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare condition and usually arises in mature cystic teratoma (MCT or dermoid cyst of the ovary. The reported incidence of malignant transformation in MCT is approximately 2%. A case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a dermoid cyst of the ovary presenting at an early stage is presented here. A 53-year-old postmenopausal lady, presented with the complaint of pain in right lower abdomen since one month and a large complex abdomino-pelvic mass on examination and investigations. Final histopathology was reported as squamous cell carcinoma of left ovary arising from dermoid cyst and a benign dermoid cyst in the right ovary. The patient was assigned to squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary arising in a mature cystic teratoma, surgical stage Ic2. In view of the poor prognosis, adjuvant chemotherapy was started.

  17. Convex solutions of systems arising from Monge-Ampere equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Wang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We establish two criteria for the existence of convex solutions to a boundary value problem for weakly coupled systems arising from the Monge-Ampère equations. We shall use fixed point theorems in a cone.

  18. Empiricism Verses Rationalism: Matters Arising in Medical Practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empiricism Verses Rationalism: Matters Arising in Medical Practice. ... AFRREV STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology ... entirely antagonistic to one another, one favoring the senses and the other favoring the mind.

  19. Multi-objective convex programming problem arising in multivariate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Multi-objective convex programming problem arising in ... However, although the consideration of multiple objectives may seem a novel concept, virtually any nontrivial ..... Solving multiobjective programming problems by discrete optimization.

  20. MYC Amplification in Angiosarcoma Arising from an Arteriovenous Graft Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. Paral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcoma arising in association with an arteriovenous graft (AVG or fistula is a unique clinicopathologic scenario that appears to be gaining recognition in the literature. Among reported cases, none has described high-level MYC gene amplification, a genetic aberration that is increasingly unifying the various clinicopathologic subdivisions of angiosarcoma. We therefore report the MYC gene status in a case of angiosarcoma arising at an AVG site.

  1. Electric reaction arising in bone subjected to mechanical loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murasawa, Go; Cho, Hideo; Ogawa, Kazuma

    2006-03-01

    The aim of present study is the investigation of the electric reaction arising in bone subjected to mechanical loadings. Firstly, specimen was fabricated from femur of cow, and ultrasonic propagation in bone was measured by ultrasonic technique. Secondary, 4-point bending test was conducted up to fracture, and electric reaction arising in bone was measured during loading. Thirdly, cyclic 4-point bending test was conducted to investigate the effect of applied displacement speed on electric reaction.

  2. Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Arising in a Paratubal Cyst: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Catherine; Matsuo, Koji; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette

    2017-03-01

    A 56-year-old G3P3 postmenopausal woman presented with a 5 month history of abnormal uterine bleeding and pelvic pain. A computed tomographic scan revealed a 5 cm right adnexal cystic mass in addition to a thickened, heterogenous endometrium and leiomyomatous uterus. A total laparascopic hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with omental and peritoneal biopsy were performed. Gross examination revealed a 12 week size uterus with small fibroids, normal bilateral atrophic ovaries, and a right paratubal cyst. A 4 cm vegetating mass was found in the right side of the uterine wall. Microscopically, the uterine mass was diagnosed as an endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC) FIGO 1 with 70% of myometrial invasion. The remaining endometrium showed a complex atypical hyperplasia. In addition, a 5 cm paratubal cystic mass was found that was separate from the uterus and the right adnexa. The cyst content was a chocolate brown fluid and the cyst wall was smooth with a single solid mass of 2 cm in size. The diagnosis of EAC, FIGO 1 was given. The remaining cyst lining showed endometriotic cyst and foci of endometriosis in the cyst wall. There was no lymphovascular invasion. The entire fallopian tube and ovaries were submitted and they were free of tumor. The patient was diagnosed with primary EAC of the paratubal cyst in addition to EAC of the uterine corpus (pT1b). A close follow-up was recommended. Because of our limited knowledge of carcinomas arising in the paratubal cyst, we will review the literature and discuss their clinical aspects, management, and behavior.

  3. A randomized placebo-controlled prevention trial of aspirin and/or resistant starch in young people with familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burn, John; Bishop, D Timothy; Chapman, Pamela D

    2011-01-01

    Evidence supporting aspirin and resistant starch (RS) for colorectal cancer prevention comes from epidemiologic and laboratory studies (aspirin and RS) and randomized controlled clinical trials (aspirin). Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) strikes young people and, untreated, confers virtually...... and sigmoid colon (at the end of intervention), and the major secondary endpoint was size of the largest polyp. A total of 206 randomized FAP patients commenced intervention, of whom 133 had at least one follow-up endoscopy and were therefore included in the primary analysis. Neither intervention...... significantly reduced polyp count in the rectum and sigmoid colon: aspirin relative risk = 0.77 (95% CI, 0.54-1.10; versus nonaspirin arms); RS relative risk = 1.05 (95% CI, 0.73-1.49; versus non-RS arms). There was a trend toward a smaller size of largest polyp in patients treated with aspirin versus...

  4. Polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial hyperplasia: an overview of the role of bariatric surgery in female fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampakis, Vasileios; Tahrani, Abd A; Helmy, Ahmed; Gupta, Janesh K; Singhal, Rishi

    2016-12-01

    One of the most effective methods to tackle obesity and its related comorbidities is bariatric surgery. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and endometrial hyperplasia (EH), which are associated with increased risk of endometrial carcinoma, have been identified as potentially new indications for bariatric surgery. PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women in the reproductive age and is associated with several components of the metabolic syndrome such as obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension. EH is a pre-cancerous condition which arises in the presence of chronic exposure to estrogen unopposed by progesterone such as both in PCOS and obesity. The main bariatric procedures are Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. These procedures are well established and when correctly selected and performed by experienced bariatric surgeons, they can achieve significant weight loss and remission of obesity related co-morbidities. Studies have shown that bariatric surgery can play an important role in the management of patients with PCOS and improve fertility. Similarly, bariatric surgery has a positive effect on endometrial hyperplasia, making surgically induced weight loss a potentially attractive option for endometrial cancer prevention and treatment. Obesity has an adverse impact on spontaneous pregnancy, assisted reproduction methods and feto-maternal outcomes. After bariatric surgery obese women with subfertility can achieve spontaneous pregnancy. However, while bariatric surgery reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes, there is an increased risk of small for gestational age and possible increased risk of stillborn or neonatal death. In this article we will review the evidence regarding the use of bariatric surgery as a treatment modality in patients with PCOS and EH. We also provide an overview of the common bariatric procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  5. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen...... therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological...... studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH...

  6. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia: a clinicopathologic study of 9 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinovart, R M; Bassas-Vila, J; Morell, L; Ferrándiz, C

    2014-03-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is a rare disease characterized by single or multiple angiomatous lesions typically located on the scalp and the face. We present a retrospective analysis of 9 cases of ALHE. The lesions appeared largely as multiple grouped papules or, in some cases, subcutaneous nodules, located mainly on the scalp, particularly around the ear. We also observed lesions in atypical locations, such as areas of the head other than the scalp, and the shoulder, neck, and forearm. At these sites the lesions had an atypical clinical appearance that made diagnosis difficult; this should be borne in mind in patients with single, well-delimited lesions with a vascular appearance and superficial ulceration or crusting. Surgery was the most common treatment in our series, and even though ALHE is considered a benign condition, recurrence was common. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  7. Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia: Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fontán, Eva; Blanco Ramos, Montserrat; García, Jose Soro; Carrasco, Rommel; Cañizares, Miguel Ángel; González Piñeiro, Ana

    2018-05-19

    Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is a rare disorder characterized by a proliferation of neuroendocrine cells within the lung. It is classically described as a disease with persistent cough, dyspnea and wheezing in non-smoker middle aged females. CT of the chest reveals diffuse air trapping with mosaic pattern. We present two cases of DIPNECH that were sent to our department to perform a lung biopsy with the diagnostic suspicion of diffuse interstitial disease. Both cases were women with a history of chronic cough and moderate effort dyspnea. The aim of this paper is that physicians take into account this diagnostic entity before treating as an asthmatic a patient with these characteristics, not forgetting that they are prenoplastic lesions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of canine benign prostatic hyperplasia with medroxyprogesterone acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberg-Thalen, B.; Linde-Forsberg, C.

    1993-01-01

    Nineteen dogs with clinical signs of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were given a subcutaneous injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). At the first follow-up four to six weeks after treatment, 16 (84%) showed no signs of prostatic disease, and in 10 (53%) radiography revealed that the prostate had decreased in size. The dogs were followed for an average of 17 months. Twelve (64%) showed no signs of prostatic disease for at least 10 months. Relapses occurred in 10 between 10 and 24 months after treatment. Based on the results of this study and an earlier study on the effects of estrogen on BPH, it was concluded that MPA was a good alternative for treatment of canine BPH

  9. The role of imaging in congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Andrade, Marco Tulio Soares; Melo, Andrea Farias; Elias Junior, Jorge; Elias, Paula Condé Lamparelli

    2014-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autossomic recessive disorder caused by impaired steroidogenesis. Patients with CAH may present adrenal insufficiency with or without salt-wasting, as well as various degrees of virilization and fertility impairment, carrying a high incidence of testicular adrenal rest tumors and increased incidence of adrenal tumors. The diagnosis of CAH is made based on the adrenocortical profile hormonal evaluation and genotyping, in selected cases. Follow-up is mainly based on hormonal and clinical evaluation. Utility of imaging in this clinical setting may be helpful for the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of the patients, although recommendations according to most guidelines are weak when present. Thus, the authors aimed to conduct a narrative synthesis of how imaging can help in the management of patients with CAH, especially focused on genitography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  10. Surgical treatment of unilateral condylar hyperplasia with piezosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarini, Luigi; Albanese, Massimo; Anesi, Alexandre; Galzignato, Pier-Francesco; Mortellaro, Carmen; Nocini, Pierfrancesco; Bertossi, Dario

    2014-05-01

    Unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH) is a disorder of unknown etiology mainly seen in growing patients, which results in facial asymmetry. High condylectomy alone or in association with orthognathic surgery can improve the occlusion and the facial aesthetics. Between 2005 and 2012, a total of 5 patients underwent high condylectomy for UCH using a piezoelectric cutting device. All patients were treated postoperatively with functional rehabilitation. The long-term follow-up showed that all patients had a satisfactory temporomandibular joint articular function associated with stable occlusion without any recurrence of further condylar growth. High condylectomy in the surgical treatment of unilateral UCH seems to be the procedure of choice in growing patients. The use of a piezoelectric cutting device allows a safe and less invasive high condylectomy.

  11. The role of imaging in congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Andrade, Marco Tulio Soares; Melo, Andrea Farias; Elias Junior, Jorge, E-mail: jejunior@fmrp.usp.br [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Radiology, Clinical Hospital, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo (FMRP-USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Elias, Paula Condé Lamparelli [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Clinical Hospital, FMRP-USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autossomic recessive disorder caused by impaired steroidogenesis. Patients with CAH may present adrenal insufficiency with or without salt-wasting, as well as various degrees of virilization and fertility impairment, carrying a high incidence of testicular adrenal rest tumors and increased incidence of adrenal tumors. The diagnosis of CAH is made based on the adrenocortical profile hormonal evaluation and genotyping, in selected cases. Follow-up is mainly based on hormonal and clinical evaluation. Utility of imaging in this clinical setting may be helpful for the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of the patients, although recommendations according to most guidelines are weak when present. Thus, the authors aimed to conduct a narrative synthesis of how imaging can help in the management of patients with CAH, especially focused on genitography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  12. Diagnosis and management of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marumudi, Eunice; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Surana, Vineet; Shabir, Iram; Joseph, Angela; Ammini, Ariachery C

    2013-08-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is among the most common genetic disorders. Deficiency of adrenal steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene accounts for about 95% cases of CAH. This disorder manifests with androgen excess with or without salt wasting. It also is a potentially life threatening disorder; neonatal screening with 17-hydroxyprogesterone measurement can diagnose the condition in asymptomatic children. Carefully monitored therapy with glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid supplementation will ensure optimal growth and development for children with CAH. Genital surgery may be required for girls with CAH. Continued care is required for individuals with CAH as adults to prevent long-term adverse consequences of the disease, including infertility, metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Using Cell-Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yu K.; Yuen, Tony; Jiang, Peiyong; Pina, Christian; Chan, K. C. Allen; Khattab, Ahmed; Liao, Gary J. W.; Yau, Mabel; Kim, Se-Min; Chiu, Rossa W. K.; Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone

    2014-01-01

    Context: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive condition that arises from mutations in CYP21A2 gene, which encodes for the steroidogenic enzyme 21-hydroxylase. To prevent genital ambiguity in affected female fetuses, prenatal treatment with dexamethasone must begin on or before gestational week 9. Currently used chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis provide genetic results at approximately 14 weeks of gestation at the earliest. This means that mothers who want to undergo prenatal dexamethasone treatment will be unnecessarily treating seven of eight fetuses (males and three of four unaffected females), emphasizing the desirability of earlier genetic diagnosis in utero. Objective: The objective of the study was to develop a noninvasive method for early prenatal diagnosis of fetuses at risk for CAH. Patients: Fourteen families, each with a proband affected by phenotypically classical CAH, were recruited. Design: Cell-free fetal DNA was obtained from 3.6 mL of maternal plasma. Using hybridization probes designed to capture a 6-Mb region flanking CYP21A2, targeted massively parallel sequencing (MPS) was performed to analyze genomic DNA samples from parents and proband to determine parental haplotypes. Plasma DNA from pregnant mothers also underwent targeted MPS to deduce fetal inheritance of parental haplotypes. Results: In all 14 families, the fetal CAH status was correctly deduced by targeted MPS of DNA in maternal plasma, as early as 5 weeks 6 days of gestation. Conclusions: MPS on 3.6 mL plasma from pregnant mothers could potentially provide the diagnosis of CAH, noninvasively, before the ninth week of gestation. Only affected female fetuses will thus be treated. Our strategy represents a generic approach for noninvasive prenatal testing for an array of autosomal recessive disorders. PMID:24606108

  14. The role of hyperplasia on the increase of skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Maciel Meloni

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is resulted from the individual increase of the fiber cross-sectional area. This adaptative phenomenon is normally observed in the muscle tissue submitted to a regimen of physical exercises, like strength training. The degree of muscular hypertrophy is directly related to the type of exercise and its intensity. Strength training normally produces a hypertrophy of greater magnitude when compared to other types of physical exercise. However, it is possible that there is another adaptive mechanism contributing for increasing skeletal muscle size. This mechanism is called hyperplasia, and can be defined as an increase in the cells, or fibers, number in the muscle. This brief review aims to verify the role of hyperplasia in the increase of skeletal muscle size. RESUMO A hipertrofia do músculo esquelético é resultado do aumento individual da área transversal da fibra. Este fenômeno adaptativo é comumente observado no tecido muscular submetido à um regime de exercícios físicos, como o treinamento de força. O grau de hipertrofia muscular está diretamente relacionado ao tipo de exercício e sua intensidade. O treinamento de força normalmente produz uma hipertrofia de maior magnitude, quando comparada aos outros tipos de exercício físico. Todavia, é provável que haja outro mecanismo adaptativo contribuindo para a hipertrofia do músculo esquelético. Este mecanismo chama-se hiperplasia, e pode ser traduzida por um aumento no número de células, ou fibras musculares em relação ao número original. Este breve resumo tem por objetivo verificar qual é o papel da hiperplasia na hipertrofia do músculo esquelético.

  15. MR imaging of pituitary hyperplasia in a child with growth arrest and primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papakonstantinou, O.; Bakantaki, A.; Papadaki, E.; Gourtsoyiannis, N.; Bitsori, M.; Mamoulakis, D.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary hyperplasia has been rarely described in children with primary hypothyroidism. We report a case of pituitary hyperplasia in a child presented with significant growth arrest and laboratory evidence of hypothyroidism. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed symmetrical pituitary enlargement simulating macroadenoma. After thyroid hormone replacement therapy, the child's height increased and pituitary enlargement regressed to normal. Awareness of MRI appearance of pituitary hyperplasia in children with laboratory evidence of hypothyroidism might avoid misdiagnosis for pituitary tumor, which may also manifest as growth disorder, obviating unnecessary surgery. (orig.)

  16. A Recurrence of Bilateral Diffuse Sclerosing Lobular Hyperplasia of Breast: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfituri, Osama; Sonawane, Snehal; Xu, Haoliang; Warso, Michael A; Wiley, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    Mammary sclerosing lobular hyperplasia is an uncommon benign fibroproliferative lesion of adolescent and young women, often of African American heritage with an incidence of ~3%. Patients generally complain of a palpable, painless, or slightly tender and well-defined lump in breast. Very rarely, this lesion may be bilateral and diffuse. The definitive diagnosis of sclerosing lobular hyperplasia requires histopathologic evaluation. Here, we describe a case of diffuse sclerosing lobular hyperplasia in a 29-year-old African American woman that required bilateral mastectomy and recurred bilaterally requiring second resections. This appears to be the first report of this phenomenon.

  17. Antihypertensive treatment with telmisartan in a cat with amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Desmet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Case summary Systemic arterial hypertension is commonly reported in middle-aged-to-older cats. Amlodipine is recommended as the initial antihypertensive drug in cats. In this case report, gingival hyperplasia secondary to the use of amlodipine in a cat is described. Benazepril as a monotherapy was unsuccessful in reducing blood pressure in this cat. After replacement of benazepril by telmisartan, gingival hyperplasia disappeared and blood pressure was well controlled. Relevance and novel information This case report describes the first reported case of reversible gingival hyperplasia as a result of the treatment with amlodipine. It also contains the first published data on the effect of telmisartan in a hypertensive cat.

  18. Transformation and mass hyperplasia technique of the garden plant (lily) by radiation and so forth. Mass hyperplasia of the lily using tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Koji; Hamada, Yutaka

    1997-01-01

    For an aim of more uniform child bulb production and good quality kind conservation using tissue culture of the lily, some hyperplasia from organs over ground of the lily were tried. In particular, optimum culture media with higher hyperplasia rate of the child bulb, redifferentiation due to difference among kinds of the lilies, and difference of hyperplasia of the child bulbs were investigated. As a result, it was found that pollution due to various germs attached to used materials often occurs, that efficiency obtainable for initial child bulb by redifferentiation from the organs was low at 20%, and that pollution due to various germs was often found at 25degC of cultivation temperature, which was inferior to that at 20degC. And, when conducting mass hyperplasia of the lily using tissue culture, an optimum culture medium of formation and hyperplasia of child bulb could be obtained for its each kind. As a result of conducting some investigations on configuration of the lily nourished from its child bulb and flowered by the tissue culture, it was also found that cultured bulb had the same character as its parent bulb had. (G.K.)

  19. Four Different Tumors Arising in a Nevus Sebaceous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Namiki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nevus sebaceous is known by its association with one or more secondary tumors, but more than three multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. A 67-year-old female presented with a light brown plaque on the back of her head that contained a dome-shaped black node and an erosive lesion. Histopathological examination showed atypical basaloid cells in the black node. At the periphery of that node, structures resembling follicular germs extruded from interlacing cords in the upper portion and tumor nests with sebocytes were in the lower portion. In the erosive lesion, papillated structures with an apocrine epithelium were observed. In the light brown plaque, enlargement of sebaceous lobules was noted. From those histopathological features, a diagnosis of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, sebaceoma, trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma arising from a nevus sebaceous was made. We discuss the rarity of multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous.

  20. Anomalous Posterior Intercostal Arterial Trunk Arising From the Abdominal Aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie, Bing, E-mail: jbshh@163.com; Yu, Dong, E-mail: yudong-mail@126.com; Jiang, Sen, E-mail: jasfly77@vip.163.com [Tongji University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital (China)

    2016-04-15

    A common trunk of the ipsilateral posterior intercostal artery (PIA) arising from the thoracic aorta is usually an anatomical variation. However, a common trunk of bilateral posterior intercostal arterial trunk (PIAT) arising from the abdominal aorta is rare. It is important to recognize this anatomical variation of PIA when performing interventional radiological procedures. We present a rare case of an anomalous PIAT that originated from the abdominal aorta in a patient with hemoptysis caused by tuberculosis sequelae. Bilateral 4th to 11th PIAs arose from a common trunk and the trunk arising from the posterior aspect of the abdominal aorta at the level of T12/L1 intervertebral space. The pathological right 4th and 5th PIAs and bronchial arteries were embolized. Hemoptysis has been controlled for 3 months.

  1. Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia of the fallopian tube mimicking tubal cancer: a radiological and pathological diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam Kyung; Choi, Kyung Un; Han, Ga Jin; Kwon, Byung Su; Song, Yong Jung; Suh, Dong Soo; Kim, Ki Hyung

    2016-11-14

    Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia of the fallopian tube is a rare, benign disease characterized by florid epithelial hyperplasia. The authors present the history and details of a 22-year-old woman with bilateral pelvic masses and a highly elevated serum CA-125 level (1,056 U/ml). Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis showed bilateral adnexal complex cystic masses with a fusiform or sausage-like shape. Contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images showed enhancement of papillary projections of the right adnexal mass and enhancement of an irregular thick wall on the left adnexal mass, suggestive of tubal cancer. Based on MRI and laboratory findings, laparotomy was performed under a putative preoperative diagnosis of tubal cancer. The final pathologic diagnosis was pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia of tubal epithelium associated with acute and chronic salpingitis in both tubes. The authors report a rare case of pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia of the fallopian tubes mimicking tubal cancer.

  2. Unilateral Bimaxillary Idiopathic Fibrous Gingival Hyperplasia with Alveolar Bone Loss- Report of a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Sathawane

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargements are of many types and vary according to the etiologic factors and pathologic processes that produce them. Though there are many classifications of gingival enlargement, the most practical one is as follows: 1 Inflammatory gingival enlargement 2 Fibrous gingival hyperplasia 3 Combination of inflammatory and fibrous hyperplasia. Gingival hyperplasia is a heterogeneous group of disorder, which appears clinically as diffuse, firm, and massive enlargement of the gingiva covering most of the crown of the teeth. Idiopathic gingival enlargement is a rare condition of undetermined etiology, although some cases have definite hereditary basis. A case of unilateral idiopathic fibrous gingival hyperplasia on left side of both the jaws with severe bone resorption is presented.

  3. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition reduces intimal hyperplasia in a porcine arteriovenous-graft model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotmans, Joris I.; Velema, Evelyn; Verhagen, Hence J. M.; Blankensteijn, Jan D.; de kleijn, Dominique P. V.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Pasterkamp, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    Background: The patency of arteriovenous (AV) polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for hemodialysis is impaired by intimal hyperplasia (IH) at the venous outflow tract. IH mainly consists of vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and extracellular matrix proteins. Because matrix metalloproteinases

  4. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition reduces intimal hyperplasia in a porcine arteriovenous-graft model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotmans, J.I.; Velema, E.; Verhagen, H.J.; Blankensteijn, J.D.; Kleijn, D.P. de; Stroes, E.S.; Pasterkamp, G.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The patency of arteriovenous (AV) polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for hemodialysis is impaired by intimal hyperplasia (IH) at the venous outflow tract. IH mainly consists of vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and extracellular matrix proteins. Because matrix metalloproteinases

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition reduces intimal hyperplasia in a porcine arteriovenous-graft model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotmans, JI; Velema, E; Verhagen, HJM; Blankensteijn, JD; de Kleijn, DPV; Stroes, ESG; Pasterkamp, G

    Background: The patency of arteriovenous (AV) polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for hemodialysis is impaired by intimal hyperplasia (IH) at the venous outflow tract. IH mainly consists of vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and extracellular matrix proteins. Because matrix metalloproteinases

  6. Concurrent Endometrial Carcinoma in Patients with a Curettage Diagnosis of Endometrial Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Li Chen

    2009-06-01

    Conclusion: When patients are diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia, surgical intervention should be performed in those with cytological atypia and higher BMI because of the possibility of coexisting endometrial carcinoma.

  7. Lower Limb Injuries Arising From Motorcycle Crashes | Kortor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motorcycle accidents are the second most common cause of road traffic accidents in both developing and developed countries. In this study we aim to look at the pattern and characteristics of lower limb injuries arising from motorcycle accidents and evaluate early outcome of treatment. Methods: All the patients ...

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Vishwanath

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC arising in a mature cystic teratoma (MCT are being discussed for their rarity and pattern of infiltration of tumor cells in the stroma (alpha mode, beta mode and gamma mode, which is a key factor in deciding the prognosis and patient survival.

  9. Ecknomic benefits arising from the Canadian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    This document is a collection of surveys of the Canadian nuclear industry, with forecasts covering a number of possible scenarios. Topics covered include uranium mining and processing; economic benefits arising from the design, manufacture and construction of CANDU generating stations; employment and economic activity in the Canadian nqclear industry; and an overview of the remainder of the industry

  10. Testicular artery arising from an aberrant right renal artery | Suluba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case report we discovered the rare variation of the origin of the right testicular artery arising from the right aberrant renal artery with double renal artery irrigating both left and right kidneys. These variations in the testicular arteries and renal arteries have implication to surgical procedures such as orchidopexy repair for ...

  11. Sound radiation quantities arising from a resilient circular radiator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, R.M.; Janssen, A.J.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Power series expansions in ka are derived for the pressure at the edge of a radiator, the reaction force on the radiator, and the total radiated power arising from a harmonically excited, resilient, flat, circular radiator of radius a in an infinite baffle. The velocity profiles on the radiator are

  12. Hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa: bilocated epithelial hyperplasia with very different sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Laffert, M; Stadie, V; Wohlrab, J; Marsch, W C

    2011-02-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa is a chronic, inflammatory, scarring disease in the terminal hair follicle and apocrine gland-bearing areas (skin folds). There is considerable histological evidence that perifolliculitis and follicular hyperkeratosis precede the rupture of the follicle. The timing of the epithelial hyperplasia at the infundibula of inflamed terminal follicles has not yet been clarified. To clarify the early histopathological life of lesions ('chronology') in hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa, focusing on the terminal follicle structure and its surrounding tissue (hyperkeratosis, hyperplasia of follicular epithelium, perifolliculitis and rupture). In total, 485 operative specimens obtained from 128 patients with diagnosed hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa (all surgically treated by wide excision) were examined histologically. Two to five histological preparations (total 485) per operation area (total 196) were prepared by multiple slicing. Hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa showed a heterogeneous histological pattern: hyperkeratosis of the terminal follicles (89%), hyperplasia of follicular epithelium (80%), pronounced perifolliculitis (68%) and follicle rupture (24%). Perifolliculitis, follicular hyperkeratosis and hyperplasia occurred prior to the rupture of the follicle. Other histological criteria were: subepidermal cellular inflammatory infiltrate (82%), epidermal psoriasiform hyperplasia (56%), pronounced acute dermal inflammation (28%), pronounced chronic dermal inflammation (49%), and involvement of apocrine glands (52%) and subcutis (31%). Infundibular hyperkeratosis, hyperplasia of the follicular epithelium and perifolliculitis are major histopathological characteristics of hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa. These apparently precede rupture of the follicle. In particular, hyperplasia of the follicular epithelium probably marks the beginning of sinus formation, which usually spreads horizontally. Psoriasiform hyperplasia

  13. Reversible pituitary hyperplasia at birth in a macrosomic full-term baby boy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipoff, Jennifer; Wilson, Thomas A. [State University of New York, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Peyster, Robert [Stony Brook University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Pituitary hyperplasia is generally associated with end-organ failure such as primary hypothyroidism, physiological changes such as puberty and pregnancy, or neoplasms secreting releasing factors. We present a full-term infant with an enlarged pituitary height of 8 mm at age 3 days despite a normal endocrinological evaluation. Repeat imaging at 5 months of age revealed a normal-size pituitary gland. To our knowledge, pituitary hyperplasia has not been described in a neonate with normal pituitary function. (orig.)

  14. Mullerian papilloma-like proliferation arising in cystic pelvic endosalpingiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluggage, W Glenn; O'Rourke, Declan; McElhenney, Clodagh; Crooks, Michael

    2002-09-01

    This report describes an unusual epithelial proliferation occurring in pelvic cystic endosalpingiosis. A cyst mass lined by a layer of ciliated epithelial cells involved the posterior surface of the cervix and vagina. The epithelial proliferation within the wall resembled a mullerian papilloma with fibrous and fibrovascular cores lined by bland cuboidal epithelial cells. Other areas had a microglandular growth pattern resembling cervical microglandular hyperplasia, and focally there was a solid growth pattern. Foci of typical endosalpingiosis involved the surface of both ovaries and pelvic soft tissues. The cystic lesion recurred after partial cystectomy and drainage and was followed up radiologically and with periodic fine-needle aspiration. Part of the wall of the cyst removed 11 years after the original surgery showed an identical epithelial proliferation. MIB1 staining showed a proliferation index of less than 5%, contrasting with the higher proliferation index of a typical serous borderline tumor. The differential diagnosis is discussed. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of such a benign epithelial proliferation involving cystic endosalpingiosis. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  15. A Study of Using Massage Therapy Accompanied with Stretching Exercise for Rehabilitation of Mammary Gland Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Pin; Chong, Yuping; Zou, Huagang; Chen, Xiangxian

    2016-01-01

    To apply massage therapy accompanied with stretching exercises for treatment of mammary gland hyperplasia, evaluate the clinical outcome in patients, and estimate the therapy as a novel treatment method for mammary hyperplasia. 28 adult female patients were selected and treated with massage therapy and stretching exercises focusing on skeleton muscles of chest, abdomen, and axilla. The mammary gland oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) and deoxyhemoglobin (DeoxyHb) levels were detected before and after treatment after 15, 30, and 45 days. In this cohort, pretreatment OxyHb (mean ± SD) is 1.32 ± 0.14 (medium-high), and DeoxyHb is 0.87 ± 0.13 (normal). All patients were clinically diagnosed with benign mammary gland hyperplasia and mastitis. The posttreatment OxyHb levels are 1.23 ± 0.09 (normal-medium, 15-day), 1.16 ± 0.08 (normal, 30-day), and 1.05 ± 0.04 (normal, 45-day), and DeoxyHb levels are 0.90 ± 0.11 (normal, 15-day), 0.94 ± 0.18 (normal, 30-day), and 0.98 ± 0.12 (normal, 45-day). Patients were diagnosed with decreased hyperplasia 15 and 30 days after treatment and with no symptom of hyperplasia in mammary gland 45 days after treatment. Mammary gland hyperplasia is closely correlated with pathological changes of skeletal muscles and could be significantly improved by massage therapy and stretching exercises targeting neighboring skeletal muscles.

  16. Usefulness of MRI in diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma and endometrial hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Mayumi; Moriai, Kayo; Murai, Shinya; Imai, Toshihiko; Iida, Hajime; Suzuki, Hiroshi (Iwate Prefectural Central Hospital, Morioka (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    The study was to assess the usefulness of T2-weighted and enhanced T1-weighted MR images in differentiating endometrial adenocarcinoma and hyperplasia. The subjects were 21 patients with endometrial hyperplasia (Group A), consisting of 15 with cystic glandular hyperplasia and 6 with atypical hyperplasia, and 7 with endometrial adenocarcinoma (Group B). Six other patients with no evidence of abnormal endometrial findings served as controls. In Group A, the endometrium had a high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and was 10 mm or over in thickness before menopause and 6 mm after menopause. It was also a high or intermediate signal intensity on enhanced T1-weighted images. In patiemts with cystic glandular hyperplasia, the junctional zone was 10 mm or over on T2-weighted images. Similar findings were seen on enhanced T1-weighted images. In patients with atypical hyperplasia, the junctional zone disappeared or decreased on enhanced images compared with those on T2-weighted images. In group B, the endometrium had an intermediate or high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, with the junctional zone being 10 mm or more. Enhanced T1-weighted images showed lower signal intensities in the tumorous area than in the normal endometrium and muscular layer. These findings indicated that enhanced MR imaging may be useful in diagnosing endometrial lesions. (N.K.).

  17. 32 CFR 536.111 - Investigation of claims arising under international agreements (for those claims arising in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under international agreements (for those claims arising in the United States). Responsibility for... civilian component is attached, including the legal office of another armed force, to carry out the responsibility to investigate. The investigation will comply with the responsible Service's implementing claims...

  18. Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia: A potentially precancerous disease? (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASCONES-MARTÍNEZ, A.; COK, S.; BASCONES-ILUNDÁIN, C.; ARIAS-HERRERA, S.; GOMEZ-FONT, R.; BASCONES-ILUNDÁIN, J.

    2012-01-01

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia (MEH), also known as Heck’s disease, manifests as a papulonodular lesion in the oral mucosa and has been associated with the human papillomavirus, a virus related to various precancerous diseases in the oral cavity. It has a predisposition for the female gender and for children. Although the majority of reported cases have been among American Indians and Eskimos, it has been described in multiple ethnic groups in various geographical locations. The objective of this review was to report on the clinical characteristics and epidemiology of MEH and its possible correlation with oral cancer. It is based on a search of articles in international journals published prior to April 2011, using the PubMed database and selecting articles related to the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of MEH. The review revealed a higher number of cases in individuals of American Indian origin and a predilection of the disease for the female gender and for patients between the 1st and 2nd decades of life. The most frequent lesion site was the lower lip. The disease has been associated with socio-economic and genetic factors, among others. No cases of malignant transformation have been reported. PMID:22740890

  19. c-Kit signaling determines neointimal hyperplasia in arteriovenous fistulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skartsis, Nikolaos; Martinez, Laisel; Duque, Juan Camilo; Tabbara, Marwan; Velazquez, Omaida C.; Asif, Arif; Andreopoulos, Fotios; Salman, Loay H.

    2014-01-01

    Stenosis of arteriovenous (A-V) fistulae secondary to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) compromises dialysis delivery, which worsens patients' quality of life and increases medical costs associated with the maintenance of vascular accesses. In the present study, we evaluated the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit in A-V fistula neointima formation. Initially, c-Kit was found in the neointima and adventitia of human brachiobasilic fistulae, whereas it was barely detectable in control veins harvested at the time of access creation. Using the rat A-V fistula model to study venous vascular remodeling, we analyzed the spatial and temporal pattern of c-Kit expression in the fistula wall. Interestingly, c-Kit immunoreactivity increased with time after anastomosis, which concurred with the accumulation of cells in the venous intima. In addition, c-Kit expression in A-V fistulae was positively altered by chronic kidney failure conditions. Both blockade of c-Kit with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) and inhibition of stem cell factor production with a specific short hairpin RNA prevented NIH in the outflow vein of experimental fistulae. In agreement with these data, impaired c-Kit activity compromised the development of NIH in A-V fistulae created in c-KitW/Wv mutant mice. These results suggest that targeting of the c-Kit signaling pathway may be an effective approach to prevent postoperative NIH in A-V fistulae. PMID:25186298

  20. Baldness, benign prostate hyperplasia, prostate cancer and androgen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faydaci, Gökhan; Bilal, Eryildirim; Necmettin, Penpegül; Fatih, Tarhan; Asuman, Orçun; Uğur, Kuyumcuoğlu

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the pattern of baldness and serum androgen levels in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. BPH, prostate cancer and androgenic alopecia (AA) were somehow androgen dependent and affect large population of elderly men. A total of 152 patients, 108 patients with BPH and 44 patients with prostate cancer were included in the study. We measured serum total, free and bioavailable testosterone, FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, albumin and SHBG levels. Baldness classification was based on Norwood's classification and we categorised baldness as vertex and frontal baldness. The frequency of AA in BPH and prostate cancer groups were not different. We looked for some correlation between the two groups with respect to AA and hormone levels. We did not find any correlation between AA and total testosterone, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone or SHBG levels in both groups. This prospective study with selected small group of patients showed that there is no difference of male pattern baldness in BPH and prostate cancer patients and also there is no correlation between pattern of baldness and serum androgen levels.

  1. The epidemiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorello, L B; Tzonou, A; Lagiou, P; Samoli, E; Zavitsanos, X; Trichopoulos, D

    1999-08-01

    To assess the epidemiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a case-control study in greater Athens, Greece. The study comprised 184 patients surgically treated for BPH within one year of its diagnosis (cases) and 246 patients with no symptoms of BPH who were treated in the same hospitals for minor diseases or conditions (controls). All cases and controls were permanent residents of the greater Athens area, Greece. The data were assessed using unconditional logistic regression. After controlling for age and education, cases and controls had similar distributions for height, body mass index, sibship size and birth order in the parental family, marital status, number of offspring and a series of previous medical diagnoses or surgical operations. The sole exception was surgery for haemorrhoids, that appeared to be related to the incidence of BPH, possibly by chance. There was no evidence that vertex baldness, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption or coffee drinking increased the risk for BPH. Men who had spent most of their lives in a rural rather than an urban environment appeared to be at reduced risk for BPH. The lifestyle factors assessed here have no major effect on the aetiology of BPH.

  2. Bilateral coronoid hyperplasia causing painless limitation of mandibular movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghazizadeh, DDS, MS

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The coronoid process is a beaklike process in the ramus of the mandible. Coronoid process hyperplasia (CPH is a rare possible cause of reduced mouth opening. An overgrown process interferes with mandibular rotation and lateral excursion and hence leads to restricted mouth opening (RMO. Although some factors are suggested, etiology of CPH is not completely known. Prescription of suitable radiography is necessary for an accurate diagnosis. This article reports a 30-year-old man with bilateral CPH and progressive RMO since childhood. This disorder affected his oral hygiene and quality of life. With the help of different types of radiography, CPH was diagnosed and coronoidectomy was the only treatment option. The patient showed normal jaw movements after the surgery and postoperative physiotherapy. General dentists have an important role in noticing RMO and referring the patients to maxillofacial radiologists. Although it is a rare phenomenon, general dentists need to keep CPH in mind as a possible cause. Panoramic imaging accompanied by computed tomography or cone beam computed tomography is the best imaging option in such cases.

  3. MRI findings of multiple focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Yu Qingtai; Jing Yu; Wang Haiyi; Pan Jingjing; Duan Weidong; Wang Dianjun; Ye Huiyi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of MRI on multiple focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) of the liver. Methods: MR images of 9 cases with pathological-confirmed multiple FNH were retrospectively analyzed. MRI features of the lesions were correlated with pathological findings. Results: Multiple FNH was considered in all these 9 cases. Among them, the primary diagnosis was FNH in 5, hepatic adenoma in 3 and fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma in 1 case. A total of 31 lesions were detected in the 9 cases. On T 2 WI, 19 lesions presented slightly high-signal intensity, and the other 12 presented iso-signal intensity. On T 1 WI, 12 lesions presented slightly low-signal intensity, 7 presented iso-signal intensity, and the other 12 presented high-signal intensity. On opposed-phase, the signal intensity of 1 lesion dropped unevenly. After bolus injection of contrast agent Gd-DTPA, in hepatic arterial phase 18 lesions showed mild to marked heterogeneous enhancement, 11 showed marked homogeneous enhancement, 1 showed moderate ring-like enhancement, and the last one did not have obvious enhancement. In portal venous and delayed phase, all the lesions turned to iso- or slightly high-signal intensity gradually. Sixteen of 31 lesions presented central scar, which demonstrated mild star-like enhancement in delayed phase. Conclusion: Multiple FNH presented certain MRI features, which contributed to the preoperative diagnosis. (authors)

  4. MSCT diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haitao; Xu Qinsha; Chen Yutang; Song Yupiao

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the MSCT findings of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) of the liver, and to improve the diagnostic standard. Methods: The MSCT findings were analyzed retrospectively in 25 patients pathologically approved with FNH. All patients underwent 16 detector row spiral CT scanning with and without contrast enhancement. Results: 28 lesions were discovered by CT, with single lesion showed in 22 cases, 2 lesions showed in 3 cases. All lesions showed a solitary nodules or lobulated mass in the liver. On plain CT, FNH showed equal or slightly low density. In the arterial phase, 27 lesions were vigorously and homogeneously enhanced, except the central scars with CT value of 99∼149HU and the mean CT-number of 124 HU. 1 lesion ws enhanced inter-homogeneously. Tortuous and enlarged arteries were seen at the center or periphery in 8 of the 28 lesions. In the portal venous phase, 16 lesions remained slightly hyperdense, 8 lesions turned to isodense, and 1 lesion turned to slightly hypodense. The typical central scar was showed in 8 lesions and 2 lesions showed delayed enhancement. 21 cases were correctly diagnosed by MSCT, with the diagnostic accuracy of 84.0%. Conclusion: MSCT scanning can fully show the pathologic and the blood supplying characteristics of FNH. The typical FNH can be easily diagnosed by CT, while the atypical cases should be differentiated from hepatocellular carcinoma, hemangioma of liver, liver cell adenoma and fibrolamellar hepatocarcinoma. (authors)

  5. Sonographic pattern of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, A.; Gratz, K.F.; Broelsch, C.; Gebel, M.

    1984-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver (FNH) is a histologically defined benign hepatic tumour, possibly associated with the use of oral contraceptives. The present study deals with the question whether FNH can be distinguished from other lesions of the liver by ultrasonography alone or by a combination of realtime sonography and radiologic procedures. Therefore 18 cases of FNH, 16 females and 2 males, are presented. We retrospectively reviewed the diagnostic results of real-time sonography, hepatic scintigraphy, computed tomography with dynamic CT-densitometry, and angiography on these 18 patients. Ultrasonography enables the identification of the lesion in all of the 18 cases. FNH appears to show varying degrees of echogenicity (slight hypoechoic in 6 cases, isoechoic in 6 cases, and slight hyperechoic in 4 cases). In most of the patients the tumour had similar acoustic characteristics at the surrounding normal liver. By ultrasonography alone there is no possible differentation of FNH from other hepatic tumours. Both the echo pattern of FNH and the results of the ultrasonically guided cytopuncture are unspecific. (orig.)

  6. Combination therapy in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Tršinar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of observational program of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS because of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH (LUTS/BPH was to acquire additional pharmaco-epidemiological data on the safety and efficacy of combination therapy with finasteride and tamsulosin.Methods: Observational program of men with BPH was conducted in urological outpatient clinics in Slovenia from April 2004 until November 2005. In open-label, non-interventional program 1173 patients were observed, who had been treated because of LUTS/BPH with combination therapy with finasteride and tamsulosin, in the framework of common treatment. At baseline and after six months of treatment for each patient the International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS questionnaire and assessment of quality of life (QL were filled in. In addition, urinary flow rate and prostate volume were determined. Adverse effects of drugs were reported spontaneously. For statistical analysis the Student’s t-test was performed.Results: Combination therapy with finasteride and tamsulosin was well tolerated. 89 (7.6 % patients discontinued with medication because of lack of efficacy or because of adverse effects of drugs. Symptom score, assessment of quality of patients’ lives and volume of prostates were significantly lower (p < 0.0001, while urinary flow rate was significantly higher (p < 0.0001 after six months of treatment with finasteride and tamsulosin.Conclusions: Combination therapy of patients with LUTS/BPH with finasteride and tamsulosin is effective and safe.

  7. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) management in the primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Anil

    2012-10-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) occurs in up to 50% of men by age 50, and the incidence increases with age. This common clinical problem is diagnosed by history, including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire, and physical examination by digital rectal examination (DRE). Initial management for BPH includes lifestyle modification, and smooth muscle relaxant alpha blocker therapy. Alpha blockers usually take effect quickly within 3-5 days, and have minimal side effects. Current commonly used alpha blockers include the selective alpha blockers tamsulosin (Flomax), alfusosin (Xatral), and silodosin (Rapaflo). For patients with larger prostates, the 5-alpha reductase inhibitor class (finasteride (Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart)) work effectively to shrink prostate stroma resulting in improved voiding. The 5-ARI class of drugs, in addition to reducing prostate size, also reduce the need for future BPH-related surgery, and reduce the risk of future urinary retention. Drugs from the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor class may now be considered for treating BPH. Once daily 5 mg tadalafil has been shown to improve BPH-related symptoms and is currently approved to treat patients with BPH. Referral to a urologist can be considered for patients with a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA), especially while on 5-ARI, failure of urinary symptom control despite maximal medical therapy, suspicion of prostate cancer, hematuria, recurrent urinary infections, urinary retention, or renal failure. Currently the primary care physician is armed with multiple treatment options to effectively treat men with symptomatic BPH.

  8. Fibronectin Pattern in Benign Hyperplasia and Cancer of the Prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava M. Janković

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibronectin (FN is a multifunctional glycoprotein involved in cell-matrix interactions. It exhibits a complex pattern of forms differing in respect to aminoacid and oligosaccharide composition. In this study we examined glycobiochemical and functional properties of the FN in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and prostatic cancer (PCa, attempting to resolve disease-related differences. Two BPH sera pools and three PCa sera pools were used as the FN source. The affinity-purified molecule was characterized by SDS-PAGE, immuno- and lectin blot, lectin-affinity chromatography and adhesion assay. BPH FN existed as intact molecule, giving the main immunoreactive band at 220 kDa. In contrast, PCa FN comprised three main immunoreactive fragments of 140, 110 and 90 kDa. As for glycosylation the ratio of altogether lectin-reactive PCa FN was different from that of BPH FN manifested as a decrease of Con A- and an increase of LCA-reactive moieties. Fibroblasts adhered to both FN preparations in a concentration dependent manner, but with a significantly lower efficiency to PCa FN. The results obtained showing distinct structural characteristics of PCa FN compared to BPH FN could be important for modulation of its ligand and recognition properties expressed as gain or loss of functions or as specific markers of its origin.

  9. Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia misdiagnosed as Turner syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet V Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH misdiagnosed as mosaic Turner syndrome. She presented with complaints of primary infertility. Short stature, the presence of facial hair and hoarse voice was also noted. She had primary amenorrhea and was advised for karyotype at 16 years of age, which was reported as 45, X[20]/46, XX[80], stating her as a case of mosaic Turner syndrome. Clitoroplasty was done at 21 years of age for clitoromegaly, which was noticed during puberty. The diagnosis of mosaic Turner could not explain the virilization. Therefore, we repeated the karyotype, which revealed 46, XX in more than 100 metaphases and was sufficient to exclude mosaicism. Furthermore, the endocrinological evaluation revealed high testosterone level with a normal 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP. The presence of pubertal onset virilization with a karyotype of 46, XX and raised testosterone level with normal 17-OHP level, raised the suspicion of NCAH for which adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test was done which confirmed the diagnosis of NCAH.

  10. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Classification of Studies Employing Psychological Endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandberg DavidE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychological outcomes in persons with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH have received substantial attention. The objectives of this paper were to (1 catalog psychological endpoints assessed in CAH outcome studies and (2 classify the conceptual/theoretical model shaping the research design and interpretation of CAH-related psychological effects. A total of 98 original research studies, published between 1955 and 2009, were categorized based on psychological endpoints examined as well as the research design and conceptual model guiding analysis and interpretation of data. The majority of studies (68% investigated endpoints related to psychosexual differentiation. The preponderance of studies (76% examined a direct relationship (i.e., inferring causality between prenatal androgen exposure and psychological outcomes. Findings are discussed in relation to the observed imbalance between theoretical interest in the role of prenatal androgens in shaping psychosexual differentiation and a broader conceptual model that examines the role of other potential factors in mediating or moderating the influence of CAH pathophysiology on psychological outcomes in both affected females and males. The latter approach offers to identify factors amenable to clinical intervention that enhance both health and quality of life outcomes in CAH as well as other disorders of sex development.

  11. Prostatic hyperplasia in the mummy of an italian renaissance prince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciranni, R; Giusti, L; Fornaciari, G

    2000-12-01

    Pandolfo III Malatesta (1370-1427) was a leading figure of the Italian Renaissance. He was a valiant soldier and horseman with a very active life style. Historical sources report that he died of a fever in 1427. The tomb, containing his mummified body, has recently been discovered in Fano (Marche, Central Italy). After careful X-ray and videographic examination, autopsy was performed to diagnose possible pathologies. Samples of different tissues were collected and rehydrated by Sandison's method and submitted to routine histology processes. Sections of treated tissue were fixed on clean slides, stained with hematoxylin-eosin or Gardner's Trichromic and observed at light microscope. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The autopsy showed good preservation of the skeletal muscles, cartilage, internal and external organs included prostate gland and penis. Macroscopic examination revealed stag-horn calculi (calcium urate) of the left kidney and a severe enlargement of the prostate, with calcifications detectable by X-ray and a large nodule protruding in the lumen of an ectatic urethra. Histology shows fibrous bands of connective and muscular tissue surrounding some circular and oblong lacunae, with no preservation of epithelial structures. The macroscopic and histological picture, showing clear prostatic nodular hyperplasia, makes this the first case described in paleopathology. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Altered Peptidase Activities in Thyroid Neoplasia and Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Larrinaga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA, and thyroid nodular hyperplasia (TNH are the most frequent diseases of the thyroid gland. Previous studies described the involvement of dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPPIV/CD26 in the development of thyroid neoplasia and proposed it as an additional tool in the diagnosis/prognosis of these diseases. However, very little is known about the involvement of other peptidases in neoplastic and hyperplastic processes of this gland. Methods. The catalytic activity of 10 peptidases in a series of 30 PTC, 10 FTA, and 14 TNH was measured fluorimetrically in tumour and nontumour adjacent tissues. Results. The activity of DPPIV/CD26 was markedly higher in PTC than in FTA, TNH, and nontumour tissues. Aspartyl aminopeptidase (AspAP, alanyl aminopeptidase (AlaAP, prolyl endopeptidase, pyroglutamyl peptidase I, and aminopeptidase B activities were significantly increased in thyroid neoplasms when compared to nontumour tissues. AspAP and AlaAP activities were also significantly higher in PTC than in FTA and TNH. Conclusions. These data suggest the involvement of DPPIV/CD26 and some cytosolic peptidases in the neoplastic development of PTC and FTA. Further studies will help to define the possible clinical usefulness of AlaAP and AspAP in the diagnosis/prognosis of thyroid neoplasms.

  13. Altered peptidase activities in thyroid neoplasia and hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrinaga, Gorka; Blanco, Lorena; Errarte, Peio; Beitia, Maider; Sanz, Begoña; Perez, Itxaro; Irazusta, Amaia; Sánchez, Clara E; Santaolalla, Francisco; Andrés, Leire; López, José I

    2013-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), and thyroid nodular hyperplasia (TNH) are the most frequent diseases of the thyroid gland. Previous studies described the involvement of dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPPIV/CD26) in the development of thyroid neoplasia and proposed it as an additional tool in the diagnosis/prognosis of these diseases. However, very little is known about the involvement of other peptidases in neoplastic and hyperplastic processes of this gland. The catalytic activity of 10 peptidases in a series of 30 PTC, 10 FTA, and 14 TNH was measured fluorimetrically in tumour and nontumour adjacent tissues. The activity of DPPIV/CD26 was markedly higher in PTC than in FTA, TNH, and nontumour tissues. Aspartyl aminopeptidase (AspAP), alanyl aminopeptidase (AlaAP), prolyl endopeptidase, pyroglutamyl peptidase I, and aminopeptidase B activities were significantly increased in thyroid neoplasms when compared to nontumour tissues. AspAP and AlaAP activities were also significantly higher in PTC than in FTA and TNH. These data suggest the involvement of DPPIV/CD26 and some cytosolic peptidases in the neoplastic development of PTC and FTA. Further studies will help to define the possible clinical usefulness of AlaAP and AspAP in the diagnosis/prognosis of thyroid neoplasms.

  14. Growth and development in children with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfig, Walter

    2017-02-01

    Final height outcome in classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) has been of interest for many years. With analysis of growth patterns and used glucocorticoid regimens, enhanced treatment strategies have been developed and are still under development. Most of the current reports on final height outcome are confirmative of previous results. Final height data is still reported in cohorts that were diagnosed clinically and not by newborn screening. Clinical diagnosis of CAH leads to delayed diagnosis especially of simple virilizing CAH with significantly advanced bone age resulting in early pubertal development and reduced final height. In contrast salt-wasting CAH is diagnosed at an earlier stage in most cases resulting in better final height outcome in some cohorts. Nevertheless, final height outcome in patients with CAH treated with glucocorticoids is lower than the population norm and also at the lower end of genetic potential. Achievement of regular adult height is still a challenge with conventional glucocorticoid treatment in patients with CAH, which is why new hydrocortisone formulations and new treatment options for CAH are underway.

  15. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a 3-dimensional quantification of asymmetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim J Verhoeven

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Objective quantifications of facial asymmetry in patients with Unilateral Condylar Hyperplasia (UCH have not yet been described in literature. The aim of this study was to objectively quantify soft-tissue asymmetry in patients with UCH and to compare the findings with a control group using a new method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty 3D photographs of patients diagnosed with UCH were compared with 30 3D photographs of healthy controls. As UCH presents particularly in the mandible, a new method was used to isolate the lower part of the face to evaluate asymmetry of this part separately. The new method was validated by two observers using 3D photographs of five patients and five controls. RESULTS: A significant difference (0.79 mm between patients and controls whole face asymmetry was found. Intra- and inter-observer differences of 0.011 mm (-0.034-0.011 and 0.017 mm (-0.007-0.042 respectively were found. These differences are irrelevant in clinical practice. CONCLUSION: After objective quantification, a significant difference was identified in soft-tissue asymmetry between patients with UCH and controls. The method used to isolate mandibular asymmetry was found to be valid and a suitable tool to evaluate facial asymmetry.

  16. Metabolic syndrome and benign prostatic hyperplasia: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Yin Ngai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities related to central adiposity and insulin resistance. Its importance is increasingly recognized as it associates with increased risks of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. These metabolic aberrations of MetS may lead to development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in men. A 26.5%–55.6% prevalence of MetS in men with LUTS was reported in worldwide studies. Although the exact biological pathway is not clear yet, insulin resistance, increased visceral adiposity, sex hormone alterations and cellular inflammatory reactions played significant roles in the related pathophysiological processes. Clinician should recognize the cardiovascular and metabolic impacts of MetS in men with LUTS, early risk factors optimization and use of appropriate medical therapy may possibly alter or slower the progression of LUTS/BPH, and potentially avoid unnecessary morbidities and mortalities from cardiovascular and metabolic diseases for those men.

  17. A healthy lifestyle index is associated with reduced risk of colorectal adenomatous polyps among non-users of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabung, Fred K; Steck, Susan E; Burch, James B; Chen, Chin-Fu; Zhang, Hongmei; Hurley, Thomas G; Cavicchia, Philip; Alexander, Melannie; Shivappa, Nitin; Creek, Kim E; Lloyd, Stephen C; Hebert, James R

    2015-02-01

    In a Columbia, South Carolina-based case-control study, we developed a healthy lifestyle index from five modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, diet, and body mass index), and examined the association between this lifestyle index and the risk of colorectal adenomatous polyps (adenoma). Participants were recruited from a local endoscopy center and completed questionnaires related to lifestyle behaviors prior to colonoscopy. We scored responses on each of five lifestyle factors as unhealthy (0 point) or healthy (1 point) based on current evidence and recommendations. We added the five scores to produce a combined lifestyle index for each participant ranging from 0 (least healthy) to 5 (healthiest), which was dichotomized into unhealthy (0-2) and healthy (3-5) lifestyle scores. We used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for adenoma with adjustment for multiple covariates. We identified 47 adenoma cases and 91 controls. In the main analyses, there was a statistically nonsignificant inverse association between the dichotomous (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.22, 1.29) and continuous (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.51, 1.10) lifestyle index and adenoma. Odds of adenoma were significantly modified by the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (p(interaction) = 0.04). For participants who reported no use of NSAIDs, those in the healthy lifestyle category had a 72% lower odds of adenoma as compared to those in the unhealthy category (OR 0.28; 95% CI 0.08, 0.98), whereas a one-unit increase in the index significantly reduced odds of adenoma by 53% (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.26, 0.88). Although these findings should be interpreted cautiously given our small sample size, our results suggest that higher scores from this index are associated with reduced odds of adenomas, especially in non-users of NSAIDs. Lifestyle interventions are required to test this approach as a strategy to prevent colorectal adenomatous

  18. Arthroscopic Resection of Wrist Ganglion Arising from the Lunotriquetral Joint

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, Michael C. K.; Ho, Pak-cheong; Tse, W. L.; Wong, Clara W. Y.

    2013-01-01

    The dorsal wrist ganglion is the most common wrist mass, and previous studies have shown that it arises from the scapholunate interval in the vast majority of cases. Treatment has traditionally been open excision, and more recently arthroscopic resection has been established as an effective and less invasive treatment method. However, application of this technique to ganglia in atypical locations has not been reported, where open excision is the usual practice. This report describes two cases...

  19. Hausdorff dimension of certain sets arising in Engel expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lulu; Wu, Min

    2018-05-01

    The present paper is concerned with the Hausdorff dimension of certain sets arising in Engel expansions. In particular, the Hausdorff dimension of the set is completely determined, where A n (x) can stand for the digit, gap and ratio between two consecutive digits in the Engel expansion of x and ϕ is a positive function defined on natural numbers. These results significantly extend the existing results of Galambos’ open problems on the Hausdorff dimension of sets related to the growth rate of digits.

  20. Apocrine carcinoma arising in a complex fibroadenoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Marco; Vahl, Pernille; Funder, Jonas Amstrup; Sorensen, Anne Schmidt; Jensen, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    A carcinoma arising in a fibroadenoma is a rare event, which often entails a diagnostic challenge. The most common type is the lobular carcinoma and secondary a ductal carcinoma. We present an extremely rare case of malignant development of an invasive apocrine carcinoma in a complex fibroadenoma and underline the importance for clinicians to recognize the possibility of benign and malignant co-existence especially in older women.

  1. Radiation-induced squamous carcinoma arising within a seborrhoeic keratosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suvarna, S.K.; Bagary, M.; Glazer, G. (Saint Mary' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-04-01

    Seborrhoeic keratoses (SK) are common skin tumours. They are benign, and present little difficulty in management. However, rare malignant transformation is recognized. The authors report a case of a squamous cell carcinoma arising from dysplastic changes within a long-standing SK on the chest wall of a 75-year-old retired radiologist, and consider the role of radiation in inducing malignant change within SKs. (author).

  2. Radiation-induced squamous carcinoma arising within a seborrhoeic keratosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvarna, S.K.; Bagary, M.; Glazer, G.

    1993-01-01

    Seborrhoeic keratoses (SK) are common skin tumours. They are benign, and present little difficulty in management. However, rare malignant transformation is recognized. The authors report a case of a squamous cell carcinoma arising from dysplastic changes within a long-standing SK on the chest wall of a 75-year-old retired radiologist, and consider the role of radiation in inducing malignant change within SKs. (author)

  3. Squamous neoplasms arising within tattoos: clinical presentation, histopathology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, A L; Wanat, K A; Farah, R S

    2017-08-01

    Tattooing, which involves the placement of ink into the skin, is an ancient decorative technique that has remained popular in modern society. Tattoos have long been known to cause cutaneous reactions, which include the emergence of neoplasms such as keratoacanthoma (KA) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in tattooed areas of the skin. We review the clinical presentations, histology and treatment options for squamous neoplasms, primarily KA and SCC, arising in tattoos. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Tattooed Eyebrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Park, Jin; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Han-Uk

    2009-01-01

    Malignant skin tumors, including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, have occurred in tattoos. Seven documented cases of basal cell carcinoma associated with tattoos have also been reported in the medical literature. We encountered a patient with basal cell carcinoma in a tattooed eyebrow. We report on this case as the eighth reported case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma arising in a tattooed area. PMID:20523804

  5. Entanglement witnesses arising from exposed positive linear maps

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Kil-Chan; Kye, Seung-Hyeok

    2011-01-01

    We consider entanglement witnesses arising from positive linear maps which generate exposed extremal rays. We show that every entanglement can be detected by one of these witnesses, and this witness detects a unique set of entanglement among those. Therefore, they provide a minimal set of witnesses to detect all entanglement in a sense. Furthermore, if those maps are indecomposable then they detect large classes of entanglement with positive partial transposes which have nonempty relative int...

  6. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in previously burned or irradiated skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Broadwater, J.R.; Netscher, D.T.; Ames, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in previously burned or irradiated skin was reviewed in 66 patients treated between 1944 and 1986. Healing of the initial injury was complicated in 70% of patients. Mean interval from initial injury to diagnosis of SCC was 37 years. The overwhelming majority of patients presented with a chronic intractable ulcer in previously injured skin. The regional relapse rate after surgical excision was very high, 58% of all patients. Predominant patterns of recurrence were in local skin and regional lymph nodes (93% of recurrences). Survival rates at 5, 10, and 20 years were 52%, 34%, and 23%, respectively. Five-year survival rates in previously burned and irradiated patients were not significantly different (53% and 50%, respectively). This review, one of the largest reported series, better defines SCC arising in previously burned or irradiated skin as a locally aggressive disease that is distinct from SCC arising in sunlight-damaged skin. An increased awareness of the significance of chronic ulceration in scar tissue may allow earlier diagnosis. Regional disease control and survival depend on surgical resection of all known disease and may require radical lymph node dissection or amputation

  7. Transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery for papillary carcinoma arising in lingual thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Chisato; Shinomiya, Hirotaka; Fujii, Natsumi; Tsuruta, Tomoyuki; Morita, Naruhiko; Furukawa, Tatsuya; Teshima, Masanori; Kanzawa, Maki; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Otsuki, Naoki; Nibu, Ken-Ichi

    2018-05-15

    Carcinoma arising in lingual thyroid is an extremely rare entity accounting for only 1% of all reported ectopic thyroids. Here, we report a case of carcinoma arising in lingual thyroid, which has been successfully managed by transoral resection and bilateral neck dissections. A lingual mass 4-cm in diameter with calcification was incidentally detected by computed tomography at medical check-up. No thyroid tissue was observed in normal position. Ultrasound examination showed bilateral multiple lymphadenopathies. Fine needle aspiration biopsy from lymph node in his right neck was diagnosed as Class III and thyroglobulin level of the specimen was 459ng/ml. Due to the difficulty in performing FNA of the lingual masses, right neck dissection was performed in advance for diagnostic purpose. Pathological examination showed existence of large and small follicular thyroid tissues in several lymph nodes, suggesting lymph node metastasis from thyroid carcinoma. Two months after the initial surgery, video-assisted transoral resection of lingual thyroid with simultaneous left neck dissection was performed. Postoperative course was uneventful. Papillary carcinoma was found in the lingual thyroid and thyroid tissues were also found in left cervical lymph nodes. Video-assisted transoral resection was useful for the treatment of thyroid cancer arising in lingual thyroid. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: an unusual association with diabetes mellitus in a child and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trizzino Antonino

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatic hemangioma, adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia are the most frequent benign lesions of the liver, but they are all infrequent among pediatric population. The reports of focal nodular hyperplasia in children have recently increased in number, with many cases associated to drug intake, particularly to chemotherapy. We here describe, to our knowledge, the first case of focal nodular hyperplasia in association with diabetes mellitus in childhood.

  9. Prevention of Bronchial Hyperplasia by EGFR Pathway Inhibitors in an Organotypic Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangsoon; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Kang, Shin Myung; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Gold, Kathryn Ann; Kim, Edward S.; Hittelman, Walter N.; Hong, Waun Ki; Koo, Ja Seok

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection or prevention strategies are urgently needed to increase survival. Hyperplasia is the first morphologic change that occurs in the bronchial epithelium during lung cancer development, followed by squamous metaplasia, dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive tumor. The current study was designed to determine the molecular mechanisms that control bronchial epithelium hyperplasia. Using primary normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells cultured using the 3-dimensional organotypic method, we found that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha, and amphiregulin induced hyperplasia, as determined by cell proliferation and multilayered epithelium formation. We also found that EGF induced increased cyclin D1 expression, which plays a critical role in bronchial hyperplasia; this overexpression was mediated by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway but not the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Erlotinib, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and U0126, a MEK inhibitor, completely inhibited EGF-induced hyperplasia. Furthermore, a promoter analysis revealed that the activator protein-1 transcription factor regulates EGF-induced cyclin D1 overexpression. Activator protein-1 depletion using siRNA targeting its c-Jun component completely abrogated EGF-induced cyclin D1 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that bronchial hyperplasia can be modeled in vitro using primary NHTBE cells maintained in a 3-dimensional (3-D) organotypic culture. EGFR and MEK inhibitors completely blocked EGF-induced bronchial hyperplasia, suggesting that they have a chemopreventive role. PMID:21505178

  10. Broad phenotypic spectrum in familial adenomatous polyposis; from early onset and severe phenotypes to late onset of attenuated polyposis with the first manifestation at age 72

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannsson Oskar

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP is typically characterized by multiple colonic polyps and frequent extracolonic features. Whereas the number of colonic polyps has been linked to the APC gene mutation, possible genotype-phenotype correlations largely remain to be defined for the extracolonic manifestations. Methods Full genomic sequencing combined with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was used to identify APC gene mutations, which were correlated to the clinical presentations. Results 10 novel APC gene mutations were identified in 11 families. A broad spectrum of extracolonic manifestations was identified in most of these individuals. Two sisters with an insertion in codon 528 (c.1582_1583insGC both showed severe phenotypes with classical polyposis, upper gastrointestinal polyps and thyroid cancer. A woman with a 3'APC mutation (c.5030_5031insAA developed colon cancer at age 72 as the first manifestation of attenuated FAP. Conclusion With an increasing number of FAP families diagnosed, a broad and variable tumor spectrum and a high frequency of extracolonic manifestations are gradually recognized. We report novel APC mutations and present two FAP cases that suggest familial aggregation of thyroid cancer and demonstrate the need to consider attenuated FAP also among elderly patients with colon cancer.

  11. Reduced expression of APC-1B but not APC-1A by the deletion of promoter 1B is responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi; Nagayama, Satoshi; Shimizu, Eigo; Komura, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Rui; Shibuya, Tetsuo; Arai, Masami; Hatakeyama, Seira; Ikenoue, Tsuneo; Ueno, Masashi; Miyano, Satoru; Imoto, Seiya; Furukawa, Yoichi

    2016-05-24

    Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene APC are associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Here we applied whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to the DNA of a sporadic FAP patient in which we did not find any pathological APC mutations by direct sequencing. WGS identified a promoter deletion of approximately 10 kb encompassing promoter 1B and exon1B of APC. Additional allele-specific expression analysis by deep cDNA sequencing revealed that the deletion reduced the expression of the mutated APC allele to as low as 11.2% in the total APC transcripts, suggesting that the residual mutant transcripts were driven by other promoter(s). Furthermore, cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) demonstrated that the deleted promoter 1B region is responsible for the great majority of APC transcription in many tissues except the brain. The deletion decreased the transcripts of APC-1B to 39-45% in the patient compared to the healthy controls, but it did not decrease those of APC-1A. Different deletions including promoter 1B have been reported in FAP patients. Taken together, our results strengthen the evidence that analysis of structural variations in promoter 1B should be considered for the FAP patients whose pathological mutations are not identified by conventional direct sequencing.

  12. Reversible Modification of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) with K63-linked Polyubiquitin Regulates the Assembly and Activity of the β-Catenin Destruction Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hoanh; Polakis, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor forms a complex with Axin and GSK3β to promote the phosphorylation and degradation of β-catenin, a key co-activator of Wnt-induced transcription. Here, we establish that APC is modified predominantly with K63-linked ubiquitin chains when it is bound to Axin in unstimulated HEK293 cells. Wnt3a stimulation induced a time-dependent loss of K63-polyubiquitin adducts from APC, an effect synchronous with the dissociation of Axin from APC and the stabilization of cytosolic β-catenin. RNAi-mediated depletion of Axin or β-catenin, which negated the association between APC and Axin, resulted in the absence of K63-adducts on APC. Overexpression of wild-type and phosphodegron-mutant β-catenin, combined with analysis of thirteen human cancer cell lines that harbor oncogenic mutations in APC, Axin, or β-catenin, support the hypothesis that a fully assembled APC-Axin-GSK3β-phospho-β-catenin complex is necessary for the K63-polyubiquitylation of APC. Intriguingly, the degree of this modification on APC appears to correlate inversely with the levels of β-catenin in cells. Together, our results indicate that K63-linked polyubiquitin adducts on APC regulate the assembly and/or efficiency of the β-catenin destruction complex. PMID:22761442

  13. Novel mutations and phenotypic associations identified through APC, MUTYH, NTHL1, POLD1, POLE gene analysis in Indian Familial Adenomatous Polyposis cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nikhat; Lipsa, Anuja; Arunachal, Gautham; Ramadwar, Mukta; Sarin, Rajiv

    2017-05-22

    Colo-Rectal Cancer is a common cancer worldwide with 5-10% cases being hereditary. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) syndrome is due to germline mutations in the APC or rarely MUTYH gene. NTHL1, POLD1, POLE have been recently reported in previously unexplained FAP cases. Unlike the Caucasian population, FAP phenotype and its genotypic associations have not been widely studied in several geoethnic groups. We report the first FAP cohort from South Asia and the only non-Caucasian cohort with comprehensive analysis of APC, MUTYH, NTHL1, POLD1, POLE genes. In this cohort of 112 individuals from 53 FAP families, we detected germline APC mutations in 60 individuals (45 families) and biallelic MUTYH mutations in 4 individuals (2 families). No NTHL1, POLD1, POLE mutations were identified. Fifteen novel APC mutations and a new Indian APC mutational hotspot at codon 935 were identified. Eight very rare FAP phenotype or phenotypes rarely associated with mutations outside specific APC regions were observed. APC genotype-phenotype association studies in different geo-ethnic groups can enrich the existing knowledge about phenotypic consequences of distinct APC mutations and guide counseling and risk management in different populations. A stepwise cost-effective mutation screening approach is proposed for genetic testing of south Asian FAP patients.

  14. Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia in Core Needle Biopsies of Breast Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelten Talu, Canan; Boyaci, Ceren; Leblebici, Cem; Hacihasanoglu, Ezgi; Bozkurt, Erol Rustu

    2017-02-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign lesion of myofibroblasts that is composed of a network of slit-like channels that resemble vascular spaces. The aims of this study were to document the frequency of PASH in core needle biopsy specimens (CNBS) of the breast, to describe which histopathologic findings coexist with PASH and to examine any endothelial cell differentiation. We reevaluated hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of all CNBS that were obtained during a 1-year period. First, we performed CD34 and CD31 immunostainings to highlight the areas of PASH, then performed D2-40/podoplanin (lymphatic endothelial marker) and Fli-1 (vascular endothelial cell marker) immunostains. The total number of CNBS was 412. Areas of PASH were noted in 37 of the 412 cases (9%), with a mean age of 38.5 years. The lesions that were described in association with PASH were "benign breast parenchyma with stromal fibrosis" (17/37; 46%), "fibroepithelial tumors" (17/37; 46%), "columnar cell changes (CCC)" (2/37; 5%), and "invasive carcinoma" (1/37; 3%). There were 2 cases of CCC within the foci of PASH (direct contact with PASH), and 8 additional cases of CCC that coexisted in the same specimen but were not in direct contact. There was no staining for D2-40 or Fli-1 within PASH foci. PASH lesions occurred with a frequency of 9% in CNBS and were mostly in association with benign breast lesions in premenopausal women. CCC was determined as an accompanying epithelial lesion within or near PASH areas. No obvious immunopositivity compatible with endothelial cell differentiation was revealed.

  15. [The imaging diagnosis of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzocchi, M; Macorig, D; Cecconi, P; Gozzi, G

    1991-12-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a rare benign hepatocellular tumor occurring in noncirrhotic patients, mostly females, 20-50 years of age. It is usually asymptomatic. The authors took the lead from 5 cases of FNH studied over last year to analyze the different patterns exhibited by the condition on the various imaging techniques currently available. At scintigraphy with 99mTc DISIDA or with TcSC, FNH can be hyper, normal, or hypocaptating. On US scans, the lesion is often homogeneous and isoechoic, but it can also be hyper/hypoechoic. With Doppler US, high-flow signals can be observed. On unenhanced CT scans the lesion is solid, well-demarcated, isodense or slightly hyperdense; sometimes it shows a central hypodense area corresponding to fibrovascular scar. On postcontrast scans it appears hyper/isodense. At dynamic CT the lesion density, which is high during the arterial phase, decreases quickly in the parenchymal and the venous phases and reaches equal/inferior values to surrounding liver parenchyma. On liver angio-CT it is sometimes possible to visualize the bile ducts in the central scar. At angiography, FNH is hypervascular and homogeneous. On MR scans, in T1-weighted SE sequences, the condition is isointense or slightly hypointense, whereas on T2-weighted pulse sequences it is slightly hyperintense; the central scar is hypointense on T1, and hyperintense on T2, weighted scans. As we have no pathognomonic patterns but only orientative ones, a reliable differential diagnosis with hepatocellular adenoma (HA) and fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) must be based on biopsy or cytology or, even better, histology. The differential diagnosis is nevertheless necessary because, while FNH does not usually require a surgical approach but only a radiological follow-up, both HA (due to possible bleeding and degeneration) and FL-HCC require surgery.

  16. Surgical management of Cushing Syndrome secondary to micronodular adrenal hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Anathea C.; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Batista, Dalia; Alexander, H. Richard; Pingpank, James F.; Keil, Meg; Bartlett, David L.; Libutti, Steven K.

    2008-01-01

    Background We reviewed our experience with micronodular adrenal hyperplasia (MAH), its pigmented variant primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), and the association with Carney’s Complex (CNC) in order to better characterize the disorders. Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of clinical data and operative reports of 34 patients identified with MAH and/or PPNAD who underwent resection between 1969 and 2006 at the Clinical Research Center, an inpatient research hospital, at the National Institutes of Health. Symptoms and anthropometric and biochemical data were used to evaluate effect of resection. Results Fifteen patients (44%) presented as adults and 19 (56%) as children. Twenty five patients (74%) presented with non-cyclic Cushing syndrome and nine patients (26%) presented with cyclic Cushing Syndrome. Thirty one patients underwent bilateral resection; this was curative biochemically in 30 patients. Fourteen operations were performed laparoscopically (41%), and 20 were perfomed as open resections (59%). There was one post-operative complication in the laparoscopic group (7%) and 6 complications in the open group (30%) (p=0.20). Follow-up was available for 25 patients (74%). Statistically significant improvements in anthropometrics were observed for both adults and children. The most frequent manifestation of CNC requiring additional operation was cardiac myxoma which was associated strongly with an atypical (cyclic) presentation of Cushing Syndrome (p=0.009). Conclusion Cushing Syndrome due to MAH and PPNAD may be cured by bilateral adrenal resection. All patients should be screened for manifestations of CNC at the time of adrenal diagnosis with particular attention to cardiac disease. PMID:18549891

  17. Radiological and clinical observation on benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jai Hee; Kim, Young Chul; Kim, Yeon; Han, Jung Suh [College of Medicine, Cho-Sun University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    A radiological and clinical observation was made on 77 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia admitted to the department of Urology, Cho-Sun University Hospital during the period from January 1972 to December 1979 and following results were obtained. 1. Incidence of PBH was 8.1% to 953 total inpatients, 11.3% to 679 male inpatients, and 34.5% to male inpatients of 50 years more. 2. Majority of cases was found in 7th and 8th decades (80.5%) with mean age of 69.4 years old. 3. A gradual tendency of annual increase of the cases was observed and the mean interval elapsed from initial symptoms to visit was 29.9 months. Common symptoms were dysuria in 72 cases (93.5%), hematuria in 53 cases (68.8%), frequency in 51 cases (66.2%) and 12 cases (15.6%) were acute urinary retention. 4. I. V. P. findings of BPH were elevation of the bladder base in 71 cases (92.2%), trabeculation of the bladder wall in 58 cases (75.3%), hypertrophy of the bladder in 24 cases (31.2%) and the complications-hydronephrosis and hydroureter 16 cases (20.8%), bladder diverticula 9 cases (11.7%) and bladder stone were 5 cases (6.5%). 5. Cystourethrographic findings of the posterior urethra with 33 cases of PBH were smooth, gentle sloping in 28 cases 84.8%), widening in sagittal plane in 23 cases (69.7%), elongation and narrowing of the urethra in 26 cases (78.8%)

  18. Radiological and clinical observation on benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jai Hee; Kim, Young Chul; Kim, Yeon; Han, Jung Suh

    1980-01-01

    A radiological and clinical observation was made on 77 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia admitted to the department of Urology, Cho-Sun University Hospital during the period from January 1972 to December 1979 and following results were obtained. 1. Incidence of PBH was 8.1% to 953 total inpatients, 11.3% to 679 male inpatients, and 34.5% to male inpatients of 50 years more. 2. Majority of cases was found in 7th and 8th decades (80.5%) with mean age of 69.4 years old. 3. A gradual tendency of annual increase of the cases was observed and the mean interval elapsed from initial symptoms to visit was 29.9 months. Common symptoms were dysuria in 72 cases (93.5%), hematuria in 53 cases (68.8%), frequency in 51 cases (66.2%) and 12 cases (15.6%) were acute urinary retention. 4. I. V. P. findings of BPH were elevation of the bladder base in 71 cases (92.2%), trabeculation of the bladder wall in 58 cases (75.3%), hypertrophy of the bladder in 24 cases (31.2%) and the complications-hydronephrosis and hydroureter 16 cases (20.8%), bladder diverticula 9 cases (11.7%) and bladder stone were 5 cases (6.5%). 5. Cystourethrographic findings of the posterior urethra with 33 cases of PBH were smooth, gentle sloping in 28 cases 84.8%), widening in sagittal plane in 23 cases (69.7%), elongation and narrowing of the urethra in 26 cases (78.8%)

  19. Is early benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatment worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presicce, Fabrizio; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Tubaro, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    The medical armamentaria for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have been extensively implemented over the past decade. Nevertheless, the timeliest moment for a possible treatment has not been fully established. A systematic literature search in January 1996 until June 2016 was performed to answer the following question: in men with LUTS due to BPH, does early treatment result in better outcome? An ad hoc Population/patient Intervention/indicator Comparator/control Outcome (PICO) was developed.The Medline, PubMed and Scopus databases were searched. Each article title and abstract were reviewed for relevance and appropriateness with regard to the topic of this review. Overtime, the introduction of novel medications and the implementation of surgical techniques have significantly improved the treatment outcomes and markedly reduced the rate of BPH surgery. Early treatments in patients at risk of disease progression may result in better clinical outcomes than a delayed approach. However, the evidence to support early intervention remains weak and criteria to identify the patient phenotype that could best benefit from immediate treatment remain ill-defined.On the contrary, the patients who ultimately undergo surgery following prolonged pharmacological treatment present with larger prostates, older age and comorbidities. At the same time, the technological progress has partly compensated this critical scenario, and commonly, a nonpejorative trend has been recorded in perioperative complications. The ideal moment to begin a treatment in LUTS/BPH patients is still uncertain, and surprisingly, rare good quality studies are available on this topic.

  20. Outcome of Transurethral Plasmakinetic Vaporization for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy El-Tabey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To assess the outcome of transurethral plasmakinetic vaporization (PKVP in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Patients and methods From August 2010 to May 2012, 60 patients with obstructive LUTS due to BPH were included in the study. All patients were evaluated by International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, general examination, digital rectal examination, PSA, routine laboratory examinations, pelvi-abdominal ultrasound, trans-rectal ultrasound, and uroflowmetry. Patients with Qmax of 8 and a prostate volume of >40 mL underwent transurethral PKVP. Results Mean age of the patients was 66.8±4.5 years. The mean times of the operation, post-operative bladder irrigation, and post-operative catheterization were 63.8±13.9 minutes, 15.2±5.7 hours, and 23.9±5.2 hours, respectively. At 3 months of follow-up, there were significant reductions in the mean IPSS from 23.4±3.5 to 9.2±3.7 (P=0.4, mean PSA from 3.03±2.2 ng/mL to 1.2±1.04 ng/mL (P value=0.02, mean post voiding residual urine from 149.8±59.5 mL to 46.9±24.1 mL (P value <0.01, and mean prostate volume from 72.8±10.3 mL to 22.7±6.1 mL (P value <0.01. Also, there was a statistically significant increase in the mean Q max. from 8.7±2.4 mL/s to 19.5±3.5 mL/s (P value <0.01. Conclusion PKVP is an effective and safe treatment option in the management of symptomatic BPH.

  1. Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia: magnetic resonance imaging of finger lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jinkyeong; Kim, Jee-Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Changyoung [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Hospital Pathology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH), to identify findings differentiating IPEH of the finger from that of other locations, and to correlate these with pathology. Nineteen patients with 20 I.E. masses of the finger (n = 13) and other locations (n = 7) were evaluated. All patients underwent MRI, and the results were correlated with pathology. Seventeen IPEHs, including all IPEHs of the finger, were located in the subcutis, the three other lesions in the muscle layer. On T1WI, all masses were isointense or slightly hyperintense. IPEHs of the finger (n = 13) revealed focal hyperintense nodules (n = 2) or central hypointensity (n = 2) on T1WI, hypointensity with a hyperintense rim (n = 7), hyperintensity with hypointense nodules (n = 5), or isointensity with a hypointense rim (n = 1) on T2WI, and rim enhancement (n = 5), heterogeneous enhancement with nodular nonenhanced areas (n = 6), peripheral nodular enhancement (n = 1), or no enhancement (n = 1) on gadolinium-enhanced T1WI. IPEHs of other locations (n = 7) demonstrated focal hyperintense nodules (n = 5) on T1WI, hyperintensity with hypointense nodules (n = 5) or heterogeneous signal intensity (n = 2) on T2WI, and rim or rim and septal enhancement (n = 6) or peripheral nodular enhancement (n = 1). Microscopically, IPEHs were composed of thrombi that were hypointense on T2WI and papillary endothelial proliferations that showed T2 hyperintensity and enhancement. MRI of finger IPEH reveals well-demarcated subcutaneous masses with hypointensity or hypointense nodules with peripheral hyperintensity on T2WI, as well as peripheral enhancement. T1 hyperintense nodules, internal heterogeneity on T2WI, and septal enhancement are more common in IPEH of other locations. (orig.)

  2. Gender Identity in Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam; Karimi, Sakineh; Shirazi, Elham

    2017-07-01

    Sex assignment in infancy for patients with disorder of sex development (DSD) is a challenging problem. Some of the patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have DSD that may affect their gender identity. The study aimed to assess gender identity in patients with CAH. In this study, 52 patients with CAH, including 22 prepubertal children and 30 adolescents and adults, were assessed using two separate gender identity questionnaires for children and adults based on the criteria of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition. In the children group, compatibility was seen between gender identity and rearing gender. In the adult group, there were three cases of mismatching between gender identity and sex assignment composed of two females with poor control and one male with good control with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). Three girls with 11-hydroxylase deficiency (11-OHD) were reared as boy. Two of them with late diagnosis at 5 and 6 years of age had pseudoprecocious puberty. Parents and children did not accept to change the gender. One of them is 36 years old now, is depressed and unsatisfied with her gender, another girl is still child and has male sexual identity. One girl with 11-OHD and early diagnosis at birth with Prader 5 virilization but with good hormonal control was changed to female gender at 12 years of age when female sexual characteristics appeared; she is 34-years-old now, married, and with two children, and she is satisfied with her gender. In patients with CAH, gender identity disorder is a rare finding. Hormonal control, social, familial, and religious beliefs have impacts on gender identity of these patients.

  3. Imaging findings of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia presenting in extremities: correlation with pathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Joo; Choo, Hye Jung; Park, Ji Sung; Park, Yeong-Mi; Eun, Choong Ki; Hong, Sung Hwan; Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, In Sook; Lee, Jongmin; Jung, Soo-Jin

    2010-08-01

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) findings of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH) arising in extremities. Six patients with IPEH confirmed by surgical resection were reviewed retrospectively. Before resection, 3 patients underwent both MRI and US and 3 patients underwent only MRI. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed MR/US imaging results and correlated them with pathological features. The 6 IPEHs were diagnosed as 4 mixed forms and 2 pure forms. The pre-existing pathology of four mixed forms was intramuscular or intermuscular hemangioma. By MRI, the mixed form of IPEH (n = 4) revealed iso- to slightly high signal intensity containing nodule-like foci of high signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and high signal intensity-containing nodule-like foci of low signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI). The pure form of IPEH (n = 2) showed homogeneous iso- signal intensity on T1WI and high and low signal intensity containing nodule-like foci of low signal intensity on T2WI. On gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed T1WI, 50% of cases (n = 3: mixed forms) revealed peripheral, septal, and central enhancement. The other IPEHs (n = 3: 1 mixed and 2 pure forms) showed peripheral and septal enhancement or only peripheral enhancement. By US, two mixed forms of IPEH showed well-defined hypoechoic masses containing hyperechoic septa and central portion with vascularities. One pure form of IPEH was a homogeneous hypoechoic mass with septal and peripheral vascularities on color Doppler imaging. The foci of high signal intensity on T1WI, foci of low signal intensity on T2WI, and non-enhancing portions on MRI and the hypoechoic portion on US were histopathologically correlated with thrombi and the peripheral/septal or central enhancing areas on MRI, hyperechoic septa and the central portion on US, and septal/central or peripheral vascularities on color Doppler imaging corresponded to hypertrophic papillary epithelium and

  4. Imaging findings of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia presenting in extremities: correlation with pathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Joo; Choo, Hye Jung; Park, Ji Sung; Park, Yeong-Mi; Eun, Choong Ki; Hong, Sung Hwan; Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, In Sook; Lee, Jongmin; Jung, Soo-Jin

    2010-01-01

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) findings of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH) arising in extremities. Six patients with IPEH confirmed by surgical resection were reviewed retrospectively. Before resection, 3 patients underwent both MRI and US and 3 patients underwent only MRI. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed MR/US imaging results and correlated them with pathological features. The 6 IPEHs were diagnosed as 4 mixed forms and 2 pure forms. The pre-existing pathology of four mixed forms was intramuscular or intermuscular hemangioma. By MRI, the mixed form of IPEH (n = 4) revealed iso- to slightly high signal intensity containing nodule-like foci of high signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and high signal intensity-containing nodule-like foci of low signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI). The pure form of IPEH (n = 2) showed homogeneous iso- signal intensity on T1WI and high and low signal intensity containing nodule-like foci of low signal intensity on T2WI. On gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed T1WI, 50% of cases (n = 3: mixed forms) revealed peripheral, septal, and central enhancement. The other IPEHs (n = 3: 1 mixed and 2 pure forms) showed peripheral and septal enhancement or only peripheral enhancement. By US, two mixed forms of IPEH showed well-defined hypoechoic masses containing hyperechoic septa and central portion with vascularities. One pure form of IPEH was a homogeneous hypoechoic mass with septal and peripheral vascularities on color Doppler imaging. The foci of high signal intensity on T1WI, foci of low signal intensity on T2WI, and non-enhancing portions on MRI and the hypoechoic portion on US were histopathologically correlated with thrombi and the peripheral/septal or central enhancing areas on MRI, hyperechoic septa and the central portion on US, and septal/central or peripheral vascularities on color Doppler imaging corresponded to hypertrophic papillary epithelium and

  5. Allium sativum Compared to Cilostazol as an Inhibitor of Myointimal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Paulo Roberto da Silva; Bandeira, Francisco Chavier Vieira; Rolim, Janio Cipriano; Nogueira, Manuel Ricardo Sena; Pordeus, Mizael Armando Abrantes; de Oliveira, Andressa Feitosa Bezerra; Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão

    2016-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia is associated with graft failure and vascular sutures in the first year after surgery and in postangioplasty restenosis. Allium sativum (common garlic) lowers cholesterol and has antioxidant effects; it also has antiplatelet and antitumor properties and, therefore, has great potential to reduce or inhibit intimal hyperplasia of the arteries. Our objective is to determine if the garlic has an efficacy to inhibit myointimal hyperplasia compared to cilostazol. Female New Zealand rabbits were divided into the following groups (n=10 each) according to treatment: group A, garlic, 800 µg×kg-1×day-1, orally; group C, cilostazol, 50 mg.day-1, orally; group PS, 10 ml of 0.9% physiological saline solution, orally. Our primary is the difference of the mean of myointimal hyperplasia. Statistical analysis was performed by using ANOVA and Tukey tests, as well as the Chi-square test. We calculated the 95% confidence interval for each point estimate, and the P value was set as Allium sativum had the same efficacy in inhibiting myointimal hyperplasia when compared to the positive control, cilostazol.

  6. Serum-sex steroids, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin inprostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Mohammad A. Jalil; Begum, D.; Islam, F.

    2008-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) develops in elderly males when serumandrogens are relatively lower than in healthy younger males, but is not wellunderstood whether and how sex steroids are altered in prostatic hyperplasia.It is also uncertain that whether there is any change in sex steroids levelsin males older than 40 years of age. The use of androgens in elderly males isoften discouraged because of the probable worsening effect of androgens onprostatism. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prostatichyperplasia and sex steroid levels and whether there is any significantchange in these hormones after the age of 40 years. We studied healthy malesof >40 years with (n=92) or without (n=93) clinical prostatic hyperplasia.Serum testosterone, estradiol, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-bindingglobulin (SHBG) were compared. The hormones and SHGB were also correlatedwith age. No significant difference was found in any hormone in cases withprostatic hyperplasia as compared with the controls. There was no significantage-related change in any hormone except estradiol where as a negativecorrelation (P<0.003) with age was found. Serum sex steroids and SHGBremained unchanged in symptomatic prostatic hyperplasia and except forestrdoil there was no significant age-related change in serum testosterone,gonadotrophins and SHGB in healthy males after the fourth decade. Morestudies are needed to confirm the age-related decline of estrogens in males.(author)

  7. The CANDU-PHW generating system waste arisings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, G.R.

    1979-03-01

    In this report, the volume of material and level of contained radioactive nuclides are tabulated for wastes arising from four fuel cycles which might be operated in CANDU-PHW (CANada Deuterium Uranium - Pressurized Heavy Water) reactors. The data presented, based on Canadian experience and/or studies, cover the range of conditioned waste volumes which could be expected from steady-state (no growth), CANDU-PHW-powered electrical generating systems. The wastes arising from operation and decommissioning of facilities in each phase of each fuel cycle are estimated. Each fuel cycle is considered to operate in isolation with the data given in terms of quantities per gigawatt-year of electricity produced. Three of the fuel cycles for which data are presented, the natural uranium once-through cycle, the plutonium-enriched uranium cycle (plutonium recycle) and the low-burnup uranium-enriched thorium cycle (thorium and uranium recycle), were studied by INFCE WG.7 (the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation, Working Group 7) as fuel cycles 4, 5 and 6. The high-burnup uranium-enriched thorium cycle is included for comparison. INFCE WG.7 selected many common reference parameters which are applied uniformly to all seven INFCE WG.7 reference fuel cycles in determining waste arisings. Where these parameters differ from the data of Canadian origin given in the body of this report, the INFCE WG.7 data are given in an appendix. The waste management costs associated with operation of each INFCE WG.7 reference fuel cycle were calculated and compared by the working group. An arbitrary set of costing parameters and disposal technologies was selected by the working group for application to each of the reference fuel cycles. The waste management and disposal costs for the PHW reactor fuel cycles based on these arbitrary cost parameters are given in an appendix. (author)

  8. Knowledge Protection and Input Complexity Arising from Open Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, Thijs; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Controlling unique knowledge is of increasing importance to firms. Therefore, firms use knowledge protection mechanisms to prevent competitors from imitating their knowledge. We study the effects of the complexity of knowledge inputs that arises from open innovation on the importance of two widely...... used protection mechanisms: patents and trademarks. We argue that this complexity makes the threat of imitation less predictable, and thus makes knowledge protection more important. By analyzing survey data of 938 German firms, we find that patents are more important for firms in industries with higher...... knowledge input complexity. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics and not the level of knowledge input complexity positively affect the importance of trademarks....

  9. Dealing with uncertainty arising out of probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, K.A.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Nelson, P.F.

    1984-03-01

    In addressing the area of safety goal implementation, the question of uncertainty arises. This report suggests that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should examine how other regulatory organizations have addressed the issue. Several examples are given from the chemical industry, and comparisons are made to nuclear power risks. Recommendations are made as to various considerations that the NRC should require in probabilistic risk assessments in order to properly treat uncertainties in the implementation of the safety goal policy. 40 references, 7 figures, 5 tables

  10. Solitary fibrous tumor arising in an intrathoracic goiter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: The histological appearance and immunohistochemical reaction pattern of SFT is characteristic. The entity should be considered when dealing with a spindle cell lesion in the thyroid gland. All cases of this site of origin reported have had a benign clinical course. As only a small number of cases......BACKGROUND: Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell tumor most often found in the mediastinal pleura. Nineteen cases of SFT arising in the thyroid gland have been reported. We report a case of SFT of the thyroid gland with immunohistochemical and cytogenetic investigation. SUMMARY: A 58...

  11. Facial Cellulitis Arising from Dens Evaginatus: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ming Chen

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Dens evaginatus is a developmental anomaly that produces a tubercle on the occlusal surface of a tooth. It is found most frequently in the mandibular premolars. The occlusal tubercle easily causes occlusal interferences. Attrition or fracture of the tubercle can lead to pulpitis, pulp necrosis, periapical pathosis, and periapical infection. This case report illustrates the treatment of facial cellulitis arising from dens evaginatus with open apex. Calcium hydroxide was used for the apexification procedure. One year after canal obturation, radiography revealed no apical pathosis and the apical seal was evident.

  12. Management of radioactive solid waste arisings from PFR reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.; Hackney, S.; Bailey, G.; Bremner, W.; Lillyman, E.; Pugh, O.; Reekie, J.

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of the solid radioactive waste management facilities for dealing with the arisings from PFR reprocessing at the Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment. Four major categories of solid waste are identified. The 'La Calhene' posting system for the transfer of active wastes which has been installed is discussed. The three new retrievable stores for high α#betta##betta#, high α low #betta##betta# and low α high #betta##betta# are described. The methods of waste categorisation by non-destructive assay techniques are outlined. Finally a review of operating experience with the facilities is presented. (U.K.)

  13. Radiologic findings of malignant tumors arising from ovarian endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Joo, Hee Jae; Kim, Bo Hyun

    1999-01-01

    To determine the radiologic characteristics of malignant tumors arising from ovarian endometriosis. The radiologic findings of eleven patients with pelvic masses histologically confirmed as malignant ovarian tumors arising from endometriosis were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent MR, and six underwent ultrasonography. The findings were evaluated with regard to tumor size and shape, locularity, thickness and enhancement of the wall and septa, the presence of papillary nodule or solid portion, signal intensity of the locule, the presence of mass in contralateral ovary, ascites, local invasion, distant metastases, and the Pathologic diagnosis included clear cell carcinoma in six cases, endometrioid carcinoma in three, and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of borderline malignancy and endometrial stromal sarcoma in one case each. Tumor size ranged from 8 to 20 (mean, 12.7)cm. The tumors were mixed in four cases, entirely cystic in three, predominantly cystic in three, and predominantly solid in one. Six cases were unilocular and five were multilocular. The wall and septa varied in thickness and regularity and were well enhanced in all but one case. In all cases papillary nodules or solid portions with similar enhancement to uterine myometrium were seen. On T1WI, the signal intensity of fluid was seen to be high in eight cases, low or intermediate in two, and of differing intensity in one. Ten cases showed high signal intensity on T2WI, whereas in one case in which high signal intensity was seen on T1WI, there was low signal intensity(shading). In three cases the contralateral ovary contained an endometrioma. Other features included ascites in seven cases and peritoneal seeding in one. Malignant ovarian tumors arising from endometriosis showed radiologic features of malignancy:they were larger than 10cm, there was enhancement of the wall and septa, and a papillary nodule or solid portion was present. However, the presence of hyperintense fluid, as seen on T1WI

  14. Radiologic findings of malignant tumors arising from ovarian endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Joo, Hee Jae [Ajou Univ. College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo Hyun [SungkyunKwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    To determine the radiologic characteristics of malignant tumors arising from ovarian endometriosis. The radiologic findings of eleven patients with pelvic masses histologically confirmed as malignant ovarian tumors arising from endometriosis were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent MR, and six underwent ultrasonography. The findings were evaluated with regard to tumor size and shape, locularity, thickness and enhancement of the wall and septa, the presence of papillary nodule or solid portion, signal intensity of the locule, the presence of mass in contralateral ovary, ascites, local invasion, distant metastases, and the Pathologic diagnosis included clear cell carcinoma in six cases, endometrioid carcinoma in three, and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of borderline malignancy and endometrial stromal sarcoma in one case each. Tumor size ranged from 8 to 20 (mean, 12.7)cm. The tumors were mixed in four cases, entirely cystic in three, predominantly cystic in three, and predominantly solid in one. Six cases were unilocular and five were multilocular. The wall and septa varied in thickness and regularity and were well enhanced in all but one case. In all cases papillary nodules or solid portions with similar enhancement to uterine myometrium were seen. On T1WI, the signal intensity of fluid was seen to be high in eight cases, low or intermediate in two, and of differing intensity in one. Ten cases showed high signal intensity on T2WI, whereas in one case in which high signal intensity was seen on T1WI, there was low signal intensity(shading). In three cases the contralateral ovary contained an endometrioma. Other features included ascites in seven cases and peritoneal seeding in one. Malignant ovarian tumors arising from endometriosis showed radiologic features of malignancy:they were larger than 10cm, there was enhancement of the wall and septa, and a papillary nodule or solid portion was present. However, the presence of hyperintense fluid, as seen on T1WI

  15. Digital holographic reconstruction detection of localized corrosion arising from scratches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG WANG

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, electrochemical methods and the digital holographic reconstruction technique were combined to detect the localized scratch-induced corrosion process of Alloy 690 in 0.50 mol dm-3 H2SO4 containing 0.10 mol dm-3 NaCl. The numerical reconstruction method has been proved to be an effective technique to detect changes of solution concentration. One can obtain direct information from the reconstructed images and capture subtle more revealing changes. It provides a method to detect localized corrosion arising from scratches.

  16. Multiple Ectopic Hepatocellular Carcinomas Arising in the Abdominal Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Miyake

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a very rare clinical entity that is defined as HCC arising from extrahepatic liver tissue. This report presents a case of ectopic multiple HCC arising in the abdominal cavity. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with liver dysfunction at a general health checkup. Both HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. Laboratory examination showed elevations in serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed multiple nodular lesions in the abdominal cavity with ascites without a possible primary tumor. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed, which revealed bloody ascites and multiple brown nodular tumors measuring approximately 10 mm in size that were disseminated on the perineum and mesentery. A postoperative PET-CT scan was performed but it did not reveal any evidence of a tumor in the liver. The tumors resected from the peritoneum were diagnosed as HCC. The present case of HCC was thought to have possibly developed from ectopic liver on the peritoneum or mesentery.

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Breast Augmentation Scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lisa R; Cresce, Nicole D; Russell, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    We report a case of a 46-year-old female who presented with a persistent lesion on the inferior right breast. The lesion was located within the scar from a breast augmentation procedure 12 years ago. The lesion had been treated as several conditions with no improvement. Biopsy revealed a superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma, and the lesion was successfully removed with Mohs micrographic surgery. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a surgical scar is exceedingly rare with only 13 reported cases to date. This is the first reported case of basal cell carcinoma arising in a breast augmentation scar. We emphasize the importance of biopsy for suspicious lesions or those refractory to treatment, particularly those lesions that form within a scar. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  18. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  19. Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Tattooed Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Deba P.; Dentlinger, Renee B.; Forystek, Amanda M.; Stevens, Todd; Huerter, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating into a tattoo. The lesion was completely excised and the patient remains disease-free one year later. Conclusion. All previous reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in tattoos have been well-differentiated low-grade type or keratoacanthoma-type and are considered to be coincidental rather than related to any carcinogenic effect of the tattoo pigments. Tattoo-associated poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma appears to be extremely rare. PMID:21274289

  20. Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Tattooed Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deba P. Sarma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating into a tattoo. The lesion was completely excised and the patient remains disease-free one year later. Conclusion. All previous reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in tattoos have been well-differentiated low-grade type or keratoacanthoma-type and are considered to be coincidental rather than related to any carcinogenic effect of the tattoo pigments. Tattoo-associated poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma appears to be extremely rare.

  1. Nipple adenoma arising from axillary accessory breast: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shioi Yoshihiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nipple adenoma is a relatively rare benign breast neoplasm, and cases of the disease arising from the axillary accessory breast have very seldom been reported in the English literature. We report a case of nipple adenoma arising from axillary accessory breast including clinical and pathological findings. An 82-year-old woman presented with the complaint of a small painful mass in the right axilla. Physical examination confirmed a well-defined eczematous crusted mass that was 8 mm in size. The diagnosis of nipple adenoma was made from an excisional specimen on the basis of characteristic histological findings. Microscopic structural features included a compact proliferation of small tubules lined by epithelial and myoepithelial cells, and the merging of glandular epithelial cells of the adenoma into squamous epithelial cells in the superficial epidermal layer. Because clinically nipple adenoma may resemble Paget’s disease and pathologically can be misinterpreted as tubular carcinoma, the correct identification of nipple adenoma is an important factor in the differential diagnosis for axillary tumor neoplasms. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1186821489769063

  2. Burden of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) - focus on the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, Mark; Kirby, Roger; Doyle, Scott; Ioannou, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can be bothersome and negatively impact on a patient's quality of life (QoL). As the prevalence of LUTS/BPH increases with age, the burden on the healthcare system and society may increase due to the ageing population. This review unifies literature on the burden of LUTS/BPH on patients and society, particularly in the UK. LUTS/BPH is associated with high personal and societal costs, both in direct medical costs and indirect losses in daily functioning, and through its negative impact on QoL for patients and partners. LUTS/BPH is often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Men should be encouraged to seek medical advice for this condition and should not accept it as part of ageing, while clinicians should be more active in the identification and treatment of LUTS/BPH. To assess the burden of illness and unmet need arising from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) presumed secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) from an individual patient and societal perspective with a focus on the UK. Embase, PubMed, the World Health Organization, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination were searched to identify studies on the epidemiological, humanistic or economic burden of LUTS/BPH published in English between October 2001 and January 2013. Data were extracted and the quality of the studies was assessed for inclusion. UK data were reported; in the absence of UK data, European and USA data were provided. In all, 374 abstracts were identified, 104 full papers were assessed and 33 papers met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. An additional paper was included in the review upon a revision in 2014. The papers show that LUTS are common in the UK, affecting ≈3% of men aged 45-49 years, rising to >30% in men aged ≥85 years. European and USA studies have reported the major impact of LUTS on quality of life of the patient

  3. Photocarcinogenesis and persistent hyperplasia in UV-irradiated SENCAR mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickland, P.T.

    1986-01-01

    Susceptibility to photocarcinogenesis has been examined in several mouse strains and stocks including SENCAR, CD-1, BALB/c, C3H, C57Bl, and NZB. SENCAR mice are hypersusceptible to tumorigenesis caused by single high dose exposures to ultraviolet (UV) radiation but not by chronic low-dose exposures. SENCAR mice also exhibit an exaggerated and persistent epidermal hyperplasia in response to UV-induced tissue damage. The persistent hyperplasia is apparently due to a sustained proliferation of the epithelial basal cells, rather than to delayed cell differentiation. SENCAR mice did not exhibit persistent hyperplasia following other forms of tissue damage (surgical or thermal). In related studies, the levels of thymine dimers induced in SENCAR epidermis by UV radiation were comparable to those observed in BALB/c epidermis. In addition, no differences were found in the tissue distribution or persistence of thymine dimers in SENCAR and BALB/c skin

  4. Interleukin-Driven Insulin-Like Growth Factor Promotes Prostatic Inflammatory Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Alana M.; Myers, Jason D.; McFarland, Eliza K.; Lee, Sanghee

    2014-01-01

    Prostatic inflammation is of considerable importance to urologic research because of its association with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. However, the mechanisms by which inflammation leads to proliferation and growth remain obscure. Here, we show that insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), previously known as critical developmental growth factors during prostate organogenesis, are induced by inflammation as part of the proliferative recovery to inflammation. Using genetic models and in vivo IGF receptor blockade, we demonstrate that the hyperplastic response to inflammation depends on interleukin-1–driven IGF signaling. We show that human prostatic hyperplasia is associated with IGF pathway activation specifically localized to foci of inflammation. This demonstrates that mechanisms of inflammation-induced epithelial proliferation and hyperplasia involve the induction of developmental growth factors, further establishing a link between inflammatory and developmental signals and providing a mechanistic basis for the management of proliferative diseases by IGF pathway modulation. PMID:25292180

  5. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia: report of 3 cases with human papillomavirus DNA sequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültekin, S E; Tokman Yildirim, Benay; Sarisoy, S

    2011-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck's disease, is a benign proliferative viral infection of the oral mucosa that is related to Human Papil-lomavirus (HPV), mainly subtypes 13 and 32. Although this condition is known to exist in numerous populations and ethnic groups, the reported cases among Caucasians are relatively rare. It presents as asymptomatic papules or nodules on the oral mucosa, gingiva, tongue, and lips. Histopathologically, it is characterized by parakeratosis, epithelial hyperplasia, focal acanthosis, fusion, and horizontal outgrowth of epithelial ridges and the cells named mitozoids. The purpose of this case report was to present 3 cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia in a pediatric age group. Histopathological and clinical features of cases are discussed and DNA sequencing analysis is reported in which HPV 13, HPV 32, and HPV 11 genomes are detected.

  6. [Immunomorphologic features of epithelial-stromal relationships at hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantysh, B B; Paukov, v S; Kogan, E A

    2012-01-01

    The results of a immunomorphologic comprehensive study of epithelial-stromal relationships in the uterus hyperplasia and endometrial cancer suggest that the suppressor gene of cancer (PTEN) plays a key role in the process of neoplastic transformation of endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma development. For the first time the existence of two highly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma immunophenotype were detected The first one is a PTEN-negative endometrial aedenocarcinoma, characterized by an almost complete inhibition of tumor suppressor gene PTEN in the epithelium of the glands and stromal cell of the tumor The second type is a PTEN-positive endometrial adenocarcinoma, in which epithelial and stromal tumor suppressor gene PTEN activity has retained Based on these results we have formulated a hypothesis about the different types of endometrial hyperplasia morphogenesis and its possible transfer to cervical cancer associated with features of tumor suppressor gene PTEN.

  7. Interleukin-33 induces mucin gene expression and goblet cell hyperplasia in human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishinaga, Hajime; Kitano, Masako; Toda, Masaaki; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Gabazza, Esteban C; Shah, Said Ahmad; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    We investigated whether IL-33 is involved in mucus overproduction and goblet cell hyperplasia in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS). IL-33 mRNA was significantly higher in the eosinophilic CRS group than in the non-eosinophilic CRS group from human nasal polyps. IL-33 induced MUC5AC mRNA and MUC5AC protein, and also goblet cell hyperplasia at air liquid interface culture in human nasal epithelial cells. In addition to that, IL-33 induced MUC5B and FOXA3, and reduces FOXJmRNA. In conclusion, our present study demonstrated that the direct evidence of IL-33 which lead to increase mucin gene and protein expression, as well as goblet cell hyperplasia. This study provides novel insights into the role of IL-33 on mucus overproduction in eosinophilic inflammation of human airways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Diffuse choroid plexus hyperplasia: an under-diagnosed cause of hydrocephalus in children?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Azian Abd.; Coleman, Lee [Royal Children' s Hospital Melbourne, Department of Medical Imaging, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Morokoff, Andrew; Maixner, Wirginia [Royal Children' s Hospital Melbourne, Department of Neurosurgery, Parkville (Australia)

    2005-08-01

    Hydrocephalus is a common neurological disorder in children and the result of a variety of causes. However, with the advancement of imaging modalities, particularly MRI, previously reported rarer causes of hydrocephalus in children are now being more readily appreciated. We report an 11-year-old boy with diffuse villous hyperplasia of the choroid plexus. He had a ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt in-situ and a prior diagnosis from infancy of congenital aqueduct stenosis as the cause of his hydrocephalus. His current presentation was with further shunt dysfunction. CT and MRI demonstrated enlarged choroid plexuses but did not confirm aqueduct stenosis. CSF overproduction was demonstrated from the externalized ventricular drain. The enlarged choroid plexuses were surgically resected and histology confirmed choroid plexus hyperplasia. Identification of choroid plexus hyperplasia is important since the neurosurgical management of hydrocephalus is not VP shunt insertion, but resection of the hyperplastic choroid plexus. (orig.)

  9. Multiple osteoblastomas in a child with Cushing syndrome due to bilateral adrenal micronodular hyperplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeoh Won Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocorticotropin-independent adrenal hyperplasias are rare diseases, which are classified into macronodular (>1 cm and micronodular (≤1 cm hyperplasia. Micronodular adrenal hyperplasia is subdivided into primary pigmented adrenocortical disease and a limited or nonpigmented form 'micronodular adrenocortical disease (MAD', although considerable morphological and genetic overlap is observed between the 2 groups. We present an unusual case of a 44-month-old girl who was diagnosed with Cushing syndrome due to MAD. She had presented with spotty pigmentation on her oral mucosa, lips and conjunctivae and was diagnosed with multiple bone tumors in her femur, pelvis and skull base at the age of 8 years. Her bone tumor biopsies were compatible with osteoblastoma. This case highlights the importance of verifying the clinicopathologic correlation in Cushing syndrome and careful follow-up and screening for associated diseases.

  10. Diffuse choroid plexus hyperplasia: an under-diagnosed cause of hydrocephalus in children?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Azian Abd.; Coleman, Lee; Morokoff, Andrew; Maixner, Wirginia

    2005-01-01

    Hydrocephalus is a common neurological disorder in children and the result of a variety of causes. However, with the advancement of imaging modalities, particularly MRI, previously reported rarer causes of hydrocephalus in children are now being more readily appreciated. We report an 11-year-old boy with diffuse villous hyperplasia of the choroid plexus. He had a ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt in-situ and a prior diagnosis from infancy of congenital aqueduct stenosis as the cause of his hydrocephalus. His current presentation was with further shunt dysfunction. CT and MRI demonstrated enlarged choroid plexuses but did not confirm aqueduct stenosis. CSF overproduction was demonstrated from the externalized ventricular drain. The enlarged choroid plexuses were surgically resected and histology confirmed choroid plexus hyperplasia. Identification of choroid plexus hyperplasia is important since the neurosurgical management of hydrocephalus is not VP shunt insertion, but resection of the hyperplastic choroid plexus. (orig.)

  11. Estimated costs of treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haylton J. Suaid

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH presents 2 options: medical or surgical, and there are doubts about what is the best treatment since 80% of patients who undergo surgery become asymptomatic and 10 to 40% of those under medical regimen undergo surgery within a 5 years period. It is difficult to assess the actual costs of treating BPH in Brazil due to several factors, among them regional particularities and the scarcity of current statistical data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Recently, in the Ribeirão Preto area, São Paulo, Brazil, the IPSS (International Prostatic Symptoms Score and quality of life were verified in 934 volunteers. It was determined the percentage of individuals with ages ranging from 40 to 79 years with moderate symptoms (score 8-19 and with severe symptoms (score 20-35, values for which are indicated medical and surgical treatment, respectively, according to the Brazilian Society of Urology consensus on BPH. Data on Brazilian population in that age range were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics referent to the year of 2000. It was determined the number of patients, according to the criteria above, subjected to either one of the treatments mentioned. Surgical costs of prostate transurethral resection were researched according to Unified Health System - SUS tables (US$ 173 and of Brazilian Medical Society - AMB with a mean cost in 3 hospitals of US$ 933. Drug costs were calculated by the annual mean price (US$ 355 of 4 alpha-blockers (tamsulosin, alfuzosin, doxazosin and terazosin. RESULTS: The estimated population for medical treatment was 5,397,321 individuals, with a cost corresponding to US$ 1,916,489,055.00. The estimated population for surgical treatment was 2,040,299 men, what would represent a cost of US$ 353,291,204.00 based on the SUS table and of US$ 1,904,279,066.00 based on AMB with hospital expenses included. CONCLUSION: All theses facts induce us to predict

  12. Atypical ductal hyperplasia of the breast: radiologic and histopathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Jung Hyck; Oh, Yu Whan; Cho, Kyu Ran; Choi, Eun Jeong; Je, Bo Kyoung; Lee, Ji Hae; Seo, Bo Kyoung

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical and radiologic findings of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) using mammography and ultrasonography, and to correlate the radiologic and histopathologic findings. Sixty-four pathologically proven lesions in 64 patients who were examined between March 2000 and March 2003 were the subject of this study. Mammography was performed in all 64 cases, and ultrasonography in 30. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated the radiologic findings, classifying them as one of four types: mass, microcalcification, other finding, and no detected lesion. At mammography, masses were classified according to their shape, margin, and density and microcalcifications according to their shape and distribution. At ultrasonography, masses were evaluated in terms of their shape, margin, internal and posterior echotexture, ductal extension, and parallelism to skin. Geographic correlation between the radiologic and histopathologic findings was classified as direct, near direct, or remote correlation. Mammography demonstrated 37 cases of microcalcification (57.8%), 14 in which masses were present (21.9%), two in which there were other findings (3.1%), and 11 in which lesions were not detected (17.2%). The 'other finding' was ductectasia. Microcalcifications were round in 19 cases, pleomorphic heterogeneous in 16, and branching linear in one. The most common distribution of microcalcification was clustered (29 cases; 78.4%). Masses were oval or round in nine cases and irregular in three, and in seven cases their margin was ill-defined. In 13 cases, the density of the masses was equal to that of breast tissue. Ultrasonography showed that the masses were round or oval in 15 cases and irregular in 14, and that the margin was ill-defined in 16 cases and circumscribed in ten. In 19 cases, the echotexture of the masses was low, and in 20 cases, heterogeneous. Parallel orientation was seen in 25 cases, and ductal extension in 22. Category 4 was the most common final assessed BI

  13. The epigenetic factor PCAF regulates vascular inflammation and is essential for intimal hyperplasia development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob C M de Jong

    Full Text Available Genetic P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF variation affects restenosis-risk in patients. PCAF has lysine acetyltransferase activity and promotes nuclear factor kappa-beta (NFκB-mediated inflammation, which drives post-interventional intimal hyperplasia development. We studied the contributing role of PCAF in post-interventional intimal hyperplasia.PCAF contribution to inflammation and intimal hyperplasia was assessed in leukocytes, macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs in vitro and in a mouse model for intimal hyperplasia, in which a cuff is placed around the femoral artery. PCAF deficiency downregulate CCL2, IL-6 and TNF-alpha expression, as demonstrated on cultured vSMCs, leukocytes and macrophages. PCAF KO mice showed a 71.8% reduction of vSMC-rich intimal hyperplasia, a 73.4% reduction of intima/media ratio and a 63.7% reduction of luminal stenosis after femoral artery cuff placement compared to wild type (WT mice. The association of PCAF and vascular inflammation was further investigated using the potent natural PCAF inhibitor garcinol. Garcinol treatment reduced CCL2 and TNF-alpha expression, as demonstrated on cultured vSMCs and leukocytes. To assess the effect of garcinol treatment on vascular inflammation we used hypercholesterolemic ApoE*3-Leiden mice. After cuff placement, garcinol treatment resulted in reduced arterial leukocyte and macrophage adherence and infiltration after three days compared to untreated animals.These results identify a vital role for the lysine acetyltransferase PCAF in the regulation of local inflammation after arterial injury and likely the subsequent vSMC proliferation, responsible for intimal hyperplasia.

  14. The common parasite Toxoplasma gondii induces prostatic inflammation and microglandular hyperplasia in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinot, Darrelle L; Garbuz, Tamila; Bosland, Maarten C; Wang, Liang; Rice, Susan E; Sullivan, William J; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo; Jerde, Travis J

    2017-07-01

    Inflammation is the most prevalent and widespread histological finding in the human prostate, and associates with the development and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Several factors have been hypothesized to cause inflammation, yet the role each may play in the etiology of prostatic inflammation remains unclear. This study examined the possibility that the common protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii induces prostatic inflammation and reactive hyperplasia in a mouse model. Male mice were infected systemically with T. gondii parasites and prostatic inflammation was scored based on severity and focality of infiltrating leukocytes and epithelial hyperplasia. We characterized inflammatory cells with flow cytometry and the resulting epithelial proliferation with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. We found that T. gondii infects the mouse prostate within the first 14 days of infection and can establish parasite cysts that persist for at least 60 days. T. gondii infection induces a substantial and chronic inflammatory reaction in the mouse prostate characterized by monocytic and lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate. T. gondii-induced inflammation results in reactive hyperplasia, involving basal and luminal epithelial proliferation, and the exhibition of proliferative inflammatory microglandular hyperplasia in inflamed mouse prostates. This study identifies the common parasite T. gondii as a new trigger of prostatic inflammation, which we used to develop a novel mouse model of prostatic inflammation. This is the first report that T. gondii chronically encysts and induces chronic inflammation within the prostate of any species. Furthermore, T. gondii-induced prostatic inflammation persists and progresses without genetic manipulation in mice, offering a powerful new mouse model for the study of chronic prostatic inflammation and microglandular hyperplasia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Altered protein expression in serum from endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Qing

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometrial carcinoma is one of the most common gynecological malignancies in women. The diagnosis of the disease at early or premalignant stages is crucial for the patient's prognosis. To date, diagnosis and follow-up of endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia require invasive procedures. Therefore, there is considerable demand for the identification of biomarkers to allow non-invasive detection of these conditions. Methods In this study, we performed a quantitative proteomics analysis on serum samples from simple endometrial hyperplasia, complex endometrial hyperplasia, atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and endometrial carcinoma patients, as well as healthy women. Serum samples were first depleted of high-abundance proteins, labeled with isobaric tags (iTRAQ™, and then analyzed via two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification and quantitation information were acquired by comparing the mass spectrometry data against the International Protein Index Database using ProteinPilot software. Bioinformatics annotation of identified proteins was performed by searching against the PANTHER database. Results In total, 74 proteins were identified and quantified in serum samples from endometrial lesion patients and healthy women. Using a 1.6-fold change as the benchmark, 12 proteins showed significantly altered expression levels in at least one disease group compared with healthy women. Among them, 7 proteins were found, for the first time, to be differentially expressed in atypical endometrial hyperplasia. These proteins are orosomucoid 1, haptoglobin, SERPINC 1, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, apolipoprotein A-IV, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, and histidine-rich glycoprotein. Conclusions The differentially expressed proteins we discovered in this study may serve as biomarkers in the diagnosis and follow-up of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma.

  16. A Study of Using Massage Therapy Accompanied with Stretching Exercise for Rehabilitation of Mammary Gland Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Lv

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To apply massage therapy accompanied with stretching exercises for treatment of mammary gland hyperplasia, evaluate the clinical outcome in patients, and estimate the therapy as a novel treatment method for mammary hyperplasia. Methods. 28 adult female patients were selected and treated with massage therapy and stretching exercises focusing on skeleton muscles of chest, abdomen, and axilla. The mammary gland oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb and deoxyhemoglobin (DeoxyHb levels were detected before and after treatment after 15, 30, and 45 days. Results. In this cohort, pretreatment OxyHb (mean ± SD is 1.32±0.14 (medium-high, and DeoxyHb is 0.87±0.13 (normal. All patients were clinically diagnosed with benign mammary gland hyperplasia and mastitis. The posttreatment OxyHb levels are 1.23±0.09 (normal-medium, 15-day, 1.16±0.08 (normal, 30-day, and 1.05±0.04 (normal, 45-day, and DeoxyHb levels are 0.90±0.11 (normal, 15-day, 0.94±0.18 (normal, 30-day, and 0.98±0.12 (normal, 45-day. Patients were diagnosed with decreased hyperplasia 15 and 30 days after treatment and with no symptom of hyperplasia in mammary gland 45 days after treatment. Conclusion. Mammary gland hyperplasia is closely correlated with pathological changes of skeletal muscles and could be significantly improved by massage therapy and stretching exercises targeting neighboring skeletal muscles.

  17. Ultrasonography and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, D.S.; Shcherbyina, O.V.; Yatsik, V.Yi.; Gladka, L.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the work is analysis of diagnostic possibilities of transrectal ultrasonography and PSA in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. 142 patients have been investigated by transrectal ultrasonography. he transrectal ultrasonography and PSA are sensible tests in diagnosis of prostate cancer and in differential diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

  18. Study of radionuclide 90Sr-90Y on cell proliferation and apoptosis in benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tong; Wei Wei; Zou Benjie; Liu Fang; Xu Zhishun

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of 90 Sr- 90 Yon cell proliferation and apoptosis in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Methods: The apoptosis and expression of Ki-67 in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) before and after irradiation 90 Sr- 90 Y were detected by transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and immunohistochemical technique, respectively. Results: The proliferation index (PI) of BPH after 90 Sr- 90 Y irradiation was much lower than that before irradiation, but there was no significant change in apoptosis index (AI). Conclusion: Irradiation with 90 Sr- 90 Y could restrain cell proliferation of BPH, but could not induce apoptosis

  19. Imaging Findings of Localized Lymphoid Hyperplasia of the Pancreas: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Woong; Heo, Suk Hee; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Shin, Sang Soo; Choi, Yoo Duk

    2011-01-01

    We report here on a case of localized lymphoid hyperplasia of the pancreas in a 70-year-old man which manifested as double lesions (uncinate process and tail) in the organ. The lesions were incidentally detected as hypoechoic lesions on ultrasonography and they appeared as delayed enhancing lesions on the contrast-enhanced dynamic CT and MRI. Total pancreatectomy was performed, because malignant tumor could not be excluded according to the preoperative imaging studies and the endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy failed. Pathology revealed localized lymphoid hyperplasia. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. He has been alive for 18 months after surgery.

  20. The Medical Home Concept and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: a Comfortable Habitat!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witchel SelmaFeldman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Patient-centered interdisciplinary health care for children with chronic medical disorders represents an evolution from the traditional "stop and go" treatment for acute illnesses. This model for health care delivery has been called the "medical home," a concept that was originally developed in pediatrics for the care of children with special needs. Patient and family-centered, comprehensive, interdisciplinary, culturally effective, and readily accessible health care delivery is desirable for the care of children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. As children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH become adolescents and young adults, transfer of this health care delivery model to adult endocrinologists is appropriate.

  1. The Medical Home Concept and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: A Comfortable Habitat!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Feldman Witchel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient-centered interdisciplinary health care for children with chronic medical disorders represents an evolution from the traditional “stop and go” treatment for acute illnesses. This model for health care delivery has been called the “medical home,” a concept that was originally developed in pediatrics for the care of children with special needs. Patient and family-centered, comprehensive, interdisciplinary, culturally effective, and readily accessible health care delivery is desirable for the care of children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. As children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH become adolescents and young adults, transfer of this health care delivery model to adult endocrinologists is appropriate.

  2. Imaging Findings of Localized Lymphoid Hyperplasia of the Pancreas: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Woong; Heo, Suk Hee; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital and Medical School, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Soo; Choi, Yoo Duk [Chonnam National University Hospital and Medical School, Gwangju (KR)

    2011-08-15

    We report here on a case of localized lymphoid hyperplasia of the pancreas in a 70-year-old man which manifested as double lesions (uncinate process and tail) in the organ. The lesions were incidentally detected as hypoechoic lesions on ultrasonography and they appeared as delayed enhancing lesions on the contrast-enhanced dynamic CT and MRI. Total pancreatectomy was performed, because malignant tumor could not be excluded according to the preoperative imaging studies and the endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy failed. Pathology revealed localized lymphoid hyperplasia. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. He has been alive for 18 months after surgery.

  3. Ultrasonography, angiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance in nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patriarche, C.; Pelletier, G.; Attali, P.; Ladouch-Badre, A.; Fabre, M.; Roche, A.; Etienne, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Ultrasonographic, computed tomographic, and angiographic abnormalities of nodular regenerative hyperplasia have been described in very few cases. We report here the case of a 50-year-old man with round, well-limited hypoechogenic lesions involving the two lobes of the liver, and hypervascular, poorly delineated angiographic lesions. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance of the liver were normal. Histological examination of large liver specimens provided by intraoperative biopsy allowed the diagnosis of nodular regenerative hyperplasia. Such a pseudo-tumoral ultrasonographic and angiographic pattern must be recognized in order to avoid diagnostic and therapeutic mistakes, especially since percutaneous liver biopsy usually fails to diagnose this disease. (author)

  4. Optimal control of switched systems arising in fermentation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chongyang

    2014-01-01

    The book presents, in a systematic manner, the optimal controls under different mathematical models in fermentation processes. Variant mathematical models – i.e., those for multistage systems; switched autonomous systems; time-dependent and state-dependent switched systems; multistage time-delay systems and switched time-delay systems – for fed-batch fermentation processes are proposed and the theories and algorithms of their optimal control problems are studied and discussed. By putting forward novel methods and innovative tools, the book provides a state-of-the-art and comprehensive systematic treatment of optimal control problems arising in fermentation processes. It not only develops nonlinear dynamical system, optimal control theory and optimization algorithms, but can also help to increase productivity and provide valuable reference material on commercial fermentation processes.

  5. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Arising from Abdominal Wall Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thouraya Achach

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a frequent benign disorder. Malignancy arising in extraovarian endometriosis is a rare event. A 49-year-old woman is presented with a large painful abdominal wall mass. She underwent a myomectomy, 20 years before, for uterus leiomyoma. Computed tomography suggested that this was a desmoid tumor and she underwent surgery. Histological examination showed a clear cell adenocarcinoma associated with endometriosis foci. Pelvic ultrasound, computed tomography, and endometrial curettage did not show any malignancy or endometriosis in the uterus and ovaries. Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended, but the patient was lost to follow up. Six months later, she returned with a recurrence of the abdominal wall mass. She was given chemotherapy and then she was reoperated.

  6. Primary extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma arising from the iliac vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The iliac vein is an extremely rare site for mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, and patients with primary extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma arising from a vein always suffer a very poor prognosis. We report a case of a 45-year-old female who presented with a 5-month history of left leg edema in 2015. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a large mass in the left iliac vein with scattered calcifications. Wide-margin resection was performed, and histopathologic and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the presence of intraluminal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with local invasion out of the vein wall. Due to poor patient compliance, postoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy were not started, and a bone scan performed 16 weeks postoperatively showed multiple bone metastases. The patient died on the twenty-fourth postoperative week.

  7. [Gender stereotypes arising in a state of gender awareness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y

    2001-12-01

    This study examined the structure of gender stereotypes which might arise in the state of gender awareness that was triggered by social situations where people perceived their gender differences strongly. Out of 1,500 residents in Tokyo aged between 20-60, 342 females and 313 males were randomly chosen and answered the questions about gender consciousness in the state of gender awareness. A factor analysis revealed that "maternity" and "trustworthiness" were the dominant dimensions of gender stereotypes in the state of gender awareness, and that trustworthiness particularly formed the basis of gender stereotypes. Generation differences in gender stereotypes were also revealed between women in their 40 s and 50 s, and between men in their 30 s and 40 s. Generally, power for men and nurture for women were more likely to be perceived in a state of gender awareness.

  8. Nuclear waste management and problems arising from constitutional law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, D.

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the problems arising in the field of nuclear waste management on account of the constitutional law. Especially the difficulties emanating from the conflict between the provisions of section 9a of the Atomic Energy Act and the provisions of constitutional law are dealt with in detail, referring to the monography of H. Hofmann, 'legal aspects of nuclear waste management'. The author comes to the conclusion that the reqquirements laid down in section 9a-9c of the Atomic Energy Act are in agreement with the Basic law. There is, he says, no unreasonable risk for future generations, as the provisions of the nuclear law provide for sufficient safety of sites and equipment selected for the final storage of nuclear waste, ensuring that radioactive leakage is excluded over long periods of time. In the second part of his lecture, the author discusses the problem of competency and delegation of authority with regard to the reprocessing of radioactive waste. (BW) [de

  9. Source terms for airborne radioactivity arising from uranium mill wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.; Downing, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    One of the problems in assessing the radiological impact of uranium milling is to determine the rates of release to the air of material from the various sources of radioactivity. Such source terms are required for modelling the transport of radioactive material in the atmosphere. Activity arises from various point and area sources in the mill itself and from the mill tailings. The state of the tailings changes in time from slurry to solid. A layer of water may be maintained over the solids during the life of the mine, and the tailings may be covered with inert material on abandonment. Releases may be both gaseous and particulate. This paper indicates ways in which radon emanation and the suspension of long-lived particulate activity might be quantified, and areas requiring further exploration are identified

  10. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, D.; Rubin, J. E.; Diekman, C. O.

    2013-01-01

    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects

  11. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terman, D., E-mail: terman@math.ohio-state.edu [Department of Mathematics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Rubin, J. E., E-mail: jonrubin@pitt.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Diekman, C. O., E-mail: diekman@njit.edu [Department of Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects.

  12. Dioxins: diagnostic and prognostic challenges arising from complex mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysavy, Noel M.; Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina; Turner, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Dioxins are ubiquitous environmental challenges to humans, with a pervasiveness that arises from 200?years of rapid industrialization and mechanization of Western societies and which is now extending into the developing world. In spite of their penetrance of the human biota, these compounds...... such as cancer and diabetes, which are already multifactorial and highly complex, creates the context for the current review paper. Here, we summarize dioxin exposure paradigms and the resulting physiological effects that have been documented in animals and humans. Novel insights into potential endogenous end...... exogenous ligands, as well as the mechanisms by which these ligands impact acute and chronic cellular processes, are discussed. We develop the idea that the diagnosis of dioxin exposure, the subtleties of the cellular effects of the compounds and prognosis of the long-term effects of exposure are problems...

  13. Surprises and pitfalls arising from (pseudo)symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwart, Peter H.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Lebedev, Andrey A.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Adams, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    The presence of pseudosymmetry can cause problems in structure determination and refinement. The relevant background and representative examples are presented. It is not uncommon for protein crystals to crystallize with more than a single molecule per asymmetric unit. When more than a single molecule is present in the asymmetric unit, various pathological situations such as twinning, modulated crystals and pseudo translational or rotational symmetry can arise. The presence of pseudosymmetry can lead to uncertainties about the correct space group, especially in the presence of twinning. The background to certain common pathologies is presented and a new notation for space groups in unusual settings is introduced. The main concepts are illustrated with several examples from the literature and the Protein Data Bank

  14. Unilateral Eye Blinking Arising From the Ictal Ipsilateral Occipital Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsaperla, Raffaele; Perciavalle, Valentina; Pavone, Piero; Praticò, Andrea Domenico; Elia, Maurizio; Ruggieri, Martino; Caraballo, Roberto; Striano, Pasquale

    2016-07-01

    We report on an 18-month-old boy with unilateral left eye blinking as a single ictal manifestation without facial twitching. The clinical onset of this phenomenon was first recorded (as an occasional event) at age 3 months, and it was overlooked. By age 6 months, the child's blinking increased to almost daily occurrence in clusters: during blinking the infant showed intact awareness and occasional jerks in the upper limbs and right leg. A video-electroencephalography (video-EEG) documented clinical correlation with a focal pattern arising from the left occipital region, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed severe brain damage, consisting in poroencephalic hollows and increased spaces in the convexities involving a large area of the left cerebral hemisphere. The boy was prescribed sodium valproate (30 mg/kg/d), resulting in drastic reduction of his clinical seizures. Follow-up to his current age documented good general status, with persistent partial right hemilateral seizures. The blinking progressively disappeared, and is no longer recorded. The pathogenic hypotheses of the unilateral ictal blinking include involvement of the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere and/or the cerebellar pathways. Review of previous reports of unilateral eye blinking, arising from the ictal ipsilateral brain, revealed that different damaged regions may give rise to blinking ictal phenomena, likely via the trigeminal fibres innervating the subdural intracranial structures and the pial vessels in the ipsilateral affected brain. The eye blinking in the present child represents a further example of an ictal phenomenon, which is predictive of the damaged brain region. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2014.

  15. Copy number of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli gene is not always neutral in sporadic colorectal cancers with loss of heterozygosity for the gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zauber, Peter; Marotta, Stephen; Sabbath-Solitare, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the number of alleles of a chromosome may have an impact upon gene expression. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) indicates that one allele of a gene has been lost, and knowing the exact copy number of the gene would indicate whether duplication of the remaining allele has occurred. We were interested to determine the copy number of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) gene in sporadic colorectal cancers with LOH. We selected 38 carcinomas with LOH for the APC gene region of chromosome 5, as determined by amplification of the CA repeat region within the D5S346 loci. The copy number status of APC was ascertained using the SALSA® MLPA® P043-B1 APC Kit. LOH for the DCC gene, KRAS gene mutation, and microsatellite instability were also evaluated for each tumor, utilizing standard polymerase chain reaction methods. No tumor demonstrated microsatellite instability. LOH of the DCC gene was also present in 33 of 36 (91.7 %) informative tumors. A KRAS gene mutation was present in 16 of the 38 (42.1 %) tumors. Twenty-four (63.2 %) of the tumors were copy number neutral, 10 (26.3 %) tumors demonstrated major loss, while two (5.3 %) showed partial loss. Two tumors (5.3 %) had copy number gain. Results of APC and DCC LOH, KRAS and microsatellite instability indicate our colorectal cancer cases were typical of sporadic cancers following the ‘chromosomal instability’ pathway. The majority of our colorectal carcinomas with LOH for APC gene are copy number neutral. However, one-third of our cases showed copy number loss, suggesting that duplication of the remaining allele is not required for the development of a colorectal carcinoma

  16. WNT Inhibitory Activity of Malus Pumila miller cv Annurca and Malus domestica cv Limoncella Apple Extracts on Human Colon-Rectal Cells Carrying Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Gennaro; Maisto, Maria; Bottone, Sara; Badolati, Nadia; Rossi, Giovanni Battista; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Stornaiuolo, Mariano; Novellino, Ettore

    2017-11-18

    Inhibitors of the Wingless-related Integration site (WNT)/β-catenin pathway have recently been under consideration as potential chemopreventive agents against Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). This autosomal-dominant syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the gene coding for the protein APC and leads to hyperactivation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, uncontrolled intestinal cell proliferation and formation of adenocarcinomas. The aim of the present work was to: (i) test, on in vitro cultures of cells carrying FAP mutations and on ex vivo biopsies of FAP patients, the WNT inhibitory activity of extracts from two common southern Italian apples, Malus pumila Miller cv. 'Annurca' and Malus domestica cv 'Limoncella'; (ii) identify the mechanisms underpinning their activities and; (iii) evaluate their potency upon gastrointestinal digestion. We here show that both Annurca and Limoncella apple extracts act as WNT inhibitors, mostly thanks to their polyphenolic contents. They inhibit the pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations with active dilutions falling in ranges close to consumer-relevant concentrations. Food-grade manufacturing of apple extracts increases their WNT inhibitory activity as result of the conversion of quercetin glycosides into the aglycone quercetin, a potent WNT inhibitor absent in the fresh fruit extract. However, in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion severely affected WNT inhibitory activity of apple extracts, as result of a loss of polyphenols. In conclusion, our results show that apple extracts inhibit the WNT pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations and represent a potential nutraceutical alternative for the treatment of this pathology. Enteric coating is advisable to preserve the activity of the extracts in the colon-rectal section of the digestive tract.

  17. Origin of Somatic Mutations in β-Catenin versus Adenomatous Polyposis Coli in Colon Cancer: Random Mutagenesis in Animal Models versus Nonrandom Mutagenesis in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Da; Zhang, Min; Gold, Barry

    2017-07-17

    Wnt signaling is compromised early in the development of human colorectal cancer (CRC) due to truncating nonsense mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). CRC induced by chemical carcinogens, such as heterocyclic aromatic amines and azoxymethane, in mice also involves dysregulation of Wnt signaling but via activating missense mutations in the β-catenin oncogene despite the fact that genetically modified mice harboring an inactive APC allele efficiently develop CRC. In contrast, activating mutations in β-catenin are rarely observed in human CRC. Dysregulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by the two distinct mechanisms reveals insights into the etiology of human CRC. On the basis of calculations related to DNA adduct levels produced in mouse CRC models using mutagens, and the number of stem cells in the mouse colon, we show that two nonsense mutations required for biallelic disruption of APC are statistically unlikely to produce CRC in experiments using small numbers of mice. We calculate that an activating mutation in one allele near the critical GSK3β phosphorylation site on β-catenin is >10 5 -times more likely to produce CRC by random mutagenesis due to chemicals than inactivating two alleles in APC, yet it does not occur in humans. Therefore, the mutagenesis mechanism in human CRC cannot be random. We explain that nonsense APC mutations predominate in human CRC because of deamination at 5-methylcytosine at CGA and CAG codons, coupled with the number of human colonic stem cells and lifespan. Our analyses, including a comparison of mutation type and age at CRC diagnosis in U.S. and Chinese patients, also indicate that APC mutations in CRC are not due to environmental mutagens that randomly damage DNA.

  18. Celecoxib and tauro-ursodeoxycholic acid co-treatment inhibits cell growth in familial adenomatous polyposis derived LT97 colon adenoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heumen, Bjorn W.H. van, E-mail: b.vanheumen@mdl.umcn.nl [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Roelofs, Hennie M.J.; Morsche, Rene H.M. te [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Marian, Brigitte [Institute of Cancer Research, Wien University, Vienna (Austria); Nagengast, Fokko M.; Peters, Wilbert H.M. [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    Chemoprevention would be a desirable strategy to avoid duodenectomy in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) suffering from duodenal adenomatosis. We investigated the in vitro effects on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and COX-2 expression of the potential chemopreventives celecoxib and tauro-ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). HT-29 colon cancer cells and LT97 colorectal micro-adenoma cells derived from a patient with FAP, were exposed to low dose celecoxib and UDCA alone or in combination with tauro-cholic acid (CA) and tauro-chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), mimicking bile of FAP patients treated with UDCA. In HT-29 cells, co-treatment with low dose celecoxib and UDCA resulted in a decreased cell growth (14-17%, p < 0.01). A more pronounced decrease (23-27%, p < 0.01) was observed in LT97 cells. Cell growth of HT-29 cells exposed to 'artificial bile' enriched with UDCA, was decreased (p < 0.001), either in the absence or presence of celecoxib. In LT97 cells incubated with 'artificial bile' enriched with UDCA, cell growth was decreased only in the presence of celecoxib (p < 0.05). No clear evidence was found for involvement of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, caspase-3, or COX-2 in the cellular processes leading to the observed changes in cell growth. In conclusion, co-treatment with low dose celecoxib and UDCA has growth inhibitory effects on colorectal adenoma cells derived from a patient with FAP, and further research on this combination as promising chemopreventive strategy is desired. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Celecoxib and UDCA acid co-treatment decreases cell growth in colon tumor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UDCA enriched 'artificial bile' decreases LT-97 cell growth only in presence of celecoxib. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCNA, caspase-3, nor COX-2 seem to be involved in the observed changes in cell growth.

  19. Celecoxib and tauro-ursodeoxycholic acid co-treatment inhibits cell growth in familial adenomatous polyposis derived LT97 colon adenoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heumen, Bjorn W.H. van; Roelofs, Hennie M.J.; Morsche, René H.M. te; Marian, Brigitte; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Peters, Wilbert H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Chemoprevention would be a desirable strategy to avoid duodenectomy in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) suffering from duodenal adenomatosis. We investigated the in vitro effects on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and COX-2 expression of the potential chemopreventives celecoxib and tauro-ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). HT-29 colon cancer cells and LT97 colorectal micro-adenoma cells derived from a patient with FAP, were exposed to low dose celecoxib and UDCA alone or in combination with tauro-cholic acid (CA) and tauro-chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), mimicking bile of FAP patients treated with UDCA. In HT-29 cells, co-treatment with low dose celecoxib and UDCA resulted in a decreased cell growth (14–17%, p < 0.01). A more pronounced decrease (23–27%, p < 0.01) was observed in LT97 cells. Cell growth of HT-29 cells exposed to ‘artificial bile’ enriched with UDCA, was decreased (p < 0.001), either in the absence or presence of celecoxib. In LT97 cells incubated with ‘artificial bile’ enriched with UDCA, cell growth was decreased only in the presence of celecoxib (p < 0.05). No clear evidence was found for involvement of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, caspase-3, or COX-2 in the cellular processes leading to the observed changes in cell growth. In conclusion, co-treatment with low dose celecoxib and UDCA has growth inhibitory effects on colorectal adenoma cells derived from a patient with FAP, and further research on this combination as promising chemopreventive strategy is desired. -- Highlights: ► Celecoxib and UDCA acid co-treatment decreases cell growth in colon tumor cells. ► UDCA enriched ‘artificial bile’ decreases LT-97 cell growth only in presence of celecoxib. ► PCNA, caspase-3, nor COX-2 seem to be involved in the observed changes in cell growth.

  20. Downregulation of adenomatous polyposis coli by microRNA-663 promotes odontogenic differentiation through activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Park, Min-Gyeong; Lee, Seul Ah; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Heung-Joong; Yu, Sun-Kyoung; Kim, Chun Sung; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek; Kim, Jin-Soo; Seo, Yo-Seob [Oral Biology Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Hong Sung [Department of Biomedical Science, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joo-Cheol [Department of Oral Histology-Developmental Biology, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, BK 21, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Kyung, E-mail: kdk@chosun.ac.kr [Oral Biology Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • miR-663 is significantly up-regulated during MDPC-23 odontoblastic cell differentiation. • miR-663 accelerates mineralization in MDPC-23 odontoblastic cells without cell proliferation. • miR-663 promotes odontoblastic cell differentiation by targeting APC and activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling in MDPC-23 cells. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell differentiation by inhibiting mRNA translation or by inducing its degradation. However, the role of miRNAs in odontogenic differentiation is largely unknown. In this present study, we observed that the expression of miR-663 increased significantly during differentiation of MDPC-23 cells to odontoblasts. Furthermore, up-regulation of miR-663 expression promoted odontogenic differentiation and accelerated mineralization without proliferation in MDPC-23 cells. In addition, target gene prediction for miR-663 revealed that the mRNA of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, which is associated with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, has a miR-663 binding site in its 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR). Furthermore, APC expressional was suppressed significantly by miR-663, and this down-regulation of APC expression triggered activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling through accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-663 promotes differentiation of MDPC-23 cells to odontoblasts by targeting APC-mediated activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Therefore, miR-663 can be considered a critical regulator of odontoblast differentiation and can be utilized for developing miRNA-based therapeutic agents.

  1. Drosophila homologues of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and the formin diaphanous collaborate by a conserved mechanism to stimulate actin filament assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Richa; Stepanik, Vince; Rankova, Aneliya; Molinar, Olivia; Goode, Bruce L; McCartney, Brooke M

    2013-05-10

    Vertebrate APC collaborates with Dia through its Basic domain to assemble actin filaments. Despite limited sequence homology between the vertebrate and Drosophila APC Basic domains, Drosophila APC1 collaborates with Dia to stimulate actin assembly in vitro. The mechanism of actin assembly is highly conserved over evolution. APC-Dia collaborations may be crucial in a wide range of animal cells. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a large multidomain protein that regulates the cytoskeleton. Recently, it was shown that vertebrate APC through its Basic domain directly collaborates with the formin mDia1 to stimulate actin filament assembly in the presence of nucleation barriers. However, it has been unclear whether these activities extend to homologues of APC and Dia in other organisms. Drosophila APC and Dia are each required to promote actin furrow formation in the syncytial embryo, suggesting a potential collaboration in actin assembly, but low sequence homology between the Basic domains of Drosophila and vertebrate APC has left their functional and mechanistic parallels uncertain. To address this question, we purified Drosophila APC1 and Dia and determined their individual and combined effects on actin assembly using both bulk fluorescence assays and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Our data show that APC1, similar to its vertebrate homologue, bound to actin monomers and nucleated and bundled filaments. Further, Drosophila Dia nucleated actin assembly and protected growing filament barbed ends from capping protein. Drosophila APC1 and Dia directly interacted and collaborated to promote actin assembly in the combined presence of profilin and capping protein. Thus, despite limited sequence homology, Drosophila and vertebrate APCs exhibit highly related activities and mechanisms and directly collaborate with formins. These results suggest that APC-Dia interactions in actin assembly are conserved and may underlie important in vivo functions in a broad

  2. Copy number of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli gene is not always neutral in sporadic colorectal cancers with loss of heterozygosity for the gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauber, Peter; Marotta, Stephen; Sabbath-Solitare, Marlene

    2016-03-12

    Changes in the number of alleles of a chromosome may have an impact upon gene expression. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) indicates that one allele of a gene has been lost, and knowing the exact copy number of the gene would indicate whether duplication of the remaining allele has occurred. We were interested to determine the copy number of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) gene in sporadic colorectal cancers with LOH. We selected 38 carcinomas with LOH for the APC gene region of chromosome 5, as determined by amplification of the CA repeat region within the D5S346 loci. The copy number status of APC was ascertained using the SALSA® MLPA® P043-B1 APC Kit. LOH for the DCC gene, KRAS gene mutation, and microsatellite instability were also evaluated for each tumor, utilizing standard polymerase chain reaction methods. No tumor demonstrated microsatellite instability. LOH of the DCC gene was also present in 33 of 36 (91.7%) informative tumors. A KRAS gene mutation was present in 16 of the 38 (42.1%) tumors. Twenty-four (63.2%) of the tumors were copy number neutral, 10 (26.3%) tumors demonstrated major loss, while two (5.3%) showed partial loss. Two tumors (5.3%) had copy number gain. Results of APC and DCC LOH, KRAS and microsatellite instability indicate our colorectal cancer cases were typical of sporadic cancers following the 'chromosomal instability' pathway. The majority of our colorectal carcinomas with LOH for APC gene are copy number neutral. However, one-third of our cases showed copy number loss, suggesting that duplication of the remaining allele is not required for the development of a colorectal carcinoma.

  3. WNT Inhibitory Activity of Malus Pumila miller cv Annurca and Malus domestica cv Limoncella Apple Extracts on Human Colon-Rectal Cells Carrying Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Riccio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of the Wingless-related Integration site (WNT/β-catenin pathway have recently been under consideration as potential chemopreventive agents against Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP. This autosomal-dominant syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the gene coding for the protein APC and leads to hyperactivation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, uncontrolled intestinal cell proliferation and formation of adenocarcinomas. The aim of the present work was to: (i test, on in vitro cultures of cells carrying FAP mutations and on ex vivo biopsies of FAP patients, the WNT inhibitory activity of extracts from two common southern Italian apples, Malus pumila Miller cv. ‘Annurca’ and Malus domestica cv ‘Limoncella’; (ii identify the mechanisms underpinning their activities and; (iii evaluate their potency upon gastrointestinal digestion. We here show that both Annurca and Limoncella apple extracts act as WNT inhibitors, mostly thanks to their polyphenolic contents. They inhibit the pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations with active dilutions falling in ranges close to consumer-relevant concentrations. Food-grade manufacturing of apple extracts increases their WNT inhibitory activity as result of the conversion of quercetin glycosides into the aglycone quercetin, a potent WNT inhibitor absent in the fresh fruit extract. However, in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion severely affected WNT inhibitory activity of apple extracts, as result of a loss of polyphenols. In conclusion, our results show that apple extracts inhibit the WNT pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations and represent a potential nutraceutical alternative for the treatment of this pathology. Enteric coating is advisable to preserve the activity of the extracts in the colon-rectal section of the digestive tract.

  4. The impact of prostate artery embolization (PAE) on the the physical history and pathophysiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatiou, Konstantinos

    2018-03-31

    Prostate artery embolization (PAE) is a non invasive modality for the treatment of benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) related lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). As a relatively new procedure, data determining the clinical success is somehow scarce. In the present article we examine the current clinical outcome measures in order to identify the most accurate. Current imaging outcome measures are consistent with clinical ones only in the group of patients with adenomatous- dominant BPH while are inconsistent in patients with small sized adenomas. Additional studies and/or evaluation tools are needed in order to provide accurate evaluation of clinical success in the subgroup of patients with non- adenomatous-dominant BPH while they may inspire new options and novel techniques for both BPH treatment and treatment-follow up.

  5. The impact of alternate weekly collections on waste arisings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, I.D., E-mail: idw@soton.ac.uk [Waste Management Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd, Highfield, SOUTHAMPTON, Hampshire, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Cole, C. [Centre for Innovative and Collaborative Construction Engineering, School of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, Epinal Way, Loughborough, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Residual waste is commonly collected separately from recyclable and organic materials. Different forms of collection and disposal are used internationally since regional or municipal authorities have to adapt to their own circumstances. Many authorities have adopted an alternate weekly collection (AWC) of residual waste and recyclables to force/encourage householders to recycle; however, the degree to which they achieve waste reduction has yet to be reliably quantified. This study reports on how the introduction of AWCs affects household waste arisings. The paper evaluates single and dual stream collection methods and compares their performance with the previous system. Household waste collection trials were conducted between March and June 2009 in England (Lichfield). The trials examined changes to frequency of collection, type of container issued, amounts of sorting required of residents, household participation and productivity levels. A survey of households was completed before any changes were implemented. The quantity of recyclates collected was examined for 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. The study showed that the AWC scheme positively impacted on recycling rates and household behaviour, with no adverse impacts on public participation, household waste arisings or the local environment. No public health problems were reported. Both trials saw an increase in the quantities of recyclates collected per household during the trial period compared to the same period of time in the previous year. The dual stream performed better than the single stream, collecting an average of 5.94 kg/hh/week compared to an average of 5.63 kg/hh/week. The single stream system showed a greater increase in the weight of material collected (0.53 kg/hh/week vs. 0.48 kg/hh/week). Participation and set-out rates showed an increase during the trial period. The single stream option (comingled materials in one container) outperformed the dual stream service. The reduction in costs and improved

  6. Variational problems arising in classical mechanics and nonlinear elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis we consider two different classes of variational problems. First, one-dimensional problems arising from classical mechanics where the problem is to determine whether there is a unique function η 0 (x) which minimises the energy functional of the form I(η) = ∫ a b L(x,η(x), η'(x)) dx. We will investigate uniqueness by making a change of dependent and independent variables and showing that for a class of integrands L with a particular kind of scaling invariance the resulting integrand is completely convex. The change of variables arises by applying results from Lie group theory as applied in the study of differential equations and this work is motivated by [60] and [68]. Second, the problem of minimising energy functionals of the form E(u) = ∫ A W(∇u(x)) dx in the case of a nonlinear elastic body occupying an annular region A contains R 2 with u : A-bar → A-bar. This work is motivated by [57] (in particular the example of paragraph 4). We will consider rotationally symmetric deformations satisfying prescribed boundary conditions. We will show the existence of minimisers for stored energy functions of the form W(F) = g-tilde(vertical bar-F-vertical bar, det(F)) in a class of general rotationally symmetric deformations of a compressible annulus and for stored energy functions of the form W(F) = g-bar(vertical bar-F-vertical bar) in a class of rotationally symmetric deformations of an incompressible annulus. We will also show that in each case the minimisers are solutions of the full equilibrium equations. A model problem will be considered where the energy functional is the Dirichlet integral and it will be shown that the rotationally symmetric solution obtained is a minimiser among admissible non-rotationally symmetric deformations. In the case of an incompressible annulus, we will consider the Dirichlet integral as the energy functional and show that the rotationally symmetric equilibrium solutions in this case are weak local minimisers in

  7. The impact of alternate weekly collections on waste arisings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, I.D.; Cole, C.

    2013-01-01

    Residual waste is commonly collected separately from recyclable and organic materials. Different forms of collection and disposal are used internationally since regional or municipal authorities have to adapt to their own circumstances. Many authorities have adopted an alternate weekly collection (AWC) of residual waste and recyclables to force/encourage householders to recycle; however, the degree to which they achieve waste reduction has yet to be reliably quantified. This study reports on how the introduction of AWCs affects household waste arisings. The paper evaluates single and dual stream collection methods and compares their performance with the previous system. Household waste collection trials were conducted between March and June 2009 in England (Lichfield). The trials examined changes to frequency of collection, type of container issued, amounts of sorting required of residents, household participation and productivity levels. A survey of households was completed before any changes were implemented. The quantity of recyclates collected was examined for 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. The study showed that the AWC scheme positively impacted on recycling rates and household behaviour, with no adverse impacts on public participation, household waste arisings or the local environment. No public health problems were reported. Both trials saw an increase in the quantities of recyclates collected per household during the trial period compared to the same period of time in the previous year. The dual stream performed better than the single stream, collecting an average of 5.94 kg/hh/week compared to an average of 5.63 kg/hh/week. The single stream system showed a greater increase in the weight of material collected (0.53 kg/hh/week vs. 0.48 kg/hh/week). Participation and set-out rates showed an increase during the trial period. The single stream option (comingled materials in one container) outperformed the dual stream service. The reduction in costs and improved

  8. Nodular Epithelial Hyperplasia after Photorefractive Keratectomy Followed by Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking

    OpenAIRE

    Bogoni, Ayla; Salerno, Liberdade Cezaro; Ghanem, Vinícius Coral; Ghanem, Ramon Coral

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a case of nodular epithelial hyperplasia and stromal alterations in a patient with keratoconus who was submitted to topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) followed by corneal collagen cross-linking. Debridement of the epithelial nodule was performed. After a 2-year followup, a new topography-guided PRK was indicated.

  9. Changes in keratin expression during the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Y.; Smedts, F.; Umbas, R.; Aalders, T. W.; Debruyne, F. M.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Schalken, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between different types of epithelial cells in the prostate and the regulatory mechanism underlying benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are still obscure as is the association between BPH and prostate carcinoma (PCa.) On the basis of keratin immunophenotyping, a subpopulation of

  10. IL-17 suppresses immune effector functions in human papillomavirus-associated epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosmann, Christina; Mattarollo, Stephen R; Bridge, Jennifer A; Frazer, Ian H; Blumenthal, Antje

    2014-09-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) causes epithelial hyperplasia that can progress to cancer and is thought to depend on immunosuppressive mechanisms that prevent viral clearance by the host. IL-17 is a cytokine with diverse functions in host defense and in the pathology of autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammatory diseases, and cancer. We analyzed biopsies from patients with HPV-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 and murine skin displaying HPV16 E7 protein-induced epithelial hyperplasia, which closely models hyperplasia in chronic HPV lesions. Expression of IL-17 and IL-23, a major inducer of IL-17, was elevated in both human HPV-infected and murine E7-expressing lesions. Using a skin-grafting model, we demonstrated that IL-17 in HPV16 E7 transgenic skin grafts inhibited effective host immune responses against the graft. IL-17 was produced by CD3(+) T cells, predominantly CD4(+) T cells in human, and CD4(+) and γδ T cells in mouse hyperplastic lesions. IL-23 and IL-1β, but not IL-18, induced IL-17 production in E7 transgenic skin. Together, these findings demonstrate an immunosuppressive role for IL-17 in HPV-associated epithelial hyperplasia and suggest that blocking IL-17 in persistent viral infection may promote antiviral immunity and prevent progression to cancer. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. High prevalence of atypical hyperplasia in the endometrium of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingels, Marjanka J J M; Masadah, Rina; Geels, Yvette P; Otte-Höller, Irene; de Kievit, Ineke M; van der Laak, Jeroen A W M; van Ham, Maaike A P C; Bulten, Johan; Massuger, Leon F A G

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of endometrial premalignancies in women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Endometrial and ovarian specimens of 186 patients with EOC were retrospectively selected using the nationwide pathology network and registry, and sections were comprehensively reviewed: 136 (73%) serous, 19 (10%) endometrioid, 15 (8%) mucinous, seven (4%) clear cell, and nine (5%) undifferentiated. Immunohistochemical phenotypes were compared for patients with serous EOC with concurrent endometrial pathology. In 31%, endometrial (pre)malignancy was found: carcinoma in 3%, endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC) in 4%, and atypical hyperplasia in 24%. Atypical hyperplasia was found in 47% of endometrioid EOCs but in 7% to 33% of other subtypes. Body mass index was higher concurrent to atypical hyperplasia (P=.001). Serous EOC and EIC immunophenotypes were comparable, whereas atypical hyperplasia was expressed differently. Apart from synchronous endometrial carcinoma, endometrial premalignancies should be taken into account when determining optimal treatment for women diagnosed with EOC. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  12. Microbiota facilitates dietary heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia by breaking the mucus barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssennagger, Noortje; Belzer, Clara; Hooiveld, Guido; Dekker, Jan; Muller, Michael; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Meer, van der Roelof

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer risk is associated with diets high in red meat. Heme, the pigment of red meat, induces cytotoxicity of colonic contents and elicits epithelial damage and compensatory hyperproliferation, leading to hyperplasia. Here we explore the possible causal role of the gut microbiota in

  13. Unusually high incidence of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia in children of the Nahuatl population of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Montes, Constantino; Mendez-Mendoza, Amilcar

    2017-01-01

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia is an uncommon disease of the oral mucosa caused by the human papilloma virus. To study the clinical and pathological findings of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia detected during an oral examination of 343 Mexican Nahuatl children from a single primary school in El Paso de Cupilco, Mexico. A thorough oral examination was performed in all children and clinical data (age, gender, location and number of lesions) were documented and analyzed. Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia was diagnosed in 110 of the 343 children (32.3%). The ages of the children varied from 5 to 15 years, and of these, 56.3% were girls. The lesions were asymptomatic, 0.2 to 3.0 cm in diameter, soft, round to oval, smooth surfaced, sessile papulonodules, similar in colour to that of the surrounding mucosa. The lesions were commonly seen on the buccal mucosa and tongue, and most affected children (85%) had less than 5 lesions. Children in the 7 to 10 years age group were most often affected. Human papillomavirus typing was not done owing to a lack of facilities. There is a high incidence of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia in Nahuatl children with a predilection for females.

  14. Conjunctival reactive epithelial hyperplasia in a black African patient– a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedolapo Olaopa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive hyperplasia can occur in any part of the body but of concern is occurrence adjacent to certain neoplasm such as cutaneous fibrous histiocytoma, granular cell tumor, spitz nevus and melanoma. Ocular reactive epithelial hyperplasia is not as common as ocular reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. This is the first reported case in our environment. The patient was concerned about his cosmetic appearance, comments of friends and fear of eye problem in future. We report the case of a 32 year old patient with painless, progressive swelling of the conjunctiva following stone injury to the eye while on a bike 5 years earlier. A traumatic conjunctival cyst to rule out melanoma was the initial diagnosis. We therefore, managed the case by excision biopsy and histology report was in keeping with conjunctival reactive epithelial hyperplasia. One year after removal, he was free of any swelling and had no complaints. Conclusion: Excision biopsy is effective and it will assist in ruling out neoplasm and taking care of the patient’s cosmetic problem.

  15. Mandibular Movement Restoration in a Child with Bilateral Coronoid Hyperplasia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica Popovik Monevska

    2016-04-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The article presents a clinical and surgical case of bilateral coronoidectomy in a 3-year-old girl, with retrognathic mandible. The diagnosis of bilateral coronoid process hyperplasia was confirmed, and the surgical treatment was under general anesthesia, with nasotracheal intubation guided by a nasofiber endoscope, using an intraoral approach.

  16. [Rapidly-growing nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elıyatkin, Nuket; Karasu, Başak; Selek, Elif; Keçecı, Yavuz; Postaci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is a benign proliferative lesion of the mammary stroma that rarely presents as a localized mass. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is characterized by a dense, collagenous proliferation of the mammary stroma, associated with capillary-like spaces. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia can be mistaken with fibroadenoma on radiological examination or with low-grade angiosarcoma on histological examination. Its main importance is its distinction from angiosarcoma. The presented case was a 40-year-old woman who was admitted with a rapidly growing breast tumor. Physical examination revealed an elastic-firm, well-defined, mobile and painless mass in her right breast. Mammograms revealed a 6.7 x 3.7 cm, lobulated, well-circumscribed mass in her right breast but no calcification. Sonographic examination showed a well-defined and homogenous mass, not including any cyst. Based on these findings, a provisional diagnosis of fibroadenoma was made. Considering the rapid growth history of the mass, tumor excision was performed. The excised tumor was well demarcated and had a smooth external surface. Histological examination revealed the tumor to be composed of markedly increased fibrous stroma and scattered epithelial components (cystic dilatation of the ducts, blunt duct adenosis). The fibrous stroma contained numerous anastomosing slit-like spaces. Isolated spindle cells appeared intermittently at the margins of the spaces resembled endothelial cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the spindle cells were positive for CD34 and negative for Factor VIII-related antigen. The lesion was diagnosed as nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia.

  17. PTEN Sequence Analysis in Endometrial Hyperplasia and Endometrial Carcinoma in Slovak Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gbelcová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN is a protein that acts as a tumor suppressor by dephosphorylating the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. Loss of PTEN function has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of different tumors, particularly endometrial carcinoma (ECa. ECa is the most common neoplasia of the female genital tract. Our study evaluates an association between the morphological appearance of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma and the degree of PTEN alterations. A total of 45 endometrial biopsies from Slovak women were included in present study. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples with simple hyperplasia (3, complex hyperplasia (5, atypical complex hyperplasia (7, endometrioid carcinomas G1 (20 and G3 (5, and serous carcinoma (5 were evaluated for the presence of mutations in coding regions of PTEN gene, the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene in endometrial carcinoma. 75% of the detected mutations were clustered in exons 5 and 8. Out of the 39 mutations detected in 24 cases, 20 were frameshifts and 19 were nonsense, missense, or silent mutations. Some specimens harboured more than one mutation. The results of current study on Slovak women were compared to a previous study performed on Polish population. The two sets of results were similar.

  18. Usefulness of Technetium 99 m- Sestamibi (MIBI) scintigraphy in the detection of parathyroid adenoma and hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markarian, Maria F.; Yelin, Enrique G.; Aparicio, Rocio; Marino, Juan M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate parathyroid substration scintigraphy with Tc99m-pertechnetate-Tc99m-MIBI, for detection of parathyroid adenomas or hyperplasia in patients with hyperparathyroidism. Materials and methods: Thirty patients were studied by Tc99m-pertechnetate-Tc99m-MIBI scintigraphy, 24 with primary hyperparathyroidism, 2 with hypo echogenic nodular image behind the thyroid gland, 1 with bone fracture history, 1 with hypophosphataemia and 2 with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The initial image was made with pertechnetate, the next one and the late (2-3 hs) with Tc99m-MIBI, making digital substration with the first image. Six patients were excluded (difficult follow-up n=5, death n=1). Results: The final 24 patients series showed: 10 positive and 12 negative for adenomas; 1 positive and 1 negative for hyperplasia. The correlation between the scintigraphic study and the clinical, biochemical and anatomicopathological data, showed a high sensitivity (90%), and specificity (92%), for parathyroid adenomas and/or hyperplasia. Conclusions: The Tc99m-pertechnetate-Tc99m-MIBI shows high sensitivity and high specificity for the detection of adenomas and hyperplasia in patient with hyperparathyroidism. (author)

  19. Gastric hyperplasia in mice with targeted disruption of the carbonic anhydrase gene Car9

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortova-Gut, M.; Parkkila, S.; Vernerová, Z.; Rohde, E.; Závada, Jan; Hocker, M.; Pastorek, J.; Karttunen, T.; Gibadulinová, A.; Závadová, Zuzana; Knobeloch, K.-P.; Wiedernmann, B.; Svoboda, Jan; Horak, I.; Pastoreková, S.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 6 (2002), s. 1889-1903 ISSN 0016-5085 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV312/96/K205 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : mouse carbonic anhydrase Car9 * gastric hyperplasia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 13.440, year: 2002

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Vocal Folds in Women with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Virilized Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Ulrika; Isberg, Bengt; Arver, Stefan; Hertegård, Stellan; Södersten, Maria; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) may develop a virilized voice due to late diagnosis or suboptimal suppression of adrenal androgens. Changes in the vocal folds due to virilization have not been studied in vivo. The purpose was to investigate if the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle is affected by virilization and correlate…

  1. Immunohistochemical differentiation of atypical hyperplasia vs. carcinoma in situ of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, S; Sim, S J; Lu, L

    1992-01-01

    The distinction between atypical hyperplasia and carcinoma in situ in breast lesions can be difficult. The identification of myoepithelial cell layers may be helpful in establishing a diagnosis of proliferative breast disease vs. intraepithelial neoplasia. We reviewed pathologic material on 20 cases of atypical hyperplasia and 29 cases of carcinoma in situ. Immunohistochemical stains were employed against muscle-specific actin, S-100 protein, and cytokeratin to identify myoepithelial cells and to recognize different staining patterns. In atypical hyperplasia, muscle-specific actin staining identified myoepithelial cells in fine branching fibrovascular layers or as scattered cells between other proliferating cells. This pattern was absent in carcinoma in situ. S-100 protein showed more positive staining in atypical hyperplasia than in carcinoma in situ with patterns distinct from muscle-specific actin. Immunostaining for cytokeratin demonstrated distinctly different patterns between the two lesions. This study suggests that muscle-specific actin, S-100 protein, and cytokeratin in combination may assist in distinguishing proliferative breast disease with atypia from carcinoma in situ.

  2. Transurethral microwave thermotherapy: The gold standard for minimally invasive therapies for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Laguna, M. Pilar; Gravas, Stavros; de Wildt, Michel J. A. M.

    2003-01-01

    From all available minimally invasive methods for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) has gained a firm position as the most attractive option. Recent research has produced innovations in high-energy TUMT, including new

  3. Tamsulosin and Solifenacin in the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in combination with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Chang, Yanhua; Liang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the clinical effect of tamsulosin and Solifenacin in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in combination with overactive bladder and its safety. Another objective was to investigate the clinical effect and safety of mega dose of tamsulosin in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in combination with overactive bladder. One hundred and twenty-four patients who were admitted to the Dept. of Urology at Binzhou People's Hospital, , China with confirmed benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with overactive bladder were randomly divided into two groups. Sixty-two patients in the control group were treated with tamsulosin, while sixty-two patients in the observation group were treated with tamsulosin in combination with solifenacin. The treatment of both groups lasted for 12 weeks. The effect and adverse reaction were compared between the two groups. The international prostate symptom score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL), and overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS), Q max , pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), daytime urination frequency, urgent urination frequency, urge urinary incontinence frequency and night urinary frequency of both groups improved after treatment, and the difference had statistical significance (P0.05). Treating benign prostatic hyperplasia in combination with overactive bladder with tamsulosin in combination with solifenacin is more effective than tamsulosin, without significantly increasing adverse reactions. Thus the therapy is worth clinical promotion.

  4. Delta Cell Hyperplasia in Adult Goto-Kakizaki (GK/MolTac) Diabetic Rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alán, Lukáš; Olejár, Tomáš; Cahová, M.; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Berková, Z.; Smětáková, M.; Saudek, F.; Matěj, R.; Ježek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 2015 (2015), s. 385395 ISSN 2314-6745 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-06666S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Goto Kakizaki rats * diabetes * delta cell hyperplasia * somatostatin * pancreatic polypeptide deficiency Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.431, year: 2015

  5. Female-type fibrocystic disease with papillary hyperplasia in a male breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K E; Kazmi, S A; Jordan, L B

    2010-01-01

    Fibrocystic disease is a common benign finding in the female breast and often presents as a palpable mass. It is much less commonly found in the male breast. A case is reported of a young man with female-type fibrocystic disease associated with papillary hyperplasia in the right breast.

  6. The role of prostatic arterial embolization in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, S. M.; Scholtens, A. E.; Reekers, J. A.; Bipat, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to summarize the evidence on clinical outcomes and complications of prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We searched Medline and Embase for PAE trials of patients with BPH upto November 2013. Two reviewers independently

  7. High energy transurethral thermotherapy in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: criteria to predict treatment outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Ancona, F. C. H.; Francisca, E. A. E.; Hendriks, J. C. M.; Debruyne, F. M. J.; de la Rosette, J. J. M. C. H.

    1999-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the individual value of baseline parameters to predict the outcome of high energy transurethral microwave thermotherapy in the treatment of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Two hundred and forty-seven patients with symptomatic

  8. Characterization of breast precancerous lesions and myoepithelial hyperplasia in sclerosing adenosis with apocrine metaplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J.E.; Gromova, I.; Cabezón, T.

    2007-01-01

    ) with apocrine metaplasia. The latter is a benign proliferative lesion of the breast that exhibits an increase in the size of the TDLUs and characterized by retained two-cell lining, and myoepithelial (ME) and stromal hyperplasia. SA with apocrine metaplasia, i.e. apocrine adenosis (AA), presents with a higher...

  9. Augmentation of wall shear stress inhibits neointimal hyperplasia after stent implantation - Inhibition through reduction of inflammation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlier, SG; van Damme, LCA; Blommerde, CP; Wentzel, JJ; van Langehove, G; Verheye, S; Kockx, MM; Knaapen, MWM; Cheng, C; Gijsen, F; Duncker, DJ; Stergiopulos, N; Slager, CJ; Serruys, PW; Krams, R

    2003-01-01

    Background - Low wall shear stress (WSS) increases neointimal hyperplasia (NH) in vein grafts and stents. We studied the causal relationship between WSS and NH formation in stents by locally increasing WSS with a flow divider (Anti-Restenotic Diffuser, Endoart SA) placed in the center of the stent.

  10. Increased Antioxidant Quality Versus Lower Quantity Of High Density Lipoprotein In Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Ozgur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of every human disease. To understand its possible role in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, we measured the overall oxidative status of patients with BPH and the serum activity of the high density lipoprotein (HDL-related antioxidant enzymes paraoxonase 1 (PON1 and arylesterase (ARE.

  11. Regenerative nodular hyperplasia, portal vein thrombosis and primary myelofibrosis: an unusual triple association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sández Montagut, Víctor Manuel; Giráldez Gallego, Álvaro; Ontanilla Clavijo, Guilermo

    2018-03-01

    We report a case of a regenerative nodular hyperplasia with a portal vein cavernomatosis with a subsequent progression to symptomatic, occlusive thrombosis of the superior mesenteric vein. A thorough investigation resulted in a final diagnosis of primary myelofibrosis associated with the V617F mutation in the JAK2 gene.

  12. Ultrasound Findings of Lymphoid Hyperplasia of the Appendix in Children: Differentiation from Acute Appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Jae; Seo, Jung Wook; Lee, Byung Hoon

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the ultrasound (US) findings that can help differentiate lymphoid hyperplasia in the appendix from acute appendicitis. A total of 1230 patients (below 20 years old) suspected of having appendicitis received an appendectomy between November, 1999, and March, 2008, with US findings in 27 patients with pathologically proven lymphoid hyperplasia of the appendix. Of 167 patients that received an appendectomy from January, 2007, to December, 2007, 52 patients with acute appendicitis were retrospectively reviewed as a control group. Retrospective review of US images was performed by two radiologists who were blinded to the pathologic results. The review was based on 12 ultrasonographic criteria derived from reports on the diagnostic findings of the appendicitis. Compared with acute appendicitis, lymphoid hyperplasia in appendix had a smaller diameter (7.14±1.22 mm vs 9.37±1.80 mm, p < 0.001) and less wall thickening(1.38±0.36 mm vs 1.74 ± 0.56 mm, p =0.001). Periappendicular inflammation (p < 0.001), intraluminal air (p = 0.006), round shape in transverse scan (p = 0.002),increased blood flow on color Doppler US (p = 0.03) were also different. US is a useful modality to differentiate lymphoid hyperplasia in the appendix from acute appendicitis

  13. Long-term followup after electrocautery transurethral resection of the prostate for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, F.; Hossack, T. A.; Woo, H. H.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. For decades, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) has been the "gold standard" operation for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) but is based mainly on historic data. The historic data lacks use of validated measures and current TURP differs significantly from that performed

  14. Ultrasound Findings of Lymphoid Hyperplasia of the Appendix in Children: Differentiation from Acute Appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Jae; Seo, Jung Wook; Lee, Byung Hoon [Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Koyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To evaluate the ultrasound (US) findings that can help differentiate lymphoid hyperplasia in the appendix from acute appendicitis. A total of 1230 patients (below 20 years old) suspected of having appendicitis received an appendectomy between November, 1999, and March, 2008, with US findings in 27 patients with pathologically proven lymphoid hyperplasia of the appendix. Of 167 patients that received an appendectomy from January, 2007, to December, 2007, 52 patients with acute appendicitis were retrospectively reviewed as a control group. Retrospective review of US images was performed by two radiologists who were blinded to the pathologic results. The review was based on 12 ultrasonographic criteria derived from reports on the diagnostic findings of the appendicitis. Compared with acute appendicitis, lymphoid hyperplasia in appendix had a smaller diameter (7.14{+-}1.22 mm vs 9.37{+-}1.80 mm, p < 0.001) and less wall thickening(1.38{+-}0.36 mm vs 1.74 {+-} 0.56 mm, p =0.001). Periappendicular inflammation (p < 0.001), intraluminal air (p = 0.006), round shape in transverse scan (p = 0.002),increased blood flow on color Doppler US (p = 0.03) were also different. US is a useful modality to differentiate lymphoid hyperplasia in the appendix from acute appendicitis

  15. Part 1: MRI features of focal nodular hyperplasia with an emphasis on hepatobiliary contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, Tom; Seale, Melanie; Yap, Yap

    2014-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is the second most common benign liver tumour and typically do not require any treatment. An accurate non-invasive diagnosis is therefore vital to avoid unnecessary intervention and to reassure patients. This article discusses the demographics and pathology of FNH and reviews the appearance of FNH at MRI using liver-specific contrast agents.

  16. Problems arising in the evaluation of collective dose commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.; Beau, P.

    1979-01-01

    In order to apply the concept of optimization it is necessary to evaluate the collective dose commitment for the population as a whole. This is found by summing the dose commitments for the different population groups involved, including persons occupationally exposed and members of the public both locally and globally. The average dose received by each of these groups can vary considerably: for occupational exposure it is about one order of magnitude below the limits, whereas for the general public it is far below, although certain local groups may be subjected to a much higher exposure than the overall average. The question arises, therefore, whether certain groups should not be weighted differently in order to take into account the heterogeneity of the distribution of exposure. As far as the validity of forecast evaluations is concerned, one may assume that for occupational exposure the dose commitment over the whole period of operation of a facility can be estimated fairly accurately. The overall collective dose commitment for the public is relatively insensitive to local variations in the environment and in the public itself but is strongly dependent on long-term developments which cannot at present be forecast. For the evaluation of dose equivalent to the critical group, local variations are of considerable importance and need to be foreseen, which is not always possible. By taking into account a period which includes the annual maximum collective dose equivalent one can make some of these difficulties less severe. (author)

  17. Novel ethical dilemmas arising in geriatric clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-Sordo, Elisa Constanza; de Hoyos, Adalberto; Méndez-Jiménez, Jorge; Altamirano-Bustamante, Nelly F; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Valderrama, Alejandro; García-Peña, Carmen; Altamirano-Bustamante, Myriam M

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine empirically the state of the art of the medical care, when healthcare personal is confronted with ethical dilemmas related with the care they give to the geriatric population. An observational, longitudinal, prospective and qualitative study was conducted by analyzing the correlation between healthcare personnel-patient relationship, and ethical judgments regarding dilemmas that arise in daily clinical practice with geriatric patients. Mexican healthcare personnel with current active practices were asked to write up an ethical dilemma that arose frequently or that had impacted their medical practice. From the narrative input, we were able to draw up a database with 421 dilemmas, and those corresponding to patients 60 years and older were selected (n = 54, 12.8 %). The axiological analysis of the narrative dilemmas of geriatric patients was made using dialectical empiricism. The axiological analysis values found most frequently were classified into three groups: the impact of healthcare, the roles of the physician, and refusal of therapy; the healthcare role of educator, caring for the patients' life and the risk of imminent death where the values found more often. The persistence and universality of certain dilemmas in geriatrics calls for awareness and requires a good training in the ethical discernment of these dilemmas. This would help to improve substantially the care and the life quality of this population.

  18. Primary Extraskeletal Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma Arising from the Pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Bae Geun; Han, Yoon Hee; Lee, Byung Hoon; Kim, Su Young; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Seo, Jung Wook; Kim, Yong Hoon; Cha, Soon Joo; Hur, Gham; Joo, Mee [Inje University, School of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    The CT scans showed a heterogeneously enhancing necrotic mass with numerous areas of coarse calcification, and this was located in the left side of the retroperitoneal space and involved the body and tail of the pancreas. Portal venography via the celiac axis also showed invasion of the splenic vein. It represents approximately 1% of all chondrosarcomas and it carries a poor prognosis. It can occur in extraskeletal locations and mainly in the soft tissues of the orbit, the cranial and spinal meningeal coverings and the lower limbs. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no reported case of primary extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the pancreas. Only two instances of metastatic chondrosarcomas in the pancreas have been reported in the literature. We report here on a case of primary mesenchymal chondrosarcoma arising from the pancreas in a 41-year-old man. In summary, we present here a case of primary extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma that arose from the pancreas. Radiologically, it manifested as a necrotic soft tissue mass with chondroid calcifications.

  19. Giant lipoma arising from deep lobe of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Ying-Che

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipomas are common benign soft tissue neoplasms but they are found very rarely in the deep lobe of parotid gland. Surgical intervention in these tumors is challenging because of the proximity of the facial nerve, and thus knowledge of the anatomy and meticulous surgical technique are essential. Case presentation A 71-year-old female presented with a large asymptomatic mass, which had occupied the left facial area for over the past fifteen years, and she requested surgical excision for a cosmetically better facial appearance. The computed tomography (CT scan showed a well-defined giant lipoma arising from the left deep parotid gland. The lipoma was successfully enucleated after full exposure and mobilization of the overlying facial nerve branches. The surgical specimen measured 9 × 6 cm in size, and histopathology revealed fibrolipoma. The patient experienced an uneventful recovery, with a satisfying facial contour and intact facial nerve function. Conclusion Giant lipomas involving the deep parotid lobe are extremely rare. The high-resolution CT scan provides an accurate and cost-effective preoperative investigative method. Surgical management of deep lobe lipoma should be performed by experienced surgeons due to the need for meticulous dissection of the facial nerve branches. Superficial parotidectomy before deep lobe lipoma removal may be unnecessary in selected cases because preservation of the superficial lobe may contribute to a better aesthetic and functional result.

  20. Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Arising from Barrett's Epithelium in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Tu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Barrett's esophagus (BE in Eastern countries is rising to match the prevalence in the West. However, a corresponding trend of BE-associated adenocarcinoma has yet to be observed in Asia. Historically, adenocarcinoma complicating BE has been considered a rare event in Taiwan. In the present report, we collected three Taiwanese cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma arising from BE. The first case was a 37-year-old man with an advanced cancer that developed on pre-existing BE after a 3-year interval without endoscopic surveillance. The second case was a 63-year-old man who presented with odynophagia and was found to have an ulcerative tumor centered on the characteristic Barrett's mucosa. The final case was a 44-year-old man who presented with gradual-onset dysphagia and weight loss, without typical reflux symptom. Our report emphasizes the need for an updated epidemiologic study to determine the incidence of BE-associated adenocarcinoma in Taiwan.

  1. Exposures to asbestos arising from bandsawing gasket material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, D P

    2000-05-01

    A simulation of bandsawing sheet asbestos gasket material was performed as part of a retrospective exposure evaluation undertaken to assist in determining causation of a case of mesothelioma. The work was performed by bandsawing a chrysotile asbestos (80%)/neoprene gasket sheet with a conventional 16-inch woodworking bandsaw inside a chamber. Measurements of airborne asbestos were made using conventional area and personal sampling methods, with analysis of collected samples by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and phase contrast microscopy (PCM). These were supplemented by qualitative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations of some of the airborne particles collected on the filters. In contrast with findings from studies examining manual handling (installation and removal) of gaskets, airborne asbestos concentrations from this operation were found to be well above current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) (eight-hour time-weighted average [TWA]) and excursion limit (30-minute) standards. Although some "encapsulation" effect of the neoprene matrix was seen on the particles in the airborne dust, unencapsulated individual fiber bundles were also seen. Suggestions for the implications of the work are given. In summary, the airborne asbestos concentrations arising from this work were quite high, and point to the need for careful observation of common sense precautions when manipulation of asbestos-containing materials (even those believed to have limited emissions potential) may involved machining operations.

  2. Risk analysis for renewable energy projects due to constraints arising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostean, G.; Vasar, C.; Prostean, O.; Vartosu, A.

    2016-02-01

    Starting from the target of the European Union (EU) to use renewable energy in the area that aims a binding target of 20% renewable energy in final energy consumption by 2020, this article illustrates the identification of risks for implementation of wind energy projects in Romania, which could lead to complex technical implications, social and administrative. In specific projects analyzed in this paper were identified critical bottlenecks in the future wind power supply chain and reasonable time periods that may arise. Renewable energy technologies have to face a number of constraints that delayed scaling-up their production process, their transport process, the equipment reliability, etc. so implementing these types of projects requiring complex specialized team, the coordination of which also involve specific risks. The research team applied an analytical risk approach to identify major risks encountered within a wind farm project developed in Romania in isolated regions with different particularities, configured for different geographical areas (hill and mountain locations in Romania). Identification of major risks was based on the conceptual model set up for the entire project implementation process. Throughout this conceptual model there were identified specific constraints of such process. Integration risks were examined by an empirical study based on the method HAZOP (Hazard and Operability). The discussion describes the analysis of our results implementation context of renewable energy projects in Romania and creates a framework for assessing energy supply to any entity from renewable sources.

  3. Malignant tumors arising in the maxillary region after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Sawamichi; Shirahata, Yuichi; Uchida, Yutaka

    1984-01-01

    Although radiotherapy has proven of great therapeutic value in the treatment of malignant tumors, it should also be borne in mind that radiation has a serious potential risk of giving rise to a secondary malignancy. We recently experienced 2 cases each of carcinoma and sarcoma arising in the irradiated areas long after radiation therapy for malignant tumors. In these 4 cases, 2 males and 2 females, the primary neoplastic diseases were squamous cell carcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma, carcinoma of unknown pathology and malignant lymphoma, and the secondary tumors were epidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma, respectively. The sites of occurrence of these malignancies were invariably in the maxillary region; the mean latent period was 15 years, aside from an infantile case with a latent period of 5 years. In view of the primary diseases being malignant tumors the following criteria were set up for the diagnosis of radiation-induced malignancies: (1) the site of occurrence is within the confines of a previously irradiated area, (2) the latent period is prolonged and (3) the malignancy occurs as a double tumor. Therapy was primarily by operation. The prognosis was exceedingly ominous, the average survival time being 22 months. This was probably and mainly because of rapidity of tumor growth. Thus, the secondary tumors had already spread back to inward by the time they were first discovered. This should be kept in mind during a long-term follow-up of patients receiving radiotherapy for malignancy. (author)

  4. Metaplastic Carcinoma with Chondroid Differentiation Arising in Microglandular Adenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga-Eon Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Microglandular adenosis (MGA of the breast is a rare, benign proliferative lesion but with a significant rate of associated carcinoma. Herein, we report an unusual case of metaplastic carcinoma with chondroid differentiation associated with typical MGA. Histologically, MGA showed a direct transition to metaplastic carcinoma without an intervening atypical MGA or ductal carcinoma in situ component. The immunohistochemical profile of the metaplastic carcinoma was mostly similar to that of MGA. In both areas, all the epithelial cells were positive for S-100 protein, but negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2/neu, and epidermal growth factor receptor. An increase in the Ki-67 and p53 labelling index was observed from MGA to invasive carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of metaplastic carcinoma with chondroid differentiation arising in MGA in Korea. This case supports the hypothesis that a subset of MGA may be a non-obligate morphologic precursor of breast carcinoma, especially the triple-negative subtype.

  5. Obesity, the endocannabinoid system, and bias arising from pharmaceutical sponsorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, John M

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that academic physicians conflicted by funding from the pharmaceutical industry have corrupted evidence based medicine and helped enlarge the market for drugs. Physicians made pharmaceutical-friendly statements, engaged in disease mongering, and signed biased review articles ghost-authored by corporate employees. This paper tested the hypothesis that bias affects review articles regarding rimonabant, an anti-obesity drug that blocks the central cannabinoid receptor. A MEDLINE search was performed for rimonabant review articles, limited to articles authored by USA physicians who served as consultants for the company that manufactures rimonabant. Extracted articles were examined for industry-friendly bias, identified by three methods: analysis with a validated instrument for monitoring bias in continuing medical education (CME); analysis for bias defined as statements that ran contrary to external evidence; and a tally of misrepresentations about the endocannabinoid system. Eight review articles were identified, but only three disclosed authors' financial conflicts of interest, despite easily accessible information to the contrary. The Takhar CME bias instrument demonstrated statistically significant bias in all the review articles. Biased statements that were nearly identical reappeared in the articles, including disease mongering, exaggerating rimonabant's efficacy and safety, lack of criticisms regarding rimonabant clinical trials, and speculations about surrogate markers stated as facts. Distinctive and identical misrepresentations regarding the endocannabinoid system also reappeared in articles by different authors. The findings are characteristic of bias that arises from financial conflicts of interest, and suggestive of ghostwriting by a common author. Resolutions for this scenario are proposed.

  6. Sound radiation quantities arising from a resilient circular radiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Ronald M; Janssen, Augustus J E M

    2009-10-01

    Power series expansions in ka are derived for the pressure at the edge of a radiator, the reaction force on the radiator, and the total radiated power arising from a harmonically excited, resilient, flat, circular radiator of radius a in an infinite baffle. The velocity profiles on the radiator are either Stenzel functions (1-(sigma/a)2)n, with sigma the radial coordinate on the radiator, or linear combinations of Zernike functions Pn(2(sigma/a)2-1), with Pn the Legendre polynomial of degree n. Both sets of functions give rise, via King's integral for the pressure, to integrals for the quantities of interest involving the product of two Bessel functions. These integrals have a power series expansion and allow an expression in terms of Bessel functions of the first kind and Struve functions. Consequently, many of the results in [M. Greenspan, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 65, 608-621 (1979)] are generalized and treated in a unified manner. A foreseen application is for loudspeakers. The relation between the radiated power in the near-field on one hand and in the far field on the other is highlighted.

  7. Management of mastitis and abscessation of mammary glands secondary to fibroadenomatous hyperplasia in a primiparturient cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, Uri

    2010-02-01

    A 1-year-old sexually intact female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of an 8-week history of pronounced mammary gland hyperplasia that had progressed to mastitis and abscessation of the mammary glands since parturition 7 days earlier. The cat was anorectic, was febrile, and had signs of discomfort. Its kittens were weak and appeared to have difficulty nursing. Physical examination revealed pyrexia, mastitis with abscessation in the 6 caudal mammary glands, skin ulceration over the nipples, and areas of skin necrosis over the abscessed mammary glands. A CBC revealed nonregenerative anemia and leukocytosis with a left shift (2.160 x 10(9) band cells/L) and toxic changes. Mastitis and incipient septicemia were considered the most likely causes. The history of mammary gland hyperplasia since the second week of pregnancy suggested a diagnosis of fibroadenomatous hyperplasia that predisposed the cat to subsequent mastitis. Surgical drainage of the abscessed mammary glands, debridement of necrotic skin, and placement of a Penrose drain resulted in rapid improvement in clinical status. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial treatment (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid) was prescribed, and the cat was discharged from the hospital. Mastitis and fibroadenomatous mammary gland hyperplasia resolved rapidly afterward. Management of abscessed mammary glands through surgical drainage and drain placement is an option for treatment of cats with complications of fibroadenomatous hyperplasia. In the cat of this report, the treatment approach resulted in rapid resolution of mastitis, was less invasive than mastectomy, and avoided the potential complications of treatment with a progesterone-receptor antagonist.

  8. Pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia; Tratamiento farmacologico en la hiperplasia prostatica benigna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Guerra, Yohani; Molina Cuevas, Vivian; Oyarzabal Yera, Ambar; Mas Ferreiro, Rosa, E-mail: yohani.perez@cnic.edu.c [Centro de Productos Naturales, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas (CNIC), La Habana (Cuba)

    2011-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease in over 50 years-old men consisting in uncontrolled and benign growth of prostatic gland that leads to lower urinary tract symptoms. The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia is multifactoral involving the increased conversion of testosterone in dihydrotestosterone by the prostatic 5{alpha}-reductase action, which brought about events that encourage the prostate growth (static component) and the increase of the bladder and prostate smooth muscle tone (dynamic component) regulated by the a{alpha}{sub 1} -adrenoceptors (ADR). The pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia includes the prostatic 5a{alpha}-reductase inhibitors, the a{alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoreceptor blockers, their combined therapy and the phytotherapy. This paper was aimed at presenting the most relevant aspects of the pharmacology of drugs used for treating the benign prostatic hyperplasia, and providing elements to analyze their efficacy, safety and tolerability. To this end, a review was made of the different drugs for the treatment of this pathology and they were grouped according to their mechanism of action. Natural products were included as lipid extracts from Serenoa repens and Pygeum africanum as well as D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, with proved beneficial effects on the main etiological factors of benign prostatic hyperplasia. D-004 is a prostatic 5a-reductase inhibitor, an a{alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptor antagonist, a{alpha} 5-lipooxygenase inhibitor and has antioxidant action, all of which reveals a multifactoral mechanism. The results achieved till now indicate that D-004 is a safe and well-tolerated product

  9. Comparison of the clinical parameters of benign prostate hyperplasia in diabetic and non diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Ozcan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We evaluated the correlation between benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH measures and diabetes mellitus in men with benign prostate hyperplasia in a prospective study. Materials and methods: Between 2008-2012, 100 diabetic and 200 non diabetic patients undergoing surgery due to benign prostate hyperplasia were enrolled in the study. The parameters evaluated for each patients included prostate volume, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, total testosterone, total prostatic specific antigen (T-PSA, triglicerides, total cholesterol and body mass index (BMI. A questionnaire including international prostate symptom score (IPSS was sdministered and uroflow test measuring the peak urinary flow rate was performed to appreciate the complaints of the patients objectively. Results: Diabetic patients are more likely to have larger prostate volume. The symptom score evaluated by IPSS and post micturition residual volume were also significantly higher in diabetic groups. The other statistically significant different parameter between two groups was total testosterone that diabetic patients tend to have lower levels. Diabetic counterparts were established to have higher BMI. No statistically significant differentiation was observed about trigliceryde and total cholesterol levels and uroflow rates. Conclusions: Our study suggests a positive correlation between high prostate volume and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. We also observed a positive correlation between symptom scores and post micturion residual volumes and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus suggesting that the presence of diabetes is related to both static and dynamic components of benign prostate hyperplasia. Additionally testosterone levels were lower in diabetic patients. Further studies need to confirm these relationship in a larger population.

  10. Analysis of methylation profiling data of hyperplasia and primary and metastatic endometrial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xihai; Miao, Jilan; Jiang, Jingyan; Liu, Fangmei

    2017-10-01

    Endometrial cancer is a prevalent cancer, and its metastasis causes low survival rate. This study aims to utilize DNA methylation data to investigate the mechanism of the development and metastasis of endometrial cancer. Methylation profiling data were down-loaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, including 8 hyperplasias, 33 primary and 53 metastatic endometrial cancers. COHCAP package and annotation files were utilized to identify differentially methylated genes (DMGs) and CpG islands between the three different endometrial diseases. STRING database and Cytoscape were used to analyze and visualize protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between DMGs. CytoNCA plugin was utilized to identify key nodes in PPI network. A total of 610, 1076, and 501 DMGs were identified between primary endometrial cancer and hyperplasia, metastatic endometrial cancer and hyperplasia, as well as metastatic and primary endometrial cancers, respectively. For the three DMG sets, 53 common hypermethylated DMGs (e.g. PAX6 and INSR) and 6 common hypomethylated DMGs (e.g. PRDM8, KLHL14, and DUSP6) were found. For primary-hyperplasia DMG set and metastasis-hyperplasia DMG set, 527 common DMGs were found. For these common DMGs, a PPI network involving 692 PPIs was constructed. For DMGs between metastatic and primary endometrial cancers, a PPI network involving 673 PPIs was established, with PAX6 and INSR in the top 20 DMGs in both networks. PRDM8, KLHL14, and DUSP6 had hypomethylated CpG islands. DMGs comparison, PPI network analysis, and analysis of differentially methylated CpG islands indicated that PAX6, INSR, PRDM8, KLHL14, and DUSP6 might participate in the development and metastasis of endometrial cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Changes in initial expenditures for benign prostatic hyperplasia evaluation in the Medicare population: a comparison to overall Medicare inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, Adam S; Elliott, Sean P; Yang, Liu; Wei, John T; Saigal, Christopher S; Smith, Alexandria; Wilt, Timothy J; Strope, Seth A

    2012-05-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia creates significant expenses for the Medicare program. We determined expenditure trends for benign prostatic hyperplasia evaluative testing after urologist consultation and placed these trends in the context of overall Medicare expenditures. Using a 5% national sample of Medicare beneficiaries from 2000 to 2007 we developed a cohort of 40,253 with claims for new visits to urologists for diagnoses consistent with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. We assessed trends in initial inflation and geography adjusted expenditures within 12 months of diagnosis by evaluative test categories derived from the 2003 American Urological Association guideline on the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Using governmental reports on Medicare expenditure trends for benign prostatic hyperplasia we compared expenditures to overall and imaging specific Medicare expenditures. Comparisons were assessed by the Z-test and regression analysis for linear trends, as appropriate. Between 2000 and 2007 inflation adjusted total Medicare expenditures per patient for the initial evaluation of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia seen by urologists increased from $255.44 to $343.98 (p inflation adjusted expenditures increased for benign prostatic hyperplasia related evaluations. This growth was slower than the overall growth in Medicare expenditures. The increase in BPH related imaging expenditures was restrained compared to that of the Medicare program as a whole. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ovarian carcinoma in a 14-year-old with classical salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia and bilateral adrenalectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Christian; Khattab, Ahmed; Katzman, Philip; Bruckner, Lauren; Andolina, Jeffrey; New, Maria; Yau, Mabel

    2015-05-01

    A 14-year-old female with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia because of 21-hydroxylase deficiency underwent bilateral adrenalectomy at 6 years of age as a result of poor hormonal control. Because the patient was adrenalectomized, extra adrenal androgen production was suspected. Imaging studies including pelvic ultrasound and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained to evaluate for adrenal rest tumors of the ovaries. Abdominal MRI was obtained to evaluate for residual adrenal tissue. A cystic lesion arising from her right ovary suspicious for ovarian neoplasm was noted on pelvic MRI. Right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and histopathological examination revealed ovarian serous adenocarcinoma, low-grade, and well-differentiated. Tumor marker CA-125 was elevated and additional ovarian cancer staging workup confirmed stage IIIC due to one lymph node positive for carcinoma. The patient then developed a large left ovarian cyst, which led to a complete total abdominal hysterectomy and removal of the left ovary and fallopian tube. Pathology confirmed ovarian serous adenocarcinoma with microscopic focus of carcinoma in the left ovary. After numerous complications, the patient responded well to chemotherapy, CA-125 levels fell and no evidence of carcinoma was observed on subsequent imaging. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an ovarian serous adenocarcinoma in a patient with CAH. Although rare, we propose that the ovaries were the origin of androgen production and not residual adrenal tissue. The relationship between CAH and ovarian carcinomas has yet to be established, but further evaluation is needed given the poor survival rate of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

  13. High-grade serous carcinomas arise in the mouse oviduct via defects linked to the human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yali; Wu, Rong; Kuick, Rork; Sessine, Michael S; Schulman, Stephanie; Green, Megan; Fearon, Eric R; Cho, Kathleen R

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the most common and lethal type of 'ovarian' cancer, i.e. high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), usually arises from epithelium on the fallopian tube fimbriae, and not from the ovarian surface epithelium. We have developed Ovgp1-iCreER T2 mice in which the Ovgp1 promoter controls expression of tamoxifen-regulated Cre recombinase in oviductal epithelium - the murine equivalent of human fallopian tube epithelium (FTE). We employed Ovgp1-iCreER T2 mice to show that FTE-specific inactivation of several different combinations of tumour suppressor genes that are recurrently mutated in human HGSCs - namely Brca1, Trp53, Rb1, and Nf1 - results in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) that progress to HGSC or carcinosarcoma, and to widespread metastatic disease in a subset of mice. The cancer phenotype is highly penetrant and more rapid in mice carrying engineered alleles of all four tumour suppressor genes. Brca1, Trp53 and Pten inactivation in the oviduct also results in STICs and HGSCs, and is associated with diffuse epithelial hyperplasia and mucinous metaplasia, which are not observed in mice with intact Pten. Oviductal tumours arise earlier in these mice than in those with Brca1, Trp53, Rb1 and Nf1 inactivation. Tumour initiation and/or progression in mice lacking conditional Pten alleles probably require the acquisition of additional defects, a notion supported by our identification of loss of the wild-type Rb1 allele in the tumours of mice carrying only one floxed Rb1 allele. Collectively, the models closely recapitulate the heterogeneity and histological, genetic and biological features of human HGSC. These models should prove useful for studying the pathobiology and genetics of HGSC in vivo, and for testing new approaches for prevention, early detection, and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of

  14. Sewage sludge - arisings, composition, disposal capacities; Klaerschlamm - Mengen, Zusammensetzung, Entsorgungskapazitaeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulstich, M.; Rabus, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft; Urban, A.I.; Friedel, M. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfalltechnik

    1998-09-01

    One of the main disposal paths for sewage sludge in the past was landfilling. This option was severely restricted by the issue of the Technical Code on Household Waste in 1993. In its agricultural applications sewage sludge serves as a fertiliser and a soil improvement agent. Estimates on potential thermal treatment capacities have shown that there are enough public power plants to accommodate and provide thermal treatment for the total of sewage sludge arisings in Germany. As can be seen from the estimates presented in this paper, it would not even be necessary to restrict oneself to public power plant capacities. The paper points out possibilities of using plant capacities already existing in industrial firing plants and certain production sectors. It uses a comparison to show that sewage sludge would have to be dried in order to permit its thermal treatment in these private facilities. Aside from this, there are a number of new techniques entering the market which from the technical viewpoint also appear to be well suited for thermal sewage sludge treatment. [Deutsch] Ein wesentlicher Entsorgungsweg von Klaerschlamm war in der Vergangenheit die Verbringung auf eine Deponie. Diese Moeglichkeit ist durch die TA Siedlungsabfall von 1993 stark eingeschraenkt. Bei der landwirtschaftlichen Verwertung wird durch den Klaerschlamm eine Duengewirkung sowie eine Bodenverbesserung erreicht. Eine Abschaetzung der potentiellen thermischen Behandlungskapazitaeten zeigt, dass die gesamte bundesdeutsche Klaerschlammenge in oeffentlichen Kraftwerken unterzubringen und thermisch zu behandeln waere. Wie die hier dargestellten Abschaetzungen gezeigt haben, ist man durchaus nicht allein auf die Nutzung oeffentlicher Kraftwerkskapazitaeten angewiesen. Es wurden Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung vorhandener Anlagenkapazitaeten in industriellen Feuerungsanlagen und in Produktionsbereichen aufgezeigt. Wie aus einem Vergleich erkennbar wird, ist allerdings eine Trocknung der Klaerschlaemme

  15. Fast multipole preconditioners for sparse matrices arising from elliptic equations

    KAUST Repository

    Ibeid, Huda

    2017-11-09

    Among optimal hierarchical algorithms for the computational solution of elliptic problems, the fast multipole method (FMM) stands out for its adaptability to emerging architectures, having high arithmetic intensity, tunable accuracy, and relaxable global synchronization requirements. We demonstrate that, beyond its traditional use as a solver in problems for which explicit free-space kernel representations are available, the FMM has applicability as a preconditioner in finite domain elliptic boundary value problems, by equipping it with boundary integral capability for satisfying conditions at finite boundaries and by wrapping it in a Krylov method for extensibility to more general operators. Here, we do not discuss the well developed applications of FMM to implement matrix-vector multiplications within Krylov solvers of boundary element methods. Instead, we propose using FMM for the volume-to-volume contribution of inhomogeneous Poisson-like problems, where the boundary integral is a small part of the overall computation. Our method may be used to precondition sparse matrices arising from finite difference/element discretizations, and can handle a broader range of scientific applications. It is capable of algebraic convergence rates down to the truncation error of the discretized PDE comparable to those of multigrid methods, and it offers potentially superior multicore and distributed memory scalability properties on commodity architecture supercomputers. Compared with other methods exploiting the low-rank character of off-diagonal blocks of the dense resolvent operator, FMM-preconditioned Krylov iteration may reduce the amount of communication because it is matrix-free and exploits the tree structure of FMM. We describe our tests in reproducible detail with freely available codes and outline directions for further extensibility.

  16. Qualia could arise from information processing in local cortical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpwood, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Re-entrant feedback, either within sensory cortex or arising from prefrontal areas, has been strongly linked to the emergence of consciousness, both in theoretical and experimental work. This idea, together with evidence for local micro-consciousness, suggests the generation of qualia could in some way result from local network activity under re-entrant activation. This paper explores the possibility by examining the processing of information by local cortical networks. It highlights the difference between the information structure (how the information is physically embodied), and the information message (what the information is about). It focuses on the network's ability to recognize information structures amongst its inputs under conditions of extensive local feedback, and to then assign information messages to those structures. It is shown that if the re-entrant feedback enables the network to achieve an attractor state, then the message assigned in any given pass of information through the network is a representation of the message assigned in the previous pass-through of information. Based on this ability the paper argues that as information is repeatedly cycled through the network, the information message that is assigned evolves from a recognition of what the input structure is, to what it is like, to how it appears, to how it seems. It could enable individual networks to be the site of qualia generation. The paper goes on to show networks in cortical layers 2/3 and 5a have the connectivity required for the behavior proposed, and reviews some evidence for a link between such local cortical cyclic activity and conscious percepts. It concludes with some predictions based on the theory discussed.

  17. Obesity, the endocannabinoid system, and bias arising from pharmaceutical sponsorship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M McPartland

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that academic physicians conflicted by funding from the pharmaceutical industry have corrupted evidence based medicine and helped enlarge the market for drugs. Physicians made pharmaceutical-friendly statements, engaged in disease mongering, and signed biased review articles ghost-authored by corporate employees. This paper tested the hypothesis that bias affects review articles regarding rimonabant, an anti-obesity drug that blocks the central cannabinoid receptor.A MEDLINE search was performed for rimonabant review articles, limited to articles authored by USA physicians who served as consultants for the company that manufactures rimonabant. Extracted articles were examined for industry-friendly bias, identified by three methods: analysis with a validated instrument for monitoring bias in continuing medical education (CME; analysis for bias defined as statements that ran contrary to external evidence; and a tally of misrepresentations about the endocannabinoid system. Eight review articles were identified, but only three disclosed authors' financial conflicts of interest, despite easily accessible information to the contrary. The Takhar CME bias instrument demonstrated statistically significant bias in all the review articles. Biased statements that were nearly identical reappeared in the articles, including disease mongering, exaggerating rimonabant's efficacy and safety, lack of criticisms regarding rimonabant clinical trials, and speculations about surrogate markers stated as facts. Distinctive and identical misrepresentations regarding the endocannabinoid system also reappeared in articles by different authors.The findings are characteristic of bias that arises from financial conflicts of interest, and suggestive of ghostwriting by a common author. Resolutions for this scenario are proposed.

  18. Fast multipole preconditioners for sparse matrices arising from elliptic equations

    KAUST Repository

    Ibeid, Huda; Yokota, Rio; Pestana, Jennifer; Keyes, David E.

    2017-01-01

    Among optimal hierarchical algorithms for the computational solution of elliptic problems, the fast multipole method (FMM) stands out for its adaptability to emerging architectures, having high arithmetic intensity, tunable accuracy, and relaxable global synchronization requirements. We demonstrate that, beyond its traditional use as a solver in problems for which explicit free-space kernel representations are available, the FMM has applicability as a preconditioner in finite domain elliptic boundary value problems, by equipping it with boundary integral capability for satisfying conditions at finite boundaries and by wrapping it in a Krylov method for extensibility to more general operators. Here, we do not discuss the well developed applications of FMM to implement matrix-vector multiplications within Krylov solvers of boundary element methods. Instead, we propose using FMM for the volume-to-volume contribution of inhomogeneous Poisson-like problems, where the boundary integral is a small part of the overall computation. Our method may be used to precondition sparse matrices arising from finite difference/element discretizations, and can handle a broader range of scientific applications. It is capable of algebraic convergence rates down to the truncation error of the discretized PDE comparable to those of multigrid methods, and it offers potentially superior multicore and distributed memory scalability properties on commodity architecture supercomputers. Compared with other methods exploiting the low-rank character of off-diagonal blocks of the dense resolvent operator, FMM-preconditioned Krylov iteration may reduce the amount of communication because it is matrix-free and exploits the tree structure of FMM. We describe our tests in reproducible detail with freely available codes and outline directions for further extensibility.

  19. Calculation of forces arising from impacting projectiles upon yielding structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drittler, K.; Gruner, P.; Krivy, J.

    1977-01-01

    Calculations concerning the impact of airplanes upon nuclear power plant buildings usually imply that the building 'acts' as a rigid target. This assumption is justified for considerations concerning the structural integrity of the building being hit. However, for investigating induced vibrations of components within the structure, this approach might -in general- be too conservative. It is expected, that yielding of the structure during impact reduces the peak values of the loads and changes the temporal behavior of the load function which is obtained for a rigid target. To calculate the changes of the load function which are due to deformations of the structure, Riera's method is extended for the case of a yielding target. In view of the applications of the calculations to the impact of airplanes upon buildings which are constructed to withstand loads of this kind without serious damage and without large deformations, it is possible to simplify the calculations to some extent. That is, the investigations need not take into account in detail the behavior of the target during impact. The calculations are performed with a one-dimensional model for the projectile. The direction of impact is perpendicular to the target surface; direction of impact and projectile axis coincide. The calculations were performed for several initial velocities of the projectiles simulating a fast flying military airplane. Variations of the peak values of the load functions as compared to corresponding values for a rigid target do not exceed about 10%. The overall temporal behavior of the load curves turns out to be not very sensitive to the yielding of the target, though, in some cases displacements in time of the peak positions within a single load curve do arise

  20. Budd-Chiari syndrome and secondary nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver. Case report with special reference to diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutze, A.; Rueckert, R.; Rudolph, B.; Paris, S.; Podrabski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Nodular regenerative hyperplasia is a benign epithelial proliferation of the liver with unknown etiology. We observed a female patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome and secondary nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver over a period of five years. Patient history, diagnostic imaging (sonography, CT, MR imaging, angiography), and clinical course are demonstrated along with results of macroscopic and microscopic studies of explanted liver prior to liver transplantation. The patient presented with various predisposing factors in combination that favour the development of nodular regenerative hyperplasia. (orig.) [de