Sample records for adenoma sweat gland

  1. Ceruminous gland adenoma

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    Himanshu Varshney


    Full Text Available Ceruminous adenoma is a rare neoplasm of the external auditory meatus (EAM with benign clinical behavior. They demonstrate a dual cell population of basal myoepithelial-type cells and luminal ceruminous cells. Cerumen pigment, cytokeratin 7 (CK7 and p63 can help to distinguish this tumor from other neoplasms that occur in the region. Complete surgical excision results in an excellent long-term clinical outcome. We present a case of histologically confirmed ceruminous adenoma of the EAM in a surgically treated 38-year-old female. She presented with recurrent serosanguineous discharge along with flakes from the right ear along with hearing impairment. She is doing well in last 8 months follow-up.

  2. Retroauricular Pleomorphic Adenoma Arising from Heterotopic Salivary Gland Tissue (United States)

    Bacaj, Patrick; Borah, Gregory


    Summary: A 38-year-old woman is described who presented with a slowly growing mass on the posterior aspect of the left ear. Excision and histopathologic evaluation revealed a pleomorphic adenoma (PA) originating from heterotopic salivary gland tissue. Many authors have presented cases of PAs originating from ceruminous glands in the external auditory canal or of so-called chondroid syringoma originating from apocrine and eccrine sweat glands. This is the only case in the recent literature of a PA originating from a heterotopic rest of salivary gland tissue in the retroauricular region. The 3 main sources of PAs, their embryologic derivation, and treatment are described.

  3. Lacrimal Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma and Carcinoma ex Pleomorphic Adenoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah L; Fehr, André; Persson, Marta;


    To study genetic alterations in lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca-ex-PA) with focus on copy number changes and expression patterns of the translocation target genes PLAG1, HMGA2, and CRTC1-MAML2 in relation to clinical data....

  4. Orbital Lymphoma Mimicking Lacrimal Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma

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    Diego Strianese


    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the case of a patient affected by orbital lymphoma mimicking pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. Methods: This was a retrospective case report. Results: We present the case of a patient with 15-year history of slowly progressive left proptosis and inferomedial bulbar dislocation who had the presumptive diagnosis of lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma based on clinical and radiological features. The patient underwent lateral orbitotomy and lacrimal gland excision. Postoperative histological features were consistent with low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Conclusion: The accepted clinico-radiological criteria used for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland fossa lesions might have a certain false-positive rate, even in recent years. The initial surgical approach with the appropriate choice between fine-needle aspiration biopsies, intraoperative biopsies and lacrimal gland excisions might be a challenge.

  5. Morphological and distribution characteristics of sweat glands in hypertrophic scar and their possible effects on sweat gland regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xiao-bing; SUN Tong-zhu; LI Xiao-kun; SHENG Zhi-yong


    Background In hypertrophic scar tissue, no sweet gland and hair follicle exist usually because of the dermal and epidermal damage in extensive thermal skin injury, thus imparing regulation of body temperature. This study was designed to reveal the morphological and distributional characteristics of the sweat glands in normal skin and hypertrophic scar obtained from children and adults, and to study the possible interfering effects of the scar on regeneration of the sweat gland after burn injury. Methods Biopsies of hypertrophic scar were taken from four children (4-10 years) and four adults (35-51 years). Normal, uninjured full-thickness skin adjacent to the scar of each patient was used as control. Keratin 19 (K19) was used as the marker for epidermal stem cells and secretory portion of the sweat glands, and keratin 14 (K14) for the tube portion, respectively. Immunohistochemical and histological evaluations were performed. Results Histological and immunohistochemical staining of skin tissue sections from both the children and adults showed K19 positive cells in the basement membrane of epidermis of normal skin. These cells were seen only single layer and arranged regularly. The secretory or duct portion of the eccrine sweat glands was situated in the dermis and epidermal layer. However, in the scar tissue, K19 positive cells were scant in the basal layer, and the anatomic location of the secretory portion of sweat glands changed. They were located between the border of the scar and reticular layer of the dermis. These secretory portions of sweat glands were expanded and were organized irregularly. But a few K14 positive cells were scattered in the scar tissues in cyclic form.Conclusions There are some residual sweat glands in scar tissues, in which the regeneration process of active sweat glands is present. Possibly the sweat glands could regenerate from adult epidermal stem cells or residual sweat glands in the wound bed after burn injury.

  6. Case-report: metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeff, M.P. van der; Ru, J.A. de; Slootweg, P.J.


    CASE-REPORT: Metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland. We present a case of metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma (MPA). The patient died in 2002 at the age of 64 years, following on an initial diagnosis of a pleomorphic adenoma of the right parotid gland at the age of nineteen, multiple l

  7. Large Brunner's gland adenoma: Case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alba Rocco; Pasquale Borriello; Debora Compare; Patrizia De Colibus; Loredana Pica; Alessandro Iacono; Gerardo Nardone


    Brunner's gland adenoma (BGA) is a very rare benign tumour of the duodenum, which is usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally at endoscopy. Occasionally,this lesion may be large, causing upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage or intestinal obstruction. The case had a large Brunner's gland adenoma, presenting melena that was managed by endoscopic excision.

  8. Metastatic apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma in a terrier dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akhtardanesh Baharak; Kheirandish Reza; Dabiri Shahriar; Azari Omid; Vosoogh Daruoosh; Askari Nasrin


    This report describes the clinical and pathological aspects of an apocrine sweat gland carcinoma with distant metastasis in an aged dog. A 7-year-old male terrier dog was referred to small animal hospital of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman with a 5.5×3.5 centimeter pedunculated mass on its head near left auricular region which had been progressively growing since three months ago. The radiography showed no local and distant metastasis. Surgical excision and histological evaluation was done. Histologically, the mass was composed of epithelial cells arranged in glandular and solid patterns. The morphologic findings suggested either a primary or metastatic apocrine-gland carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were intensely positive for cytokeratin 7 and 20 and negative for S100 protein. On the basis of histopathological and clinical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a malignant apocrine gland tumor, arising from apocrine sweat glands of the skin. Local tumor recurrence with anorexia and weight loss was reported by the owner nine month later. Severe submandibular and prescapular lymphadenomegaly was noted in clinical examination. Several large pulmonary nodules were noted in chest radiographs resembling mediastinal lymph node metastasis. Second surgery and chemotherapy was rejected by the owner due to grave prognosis of the patient. The animal was died 45 days later due to respiratory complications. Tumors of apocrine sweat glands are relatively uncommon in dogs whereas apocrine gland adenocarcinoma with distant metastasis is extremely rare.

  9. An unusual presentation of lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma

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    Josie Naomi Iyeyasu


    Full Text Available Tumors of the lacrimal gland are rare in clinical practice. Among all of them, the most common epithelial tumor is the lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma, which is a benign indolent tumor that usually affects adults in the third and fourth decades of life. We present an unusual case of lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma. Its management, radiological findings and outcomes are also described, along with a brief review of the literature.

  10. Inverted cystic tubulovillous adenoma involving Brunner's glands of duodenum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Hoon Kim; Jong-Jae Park; Jung Woo Choi; Yeon Seok Seo; Beom Jae Lee; Jong Fun Yeon; Jae Seon Kim; Kwan Soo Byun; Young-Tae Bak; Insun Kim


    Benign neoplasia of the duodenum are very rare.Moreover, duodenal tubulovillous adenomas are more uncommon lesions. The microscopic structure of tubulovillous adenoma has frond-like projection of mucosa with branching papillary structure and generally upward growth into the lumen. We describe a 72-year-old man who showed aduodenal tubulovillous adenoma with unusual inverted cystic growth pattern.Interestingly, this tubulovillous adenomatous lesion was interrupted by gastric metaplasia in the deep portion of the cyst and was closely surrounded by Brunner's glands. Although histogenesis of gastric metaplasia of duodenum is not fully understood, Brunner's glands has been suggested as a precursor for gastric metaplasia.Therefore, these findings argued that this adenoma arises from Brunner's glands through gastric metaplasia.This is the first case of inverted cystic tubulovillous adenoma involving Brunner's glands of duodenum with gastric metaplasia.

  11. Isolation and characterization of sweat gland myoepithelial cells from human skin. (United States)

    Kurata, Ryuichiro; Futaki, Sugiko; Nakano, Itsuko; Tanemura, Atsushi; Murota, Hiroyuki; Katayama, Ichiro; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi


    Stem cells routinely maintain the main epidermal components, i.e. the interfollicular epidermis, hair follicles, and sweat glands. Human sweat glands present throughout the body are glandular exocrine organs that mainly play a role in thermoregulation by sweating. Emerging evidence points to the presence of stem cells in sweat glands, but it remains unclear whether such stem cells exist in human sweat glands. Here, we attempted to gather evidence for stem cells in human sweat glands, which would be characterized by self-renewal ability and multipotency. First, we explored human sweat gland cells for expression of stem cell markers. CD29 and Notch, epidermal stem cell markers, were found to reside among α-smooth muscle actin-positive myoepithelial cells in human sweat glands. Next, sweat gland myoepithelial cells were isolated from human skin as a CD29(hi)CD49f (hi) subpopulation. The myoepithelial cell-enriched CD29(hi)CD49f (hi) subpopulation possessed the ability to differentiate into sweat gland luminal cells in sphere-forming assays. Furthermore, CD29(hi)CD49f (hi) subpopulation-derived sphere-forming cells exhibited long-term proliferative potential upon multiple passaging, indicating that the CD29(hi)CD49f (hi) myoepithelial subpopulation includes stem cells with self-renewal ability. These findings provide evidence that human sweat gland myoepithelial cells contain stem cells that possess both self-renewal ability and multipotency to differentiate into sweat glands.

  12. Rare sweat gland tumors of vulva: Report of two cases

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    Rashmi Mahajan


    Full Text Available Syringomas and Fox-Fordyce disease are appendageal skin disorders. While syringomas represent an adenoma of the intraepidermal eccrine duct, Fox Fordyce disease occurs due to blockage of the apocrine sweat duct. In both conditions, extragenital sites are more frequently involved than the genitalia. We herein report two young females, one with syringomas on the face and vulva and the other with Fox Fordyce disease involving axilla, areola and vulva, thereby citing the importance of examination of genitalia in these disorders.

  13. Endoscopic resection of a huge Brunner's gland adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binbin ZHANG; Xu REN; Xiufen TANG; Yuxin CHI; Xuesong SHI


    Brunner's gland adenoma is a rare tumour of the duodenum, which is usually benign. A 71-year-old woman presenting with epigastric pain, upper gastro-intestinal haemorrhage and melaena was reported in this paper. Upper gastro-intestinal (GI) endoscopy revealed a large pedunculated tumour on the superior part of the duodenal bulb. Endoscopic polypectomy was successfully performed by clipping and nylon thread without any com-plications. Histological examination revealed a Brunner's gland adenoma.

  14. Autoreactivity to sweat glands and nerves in clinical scabies infection

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    Michael S. Howard


    Full Text Available Context: Skin changes in pregnancy can be categorized as 1 physiological/hormonal, 2 alterations in pre-existing skin diseases, or 3 represent development of new dermatoses, some of which may be pregnancy specific. Case Report: We describe a 19 years old female at 27 weeks gestation who presented with a rash on the face and breast, with intense pruritis. Hematoxylin and eosin demonstrated Scabies mites within the epidermis, with an intense perivascular infiltrate of lymphohistiocytic cells around the superficial dermal blood vessels. By direct immunofluorescence (DIF, human fibrinogen was also detected in the perivascular areas. DIF also revealed deposits of human IgG and complement C5-9/MAC deposits in the sweat glands, as well as in nerves surrounding the sweat glands subjacent to the mites. Overexpression of ezrin and junctional adhesion molecule antibodies close to the scabies infection sites were also seen. Conclusion: Given that the hallmark of clinical scabies is intense pruritus and that very limited information is available regarding the pathophysiology of this symptom, we suggest that the itching sensation may be exacerbated by nerves and eccrine sweat glands in close proximity to the sites of infection.

  15. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide promotes eccrine gland sweat secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, S; Watanabe, J; Ohtaki, H;


    BACKGROUND: Sweat secretion is the major function of eccrine sweat glands; when this process is disturbed (paridrosis), serious skin problems can arise. To elucidate the causes of paridrosis, an improved understanding of the regulation, mechanisms and factors underlying sweat production is required...... and several exocrine glands, the effects of PACAP on the process of eccrine sweat secretion have not been examined. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of PACAP on eccrine sweat secretion. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining were used to determine the expression...... and localization of PACAP and its receptors in mouse and human eccrine sweat glands. We injected PACAP subcutaneously into the footpads of mice and used the starch-iodine test to visualize sweat-secreting glands. RESULTS: Immunostaining showed PACAP and PAC1R expression by secretory cells from mouse and human...

  16. Influence of various environmental parameters on sweat gland activity. (United States)

    McMullen, Roger L; Gillece, Tim; Lu, Guojin; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan


    the optimized environmental conditions for the hot room procedure. In addition to the replica and gravimetric techniques, we also measured flux density to determine the onset of firing of sweat glands to ensure that our environmental preconditioning step (30 min in the environmental room) brought subjects to the point that their sweat glands were activated. Although flux density measurements are usually carried out to determine transepidermal water loss (TEWL), we found that they can be equally useful for monitoring the onset of sweat production. Thermal infrared imaging experiments were also carried out allowing us to generate full-body images of subjects containing anatomical thermal distribution data with high accuracy. Overall, we conclude that our in-house hot room procedure offers much potential as an effective and cost-efficient screening tool for narrowing copious antiperspirant formulations to a select few for expensive clinical evaluation.

  17. Immunoelectron microscopic localization of epidermal growth factor in the eccrine and apocrine sweat glands. (United States)

    Saga, K; Takahashi, M


    We studied the localization of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) in eccrine and apocrine sweat glands with light microscopic and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry. Anti-human EGF (anti-hEGF) polyclonal antiserum and anti-hEGF monoclonal antibody (MAb) were used for the study. Light microscopic immunohistochemistry with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies showed that hEGF-like immunoreactivity was strongly positive in the myoepithelial cells and weakly positive in the secretory cells of eccrine sweat glands. In apocrine sweat glands, it was strongly positive in the secretory cells as well as in the myoepithelial cells. Immunoelectron microscopy with polyclonal antibody showed that hEGF-like immunoreactivity was present in secretory granules of apocrine secretory cells. These granules had mitochondrion-like internal structure. No reactivity was observed on the eccrine secretory cells by immunoelectron microscopy. Neither dark cell granules nor mitochondria in eccrine secretory cells were labeled with anti-hEGF antibody. In both eccrine and apocrine sweat glands, hEGF-like immunoreactivity was diffusely present in the cytoplasm of myoepithelial cells. However, nuclei and mitochondria of myoepithelial cells were devoid of immunoreactivity for hEGF. Our observations indicate that apocrine sweat glands may secrete more hEGF in the sweat than eccrine sweat glands.

  18. Pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. Case report. (United States)

    Ostrosky, Alejandro; Klurfan, Federico Juan; Gonzalez, Maximiliano Jorge; Camaly, Diego; Villa, Diego


    Lacrimal gland tumors are rare. We present a case of a 69 year old male patient with a one year history of an orbital tumor (Pleomorphic Adenoma). The tumor was surgically enucleated and patient recovery was very satisfactory, with no signs of recurrence after one year of follow-up. A review of the clinical symptoms, radiologic features, treatment and histopathology of this kind of tumors is also made.

  19. Contribution of central versus sweat gland mechanisms to the seasonal change of sweating function in young sedentary males and females (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yumiko; Sugenoya, Junichi; Nishimura, Naoki; Iwase, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Takaaki; Shimizu, Yuuki; Inukai, Yoko; Sato, Maki


    In summer and winter, young, sedentary male ( N = 5) and female ( N = 7) subjects were exposed to heat in a climate chamber in which ambient temperature (Ta) was raised continuously from 30 to 42°C at a rate of 0.1°C min-1 at a relative humidity of 40%. Sweat rates (SR) were measured continuously on forearm, chest and forehead together with tympanic temperature (Tty), mean skin temperature ( {overline {{T}} {{s}}} ) and mean body temperature ( {overline {{T}} {{b}}} ) . The rate of sweat expulsions (Fsw) was obtained as an indicator of central sudomotor activity. Tty and ( {overline {{T}} {{b}}} ) were significantly lower during summer compared with winter in males; SR was not significantly different between summer and winter in males, but was significantly higher during summer in females; SR during winter was higher in males compared with females. The regression line relating Fsw to ( {overline {{T}} {{b}}} ) shifted significantly from winter to summer in males and females, but the magnitude of the shift was not significantly different between the two subject groups. The regression line relating SR to Fsw was steepened significantly from winter to summer in males and females, and the change in the slope was significantly greater in females than in males. Females showed a lower slope in winter and a similar slope in summer compared to males. It was concluded that sweating function was improved during summer mediated by central sudomotor and sweat gland mechanisms in males and females, and, although the change of sweat gland function from winter to summer was greater in females as compared with males, the level of increased sweat gland function during summer was similar between the two subject groups.

  20. The interaction between epidermal growth factor (EGF) and matrix metalloproteinase induces the development of sweat glands in human fetal skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianfu; Fu Xiaobing; Sheng Zhiyong


    Objective:The development of sweat glands is a very complicated biological process involving many factors. In this study, we explore the inter-relationship between epidermal growth factor (EGF),matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2,MMP-7) and development of sweat glands in human embryos. Furthermore, we hope to elucidate the mechanism(s) underlying the induction of epidermal stem cells into sweat gland cells. Methods:Skin biospies of human embryos obtained from spontaneous abortions at different gestational ages from 11 to 31 weeks were used in this study. The dynamical expression of EGF, MMP-2, MMP-7 and keratin-7 (K7) in developing sweat gland cells or extracellular stroma surrounding the sweat gland cells were examined with S-P immunohistochemical methods.The localization of the cellular sources of MMP-2 and MMP 7 was examined with in situ hybridization. Results:At 14-20 wk of gestation, a gradual increase in EGF immunoreactivity was observed not only in developing sweat gland buds but also in extracellular stroma surrounding the buds,and the expression intensity peaked at 20-22 wk of gesta- tional age. All mRNA-positive buds or cells in developing sweat glands contained corresponding immunoreactive proteins. Positive immunostaining for K7 appeared in early sweat gland buds at 14-16wk of gestation, and from then on, K7 was concentrated in developing sweat gland cords or cells. Conclusions: The morphogenesis of sweat gland in human fetal skin begins at 14-16wk of gestational age, and essentially completes by 24wk. There is a close relationship among EGF,extracellular matrix remodeling and morphogenesis of sweat glands, and EGF is one of the inducers in the development and maturity of sweat gland buds or cells.

  1. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma originating from ectopic salivary gland in the neck region: case report (United States)

    Vayısoğlu, Yusuf; Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Eti, Can; Pütürgeli, Tuğçe; Gorur, Kemal; Ozcan, Cengiz


    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA) is the malignant salivary gland tumor originating from primary (de novo) or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Although parotid gland is the most common site, it can also be seen in submandibular gland or minor salivary glands. It can be seen rarely in head and neck region, such as oral cavity, trachea, nasal cavity and lacrimal gland. Although pleomorphic adenoma cases originating from ectopic salivary gland tissue in the neck region are present in the English literature, there is no published pleomorphic adenoma ex carcinoma case. In this case report we presented a CEPA as a 7.5 cm long neck mass in a 72-year-old woman originating from the submandibular region apart from submandibular gland. Difficulties in diagnosis and way to appropriate treatment are discussed with current literature. PMID:26645012

  2. Peripheral Sweat Gland Function Improves With Humid Heat Acclimation (United States)


    via pilocarpine iontophoresis on the 128 MJ. Buono et al. / Journal ofThennal Biology 34 (2009) 127-130 proximal half of the flexor surface of both...forearms. The reported value is the mean of both forearms. The iontophoresis current was fixed at 1.5 rnA for 10 min, and was applied using a Wescor...discs (Pilogel, Wescor). Sweat was collected for 15 min immediately after iontophoresis using a Macroduct sweat collec- tor (Wescor) according to the

  3. Transplantation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells transfected with ectodysplasin for regeneration of sweat glands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Sa; PAN Yu; HAN Bing; SUN Tong-zhu; SHENG Zhi-yong; FU Xiao-bing


    Background Patients with severe full-thickness burn injury suffer from their inability to maintain body temperature through perspiration because the complete destructed sweat glands can not be regenerated. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) represent an ideal stem-cell source for cell therapy because of their easy purification and multipotency. In this study, we attempted to induce human BM-MSCs to differentiate into sweat gland cells for sweat gland regeneration through ectodysplasin (EDA) gene transfection. Methods The dynamic expression of EDA and EDA receptor (EDAR) were firstly observed in the sweat gland formation during embryological development. After transfection with EDA expression vector, human BM-MSCs were transplanted into the injured areas of burn animal models. The regeneration of sweat glands was identified by perspiration test and immunohistochemical analysis. Results Endogenous expression of EDA and EDAR correlated with sweat gland development in human fetal skin. After EDA transfection, BM-MSC acquired a sweat-gland-cell phenotype, evidenced by their expression of sweat gland markers by flow cytometry analysis. Immunohistochemical staining revealed a markedly contribution of EDA-transfected BM-MSCs to the regeneration of sweat glands in the scalded paws. Positive rate for perspiration test for the paws treated with EDA-transfected BM-MSCs was significantly higher than those treated with BM-MSCs or EDA expression vector (P <0.05). Conclusions Our results confirmed the important role of EDA in the development of sweat gland. BM-MSCs transfected with EDA significantly improved the sweat-gland regeneration. This study suggests the potential application of EDA-modified MSCs for the repair and regeneration of injured skin and its appendages.

  4. Function of human eccrine sweat glands during dynamic exercise and passive heat stress (United States)

    Kondo, N.; Shibasaki, M.; Aoki, K.; Koga, S.; Inoue, Y.; Crandall, C. G.


    The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of change in the density of activated sweat glands (ASG) and sweat output per gland (SGO) during dynamic constant-workload exercise and passive heat stress. Eight male subjects (22.8 +/- 0.9 yr) exercised at a constant workload (117.5 +/- 4.8 W) and were also passively heated by lower-leg immersion into hot water of 42 degrees C under an ambient temperature of 25 degrees C and relative humidity of 50%. Esophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, sweating rate (SR), and heart rate were measured continuously during both trials. The number of ASG was determined every 4 min after the onset of sweating, whereas SGO was calculated by dividing SR by ASG. During both exercise and passive heating, SR increased abruptly during the first 8 min after onset of sweating, followed by a slower increase. Similarly for both protocols, the number of ASG increased rapidly during the first 8 min after the onset of sweating and then ceased to increase further (P > 0.05). Conversely, SGO increased linearly throughout both perturbations. Our results suggest that changes in forearm sweating rate rely on both ASG and SGO during the initial period of exercise and passive heating, whereas further increases in SR are dependent on increases in SGO.

  5. Parathyroid adenoma (United States)

    Hyperparathyroidism - parathryoid adenoma; Overactive parathyroid gland - parathyroid adenoma ... The parathyroid glands in the neck help control calcium use and removal by the body. They do this by ...

  6. Effects of age on histological parameters of the sweat glands of Nellore cattle

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    Mara Regina Bueno de Mattos Nascimento


    Full Text Available The sweat glands are important in thermoregulation of cattle in a warm environment as they help dissipate heat through evaporation. Studies on gland histology are important to define its secretion potential and the capacity of perspiration and heat removal. The objective of this study was to determine, by histomorphometry, glandular epithelium height, the depth of the gland, length of the glandular portion and number of glands per cm2 of the sweat glands of the three age groups of Nellore cattle. Thirty females were used in this study. They were equally divided into calves, heifers and cows. Histological sections were obtained and analyzed by digital images in Trinocular BX40 Olympus microscope coupled to an Oly - 200 camera, connected to a computer. The images were obtained with microscope with 2x, 4x, 10x and 40x magnification objectives. The measurements were performed using HL Image 97 program. The height of glandular epithelium, depth of the glands, length and density of the glandular portion per cm2 , were all analyzed. The calves showed greater height of the glandular epithelium than heifers (P = 0.0024, and cows (P = 0.0191. The depth of the gland was not influenced by age. Cows had higher length of secretory portion than heifers (P = 0.0379 and calves (P = 0.0077. Heifers had a greater number of sweat glands per cm2 of skin than cows (P = 0.023. In cattle, the height of glandular epithelium and the density decreases as animals get older. On the other hand, the length of the secretor portion increases but with no changes in the depth of the sweat glands

  7. A case of lipomatous pleomorphic adenoma in the parotid gland: a case report

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    Kondo Takeshi


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign neoplasm of the salivary glands. Extensive lipomatous involvement of the tumor is, however, a very rare finding. Case report Herein, a rare case of lipomatous pleomorphic adenoma arising in the parotid gland of a 14-year-old Japanese woman is presented. Conclusion This is the sixth case of lipomatous pleomorphic adenoma in the English literature. Recognition of this rare subtype of pleomorphic adenoma is important for clinical diagnosis and management. On CT scan, it may not be detected possibly due to the extensive fatty component.

  8. Sweating (United States)

    ... pain syndrome Emotional or stressful situations (anxiety) Essential hyperhidrosis Exercise Fever Infection Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Medicines, ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 418. Read More Hyperhidrosis Hyperthyroidism Menopause Sweating - absent Review Date 4/30/ ...

  9. Brunner's gland adenoma of duodenum:A case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Ping Gao; Jian-Shan Zhu; Wen-Jun Zheng


    AIM: To analyze the clinicopathological features of Brunner's gland adenoma of the duodenum.METHODS: A rare case of Brunner's gland adenoma of the duodenum was described and related literature was reviewed.RESULTS: Brunner's gland adenoma of the duodenum appeared to be nodular hyperplasia of the normal Brunner's gland with an unusual admixture of normal tissues, including ducts, adipose tissue and lymphoid tissue. We suggested that it might be designated as a duodenal hamartoma rather than a true neoplasm.CONCLUSION: The most common location of the lesion is the posterior wall of the duodenum near the junction of its first and second portions. It can result in gastrointestinal hemorrhage and duodenal obstruction. Endoscopic polypectomy is a worthy treatment for benign Brunner's gland adenomas,as malignant changes in these tumors have never been proven.

  10. A Different Pattern of Brunner Gland Adenoma on Endoscopic Ultrasonography

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    Gokhan Aksakal


    Full Text Available Brunner gland adenomas (BGA are benign and rare tumors of small intestine. They are seen at a rate of %10.6 of all benign duodenal tumors. Symptoms can be variable and abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, hematemesis and melena can be seen in some cases. Diagnosis is difficult with mucosal biopsies, becasue of the location in submucosa and generally made by endoscopic resection material. It should be distinguished from lipoma, leiyomyoma, neurogenic and carcinoid tumors through endoscopic and radiologic methods. Endosonography (EUS is helpful for diagnosis due to detection of  originate from which layer of duodenum wall, echogenity and tissue homogeneity of lesion. In this article, we reported a BGA located with EUS and resected with endoscopic polypectomy. BGA was reported before as generally heterogeneus-hypoechoic and characterised with cystic areas, however, in our case, BGA was detected as a different echo pattern on EUS.

  11. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. Case report and review of the literature. (United States)

    González-García, Raúl; Nam-Cha, Syong H; Muñoz-Guerra, Mario F; Gamallo-Amat, C


    Basal cell adenoma of the salivary glands is an uncommon type of monomorphous adenoma. Its most frequent location is the parotid gland. It usually appears as a firm and mobile slow-growing mass. Histologically, isomorphic cells in nests and interlaced trabecules with a prominent basal membrane are observed. It is also characterized by the presence of a slack and hyaline stroma and the absence of myxoid or condroid stroma. In contrast to pleomorphic adenoma, it tends to be multiple and its recurrence rate after surgical excision is high. Due to prognostic implications, differential diagnosis with basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is mandatory. We describe a case of basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. We also review the literature and discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare entity.

  12. Epidemiological and histopathological analysis of 40 apocrine sweat gland carcinomas in dogs: a retrospective study

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    Kycko Anna


    Full Text Available Introduction: Apocrine sweat gland carcinomas (ASGCs are malignant neoplasms of dogs and other animals, rarely reported worldwide. The aim of this study was to summarise the occurrence of this cancer in a population of dogs in Poland between 2009 and 2014 with regards to histological features and body location of the tumours, as well as age, sex and breed of the cancer-affected dogs.

  13. Pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland with cystic degeneration: A rare case report

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    Preeti Dhir


    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma, also called benign mixed tumor, is the most common tumor of the salivary glands. Usually they are found as solitary, unilateral, firm and mobile, painless, slow growing masses. Only 10% of them occur in the minor salivary glands and 90% of them occur in the parotid gland. The incidence of parotid tumor is about 2.4 in 100000/year of all neoplasia of head and neck region, the right side being commonly involved and seen more often in males. Management involves surgical resection by superficial or total parotidectomy. This case report illustrates clinical features, imaging characteristics and histopathological features in a case of pleomorphic adenoma.

  14. In vivo readout of CFTR function: ratiometric measurement of CFTR-dependent secretion by individual, identifiable human sweat glands.

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    Jeffrey J Wine

    Full Text Available To assess CFTR function in vivo, we developed a bioassay that monitors and compares CFTR-dependent and CFTR-independent sweat secretion in parallel for multiple (~50 individual, identified glands in each subject. Sweating was stimulated by intradermally injected agonists and quantified by optically measuring spherical sweat bubbles in an oil-layer that contained dispersed, water soluble dye particles that partitioned into the sweat bubbles, making them highly visible. CFTR-independent secretion (M-sweat was stimulated with methacholine, which binds to muscarinic receptors and elevates cytosolic calcium. CFTR-dependent secretion (C-sweat was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevates cytosolic cAMP while blocking muscarinic receptors. A C-sweat/M-sweat ratio was determined on a gland-by-gland basis to compensate for differences unrelated to CFTR function, such as gland size. The average ratio provides an approximately linear readout of CFTR function: the heterozygote ratio is ~0.5 the control ratio and for CF subjects the ratio is zero. During assay development, we measured C/M ratios in 6 healthy controls, 4 CF heterozygotes, 18 CF subjects and 4 subjects with 'CFTR-related' conditions. The assay discriminated all groups clearly. It also revealed consistent differences in the C/M ratio among subjects within groups. We hypothesize that these differences reflect, at least in part, levels of CFTR expression, which are known to vary widely. When C-sweat rates become very low the C/M ratio also tended to decrease; we hypothesize that this nonlinearity reflects ductal fluid absorption. We also discovered that M-sweating potentiates the subsequent C-sweat response. We then used potentiation as a surrogate for drugs that can increase CFTR-dependent secretion. This bioassay provides an additional method for assessing CFTR function in vivo, and is well suited for within-subject tests of systemic, CFTR-directed therapeutics.

  15. Das gastral differenzierte Adenom (pyloric gland adenoma. Fact or Fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieth M


    Full Text Available Das gastral differenzierte Adenom des Magens wird in der englischen Literatur als "pyloric gland adenoma" bezeichnet. Der erste Bericht zu dieser Entität erschien 1976 als Buchbeitrag, allerdings wurde die Läsion damals als eine Adenom-artige Hyperplasie mukoider Drüsen beschrieben. Erst ab 1990 wurden Pylorusdrüsen-Adenome korrekt als gastral differenzierte Adenome identifiziert und diagnostische Kriterien entwickelt. Die Bezeichnung Pylorusdrüsen-Adenom spiegelt die Entstehung aus den tiefen gastralen Drüsenverbänden wieder. Sicher sind die Pylorusdrüsen-Adenome bereits im Routine-HE-Präparat zu diagnostizieren und durch die Immunhistochemie zu bestätigen. Typischerweise exprimieren die Pylorusdrüsen-Adenome Mucin 6, das sonst nur im tiefen Drüsenkörper gefunden werden kann, über die gesamte Breite der Läsion, oft bis zur Oberfläche. Das oberflächliche Mucin 5AC ist oft nur auf eine schmale oberflächliche Zone beschränkt; die Expression kann jedoch stark variieren. Eine Kombination mit Anteilen gewöhnlicher tubulärer Adenome (intestinale Differenzierung kann beobachtet werden. Überproportional häufig ist die Magen-Corpusschleimhaut älterer Patientinnen mit Autoimmungastritis betroffen. Die Häufigkeit von Pylorusdrüsen-Adenomen wird mit 2,7 % aller Magenpolypen angegeben und ist damit nicht so selten wie vermutet. Die wenigen vorhandenen Publikationen zu diesem Thema deuten darauf hin, daß diese Entität meist fehlinterpretiert wird. Pylorusdrüsen-Adenome können im gesamten Gastrointestinaltrakt entstehen. Die klinische Bedeutung liegt in der hohen Rate (30 % der malignen Entartung. Allerdings handelt es sich hierbei vorwiegend um hochdifferenzierte Frühkarzinome mit entsprechend guter Prognose nach endoskopischer Abtragung.

  16. Pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland 1985-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Therkildsen, Marianne H; Bjørndal, Kristine


    one recurrence. An incidence of 4.29/100,000/year was found. The rate of malignant transformation in recurrent pleomorphic adenoma was 3.3%. CONCLUSION: We report an up-to-date assessment of the epidemiology of pleomorphic adenoma. We found an increasing incidence and low recurrence rate compared...

  17. Incidentally detected carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of parotid gland by F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Eun Jung; Chun, Kyung Ah; Cho, Ihn Ho [Yeungnam Univ. Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    A 62-year-old man underwent FDG PET/CT to determine the initial stage of gastric carcinoma, and the scan revealed an incidental FDG-avid mass in the left parotid gland. He subsequently underwent surgery, and the final diagnosis was of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma with cervical lymph node metastasis. The patient underwent left total parotidectomy with left selective neck dissection 2 months later, and the histopathologic report confirmed carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma with cervical lymph node metastasis.

  18. Peripheral Sweat Gland Function, but not Whole-Body Sweat Rate, Increases in Women Following Humid Heat Acclimation (United States)


    day’s HA trial, peripheral sweat production was induced via pilocarpine iontophoresis on the proximal half of the flexor surface of both forearms...forearms. The iontophoresis current was fixed at 1.5 rnA for 10 min, and was applied using a Wescor sweat inducer (model 3700, Logan, UT). Pilocarpine, an...immediately after iontophoresis using a Wescor Macroduct sweat collection system using the procedures outlined by Webster (1983). A different forearm site

  19. Accumulation of FDG in axillary sweat glands in hyperhidrosis: a pitfall in whole-body PET examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsson, H. [Department of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Celsing, F. [Department of Haematology and Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Ingvar, M. [Department of Cognitive Neurophysiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Stone-Elander, S. [Department of Cognitive Neurophysiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Karolinska Pharmacy, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, S.A. [Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)


    A diabetic male with severe autonomic neuropathy and recently discovered Hodgkin`s disease demonstrated bilateral uptake of [2-{sup 18}F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) in the axillary sweat glands during profuse sweating caused by hypoglycaemia at positron emission tomography examination. It is not yet clear whether the sweating interfered with the distribution of the radiopharmaceutical. Regardless of the cause or mechanism for the uptake, the finding is clinically relevant. A bilateral symmetrical accumulation of FDG in the axillae of a tumour patient does not necessarily indicate malignant involvement of the lymph nodes. (orig.) With 1 fig., 9 refs.

  20. [The expression of keratins Nos. 8, 17 and vimentin in pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary glands]. (United States)

    Gel'shteĭn, V I; Chipysheva, T A; Ermilova, V D; Bannikov, G A


    In the normal salivary gland, the monoclonal antibody to keratin 8 immuno-morphologically identifies the epithelium that covers acini and ducts. The monoclonal antibodies to keratin 17 and vimentin detect normal myoepithelium. The two keratins are found both in the epithelioid and mesenchyma-like components of pleomorphic adenoma, suggesting a single epithelial nature of this tumor. In all the morphological components of the pleomorphic adenoma, there are cells that combine protein expression of intermediate filaments normally labelling different cell subpopulations. This fact provides support for the hypothesis that the pleomorphic adenoma originates from bipotent precursor cells. A particular phenotype of pleomorphic adenoma elements is realized under the control of the local density of cells and microenvironment, as a result of which the cells expressing vimentin predominate in the mesenchymal component, keratin 8 in the epithelial tubular one.

  1. Endocannabinoids regulate growth and survival of human eccrine sweat gland-derived epithelial cells. (United States)

    Czifra, Gabriella; Szöllősi, Attila G; Tóth, Balázs I; Demaude, Julien; Bouez, Charbel; Breton, Lionel; Bíró, Tamás


    The functional existence of the emerging endocannabinoid system (ECS), one of the new neuroendocrine players in cutaneous biology, is recently described in the human skin. In this study, using human eccrine sweat gland-derived immortalized NCL-SG3 model cells and a wide array of cellular and molecular assays, we investigated the effects of prototypic endocannabinoids (anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol) on cellular functions. We show here that both endocannabinoids dose-dependently suppressed proliferation, induced apoptosis, altered expressions of various cytoskeleton proteins (e.g., cytokeratins), and upregulated lipid synthesis. Interestingly, as revealed by specific agonists and antagonists as well as by RNA interference, neither the metabotropic cannabinoid receptors (CB) nor the "ionotropic" CB transient receptor potential ion channels, expressed by these cells, mediated the cellular actions of the endocannabinoids. However, the endocannabinoids selectively activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Finally, other elements of the ECS (i.e., enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids) were also identified on NCL-SG3 cells. These results collectively suggest that cannabinoids exert a profound regulatory role in the biology of the appendage. Therefore, from a therapeutic point of view, upregulation of endocannabinoid levels might help to manage certain sweat gland-derived disorders (e.g., tumors) characterized by unwanted growth.

  2. Maintenance of sweat glands by stem cells located in the acral epithelium. (United States)

    Ohe, Shuichi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Yanai, Hirotsugu; Komai, Yoshihiro; Omachi, Taichi; Kanno, Shohei; Tanaka, Kiyomichi; Ishigaki, Kazuhiko; Saiga, Kazuho; Nakamura, Naohiro; Ohsugi, Haruyuki; Tokuyama, Yoko; Atsumi, Naho; Hisha, Hiroko; Yoshida, Naoko; Kumano, Keiki; Yamazaki, Fumikazu; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Hiroo


    The skin is responsible for a variety of physiological functions and is critical for wound healing and repair. Therefore, the regenerative capacity of the skin is important. However, stem cells responsible for maintaining the acral epithelium had not previously been identified. In this study, we identified the specific stem cells in the acral epithelium that participate in the long-term maintenance of sweat glands, ducts, and interadnexal epidermis and that facilitate the regeneration of these structures following injury. Lgr6-positive cells and Bmi1-positive cells were found to function as long-term multipotent stem cells that maintained the entire eccrine unit and the interadnexal epidermis. However, while Lgr6-positive cells were rapidly cycled and constantly supplied differentiated cells, Bmi1-positive cells were slow to cycle and occasionally entered the cell cycle under physiological conditions. Upon irradiation-induced injury, Bmi1-positive cells rapidly proliferated and regenerated injured epithelial tissue. Therefore, Bmi1-positive stem cells served as reservoir stem cells. Lgr5-positive cells were rapidly cycled and maintained only sweat glands; therefore, we concluded that these cells functioned as lineage-restricted progenitors. Taken together, our data demonstrated the identification of stem cells that maintained the entire acral epithelium and supported the different roles of three cellular classes.

  3. The in Vitro Immune-Modulating Properties of a Sweat Gland-Derived Antimicrobial Peptide Dermcidin. (United States)

    Wang, Echo; Qiang, Xiaoling; Li, Jianhua; Zhu, Shu; Wang, Ping


    The epidermal barriers of the skin serve as the first layer of defense by limiting the access of many pathogens to the blood circulation. In addition, human skin also contains sweat glands that can secrete a wide array of antimicrobial peptides to restrain the growth of various microbes. In the case of microbial infection, macrophages and monocytes constitute the first line of defense by producing a wide array of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. This process is triggered either by pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules (such as bacterial endotoxin) or damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (such as HMGB1). In light of our findings that a sweat gland-derived antimicrobial peptide, dermcidin, affected both pathogen-associated molecular pattern and damage-associated molecular pattern-induced cytokines/chemokines by macrophages/monocytes, we propose that dermcidin may play an important role in the regulation of the innate immune responses to infection and injury. Future investigations are warranted to further test this understudied hypothesis in both preclinical and clinical settings.

  4. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland: Cytological diagnosis of an uncommon tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoolya Bhat


    Full Text Available Basal cell adenoma (BCA is a rare benign epithelial tumor of the salivary gland, displaying monomorphic basaloid cells without a myxochondroid component, representing 1-3% of all salivary gland neoplasms seen predominantly in women over 50 years of age. It is uncommon in young adults. Cytodiagnosis of basaloid tumors chiefly basal cell adenoma of the salivary gland, is extremely challenging. The cytological differential diagnoses range from benign to malignant, neoplastic to non- neoplastic lesions. Histopathological examination is a must for definitive diagnosis, as these entities differ in prognosis and therapeutic aspects. We present a 22-years-old male with this uncommon diagnosis with a discussion on the role of cytological diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a simple, minimally invasive method for the preoperative diagnosis of various types of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. The knowledge of its pitfalls and limitations contributes to a more effective approach to treatment.

  5. Osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with extramedullary hematopoiesis in follicular adenoma of thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Mohan


    Full Text Available Follicular adenomas of the thyroid may be subjected to degenerative changes like hemorrhagic and cystic changes, fibrosis, and calcification. Mature bone formation is a rare phenomenon, but extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH has also been rarely reported in thyroid gland. The combination of mature bone formation and EMH is rarer and has been reported, in a single case report, in a multinodular goitre. We describe a case of follicular adenoma with histologically proven osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with EMH in a middle- aged woman, which, to our knowledge, is the first case in English language literature.

  6. Simultaneous Occurrence of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma and Brunner's Gland Adenoma in a Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica). (United States)

    Gombač, M; Dolenšek, T; Jaušovec, D; Kvapil, P; Švara, T; Pogačnik, M


    We describe a case of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and Brunner's gland adenoma in an 18-year-old male Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) from the Ljubljana Zoo. The tiger was humanely destroyed due to weakness and progressive weight loss. Necropsy examination revealed a large, grey, predominantly necrotic mass replacing the major part of the pancreatic body. Microscopically, the mass was unencapsulated, poorly demarcated, highly cellular and composed of highly pleomorphic, cuboidal to tall columnar cells with basal, round or oval, moderately anisokaryotic nuclei with prominent nucleoli and moderate to large amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm. The tumour was diagnosed as pancreatic tubular adenocarcinoma with infiltration into the duodenum and mesentery. There were tumour emboli in mesenteric blood vessels and hepatic metastases. The non-affected part of the pancreas exhibited severe chronic pancreatitis. In addition, one firm white neoplastic nodule was observed in the duodenal wall. The nodule was set in the tunica muscularis and was unencapsulated, well demarcated and highly cellular, and consisted of a closely packed layer of normal Brunner's glands and a centrally positioned group of irregularly branched tubules with small amounts of debris in the lumen. The neoplastic nodule was diagnosed as Brunner's gland adenoma. The present case is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of concurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma and Brunner's gland adenoma, most probably induced by chronic pancreatitis, either in man or animals.

  7. Rare carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal minor salivary gland causing a therapeutic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Kini


    Full Text Available Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA, as a group, constitutes 12% of malignant salivary gland tumors. We present a case of CXPA of the buccal mucosa in a 17-year-old patient. The buccal mass was of a size of 3.0 cm located in the right cheek. Pleomorphic adenoma was the provisional diagnosis. The tumor was excised under local anesthesia. Histopathological evaluation revealed a pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma. However, on magnification, certain areas showed islands of dysplastic epithelial cells′ invading the fibrous capsule and CXPA was diagnosed. The patient was recalled and secondary surgery of the site performed. No tumor tissue could be detected in the secondary resection specimen. There is no sign of recurrence since 2 years.

  8. Computed effects of sweat gland ducts on the propagation of 94 GHz waves in skin (United States)

    Shafirstein, Gal; Moros, Eduardo G.


    The effects of sweat gland ducts (SGD) on specific absorption rate and temperatures during millimeter wave irradiation of skin were investigated with a high resolution finite differences time domain model consisting of a 30 μm stratum corneum (SC), a 350 μm epidermis, 1000 μm dermis and five SGD (60 μm radius, 300 μm height, 370 μm separation). The source was a WR-10 waveguide irradiating at 94 GHz. Without SGD, specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature maximum were in the dermis near epidermis. With SGD, a higher SAR maximum was inside SGD in the epidermis while temperature maximum moved to the epidermis/stratumcorneum junction. SGD significantly affected how GHz waves were absorbed in the skin. Implications of these finding in nociceptive research will be discussed as well as other potential medical applications.

  9. WT1 expression in salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas: a reliable marker of the neoplastic myoepithelium. (United States)

    Langman, Gerald; Andrews, Claire L; Weissferdt, Annikka


    Pleomorphic adenoma is a benign salivary gland neoplasm with a diverse morphology. This is considered to be a function of the neoplastic myoepithelium, which shows histological and immunophenotypical variability. Wilms' tumor 1 gene (WT1) protein, involved in bidirectional mesenchymal-epithelial transition, has been detected by reverse transcription PCR in salivary gland tumors showing myoepithelial-epithelial differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunoreactivity of WT1 in pleomorphic adenomas and to compare the pattern of staining with p63 and calponin, two reliable markers of myoepithelial cells. A total of 31 cases of pleomorphic adenoma were selected. The myoepithelium was classified as myoepithelial-like (juxtatubular and spindled), modified myoepithelium (myxoid, chondroid and plasmacytoid) and transformed myoepithelium (solid epithelioid, squamous and basaloid cribriform). Immunohistochemistry for WT1, p63 and calponin was assessed in each myoepithelial component, as well as in nonneoplastic myoepithelial cells and inner tubular epithelial cells. There was no immunostaining of tubular epithelial cells by any of the markers. In contrast to p63 and calponin, WT1 did not react with normal myoepithelial cells. Cytoplasmic WT1 staining was present in all pleomorphic adenomas, and in 29 cases (94%), >50% of neoplastic myoepithelial cells were highlighted. p63 and calponin stained the myoepithelium in 30 tumors. In comparison, 50% of cells were positive in 21 (68%) and 9 (29%) cases of p63 and calponin, respectively. Staining with WT1 showed less variability across the spectrum of myoepithelial differentiation with the difference most marked in the transformed myoepithelium. WT1 is a sensitive marker of the neoplastic myoepithelial cell in pleomorphic adenomas. The role of this protein in influencing the mesenchymal-epithelial state of cells suggests that WT1 and the myoepithelial cell have an important role in the histogenesis of

  10. Myoepithelial Cell-Rich Pleormorphic Adenoma of Minor Salivary Gland of Parapharyngeal Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digvijay Singh Rawat


    Full Text Available Parapharyngeal space tumors are rare and constitute only 0.5–1.0% of head and neck tumors. Minor salivary gland tumor is still rare in parapharyngeal space. We are reporting a case of pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland of parapharyngeal space. A 42-year-old female presented with a history of mass in the oropharynx for 3 years. She presented with “hot potato voice” and dysphagia. CECT and MRI were done, showing large parapharyngeal space tumor. FNAC was suspicious for tumor of nerve cell origin. Tumor was excised using “paramedian mandibulotomy with mandibular swing approach”. Histopathological examination was inconclusive, suggesting possibility of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma, solitary fibrous tumor, neurogenic tumor. On immunohistochemistry, tumor was positive for cytokeratin, EMA (dim, S-100, and P 63 and negative for SMA thus proving the case as myoepithelial cell-rich pleomorphic adenoma.

  11. Brunner's Gland Adenoma – A Rare Cause of Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Case Report and Systematic Review (United States)

    Sorleto, Michele; Timmer-Stranghöner, Annette; Wuttig, Helge; Engelhard, Oliver; Gartung, Carsten


    Brunner's gland adenoma is an extremely rare benign small bowel neoplasm, often discovered incidentally during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy or radiological diagnostics. In few cases, it tends to cause gastrointestinal hemorrhage or intestinal obstruction. We report here our experience with a 47-year-old woman with a Brunner's gland adenoma of more than 6 cm in size, located in the first part of the duodenum and causing gastrointestinal bleeding. Initially, we performed a partial endoscopic resection using endoloop and snare alternatively to prevent severe bleeding. A rest endoscopic polypectomy with the submucosal dissection technique was planned. However, on request of the patient, an elective surgical duodenotomy with submucosal resection of the remaining small duodenal tumor was performed. To better define the patient's characteristics and treatment options of such lesions, we performed a systematic review of the available literature in PubMed. Recently, an endoscopic removal is being increasingly practiced and is considered as a safe treatment modality of such lesions. PMID:28203131

  12. Synchronous unilateral basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland: A case report. (United States)

    Kuang, Jin; Rao, Qian; Zhang, Hao; Cheng, Zhigang


    The current study reports the case of a 68-year-old male who presented with a 4-month history of a painless slow-growing mass in the left parotid region. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed two independent, round lesions in the superficial and deep lobes of the parotid gland on the left side, respectively. A total parotidectomy was performed and basal cell adenomas (BCAs) were identified by histopathological examination. At the 6-month follow-up examination, no sign of recurrence was found. This study describes the clinical features of a rare case of synchronous unilateral BCA in the parotid gland and also provides a review of the literature.

  13. Loss of Lrig1 leads to expansion of Brunner glands followed by duodenal adenomas with gastric metaplasia. (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Shi, Chanjuan; Lu, Yuanyuan; Poulin, Emily J; Franklin, Jeffery L; Coffey, Robert J


    Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is a pan-ErbB negative regulator and intestinal stem cell marker down-regulated in many malignancies. We previously reported that 14 of 16 Lrig1-CreERT2/CreERT2 (Lrig1(-/-)) mice developed duodenal adenomas, providing the first in vivo evidence that Lrig1 acts as a tumor suppressor. We extended this study to a larger cohort and found that 49 of 54 Lrig1(-/-) mice develop duodenal adenomas beginning at 3 months. Most adenomas were histologically low grade and overlaid expanded Brunner glands. There was morphologic and biochemical blurring of the boundary between the epithelium and Brunner glands with glandular coexpression of ErbB2, which is normally restricted to the epithelium, and the Brunner gland marker Mucin6. Some adenomas were high grade with reduced Brunner glands. At age 4 to 5 weeks, before adenoma formation, we observed enhanced proliferation in Brunner glands and, at 2 months, an increase in the size of the Brunner gland compartment. Elevated expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) ligands amphiregulin and β-cellulin, as well as Egfr and phosphorylated Egfr, was detected in adenomas compared with adjacent normal tissue. These adenomas expressed the gastric-specific genes gastrokine1 and mucin5ac, indicating gastric metaplasia. Moreover, we found that a subset of human duodenal tumors exhibited features of LRIG1(-/-) adenomas, including loss of LRIG1, gastric metaplasia (MUCIN5AC and MUCIN6), and increased amphiregulin and Egfr activity.

  14. Extracapsular dissection of pleomorphic adenoma in the parotid gland: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreyas Gupte


    Full Text Available Salivary gland tumors comprise of less than 3% of all tumors of the head and neck region. Pleomorphic adenoma represents 45 to 74% of all these salivary gland tumors and 65% of them occur in the parotid gland. Owing to the close proximity of this tumor to the facial nerve, there have been various techniques for surgical management of this tumor in the literature. Extracapsular dissection of pleomorphic adenoma is a conservative treatment modality which spares the handling of facial nerve. We are reporting a case of extracapsular dissection of pleomorphic adenoma in the lower pole of the superfi cial lobe of the parotid gland in a 22 year-old Indian male with a 1-year follow-up.

  15. An ulcerated giant pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K. Swain


    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the most common salivary gland tumour. It accounts for a majority of parotid gland tumour. Neglected and untreated PAs can grow in size and weigh several kilograms. Complete resection of the tumour and preservation of the facial nerve are the main principles of surgery. Giant PA of the parotid gland is reported as a rarity in medical literature. We report a rare giant PA with ulceration over the mass in a 92 year old man on the right side of the face. Patient had undergone superficial parotidectomy with good cosmetic outcome. The excised specimen was 20 cm × 1 5cm × 12 cm in dimension and 3.8 kg in weight. Even an ulcerated, malignant transformation was not seen in the tumour.

  16. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Daniel


    Full Text Available Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma in lacrimal gland is a rare entity unlike its salivary gland counterpart. This rare tumor poses a diagnostic challenge to clinicians as pre-operative diagnosis is difficult and diagnosis is only by careful pathological assessment. We report this uncommon lesion in a 62-year-old lady, wherein the malignant component was mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The elderly patient remained clinically and radiologically free of the tumor for two years after complete excision of the tumor but computed tomography at the end of two and a half years showed a recurrent lesion in the region of the lacrimal gland. This makes long term follow up of patients with these rare lacrimal tumors imperative with a minimum period of at least five years.

  17. Estradiol rapidly induces the translocation and activation of the intermediate conductance calcium activated potassium channel in human eccrine sweat gland cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muchekehu, Ruth W


    Steroid hormones target K+ channels as a means of regulating electrolyte and fluid transport. In this study, ion transporter targets of Estradiol (E2) were investigated in the human eccrine sweat gland cell line NCL-SG3.

  18. NKCC1 and NHE1 are abundantly expressed in the basolateral plasma membrane of secretory coil cells in rat, mouse, and human sweat glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Lene Niemann; Prætorius, Jeppe; Nielsen, Søren


    In isolated sweat glands, bumetanide inhibits sweat secretion. The mRNA encoding bumetanide-sensitive Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) isoform 1 (NKCC1) has been detected in sweat glands; however, the cellular and subcellular protein localization is unknown. Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) isoform...... 1 (NHE1) protein has been localized to both the duct and secretory coil of human sweat duct; however, the NHE1 abundance in the duct was not compared with that in the secretory coil. The aim of this study was to test whether mRNA encoding NKCC1, NKCC2, and Na(+)-coupled acid-base transporters...... and the corresponding proteins are expressed in rodent sweat glands and, if expressed, to determine the cellular and subcellular localization in rat, mouse, and human eccrine sweat glands. NKCC1 mRNA was demonstrated in rat palmar tissue, including sweat glands, using RT-PCR, whereas NKCC2 mRNA was absent. Also, NHE1 m...

  19. Shh promotes sweat gland cell maturation in three-dimensional culture. (United States)

    Huang, Zhijian; Zhen, Yunfang; Yin, Wei; Ma, Zhourui; Zhang, Liya


    Sweat gland (SG) cells forming SG tubule-like structures in 3D culture, this is one of the most important methods to identify the biological function of SG cells and stem cells-derived SG-like cells, but also the important way on research of SG regeneration in vitro. In this study, we seeded human fibroblasts and SG cells in gels and used immunohistochemistry to confirm whether SG tubule-like structures formed. Fibroblasts are necessary factor in the process of SG cells maturation and forming SG's secretory region in 3D culture. Further experimentation revealed that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) was secreted by fibroblasts within the 3D culture. By adding Shh protein to 3D culture, there had more SG tubule-like structures formed. These results suggest that Shh is an important factor during the process of forming SG tubule-like structures in 3D cultures, and adding Shh recommbinant protein could promote SG cell maturation and enhance the efficiency of structure formation.

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in the human pituitary gland: expression and splicing pattern in adenomas versus normal pituitary. (United States)

    Occhi, G; Albiger, N; Berlucchi, S; Gardiman, M; Scanarini, M; Scienza, R; Fassina, A; Mantero, F; Scaroni, C


    Pituitary adenomas are slow-growing tumours arising within the pituitary gland. If secreting, they give rise to well-known syndromes such as Cushing's disease or acromegaly; when hormonally inactive, they come to clinical attention often with local mass effects or pituitary deficiency. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a nuclear hormone receptor with a key role in fat and glucose metabolism, but also involved in several neoplasia, has recently been detected in pituitary adenomas. In the present study, we evaluated the occurrence and splicing profile of PPARgamma in 43 cases of pituitary adenoma of different subtypes and compared it to 12 normal pituitary glands. By real-time polymerase chain reaction, PPARgamma was expressed as much in adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-secreting and ACTH-silent adenomas as in controls, with a moderate underexpression in somatotrophinomas and prolactinomas and overexpression in 54% of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA). There was no apparent qualitative change in the splicing profile of pathological pituitary glands, nor was the presence of specific isoforms with dominant negative effects against PPARgamma detected. Western blotting revealed similar expression levels in the different subgroups of pituitary adenomas and normal glands. Immunohistochemistry confirmed PPARgamma expression in approximately one-half of analysed samples. The intra- and intergroup differences observed in pituitary adenomas may represent new elements in the process of understanding the different clinical responses of Cushing's and Nelson patients to PPARgamma-ligand treatment. Moreover, the higher level of PPARgamma expression detected in the NFPA subgroup may suggest its possible role as a molecular target in these pituitary adenomas, paving the way for investigations on the effectiveness of treatment with thiazolidinediones in such patients.

  1. An incidental case of perianal gland adenoma in a stray dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Devi


    Full Text Available A naturally dead stray dog suffering from perianal gland adenoma was reported here. On post-mortem examination 5 cm large ulcerated mass was found at the base of tail partially obstructing anal opening. Histologically the tumour comprised of large round neoplastic cells with round centrally located nuclei, eosinophilic cytoplasm and well distinct cell borders which were surrounded by single layered hyperchromatic reserve cells. The neoplastic mass showed encapsulation by fibrous tissue and trabeculae in between. The mass was supposed to be affecting normal defecation process leading to constipation and subsequent toxaemia leading to death of the dog.

  2. Establishment and characterization of pleomorphic adenoma cell systems: an in-vitro demonstration of carcinomas arising secondarily from adenomas in the salivary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Yoshiko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the salivary gland carcinomas, carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma has been regarded as a representative carcinoma type which arises secondarily in the background of a pre-existent benign pleomorphic adenoma. It is still poorly understood how and which benign pleomorphic adenoma cells transform into its malignant form, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. Methods We have established five cell systems from a benign pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland of a 61-year-old woman. They were characterized by immunofluorescence, classical cytogenetics, p53 gene mutational analysis, fluorescence in-situ hybridization, and histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations of their xenografts, to demonstrate their potency of secondary transformation. Results We established and characterized five cell systems (designated as SM-AP1 to SM-AP5 from a benign pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland. SM-AP1 to SM-AP3 showed polygonal cell shapes while SM-AP4 and SM-AP5 were spindle-shaped. SM-AP1-3 cells were immunopositive for keratin only, indicating their duct-epithelial or squamous cell differentiation, while SM-AP4/5 cells were positive for both keratin and S-100 protein, indicating their myoepithelial cell differentiation. Chromosome analyses showed numeral abnormalities such as 5n ploidies and various kinds of structural abnormalities, such as deletions, translocations, derivatives and isodicentric chromosomes. Among them, der(9t(9;13(p13.3;q12.3 was shared by all five of the cell systems. In addition, they all had a common deletion of the last base G of codon 249 (AGG to AG_ of the p53 gene, which resulted in generation of its nonsense gene product. Transplanted cells in nude mice formed subcutaneous tumors, which had histological features of squamous cell carcinoma with apparent keratinizing tendencies. In addition, they had ductal arrangements or plasmacytoid appearances of tumor cells and myxoid or hyaline stromata

  3. Leiomyosarcoma Ex Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Parotid Gland: A Case Report and Literature Review (United States)

    Liu, Jingxuan; Marzouk, Mark


    There is only one previously reported incident in the English literature of sarcoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid and there are only 8 cases of primary parotid leiomyosarcoma. In our case, a 79-year-old female patient presented to our care with left preauricular pain, swelling, and facial weakness. After CT imaging, she underwent left total parotidectomy. A spindle cell lesion was identified intraoperatively and the facial nerve was sacrificed. Subsequent analysis of the lesion yielded a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. After 30 fractions of radiation therapy, scans were negative for tumor. However, 18 months after first experiencing symptoms, she was found to have metastases to the brainstem and lung. When diagnosing sarcoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland, it is important to perform thorough immunohistochemical staining and exclude a previous history of sarcoma or other sources of metastases. Complete resection is critical due to the tumor's local aggressiveness and metastatic potential. Although these tumors are not very responsive to chemotherapy or radiation, adjuvant treatment is commonly used when margins are unclear. PMID:27672466

  4. Pleomorphic adenoma of the eyelid with apocrine gland origin; an atypical location

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    Renata T Rothwell


    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the clinical presentation and treatment of a patient with a cutaneous pleomorphic adenoma of the eyelid. Case Report: A 73-year-old male patient presented with a nodular mass on the lateral third of his right upper eyelid, which had slowly enlarged over 10 years. Radiologic features were of an extra-conical mass, with no invasion of adjacent structures. An excisional biopsy of the lesion was performed. The histopathological examination revealed a biphasic tumor, composed of tubules with a double layer of epithelial cells arranged in a chondromyxoid stroma. The inner epithelial cells were positive for pancytokeratins AE1/AE3 and carcinoembryonic antigen. The outer epithelial cells and stromal component expressed vimentin and S100 protein. These pathologic findings were consistent with a palpebral pleomorphic adenoma, with an apocrine gland origin. Conclusion: Pleomorphic adenomas of the skin are rare tumors, and even less frequent as tumors of the ocular adnexa. These lesions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of palpebral nodular masses, and complete excision should be attempted due to the possibility of malignant transformation.

  5. Unusual anogenital apocrine tumor resembling mammary-like gland adenoma in male perineum: a case report

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    Yoshioka Takako


    Full Text Available Abstract A rare case of an apocrine tumor in the male perineal region is reported. A dermal cystic lesion developed in the region between the anus and scrotum of a 74-year-old Japanese male. The cystic lesion, measuring 3.5 × 5.0 cm in size, was lined by columnar or flattened epithelium with occasional apocrine features and supported by a basal myoepithelium lining. A mural nodule, measuring 1 × 1.5 cm in size, protruded into the cystic space and consisted of a solid proliferation of tubular glands with prominent apocrine secretion and basal myoepithelial cells. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the luminal cells were partially positive for gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 and human milk fat globulin 1, and the basal myoepithelial cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and S-100 protein. Estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors were focally and weakly positive for luminal epithelium. Although no mammary-like glands were present in the dermis around the tumor, this unusual apocrine tumor has been suggested to be derived from male anogenital mammary-like glands and mimic a mammary-like gland adenoma in the male perineum.

  6. Pleomorphic adenoma with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin cyst formations in minor salivary gland: a case report (United States)

    GOULART, Maria Carolina Vaz; FREITAS-FARIA, Patrícia; GOULART, Gláuter Rodrigues; de OLIVEIRA, Adriano Macedo; CARLOS-BREGNI, Roman; SOARES, Cleverson Teixeira; LARA, Vanessa Soares


    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA), the most common salivary gland tumor, accounts for 54 to 65% of all salivary gland neoplasias and 80% of the benign salivary gland tumors. It most frequently affects the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular and the minor salivary glands. Microscopically, mucous, sebaceous, oncocytic and squamous metaplasia, sometimes with the formation of keratin pearls, may be present, but the latter rarely results in the formation of extensive keratin-filled cysts lined by squamous epithelium. Extensive squamous metaplasia can be mistaken for malignancy, including mucoepidermoid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin cyst formations in a minor salivary gland, and discuss its microscopic features, including the immunohistochemical characteristics, and differential diagnosis of this uncommon presentation. PMID:21552721

  7. Immunohistochemichal Assessment of the CrkII Proto-oncogene Expression in Common Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors and Pleomorphic Adenoma. (United States)

    Askari, Mitra; Darabi, Masoud; Jahanzad, Esa; Mostakhdemian Hosseini, Zahra; Musavi Chavoshi, Marjan; Darabi, Maryam


    Background and aims. Various morphologies are seen in different salivary gland tumorsor within an individual tumor, and the lesions show divers biological behaviors. Experimental results support the hypothesis that increased CrkII proto-oncogene is associated with cytokine-induced tumor initiation and progression by altering cell motility signaling pathway. The aim of this study was to assess the CrkII expression in common malignant salivary gland tumors and pleomorphic ade-noma. Materials and methods. Immunohistochemical analysis of CrkII expression was performed on paraffin blocks of 64 car-cinomas of salivary glands, 10 pleomorphic adenomas, and 10 normal salivary glands. Biopsies were subjected to immu-nostaining with EnVision detection system using monoclonal anti-CrkII. Evaluation of immunoreactivity of CrkII was based on the immunoreaction intensity and percentage of stained tumor cells which were scored semi-quantitatively on a scale with four grades 0 to 3. Kruskal-wallis test and additional Mann-Whitney statistical test were used for analysis of CrkII expression levels. Results. Increased expression of CrkII was seen (P=0.005) in malignant tumors including: mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, but CrkII expression in acinic cell carcinoma was weak. CrkII expression in pleomorphic adenoma was weak or negative. A weak staining was sparsely seen in normal acinar serous cell. Conclusion. Increased expression of CrkII and its higher intensity of staining in tumors with more aggressive biologic behavior in carcinomas of salivary gland is consistent with a role for this proto-oncogene in salivary gland tumorigenesis and cancer progression.

  8. 3D bioprinting matrices with controlled pore structure and release function guide in vitro self-organization of sweat gland (United States)

    Liu, Nanbo; Huang, Sha; Yao, Bin; Xie, Jiangfan; Wu, Xu; Fu, Xiaobing


    3D bioprinting matrices are novel platforms for tissue regeneration. Tissue self-organization is a critical process during regeneration that implies the features of organogenesis. However, it is not clear from the current evidences whether 3D printed construct plays a role in guiding tissue self-organization in vitro. Based on our previous study, we bioprinted a 3D matrix as the restrictive niche for direct sweat gland differentiation of epidermal progenitors by different pore structure (300-μm or 400-μm nozzle diameters printed) and reported a long-term gradual transition of differentiated cells into glandular morphogenesis occurs within the 3D construct in vitro. At the initial 14-day culture, an accelerated cell differentiation was achieved with inductive cues released along with gelatin reduction. After protein release completed, the 3D construct guide the self-organized formation of sweat gland tissues, which is similar to that of the natural developmental process. However, glandular morphogenesis was only observed in 300-μm–printed constructs. In the absence of 3D architectural support, glandular morphogenesis was not occurred. This striking finding made us to identify a previously unknown role of the 3D-printed structure in glandular tissue regeneration, and this self-organizing strategy can be applied to forming other tissues in vitro. PMID:27694985

  9. 3D bioprinting matrices with controlled pore structure and release function guide in vitro self-organization of sweat gland. (United States)

    Liu, Nanbo; Huang, Sha; Yao, Bin; Xie, Jiangfan; Wu, Xu; Fu, Xiaobing


    3D bioprinting matrices are novel platforms for tissue regeneration. Tissue self-organization is a critical process during regeneration that implies the features of organogenesis. However, it is not clear from the current evidences whether 3D printed construct plays a role in guiding tissue self-organization in vitro. Based on our previous study, we bioprinted a 3D matrix as the restrictive niche for direct sweat gland differentiation of epidermal progenitors by different pore structure (300-μm or 400-μm nozzle diameters printed) and reported a long-term gradual transition of differentiated cells into glandular morphogenesis occurs within the 3D construct in vitro. At the initial 14-day culture, an accelerated cell differentiation was achieved with inductive cues released along with gelatin reduction. After protein release completed, the 3D construct guide the self-organized formation of sweat gland tissues, which is similar to that of the natural developmental process. However, glandular morphogenesis was only observed in 300-μm-printed constructs. In the absence of 3D architectural support, glandular morphogenesis was not occurred. This striking finding made us to identify a previously unknown role of the 3D-printed structure in glandular tissue regeneration, and this self-organizing strategy can be applied to forming other tissues in vitro.

  10. Making Plants Break a Sweat: the Structure, Function, and Evolution of Plant Salt Glands (United States)

    Dassanayake, Maheshi; Larkin, John C.


    Salt stress is a complex trait that poses a grand challenge in developing new crops better adapted to saline environments. Some plants, called recretohalophytes, that have naturally evolved to secrete excess salts through salt glands, offer an underexplored genetic resource for examining how plant development, anatomy, and physiology integrate to prevent excess salt from building up to toxic levels in plant tissue. In this review we examine the structure and evolution of salt glands, salt gland-specific gene expression, and the possibility that all salt glands have originated via evolutionary modifications of trichomes. Salt secretion via salt glands is found in more than 50 species in 14 angiosperm families distributed in caryophyllales, asterids, rosids, and grasses. The salt glands of these distantly related clades can be grouped into four structural classes. Although salt glands appear to have originated independently at least 12 times, they share convergently evolved features that facilitate salt compartmentalization and excretion. We review the structural diversity and evolution of salt glands, major transporters and proteins associated with salt transport and secretion in halophytes, salt gland relevant gene expression regulation, and the prospect for using new genomic and transcriptomic tools in combination with information from model organisms to better understand how salt glands contribute to salt tolerance. Finally, we consider the prospects for using this knowledge to engineer salt glands to increase salt tolerance in model species, and ultimately in crops.

  11. An overall assessment of circumanal gland adenoma in a terrier mix breed dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad Javanbakht; Reza Samani; Fardin Barati; Vahideh Rahmani Ghalee; Abbas Tavassoli; Farhang Sasani; Atefeh Sabbagh; Mehdi Aghamohamad Hassan; Shohreh Alian Samakkhah; Radmehr Shafiee; Meysam Jani; Samad Alimohammadi


    In September 2012, a 10-year-old, intact male, terrier mix breed dog was evaluated because of multiple, 0.5 to 1.2 cm in diameter, round, intradermal nodules around the anus. It had surgery to excise a firm, painful swelling in the left ventrolateral perianal region and the excision part was observed under light microscopy. The mass spreading in to sub acute was of left hind leg out from the ventro-lateral of anus, 1.2 cmí1 cm/ 0 cmí0.5 cm in size and 125 g in weight. A complete blood cell count, serum biochemistry panel, and urinalysis (cystocentesis sample) were evaluated. Significant laboratory data demonstrated microcytic anemia (hemoglobin of 6.4 mg/dL) and normal coagulation times. No remarkable abnormalities were found in the complete blood count and an ionized calcium of 1.91 mmol/L (reference range, 1.1-1.3 mmol/L) was confirmed hypercalcemia. On cytologic and histopathologic examinations, evaluation of the aspirate revealed a prominent population of round-to-polygonal nucleated cells arranged as cohesive groups with isolated individual cells. A mild degree of anisocytosis and anisokaryosis was observed. In addition, smaller reserve type cells, with darker cytoplasm and a higher nucleocytoplasmic ratio. The adenomas generally retain the lobular architecture, but some may contain focal areas of cellular pleomorphism. These changes may suggest malignant transformation and have led to discordant interpretations, the well-developed stroma surrounding the lobules and hepatoid cells was noted. Ulceration, hemorrhage, necrosis and secondary infection with inflammatory cell infiltrates are common. These cytology and histopathology features are consistent with hepatoid gland adenoma.

  12. An overall assessment of circumanal gland adenoma in a terrier mix breed dog

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    Javad Javanbakht


    Full Text Available In September 2012, a 10-year-old, intact male, terrier mix breed dog was evaluated because of multiple, 0.5 to 1.2 cm in diameter, round, intradermal nodules around the anus. It had surgery to excise a firm, painful swelling in the left ventrolateral perianal region and the excision part was observed under light microscopy. The mass spreading in to sub acute was of left hind leg out from the ventro-lateral of anus, 1.2 cm×1 cm/0 cm×0.5 cm in size and 125 g in weight. A complete blood cell count, serum biochemistry panel, and urinalysis (cystocentesis sample were evaluated. Significant laboratory data demonstrated microcytic anemia (hemoglobin of 6.4 mg/dL and normal coagulation times. No remarkable abnormalities were found in the complete blood count and an ionized calcium of 1.91 mmol/L (reference range, 1.1-1.3 mmol/L was confirmed hypercalcemia. On cytologic and histopathologic examinations, evaluation of the aspirate revealed a prominent population of round-to-polygonal nucleated cells arranged as cohesive groups with isolated individual cells. A mild degree of anisocytosis and anisokaryosis was observed. In addition, smaller reserve type cells, with darker cytoplasm and a higher nucleocytoplasmic ratio. The adenomas generally retain the lobular architecture, but some may contain focal areas of cellular pleomorphism. These changes may suggest malignant transformation and have led to discordant interpretations, the well-developed stroma surrounding the lobules and hepatoid cells was noted. Ulceration, hemorrhage, necrosis and secondary infection with inflammatory cell infiltrates are common. These cytology and histopathology features are consistent with hepatoid gland adenoma.

  13. Podoplanin is a novel myoepithelial cell marker in pleomorphic adenoma and other salivary gland tumors with myoepithelial differentiation. (United States)

    Tsuneki, Masayuki; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Essa, Ahmed; Abé, Tatsuya; Babkair, Hamzah Ali; Ahsan, Md Shahidul; Cheng, Jun; Saku, Takashi


    The expression of podoplanin, one of the representative immunohistochemical markers for lymphatic endothelium, is upregulated in various kinds of cancers. Based on our previous studies, we have developed a hypothesis that podoplanin plays a role in cell adhesion via its association with extracellular matrix (ECM). Since salivary pleomorphic adenoma is histologically characterized by its ECM-enriched stroma, we firstly wanted to explore the expression modes of podoplanin in pleomorphic adenoma and related salivary tumors by immunohistochemistry. In normal salivary gland, podoplanin was specifically localized in myoepithelial cells, which were also positively labeled by antibodies against P63, of the intercalated duct as well as acini. In pleomorphic adenoma, podoplanin was colocalized with P63 and CD44 in basal cells of glandular structures as well as in stellate/spindle cells in myxochondroid matrices, where perlecan and hyaluronic acid were enriched. The expression of podoplanin was confirmed at both protein and mRNA levels in pleomorphic adenoma cell systems (SM-AP1 and SM-AP4) by using immunofluorescence, western blotting, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Podoplanin was localized on the cell border as well as in the external periphery of the cells. Moreover, podoplanin expression was also confirmed in tumor cells with myoepithelial differentiation in myoepithelioma and intraductal papilloma. The results indicate that podoplanin can be regarded as a novel myoepithelial marker in salivary gland tumors and suggest that podoplanin's communication with ECM molecules is essential to phenotypic differentiation to myoepithelial cells.

  14. Tenascin and fibronectin in pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland Tenascina e fibronectina em adenoma pleomórfico de glândula salivar

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    Patrícia Meira Bento


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze the expression and distribution pattern of extracellular matrix components in pleomorphic adenomas of the major and minor salivary glands and to compare the morphological findings of these tumors with the immunohistochemical expression, considering the different types of stroma predominating in each case. METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression of tenascin (TN and fibronectin (FN was analyzed in 23 cases of pleomorphic adenomas, 11 major and 12 minor salivary gland tumors, by the streptavidin-biotin method using anti-tenascin and anti-fibronectin antibodies. In addition, the immunohistochemical results were correlated with the morphological findings of the lesions. All cases analyzed were immunoreactive for the antibodies used. Fibronectin showed strong labeling in fibrous and chondroid stroma, while labeling was weak in hyaline and myxoid stroma. Tenascin expression was more intense in fibrous and chondroid stroma and moderate in hyaline and myxoid stroma. CONCLUSIONS: No difference in the expression of these proteins was observed between major and minor salivary gland tumors.OBJETIVO: Analisar a expressão e o padrão de distribuição de componentes da matriz extracelular em adenomas pleomórficos de glândula salivar maior e menor e comparar os achados morfológicos destes tumores com a expressão imuno-histoquímica considerando os diferentes tipos de estromas presentes em cada caso. MÉTODOS E RESULTADOS: A expressão da tenascina (TN e fibronectina (FN foi analisada em 23 casos de adenomas pleomórficos, sendo 11 tumores em glândula salivar maior e 12 em glândula salivar menor, utilizando-se o método da estreptoavidina-biotina para os anticorpos anti-tenascina e anti-fibronectina. Os resultados imuno-histoquimicos foram correlacionados com os achados morfológicos das lesões. Todos os casos foram imunorreativos para a fibronectina mostrando forte expressão nos estromas fibrosos e condróides, embora fraca marca

  15. Giant Brunner’s Gland Adenoma of the Duodenal Bulb Presenting with Ampullary and Duodenal Obstruction Mimicking Pancreatic Malignancy

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    Vishal Gupta


    Full Text Available Context Brunner’s gland adenoma is a rare benign duodenal neoplasm. It usually presents with luminal obstruction or gastrointestinal bleeding. In rare cases, it may mimic a pancreatic malignancy and may present with obstructive jaundice. Case report A 65-year-old female presented with a two-month history of abdominal pain, early satiety and retrosternal burning pain. Liver function tests showed elevated enzymes with normal bilirubin. Imaging studies revealed a large mass in relation to the uncinate process of the pancreas and the distal duodenum along with the dilated common bile duct and the main pancreatic duct. Initial endoscopic evaluation failed to make a correct diagnosis. Repeat endoscopic evaluation combined with endoscopic sonography, however, revealed a large polypoid mass arising from the duodenal bulb. The patient underwent a transduodenal polypectomy. A diagnosis of Brunner’s gland adenoma was made on histopathological examination. Conclusion Giant Brunner’s adenoma may have unusual presentations. It may present with the features of ampullary obstruction mimicking periampullary or pancreatic malignancies. Extensive preoperative evaluation is required to reach a correct diagnosis in order to avoid more extensive surgery.

  16. IgG/IgE bullous pemphigoid with CD45 lymphocytic reactivity to dermal blood vessels, nerves and eccrine sweat glands

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    Ana Maria Abreu-Velez


    Full Text Available Context: Bullous pemphigoid (BP, the most common autoimmune blistering disease, is mediated by autoantibodies. BP primarily affects the elderly and is characterized by the development of urticarial plaques surmounted by subepidermal blisters, and the deposition of immunoglobulins and complement at the basement membrane zone (BMZ of the skin. BP is immunologically characterized by the development of autoantibodies targeting two structural proteins of the hemidesmosomes, BP180 (collagen XVII and BP230 (BPAG1. Case Report: A 63 -year-old Caucasian female patient was evaluated for a 4 day history of several itching, erythematous blisters on her extremities. Biopsies for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E examination, as well as Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS, immunohistochemistry (IHC and direct immunofluorescence (DIF analysis were performed. Results: H&E demonstrated a subepidermal blister, with partial re-epithelialization of the blister floor. Within the blister lumen, numerous neutrophils were present, with occasional eosinophils and lymphocytes also noted. Within the dermis, a mild, superficial, perivascular and periadnexal infiltrate of lymphocytes, histiocytes and occasional eosinophils was identified, with mild perivascular leukocytoclastic debris. The PAS stain was positive at the BMZ, and around selected blood vessels, nerves and sweat glands. DIF revealed linear deposits of IgG and Complement/C3 and fibrinogen at the BMZ, and around selected dermal nerves, blood vessels and sweat glands. Strong granular deposits of IgE were also observed, colocalizing with monoclonal antibodies to Collagen IV (CIV. By IHC, positive CD45 staining of lymphocytes was seen surrounding selected dermal blood vessels, eccrine sweat glands, and nerves. Conclusion : The patient displayed IgG, IgE, and fibrinogen autoantibodies against the BMZ, as well as around some dermal nerves and sweat glands; their binding in the skin could trigger complement activation. In addition, the

  17. Expression of Angiotensin Ⅱ Receptors in Aldosterone-producing Adenoma of the Adrenal Gland and Their Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴准; 倪栋; 闫永吉; 李俊; 王保军; 欧阳金枝; 张国玺; 马鑫; 李宏召; 张旭


    The expression of angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor (AT1R) and angiotensin Ⅱ type 2 receptor (AT2R) in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) of the adrenal gland was detected, and their relationship with clinical indexes of APA was analyzed. The mRNA expression of AT1R and AT2R in 50 cases of APA and tissues adjacent to tumors and 12 cases of normal adrenal tissues was detected by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of AT1R and AT2R proteins in paraffin-embedded slices o...

  18. Modelling millimetre wave propagation and absorption in a high resolution skin model: the effect of sweat glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafirstein, Gal [Department of Otolaryngology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham, 543, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Moros, Eduardo G, E-mail: [Division of Radiation Physics and Informatics, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham, 771, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)


    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential effect of sweat gland ducts (SGD) on specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature distributions during mm-wave irradiation. High resolution electromagnetic and bio-heat transfer models of human skin with SGD were developed using a commercially available simulation software package (SEMCAD X(TM)). The skin model consisted of a 30 {mu}m stratum corneum, 350 {mu}m epidermis and papillary dermis (EPD) and 1000 {mu}m dermis. Five SGD of 60 {mu}m radius and 300 {mu}m height were embedded linearly with 370 {mu}m separation. A WR-10 waveguide positioned 20 {mu}m from the skin surface and delivering 94 GHz electromagnetic radiation was included in the model. Saline conductivity was assigned inside SGD. SAR and temperatures were computed with and without SGD. Despite their small scale, SAR was significantly higher within SGD than in the EPD without SGD. Without SGD, SAR and temperature maxima were in the dermis near EPD. With SGD, SAR maximum was inside SGD while temperature maximum moved to the EPD/stratum-corneum junction. Since the EPD participates actively in perception, the effect of SGD should be taken into account in nociceptive studies involving mm-waves. This research represents a significant step towards higher spatial resolution numerical modelling of the skin and shows that microstructures can play a significant role in mm-wave absorption and induced temperature distributions.

  19. Modelling millimetre wave propagation and absorption in a high resolution skin model: the effect of sweat glands (United States)

    Shafirstein, Gal; Moros, Eduardo G.


    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential effect of sweat gland ducts (SGD) on specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature distributions during mm-wave irradiation. High resolution electromagnetic and bio-heat transfer models of human skin with SGD were developed using a commercially available simulation software package (SEMCAD X™). The skin model consisted of a 30 µm stratum corneum, 350 µm epidermis and papillary dermis (EPD) and 1000 µm dermis. Five SGD of 60 µm radius and 300 µm height were embedded linearly with 370 µm separation. A WR-10 waveguide positioned 20 µm from the skin surface and delivering 94 GHz electromagnetic radiation was included in the model. Saline conductivity was assigned inside SGD. SAR and temperatures were computed with and without SGD. Despite their small scale, SAR was significantly higher within SGD than in the EPD without SGD. Without SGD, SAR and temperature maxima were in the dermis near EPD. With SGD, SAR maximum was inside SGD while temperature maximum moved to the EPD/stratum-corneum junction. Since the EPD participates actively in perception, the effect of SGD should be taken into account in nociceptive studies involving mm-waves. This research represents a significant step towards higher spatial resolution numerical modelling of the skin and shows that microstructures can play a significant role in mm-wave absorption and induced temperature distributions.

  20. Hyperhidrosis (Excessive Sweating) (United States)

    ... which the sweat glands can be removed by scraping (curettage) or liposuction. Nerve surgery. If you have ... a not-for-profit organization and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. Mayo Clinic does ...

  1. CT and MR images of pleomorphic adenoma in major and minor salivary glands

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    Kakimoto, Naoya [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail:; Gamoh, Shoko [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail:; Tamaki, Junko [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail:; Kishino, Mitsunobu [Department of Oral Pathology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail:; Murakami, Shumei [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail:; Furukawa, Souhei [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail:


    Purpose: To investigate the CT and MR imaging features of pleomorphic adenoma in the head and neck area. Materials and methods: Our materials of this study consisted of 50 pleomorphic adenomas from 50 patients which were all histopathologically diagnosed. The CT and MR images were retrospectively evaluated. The following features were evaluated: the detectability of the lesion, the tumor margin, the border of the lesion, the aspect of the lesion, the contrast between the lesion and surrounding tissue, the signal intensity of the lesion, the enhancement of contrast medium, the aspect of the lesion after the injection of contrast medium, the detectability of the capsule, and the detectability of bone resorption of the lesion. Results: The tumor detectabilities were 77% on axial plain CT images and 90% on axial CE CT images, respectively. On CT images, pleomorphic adenoma tended to show a well-defined margin, a smooth border, an inhomogeneous aspect, a low or high contrast, and intermediate or high signal intensity. After contrast medium administration, pleomorphic adenoma tended to show a slightly high enhancement and either an inhomogeneous or a periphery enhancement on the CE CT images. The capsule could be hardly detected on CT images. The tumor detectabilities were 86% on axial T1-weighted MR images, 88% on axial T2-weighted MR images, and 85% on axial CE T1-weighted MR images, respectively. On MR images, pleomorphic adenomas tended to show well-defined margin, a lobulate border, an inhomogeneous aspect, a high contrast, and intermediate or high signal intensity. After contrast medium administration, pleomorphic adenoma tended to show a high enhancement and either an inhomogeneous or a periphery enhancement on MR images. The capsule could be detected in many cases on MR images. Conclusions: It was possible to detect the capsule in pleomorphic adenoma using MR images. The pleomorphic adenomas in head and neck area should be evaluated with MR images.

  2. Brunner’s Gland Adenoma – A Rare Cause of Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Case Report and Systematic Review

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    Michele Sorleto


    Full Text Available Brunner’s gland adenoma is an extremely rare benign small bowel neoplasm, often discovered incidentally during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy or radiological diagnostics. In few cases, it tends to cause gastrointestinal hemorrhage or intestinal obstruction. We report here our experience with a 47-year-old woman with a Brunner’s gland adenoma of more than 6 cm in size, located in the first part of the duodenum and causing gastrointestinal bleeding. Initially, we performed a partial endoscopic resection using endoloop and snare alternatively to prevent severe bleeding. A rest endoscopic polypectomy with the submucosal dissection technique was planned. However, on request of the patient, an elective surgical duodenotomy with submucosal resection of the remaining small duodenal tumor was performed. To better define the patient’s characteristics and treatment options of such lesions, we performed a systematic review of the available literature in PubMed. Recently, an endoscopic removal is being increasingly practiced and is considered as a safe treatment modality of such lesions.

  3. Massive Multinodular Head and Neck Recurrence of Parotid Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma: A Case Report

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    Pierre Philouze


    Full Text Available Introduction. The optimal initial management of parotid pleomorphic adenomas reduces the risk of recurrence and malignant transformation. Surgery of recurrence can be difficult in multinodular disseminated forms. Case Report. A 67-years-old patient was referred for management of a large multifocal recurrence of a pleomorphic adenoma operated on 23 years ago. The clinical and radiological assessment found parapharyngeal, infratemporal, and prestyloid invasion, with nodules in the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Excision by transmandibular approach was performed. The pathologist found a multinodular recurrent pleomorphic adenoma without criteria of malignancy. Postoperative radiotherapy was performed. Discussion. Multinodular forms and incomplete resections are the most important factors that are thought to predispose to recurrence. A precise analysis of the extension by preoperative MRI is essential. Adjuvant radiotherapy can be given in these recurrent multifocal forms.

  4. Basal cell adenoma-clinicopathological, immunohistochemical analysis and surgical considerations of a rare salivary gland tumor with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A D Bhagat Singh


    Full Text Available Introduction: Basal cell adenoma (BCA of the salivary glands is a rare benign salivary gland tumour. Differentiation of BCA from varied entities involving maxillofacial area is mandatory. Aim: To analyze the clinicopathological, histopathologic features, immunohistochemcal analysis and surgical considerations of this rare entity. Materials and Methods: This study included 12 cases of BCA from archives of department reported over the period of 13 years. All the pertaining clinicopathologic features such as incidence, age, sex and site of lesions were assessed. Tissue sections were stained by using panel of immunohistochemical markers, i.e. Pan CK, CK 5/6 and S100, Calponin, p63, CD 117 and smooth muscle actin. Results: BCA was observed in 26-52 years age group (mean age, 38.75 years with female propensity of 7:5 male to female ratio. It is seen more commonly in parotid gland, followed by upper lip, buccal mucosa and palate. Solid type is the most common histopathologic type followed by tubular, membranous and trabecular. Only one case of membranous type of BCA showed recurrence. Pan CK, CK 5/6 showed strong immunoreactivity, calponin showed moderate staining, p63 and Ki-67 mild staining, whereas CD 117 and SMA showed negative immunostaining. Conclusion: Vigilant comprehensive analysis of all the pertaining clinicopathologic and histopathologic features and immunohistochemical analysis are required for differentiating from other lesions with basaloid differentiation having varying prognosis.

  5. Pleomorphic Adenoma of Parotid Gland in The Elderly: Do We Always Need to Operate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Malik


    Conclusion: A decision to excise a parotid pleomorphic adenoma, with no malignant pointers, in the elderly and in patients who are high risk for general anaesthesia should be taken cautiously and a non-surgical approach should be considered. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(1.000: 41-44

  6. 3D volumetry comparison using 3T magnetic resonance imaging between normal and adenoma-containing pituitary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Roldan-Valadez


    Full Text Available Background: Computed-assisted three-dimensional data (3D allows for an accurate evaluation of volumes compared with traditional measurements. Aims: An in vitro method comparison between geometric volume and 3D volumetry to obtain reference data for pituitary volumes in normal pituitary glands (PGs and PGs containing adenomas. Design: Prospective, transverse, analytical study. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight subjects underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with 3D sequencing for computer-aided volumetry. PG phantom volumes by both methods were compared. Using the best volumetric method, volumes of normal PGs and PGs with adenoma were compared. Statistical analysis used the Bland-Altman method, t-statistics, effect size and linear regression analysis. Results: Method comparison between 3D volumetry and geometric volume revealed a lower bias and precision for 3D volumetry. A total of 27 patients exhibited normal PGs (mean age, 42.07 ± 16.17 years, although length, height, width, geometric volume and 3D volumetry were greater in women than in men. A total of 21 patients exhibited adenomas (mean age 39.62 ± 10.79 years, and length, height, width, geometric volume and 3D volumetry were greater in men than in women, with significant volumetric differences. Age did not influence pituitary volumes on linear regression analysis. Conclusions: Results from the present study showed that 3D volumetry was more accurate than the geometric method. In addition, the upper normal limits of PGs overlapped with lower volume limits during early stage microadenomas.

  7. Immunoexpression of GLUT-1 and angiogenic index in pleomorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, and mucoepidermoid carcinomas of the salivary glands. (United States)

    de Souza, Lélia Batista; de Oliveira, Lucileide Castro; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; Lopes, Maria Luiza Diniz de Sousa; Pinto, Leão Pereira; Queiroz, Lélia Maria Guedes


    This study aimed to evaluate and compare the immunoexpression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) and angiogenic index between pleomorphic adenomas (PAs), adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs), and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MECs) of the salivary glands, and establish associations with the respective subtype/histological grade. Twenty PAs, 20 ACCs, and 10 MECs were submitted to morphological and immunohistochemical analysis. GLUT-1 expression was semi-quantitatively evaluated and angiogenic index was assessed by microvessel counts using anti-CD34 antibody. Higher GLUT-1 immunoexpression was observed in the MECs compared to PAs and ACCs (p = 0.022). Mean number of microvessels was 66.5 in MECs, 40.4 in PAs, and 21.2 in ACCs (p GLUT-1 expression and angiogenic index showed no significant correlation in the tumors studied. Results suggest that differences in biological behavior of the studied tumors are related to GLUT-1. Benign and malignant salivary gland tumors differ in the angiogenic index; however, angiogenesis may be independent of the tumor cell's metabolic demand.

  8. [A combination of diseases of the thyroid and asymptomatic adenoma of the parathyroid glands]. (United States)

    Romanchishen, A F; Matveeva, Z S


    The authors have analyzed the cases of diagnosis of asymptomatic tumors of the parathyroid gland made during 8814 operations on the thyroid in the period from 1995 through 2004. The probability of detecting parathyroid incidentalomas in different forms of goiter was calculated which reaches 0.4%. A precision technique of operating allows the parathyroid tumors to be detected at the preclinical stage in all patients apart from a removal of the necessary volume of the thyroid tissue, guaranteed preservation of the laryngeal nerves and parathyroid glands.

  9. Clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil R Rabade


    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common epithelial neoplasm of lacrimal gland. A clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma arising in the background of pleomorphic adenoma is common in the salivary glands but very rare in the lacrimal glands. We report the case of a 27 year old man whose lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma recurred several times over a period of four years and ultimately evolved into a clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

  10. CT诊断腮腺多形性腺瘤的价值%CT diagnosis value of pleomorphic adenoma of parotid gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田希存; 刘江


    目的:探讨CT诊断腮腺多形性腺瘤的应用价值。方法对唐山市中医医院2009年1月~2014年10月疑似腮腺多形性腺瘤患者46例行CT平扫和增强扫描,对其检查结果与手术病理结果进行一致性检验分析。观察CT诊断腮腺多形性腺瘤的准确度、灵敏度、特异度。结果手术病理检查结果显示,腮腺多形性腺瘤44例,腮腺腺淋巴瘤1例,腮腺恶性肿瘤1例。CT检查结果显示,腮腺多形性腺瘤43例,腮腺腺淋巴瘤2例,腮腺恶性肿瘤1例。两种方法诊断腮腺多形性腺瘤的一致性较好(Kappa=0.71)。CT诊断腮腺多形性腺瘤的敏感度、特异度、准确度分别为97.7%、100.0%、97.8%。结论 CT诊断腮腺多形性腺瘤的敏感度、特异度、准确度较高,并能清楚显示肿瘤的形态、范围以及与周围结构的关系,能指导临床制订合理的手术方案。 CT增强扫描对肿物的良恶性鉴别具有重要的意义,可对术前的评估和预后提供科学依据。%Objective To explore the diagnosis value of CT for pleomorphic adenoma of parotid gland. Methods 46 cas-es of patients suspected pleomorphic adenoma of parotid gland in Tangshan Hospital of traditional Chinese Medicine from January 2009 to October 2014 were given CT plain scan and enhanced scan. The consistency of test results and surgical pathology results was analyzed. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity of CT diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma of parotid gland were observed. Results Operation pathological examination results showed that 44 cases had pleomor-phic adenoma of parotid gland, 1 case had parotid gland lymphoma, 1 case had malignant tumor of parotid gland. CT results showed that 43 cases had pleomorphic adenoma of parotid gland, 2 cases had parotid gland lymphoma, 1 case had malignant tumor of parotid gland. Consistency test (Kappa test) results showed that the two methods had good con-sistency (Kappa=0.71). The sensitivity

  11. 腮腺基底细胞腺瘤CT和MRI特点%Basal Cell Adenomas of the Parotid Gland: CT and MRI Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖; 马林; 程流泉; 娄欣; 王英伟


    目的 探讨腮腺基底细胞腺瘤的临床特点及CT、MRI影像特征.资料与方法 回顾性分析经手术病理证实的37例腮腺基底细胞腺瘤的CT、MRI影像特点,37例术前均行CT和MR平扫+增强扫描,对患者性别、发病年龄、临床表现、发病部位,以及肿块大小、数目、CT密度、MRI信号强度及强化方式等进行分析.结果 中老年女性多见,多表现为腮腺无痛性肿块.37例病变均位于腮腺浅叶.CT和MRI平扫示肿瘤呈类圆形,无分叶,边缘光滑肿瘤.病变较小,直径为7~30mm;密度、信号欠均匀,21例(56.8%)发生囊变.CT和MRI增强扫描示37例有较显著强化.结论 腮腺基底细胞腺瘤具有体积小、易囊变、强化显著等影像学特征,结合临床特点对于肿瘤的定性诊断有很大帮助.%Purpose To explore the CT, MR imaging and clinical features of basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. Materials and Methods CT and MR imaging were performed in 37 patients with basal cell adenoma confirmed by pathology. The gender, age, clinical manifestation, localization, size, number, CT value, MR signal intensity and enhance pattern were observed in the parotid gland. Results Old women showed most basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland with manifestation of painless mass in parotid gland. The basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland was frequently observed in the superficial lobe of the parotid gland. 37 lesions were commonly demonstrated that showed the round-like shape with clear margin and evident enhancement on CT and MR images. The diameters of the lesions ranged from 7-30 mm. The lesions were heterogeneous. 21 patients (56.8%) suffered from cystic changes. Conclusion The basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland has certain clinical and imaging features, such as small in size, cystic changes, strong enhancement, which are helpful to the qualitative diagnosis of basal cell adenoma.

  12. Sweat Therapy. (United States)

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.


    A study combined group sweating and group counseling. Four adolescent boys with disruptive behavior disorders participated in 12 sweat therapy sessions. They reported the sessions useful for sharing personal concerns and receiving assistance with problem solving. Three boys showed improvement in self-esteem. Advantages of sweat therapy over other…

  13. Immunohistochemical pattern of pleomorphic adenoma, polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma in minor salivary glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Zaib


    Full Text Available To study the immunohistochemical pattern of CD 117, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, smooth muscle actin (SMA and CD 43 in pleomorphic adenoma (PA, adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA of minor salivary glands.Twenty cases of PA, 20 cases of AdCC and 10 cases of PLGA were retrieved from record files along with their paraffin blocks at Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Pakistan. New histological diagnosis was made on freshly prepared H&E sections followed by application and analysis of immunostains.The mean age of the patients was 44 ± 15 (mean SD (range; 17-86 years. There were 26 male and 24 female patients with a male to female ratio of 1.08:1. Fourteen cases of PA, 14 cases of AdCC and 6 cases of PLGA were positive for CD117. In case of GFAP, only 9 cases of AdCC and 3 cases of PLGA were positive; however, 16 cases of PA were also positive. Twelve cases of AdCC and 7 cases of PA were positive for SMA and half of the PLGA cases were also reactive. Nonetheless, the least expression was seen in case of CD 43, where only five cases of AdCC were positive. Six cases of PA and three cases of PLGA were also positive.Our results suggest that the use of GFAP, SMA, CD 117 and CD 43 as an adjunct to histological examination is not helpful in differentiating PA, AdCC and PLGA from one another.

  14. SOX10-positive salivary gland tumors: a growing list, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland, sialoblastoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, basal cell adenoma/adenocarcinoma, and a subgroup of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Yih-Leong


    Transcription factor SRY-related HMG-box 10 (SOX10) is an important marker for melanocytic, schwannian, myoepithelial, and some salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate SOX10 expression more thoroughly in the salivary gland neoplasms, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma harboring specific genetic rearrangements. A new rabbit monoclonal anti-SOX10 antibody (clone EP268) was used to examine SOX10 expression in 14 different types of salivary gland tumors. We found that acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, sialoblastoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, basal cell adenoma, and pleomorphic adenoma were SOX10 positive. Salivary duct carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma were SOX10 negative. Earlier, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was considered a SOX10-negative tumor. This study identified a subgroup of SOX10-positive MEC cases with characteristic polygonal epithelial cells, pale-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm, and colloid-like dense eosinophilic material. Our data show SOX10 expression can be observed in salivary gland tumors with either one of the 4 cell types: acinic cells, cuboidal ductal cells with low-grade cytologic features, basaloid cells, and myoepithelial cells. In this article we thoroughly evaluated SOX10 expression in salivary gland tumors. SOX10 is useful in the differential diagnosis between myoepithelial carcinoma with clear cell features and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. It can also be used to discriminate low-grade salivary duct carcinoma from high-grade ones. Pathologists should be cautious with the interpretation of SOX10 positivity in salivary gland tumors, and correlation with histologic feature is mandatory.

  15. 分离培养汗腺导管部细胞的新方法%A new way for isolation and cultivation of sweat gland ductual cells from human split-thickness skin in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷永红; 付小兵; 盛志勇; 蔡飒; 孙同柱


    目的 探讨建立汗腺导管部细胞分离的新技术.方法 成人仞厚皮片和薄中厚皮片标本(n=10)剪碎后用Ⅱ型胶原酶消化12 h,吸取并转移汗腺导管到培养皿中贴壁培养.应用流式细胞仪、免疫组织化学染色和逆转录-聚合酶链式反应(RT-PCR)以及蛋白印迹(Western Blot)分析检测培养细胞的汗腺特异标志CEA、CK8、CK18、CK19抗原表达,并用膜片钳技术检测培养细胞膜上阿米洛利(amiloride)敏感Na~+离子通道,用t检验比较分析两组间实验数据.结果 汗腺导管贴壁48 h后,围绕汗腺导管出现单层扁平的上皮细胞,生长2~4周融合成片.流式细胞学检查示原代培养汗腺导管细胞与原代培养汗腺细胞在癌胚抗原(CEA)阳性率[(90.26±1.12)%vs.(89.70±1.43)%]和细胞角蛋白8(CK8)阳性率[(94.41±1.84)%vs.(93.65±1.63)%]上,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).形态学染色汗腺导管细胞抗CEA、CK8、CK18、CK19染色均为阳性.RT-PCR表明原代培养汗腺导管细胞表达CEA、CK8、CK18、CK19基因,Western Blot清晰显示CEA条带,CK8、CK18、CK19蛋白条带.膜片钳检测表明原代培养汗腺导管细胞膜上存在amiloride敏感Na~+离子通道.无血清表皮细胞EpiLife培养基在汗腺导管细胞生长过程中抑制成纤维细胞生长.结论 从仞厚皮片和中厚皮片分离培养汗腺导管部细胞的方法较传统的分离方法具有简便快速的优点,EpiLife培养基可抑制培养过程中成纤维细胞的生长,可以在体外建立最佳汗腺导管细胞模型.%Objective To explore a new method of isolation and culture of eccrine sweat gland ductual cells from human split-thickness skin graft in vitro. Methods Human split-thickness skin graft which was presented by volunteer (n=10) was digested with type Ⅱ collagenase, and then sweat gland duct were isolated from the split-thickness skin graft, primary cultures were incubated at 37 ℃ in humidified atmosphere of 5% CO_2,95% O_2

  16. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary glands with major epithelial-myoepithelial component: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 3 cases. (United States)

    Sedassari, Bruno Tavares; Dos Santos, Harim Tavares; Mariano, Fernanda Viviane; da Silva Lascane, Nelise Alexandre; Altemani, Albina; Sousa, Suzana


    In the present study, 3 cases of very rare intraoral carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenomas showing a striking differentiation of the malignant component towards epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma were described. The tumors occurred in 2 men and 1 woman with median age of 56 years. Involved sites included palate and buccal mucosa. Two patients experienced local recurrences, of which one died of disease complications. In all cases, residual pleomorphic adenoma was present. The malignant component in all cases shared morphological aspects with epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma. Those areas were characterized by eosinophilic duct-forming cells surrounded by layers of clear cells. The studied immunohistochemical markers highlighted a biphasic cell population. Duct-forming cells expressed pan-cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, and focally cytokeratin 14, whereas the clear cell component strongly stained to cytokeratin 14, vimentin, and p63 but weakly stained to pan-cytokeratin and focally to α-smooth muscle actin, an immunophenotype compatible with both epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation. The Ki-67 proliferation index was up to 40% in malignant areas. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenomas of minor salivary glands with major epithelial-myoepithelial component are rare, locally aggressive, and potentially lethal tumors. The peculiar morphological and immunohistochemical aspects described may raise problems in diagnosis and classification of such cases, particularly in incisional biopsies.

  17. The interleukin-6/Janus kinase/STAT3 pathway in pleomorphic adenoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Heegaard, Steffen; Grauslund, Morten;


    pathway was overexpressed in PA compared to normal lacrimal gland. Overexpression of phosphorylated JAK1 (p-JAK1) and cyclin D1 was significantly overexpressed in ductal cells compared with myoepithelial cells in PA. A shift from p-JAK1 to p-JAK2 and p-Tyk2 overexpression was seen between PA and ca...

  18. Leather piece flip transmitters and medical cutting scrape trim used in sweat glands cleared the clinical research%皮片翻转器和医用削刮修整器用于腋臭根治的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟忠; 傅国; 李郁明; 王贤柱; 孔之华


    Objective In the way of how to explore with quick removal subcutaneous tissue.the top secrete sweat glands and size sweat glands. Methods Use of the skin over '"flip skin,use medical cut scraping the dressing is[2] (figure 1) cut scraping the clear subcutaneous tissue, the top secrete sweat glands and size sweat glands. Results With skin grafts for skin.flip over with medical cut is a direct blow nap in cutting scraping the clear subcutaneous tissue.the top secrete sweat glands and size sweat glands, subcutaneous tissue.the top secrete sweat glands and size clear thoroughly, the sweat gland surgery pace. Conclusion Skin of the flip and medical cut the wind is in shaping a direct quickly get rid of subcutaneous tissue.the top secrete sweat glands and size of sweat gland a nice combination instrument.%目的:探讨在腋臭根治术中如何快速清除皮下组织、顶泌汗腺和大小汗腺.方法:用皮片翻转器[1]翻转皮肤,用医用削刮修整器[2](图1)削刮清除皮下组织、顶泌汗腺和大小汗腺.结果:用皮片翻转器翻转皮肤,用医用削刮修整器在直视下削刮清除皮下组织、顶泌汗腺和大小汗腺,皮下组织、顶泌汗腺和大小汗腺清除彻底,手术进度快.结论:皮片翻转器和医用削刮修整器是在直视下快速清除皮下组织、顶泌汗腺和大小汗腺的一套很好用的组合器械.

  19. Study on the sudation function of sweat gland-like cells differentiated from umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells after being frozen and defrosted%汗腺样细胞经冻存复苏后再生汗腺功能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马奎; 鲁刚; 杨思明; 孙同柱; 付小兵; 盛志勇


    To explore the biological characteristics and the function of sweat gland-like cells trans-differentiated from umbilical cord mcscnchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) after being deep freeze storage. Methods; Human UCMSCs and sweat gland cells were isolated, cultured and identified with specific markers. They were co-cultured to transform the UCMSCs to sweat gland-like cells. After being deep frozen and defrosted, the stem cells, which exhibited the phenotype of sweat gland cells, were implanted into scald injured paws of nude mice. The regeneration of the sweat gland cells was observed. Results;The transdiffcrcntiatcd sweat gland-like cells were successfully implanted into the scald paws of nude mice after being frozen and defrosted, which regenerated the function of perspiration. Pathological observation showed that sweat glands were regenerated. Conclusions: UCMSCs can be transdiffcrcntiatcd into sweat gland-like cells in vitro, and the deep frozen and defrosted sweat gland like cells can be implanted into a fresh wound to regenerate sweat glands.%目的:研究由人脐带间充质干细胞(UCMSCs)分化而来的汗腺样细胞在冻存与复苏后的生物学活性与促汗腺再生能力.方法:分离培养人UCMSCs 和人汗腺细胞,通过两种细胞共培养方式促进UCMSCs向汗腺细胞分化.分化后的干细胞经冻存、复苏处理后,局部移植于裸鼠烫伤脚掌,通过组织学观察和发汗试验观察汗腺组织再生修复情况.结果:由UCMSCs分化而来的汗腺样细胞经冻存、复苏、移植于裸鼠脚掌创面后,能够在创面形成汗腺结构并具有发汗功能.结论:UCMSCs经诱导分化为汗腺样细胞后,经冻存和复苏处理,在体移植后仍能够有效促进受损汗腺的修复与再生,有望为大面积重度烧伤患者汗腺的修复提供充足的种子细胞.

  20. Long distance runners present upregulated sweating responses than sedentary counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Beom Lee

    Full Text Available Relatively few studies have investigated peripheral sweating mechanisms of long-distance runners. The aim of this study was to compare peripheral sweating mechanisms in male long-distance runners, and sedentary counterparts. Thirty six subjects, including 20 sedentary controls and 16 long-distance runners (with 7-12 years of athletic training, average 9.2±2.1 years were observed. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing (QSART with iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min and 10% acetylcholine (ACh were performed to determine axon reflex-mediated and directly activated (DIR, muscarinic receptor sweating. Sweat onset time, sweat rate, number of activated sweat glands, sweat output per gland and skin temperature were measured at rest while maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max were measured during maximal cycling. Sweat rate, activated sweat glands, sweat output per gland, skin temperature and VO2max were significantly higher in the trained runners than in the sedentary controls. Sweat onset time was significantly shorter for the runners. In the group of long-distance runners, significant correlations were found between VO2max and sweat onset time (r2 = 0.543, P<0.01, n = 16, DIR sweat rate (r2 = 0.584, P<0.001, n = 16, sweat output per gland (r2 = 0.539, P<0.01, n = 16. There was no correlation between VO2max and activated sweat glands. These findings suggest that habitual long-distance running results in upregulation of the peripheral sweating mechanisms in humans. Additional research is needed to determine the molecular mechanism underlying these changes. These findings complement the existing sweating data in long-distance runners.

  1. Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Upper Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülkü KÜÇÜK


    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common neoplasm of the salivary glands and is most commonly located in the parotis followed by the submandibular glands. Its localization in the minor salivary glands is mostly reported in the palate. Few publications report pleomorphic adenoma cases located in the lip.We present a 35-year-old male patient with a pleomorphic adenoma located in the upper lip.

  2. 口腔修复膜对腮腺多形性腺瘤术中味觉出汗综合征的预防%Dental Restorations Membrane of Parotid Pleomorphic Adenoma in Taste Sweating Syndrome of Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To evaluate oral repair membrane in the parotid Objective To evaluate oral repair membrane in the parotid gland tumor resection to the taste of sweating syndrome prevention effect. Methods In our hospital in January 2014 in June, 2012, 64 cases of parotid benign tumor patients, randomly divided into experimental group and control group. Results Incidence rate of experimental group was 2 (5.12%) and control group was 14(56.00%), respectively. The difference between two groups was significant. The difference between two groups was signiifcant (P0.05). Conclusion Oral repair is the prevention of implant taste sweating syndrome occurred after parotid tumors, simple and effective method.%目的:评价在腮腺肿瘤切除术中植入口腔修复膜对味觉出汗综合征的预防效果。方法我院2012年6月~2014年1月住院腮腺良性肿瘤患者64例,随机分为实验组和对照组。结果研究组中有2例(5.12%)出现味觉出汗综合征,而在对照组中出现的比例为14例(56.00%),两组间差异显著(P<0.05)。术后发生涎瘘两组共5例,两组间无差异(P>0.05),且两组均无发生感染者。结论口腔修复膜植入是预防腮腺肿瘤术后发生味觉出汗综合征简单有效方法。

  3. Invasive salivary duct carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: a teaching case giving rise to the genuine diagnostic difficulty on an inadequate cytology specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Sohsuke


    Full Text Available Abstract A history of a recent rapid increase in long-standing swelling mass was presented in the right parotid gland of an 85-year-old male. The inadequate cytologic specimens contained few small clusters of three-dimensional malignant epithelial cells having hyperchromatic pleomorphic nuclei and prominent nucleoli, adjacent to a cluster of benign monomorphic myoepithelial cells. We first interpreted it merely as an adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. A radical parotidectomy was performed, and gross examination revealed an encapsulated and firm tumor lesion, looking grayish-blue to yellowish-white, focally associated with extracapsular invasion. On microscopic examination, the tumor was predominantly composed of a proliferation of highly atypical epithelial cells having abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, often arranged in a Roman-bridge appearance with foci of comedo necrosis, alternating with extensive infiltration to adjacent stroma in a trabecular or alveolar fashion with severe vessel permeation. Within the background of pleomorphic adenoma, the carcinoma cells sometimes replaced ductal luminal cells while retaining an intact-like myoepithelial layer. Therefore, we finally made a diagnosis of invasive salivary duct carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. We should be aware that owing to its characteristic features, cytopathologists might be able to determine correct diagnosis, based on multiple and adequate samplings. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here:

  4. Expression of ARE-binding proteins AUF1 and HuR in follicular adenoma and carcinoma of thyroid gland. (United States)

    Trojanowicz, B; Sekulla, C; Dralle, H; Hoang-Vu, C


    Both adenylate-uridylate rich elements binding proteins AUF1 and HuR may participate in thyroid carcinoma progression. In this study we investigated the expression of both factors on a protein level with a special focus on follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma. By employment of immunofluorescence and western blot on 68 thyroid tissues including 7 goiter, 16 follicular adenoma (4 adenomatous hyperplasia), 19 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 13 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 14 undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas we investigated protein expression of AUF1 and HuR. In addition to previous results we demonstrated that AUF1 and HuR are significantly up-regulated in carcinoma tissues as compared with follicular adenoma or goiter tissues. Furthermore, by evaluation of AUF1 or HuR expression, or combination of both proteins on total tissue lysates, we were able to demonstrate a significant difference between follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma. Overexpression of AUF1 and HuR is a common finding observed in thyroid malignancy. Analysis of the tissues obtained by surgical resection as demonstrated in this study is comparable to a fine needle aspiration and in combination with AUF1/HuR immuno-analysis may support the conventional immunohistological investigations. The promising results of this study were performed on relatively small collective, but justify future development of a quick thyroid diagnostic test on larger cohort of the patients, especially for thyroid samples which are inadequate for histological examinations.

  5. Distribution of apocrine sweat glands in axillary region of patients with axillary osmidrosis%腋臭患者腋区顶泌汗腺的分布特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢卫斌; 刘文芳; 赵子申; 彭军; 李兴文; 马玉枝; 王娜


    目的 检测腋臭患者腋区顶泌汗腺在深度、广度的分布,探讨其范围内的分布差异性.方法 2010年9-12月间的15例腋臭患者,行直视下顶泌汗腺剪除术,切取切口处宽约2 mm的全层皮肤,深度达腋浅筋膜浅层,用于判明顶泌汗腺分布的深度.留取腋中心(点1)、距腋中心1 cm(点2)、距腋毛边缘内1cm(点3)、腋毛边缘(点4)、距腋毛边缘外1 cm(点5)共5个标记点对应的皮下暗红色粗大的颗粒状组织,用于判明顶泌汗腺的分布范围及分布规律.结果 顶泌汗腺分泌部主要分布于真皮网状层和皮下脂肪浅层,表皮层、真皮乳头层及腋浅筋膜浅层均无顶泌汗腺分布.顶泌汗腺广度分布与腋毛范围基本一致,腋中心部可见大量顶泌汗腺组织,腋毛边缘处仍有少量顶泌汗腺分布,腋毛边缘外1.0 cm处已无顶泌汗腺分布.5个点顶泌汗腺面积占整块组织面积的百分比平均值分别为74.1%、46.6%、25.3%、2.1%和0,相邻两点进行t检验,点1、2之间f=29.78,P< 0.01;点2、3之间t=9.76,P< 0.01;点3、4之间t=20.83,P< 0.01;点4、5之间t=1.96,P> 0.05.结论 手术治疗腋臭时,清除范围深度达真皮网状层和浅层脂肪层,广度到腋毛范围即可,没有必要过度扩大清除范围.%Objective To determine the distribution profile of apocrine sweat glands in axillary region of patients with axillary osmidrosis,and to compare their distribution at different sites.Methods Fifteen patients with axillary osmidrosis were enrolled in this study from September to December 2010.All the patients underwent surgical removal of apocrine sweat glands under direct vision.Full-thickness skin tissue measuring 2 mm in width was excised down to the axillary superficial fascia at the incisional surgical sites from five patients.Five points,which were at the center of axillary region (point 1),1 cm away from the center of axillary region (point 2),1 cm inside the edge of axillary

  6. Urea transporters and sweat response to uremia. (United States)

    Keller, Raymond W; Bailey, James L; Wang, Yanhua; Klein, Janet D; Sands, Jeff M


    In humans, urea is excreted in sweat, largely through the eccrine sweat gland. The urea concentration in human sweat is elevated when compared to blood urea nitrogen. The sweat urea nitrogen (UN) of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESRD) is increased when compared with healthy humans. The ability to produce sweat is maintained in the overwhelming majority of ESRD patients. A comprehensive literature review found no reports of sweat UN neither in healthy rodents nor in rodent models of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, this study measured sweat UN concentrations in healthy and uremic rats. Uninephrectomy followed by renal artery ligation was used to remove 5/6 of renal function. Rats were then fed a high-protein diet to induce uremia. Pilocarpine was used to induce sweating. Sweat droplets were collected under oil. Sweat UN was measured with a urease assay. Serum UN was measured using a fluorescent ortho-pthalaldehyde reaction. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was accomplished with a horseradish peroxidase and diaminobenzidine technique. Sweat UN in uremic rats was elevated greater than two times compared to healthy pair-fed controls (220 ± 17 and 91 ± 15 mmol/L, respectively). Post hoc analysis showed a significant difference between male and female uremic sweat UN (279 ± 38 and 177 ± 11 mmol/L, respectively.) IHC shows, for the first time, the presence of the urea transporters UT-B and UT-A2 in both healthy and uremic rat cutaneous structures. Future studies will use this model to elucidate how rat sweat UN and other solute excretion is altered by commonly prescribed diuretics.

  7. Activation of the interleukin-6/Janus kinase/STAT3 pathway in pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton; Grauslund, Morten


    the expression of the pathway components with immunohistochemistry and selected mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) regulated by this pathway in isolated duct- and myoepithelial cells in PA. 46 PAs were immunostained and 10 of these were used for in situ hybridization (ISH). Six frozen specimens were analyzed using...... to be overexpressed while matrix metallopeptidase 9 was detected at low levels in PA compared to normal salivary gland. ISH showed significant overexpression of miR-181b in PA, while miR-21 was undetectable in PA and normal tissue. Overexpression of the pathway components and its mRNA and miRNA products provide...... reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Using immunohistochemistry, IL-6, JAK1, JAK2 and STAT3 were detected significantly more frequently in PA cells than in cells from normal salivary gland tissue. Using RT-PCR cyclin D1, fibroblast growth factor 2, and p21 were found...

  8. Sweat electrolytes test (United States)

    Sweat test; Sweat chloride; Iontophoretic sweat test ... No special steps are needed before this test. ... The test is not painful. Some people have a tingling feeling at the site of the electrode. This feeling ...

  9. Expression and significance of AQP5 in axillary sweat glands of palmar hyperhidrosis patients with axillary hyperhidrosis%水通道蛋白5在手汗症伴腋窝多汗患者腋窝汗腺中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冬峰; 涂远荣; 陈剑锋; 邱明链; 李旭; 林敏


    Objective To examine the expression of aquaporin (AQP) in axillary sweat glands of palmar hyperhidrosis patients with axillary hyperhidrosis and investigate its relationship with the pathogene-sis of palmar hyperhidrosis patients with axillary hyperhidrosis. Methods Axillary sweat glands were obtained in 34 cases of hyperhidrosis and 8 cases of non-hyperhidrosis as control group. The number of axillary sweat glands was calculated by using HE staining and the expression of aquaporins (AQP1, AQP3, AQP5) was detected by using immunochemical method respectively. The comparison was made between hyperhidrosis group and control group. Results The number of axillary sweat glands in two groups had no significant difference in statistics (Z=- 1.506, P>0. 05 ). Both groups had the expression of AQP5, and AQP1, AQP3 were undetectable; The AQP5 expression of axillary sweat glands in hyperhidmsis cases was significantly increased as compared with that in control group (Z=- 3. 523, P0.05);两组腋窝汗腺中均无AQP1、AQP3表达,AQP5在两组均有表达且在实验组中表达显著增强(Z=-3.523,P<0.05).结论 AQP1、AQP3不参与人体腋窝汗腺分泌;AQP5可能是参与人体腋窝汗腺分泌的主要水通道蛋白之一,其表达增强很可能是手汗症伴腋窝多汗患者的发病机制之一.

  10. Estudo clinicopatológico de 106 adenomas pleomórficos de glândula salivar maior A clinicopathologic study of 106 pleomorphic adenomas of the major salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerlucia Cavalcanti das Neves


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O adenoma pleomórfico (AP é o mais comum dos tumores das glândulas salivares. Transformação maligna pode ocorrer após recorrências ou em casos com longo tempo de evolução. OBJETIVO: Analisar os aspectos clinicoepidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos do AP de glândula salivar maior, principalmente os considerados indício de transformação maligna. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 106 casos de AP pela pesquisa retrospectiva nos prontuários clínicos e revisão das preparações histológicas. RESULTADOS: A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 39,51 anos, houve predomínio do sexo feminino (69,5%, a glândula parótida foi a mais acometida (86,8% e o tempo de evolução foi superior a um ano em 76,74% dos casos, com tamanho tumoral de 3,48 cm em média. A avaliação histopatológica demonstrou cápsula tumoral incompleta e delgada em 49% dos casos. Protrusões para a cápsula ou extensão extracapsular foram infreqüentes, 11,32% e 8,49%, respectivamente. A matriz extracelular variou entre mixocondróide (41,5%, mixóide (36,8%, condróide (3,8% e fibrótica (1,9%, tendo sido observadas associações entre os diversos tipos. O componente epitelial/mioepitelial constituiu 50% ou mais do tumor em 65,1% dos casos e estava disposto em arranjos cordonal (86,8%, ductal (81,1%, sólido (40,6%, cístico (20,7% e em "paliçada" (8,49%. Metaplasia escamosa ocorreu em 16,04% dos casos. Alterações histopatológicas relacionadas com transformação maligna foram incomuns: hialinização extensa (4,7% e necrose (0,9%. CONCLUSÕES: confirma-se a diversidade histopatológica do AP. Características associadas a transformação maligna não foram freqüentes na amostra.INTRODUCTION: Pleomorphic adenomas (PA are the most common histologic type of salivary gland tumors. Malignant transformation may occur in the setting of recurrent or longstanding disease. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics of PA of the major

  11. 腋窝顶泌汗腺的应用解剖与组织病理学观察%Anatomy and histopathology of apocrine sweat glands in axillary fossa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王擎; 柳大烈; 王晋煌; 陈兵; 陈伯华


    目的 研究腋臭顶泌汗腺的分布范围与层次,为治疗腋臭提供应用解剖与病理学依据.方法 对2具腋臭,8具非腋臭10%甲醛固定成人尸体,进行腋窝应用解剖;对25例重度腋臭患者予以顶泌汗腺去除手术的组织病理学观察.结果 顶泌汗腺分泌部肉眼清晰可见,呈粟粒样颗粒;尸体上呈黑褐色,活体上为粉红色;主要分布在腋毛区域内,可超过腋毛区域外,但未超过1.0 cm;以腋窝中央横皱襞处最为密集,外围呈散在分布.顶泌汗腺分泌部位于真皮网状层与腋浅筋膜之间的浅层脂肪组织内,在真皮网状层下方已移行为导管部.在靠近真皮网状层处,其被结缔组织缠绕,形成完整、坚韧、不易刮除的膜状结构;在下方与腋浅筋膜连接紧密,不易分离.真皮面上白色突起颗粒为皮脂腺毛囊复合体.结论 直视下去除真皮下粉红色粟粒样组织和腋浅筋膜,干净去除顶泌汗腺分泌部;结合紧贴真皮面剪除毛囊处理导管部,可根治腋臭.手术范围不可过宽,以腋毛区域外1.0 cm为宜.%Objective To investigate the distribution range and depth of the apocrine sweat glands of the axillary fossa,in order to supply with anatomic and histopathologic basis in the treatment on axillarv osmidrosis.Methods From December 2008 to ()ctober 2010,2 biopsy samples(with axillary osmidrosis),8 biopsy samples(normal,without axillary osmidrosis),were employed into the axillarv anatomy study. 25 patients with severe axillary osmidrosis were observed both maerographicallv and microscopically by using of operation and histopathological methods.Results Secretory portion of apocrine sweat glands was seen clearly,it was pitchy millet-like granules on axillary osmidrosis corpse,and pink millet-like granules in vivo.Secretory portions distributed most within the armpit hair area,exceeded the edge of armpit hair line,but not surpassed the edge of armpit hair line 1.0 cm.The depth of the apocrine

  12. Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) antigen as marker of myoepithelial and basal cells in the parotid gland, pleomorphic adenomas and adenoid cystic carcinomas. An immunohistological comparison between T and sialosyl-T antigens, alpha-smooth muscle actin and cytokeratin 14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Christensen, M;


    -known markers of normal MEC/basal cells (i.e. alpha-smooth muscle actin and cytokeratin 14) with T (Thomsen-Friedenreich) antigen and its sialylated derivative: sialosyl-T antigen,) in 17 normal parotid glands and in two tumour types with MEC participation (i.e pleomorphic adenomas (PA) and adenoid cystic...... carcinomas (ACC)) using immunohistology with well-defined monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Paraffin-embedded/fresh frozen tissue sections were studied from 33/17 patients with PA and 15/7 patients with ACC. In normal parotid tissue coexpression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, cytokeratin 14, T and sialosyl...

  13. CT imaging features of duodenal Brunner′s gland adenoma (with 7 cases analysis)%十二指肠Brunner腺腺瘤的CT表现(附7例病例报道)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎昕; 代海洋; 钟华; 李丽红


    目的:探讨十二指肠Brunner腺腺瘤的CT影像学表现。方法回顾性分析7例经病理证实的十二指肠Brunner腺腺瘤CT表现。结果十二指肠Brunner腺腺瘤表现为密度均匀或不均匀的类圆形或长条形肿块,直径1.5~5.1 cm不等,平均4.1 cm,边缘清晰;CT平扫示肿瘤实体部分密度均与临近肠壁密度相似,增强扫描动脉期均呈中度不均匀强化,门静脉期均呈渐进性强化,密度仍欠均匀。结论十二指肠Brunner腺腺瘤的CT表现具有一定的特点,对其影像特征的认识可减少误诊率,但最终确诊仍有赖于病理诊断。%Objective To investigate the CT imaging features of duodenal Brunner′s gland adenoma. Methods CT imaging data of 7 pathologically confirmed duodenal Brunner′s gland adenomas were retrospectively analyzed. Results Duodenal Brunner′s gland adenomas were round or strip-like shaped tumors with homogeneous or heterogeneous density, with a clear margin. The size of tumors ranged from 1.5~5.1 cm, and 4.1 cm in average. The solid part of tumors has a similar density compared to the adjacent intestinal wall on plain CT, and has a moderately heterogeneous enhancement in the arterial phase after contrast agent administration. In the portal venous phase, the tumors were progressively but still heterogeneous enhanced. Conclusions There are some specific imaging features of duodenal Brunner′s adenoma. The cognition of its imaging features makes accurate diagnosis possible, but the definitive diagnosis still requires pathological diagnosis.

  14. [Brunners gland hiperplasia. Report of two cases]. (United States)

    Padilla Ruiz, Maykel


    Brunner's gland hyperplasia is an infrequent benign injury located on the first or second portion of the duodenum. The disease spectrum includes diffuse nodular hyperplasia, circumscribed nodular hyperplasia, and Brunner's gland adenoma. We report two cases, one with an adenoma of Brunner's glands as a duodenal polyp and the other as a diffuse nodular hyperplasia of the duodenal bulb.

  15. An experimental study of conversion of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into phenotype of sweat gland cells in vitro%体外人骨髓间充质干细胞向汗腺细胞表型转化的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾丽; 李时荣; 杜华; 宝鲁日; 翁立新; 孙同柱


    目的:研究骨髓间充质干细胞(MSCs)向汗腺细胞分化的可行性.方法:体外分别分离培养、扩增并鉴定MSCs和汗腺细胞,将汗腺细胞置于47℃环境中1 h建立汗腺细胞体外休克模型,继续孵育3~5 d,收集上清液作为条件培养基对MSCs分化诱导,应用免疫组织化学和流式细胞仪法检测对比共培养10 d后MSCs细胞表型的改变.结果:检测MSCs表面标志CD29、CD44、CD105阳性,汗腺细胞表面标志角蛋白(CK)7、CK8、CK18、CK19、CEA阳性;MSCs诱导分化后CEA、CK7、CK8和CK19染色阳性.而未诱导的MSCs没有检测到CEA、CK7、CK8和CK19染色阳性的细胞.结论:通过建立适当的体外汗腺诱导培养体系,中胚层的MSCs可以通过跨胚层分化途径转变为汗腺样细胞.%Objective: To investigate the feasibility of differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to sweat gland like cells. Methods : MSCs and sweat gland cells were isolated, cultured, expanded and identified in vitro respectively. The sweat gland cells were cultured at 47 ℃ for 1 hour. The sweat gland cells cultured in the fresh sweat gland cell culture medium served as controls. After continuous culturing for 3-5 days at normal temperature, supernatant was collected as conditioned medium for inducing differentiation of MSCs. Using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry techniques to determine morphological changes of MSCs after co-culture for 10 days. Results: CD29,CD44, CD105 were positive in MSCs, and CK, CK8, CK18, CD19, CEA were positive in sweat gland cells. Cells positive for CEA, CK7, CK8 and CK19 were found when MSCs were induced in conditioned medium. MSCs were negative for CEA, CK7, CK8 and CK19 in control group. Conclusions: MSCs are induced successfully and cells with the phenotype of sweat gland cells were found. By the cross-mesoderm pathway, mesodermal MSCs can be converted into sweat gland-like cells by co-culture with suitable culture system.

  16. Expression and significance of NKCC1 in axillary sweat glands of palmar hyperhidrosis patients with axillary hyperhidrosis%NKCC1在手汗症伴腋窝多汗患者腋窝汗腺中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈幼平; 涂远荣; 陈剑锋; 邱明链; 李旭; 林敏; 赵冬峰; 罗荣刚


    目的 观察手汗症伴腋窝多汗患者(腋窝多汗组)、手汗症无腋窝多汗患者(单纯型手汗症组)及非手汗症患者(对照组)的腋窝汗腺数目及Na+K+Cl-联合转运子1(NKCC1)的表达,探讨其与手汗症发病的关系.方法 27例腋窝多汗组,11例单纯型手汗症组,8例对照组,取各组患者腋窝皮肤作常规苏木素.伊红(HE)染色,计数汗腺数目,并检测NKCC1在3组患者腋窝皮肤汗腺中的表达和分布.结果 3组汗腺计数差异均无统计学意义(HC=2.528,P>0.05).腋窝多汗组与单纯型手汗症组、对照组NKCC1的吸光度差异有统计学意义(F=5.158,P0.05).结论 伴有腋窝多汗的手汗症患者腋汗增多与NKCC1蛋白表达增强有关,而与腋窝汗腺数目无关.%Objective To examine the number of axillary sweat glands and the expression of Na+ K+ Cl+ cotransporter isoform1(NKCC1) in axillary sweat glands of palmar hyperhidrosis patients with axillary hyperhidrosis, palmar hyperhidrosis patients and non-hyperhidrosis patients, to investigate its relationship with the pathogenesis of palmar hyperhidrosis. Methods Axillary glands were gained in 27 cases of palmar hyperhidrosis with axillary hyperhidrosis, 11 cases of palmar hyperhidrosis and 8 cases of non-hyperhidrosis as control group. The number of axillary sweat glands was calculated by using HE staining and the expression of NKCC1 was detected respectively. Results The number of axillary sweat glands in three groups had no significant difference in statistics (HC=2.528 ,P>0.05). There was significant difference in the expression of NKCC1 between palamar hyperhidrosis patients with axillary hyperhidrosis and palmar hyperhidrosis patients (F=5.158,P0.05). Conclusion The increase of NKCC1 expression has the relationship with axillary hyperhidrosis of palmar hyperhidrosis patients with axillary hyperhidrosis, but has no relationship with the number of axillary sweat glands.

  17. Decreased sweating in seven patients with Laron syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Price, D A; Savage, M O;


    Previous studies have shown that sweat secretion was reduced in patients with GH deficiency and increased during GH treatment, indicating an influence of GH on sweat gland function. Thus, patients with GH deficiency have impaired thermoregulation. We report on sweat secretion rates (SSRs) in seven...... patients with Laron syndrome, measured by pilocarpine iontophoresis. The patients had significantly lower SSRs than healthy children matched for sex and pubertal stage (P sweat electrolyte concentrations (P ...). These observations further supported the hypothesis that sweat gland function in humans is under the influence of the GH-insulin-like growth factor-I axis. It remains to be seen whether the decrease in SSR also leads to altered thermoregulation in patients with Laron syndrome....

  18. 17beta-estradiol rapidly mobilizes intracellular calcium from ryanodine-receptor-gated stores via a PKC-PKA-Erk-dependent pathway in the human eccrine sweat gland cell line NCL-SG3.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muchekehu, Ruth W


    We describe a novel rapid non-genomic effect of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) signalling in the eccrine sweat gland epithelial cell line NCL-SG3. E2 had no observable effect on basal [Ca2+]i, however exposure of cells to E2 in the presence of the microsomal Ca2+ ATPase pump inhibitor, thapsigargin, produced a secondary, sustained increase in [Ca2+]i compared to thapsigargin treatment alone, where cells responded with a transient single spike-like increase in [Ca2+]i. The E2-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was not dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium and was completely abolished by ryanodine (100 microM). The estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 (1 microM) prevented the E2-induced effects suggesting a role for the estrogen receptor in the release of [Ca2+]i from ryanodine-receptor-gated stores. The E2-induced effect on [Ca2+]i could also be prevented by the protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta)-specific inhibitor rottlerin (10 microM), the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor Rp-adenosine 3\\

  19. Parathyroid adenoma. Case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Olivera Fajardo


    Full Text Available Parathyroid Adenoma is a non-malignant tumor of the thyroid glands, which increases the levels of parathormone. This hormone regulates blood and bone levels of calcium, phosphorus and Vitamin D. Its classic triad is characterized by the increase of the levels of parathormone, hyperkalimia and Hipophosphatemia. This entity affects between 500-1000 inhabitants and is the main cause of primary Hyperparathyroidism in about 80-85% of the patients. It is presented a case of a 69 year old female patient, admitted due to pathologic fractures of hip, clavicle, and fingers, caused by primary hyperparathyroidism originated by parathyroid adenoma. For the low incidence of this entity, its publication is considered of interest for the scientific staff.

  20. MRI of pituitary adenomas in acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marro, B. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Zouaoui, A. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Sahel, M. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Crozat, N. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Gerber, S. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Sourour, N. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Sag, K. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Marsault, C. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France)


    Adenomas causing acromegaly represent at least a quarter of pituitary adenomas. We studied 12 patients presenting with active acromegaly due to a pituitary adenoma with a 1.5 T superconductive MRI unit. All had T1-weighted sagittal and coronal sections before and after Gd-DTPA; six had coronal T2-weighted images. Surgical correlation was obtained in seven patients. Histologically, there were eight growth hormone (GH)-secreting and three mixed [GH and prolactin (PRL) secreting] adenomas, and one secreting GH, PRL and follicle-stimulating hormone. Macroadenomas (10) were more frequent than microadenomas (2). No correlation was found between serum GH and tumour size. There were nine adenomas in the lateral part of the pituitary gland; seven showed lateral or infrasellar invasion. Homogeneous, isointense signal on T1- and T2-weighted images was observed in six cases. Heterogeneous adenomas had cystic or necrotic components. (orig.). With 5 figs., 3 tabs.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙卫海; 张宝成; 郭莉; 李燕; 吴小会; 陈潮


    目的 通过历史对照探索微孔引流术在皮瓣法腋臭切除术中的作用.方法 腋臭患者76例采用微孔引流行皮瓣法腋臭切除术作为治疗组,去除大汗腺及毛囊后在皮瓣上用尖刀片沿皮纹戳数个长约3mm的微孔进行引流,缝合切口后用弹力绷带包扎压迫手术区敷料.未采用微孔引流术的腋臭患者59例作为对照组进行历史对照研究,术后3d及7d换药,10d拆线并观察皮瓣成活情况,术后3~6个月进行随访.结果 2组患者均未发生切口感染.对照组出现血肿7例,其中皮肤坏死5例,出现瘢痕增生18例,腋窝皮肤皱褶9例及腋臭根治不彻底12例.治疗组出现表皮水疱8例,切口瘢痕增生6例,腋窝皮肤皱褶2例,无复发病例.治疗组治愈率明显高于对照组(P<0.01),治疗组血肿、瘢痕形成及复发率明显低于对照组(P<0.01).结论 微孔引流术可提高皮瓣法腋臭切除术疗效,而且并发症较少.%Objective To investigate the effects of resecting apocrine sweat gland with skin flap method in treating osmidrosis. Methods Seventy - six patients with osmidrosis were treated using skin flap method,named treatment group,which was punctured with sharp scalpel. The micropores were used for drainage, and the width was just 3mm. After removing apocrine sweat glands and hair follicles, the incision was sewed up. Gauze under both of axilla were pressed with 8 - shaped elastic bandage. Another 59 cases of osmidrosis, treated in the past with the same method only without micropore drainage, were named as control group. Historical case - control study was conducted. The incisions were examined at the 3d and 7d respectively, and the sutures were removed at the lOd. Follow - up study was carried out in all the patients between 3 and 6 months after the operation. Results No incision infection was found in both groups. There were 7 cases of hematoma,5 cases of skin necrosis, 18 cases of scar,9 cases of wrinkled skin,and 12

  2. Study on induction of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into human sweat gland-like cells%人骨髓间充质干细胞向汗腺样细胞诱导分化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳; 赵洪良; 谭志军; 赵焕军; 张翠萍; 付小兵


    目的:观察体外热休克汗腺细胞(SGCs)和人骨髓间充质干细胞(BM-MSCs)共培养体系中 BM-MSCs的形态和表型变化,为进一步表观遗传学表达谱的检测及汗腺诱导关键转录因子的研究提供实验基础。方法:体外分离、培养、扩增人BM-MSCs和 SGCs,成骨和成脂诱导分化以鉴定BM-MSCs 的分化功能。在 Tran-swell间接共培养体系中,培养的BM-MSCs和经47℃高温处理造成热休克的 SGCs 在 Transwell 板中间接共培养;在Transwell+诱导因子共培养体系中,上室的BM-MSCs培养基中添加了汗腺诱导因子(无汗性外胚叶发育不良蛋白、重组人表皮生长因子和胰岛素-转铁蛋白-亚硒酸钠)。监测共培养过程中BM-MSCs的细胞形态变化,免疫荧光法检测诱导后BM-MSCs的表型改变。结果:经与热休克 SGCs 共培养诱导10 d后,部分 BM-MSCs 有由长梭形变为扁平状多边形的趋势,且局部细胞间连接紧密成片。BM-MSCs 诱导前不表达 CEA 和 CK19;BM-MSCs诱导后,Transwell间接共培养体系部分细胞 CEA 和 CK19表达阳性,Transwell+诱导因子共培养体系CEA和CK19阳性细胞数明显多于 Transwell 间接共培养体系。结论:热休克汗腺细胞与 BM-MSCs 在 Tran-swell间接培养以及相关汗腺诱导因子的共培养体系下,BM-MSCs呈现向 SGCs诱导分化趋势。%Objective:To observe the changes in morphology and phenotype of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs)after co-cultured with human sweat gland cells (SGCs),in order to provide the experimental basis for the study on sweat gland cells induction-associated key transcription factors. Methods:BM-MSCs and SGCs were isolated,cultured, expanded and identified with the methods of differentiation to adipocytes and osteocytes invitro respectively. In transwell co-cultured experiment,BM-MSCs were induced into SGCs by indirect co-culture with 47 ℃heat-shocked confluent SGCs using transwell plate.But in transwell

  3. Expression and inductive role of keratinocyte growth factor during differentiation of sweat gland-like cells from human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells%角化细胞生长因子对脐带干细胞向汗腺样细胞促分化效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许永安; 高玉芝; 徐萌艳; 张茂


    目的 观察角化细胞生长因子(KGF)在人脐带间充质干细胞(hUC-MSCs)向汗腺样细胞(SGCs)分化过程中的表达活性及其促分化的效应.方法 利用流式细胞术检测MSCs的标志物抗原CD29、CD90、CD45;成骨及成脂分化诱导培养基培养21 d,检测其成骨、成脂分化潜能.免疫细胞化学法检测hUC-MSC、SGCs的汗腺标志物癌胚抗原(CEA)、角蛋白(CK) 14、CK19水平;酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)、聚合酶链反应(PCR)、Western blot法检测分化期间7、14、21 d的上清液和细胞中的汗腺发育基因KGF及其受体成纤维细胞生长因子受体2(FGFR2)的表达特性.实验分组:以普通汗腺培养基、干细胞培养基以及热休克汗腺上清液+普通汗腺培养基构成的分化诱导培养基(MIX)为对照组,重组人角化细胞生长因子(rhKGF)+普通汗腺培养基构成分化诱导培养基(KGF)为实验组;对不同分组中hUC-MSCs分化为SGCs的效能进行评价.结果 hUC-MSCs表达CD29、CD90的阳性率分别为92.1%、98.1%;阴性表达CD45为0.2%;可分化为ALP染色阳性的成骨细胞和油红-O染色阳性的成脂细胞.经过分化的SGCs(SGCs-MIX、SGCs-KGF)均具有类似正常汗腺(SGs)形态;免疫细胞化学检测结果显示,SGCs-MIX、SGCs-KGF可以阳性表达CEA、CK14、CK19,而未分化的hUC-MSCs则未表达.PCR及Western blot检测结果显示,不同分组中的SGCs均可表达KGF及受体FGFR2,活性明显高于hUC-MSCs组(P<0.05).ELISA检测结果显示,rhKGF在SGCs分化过程中7、14、21d的表达量分别为63.1、74.6、84.2 ng/L,明显高于hUC-MSCs对照组中的2.3、4.1、7.3 ng/L(P <0.05).结论 在hUC-MSCs分化为SGCs过程中具有分泌KGF的活性,KGF具有促进hUC-MSCs向分化为SGCs的潜能.%Objective To analyze the expression and inductive role of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) during trans-differentiation of sweat gland cells (SGCs) from human umbilical cord derived-mesenchymal stem cells (h

  4. [Pleomorphic adenoma with bilateral pulmonary metastasis]. (United States)

    De Kerangal, X; Poirrier, P; Soulard, R; Dot, J M; Ségneuric, J B; L'Her, P; Jancovici, R; Saint-Blancart, P


    We report a new case of pleomorphous adenoma of the submaxillary glands with multiple lung metastases. Histological proof was obtained on the thoracoscopic surgical specimen. Clinically, this benign tumor presents as a malignant tumor. Diagnosis has been a subject of debate; surgical resection is indicated. Diagnosis is achieved by elimination in a patient with one or several nodules occurring in a context of recurrent pleomorphous adenoma.

  5. 以肌上皮增生为主的泪腺多形性腺瘤临床病理分析%Clinical and Pathological Analysis in Pleomorphic Adenoma of Lacrimal Gland with Myoepithelial Hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁青; 崔湘屏


    目的:探讨以肌上皮增生为主的泪腺多形性腺瘤的病理形态特征及诊断、鉴别诊断。方法:30例经病理诊断为泪腺多形性腺瘤患者石蜡切片标本,应用HE染色及免疫组化标记,观察病变特点。结果:光镜下观察多形性腺瘤的基本病理改变为腺上皮细胞和肌上皮细胞以及间质成分混合存在,腺上皮细胞可排列成腺管状、条索状和实体状;免疫组化标记结果:导管上皮CK+、CK5/6+、CK7+、CK20-,肌上皮Actin+、SMA+、P63+、Desmin-,其它标记物导管外层肌上皮细胞和粘液软骨样细胞S-100+、Vimentin+、P53+,Ki-67阳性细胞数<2%,CD34-。结论:泪腺多形性腺瘤细胞中小灶状的腺管结构及粘液软骨样基质是诊断的重要线索,免疫组织化学染色对诊断及鉴别诊断也具有参考价值。%Objective: To study on pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland hyperplasia to myoepithelial pathological features, diagnosis and differential diagnosis.Methods:30 cases of pathologically diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma in paraffin sections, using HE staining and immunohistochemistry markers observed lesions.Results: Light microscope observation of pleomorphic adenoma of the basic pathological change for the presence of glandular epithelial cels and myoepithelial cels and stromal elements mixed and glandular epithelial cels can be arranged in a tubular gland, cable shape and the entity shape; immunohisto chemical labeling results: duct epithelial CK+, CK5/6+, CK7+, CK20- and myoepithelial Actin+, SMA+, P63+, Desmin and other markers duct outer layer of myoepithelial cels and mucus cartilage like cels were S-100 positive, Vimentin+, P53+, Ki-67 positive cels number<2% and CD34.Conclusions:Pleomorphic adenoma cels of smal focal glandular structures and mucoid cartilage like matrix is an important clue to the diagnosis, immunohistochemical staining also has reference value for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.

  6. Pleomorphic adenoma of the cheek in a child: A case report (United States)

    Jagadishkumar, Kalenahalli; Anilkumar, Mathod Ganeshrao; Krishna Kumar, Halasahalli Chowdegowda; Maggad, Rangaswamy


    Salivary gland tumors are rare in children and, when they do arise, they mainly affect the major salivary glands. Minor salivary gland tumors are rare in children and are responsible for less than 10% of the cases. Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common tumor of the salivary glands. The most common sites of pleomorphic adenoma of the minor salivary glands are the palates, followed by the lips and the cheeks. Pleomorphic adenoma of the cheek is rare in children and only few cases have been reported so far. PMID:25225569

  7. Pleomorphic adenoma of the cheek in a child: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalenahalli Jagadishkumar


    Full Text Available Salivary gland tumors are rare in children and, when they do arise, they mainly affect the major salivary glands. Minor salivary gland tumors are rare in children and are responsible for less than 10% of the cases. Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common tumor of the salivary glands. The most common sites of pleomorphic adenoma of the minor salivary glands are the palates, followed by the lips and the cheeks. Pleomorphic adenoma of the cheek is rare in children and only few cases have been reported so far.

  8. Atrial fibrillation associated with a thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland leading to a presentation of acute cardiac decompensation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jyothis T


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hyperthyroidism is a well established cause of atrial fibrillation (AF. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-secreting pituitary tumours are rare causes of pituitary hyperthyroidism. Whilst pituitary causes of hyperthyroidism are much less common than primary thyroid pathology, establishing a clear aetiology is critical in minimising complications and providing appropriate treatment. Measuring Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH alone to screen for hyperthyroidism may be insufficient to appropriately evaluate the thyroid status in such cases. Case presentation A 63-year-old Caucasian man, previously fit and well, presented with a five-day history of shortness of breath associated with wheeze and dry cough. He denied symptoms of hyperthyroidism and his family, social and past history were unremarkable. Initial investigation was in keeping with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF with fast ventricular response leading to cardiac decompensation. TSH 6.2 (Normal Range = 0.40 – 4.00 mU/L, Free T3 of 12.5 (4.00 – 6.8 pmol/L and Free T4 51(10–30 pmol/L. Heterophilic antibodies were ruled out. Testosterone was elevated at 43.10 (Normal range: 10.00 – 31.00 nmol/L with an elevated FSH, 18.1 (1.0–7.0 U/L and elevated LH, 12.4 (1.0–8.0 U/L. Growth Hormone, IGF-1 and prolactin were normal. MRI showed a 2.4 cm pituitary macroadenoma. Visual field tests showed a right inferotemporal defect. While awaiting neurosurgical removal of the tumour, the patient was commenced on antithyroid medication (carbimazole and maintained on this until successful trans-sphenoidal excision of the macroadenoma had been performed. AF persisted post-operatively, but was electrically cardioverted subsequently and he remains in sinus rhythm at twelve months follow-up off all treatment. Conclusion This case reiterates the need to evaluate thyroid function in all patients presenting with atrial fibrillation. TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas must be considered

  9. CD44v6、E-cadherin和ki-67蛋白质与腮腺多形性腺瘤的生物学行为相关性研究%Correlation Study between Expression of CD44v6, E-cadherin and ki-67 Protein and Biological Behaviors in Parotid Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱雪冰; 赵瑾; 徐江


    To explore the correlation between expression of CD44v6, E-cadherin,ki-67 protein and biological behavior of parotid gland pleomorphic adenoma. Immunohistochemical SP dyeing method was applied to detect CD44v6,E-cadherin and Ki-67 protein expression in pleomorphic adenoma,non-tumor tissue and malignant tumor of parotid gland.The results showed that the positive expression rate of CD44v6,E-cadherin and ki-67 was 100%,96% and 73.8% respectively in the parotid gland pleomorphic adenoma;There was a significant difference in the expression of E-cadherin and ki-67 in the parotid gland pleomorphic adenoma,malignant tissue and peripheral non-tutor tissue.There was correlation with invasion and metastasis of the parotid gland pleomorphic adenoma;The CD44v6 expression had statistical differences in the parotid gland pleomorphic adenoma and peripheral non-tutor tissue,malignant tissue and peripheral non-tutor tissue.It suggested that E-cadherin and ki-67 was associated with the biological behavior of the parotid gland pleomorphic adenoma,which could be used as aa new tutor marker to evaluate the prognosis.%为检测腮腺多形性腺瘤中CD44v6、E-cadherin和ki-67蛋白表达,以探讨其与腮腺多形性腺瘤生物学行为的相关性。应用免疫组织化学SP法染色检测腮腺多形性腺瘤组、多形性腺瘤恶变组和瘤旁非瘤组织组各组间CD44v6、E-cadherin和ki-67蛋白表达。结果显示,(1)CD44v6、E-cadherin和ki-67在腮腺多形性腺瘤组中的阳性表达率分别为100%、96%和73.8%;(2)E-cadherin和ki-67在腮腺多形性腺瘤组、多形性腺瘤恶变组和瘤周非瘤组织间的阳性表达率均有差异,其表达与腮腺多形性腺瘤的浸润转移有关;(3)CD44v6在腮腺多形性腺瘤组与瘤周非瘤组织组,多形性腺瘤恶变组与瘤周非瘤组织组中的表达有统计学差异。由此可知,E-cadherin和ki-67与腮腺多形性腺瘤的生物学行为有关,可作为新的肿瘤标志物,其

  10. Light bodies in human pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R


    by transmission electron microscopy. Double membrane bound bodies with filamentous internal structure identical to rodent light bodies were identified in 10 hormone-producing adenomas: 5 PRL, 1 PRL-GH, 2 GH, and 2 ACTH-producing tumours. No light bodies were found in the remaining 79 tumours nor in the pituitary......Light bodies are large cytoplasmic granules originally described in the gonadotrophic cells of the rat pituitary gland. In order to determine whether similar bodies occur in the human anterior pituitary gland, 89 pituitary adenomas and periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases were examined...... cells in periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases. These results show that some human pituitary adenomas may contain light bodies identical to those seen in gonadotrophs of rat pituitary....

  11. Giant Parotid Pleomorphic Adenoma Involving Parapharyngeal Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukri Rahman


    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Pleomorfik adenoma parotis merupakan tumor jinak kelenjar liur yang paling sering ditemukan, namun pleomorfik adenoma parotis yang sangat besar sehingga melibatkan ruang parafaring (RPF sangat jarang. Diagnosis ini sulit ditegakkan karena gejala klinisnya tidak khas. Penatalaksanaanya harus hati-hati mengingat banyak struktur vital yang beresiko mengalami trauma. Tujuan: Bagaimana menegakkan diagnosis dan penatalaksanaan pleomorfik adenoma parotis yang melibatkan RPF. Kasus: Seorang pasien perempuan 27 tahun ditegakkan diagnosis pleomorfik adenoma parotis kanan dengan melibatkan RPF. Terdapat pembengkakan pada leher yang bersifat asimtomatis dan gejala pendorongan faring dan laring yang menyebabkan disfonia, disfagia, dan defisit saraf kranial IX,X,XII. Penatalaksanaan: Pasien telah dilakukan operasi parotidektomi pendekatan transervikal–transparotid dengan preservasi arteri karotis eksterna dan saraf fasialis. Kesimpulan: Biopsi Aspirasi Jarum Halus (BAJAH dan radiologi merupakan pemeriksaan yang penting untuk menegakkan diagnosis. Penatalaksanaan pleomorfik adenoma parotis yang melibatkan RPF adalah bedah ekstirpasi komplit dengan beberapa pendekatan. .Kata kunci: tumor jinak kelenjar liur, pleomorfik adenoma, ruang parafaringAbstractBackground: Parotid pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign salivary gland tumor, while giant parotid pleomorphic adenoma involving the parapharyngeal space (PPS is rare. It was difficult to diagnose because the clinical presentation of this tumor can be subtle. The management must be performed carefully due to anatomy relation to complex vital structure lead to traumatic injury highrisk. Purposes: How to make diagnosis and management parotid pleomorphic adenoma involving PPS. Case: A female 27 years old with diagnosis was giant parotid pleomorphic adenoma involving PPS. There was asymptomatic swelling of the neck and presence of pushing the pharynx and larynx medially causes

  12. Comparative study of CT and pathological findings in Brunner’s gland adenoma%Brunner 腺腺瘤的多排螺旋 CT 征象与病理表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉祥; 饶红萍; 代海洋; 易智君; 钟柳城; 黎昕


    Objective To investigate the imaging findings and key diagnostic points of Brunner’s gland adenoma on CT.Methods The CT imaging findings and pathological features of 9 cases of Brunner’s gland adenoma confirmed by pathology were retrospec-tively analyzed,including the lesions number,site,size,shape,margin,density and the enhancement pattern.Results Of the 9 ca-ses,1 case located in the antrum and 8 cases in the duodenaum [6 cases in the duodenal bulb (75%)and 2 in the papillary (25%)]. Of the 6 cases of duodenal lesions,3 were found at the anterior wall and 3 at the posterior wall.Except 1 case which complicated with enteritis and had an obscure margin,the other 8 cases were clear margined ,and were round or nodular in shape.The maximum size of tumors ranged 1 5-68 mm in diameters (mean 35.0 mm ± 1 6.2 mm).The density of tumors was homogeneous on CT scan without necrosis or hemorrhage.In the arterial phase after administration of contrast agent,the lesions were similar to the adjacent intestinal wall enhancement,and mucosal annular enhancement (halo sign)showed in 6 cases,and the dot-shape non-enhancement area within the lesion (black star sign)showed in 5 cases,and the thickening or tortuous enhanced blood vessel showed in 6 cases.In the venous phase,9 cases were progressive enhancement,and the “black star sign”or “the black line sign”showed more clearly in 5 cases.In the pathology,the lesions were polypoid-like,solid or cystic.Under the microscope,the hyperplasic Brunner’s glands were covered with normal duodenal mucosa and separated by bundles of smooth muscle cells with dilated duct,cyst,and adipose cells,1 case with atypical hyperplasia of the glandular epithelium and 1 case with ectopic pancreas.Conclusion There are some spe-cific CT imaging features in Brunner’s gland adenoma,which is of important clinical value in accurate preoperative diagnostic.%目的:探讨 Brunner 腺腺瘤的 CT 表现及诊断要点。方法回

  13. Aluminium in human sweat. (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher


    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans.

  14. Octreotide Uptake in Parathyroid Adenoma (United States)

    Karaçavuş, Seyhan; Kula, Mustafa; Cihan Karaca, Züleyha; Ünlühızarcı, Kürşad; Tutuş, Ahmet; Bayram, Fahri; Çoban, Ganime


    The patient with a history of bone pain and muscle weakness, was thought to have oncogenic osteomalacia as a result of biochemical investigations and directed to Nuclear Medicine Department for a whole-body bone scintigraphy and 111In-octreotide scintigraphy. There was no focal pathologic tracer uptake, but generalized marked increase in skeletal uptake on bone scintigraphy. Octreotide scintigraphy showed accumulation of octreotide in the region of the left lobe of the thyroid gland in the neck. Thereafter, parathyroid scintigraphy was performed with technetium-99m labeled metroxy-isobutyl-isonitryl (99mTc-MIB) and MIBI scan demonstrated radiotracer uptake at the same location with octreotide scintigraphy. The patient underwent left inferior parathyroidectomy and histopathology confirmed a parathyroid adenoma. Somatostatin receptor positive parathyroid adenoma may show octreotide uptake. Octreotide scintigraphy may be promising and indicate a possibility of using somatostatin analogues for the medical treatment of somatostatin receptor positive Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23487397

  15. Tropical Malaysians and temperate Koreans exhibit significant differences in sweating sensitivity in response to iontophoretically administered acetylcholine (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Bae, Jun-Sang; Matsumoto, Takaaki; Yang, Hun-Mo; Min, Young-Ki


    Natives of the tropics are able to tolerate high ambient temperatures. This results from their long-term residence in hot and often humid tropical climates. This study was designed to compare the peripheral mechanisms of thermal sweating in tropical natives with that of their temperate counterparts. Fifty-five healthy male subjects including 20 native Koreans who live in the temperate Korean climate (Temperate-N) and 35 native tropical Malaysian men that have lived all of their lives in Malaysia (Tropical-N) were enrolled in this study after providing written informed consent to participate. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing after iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min) with 10% acetylcholine (ACh) was used to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR) sweating during ACh iontophoresis. The sweat rate, activated sweat gland density, sweat gland output per single gland activated, and oral and skin temperature changes were measured. The sweat onset time of AXR (nicotinic-receptor-mediated) was 56 s shorter in the Temperate-N than in the Tropical-N subjects ( P iontophoresis did not influence oral temperature, but increased skin temperature near where the ACh was administered, in both groups. These results suggest that suppressed thermal sweating in the Tropical-N subjects was, at least in part, due to suppressed sweat gland sensitivity to ACh through both recruitment of active sweat glands and the sweat gland output per each gland. This physiological trait guarantees a more economical use of body fluids, thus ensuring more efficient protection against heat stress.

  16. The changing pattern of stem cell markers of sweat gland in deep partial-thickness burn wound%深Ⅱ度烧伤创面汗腺干细胞标志物的变化规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜笃银; 宗宪磊; 付小兵; 王魏; 单菲


    目的 了解深Ⅱ度烧伤创面愈合过程中汗腺上皮细胞增殖并向表皮细胞转化的规律,探讨其机制.方法 选择2004年1月-2007年12月,江苏省泰州市第四人民医院和山东大学第二医院收治的四肢与躯干烧伤患者28例.收集患者深Ⅱ度烧伤创面组织标本37块、浅Ⅱ度烧伤创面组织标本21块、正常皮肤标本10块.采用免疫组织化学双染色法,观察细胞角蛋白10(CK10)、CK14、CK19、bel-2和P63在深、浅Ⅱ度烧伤创面及正常皮肤汗腺分泌部上皮细胞中的表达情况.结果 正常皮肤汗腺分泌部上皮细胞中等强度表达CK19、CK14和CK10,基底层肌上皮细胞微弱表达P63和CK14,CK10表达阳性的终末分化细胞不表达bcl-2和P63.浅Ⅱ度烧伤创面修复过程中,其汗腺分泌部结构及上述蛋白表达未见异常.深Ⅱ度烧伤后7 d创面汗腺分泌部上皮细胞P63和bcl-2表达增强;伤后8~10 d创面基底细胞增殖、迁移和鳞状上皮化,形成bcl-2、P63、CK19和CK14表达强阳性的实心岛状上皮结构,并随肉芽组织向创面浅层迁移,经鳞状上皮增殖完成创面再上皮化.深Ⅱ度烧伤创面愈合后13~30 d,超常增殖的表皮基底层和基底上层细胞仍强烈表达bcl-2、CK14、CK19和P63. 结论干细胞和短暂扩充细胞逆分化过程导致上皮生长滞后和肉芽组织过度增殖,这种失衡现象可能是导致深Ⅱ度烧伤创面修复失控的重要机制之一.%Objective To investigate the rules of proliferation of epithelial cells of sweat glands in deep partial-thickness burn wound and its transdifferentiation towards epidermal cells during healing process to explore its mechanisms. Methods Twenty-eight patients with limbs and trunk burn hospitalized in the Fourth People's Hospital of Taizhou City of Jiangsu Province and the Second itospital of Shandong University from January 2004 to December 2007 were enrolled in the study. Tissue samples of deep partial

  17. Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment of Parathyroid Adenoma (24 Case Report)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Junchu Zhang; Daqiao Zhu; Zhiqian Hu; Qiang Wang


    OBJECTIVE To summarize the experience in diagnosing and treating parathyroid adenoma.METHODS Twenty-four patients were diagnosed with parathyroid adenoma and received parathyroidectomy in our hospital. Sixteen of them presented with hyperparathyroidism. The patients received ultrasounography, CT or 99mTc-MIBI to locate the tumor site. Serum concentrations of PTH and calcium were checked before the operation. All operations were performed under general anesthesia. The adenomas were resected and the four glands explored.RESULTS All of the patients were cured and there was no mortality in our group. The symptoms of hyperparathyroidism remitted to various degrees after the operation. PTH dropped to the normal range 2 days after operation.Serum calcium concentrations declined to different levels from the first day after operation. Seven patients developed hypocalcemia post-operation but recovered by injection of calcium gluconate. Only one of the patients with parathyroid adenoma recurred 2 years after the operation and was found to have malignancy of the parathyroid adenoma.CONCLUSION Not all the patients with parathyroid adenoma had clinical manifestations. The CT and 99mTc-MIBI were more accurate than ultrasounography in locating the adenoma. The four glands should be explored during the operation. Protecting the recurrent laryngeal nerve from being injuried and maintaning secure hemastasis were most important.

  18. Myoepithelial carcinoma arising in recurrent pleomorphic adenoma in maxillary sinus. (United States)

    Gupta, Ashumi; Manipadam, Marie Therese; Michael, Rajiv


    Myoepithelial carcinoma is characterized by nearly exclusive myoepithelial differentiation and evidence of malignancy. It may arise de novo or in preexisting benign tumors including pleomorphic adenoma and benign myoepithelioma. A 39-year-old lady presented with painless progressive swelling on the right cheek and right side of palate. On surgery, there was a mass in right maxillary sinus which was surgically excised and diagnosed on histopathology as pleomorphic adenoma. Subsequently, there were two recurrences. The first recurrence was in the right maxilla after 2 years that was removed surgically and diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma. One year later, she came with rapidly progressive swelling in bilateral cheeks and face. Intraoperatively, there was a large tumor in both maxillary sinuses with extensive local infiltration. Histologically, it was diagnosed as myoepithelial carcinoma. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is usually a high grade malignancy. It occurs most commonly in parotid gland followed by submandibular glands, minor salivary glands and occasionally in sublingual gland. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of myoepithelial carcinoma arising in a recurrent pleomorphic adenoma in the maxillary sinus.

  19. Sweating dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinn, L; Schrag, A; Viswanathan, R; Lees, A; Quinn, N; Bloem, Bastiaan R.


    We sought to determine the prevalence and nature of sweating disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and investigated their correlation with other clinical features and with Quality of Life (QoL) measures. A questionnaire on symptoms and consequences of sweating dysfunction was compl

  20. Why do we have apocrine and sebaceous glands?


    Williams, Edward S


    The secretions of sebaceous and apocrine glands fulfil an important thermoregulatory role in cold-stressed and heat-stressed hunter—gatherers. In hot conditions the secretions emulsify eccrine sweat and thus encourage the formation of a sweat sheet and discourage the formation and loss of sweat drops from the skin. In colder conditions sebum changes its nature and repels rain from skin and hair.

  1. A rare occurrence of basal cell adenoma of palate: A case report with comprehensive immunohistochemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surinder Pal Singh Sodhi


    Full Text Available Basal cell adenoma (BCA of the salivary glands is an uncommon type of monomorphic adenoma which constitutes 1% of all salivary gland tumors. It most commonly involves parotid gland, while it rarely occurs in minor salivary glands. Upper lip, buccal mucosa, and lower lip are the common intraoral sites; whereas, palate being the rarest one. Due to prognostic implications, differential diagnosis with basal cell adenocarcinoma, basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC is mandatory. Considering the rarity of this lesion and histologic paradox regarding its diagnosis, we report a case of BCA of palate with emphasis on need of comprehensive immunohistochemical (IHC analysis.

  2. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A


    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  3. Octreotide Uptake in Parathyroid Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Karaçavuş


    Full Text Available The patient with a history of bone pain and muscle weakness, was thought to have oncogenic osteomalacia as a result of biochemical investigations and directed to Nuclear Medicine Department for a whole-body bone scintigraphy and 111In-octreotide scintigraphy. There was no focal pathologic tracer uptake, but generalized marked increase in skeletal uptake on bone scintigraphy. Octreotide scintigraphy showed accumulation of octreotide in the region of the left lobe of the thyroid gland in the neck. Thereafter, parathyroid scintigraphy was performed with technetium-99m labeled metroxy-isobutyl-isonitryl (99mTc-MIB and MIBI scan demonstrated radiotracer uptake at the same location with octreotide scintigraphy. The patient underwent left inferior parathyroidectomy and histopathology confirmed a parathyroid adenoma. Somatostatin receptor positive parathyroid adenoma may show octreotide uptake. Octreotide scintigraphy may be promising and indicate a possibility of using somatostatin analogues for the medical treatment of somatostatin receptor positive parathyroid tumors. (MIRT 2012;21:77-79

  4. Sellar lesion: Not always a pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Shalinee


    Full Text Available Inflammatory lesions of the hypophysis account for 0.5% of all symptomatic diseases of the pituitary, which include lymphocytic hypophysitis, granulomatous hypophysitis with or without specific etiology and pituitary abscess. Sellar tuberculoma is a rare type of granulomatous hypophysitis. We document a case of a postmenopausal lady who presented with galactorrhea, headache and blurring of vision. Based on preliminary investigations, a clinical diagnosis of pituitary adenoma was made and the pituitary gland was surgically excised. Histopathological examination showed caseating granulomas, along with normal areas of preserved pituitary gland and a final diagnosis of tuberculous hypophysitis was made. This case is being documented due to the extremely rare involvement of the pituitary gland by granulomatous lesions such as tuberculosis and to emphasize the role of intraoperative consultation to obviate the need for radical surgery in such lesions.

  5. The transcervical approach for parapharyngeal space pleomorphic adenomas: indications and technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Horowitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Head and Neck Parapharyngeal space tumors are rare. Pleomorphic Adenomas are the most common Parapharyngeal space tumors. The purpose of this study was to define preoperative criteria for enabling full extirpation of parapharyngeal space pleomorphic adenomas via the transcervical approach while minimizing functional and cosmetic morbidity. METHODS: The surgical records and medical charts of 19 females and 10 males with parapharyngeal space pleomorphic adenomas operated between 1993 and 2012 were reviewed. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were operated by a simple transcervical approach, 13 by a transparotid transcervical approach, and one by a transmandibular transcervical approach. Complications included facial nerve paralysis, infection, hemorrhage and first bite syndrome. There were three recurrences, but neither recurrence nor complications were associated with the type of surgical approach. CONCLUSION: A simple transcervical approach is preferred for parapharyngeal space pleomorphic adenomas with narrow attachments to the deep lobe of the parotid gland and for pleomorphic adenomas originating in a minor salivary gland within the parapharyngeal space.

  6. Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma. (United States)

    Vilar-González, S; Bradley, K; Rico-Pérez, J; Vogiatzis, P; Golka, D; Nigam, A; Sivaramalingam, M; Kazmi, S


    Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma (MC) or malignant myoepithelioma is a rare entity. MC usually presents as a slow-growing painless mass arising in the parotid gland, but may involve other salivary glands. This tumour may be particularly locally aggressive, but its clinical and biological features are not yet fully understood. MC may arise from pre-existing benign lesions, such as pleomorphic adenomas or benign myoepitheliomas, or may arise de novo. It usually affects patients over 50 years old, with no gender preference. Because it is often asymptomatic, the presentation and diagnosis can be delayed by months, even years. The current WHO classification considers MC to be an intermediate- to high-grade malignancy. Other published data suggest it is likely to be a high-grade neoplasm, consistent with its aggressive behaviour. Its epidemiology, histopathological features, immunohistochemical profile, clinical behaviour and optimal management are not well understood. Following review of the current literature we aim to address these.

  7. A little CFTR goes a long way: CFTR-dependent sweat secretion from G551D and R117H-5T cystic fibrosis subjects taking ivacaftor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Char

    Full Text Available To determine if oral dosing with the CFTR-potentiator ivacaftor (VX-770, Kalydeco improves CFTR-dependent sweating in CF subjects carrying G551D or R117H-5T mutations, we optically measured sweat secretion from 32-143 individually identified glands in each of 8 CF subjects; 6 F508del/G551D, one G551D/R117H-5T, and one I507del/R117H-5T. Two subjects were tested only (- ivacaftor, 3 only (+ ivacaftor and 3 (+/- ivacaftor (1-5 tests per condition. The total number of gland measurements was 852 (- ivacaftor and 906 (+ ivacaftor. A healthy control was tested 4 times (51 glands. For each gland we measured both CFTR-independent (M-sweat and CFTR-dependent (C-sweat; C-sweat was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevated [cAMP]i while blocking muscarinic receptors. Absent ivacaftor, almost all CF glands produced M-sweat on all tests, but only 1/593 glands produced C-sweat (10 tests, 5 subjects. By contrast, 6/6 subjects (113/342 glands produced C-sweat in the (+ ivacaftor condition, but with large inter-subject differences; 3-74% of glands responded with C/M sweat ratios 0.04%-2.57% of the average WT ratio of 0.265. Sweat volume losses cause proportionally larger underestimates of CFTR function at lower sweat rates. The losses were reduced by measuring C/M ratios in 12 glands from each subject that had the highest M-sweat rates. Remaining losses were estimated from single channel data and used to correct the C/M ratios, giving estimates of CFTR function (+ ivacaftor  = 1.6%-7.7% of the WT average. These estimates are in accord with single channel data and transcript analysis, and suggest that significant clinical benefit can be produced by low levels of CFTR function.

  8. Pituitary Adenoma Segmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Egger, Jan; Kuhnt, Daniela; Freisleben, Bernd; Nimsky, Christopher


    Sellar tumors are approximately 10-15% among all intracranial neoplasms. The most common sellar lesion is the pituitary adenoma. Manual segmentation is a time-consuming process that can be shortened by using adequate algorithms. In this contribution, we present a segmentation method for pituitary adenoma. The method is based on an algorithm we developed recently in previous work where the novel segmentation scheme was successfully used for segmentation of glioblastoma multiforme and provided an average Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 77%. This scheme is used for automatic adenoma segmentation. In our experimental evaluation, neurosurgeons with strong experiences in the treatment of pituitary adenoma performed manual slice-by-slice segmentation of 10 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cases. Afterwards, the segmentations were compared with the segmentation results of the proposed method via the DSC. The average DSC for all data sets was 77.49% +/- 4.52%. Compared with a manual segmentation that took, on the...

  9. Tubular apocrine adenoma. (United States)

    Toribio, J; Zulaica, A; Peteiro, C


    We report a case of tubular apocrine adenoma located on the scalp, with characteristics of syringocystadenoma papilliferum in the superior part of the lesion. An interesting feature of the growth is its connective tissue involvement.

  10. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Adjadj, Elisabeth [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Thomas-Teinturier, Cecile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Hopital Bicetre, Bicetre (France); Oberlin, Odile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Veres, Cristina [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Pacquement, Helene [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Jackson, Angela [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Munzer, Martine; N' Guyen, Tan Dat [Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Bondiau, Pierre-Yves [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne [Centre Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Bridier, Andre; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Schlumberger, Martin [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Vathaire, Florent de, E-mail: [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France)


    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  11. Pituitary adenoma: a radiotherapeutic perspective. (United States)

    Platta, Christopher S; Mackay, Christopher; Welsh, James S


    Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10% to 20% of all central nervous system neoplasms whereas autopsy series have suggested that the incidence of pituitary adenoma in the general population may approach 25%. Several treatment modalities are used in the treatment of pituitary adenomas, including observation, surgery, medical intervention, and radiotherapy. The treatment modality employed depends greatly on the type of pituitary adenoma and presenting symptoms. This review will discuss the biology of pituitary adenomas and the current management principles for the treatment of prolactinomas, Cushing disease, acromegaly, and nonsecretory adenomas, with an emphasis on the published radiotherapeutic literature.

  12. Sweat Therapy Theory, Practice, and Efficacy (United States)

    Eason, Allen; Colmant, Stephen; Winterowd, Carrie


    The purpose of this article is to examine the potential application of sweat rituals to group counseling, adventure therapy, and other forms of group work by describing a theoretical model for how sweat rituals work and presenting the results of a randomized comparative outcome study on the efficacy of sweat therapy. The theoretical model proposes…

  13. Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Chloride Sweat Test (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test KidsHealth > For Parents > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test Print A A A ... It Is A chloride sweat test helps diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF) , an inherited disorder that makes kids sick ...

  14. Perioral gustatory sweating: case report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayser, S.C.; Ingels, K.J.A.O.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den


    OBJECTIVE: Presentation of a case of perioral Frey syndrome. DESIGN: Case report. SUBJECT: A 72-year-old woman with hyperhidrosis around the mouth and chin. RESULTS: This patient suffered from bilateral perioral gustatory sweating following a mandibular osteotomy; such a case has not previously been

  15. Bile Duct Adenoma with Oncocytic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Johannesen


    Full Text Available Bile duct adenomas are benign bile duct proliferations usually encountered as an incidental finding. Oncocytic bile duct neoplasms are rare and the majority are malignant. A 61-year-old male with a diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma was undergoing surgery when a small white nodule was discovered on the surface of the right lobe of his liver. This lesion was composed of cytologically bland cells arranged in tightly packed glands. These cells were immunopositive for cytokeratin 7, negative for Hep Par 1, contained mucin, and had a Ki67 proliferation index of 8%. The morphology, immunophenotype, presence of mucin, and normal appearing bile ducts, as well as the increased Ki67 proliferation rate, were consistent with a bile duct adenoma with oxyphilic (oncocytic change. Oncocytic tumors in the liver are rare; the first described in 1992. Only two bile duct adenomas with oncocytic change have been reported and neither of them had reported mucin production or the presence of normal appearing bile ducts within the lesion.

  16. Immunohistochemical detection of growth hormone (GH) in canine hepatoid gland tumors. (United States)

    Petterino, Claudio; Martini, Marco; Castagnaro, Massimo


    The aim of this study was to detect immunohistochemically means growth hormone (GH) in 24 hepatoid gland adenomas and 5 hepatoid gland carcinomas and to compare the difference of immunoreactivity between types of tumors. The tumors were classified according to the WHO standards. Tissue sections which were prepared from formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissues from 25 male and 4 female dogs were carried out immunostaining using polyclonal primary anti-hGH and EnVision method. Of 24 hepatoid gland adenomas (perianal gland adenomas) 23 (95.8%) were positive. All 5 hepatoid gland carcinomas (perianal gland carcinomas) were positive. No statistically significant differences in percentage of labelled cells between malignant and benign tumors were seen. The present demonstration of GH in hepatoid gland tumors adds new data on GH in extra-pituitary tissues and hormon-dependent tumors.

  17. Assessing function and pathology in familial dysautonomia: assessment of temperature perception, sweating and cutaneous innervation. (United States)

    Hilz, Max J; Axelrod, Felicia B; Bickel, Andreas; Stemper, Brigitte; Brys, Miroslaw; Wendelschafer-Crabb, Gwen; Kennedy, William R


    This study was performed to assess cutaneous nerve fibre loss in conjunction with temperature and sweating dysfunction in familial dysautonomia (FD). In ten FD patients, we determined warm and cold thresholds at the calf and shoulder, and sweating in response to acetylcholine iontophoresis over the calf and forearm. Punch skin biopsies from calf and back were immunostained and imaged to assess nerve fibre density and neuropeptide content. Mean temperature thresholds and baseline sweat rate were elevated in the patients, while total sweat volume and response time did not differ from controls. The average density of epidermal nerve fibres was greatly diminished in the calf and back. There was also severe nerve loss from the subepidermal neural plexus (SNP) and deep dermis. The few sweat glands present within the biopsies had had reduced innervation density. Substance P immunoreactive (-ir) and calcitonin gene related peptide-ir (CGRP-ir) were virtually absent, but vasoactive intestinal peptide-ir (VIP-ir) nerves were present in the SNP. Empty Schwann cell sheaths were observed. Temperature perception was more impaired than sweating. Epidermal nerve fibre density was found to be profoundly reduced in FD. Decreased SP and CGRP-ir nerves suggest that the FD gene mutation causes secondary neurotransmitter depletions. Empty Schwann cell sheaths and VIP-ir nerves suggest active denervation and regeneration.

  18. Identification of a subtype-specific ENC1 gene related to invasiveness in human pituitary null cell adenoma and oncocytomas. (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Hong, Lichuan; Wu, Yonggang; Li, Chuzhong; Wan, Hong; Li, Guilin; Sun, Yilin; Yu, Shenyuan; Chittiboina, Prashant; Montgomery, Blake; Zhuang, Zhengping; Zhang, Yazhuo


    Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) may be locally invasive. Surgery is a treatment option, but unlike the case for functional pituitary adenomas, there are almost no drug treatments available for NFPAs. Markers of invasiveness are needed to guide therapeutic decision-making and identify potential adjuvant drugs. Owing to the highly heterogeneous nature of NFPAs, little is known regarding the subtype-specific gene expression profiles associated with invasiveness. To identify important biomarkers of invasiveness, we selected 23 null cell adenomas and 20 oncocytomas. These tumors were classified as invasive or non-invasive adenomas based on magnetic resonance imaging, pathology slides and surgical findings. Firstly, we observed that there were significant differences in expression between invasive (n = 3) and non-invasive (n = 4) adenomas by gene expression microarray. A total of 1,188 genes were differentially expressed in the invasive and non-invasive adenomas. Among these 1,188 genes, 578 were upregulated and 610 were downregulated in invasive adenomas. Secondly, the expression of ENC1, which displayed the significant alterations, was further confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis in all 43 tumor samples and three normal pituitary glands. Low levels of ENC1 were found in tumor samples, while high levels were detected in normal pituitary glands. Interestingly, the ENC1 expression level was low in invasive null cell adenomas compared with non-invasive adenomas, but this relationship was not observed in invasive oncocytomas. Immunohistochemistry also demonstrated that the staining of ENC1 was different between invasive and non-invasive null cell adenomas. In addition, bioinformatics studies, including gene ontology and protein interaction analyses, were also performed to better understand the critical role of ENC1 in the development and progression of null cell adenomas and oncocytomas. Consequently, ENC1 may be an important biomarker for null cell

  19. Parathyroid Adenoma Presenting as a Brown Tumour of the Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavit Amin


    Full Text Available Background. Parathyroid adenoma is the commonest cause of primary hypercalcaemia and usually presents with symptoms/signs of hypercalcaemia. This paper highlights an unusual presentation. Case Report. A 27-year-old female presented with a painful left mandibular swelling, suspicious of neoplasia. A computed tomography (CT guided biopsy was performed. Based on the histology result, serum calcium was carried out, confirming hypercalcaemia. A left inferior parathyroid adenoma was subsequently removed. CT mandible showed extensive erosive lesions at the left 2nd/3rd inferior molar roots with protrusion to adjacent soft tissues. USS revealed a hypoechoic lesion on the left inferior parathyroid gland. Sestamibi scan showed a focus of MIBI uptake and retention at the inferior aspect of the left thyroid lobe. Conclusion. This case highlights the importance of a thorough history and examination. Clinicians should always bear in mind atypical presentations of parathyroid adenomas, with the need to exclude this differential in the presence of hypercalcaemia.

  20. Tubulovillous adenoma of anal canal: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhupinder S Anand; Gordana Verstovsek; George Cole


    Tumors arising from the anal canal are usually of epithelial origin and are mostly squamous cell carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma. We present a case of benign anal adenomas arising from the anus, an extremely rare diagnosis. A 78-year-old white man presented with rectal bleeding of several months duration. Examination revealed a 4 cm friable mass attached to the anus by a stalk. At surgery, the mass was grasped with a Babcock forceps and was resected using electrocautery.Microscopic examination revealed a tubulovillus adenoma with no areas of high grade dysplasia or malignant transformation. The squamocolumnar junction was visible at the edges of the lesion confirming the anal origin of the tumor. We believe the tubulovillus adenoma arose from either an anal gland or its duct that opens into the anus. Although seen rarely, it is important to recognize and treat these tumors at an early stage because of their potential to transform into adenocarcinoma.

  1. Expression of growth hormone (GH)-releasing factor gene in GH-producing pituitary adenoma. (United States)

    Wakabayashi, I; Inokuchi, K; Hasegawa, O; Sugihara, H; Minami, S


    Pituitary cells synthesize various neuropeptides that influence pituitary hormone secretion. GH-releasing factor (GRF) may also be produced by normal or pituitary tumor cells. We examined GRF gene expression in pituitary tumors. Standard techniques for the analysis of GRF gene expression did not appear to be suitable. Highly sensitive reverse transcription coupled to polymerase chain reaction was used. Specimens of pituitary adenoma were obtained by transsphenoidal adenomectomy from six patients with acromegaly and three patients with no clinical evidence of pituitary hormone overproduction; non-functioning adenoma. Pituitary glands were collected at autopsy from three patients who died from nonendocrine disorders. A specific GRF gene transcript was detected in five out of six GH-producing pituitary adenomas, whereas this was not found in three separate specimens of nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma or anterior and posterior pituitary tissue. The data suggest that GRF is synthesized as an intrinsic product in human GH-producing pituitary adenoma.

  2. Double, synchronous pituitary adenomas causing acromegaly and Cushing's disease. A case report and review of literature. (United States)

    Zieliński, Grzegorz; Maksymowicz, Maria; Podgórski, Jan; Olszewski, Włodzimierz T


    Double pituitary adenomas are very rare and present up to 1 % of pituitary adenomas in unselected autopsy series and up to 2 % in large surgical series. We report a case of a 47-year-old man presented slight clinical features of acromegaly with 2 years duration. Endocrine evaluation confirmed active acromegaly and revealed adrenocorticotropin hormone-dependent hypercortisolemia. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary demonstrated clearly separated double microadenomas with different intensity. The patient underwent transsphenoidal surgery and both tumors were completely removed and were fixed separately. The histological and ultrastructural examination confirmed coincidence of the double, clearly separated pituitary adenomas in one gland. Postoperative function of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis was normalized. We conclude from this case and a literature review that double endocrinologically active pituitary adenomas leading to acromegaly and Cushing's disease may occur. Additionally, a review of the literature regarding multiple pituitary adenomas has also been performed.

  3. Thymosin ß4 expression in colorectal polyps and adenomas (United States)

    Nemolato, Sonia; Cabras, Tiziana; Restivo, Angelo; Zorcolo, Luigi; Di Felice, Eliana; Fanni, Daniela; Gerosa, Clara; Messana, Irene; Castagnola, Massimo; Faa, Gavino; Casula, Giuseppe


    OBJECTIVE: Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is a ubiquitous peptide that plays pivotal roles in the cytoskeletal system and in cell differentiation. Recently, a role for Tβ4 has been proposed in experimental and human carcinogenesis, including gastrointestinal cancer. This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between Tβ4 immunoreactivity and the initial steps of carcinogenesis. METHODS: In total, 60 intestinal biopsies, including 10 hyperplastic polyps, 10 sessile serrated adenomas/polyps, 15 colorectal adenomas with low-grade dysplasia, 15 adenomas with high-grade dysplasia, 15 adenocarcinomas and 10 samples of normal colon mucosa, were analyzed for Tβ4 expression by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Weak cytoplasmic reactivity for Tβ4 was detected in the normal colon mucosa. No reactivity for Tβ4 was found in hyperplastic and sessile serrated polyps/adenomas. Tβ4 expression was observed in 10/15 colorectal adenocarcinomas. In adenomas with low-grade dysplasia, Tβ4 immunoreactivity was mainly detected in dysplastic glands but was absent in hyperplastic glands. Tβ4 immunoreactivity was characterized by spot-like perinuclear staining. In high-grade dysplastic polyps, immunostaining for Tβ4 appeared diffuse throughout the entire cytoplasm of dysplastic cells. Spot-like perinuclear reactivity was detected in adenocarcinoma tumor cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows for the first time that Tβ4 is expressed during different steps of colon carcinogenesis. The shift of Tβ4 immunolocalization from low-grade to high-grade dysplastic glands suggests a role for Tβ4 in colorectal carcinogenesis. However, the real meaning of Tβ4 reactivity in dysplastic intestinal epithelium remains unknown. PMID:24141838

  4. Familial pituitary adenomas. (United States)

    Vandeva, S; Vasilev, V; Vroonen, L; Naves, L; Jaffrain-Rea, M-L; Daly, A F; Zacharieva, S; Beckers, A


    Pituitary adenomas are benign intracranial neoplasms that present a major clinical concern because of hormonal overproduction or compression symptoms of adjacent structures. Most arise in a sporadic setting with a small percentage developing as a part of familial syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), Carney complex (CNC), and the recently described familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and MEN-4. While the genetic alterations responsible for the formation of sporadic adenomas remain largely unknown, considerable advances have been made in defining culprit genes in these familial syndromes. Mutations in MEN1 and PRKAR1A genes are found in the majority of MEN1 and CNC patients, respectively. About 15% of FIPA kindreds present with mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene. Mutations in the CDKN1B gene, encoding p27(Kip)¹ were identified in MEN4 cases. Familial tumours appear to differ from their sporadic counterparts not only in genetic basis but also in clinical characteristics. Evidence suggests that, especially in MEN1 and FIPA, they are more aggressive and affect patients at younger age, therefore justifying the importance of early diagnosis. In this review, we summarize the genetic and clinical characteristics of these familial pituitary adenomas.

  5. Vulvar lactating adenoma associated to a fibroadenoma: common neoplasms in an uncommon site. (United States)

    Dhaoui, Amen; Nfoussi, Haifa; Kchir, Nidhameddine; Haouet, Slim


    Ectopic breast tissue is defined as glands located outside of the breast. Ectopic breast tissue should be excised because it may develop benign (fibroadenoma) or malignant pathologic processes. Less than forty cases of fibroadenomas have been reported in the literature. Although lactation changes can occur, lactating adenoma in the vulva are extremely rare. Only four cases have been reported. We report a case of a young woman who presented with vulvar mass during her lactation. The mass was excised, and histology confirmed vulvar lactating adenoma associated with fibroadenoma. This is the first case of vulvar heterotopic breast lesion associating lactating adenoma and fibroadenoma.

  6. Fatal complication after transsphenoidal surgery of pituitary adenoma: case report


    Conceição Aparecida Dornelas; Tereza N. A. G. Nogueira; Evandro T. Alves; River A. B. Coêlho


    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to report a rare fatal complication in the postoperative period of transsphenoidal surgery of the pituitary gland (adenoma), with a brief review of the subject. The patient was a 54-year-old white man with acromegaly and severe heart failure, who after microsurgery developed blood pressure instability within 32 hours after the procedure and died. The autopsy revealed: hypertrophy and ventricular dilation with myocarditis, pericarditis and myocardial fi...

  7. Imaging of salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.Y.P.; Wong, K.T.; King, A.D. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ahuja, A.T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)], E-mail:


    Salivary gland neoplasms account for <3% of all tumors. Most of them are benign and parotid gland is the commonest site. As a general rule, the smaller the involved salivary gland, the higher is the possibility of the tumor being malignant. The role of imaging in assessment of salivary gland tumour is to define intra-glandular vs. extra-glandular location, detect malignant features, assess local extension and invasion, detect nodal metastases and systemic involvement. Image guided fine needle aspiration cytology provides a safe means to obtain cytological confirmation. For lesions in the superficial parotid and submandibular gland, ultrasound is an ideal tool for initial assessment. These are superficial structures accessible by high resolution ultrasound and FNAC which provides excellent resolution and tissue characterization without a radiation hazard. Nodal involvement can also be assessed. If deep tissue extension is suspected or malignancy confirmed on cytology, an MRI or CT is mandatory to evaluate tumour extent, local invasion and perineural spread. For all tumours in the sublingual gland, MRI should be performed as the risk of malignancy is high. For lesions of the deep lobe of parotid gland and the minor salivary glands, MRI and CT are the modalities of choice. Ultrasound has limited visualization of the deep lobe of parotid gland which is obscured by the mandible. Minor salivary gland lesions in the mucosa of oral cavity, pharynx and tracheo-bronchial tree, are also not accessible by conventional ultrasound. Recent study suggests that MR spectroscopy may differentiate malignant and benign salivary gland tumours as well as distinguishing Warthin's tumor from pleomorphic adenoma. However, its role in clinical practice is not well established. Similarly, the role of nuclear medicine and PET scan, in imaging of parotid masses is limited. Sialography is used to delineate the salivary ductal system and has limited role in assessment of tumour extent.

  8. A Case of Basal Cell Adenoma of the Upper Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Kudoh


    Full Text Available Basal cell adenoma is a rare type of benign salivary gland tumor found most commonly in the parotid gland. We present a rare case of basal cell adenoma arising in the minor salivary gland of the upper lip. The patient was a 59-year-old Japanese man who visited our department in December 2012 with a chief complaint of a mass in the upper lip, which had increased in size over several years. A mobile, elastic, and relatively soft mass without tenderness was palpable in the upper lip region. The mucosa of the upper lip covering the mass was normal. Tumor extirpation was performed under local anesthesia. Histologically, the tumor had a capsule and was composed of islands of relatively uniform, monotonous cells. Immunohistochemically, the inner tumor comprised tubuloductal structures that showed strong staining for CK7, while the outer tumor showed weak staining for CK7. The outer tumor cells also stained positively for CD10 and p63. The MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling index was extremely low. Basal cell adenoma was diagnosed based on these results. The postoperative course was uneventful 12 months after surgery and there has been no recurrence.

  9. Skin pretreatment with microneedles prior to pilocarpine iontophoresis increases sweat production. (United States)

    Wing, David; Prausnitz, Mark R; Buono, Michael J


    Collection of sweat via pilocarpine iontophoresis is commonly used to diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF), with thousands of tests performed each day. The main source of resistance to the passage of pilocarpine ions to the sweat glands is the electrical resistance of the stratum corneum. It was hypothesized that pretreating the skin with 0·5 mm-long microneedles would significantly decrease this resistance, thus increasing pilocarpine's permeation into the skin. Improved permeation should result in significantly reduced time to sweat initiation, time to collection of a clinically meaningful amount of sweat, and increased total amount of sweat produced in 15 min. Subjects (n = 12) had two 5 cm(2) areas on the forearm measured, marked and randomized to experimental (microneedles + iontophoresis) or control (iontophoresis alone). Microneedle pretreatment was conducted using a 35-needle microneedle stamp in a manner that 20 applications completely covered the 5 cm(2) treatment area. This was repeated five times for a total of 100 applications. Both experimental and control sites were placed under iontophoresis (1·5 mA) for 5 min. Microneedle pretreatment significantly decreased mean skin resistance (260 ± 27 kΩ versus 160 ± 19 kΩ, P = 0·006), while significantly increasing mean sweat rate (0·76 ± 0·35 versus 0·54 ± 0·19 μl cm(2) min(-1) , P = 0·007). No significant difference was found concerning pain (P = 0·059), number of active sweat glands (P = 0·627) or the osmolality of the collected sweat (P = 0·636). The results of this study suggest that microneedle pretreatment prior to pilocarpine iontophoresis significantly increases sweat production. Such results have the potential to improve the methodology currently used to diagnose cystic fibrosis and, more broadly, to administer drugs via the skin.

  10. [Treatment of hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating)]. (United States)

    Salava, Alexander; Jousimaa, Jukkapekka


    Hyperhidrosis can be localized or generalized and may cause the patient significant discomfort. Localized hyperhidrosis is usually primary, often begins in adolescence and is partly based on genetic dispositions. As a rule it does not necessitate investigations for secondary causes (e.g. endocrine or neurologic conditions). Generalized hyperhidrosis is commonly associated with environmental or lifestyle factors, and sometimes physiological factors. In new-onset generalized sweating of unclear origin, it may be appropriate to consider secondary causes (underlying diseases, medications, infections). Relatively effective symptomatic treatments are available in localized hyperhidrosis. The treatment of generalized hyperhidrosis is almost always directed against the underlying factors.

  11. Hiperparatiroidismo secundario a adenoma paratiroideo mediastinal Hyperparathyroidism due to mediastinal parathyroid adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Agostinis


    Full Text Available Las glándulas paratiroides se localizan en el cuello, en la cara posterior de la glándula tiroides. Tienen como función secretar PTH, la cual está regulada por la concentración extracelular de calcio. Se define como hiperparatiroidismo a la producción excesiva de PTH por las glándulas paratiroideas, siendo el 85 % aproximadamente de los casos producto de un adenoma; un 12 % debido a hiperplasia y menos del 1 % por carcinomas. El hiperparatiroidismo primario ectápico se presenta en el 10 % de los pacientes, de los cuales del 1 al 2 % corresponde a la localización mediastinal(1. Presentamos una paciente de 38 años, internada en nuestra institución por hipercalcemia sintomática, comprobándose niveles plasmáticos elevados de PTH. Se le realizá una gammagrafía con tecnecio 99 MIBI que evidenció una imagen hipercaptante a nivel de mediastino anterior. Fue intervenida quirúrgicamente, obteniendo como resultado de la anatomía patolágica un adenoma paratiroideo.The parathyroid glands are located in the neck, on the back of the thyroid gland. Their function is to secrete PTH, which is regulated by extracellular calcium concentration. Hyperparathyroidism is defined as the excessive production of PTH by the parathyroid glands; approximately 85 % of the cases are caused by an adenoma, 12 % due to hyperplasia and less than 1 % by carcinomas. Ectopic Primary hyperparathyroidism occurs in 10 % of the patients, of which from 1 to 2 % are of mediastinal location(1. We report the case of a 38-year-old patient hospitalized in our institution for symptomatic hypercalcemia. During her hospitalization elevated plasma levéis of PTH were found with image MIBI technetium 99 high uptake in the anterior mediastinum. She underwent surgery, and the pathology report showed parathyroid adenoma.

  12. Sweating (United States)

    ... AS, Braunwald E, Kasper DL, et al (Eds). Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine , 17th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical, 2008. Camp-Sorrell D, Hawkins RA. Clinical Manual for the Oncology Advanced Practice Nurse , Second Ed. ...

  13. [Thyroid adenoma in the piriform fossa: a case report and literature review]. (United States)

    Huang, X T; Ma, B; Liu, M B; Zhang, Y; Huang, D L; Chen, L


    Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics of case of thyroid adenoma in the piriform fossa, and review the literatures of the congentital thyroid gland abnormality. Methods: A 44-year-old male had foreign body feeling in his pharynx for 3 years. A mass in his left piriform fossa was detected by the clinical and imaging examination. Biopsy report that the mass was thyroid papillary carcinoma. The resection of tumor with partial back thyroid cartilage through lateral neck and pharyngeal approach was performed. Results: The surgical wound healed in first-stage and no any surgical complication occurred. With postoperative pathological and immunohistochemical examination, the mass was finally diagnosed as thyroid gland adenoma. Staining for cytokerantin19 was negative. Conclusion: The symptomatic and neoplastic abnormal thyroid gland should be excised, but asymptomtic, non-neoplastic and functional abnormal thyroid gland should be retained with regular follow up.

  14. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony? (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.


    In his interesting and informative book "Is That a Fact?," Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on…

  15. 腋窝皱襞小切口大汗腺剪除术根治腋臭334例疗效观察及围手术期护理%The Clinical Effect Observation and Perioperative Care of A Treatment Method, Cutting off Apocrine Sweat Gland Precisely with Minimally Invasive in Axillary Folds, for Bromhidrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璃; 林孝华; 宣喧; 李智铭


    目的 观察腋窝皱襞小切口大汗腺剪除术根治腋臭的疗效,探讨其围手术期预防并发症的措施.方法 入选患者均沿腋毛区外1.0cm处标记手术区域,在腋窝中央皮肤皱褶处切口,长约1.5 ~2.0cm,沿皮下组织浅层分离术区皮肤组织,翻转皮瓣,剪除皮肤上脂肪组织、大汗腺及毛囊,修剪成仅含皮肤全层和真皮下血管网的超薄皮瓣,再缝合切口.结果 334例患者,共治疗668侧,均有效,痊愈412侧,显效256侧,无效0侧.围手术期出现皮下血肿21侧、局部皮肤坏死6侧、切口延迟愈合11侧、局部湿疹样皮炎12侧、水疱和血疱56侧,积极对症处理后,预后良好.结论 腋窝皱襞小切口大汗腺剪除术根治腋臭,疗效肯定,手术切口瘢痕不明显.围手术期应积极预防和处理各种并发症的发生.%Objective To discuss the clinical effect and perioperative care of a treatment method to cure the bromhidro-sis completely. Methods Mark the surgical area 1cm away around the armpit hair, draw the operative incision along the center of the area, which is around 1.5 ~2.0cm; Peel and turn off the skin, directly cut off the fat, apocrine sweat gland and hair follicle attached to the skin, and left full-thickness skin and subcutaneous vascular net only, then sew up the incision. Results Total 334 suffers, 668 sides were all cured properly. Of which 412 sides were healed completely. 256 sides gained remarkable curative effect. There were some complications incurred,such as subcutaneous hematoma(21 sides) ,local skin necrosis(6 sides) , delayed wound healing (11 sides ), local eczematous dermatitis ( 12 sides ), blister and blood blister ( 56 sides). In the end, they had also been appropriately cured. Conclusion This surgery is a useful treatment method for bromhidrosis, and the Scar is not obvious. However, it is also necessary to prevent and appropriately cure in case of any complications.

  16. Distinguishing hyperhidrosis and normal physiological sweat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Linnea; Gyldenløve, Mette; Zachariae, Claus


    BACKGROUND: Hyperhidrosis is a condition in which the production of sweat is abnormally increased. No objective criteria for the diagnosis of hyperhidrosis exist, mainly because reference intervals for normal physiological sweat production at rest are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The main objective...... of this study was to establish reference intervals for normal physiological axillary and palmar sweat production. METHODS: Gravimetric testing was performed in 75 healthy control subjects. Subsequently, these results were compared with findings in a cohort of patients with hyperhidrosis and with the results...... derived from a review of data on hyperhidrosis published between 1980 and 2013. RESULTS: Approximately 90% of the controls had axillary and palmar sweat production rates of below 100 mg/5 min. In all except one of the axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis studies reviewed, average sweat production exceeded...

  17. Lipomatous pleomorphic adenoma in the hard palate: Report of a rare case with cyto-histo correlation and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Musayev


    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumor of the salivary glands. They are usually composed of epithelial/myoepithelial cells and chondromyxoid stroma. Extensive lipomatous differentiation is very rare. We report a case of lipomatous pleomorphic adenoma (LPA that presented with a mass in the hard palate of a 32-year-old woman. The fine-needle aspiration cytology material was reported as benign cytology consistent with adenoma with major adipocytic component. Histopathological examination of the excision material displayed that more than 90% of the tumor was adipocytic in texture, containing scant epithelial and myoepithelial cells and chondromyxoid stromal fragments. Preoperative cytodiagnosis of lipomatous pleomorphic adenoma on FNA is based on cytomorphology intimately associated pleomorphic adenomatous and lipomatous tissue elements. LPA should be on the mental list of the (cytopathologist in differential diagnosis of lipomatous tumors or non-tumorous lipomatosis or carcinoma invasion in the adipose tissue of the minor salivary gland of the hard palate.

  18. Papillary eccrine adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmisha Chandrashekar


    Full Text Available A 28-year-old man came to us with a solitary skin colored, mildly tender nodule of 6 months duration on the dorsum of the right hand. On histological examination, multiple dilated ducts without apparent continuity with the surface were found in the dermis. These dilated ducts had branching tubules with eosinophilic amorphous material filling most of the lumina. The peripheral cells of the tubules resembled myoepithelial cells, whereas the luminal border cells were cuboidal or low columnar. Papillary projections arising from the inner cells were seen extending into the lumen. These features were diagnostic of a rare tumor, papillary eccrine adenoma.

  19. Differentiation of pituitary adenomas from other sellar and parasellar tumors by {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, Koji [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Medical Center; Suzuki, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Isao [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine


    Pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid [{sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA] scintigraphy was evaluated for the differentiation of pituitary adenomas, especially non-functioning adenomas, from other sellar and parasellar lesions. Diffuse {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA accumulation within the tumor was found in seven of seven non-functioning, three of four growth hormone-secreting, and seven of eight prolactin-secreting adenomas, but only partial accumulation in only two of 16 non-pituitary adenomas and normal pituitary glands. There were no significant relationship between tumor-to-background ratios and tumor size or serum hormone level. {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy showed overall sensitivity of 81% (17/21 cases) for detecting pituitary adenomas, in particular 100% for non-functioning adenomas. {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA may be useful for detecting pituitary adenomas, especially non-functioning adenomas, and for the differentiation of non-functioning pituitary adenomas from other sellar and parasellar lesions. (author)

  20. Pitfalls in Cytodiagnosis of Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Nasal Septum - A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek MG


    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign mixed tumor of major salivary gland. Ectopic occurrence of pleomorphic adenoma are seen in minor salivary glands of pharynx, trachea, larynx and very rarely in nasal septum. We report a case of 40 year old female who presented with right sided nasal mass and mild nasal obstruction since six months. Cytologically a possibility of pleomorphic adenoma was made which was confirmed by histopathological study. We present this case due to 1 rarity in the nasal septum 2 pitfalls at cytology due to abundance (predominance of myoepithelial cells and scanty or even absent mesenchymal component and 3 under reporting in English literature to the best of our knowledge.

  1. Xanthomatous Hypophysitis Mimicking a Pituitary Adenoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Aste


    Full Text Available Background. Hypophysitis is an inflammatory disease of the pituitary gland that may mimic pituitary tumors clinically and radiologically. Case Description. We report a case of a xanthomatous hypophysitis initially diagnosed as pituitary adenoma. A 31-year-old woman presented with headache, diabetes insipidus, and amenorrhea. A head CT scan showed no intrasellar changes, while an MRI scan showed a sellar cystic mass. An endocrinological work up revealed mild hypocortisolism and diabetes insipidus (DI. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed. The intraoperative histological examination suggested a pituitary adenoma. The removed tissue showed central necrosis surrounded by accumulation of foamy cells and xanthomatous epithelioid cells. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery, Nevertheless, DI persisted and the adenohypophysis hypofunction did not recover. Conclusion. We describe an unusual inflammatory lesion of the pituitary gland mimicking an adenoma. A high level of clinical suspicion of inflammatory disorders is necessary for correct diagnosis and optimal management.

  2. A research on the method of axillary osmidrosis treatment using minimally invasive resection of apocrine sweat gland and thick skin flap in armpit wrinkle%腋窝微创切除大汗腺及全厚皮瓣法治疗腋臭

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张郑; 张汝敏


    Objective To study the curative effect of axillary osmidrosis,that incision in armpit wrinkle,orthoptic cut off the gland to thick skin flap.Methods Collected double-sided axillary osmidrosis 163 patients,all of them accepted armpit wrinkle incision,the scope of surgical operation super the armpit hair distribute 1 cm,swelling anaesthesia,orthoptic cut off the armpit organization 5 mm under skin included apocrine sweat gland,kept the operation scope to vessel net flap under skin.Hematischesis thoroughly used a double pole electricity hemostasis,kept drainage after operation,bandaged in pressure,took out sutures after 9 days.The foul smell standard referenced the Tung-Chain standard of axillary osmidrosis curative effect evaluation.Results Three hundred and twenty armpits (98.16%,320/326) were cure,6 armpits (1.84%,6/326) were excellence.The armpit hair variety:obvious reduce 322 armpits (98.77%,322/326),general reduce 4 armpits (1.23%,4/326).Perspire condition:obvious reduce 324 armpits (99.39%,324/326),improve but no obvious reduce 2 armpits ( 0.61%,2/326).The average surgical operation recovery time was about 9 days.Complication:necrosis on the edge of the skin was 8 armpits,scar formation on the incision was 3 armpits,hematoma was 1 armpit,shoulder joint limitation of activity was 0 armpit.Conclusion The method of axillary osmidrosis treatment useing thick skin flap in armpit wrinkle,which has extermination foundation of anatomy and pathology,which can cause axillary osmidrosis,this operation is simple,curative effect is credible,the wound is small,complication is little etc,utmost matching the principle of orthopedic surgery,worthy of clinical application.%目的 探讨腋窝皱襞小切口直视切除大汗腺及全厚皮瓣法治疗腋臭的疗效.方法 收集双侧腋臭患者163例,均采用腋窝皱襞切口,手术范围超腋毛分布1 cm,肿胀麻醉,直视下剪除包含大汗腺的腋部皮下组织5mm左右,直至腋窝手术范围皮肤

  3. Intraosseous pleomorphic adenoma: case report and review of the literature. (United States)

    Aver-De-Araujo, L M; Chaves-Tarquinio, S B; Neuzling-Gomes, A P; Etges, A


    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common neoplasm of the salivary glands, affecting mainly the parotid gland. The preferential intraoral site of this tumor is the palate. A case of a 31-year-old woman with an intraosseous pleomorphic adenoma located in the maxilla (left paramedian region), showing an approximate evolution of one year is reported. The present intraosseous case represents a rare location, with the tumor probably originating from glandular epithelial remnants captured during embryogenesis. In a review of the literature of 142 cases of intragnathic localization (24% in the maxilla) are identified. A slight predominance of women was observed (56%), with 55% of the patients being affected during the 5th to 7th decade of life. The tumors were malignant in 94% of the cases, with special predominance of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (65%). Intraosseous pleomorphic adenomas are rare, with the present patient being the 6th case reported in the literature and the second found in the maxilla. Mean age of the 5 previously reported cases was 58.8 years.

  4. [Multihormonal and multifunctional hypophyseal adenoma and the acromegaly syndrome]. (United States)

    Dusková, J; Marek, J; Povýsil, C


    Woman 75-year-old treated 30 years for syndrome of acromegaly refused pituitary surgery and irradiation. Five years and nine months before death she had a colon carcinoma successfully removed. Multinodular hyperfunctional goitre was treated with carbimazole. For six last years of life corticosteroids were given as a replacement therapy. Her cause of death was the heart failure due to acromegalic heart disease. In autopsy a large intrasellar and extrasellar pituitary adenoma without rests of nonneoplastic tissue was found. Nevertheless the target peripheral endocrine glands except ovaries, were not atrophic. A multinodular goitre and diffuse adrenocortical hyperplasia were revealed. Histology, and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that mot neoplastic cells were producing GH and ACTH, dispersly Prl, scattered cells were positive for beta-subunit of FSH, LH, TSH. Electron microscopy proved most of the cells to be densely granulated. We classify the adenoma according to the newly proposed WHO pituitary tumours classification (1) as plurihormonal, hyperfunctional, extrasellar, typical adenoma from densely granulated cells. We conclude that in plurihormonal adenomas with dominant (in the case referred acromegalic) symptomatology the additional hormonal production should be monitored as a possible source of important complications.

  5. Histochemical alterations in colorectal carcinoma and adenoma in Egyptian patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saber A Sakr; Moshira M Abdel-Wahed; Asmaa G Abdou; Eman K El-Adely


    Objective:To evaluate the histochemical alterations inDNA and total carbohydrates, in colorectal cancer cells. Methods:This study was carried out on 48 colorectal carcinoma and 10 adenoma specimens. Hematoxylin and Eosin staining was carried out for histopathological examination to confirm the diagnosis and to evaluate the histopathological characteristics of tumor. Histologic grade and pathologic stage was assessed according to TNM staging system. Staging was also assessed according to original Dukes’ staging system.DNA was demonstrated by Feulgen method and carbohydrates were demonstrated by periodic acid Schiff’s reaction. Results:Adenoma cases showed that the cells lining the glands of the polyp have more crowded, irregular and darker nuclei (hyperchromatic), anisonucleosis, abnormal mitotic figures with prominent nucleoli and variability in the size and shape of nuclei. Colorectal carcinoma cases showed a condensation and reduction in the size of a cell nucleus associated with hyperchromatosis, pyknotic nuclei, abnormal mitotic figures, anisonucleosis, irregular nuclear membrane and inequality in the size of the nuclei (Pleomorphosis). There was a statistical significant differences between adenoma and carcinoma regarding number of mitotic cells (P = 0.03) that was in favour of malignant group. Adenoma and colorectal carcinoma cases showed periodic acid Schiff’s reactivity with different degree. Conclusions:These histochemical alterations can be so characteristic of a given tumor type and stage that they are used in cancer diagnosis and might also be related to the altered functional properties of cancer cells.

  6. Usefulness of Sweat Management for Patients with Adult Atopic Dermatitis, regardless of Sweat Allergy: A Pilot Study (United States)

    Murota, Hiroyuki; Murata, Susumu; Katayama, Ichiro; Morita, Eishin


    Background. Sweat is an aggravating factor in atopic dermatitis (AD), regardless of age. Sweat allergy may be involved in AD aggravated by sweating. Objective. We investigated whether sweat exacerbates adult AD symptoms and examined the extent of sweat allergy's involvement. Method. We asked 34 AD patients (17 men, 17 women; mean age: 27.8 years) to record the extent to which sweat aggravated their symptoms on a 10-point numerical scale. Participant responses were compared with histamine release tests (HRT). Furthermore, 24 of the patients received instructions on methods of sweat management, and their outcomes were evaluated on a 10-point scale. Results. Sweat HRT results were class ≥ 2 in 13 patients, but HRT results were not correlated with the patients' self-assessments of symptom aggravation by sweat. One month after receiving sweat management instructions, a low mean score of 4.6 was obtained regarding whether active sweating was good, but a high mean score of 7.0 was obtained in response to whether the sweat management instructions had been helpful. Conclusion. Our investigation showed that patients' negative impressions of sweat might derive from crude personal experiences that are typically linked to sweating. Sweat management for patients with adult atopic dermatitis was extremely useful regardless of sweat allergy. PMID:28210628

  7. 7 CFR 29.1065 - Sweating. (United States)


    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1065 Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation....

  8. 7 CFR 29.3554 - Sweating. (United States)


    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3554 Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation....

  9. Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Palate in a 10-year-old Child: A Case Report

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    SH Tabatabaei


    Full Text Available Salivary gland tumors  are  uncommon  within  children and  when  they do arise,  they  mainly  affect  the  major  salivary glands. Minor salivary gland  tumors  are  rare  in  children, which are  responsible for less than 10% of all the cases. Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common tumor of  the salivary glands in the all ages. A 10-year-old boy referred to the dentistry clinic with a swelling in the palate of adjacent unerupted right maxillary second molar. In sampling by curettage, clinical pathologist reported ameloblastoma. The patient was referred to the dental school of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences for consultation. Second  microscopic analysis showed a benign pleomorphic adenoma that was confirmed by special staining periodic acid-Schiff (PAS, immunohistochemistry cytokeratin(CK, and S100 staining. Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland of children should be considered as a differential diagnosis of intraoral swelling in the palate.

  10. Endocrine glands (United States)

    ... Diabetes Gigantism Diabetes insipidus Cushing Disease Watch this video about: Pituitary gland Testes and ovaries: Lack of sex development (unclear genitalia) Thyroid: Congenital hypothyroidism Myxedema Goiter ...

  11. An intracapsular carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma with lung metastases composed exclusively of benign elements: histological evidence of a continuum between metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. (United States)

    Weissferdt, Annikka; Langman, Gerald


    Malignant mixed tumors of the salivary glands, encompassing carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (ca ex PA), carcinosarcoma and metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma (mPA), are rare neoplasms. Ca ex PA arises in a pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma (PA). When the malignant component does not breach the capsule of the parent PA, the lesion is termed intracapsular ca ex PA, a neoplasm which is thought to have no metastatic potential. Metastatic deposits of ca ex PA are composed exclusively of malignant elements or mixed benign and malignant components. We describe the case of a 62-year-old female with an intracapsular ca ex PA of the buccal mucosa with subsequent metastases to the lung. The metastatic deposits resembled benign PA with no histological evidence of malignancy. This pattern of spread is described with mPA, an entity that caused controversy in the past regarding its exact classification as a benign or malignant tumor. The possibility that ca ex PA originates from a mPA, with intracapsular ca ex PA representing an intermediate lesion in a histological continuum, is discussed.

  12. The expression of intermediate filaments in canine mammary glands and their tumors. (United States)

    Hellmén, E; Lindgren, A


    Monoclonal antibodies specific for different types of intermediate filaments (cytokeratin, vimentin, desmin and neurofilaments) were used to study the histogenesis of canine mammary glands and 57 canine mammary tumors by immunocytochemistry. The intra- and interlobular duct epithelium, acinar, and intralobular myoepithelial cells stained positively for cytokeratin. Peripheral ductal and acinar cells, as well as interstitial cells, stained positively for vimentin. A similar staining pattern was seen in adenomas, complex adenomas, benign mixed tumors, ductular carcinomas, and one myoepithelioma-like tumor. Additionally, cytokeratin positive cells were scattered interstitially in one single adenoma, most complex adenomas, some benign mixed tumors, complex carcinomas, and in the malignant mixed tumors. All stromal cells stained positively for vimentin. The fibrosarcomas were positive only for vimentin, while the following expressed both desmin and cytokeratin: epithelial-like cells in one adenoma, three complex adenomas, the myoepithelioma-like tumor, the single comedo carcinoma, two complex carcinomas, the single lobular carcinoma, one malignant mixed tumor, and three osteosarcomas. Epithelial-like cells in one adenoma, six complex adenomas, two benign mixed tumors, two complex carcinomas, the lobular carcinoma, and the malignant schwannoma stained for neurofilaments. Three tumors, one adenoma, one complex adenoma, and the lobular carcinoma expressed both desmin and neurofilaments in addition to cytokeratin and vimentin. The results show the expression of different types of intermediate filaments and indicate that there might be a stem cell origin in most of the canine mammary tumors.

  13. Fatal complication after transsphenoidal surgery of pituitary adenoma: case report

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    Conceição Aparecida Dornelas


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to report a rare fatal complication in the postoperative period of transsphenoidal surgery of the pituitary gland (adenoma, with a brief review of the subject. The patient was a 54-year-old white man with acromegaly and severe heart failure, who after microsurgery developed blood pressure instability within 32 hours after the procedure and died. The autopsy revealed: hypertrophy and ventricular dilation with myocarditis, pericarditis and myocardial fibrosis; mesenteric ischemia with transmural coagulation necrosis of the intestinal loops; acute tubular necrosis; and hepatic steatosis. The findings are consistent with cardiogenic shock and abdominal sepsis due to necrosis of the intestinal loops.

  14. CT scan in diagnosis of pituitary adenomas, 5. CT findings of GH secreting adenomas

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    Sakoda, K.; Yonezawa, M.; Gen, M. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Clinical findings and radiological findings in 19 cases of GH secreting adenoma were reported. In diagnosis of GH secreting adenoma, conventional radiography and computed tomography of the sella turcica are useful. The CT of this kind of adenomas shows a characteristically higher x-ray absorption coefficient than other adenomas.

  15. Radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas; Radiocirurgia nos adenomas hipofisarios

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    Castro, Douglas Guedes de; Salvajoli, Joao Victor; Canteras, Miguel Montes; Cecilio, Soraya A. Jorge [Instituto de Radiocirurgia Neurologica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    Pituitary adenomas represent nearly 15% of all intracranial tumors. Multimodal treatment includes microsurgery, medical management and radiotherapy. Microsurgery is the primary recommendation for nonfunctioning and most of functioning adenomas, except for prolactinomas that are usually managed with dopamine agonist drugs. However, about 30% of patients require additional treatment after microsurgery for recurrent or residual tumors. In these cases, fractionated radiation therapy has been the traditional treatment. More recently, radiosurgery has been established as a treatment option. Radiosurgery allows the delivery of prescribed dose with high precision strictly to the target and spares the surrounding tissues. Therefore, the risks of hypopituitarism, visual damage and vasculopathy are significantly lower. Furthermore, the latency of the radiation response after radiosurgery is substantially shorter than that of fractionated radiotherapy. The goal of this review is to define the efficacy, safety and role of radiosurgery for treatment of pituitary adenomas and to present the preliminary results of our institution. (author)

  16. Villous adenoma of the distal appendix. (United States)

    Taylor, J V; Thomas, M G; Kelly, S; Sutton, R


    Villous adenoma confined to the distal appendix has not been previously reported in conjunction with acute apendicitis. The presence of an adenoma indicates a need for further investigation due to an association with neoplasia elsewhere.

  17. Serrated adenoma of stomach: A premalignancy?

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    Divya Achutha Ail


    Full Text Available Serrated adenoma is a newly described entity in the group of gastric adenomas. Until date only 20 cases of gastric serrated adenoma have been reported. It is an important entity to be diagnosed accurately as it has a very high-risk of malignant transformation, especially those located in the cardia of stomach. Serrated adenoma associated with adenocarcinoma is more frequent in the elderly, but pure serrated adenoma is common in the young, in whom follow-up is mandatory. Gastric serrated adenoma has distinct location, definite histomorphology and characteristic Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining. Ki-67 staining helps to differentiated pure serrated adenoma from those associated with adenocarcinoma. We present a young adult male, incidentally detected to have gastric serrated adenoma.

  18. Effect of water intake on sweat output

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    K. V. Mani


    Full Text Available The effect of drinking volumes of water in excess of normal requirement at a given time on sweat output was studied under two conditions of body activity namely marching and standing, and two conditions of exposure namely sun and shade. It was found that (1drinking large volumes of water causes a significant and appreciable increase in sweat output, of the order of 0.8 gm/kg/hr; and (2 this increase is very nearly the same under all the conditions studied. It is suggested that changes in tonicity of the plasma may be the main cause for this phenomenon. It is also pointed out that this increased sweat output is not a loss to the body.

  19. Karyotyping, dermatoglyphic, and sweat pore analysis of five families affected with ectodermal dysplasia

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    Manpreet Sidhu


    Full Text Available Background: Hereditary ectodermal dysplasia is a genetic recessive trait characterized by hypohydrosis, hypotrichosis, and hypodontia. The affected individual show characteristic physiognomy like protruded forehead, depressed nasal bridge, periorbital wrinkling, protruded lips, etc. There is marked decrease in sweat and salivary secretion. Due to skin involvement palm and sole ridge patterns are disrupted. Aim: In this study an attempt has been made to classify the affected members according to the degree of penetrance by pedigree analysis and also study karyotyping for cytogenetics, dermatoglyphic analysis for the various ridge patterns and variations in the number of sweat glands by sweat pore analysis in affected individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of five families who were affected with ectodermal dysplasia were considered. Pedigree analysis was drawn up to three generation by obtaining history. Dermatoglyphics and sweat pore analysis was done by obtaining palm and finger print impression using stamp pad ink. Karyotyping was done by collecting 3-5 ml peripheral blood. Karyotyping was prepared using lymphocyte culture. Chromosomes were examined at 20 spreads selected randomly under Χ100 magnification. Results were analyzed by calculating mean values and percentage was obtained. Results: Karyotyping did not show any abnormalities, dermatoglyphic analysis and sweat pore counts showed marked variations when compared with normal. Moreover, pedigree analysis confirmed the status of the disease as that of the recessive trait. Conclusion: Large number of affected patients needs to be evaluated for dermatoglypic analysis. Genetic aspect of the disease needs to be looked into the molecular level in an attempt to locate the gene locus responsible for ectodermal dysplasia and its manifestation.

  20. Real-time sweat analysis via alternating current conductivity of artificial and human sweat (United States)

    Liu, Gengchen; Alomari, Mahmoud; Sahin, Bunyamin; Snelgrove, Samuel E.; Edwards, Jeffrey; Mellinger, Axel; Kaya, Tolga


    Dehydration is one of the most profound physiological challenges that significantly affects athletes and soldiers if not detected early. Recently, a few groups have focused on dehydration detection using sweat as the main biomarker. Although there are some proposed devices, the electrical and chemical characteristics of sweat have yet to be incorporated into the validations. In this work, we have developed a simple test setup to analyze artificial sweat that is comprised the main components of human sweat. We provide theoretical and experimental details on the electrical and chemical behavior of the artificial sweat for various concentration values within a temperature range of 5 °C to 50 °C. We have also developed an efficient sweat collecting and detection system based on 3D printing. Human studies were conducted and this particular protocol has shown that dehydration starts to take effect as early as 40 min into the physical activity if there is no fluid intake during the exercise. We believe that our device will lead to developing viable real-time sweat analysis systems.

  1. Excretion of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Sweat (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Saito, Takeshi; Fortner, Neil; Abraham, Tsadik; Gustafson, Richard A.; Smith, Michael L.


    Sweat testing is a noninvasive technique for monitoring drug exposure over a 7-day period in treatment, criminal justice, and employment settings. We evaluated Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) excretion in 11 daily cannabis users after cessation of drug use. PharmChek® sweat patches worn for 7 days were analyzed for THC by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method was 0.4 ng THC/patch. Sweat patches worn the first week of continuously monitored abstinence had THC above the United States Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration’s proposed cutoff concentration for federal workplace testing of 1 ng THC/patch. Mean ± S.E.M. THC concentrations were 3.85 ± 0.86 ng THC/patch. Eight of 11 subjects had negative patches the second week and one produced THC positive patches for four weeks of monitored abstinence. We also tested daily and weekly sweat patches from 7 subjects who were administered oral doses of up to 14.8 mg THC/day for five consecutive days. In this oral THC administration study, no daily or weekly patches had THC above the LOQ; concurrent plasma THC concentrations were all less than 6.1 μg/L. In conclusion, using proposed federal cutoff concentrations, most daily cannabis users will have a positive sweat patch in the first week after ceasing drug use and a negative patch after subsequent weeks, although patches may remain positive for four weeks or more. Oral ingestion of up to 14.8 mg THC daily does not produce a THC positive sweat patch test. PMID:17481836

  2. Double pituitary adenomas: six surgical cases. (United States)

    Sano, T; Horiguchi, H; Xu, B; Li, C; Hino, A; Sakaki, M; Kannuki, S; Yamada, S


    While double pituitary adenomas have been found in approximately 1% of autopsy pituitaries, those in surgically resected material have been only rarely reported. We report herein 6 cases of double pituitary adenomas, which consisted of two histologically and/or immunohistochemically different areas among approximately 450 surgical specimens. Five out of 6 patients were men and the age was ranged between 18 and 61 years old. All these 6 patients presented acromegaly or acrogigantism and hyperprolactinemia was noted in 3 patients. In 2 patients (cases 1 and 2) the two adenomas belonged to different adenoma groups (GH-PRL-TSH group and FSH/LH group), while in the remaining 4 patients (cases 3-6) the two adenomas belonged to the same group (GH-PRL-TSH group). Thus, in all patients at least one of the two adenomas was GH-producing adenoma. Reasons for a high incidence of GH-producing adenomas in surgically resected double pituitary adenomas may include the presence of a variety of histologic subtypes among GH-producing adenomas and the advantage of cytokeratin immunostaining to distinguish these subtypes. In regard to pathogenesis of double pituitary adenomas, adenomas in cases 1 and 2 may be of multicentric occurrence, while those in cases 3-6 may occur through different clonal proliferation within originally one adenoma, resulting in diverse phenotypic expressions. Since there were patients with familial MEN 1 (case 2) and familial pituitary adenoma unrelated MEN 1 (case 3), genetic background should be also considered. Double pituitary adenomas in surgically resected material may not be so infrequent. Further molecular analysis will provide new insights into understanding the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas and their mechanisms of multidirectional phenotypic diffrentiation.

  3. Hypertrophic osteopathy associated with a renal adenoma in a cat. (United States)

    Johnson, Robert L; Lenz, Stephen D


    Hypertrophic osteopathy is a hyperostotic syndrome of the appendicular skeleton that is most commonly associated with intrathoracic neoplasia or inflammation. The condition is rarely associated with intra-abdominal lesions. The majority of cases have occurred in dogs and human beings, with fewer cases reported in cats, horses, and other species. A 15-year-old male neutered Domestic Shorthair cat presented for swollen limbs and difficulty in ambulation. Radiographs and gross postmortem revealed severe periosteal hyperostosis of the diaphysis and metaphysis of all 4 limbs, including the humerus, radius, ulna, carpi, metacarpi, femur, tibia, tarsi, metatarsi, and phalanges. The axial skeleton was spared. Hyperostotic lesions were characterized microscopically by lamellar bony trabeculae separated by adipocytes and scant hematopoietic tissue. In several areas, fibrovascular connective tissue, woven bone, and islands of cartilage were also present. A 2.5 cm × 2.5 cm perirenal neoplasm compressed the left kidney and adrenal gland. This mass consisted of well-differentiated tubules of cuboidal epithelial cells and was most consistent with a renal tubular adenoma, because mitotic figures were rare, and no distant metastases were found. Thoracic pathology was absent. Hyperostosis was consistent with hypertrophic osteopathy secondary to the renal adenoma. The pathogenesis of hypertrophic osteopathy is uncertain, but predominant theories point to increased peripheral circulation and angiogenesis as a key initiating event. Recent literature highlights the potential role of vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor in the human condition. The mechanism by which this renal adenoma caused hypertrophic osteopathy is unknown.

  4. The betaine content of sweat from adolescent females

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    Greg Horrace


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was developed to establish whether betaine was present in the sweat of females and to determine any correlations with other sweat components. Methods Sweat patches were placed on eight trained adolescent Highland dancers (age = 13.6 ± 2.3 yr, who then participated in a dance class for 2 hours. Patches were removed, and the sweat recovered via centrifugation. The sweat was subsequently analyzed for betaine, choline, sodium, potassium, chloride, lactate, glucose, urea and ammonia. Results Betaine was present in the sweat of all subjects (232 ± 84 μmol·L-1, which is higher than typically found in plasma. The concentration of several sweat components were correlated, in particular betaine with most other measured components. Conclusion Betaine, an osmoprotectant and methyl donor, is a component of sweat that may be lost from the body in significant amounts.

  5. [Prostatilen treatment of prostatic adenoma]. (United States)

    Al'-Shukri, S Kh; Gorbachev, A G; Borovets, S Iu; Belousov, V Ia; Kuz'min, I V; Chushkin, K A


    We studied efficacy of repeated courses of prostatilen in suppositories with dimexide in prostatic adenoma patients with normal micturition. Rectal suppositories contain 30 mg prostatilen and 90 mg dimexide. The course consisted of 15 suppositories. The treatment reduced clinical symptoms of infravesical obstruction, residual urine volume in administration of prostatilen in 15-day courses each 3 months. This suggests possibility of suppository prostatilen use not only as an alternative for expensive drugs but also in combination with them in treatment of initial prostatic adenoma.

  6. Detection of cancer clones in human colorectal adenoma as revealed by increased DNA instability and other bio-markers

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    Y Jin


    Full Text Available An immunohistochemical differential staining of cancerous cells with anti-cytidine antibody after denaturation of nuclear DNA by acid hydrolysis with 2N HCl at 30°C for 20 min (DNA-instability test has been used as a marker for malignancy. The test was applied to bioptic tissues of human colorectal polyps assessed histopathologically as hyperplastic polyp (11 cases, tubular adenoma of mild (68 cases, moderate (102 cases, and severe (46 cases dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma (30 cases. The serial sections of the same tissues were also subjected to immunohistochemical staining for Ki67, p53, DNA-fragmentation factor 45 (DFF45 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. The DNA-instability test was positive in 30 (100% adenocarcinoma cases, 46 (100% severe dysplasia adenoma cases, 36 (35.29% moderate dysplasia adenoma cases, and 8 (11.76% mild dysplasia adenoma cases, indicating malignancy. All hyperplastic polyps were negative to the DNA-instability test. Furthermore, the percentage of glands positive in the DNAinstability test steadily increased in going from mild (10%, to moderate (35%, to severe (100% dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma (100%. All other biological markers tested in the present study showed significantly higher values in those adenoma glands that werepositive to the DNA-instability test, irrespective of the dysplasia grade, as compared to the markers in the adenoma glands that were negative to DNA instability testing. Furthermore, the former values were comparable to those in adenocarcinoma. The results indicate that cancer cell clones are already present at the adenoma stages showing positivity to DNA instability testing, enhanced proliferative activity, p53 mutation and induction of DFF45 and VEGF, at a time when the degree of morphological atypia are not yet large enough for them to be identified as cancer. These factors promote cancer cell proliferation, produce heterogeneous subclones due to DNA instability, enhance their

  7. The utility of periodic acid schiff with diastase and alcian blue stains on fine needle aspirates of breast and salivary gland neoplasms

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    N K Panicker


    Conclusion : Intracytoplasmic PAS-D-positive globules may be useful in differentiating benign and malignant lesions of breast. The presence of PAS-D positive granules are useful in differentiating various lesions of salivary glands. AB staining of stromal fragments in pleomorphic adenoma is useful in differentiating it from basal cell adenoma.

  8. Sonography of intrathyroid parathyroid adenomas: Are there distinctive features that allow for preoperative identification?

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    Heller, Matthew T., E-mail: [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, 200 Lothrop St, Suite 3950 PUH S. Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Yip, Linwah, E-mail: [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Endocrine Surgery, Kaufmann Building, 3471 Fifth Ave, Suite 101, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Tublin, Mitchell E., E-mail: [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, 200 Lothrop St, Suite 3950 PUH S. Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)


    Objective: The purpose of our study was to determine if intra-thyroid parathyroid adenomas can be accurately identified by applying proposed criteria to preoperative ultrasound examinations in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Materials/methods: Fifty-three patients with pathology proven intra-thyroid parathyroid adenomas and pre-operative ultrasounds were identified from a surgical database for a blinded, retrospective review. A contemporary, age-matched cohort of 54 patients with extra-thyroid parathyroid adenomas was identified as a control. A total of 64 patients within these cohorts had co-existing thyroid nodules. Proposed ultrasound criteria for identifying a parathyroid adenoma included solid composition, profound hypoechogenicity, and presence of a feeding polar vessel. Parathyroid adenomas were classified as extra-thyroid or intra-thyroid (partial or complete) based on their relationship with the thyroid gland during ultrasound evaluation and results were compared to surgical and histopathology reports as the gold standard. The results from the blinded, retrospective review during which the proposed, specific ultrasound criteria were applied were compared to the initial, pre-operative reports during which the proposed criteria were not applied. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of the blinded, retrospective review and initial, pre-operative reports were calculated. Additionally, in patients with co-existing thyroid nodules, an attempt was made to differentiate parathyroid adenomas from the thyroid nodules. Results: Application of the proposed ultrasound criteria during blinded retrospective review yielded a sensitivity and specificity for detecting intra-thyroid parathyroid adenomas of 76% and 92%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound for detecting intra-thyroid parathyroid adenomas on the initial reports was 29% and 95%, respectively. The sensitivity and

  9. Somatomammotrophic cells in GH-secreting and PRL-secreting human pituitary adenomas. (United States)

    Bassetti, M; Brina, M; Spada, A; Giannattasio, G


    A morphological study has been carried out on 20 GH-secreting adenomas removed from acromegalic normoprolactinemic patients, on 29 PRL-secreting adenomas removed from hyperprolactinemic patients without signs of acromegaly and on one normal human anterior pituitary gland collected at autopsy. The protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopic technique has been utilized in order to verify the presence of mixed cells producing both GH and PRL (somatomammotrophs) in these pituitary tissues. In the normal pituitary a considerable number of somatomammotrophs (15-20%) was found, thus supporting the idea that these cells are normal components of the human anterior pituitary gland. In 10 GH-secreting adenomas and in 10 PRL-secreting adenomas somatomammotrophs were present in a variable number (from 4 to 20% of the whole cell population in GH adenomas and from 1 to 47% in PRL tumors). It can be concluded therefore that these cells, largely present in all GH/PRL-secreting adenomas, can also be found in GH-secreting and PRL-secreting tumors without clinical evidence of a mixed secretion. Adenomatous somatomammotrophs displayed ultrastructural features of adenomatous somatotrophs and mammotrophs (prominent Golgi complexes, abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, irregular nuclei). The size and the number of granules were variable. In some cells GH and PRL were stored in distinct secretory granules, in others in mixed granules or both in mixed and distinct granules, thus suggesting that in adenomatous somatomammotrophs the efficiency of the mechanisms of sorting of the two hormones varies from one cell to another.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Transcranial surgery for pituitary adenomas. (United States)

    Youssef, A Samy; Agazzi, Siviero; van Loveren, Harry R


    Although the transsphenoidal approach is the preferred approach to the vast majority of pituitary tumors with or without suprasellar extension, the transcranial approach remains a vital part of the neurosurgical armamentarium for 1 to 4% of these tumors. The transcranial approach is effective when resection becomes necessary for a portion of a pituitary macroadenoma that is judged to be inaccessible from the transsphenoidal route because of isolation by a narrow waist at the diaphragma sellae, containment within the cavernous sinus lateral to the carotid artery, projection anteriorly onto the planum sphenoidale, or projection laterally into the middle fossa. The application of a transcranial approach in these circumstances may still be mitigated by response to prolactin inhibition of prolactinomas, the frequent lack of necessity to remove asymptomatic nonsecretory adenomas from the cavernous sinus, and the lack of evidence that sustained chemical cures can be reliably achieved by removal of secretory adenomas (adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone) from the cavernous sinus. Cranial base surgical techniques have refined the surgical approach to pituitary adenomas but have had less effect on actual surgical indications than anticipated. Because application of the transcranial approach to pituitary adenomas is and should be rare in clinical practice, it is useful to standardize the technique to a default mode with which the surgical team is most experienced and, therefore, most comfortable. Our default mode for transcranial pituitary surgery is the frontotemporal-orbitozygomatic approach.

  11. Pituitary gland tumors; Hypophysentumoren

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    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)


    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten Hypophysentumoren und deren Differenzialdiagnosen mit Augenmerk auf die

  12. Risk of parathyroid adenomas in patients with thyrotoxicosis exposed to radioactive iodine

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    Rasmuson, Torgny; Tavelin, Bjoern [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Sciences, Oncology


    External ionizing radiation is a risk factor for primary hyperparathyroidism. Whether exposure to radioactive iodine contributes to the risk of primary hyperparathyroidism is unknown. Patients with thyrotoxicosis are often treated with radioactive iodine and its accumulation in the thyroid gland exposes the adjacent parathyroid glands to radioactivity. Six thousand and eighty two patients with thyrotoxicosis were identified from medical records. In a randomly selected subcohort we assessed the frequency of treatment with radioactive iodine to be 86%. The number of patient-years at risk was 77-118. Patients with parathyroid adenomas were recruited from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Eleven patients with parathyroid adenomas following the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis were identified. The standard incidence ratio (SIR) compared to the reference population of 900,000 was 1.14. The median age at exposure was 59 years and the latency period between diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis and parathyroid adenoma was 7.4 years (range <1-19 years). This study does not indicate that patients with thyrotoxicosis treated with radioactive iodine in adult age have increased risk of developing parathyroid adenoma.

  13. Basal Cell Adenoma with Perplexity in Diagnosis – A Case Report (United States)

    Rehani, Shweta; Mathias, Yulia; Wadhwa, Manish


    Every salivary gland tumour irrespective of its benign or malignant nature or occurrence, exhibits certain unique and overlapping histopathologic features. Basal Cell Adenoma (BCA) is a rare salivary gland tumour and hence it becomes our responsibility to report every case with unique histopathologic features so that it can add to our present knowledge of this lesion. Often, the pathologists experience difficulty while diagnosing lesions like BCA which contain basaloid cells due to its similarity with other lesions of similar histological appearance. Hence, this paper discusses a case of BCA with rare histopathologic features along with the possible differential diagnosis. PMID:27135016

  14. Basal Cell Adenoma of Palate, a Rare Occurrence with Review of Literature

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    Achla Bharti Yadav


    Full Text Available Basal cell adenoma is an uncommon benign epithelial neoplasm of salivary gland which derives its name from the basaloid appearance of tumor cells and accounting for 1-2 % of all salivary gland epithelial tumors. This tumor usually arises in the major salivary glands, with the parotid being the most frequent site of occurrence, followed by the upper lip; while it is very rare in the minor salivary glands. Microscopically, it is composed of isomorphic cells similar to basal cells with nuclear palisading. We report a case of BCA presenting as an asymptomatic swelling over the right side of palate of 55-year-old female patient. A follow-up of 1 year revealed no recurrence. This report emphasizes the rare site of occurrence of this tumor and briefly reviews the literature.

  15. Case Series Study of Visual Field Defects in Pituitary Gland Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallabha K


    Full Text Available Background: The pituitary gland is a small endocrine gland, weighing about 500 mg. Pituitary adenomas account for 12-15 % of all intracranial tumors. Pituitary gland is in the sella turcica, 8-13 mm lower than the optic chiasm. Therefore, when it increases, it can easily compress the optic nerve fibers in the chiasm. Micro adenomas can have a negligible effect on the visual system or on the function impairment when pituitary adenoma compresses the frontal part of optic nerve; impairments in visual fields, visual acuity, and color contrast sensitivity are possible. The long standing compression of the chiasm induces primary optic nerve atrophy, which directly impairs visual function. The prevalence of visual field defects in pituitary adenomas varies from 37 to 96% in different studies. Because of its anatomical relationship with optic chiasm, pituitary adenoma typically results in bitemporal hemianopia. However, according to the tumor size and optic chiasmal position, a variety of field defects can be produced by pituitary adenoma and the tumor size is a significant factor in the severity of Visual field defects. Aim: To study the proportion of patients with visual field defects in pituitary adenomas and to study the pattern of visual field defects in pituitary adenomas. Materials and Methods: 7 patients diagnosed with a pituitary adenoma underwent complete ophthalmic and Humphrey’s Perimetry 30-2 visual field test at Department of Ophthalmology, BLDEU’S Shri B M Patil Medical College Hospital, Vijayapura between January 2015 to December 2015. Results: Among the 7 cases in the study, 2 cases were of pituitary micro adenoma constituting 28.5% and the remaining cases (5 cases were pituitary macro adenoma, constituting 71.5%. Visual acuity of 6/6 - 6/12 were observed in 10 (71.4% out of total 14 eyes. Visual field defects were observed in all 6 cases (85.7%. Bilateral temporal hemianopia was observed in the majority (42.8% of cases with field

  16. Assessment of clinicopathologic features in patients with pituitary adenomas in Northeast of Iran: A 13-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Anvari


    Full Text Available Background: Intracranial lesions of the pituitary gland are common pituitary adenomas, accounting for 6-10% of all symptomatic intracranial tumors. In this retrospective study, the clinicopathologic features and survival rate of pituitary adenomas were evaluated.Methods: The present retrospective study was conducted on 83 patients with pituitary adenomas, referring to radiation oncology departments of Ghaem and Omid Hospitals, Mashhad, Iran, over a period of 13 years (1999-2012. Data obtained from clinical records including clinical features, type of surgery (if performed, treatment modality, overall survival rate, and progression-free survival rate were analyzed.Results: Eighty-three patients including 44 males (53% and 39 females (47% participated in this study. The median age was 40 years (age range: 10-69 years. Chiasm compression was reported in 62 patients (74.4%, and 45.78% of the subjects suffered from headaches. Functional and non-functional adenomas were reported in 44 (53.01% and 39 (46.99% patients, respectively. In cases with functional and non-functional adenomas, the disease was controlled in 95 and 84.5% of the subjects for 3 years, respectively. Furthermore, 1- and 3-year survival rates for functional adenoma were 84.6 and 23%, respectively; the corresponding values were 90.9 and 22.7% in non-functional adenomas, respectively.Conclusion: In this study, a significant correlation between headache severity and type of adenoma was observed. So, application of surgery and radiotherapy together could be a highly effective approach for treating functional adenomas, although it is less efficient for the non-functional type.

  17. An unusual case report of basal cell adenoma: A Diagnostic Enchanter (United States)

    Rehani, Shweta; Mehendiratta, Monica; Kumra, Madhumani; Gupta, Ramakant; Jain, Kanu


    Oral lesions show a wide range of biologic behaviours. There are various lesions which may mimic others and present in such an unusual manner thus making them very difficult to diagnose clinico-pathologically. An accurate diagnosis is not only important for correct treatment planning but also for determination of prognosis. Thus, it is very important for a surgical pathologist to be aware of the various atypical presentations of the lesions. The present unusual case report of basal cell adenoma occurring on upper lip with frank areas of calcifications and abundant inspissated mucoid secretions is an example of one such case. BCA is an uncommon benign epithelial salivary gland neoplasm. It is one of the nine subcategories of salivary gland epithelial tumours according to WHO 2005 classification of salivary gland tumors. It is composed of basaloid cells organized with a prominent basal cell layer and distinct basement membrane-like structure and no myxochondroid stromal component as seen in pleomorphic adenomas. To our best knowledge, no case in English literature has been reported BCA with exuberant inspissated mucoid secretions and frank areas of calcifications to such a large extent and this is the first case to report the same. Key words: Basal cell adenoma, calcifications, diagnosis, inspissated mucoid secretions, surgical pathologist. PMID:25674334

  18. Ceruminous Adenoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report with Imaging and Pathologic Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Psillas


    Full Text Available Ceruminous adenomas are benign tumors that are rare in humans and present with a nonspecific symptomatology. The treatment of choice is surgical excision. We present an 87-year-old woman who presented with a reddish, tender, round, soft mass of the outer third of the inferior wall of the left external auditory canal, discharging a yellowish fluid upon pressure. Coincidentally, due to her poor general condition, this patient also showed symptoms consistent with chronic otitis media, parotitis, and cervical lymphadenopathy, such as otorrhea, through a ruptured tympanic membrane and swelling of the parotid gland and cervical lymph nodes. The external auditory canal lesion was surgically excised under general anesthesia, utilizing a transmeatal approach. The pathological diagnosis was ceruminous gland adenoma. The tumor was made of tubular and cystic structures and embedded in a fibrous, focally hyalinized stroma. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of two distinct cell populations. The luminal cells expressed keratin 7, while peripheral (basal cells expressed keratins 5/6, S100 protein, and p63. The apocrine gland-related antigen GCDFP-15 was focally expressed by tumor cells. The postoperative course was uneventful and at the 2-year follow-up no recurrence of the ceruminous adenoma was noted.

  19. Devices Would Detect Drugs In Sweat (United States)

    Mintz, Fredrick W.; Richards, Gil; Kidwell, David A.; Foster, Conrad; Kern, Roger G.; Nelson, Gregory A.


    Proposed devices worn on skin detect such substances as methamphetamine, morphine, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and cocaine in wearers' sweat and transmits radio signals in response to computer queries. Called Remote Biochemical Assay Telemetering System (R-BATS), commonly referred to as "drug badge," attached to wearer by use of adhesive wristband. Used for noninvasive monitoring of levels of prescribed medications in hospital and home-care settings and to detect overdoses quickly.

  20. Gene mutations in hepatocellular adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raft, Marie B; Jørgensen, Ernö N; Vainer, Ben


    is associated with bi-allelic mutations in the TCF1 gene and morphologically has marked steatosis. β-catenin activating HCA has increased activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and is associated with possible malignant transformation. Inflammatory HCA is characterized by an oncogene-induced inflammation due....... This review offers an overview of the reported gene mutations associated with hepatocellular adenomas together with a discussion of the diagnostic and prognostic value....

  1. Place of the parathyroid scintigraphy in the preoperative detection of pathological parathyroid glands; Place de la scintigraphie parathyroidienne dans la detection preoperatoire des glandes parathyroides pathologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejeb, O.; Sellem, A.; Elbez, I.; Elkadri, N.; Hammami, H. [Service de medecine nucleaire, hopital militaire, Tunis, (Tunisia)


    The aim of this work is to evaluate the performances of the scintigraphy in the preoperative localization of pathological parathyroid glands. The parathyroid scintigraphy is a simple, non invasive technique that proved its performances in the preoperative detection of pathological parathyroid glands, mostly in the case of adenoma. It should be indicated in first intention in the topographic diagnosis of a hyperparathyroidism. (N.C.)

  2. Adenoma Malignum Detected on a Trauma CT


    McEachern, James; Butcher, Matthew; Burbridge, Brent; Zhu, Yu


    Adenoma malignum is a rare subtype of cervical adenocarcinoma. Clinical presentation is variable with watery vaginal discharge being the most commonly associated finding. We report a case of adenoma malignum incidentally detected on pelvic computed tomography (CT) performed for a trauma patient. The cervical mass was further characterized by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and remained compatible with adenoma malignum. Local cervical biopsy was suggestive of the diagnosis which was subsequent...

  3. Giant hepatocellular adenoma; case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitella, F.A.; Coutinho, A.M.N.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Costa, P.L.A.; Ono, C.R.; Watanabe, T.; Sapienza, M.T.; Hironaka, F.; Cerri, G.G.; Buchpiguel, C.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia. Servico de Medicina Nuclear


    Full text: Introduction: Hepatocellular adenoma is a benign hepatic tumor identified mainly in women during fertility age, with estimated incidence of 4/1000 inhabitants. It is usually unique, well circumscribed, with or without a capsule, size varying from 1 to 30 cm, with possible central areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. Case Report: A 37-year-old female patient presenting with no comorbities, use of hormonal birth control pills for 18 years, a condition of reduction in the consistency of feces, increase in number of daily defecations, abdominal cramps, and a stuffed sensation after meals for two years. A palpable abdominal mass extending from the right hypochondriac to the right iliac fossa was noticed four months ago. A computerized tomography (CT) showed an extensive hepatic mass on the right which was considered, within the diagnostic hypotheses, hepatic adenomatosis, without ruling out secondary lesions. A hepatic scintillography with {sup 99m}Tc-DISIDA showed an extensive exophytic area from segment V to the right iliac fossa with arterialized blood flow and hepatocytic activity, as well as a hepatic nodule in segment VII with hepatocytic activity consistent with the hepatic adenomas hypothesis. The biopsy confirmed the hepatic adenoma diagnosis and the patient was submitted to a partial hepatectomy and cholecystectomy with good clinical evolution. Conclusion: Nuclear Medicine may supplement the assessment of hepatic nodules, including giant masses, thus suggesting new hypotheses and direction to therapeutic conduct. (author)

  4. [Old phenotype and new genotypes. Pituitary adenomas]. (United States)

    Gérard, C; Jedidi, H; Petrossians, P; Krzesinski, F; Daly, A; Beckers, A


    Gigantism and acromegaly, usually caused by a pituitary adenoma linked inappropriate secretion of growth hormone (GH), are generally considered as very rare diseases, even if, according to some authors, their cumulative prevalence is about 1/5000. Starting from the historical case of a giant from Liège we shall describe the different types of GH pituitary adenomas and their pathophysiology. We shall particularly discuss rare forms of inherited GH secreting pituitary adenomas like the FIPA (familial inherited isolated pituitary adenomas) and the X-LAG (X linked acrogigantism), both described for the first time in Liège, in 2000 and 2014, respectively.

  5. Pleomorphic Adenoma of Breast: A Radiological and Pathological Study of a Common Tumor in an Uncommon Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula S. Ginter


    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma occurs commonly in the major salivary glands but is uncommonly encountered in the breast. In both of these locations, the tumor is typically grossly circumscribed and has a “mixed” histological appearance, being composed of myoepithelial and epithelial components amid a myxochondroid matrix. Herein, we report a case of pleomorphic adenoma of the breast which was preoperatively thought to represent a fibroadenoma on clinical and radiological grounds. It is the rarity of the tumor in the breast, rather than its histological appearance, that causes diagnostic difficulty.

  6. The value of CT in Differentiation of Adrenal Adenomas from Malignant Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of CT indifferentiating adrenal adenomas from malignant tumors. Methods: 124 patients with 147 adrenal adenomas and malignant tumors were analyzed. Tumor size, margin, internal structure and the relation of the tumor to the adrenal gland were investigated with CT. Both precontrast and postcontrast CT attenuation values of the tumor were measured and the enhanced degree was calculated respectively. CT pixel mapping of the tumor was done in 20 patients. Results were analyzed by using ROC curve. Results: The area under the ROC curve for precontrast CT attenuation values (0.91± 0.05) was significantly larger than that for postcontrast CT attenuation values (0.83± 0.04), enhanced degree (0.74± 0.08) or tumor sizes (0.82± 0.04). With a threshold of tumor size 3.0 cm, homogenous density, precontrast CT attenuation value 20 HU, postcontrast CT attenuation value 35 HU or enhanced degree 20 HU, the sensitive for characterizing adenomas were 86%, 85%, 88%, 76% and 74%, and the specificity were 73%, 72%, 91%, 78% and 61% respectively. Connection with normal adrenal gland (68%), precontrast CT attenuation value<0 HU (17%), and area of slightly negative CT attenuation value on CT pixel mapping were only seen in adrenal adenomas, whereas poorly defined margin and/or invasion of surrounding structures (30%), irregular thick rim enhancement (22%) were characteristic of malignant tumors. The overall correspondence rate with final diagnosis was 92.7% in our group. Conclusion: Most of the adrenal adenomas and malignant tumors can be distinguished by comprehensive analysis of CT features.

  7. Piecemeal Versus En Bloc Resection of Large Rectal Adenomas (United States)


    Colorectal Adenoma With Mild Dysplasia; Colorectal Adenoma With Severe Dysplasia; Colorectal Adenomatous Polyp; Colorectal Low Grade Intraepithelial Neoplasia; Colorectal High Grade Intraepithelial Neoplasia

  8. Facial Nerve Paralysis due to a Pleomorphic Adenoma with the Imaging Characteristics of a Facial Nerve Schwannoma. (United States)

    Nader, Marc-Elie; Bell, Diana; Sturgis, Erich M; Ginsberg, Lawrence E; Gidley, Paul W


    Background Facial nerve paralysis in a patient with a salivary gland mass usually denotes malignancy. However, facial paralysis can also be caused by benign salivary gland tumors. Methods We present a case of facial nerve paralysis due to a benign salivary gland tumor that had the imaging characteristics of an intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma. Results The patient presented to our clinic 4 years after the onset of facial nerve paralysis initially diagnosed as Bell palsy. Computed tomography demonstrated filling and erosion of the stylomastoid foramen with a mass on the facial nerve. Postoperative histopathology showed the presence of a pleomorphic adenoma. Facial paralysis was thought to be caused by extrinsic nerve compression. Conclusions This case illustrates the difficulty of accurate preoperative diagnosis of a parotid gland mass and reinforces the concept that facial nerve paralysis in the context of salivary gland tumors may not always indicate malignancy.

  9. Spectrum of malignancy in mixed tumors of salivary gland: A morphological and immunohistochemical review of 23 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Asim


    Full Text Available Malignancy arising in mixed tumors of the salivary gland is a distinct entity that can occur sporadically or in association with a background of pleomorphic adenoma. Carcinoma arising with a background of pleomorphic adenoma is well documented. However, there are rare occurrences of aggressive de novo carcinosarcomas of the parotid that have been reported. Various cell lineages such as the epithelial glandular cells and the stromal spindle cells are involved. We report 23 cases of tumors of the salivary gland comprising 18 cases of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, four cases of carcinosarcoma of the parotid and one case of benign metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma. The occurrence of various malignancies suggests that this phenomenon is not very uncommon and should be looked for when reporting a mixed tumor.

  10. Differential Gene Expression in Chemically Induced Mouse Lung Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisheng Yao


    Full Text Available Because of similarities in histopathology and tumor progression stages between mouse and human lung adenocarcinomas, the mouse lung tumor model with lung adenomas as the endpoint has been used extensively to evaluate the efficacy of putative lung cancer chemopreventive agents. In this study, a competitive cDNA library screening (CCLS was employed to determine changes in the expression of mRNA in chemically induced lung adenomas compared with paired normal lung tissues. A total of 2555 clones having altered expression in tumors were observed following competitive hybridization between normal lung and lung adenomas after primary screening of over 160,000 clones from a mouse lung cDNA library. Among the 755 clones confirmed by dot blot hybridization, 240 clones were underexpressed, whereas 515 clones were overexpressed in tumors. Sixty-five clones with the most frequently altered expression in six individual tumors were confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. When examining the 58 known genes, 39 clones had increased expression and 19 had decreased expression, whereas the 7 novel genes showed overexpression. A high percentage (>60% of overexpressed or underexpressed genes was observed in at least two or three of the lesions. Reproducibly overexpressed genes included ERK-1, JAK-1, surfactant proteins A, B, and C, NFAT1, α-1 protease inhibitor, helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase (CHUK, α-adaptin, α-1 PI2, thioether S-methyltransferase, and CYP2C40. Reproducibly underexpressed genes included paroxanase, ALDH II, CC10, von Ebner salivary gland protein, and α- and β-globin. In addition, CCLS identified several novel genes or genes not previously associated with lung carcinogenesis, including a hypothetical protein (FLJ11240 and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor homologue. This study shows the efficacy of this methodology for identifying genes with altered expression. These genes may prove to be helpful in our understanding of the genetic basis of

  11. Preoperative localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands with 4D-CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundstroem, Anke Katrin; Trolle, Waldemar; Soerensen, Christian Hjort


    Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is almost exclusively the result of a solitary parathyroid adenoma. In most cases, the affected gland can be surgically removed, but precise preoperative imaging is essential for adenoma localization prior to surgical intervention. In this study, we evaluated...... the diagnostic value of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) as a preoperative imaging tool in relation to the localization of pathologic parathyroid glands in patients with pHPT and negative sestamibi scans. This study included 43 consecutive patients with pHPT referred for parathyroidectomy...... available as references for the accuracy of this imaging tool. Hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands were found in 40 patients. 4D-CT identified 32 solitary hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands located on the correct side of the neck (PPV 76 %) and 21 located within the correct quadrant (PPV 49 %). Unilateral...

  12. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in pleomorphic adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Christensen, M


    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures, T, Tn and sialosyl-Tn, are regarded as general markers of carcinomas in several epithelial tissues as a result of incomplete synthesis with precursor accumulation. The structures have a very limited distribution in normal tissues and secretions, including...... saliva and salivary glands. The expression of simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures and ABH(O) variants was studied in paraffin-embedded and frozen tissue sections from 37 pleomorphic adenomas with associated normal parotid tissue, using immunohistology and a panel of MAbs with well......-defined specificity for T, Tn, sialosyl-Tn, and blood group H and A variants hereof. The immature Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigen structures were expressed in the epithelial ductular structures of the tumors, whereas they were almost absent from normal parotid tissue, indicating aberrant glycosylation with accumulation...

  13. Testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma in a peripubertal girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.


    A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-..beta..-(/sup 75/Se) selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor.

  14. Pituitary null cell adenoma in a domestic llama (Lama glama). (United States)

    Chalkley, M D; Kiupel, M; Draper, A C E


    Pituitary gland neoplasia has been reported rarely in camelids. A 12-year-old neutered male llama (Lama glama) presented with lethargy, inappetence and neurological signs. On physical examination, the llama was mentally dull and exhibited compulsive pacing and circling to the left. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry revealed haemoconcentration, mild hypophosphataemia, hyperglycaemia, hypercreatininaemia and hyperalbuminaemia. Humane destruction was elected due to rapid clinical deterioration and poor prognosis. Post-mortem examination revealed a pituitary macroadenoma and bilateral internal hydrocephalus. Microscopically, the pituitary tumour was composed of neoplastic chromophobic pituitary cells. Ultrastructural studies revealed similar neoplastic cells to those previously described in human null cell adenomas. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly immunoreactive for neuroendocrine markers (synaptophysin and chromogranin A), but did not exhibit immunoreactivity for epithelial, mesenchymal, neuronal and all major pituitary hormone markers (adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone), consistent with the diagnosis of a pituitary null cell adenoma. This is the first report of pituitary neoplasia in a llama.

  15. Effect of Heat Acclimation on Sweat Minerals (United States)


    of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA; and 2USDA ARS Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, Grand Forks, ND ABSTRACT CHINEVERE, T. D., R. W...Losses in Sweat. Denver (CO): U.S. Army Medical Research and Nutrition Laboratory; 1964. Report no. 284. 13. DeRuisseau KC, Cheuvront SN, Haymes EM, Sharp...Sports Med. 1980;8:97–100. 16. Dressendorfer RH, Wade CE, Keen CL, Scaff JH. Plasma mineral levels in marathon runners during a 20-day road race. Phys

  16. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor of the nasopharynx. (United States)

    Tinsa, Faten; Boussetta, Khadija; Bousnina, Souad; Menif, Khaled; Nouira, Faouzi; Haouet, Slim; Sahtout, Samia


    Nasal and upper respiratory tract obstruction in the neonatal period can result from a variety of conditions, and may be present with variable symptoms. Salivary gland anlage tumor, also referred as congenital pleomorphic adenoma, is a very rare benign congenital tumor of the nasopharynx, which may produce nasal obstruction and other associated, nonspecific symptoms. We report a case of congenital salivary gland anlage tumor causing a severe neonatal respiratory distress with pulmonary hypertension. The tumor was removed and the outcome was favourable without recurrence at five years of the follow up.

  17. Proton therapy of hypophyseal adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirakova, E.I.; Kirpatovskaya, L.E.; Lyass, F.M.; Snigireva, R.Ya.; Krymskij, V.A. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Nejrokhirurgii; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehksperimental' noj Ehndokrinologii i Khimii Gormonov)


    The authors present the results of proton therapy in 59 patients with different hypophyseal adenomas. The period of observation lasted from 6 mos. to 5 yrs. Irradiation was done using a multifield-convergent method and a proton beam of the ITEF synchrotron. The beam energy was 200 MeV, the beam diameter 7-15 mm. Radiation response and immediate results were evaluated for all the patients. The least favorable results were noted in the patients with prolactinomas, for which, in addition to irradiation, parlodel therapy is needed. No marked radiation reactions, neurological complications and manifestations of hypopituitarism were observed with the chosen doses and schemes of irradiation.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville, Jean-Francois; Bonneville, Fabrice; Cattin, Francoise [University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Besancon (France)


    Today, MR is the only method needed for the morphological investigation of endocrine-active pituitary adenomas. In acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome, the therapeutic attitude is directly dictated by MR data. We present the MR aspect of pituitary adenomas according to size, sex, age, endocrine activity and a few particular conditions such as hemorrhagic pituitary adenomas, pituitary adenomas during pregnancy, cavernous sinus invasion and postsurgical changes. When an intrasellar mass extending out of the sella turcica is detected, the goal of the MR examination is to indicate precisely the origin of the tumor, its extension in relation to the various surrounding structures, its structure and its enhancement in order to help in the differential diagnosis. Demonstration of very small pituitary adenomas remains a challenge. When SE T1- and Turbo SE T2-weighted sequences are non-diagnostic, enhanced imaging becomes mandatory; half-dose gadolinium injection, delayed sequence, dynamic imaging can be of some help. (orig.)

  19. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)


    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  20. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Herr


    Full Text Available With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  1. The Coexistence of an Intrasellar Adenoma, Lymphocytic Hypophysitis, and Primary Pituitary Lymphoma in a Patient with Acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Hernan Martinez


    Full Text Available The concomitant presence of three histopathologically different entities in the pituitary gland is a rare occurrence. Most publications identify at least two distinct pathologies, mainly, a pituitary adenoma coexisting with a second intrasellar lesion. We present a case of a 71-year-old female referred for evaluation and treatment of acromegaly. Questioning revealed she was experiencing facial palsy, visual disturbances, and syncopal spells for several weeks. When laboratory evaluation showed elevated somatomedin (IGF-I levels and an oral glucose tolerance test failed to demonstrate any suppression of her growth hormone (GH values, an MRI of the pituitary revealed a sellar mass. A presumptive diagnosis of pituitary adenoma was established. The patient underwent transsphenoidal resection of the sellar mass, which proved to be a large B-cell lymphoma (Stage I-E associated with areas of adenoma and lymphocytic hypophysitis.

  2. A comparative study between mixed-type tumours from human salivary and canine mammary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Sérgio V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In comparative pathology, canine mammary tumours have special interest because of their similarities with human breast cancer. Mixed tumours are uncommon lesions in the human breast, but they are found most frequently in the mammary gland of the female dogs and in the human salivary glands. The aim of the study was to compare clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical features of human salivary and canine mammary gland mixed tumours, in order to evaluate the latter as an experimental model for salivary gland tumours. Methods Ten examples of each mixed tumour type (human pleomorphic adenoma and carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenomas and canine mixed tumour and metaplastic carcinoma were evaluated. First, clinical and morphologic aspects of benign and malignant variants were compared between the species. Then, streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of cytokeratins, vimentin, p63 protein, estrogen receptor, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. Results After standardization, similar age and site distributions were observed in human and canine tumours. Histological similarities were identified in the comparison of the benign lesions as well. Metaplastic carcinomas also resembled general aspects of carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenomas in morphological evaluation. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining further presented similar antigenic expression between lesions. Conclusion There are many similar features between human salivary and canine mammary gland mixed tumours. This observation is of great relevance for those interested in the study and management of salivary gland tumours, since canine lesions may constitute useful comparative models for their investigations.

  3. Development of a New-type Sweating Manikin System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WANG Yun-yi; ZHANG Wei-yuan; CHEN Yi-song; LI Xue-dong


    A new type of sweating manikin system has been developed to evaluate thermal insulation and moisture evaporative resistance of clothing, which is reliable, easy control and low cost. In this paper the manikin system was reported and discussed from the aspects of system construction, work principles, figure formation, simulated sweating system,and technical properties.

  4. Chloride and potassium conductances of cultured human sweat ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Pedersen, P S; Larsen, Erik Hviid


    The purpose of this study was to characterize the ion conductances, in particular those for Cl- and K+, of human sweat duct cells grown in primary culture. Sweat duct cells from healthy individuals were grown to confluence on a dialysis membrane, which was then mounted in a mini-Ussing chamber...

  5. Coexistence of parathyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma: Experience of a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebubekir Gündeş


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to describe experienceswith concurrent parathyroid adenoma and papillarythyroid carcinoma.Methods: Eight patients with concurrent parathyroid adenomaand papillary thyroid carcinoma were identifiedbetween 2005 and 2012, and their medical records werereviewed retrospectively.Results: Of the eight patients identified, two were maleand six were female; their mean age was 53.6 years.The mean serum calcium concentration was 11.7 mg/dL.Intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH concentrations werehigh in all patients, with a mean concentration of 338 pg/mL. The most frequently used surgical technique was totalthyroidectomy plus parathyroid adenoma excision (n=6.The mean size of the thyroid carcinoma was 1.2 cm, andone case showed metastatic lymph nodes in the centralcompartment. The mean parathyroid adenoma size wasfound to be 2.1(0.6- 3.5 cm, according to the longest sizeof the adenom. Six patients (75% developed postoperativecomplications, including temporary symptomatic hypocalcemiain 4 patients (50%, hematoma developmentin 1 patient (12.5% and temporary vocal cord paralysis inone patient (12.5%.Conclusion: Thyroid carcinoma and parathyroid adenomaare rarely concomitant. Rarely hyperparathyroidismmay be accompanied with thyroid carcinomas so preoperativelythyroid gland should be properly examined. Thyroidwith parathyroid surgery are risk factors of recurrentlaryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism.Key words: Papillary thyroid cancer; parathyroid adenoma;thyroidectomy

  6. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  7. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (United States)

    ... and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland ... in diagnosing salivary gland cancer. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  8. Thymus Gland Anatomy (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  9. [Dermoid cyst of the parotid gland]. (United States)

    Trandafir, Violeta; Trandafir, Daniela; Ferariu, D; Boişteanu, Otilia; Haba, Danisia


    Dermoid cyst of the parotid gland is a rare clinical entity. Definitive clinical diagnosis is often difficult to determine preoperatively because of the lack of pathognomonic features. The most frequent location of a parotid dermoid cyst is a triangular area lying above the pinna. Imaging studies do not definitely diagnose a parotid dermoid cyst. Although parotid dermoid cyst is (generally) well-encapsulated, complete removal of the cyst wall is not sufficient to cure it, so it is mandatory to perform careful excision of the cyst by parotidectomy, in terms of preserving facial nerve integrity. Histopathology of the parotid gland tumor removed by parotidectomy makes a diagnosis of certainty, by revealing a cyst wall with keratinization of the squamous epithelium and the presence of skin annexes (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands). We present a rare case of parotid dermoid cyst in a 21-year-old male patient with symptoms and imaging rather suggestive of arch I branchial cyst and a brief review of data in the medical literature of the last 20 years.

  10. Preoperative localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands with 4D-CT. (United States)

    Lundstroem, Anke Katrin; Trolle, Waldemar; Soerensen, Christian Hjort; Myschetzky, Peter Sand


    Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is almost exclusively the result of a solitary parathyroid adenoma. In most cases, the affected gland can be surgically removed, but precise preoperative imaging is essential for adenoma localization prior to surgical intervention. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic value of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) as a preoperative imaging tool in relation to the localization of pathologic parathyroid glands in patients with pHPT and negative sestamibi scans. This study included 43 consecutive patients with pHPT referred for parathyroidectomy at the Department of Head and Neck Surgery of Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet in 2011 and 2012. All patients had a 4D-CT performed prior to parathyroidectomy. CT localization of the suspected adenoma was correlated to the actual surgical findings and subsequent histological diagnosis was also available as references for the accuracy of this imaging tool. Hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands were found in 40 patients. 4D-CT identified 32 solitary hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands located on the correct side of the neck (PPV 76 %) and 21 located within the correct quadrant (PPV 49 %). Unilateral resection was performed in 72 % of patients due to the localization findings of preoperative imaging. 4D-CT can, therefore, be considered an effective method for the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas and is an important tool in surgical intervention for patients referred to parathyroidectomy.

  11. Salivary gland anlage tumor. A case with widespread necrosis and large cyst formation. (United States)

    Michal, M; Sokol, L; Mukensnabl, P


    We describe a case of the salivary gland anlage tumor (congenital pleomorphic adenoma). The tumor arose in the nasopharynx as a pedunculated mass. Microscopically most of the tumor contained large necrotic areas which revealed squamous cell metaplasia resulting in the formation of large cysts. This feature has never been described previously in this tumor and might lead to an erroneous diagnosis.

  12. Parathyroid gland removal (United States)

    Removal of parathyroid gland; Parathyroidectomy; Hyperparathyroidism - parathyroidectomy; PTH - parathyroidectomy ... and pain-free) for this surgery. Usually the parathyroid glands are removed using a 2- to 4- ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pituitary gland is known as the “Master Gland” of the body as it controls majority of the endocrine glands of the body. Embryologically, they are formed by two parts. There are two types of malignancies encountered namely adenomas and carcinomas. Vast majority of the neoplasms located in the sella turcica are benign pituitary adenomas derived from adenohypophyseal cells. The aim is to study the pituitary malignancies. METHODS The sample size included 100 cases of intra-cranial neoplasms that turned in the Department of Medicine in KVG Medical College, Sullia and different local private hospitals of Sullia and Mangalore. RESULTS Pituitary tumours comprised 6(6% of all the tumour studies. They occurred maximally in the age above 14 years. Tumours showed a male predominance. All the tumours were located in pituitary fossa. Principal presenting complaint was visual disturbance. Microscopically, the tumour was composed of small polyhedral to round cells with a uniform darkly staining round nucleus and scant eosinophilic cytoplasm. The cells formed papillary structures or were arranged in a trabecular pattern. CONCLUSION There is a male predominance in this study and the percentage of cases was found to be less in this region of Karnataka

  14. Primary hyperparathyroidism: adenoma or hyperplasia



    Introduction: primary hyperparathyroidism (PH) is a symptomatic or asymptomaticclinical entity, characterized by the autonomous production of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Its classical presentation exhibits an increase of the serum calcium andparathyroid hormone levels. Parathyroid scintigrafy, among other imaging modalities,is frequently used to detect the hyperfunctioning glands.Clinical case: number 1. Female, 69 years old, asymptomatic, hypertension of recentonset, osteopenia, increased int...

  15. 长效奥曲肽治疗垂体促甲状腺激素瘤一例临床探讨%A case of thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma treated with long-acting octreotide formulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓平; 王昕; 邢小燕; 卢毅; 李光伟


    A 56-year-old man with 1-year history of palpitation, heat intolerance and sweating, was diagnosed as thyrotropin (TSH) -secreting pituitary adenoma based on the symptoms of hypermetabolism, enlarged thyroid gland, inappropriately increased serum TSH concomitantly elevated plasma thyroid hormones and a pituitary tumor demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging. Long-acting octreotide formulation was administered at a dose of 20 mg intramuscularly. Tumor volume shrinkage and improvement of thyroid function was achieved after a single drug injection; and the thyroid function returned to normal in 28 days. It is suggested that long-acting octreotide formulation might be used as a routine therapeutic approach prior to pituitary surgery, which may enhance the effectiveness of surgery and postoperative recovery.%一例56岁男性垂体促甲状腺激素(TSH)瘤患者,病史一年,有心悸、怕热、多汗等高代谢症候群;甲状腺肿大;在血甲状腺激素水平明显增加的同时,TSH水平升高;核磁扫描示垂体肿瘤.经长效奥曲肽20mg注射一次治疗后,肿瘤体积缩小,甲状腺功能明显好转,治疗后第28天转为正常.长效奥曲肽可为TSH瘤患者手术前的常规用药,有利于手术顺利进行及术后康复.

  16. Thyroid adenomas and carcinomas following radiotherapy for a hemangioma during infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddy, N.; Andriamboavonjy, T.; Paoletti, C.; Mousannif, A.; Shamsaldin, A.; Doyon, F.; Labbe, M.; Diallo, I.; Vathaire, F. de [INSERM, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Dondon, M.G. [INSERM, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Robert, C. [Dermatology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Avril, M.F. [Dermatology, Hopital Cochin, Paris (France); Fragu, P.; Schlumberger, M. [Nuclear Medicine, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Eschwege, F.; Chavaudra, J.; Lefkopoulos, D. [Radiotherapy, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Schvartz, C. [Reseau des registres des cancers, Francim, Toulouse (France)


    A cohort study was performed to investigate the carcinogenic effect of treating skin hemangioma with ionizing radiation during early childhood. This paper presents the incidence of differentiated thyroid adenomas and carcinomas after radiotherapy in this cohort. This study confirms that radiation treatment performed in the past for hemangioma during infancy increased the risk of thyroid carcinoma and adenoma. Patients treated with external radiotherapy or with Radium 226 applicators for hemangiomas have to be more specifically followed up because this is the subgroup in whom the highest doses were received by the thyroid gland (more than 90% of the radiation doses were higher than 100 mGy). They are therefore more at risk of developing thyroid cancer

  17. Pituitary Adenoma as a Rare Form of Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María León Blasco


    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas are benign tumors arising from one of the five cell types in the anterior pituitary. Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce hormones due to the lack of pituary adrenocorticotropic hormone or hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor. The case of a 37-year-old female patient who started developing muscle twitching in legs and arms, muscular weakness, fatigue, muscle aches, severe and throbbing hemicrania on the right side, among other symptoms, a year ago is presented. Several tests were performed (cortisol level, adrenocorticotropic hormone, calcium and phosphorus in blood and urine, magnetic resonance imaging of the skull, leading to the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma with isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency and secondary adrenal insufficiency. Treatment with steroids and calcium supplements ensured a satisfactory recovery.

  18. Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Sweat: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E. Sears


    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury exposures are ubiquitous. These toxic elements have no physiological benefits, engendering interest in minimizing body burden. The physiological process of sweating has long been regarded as “cleansing” and of low risk. Reports of toxicant levels in sweat were sought in Medline, Embase, Toxline, Biosis, and AMED as well as reference lists and grey literature, from inception to March 22, 2011. Of 122 records identified, 24 were included in evidence synthesis. Populations, and sweat collection methods and concentrations varied widely. In individuals with higher exposure or body burden, sweat generally exceeded plasma or urine concentrations, and dermal could match or surpass urinary daily excretion. Arsenic dermal excretion was severalfold higher in arsenic-exposed individuals than in unexposed controls. Cadmium was more concentrated in sweat than in blood plasma. Sweat lead was associated with high-molecular-weight molecules, and in an interventional study, levels were higher with endurance compared with intensive exercise. Mercury levels normalized with repeated saunas in a case report. Sweating deserves consideration for toxic element detoxification. Research including appropriately sized trials is needed to establish safe, effective therapeutic protocols.

  19. The pathophysiology of pituitary adenomas. (United States)

    Dworakowska, Dorota; Grossman, Ashley B


    The pathogenesis of tumour formation in the anterior pituitary has been intensively studied, but the causative mechanisms involved in pituitary cell transformation and tumourigenesis remain elusive. Most pituitary tumours are sporadic, but some arise as a component of genetic syndromes such as the McCune-Albright syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex and, the most recently described, a MEN1-like phenotype (MEN4) and pituitary adenoma predisposition syndromes. Some specific genes have been identified that predispose to pituitary neoplasia (GNAS, MEN1, PRKAR1A, CDKN1B and AIP), but these are rarely involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic tumours. Mutations of tumour suppressor genes or oncogenes, as seen in more common cancers, do not seem to play an important role in the great majority of pituitary adenomas. The pituitary tumour transforming gene (PTTG; securin) was the first transforming gene found to be highly expressed in pituitary tumour cells, and seems to play an important role in the process of oncogenesis. Many tumour suppressor genes, especially those involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, are under-expressed, most often by epigenetic modulation - usually promoter hypermethylation - but the regulator of these co-ordinated series of methylations is also unclear. Cell signalling abnormalities have been identified in pituitary tumours, but their genetic basis is unknown. Both Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways are over-expressed and/or over-activated in pituitary tumours: these pathways share a common root, including initial activation related to the tyrosine kinase receptor, and we speculate that a change to these receptors or their relationship to membrane matrix-related proteins may be an early event in pituitary tumourigenesis.

  20. Non-functioning parathyroid adenoma: a rare differential diagnosis for vocal-cord paralysis. (United States)

    Kamali, D; Sharpe, A; Nagarajan, S; Elsaify, W


    Introduction Adenomas of the parathyroid gland typically present with symptoms of hyperparathyroidism, manifested by fatigue, bone pain, abdominal pain, weakness, dyspepsia, nephrolithiasis and skeletal bone disease. Here, we describe, for the first time, a case of a non-functioning benign tumour of the parathyroid gland presenting as vocal-cord paralysis. Case History A 49-year-old male presented with a 10-week history of dysphonia and the feeling of having 'something stuck in my throat'. History-taking elicited no other associated symptoms. Flexible nasal endoscopy demonstrated paralysis of the left vocal cord. Computed tomography of the neck revealed a cystic lesion, 18mm in diameter adjacent to the oesophagus. After more rigorous tests, a neck exploration, left hemithyroidectomy, excision of the left paratracheal mass and level-VI neck dissection was undertaken, without incident to the patient or surgical team. Histology was consistent with a parathyroid adenoma. Conclusions This case emphasises the importance of including adenomatous disease of the parathyroid gland in the differential diagnosis despite normal parathyroid status as a cause of vocal cord palsy.

  1. Perfusion imaging of parotid gland tumours: usefulness of arterial spin labeling for differentiating Warthin's tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroki; Watanabe, Haruo [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Gifu University Hospital, High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Kajita, Kimihiro [Gifu University Hospital, High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Mizuta, Keisuke; Aoki, Mitsuhiro [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu (Japan); Okuaki, Tomoyuki [Philips Healthcare, Tokyo (Japan)


    To assess prospectively the efficacy of arterial spin labelling (ASL) against conventional and diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging for differentiating parotid gland tumours. We included 10 pleomorphic adenomas, 12 Warthin's tumours, and nine malignant tumours of the parotid glands. Only tumours larger than 10 mm were included in this study. All parotid gland tumours underwent T1-weighted, T2-weighted, DW, and ASL imaging. Tumour-to-parotid gland signal intensity ratios (SIRs) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of solid components were correlated with these pathologies. SIRs on T2-weighted images and ADCs were higher in pleomorphic adenomas than in Warthin's tumours (p <.01) and malignant tumours (p <.01). SIRs on ASL were higher in Warthin's tumours than in pleomorphic adenomas (p <.01) and malignant tumours (p <.05). Az value of SIRs on ASL for differentiating Warthin's tumours from the other pathologies was 0.982. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of SIRs on ASL for the diagnosis of Warthin's tumours at an optimal SIR threshold of over 8.70 were 91.7 %, 94.7 %, and 93.5 %, respectively. ASL with SIR measurements could non-invasively evaluate tumour blood flow of parotid gland tumours and differentiate Warthin's tumours from pleomorphic adenomas and malignant tumours. (orig.)

  2. MicroRNAs in Human Pituitary Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Hui Li


    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of recently identified noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level. Due to the large number of genes regulated by miRNAs, miRNAs play important roles in many cellular processes. Emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs are dysregulated in pituitary adenomas, a class of intracranial neoplasms which account for 10–15% of diagnosed brain tumors. Deregulated miRNAs and their targets contribute to pituitary adenomas progression and are associated with cell cycle control, apoptosis, invasion, and pharmacological treatment of pituitary adenomas. To provide an overview of miRNAs dysregulation and functions of these miRNAs in pituitary adenoma progression, we summarize the deregulated miRNAs and their targets to shed more light on their potential as therapeutic targets and novel biomarkers.

  3. Pituitary prolactin adenoma with Toxoplasma gondii infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓晖; 李青; 程虹; 阎庆国; 黄高昇


    Objective: To report two recent cases of pituitary adenoma associated with Toxoplasma gondii (T.Gondii) infection.Methods: Histological changes were observed in H & E and PAS staining sections microscopically.Immunohistochemistry was performed to classify the pituitary tumors and to confirm the diagnosis of T.gondii.Results: The cases were 43- and 19-year-old females, in which the latter one was a recurring case, and radiology examination showed that tumors existed in sellar region.Microscopically, the tumors consisted of small homogenous polygonal or round cells with abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm.Immunohistochemistry revealed they were prolactin-producing adenomas.Interestingly, we found toxoplasma infection in the tumor tissues, being confirmed by T.gondii sepicific antibody immunohistochemistry.Conclusion: The association of pituitary adenoma with toxoplasma raises the possibility that T.gondii may be involved in the development of certain cases of pituitary adenoma.

  4. The association between location, age and advanced colorectal adenoma characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob


    PURPOSE: Evidence supports an association between certain colorectal adenoma characteristics and predisposition to cancer. The association between anatomical location of colorectal adenoma, age and advanced adenomas needs attention. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible...... association between occurrence of sporadic advanced adenomas with location and age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study using baseline data from index colonoscopy from a randomized controlled trial evaluating chemopreventive treatment against recurrence of colorectal adenomas was performed....... Inclusion criteria for patients were one adenoma of >1 cm in diameter or multiple adenomas of any size, or an adenoma of any size and familial disposition for colorectal cancer. Multivariate regression and propensity score-matched analyses were used to correlate location of adenomas and age with advanced...

  5. Video-assisted mediastinoscopy (VAM for surgical resection of ectopic parathyroid adenoma

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    Lansdown Mark


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenomas or hyperplasia account for up to 25% of primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT. Two percent of them are not accessible by standard cervical surgical approaches. Surgical resection has traditionally been performed via median sternotomy or thoracotomy and more recently, via video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS. We present our experience with the novel use of Video-Assisted Mediastinoscopy (VAM for resection of ectopic mediastinal parathyroid glands. Case presentation 4 patients underwent VAM for removal of an ectopic intramediastinal parathyroid gland. All of them had at least one previous unsuccessful neck exploration. In all cases histology confirmed complete resection of ectopic parathyroid glands (3 parathyroid adenomas and one parathyroid hyperplasia. Two of the patients required a partial sternal split to facilitate exploration. Conclusion The cervical approach for resection of ectopic parathyroid adenomas is frequently unsuccessful. Previously, the standard surgical approach in such cases was sternotomy and exploration of the mediastinum. Recently, a number of less invasive modalities have been introduced. We found that VAM has several advantages. It has a short theatre time does not require a complex anaesthetic and is performed with the patient in classic supine position utilising often a previous cervical scar with good cosmetic results. It offers a short hospital stay; it is cost effective with minimal use of fancy and pricy consumables with a comfortable incision and no violation of the pleural space. Additionally the use of digital Video imaging has increased the sensitivity of the mediastinoscopy and has added safety and confidence in performing a detailed mediastinal exploration with an additional great training value as well.

  6. Pleomorphic adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal gland with multiple intracranial and spinal metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Se


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland is known to undergo malignant transformation when incompletely excised. Even if such a malignant change occurs, intracranial direct invasion and leptomeningeal seeding are seldom encountered. Case presentation A 50-year-old woman presented with malignant transformation associated with both intracranial invasion and multiple intracranial and spinal disseminations in the third recurrence of pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland, 6 years after initial treatment. MRI demonstrated increased extent of orbital mass, extending to the cavernous sinus. The patient underwent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Follow-up MRI showed multiple leptomeningeal disseminations to the intracranium and spine. Conclusion It is important to recognize that leptomeningeal intracranial and spinal disseminations of pleomorphic adenocarcinoma can occur, although it is extremely rare. To our knowledge, we report the first case of pleomorphic adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal gland presumably metastasizing to the intracranium and spine.

  7. Parotid gland carcinosarcoma with follicular dendritic cell sarcoma as mesenchymal component: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qiang; ZHU Jian-shan; XU Yan-ping


    @@ The WHO has classified malignant mixed tumours of salivary glands into noninvasive carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma, invasive carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma, carcino-sarcoma and metastasizing mixed tumour.1 Carcinosarcoma, or true malignant mixed tumour, is a tumour composed of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. It is an exceedingly rare tumour of the salivary glands and only about 60 cases have been reported.2 In this report we describe a case of carcinosarcoma of a parotid gland that contained an unusual mesenchymal component (follicular dendritic cell sarcoma, FDCS) in a 55-year-old man with cytological, histological and immunohistochemical findings. To our knowledge, this histological pattern has not been reported previously in the English literature.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: cold-induced sweating syndrome (United States)

    ... affected individuals begin having episodes of profuse sweating (hyperhidrosis) and shivering involving the face, torso, and arms. ... syndrome Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (3 links) Hyperhidrosis Support Group (UK) International Hyperhidrosis Society Resource list ...

  9. Zika May Be Passed on Through Tears, Sweat: Report (United States)

    ... page: Zika May Be Passed on Through Tears, Sweat: Report ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, Sept. 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus might be able to pass from person ...

  10. Spontaneous proliferative and neoplastic lesions in thyroid and parathyroid glands of nondomestic felids. (United States)

    Pope, Jenny P; Steeil, James; Ramsay, Edward C; Reel, Danielle; Newman, Shelley J


    Based on microscopic and immunohistochemical characterization, we documented spontaneous proliferative and neoplastic lesions in the thyroid and parathyroid glands of nondomestic felids. Ten animals (4 leopards, 3 tigers, and 3 cougars), all with a previous diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia were identified from the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine database. The mean age of affected animals was 15.9 y. Twelve neoplasms were identified; 2 animals had 2 concurrent neoplasms. After immunohistochemical characterization using a panel of chromogranin A, thyroglobulin, and calcitonin, 7 of the former thyroid neoplasms were diagnosed as thyroid adenomas, 1 was diagnosed as a thyroid carcinoma, and 4 were diagnosed as parathyroid adenomas. No thyroid medullary neoplasms (C-cell tumors) were diagnosed in the current study. Most of the diagnosed neoplasms were benign (11 of 12), and metastasis was not documented in the single carcinoma. Only 2 animals were suspected to have functional neoplasms (1 thyroid adenoma and 1 parathyroid adenoma), based on associated tissue lesions or serum biochemistry. Other documented lesions in the thyroid and parathyroid glands included thyroid nodular hyperplasia ( n = 7), parathyroid hyperplasia associated with chronic renal disease ( n = 2), a thyroid abscess, and a branchial cyst. Parathyroid adenomas were more commonly diagnosed than expected in comparison with domestic cats. We demonstrated that an immunohistochemistry panel for thyroglobulin, calcitonin, and chromogranin A can be used to differentiate neoplasms of thyroid from parathyroid origin in nondomestic felids.

  11. Cytogenetic analysis of colorectal adenomas: karyotypic comparisons of synchronous tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomme, L; Bardi, G; Pandis, N


    adenomas. Twenty-four colorectal adenomas from 11 patients were subjected to chromosome banding analysis. Clonal chromosome abnormalities were found in 20 tumors. Recurrent structural rearrangements involved chromosomes 1, 13, 17, and 18. The most common numerical changes were gain of chromosomes 7, 13, 20......, and 3 and loss of chromosome 18. Eight adenomas had subclones as evidence of clonal evolution. Similar clones in separate polyps were seen in tumors from 6 patients; these adenomas were always located in the same part of the large bowel. In 2 patients, both with one rectal adenoma and one adenoma...

  12. My journey into the world of salivary gland sebaceous neoplasms. (United States)

    Gnepp, Douglas R


    As part of this symposium honoring Leon Barnes, the authors were asked to present the case from which they learned the most. I chose a cystic sebaceous lymphadenoma (SL) as my case presentation. This paper presents this unusual case, as well as several additional sebaceous tumors that came across my desk the first few years I was in practice. These interesting cases led me to thoroughly review the literature on sebaceous tumors of the salivary glands, resulting in several publications, the largest series of sebaceous tumors published at this time as well as a careful review of all cases in the literature. The author will also review the current and previous literature on the five types of salivary gland sebaceous tumors: sebaceous adenoma, SL (and non-sebaceous lymphadenoma), sebaceous carcinoma, sebaceous lymphadenocarcinoma, and sebaceous differentiation in other types of salivary gland lesions.

  13. Exercise- and methylcholine-induced sweating responses in older and younger men: effect of heat acclimation and aerobic fitness (United States)

    Inoue, Y.; Havenith, George; Kenney, W. Larry; Loomis, Joseph L.; Buskirk, Elsworth R.

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of aging and aerobic fitness on exercise- and methylcholine-induced sweating responses during heat acclimation. Five younger [Y group - age: 23+/-1 (SEM) years; maximal oxygen consumption (V.O2max): 47+/-3], four highly fit older (HO group - 63+/-3 years; 48+/-4 and five normally fit older men (NO group - 67+/-3 years; 30+/-1 who were matched for height, body mass and percentage fat, were heat acclimated by daily cycle exercise ( 35% V.O2max for 90 min) in a hot (43°C, 30% RH) environment for 8 days. The heat acclimation regimen increased performance time, lowered final rectal temperature (Tre) and percentage maximal heart rate (%HRmax), improved thermal comfort and decreased sweat sodium concentration similarly in all groups. Although total body sweating rates (M.sw) during acclimation were significantly greater in the Y and HO groups than in the NO group (Pexercise) values, compared to the other groups (PHO>NO, and on the forearm Y=HO>NO. No group differences were observed for activated sweat gland density at any site. The SGO at the respective sites increased in the post-acclimation test regardless of group (Pexercised at the same relative exercise intensity. Furthermore, the changes induced by acclimation appear associated with an age-related decrease in V.O2max. However methylcholine-activated SGO and the magnitude of improvement of SGO with acclimation are related not only to V.O2max but also to aging, suggesting that sensitivity to cholinergic stimulation decreases with aging.

  14. Persistence of intrasellar trigeminal artery and simultaneous pituitary adenoma: description of two cases and their importance for the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions. (United States)

    Machado, Marcio Carlos; Kodaira, Sergio; Musolino, Nina Rosa Castro


    Persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most frequent embryonic communication between the carotid and vertebrobasilar systems. However, hormonal changes or the association of PTA with other sellar lesions, such as pituitary adenomas, are extremely rare. The aim of the present study was to report two patients with intrasellar PTA and simultaneous pituitary adenoma in order to emphasize the importance of differential diagnoses for sellar lesions. Case 1. A female patient, 41 years old, was admitted with a history of chronic headache (> 20 years). Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a rounded lesion in the left portion of the pituitary gland suggestive of adenoma (most likely clinically non-functioning adenoma). In addition to this lesion, the MRI demonstrated ecstasy of the right internal carotid artery and imaging suggestive of an intrasellar artery that was subsequently confirmed by an angio-MRI of the cerebral vessels as PTA. Case 2. A female patient, 42 years old, was admitted with a history of amenorrhea and galactorrhea in 1994. Laboratorial investigation revealed hyperprolactinemia. Pituitary MRI showed a small hyposignal area in the anterior portion of pituitary gland suggestive of a microadenoma initiated by a dopaminergic agonist. Upon follow-up, aside from the first lesion, the MRI showed a well delineated rounded lesion inside the pituitary gland, similar to a vessel. Angio-MRI confirmed a left primitive PTA. Failure to recognize these anomalous vessels within the sella might lead to serious complications during transsphenoidal surgery. Therefore, although their occurrence is uncommon, a working knowledge of vascular lesions in the sella turcica or pituitary gland is important for the differential diagnosis of pituitary lesions, especially pituitary adenomas.

  15. Giant serous microcystic pancreas adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kerem


    Full Text Available Serous cystadenomas are rare tumors comprising 1-2% of exocrine pancreas tumors. They are mostly known as benign conditions but malign transformation as serous cystadenocarcinoma is also reported. It is usually seen in females. Non-specific symptoms, such as abdominal pain or symptoms due to mass affect, are usually seen. A 64-year old female patient was investigated for abdominal pain. Physical and laboratory findings were normal. Abdomen ultrasonography confirmed an 11x9.5 cm solid cystic lesion and abdomen computed tomography scan confirmed a 12x11 cm lobulated cystic solid lesion which had central cystic necrotic areas extending from liver hilus inferiorly. Fine needle biopsy confirmed benign cytology and trucut biopsy of the pan creatic mass reported chronic inflamation. Nevertheless, this mass could have malignant contents and transformation potential. A laparatomy was decided due to patient’s symptoms and mass effect. Due to vascular invasion of the tumor, Whipple procedure was performed. The pathology report confirmed serous microcystic adenoma. These rare tumors are usually benign but pre-operative malignity criterias are not identified. There are few differential diagnostic tools for excluding malignity. We suggest surgical resection as best treatment approach for selected cases.

  16. Radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas: an endocrinologist`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Halloran, D.J.; Shalet, S.M. [Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (United Kingdom)


    A brief review is given of the clinical management of patients with pituitary adenomas such as prolactinomas, adenomasin acromegoly and Leushin`s disease, and non-functioning pituitary adenomas. In particular the complications of radiotherapy are explored. (UK).

  17. Growth hormone receptor expression and function in pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lene R; Kristiansen, Mikkel T; Rasmussen, Lars M


    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Hypopituitarism, in particular GH deficiency, is prevalent in patients with clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) both before and after surgery. The factors regulating the growth of pituitary adenomas in general and residual tumour tissue in particular...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶蔚; 任祖渊; 苏长保; 王任直; 杨义; 马文斌


    Objective. To clarify the frequency, presentation, associated factors, treatment and outcome of hy-ponatremia after transsphenoidal surgery of pituitary adenomas.Methods. Retrospectively reviewed the database of 183 patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgeryof pituitary adenomas between January 1999 and June 2000 in our department.Result.s. 38.8% (71/183) had postoperative hyponatremia. Among them, 59.2% (42/71) appeared onthe 4th to 7th day postoperatively. 59.2% (42/71) presented with nausea, vomiting, headache, dizzi-ness, confusion and weakness. Hyponatremia was related to age, tumor size and adenoma type, but notrelated to sex and degree of resection. Treatment consisted of salt replacement and mild fluid restrictionin 4 patients and salt and fluid replacement in 67 patients. Hyponatremia resolved within 16 days in allthe patients.Conclusions. Hyponatremia often appeared about 7 days after transsphenoidal surgery of pituitary ade-nomas, especially in elderly and patients with macroadenomas and huge pituitary adenomas. The principleof treatment was salt and fluid replacement.

  19. Temozolomide in aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon D. Ortiz


    Full Text Available Temozolomide is an alkylating agent used in the treatment of gliomas and, more recently, aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas. Temozolomide methylates DNA and, thereby, has antitumor effects. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, a DNA repair enzyme, removes the alkylating adducts that are induced by temozolomide, thereby counteracting its effects. A Medline search for all of the available publications regarding the use of temozolomide for the treatment of pituitary tumors was performed. To date, 46 cases of adenohypophysial tumors that were treated with temozolomide, including 30 adenomas and 16 carcinomas, have been reported. Eighteen of the 30 (60% adenomas and 11 of the 16 (69% carcinomas responded favorably to treatment. One patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and an aggressive prolactin-producing adenoma was also treated and demonstrated a good response. No significant complications have been attributed to temozolomide therapy. Thus, temozolomide is an effective treatment for the majority of aggressive adenomas and carcinomas. Evidence indicates that there is an inverse correlation between levels of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase immunoexpression and therapeutic response. Alternatively, high-level O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase immunoexpression correlates with an unfavorable response. Here, we review the use of temozolomide for treating pituitary neoplasms.

  20. Surgical management of spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma

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    Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro Junior


    Full Text Available AIMS: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006 with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA. Three (10.7% of 28 patients had spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation, as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient's condition and the expertise of the surgical team.

  1. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study. (United States)

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M


    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  2. Angiogenesis in Pituitary Adenomas: Human Studies and New Mutant Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cristina


    Full Text Available The role of angiogenesis in pituitary tumor development has been questioned, as pituitary tumors have been usually found to be less vascularized than the normal pituitary tissue. Nevertheless, a significantly higher degree of vasculature has been shown in invasive or macropituitary prolactinomas when compared to noninvasive and microprolactinomas. Many growth factors and their receptors are involved in pituitary tumor development. For example, VEGF, FGF-2, FGFR1, and PTTG, which give a particular vascular phenotype, are modified in human and experimental pituitary adenomas of different histotypes. In particular, vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF, the central mediator of angiogenesis in endocrine glands, was encountered in experimental and human pituitary tumors at different levels of expression and, in particular, was higher in dopamine agonist resistant prolactinomas. Furthermore, several anti-VEGF techniques lowered tumor burden in human and experimental pituitary adenomas. Therefore, even though the role of angiogenesis in pituitary adenomas is contentious, VEGF, making permeable pituitary endothelia, might contribute to adequate temporal vascular supply and mechanisms other than endothelial cell proliferation. The study of angiogenic factor expression in aggressive prolactinomas with resistance to dopamine agonists will yield important data in the search of therapeutical alternatives.

  3. Parathyroid glands (image) (United States)

    The 4 parathyroid glands are located near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland and produce pararthyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium balance within ...

  4. Adrenal Gland Cancer (United States)

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  5. Relationship Between Histopathology and Clinical Prognosis of Invasive Pituitary Adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYong; SHUKai; DONGFangyong; WANFeng; LEITing; LILing


    Objective: To study the relationship between histopathology and clinical prognosis of invasive pituitary adenoma subjected to transsphenoidal surgery. Methods: The enrolled were 82 patients with invasive pituitary adenomas undergoing transsphenoidal surgery during Jan. 2000 May 2003 in our department with full MR imaging findings, pathology data and follow-up information. The follow-up duration was 5-30 months. Results: MR imaging findings of invasive pituitary adenoma included: depression of the sellar floor, involvement of sphenoid sinus and cavernous sinus, breakthrough of diaphragma sellae,encasement of internal carotid artery, etc. Pathological examination revealed that the invasion rate of dura in sella turcica was the highest among the structures around tumor. Pituitary adenoma apoplexy was found in 20 cases (24.4%). The total removal rate for PRL-secreting adenomas was significantly lower than that for non-secreting adenomas (P<0.01), but non-, GH-, ACTH-secreting adenomas had no significant differences. The recurrence rate of PRL-secreting adenornas was higher than that of non- and GH-secreting adenomas (P<0.05). Conclusion: Among invasive pituitary adenomas, the therapeutic effects of nonand GH-secreting pituitary adenomas are better than that of PRL-secreting adenomas. Invasive biological behaviors of invasive pituitary adenomas result in radical operation failure and postoperative recurrence.

  6. Pattern of salivary gland tumors in Manipur, India: A 10 year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Singh Laishram


    Full Text Available Background: Salivary gland lesions, especially the neoplastic lesions constitute a highly heterogeneous histopathologic group. Several studies have reported a significant difference in the global distribution of salivary gland tumors, but no formal study has been carried out in this part of the globe. Objectives: To document the pattern of various salivary gland tumors in Manipur, a state in North Eastern India. Materials and Methods: This is a 10 years (2002-2011 retrospective study of all salivary gland specimens received at our referral teaching hospital in Manipur, India. All the histopathology slides of salivary gland specimens during the study period were reviewed and clinical details were obtained from the archives. Restaining of slides and fresh sections of tissue blocks were performed whenever required. Data thus collected were analyzed. Results: A total of 104 cases of salivary gland lesions were studied during the study period. Age ranged from 5 years to 78 years with an overall slight female preponderance (M:F = 1:1.08. Parotid (56.65% was the commonest gland involved followed by submandibular gland (31.73%.Neoplastic lesions comprised of 78 (75% cases and non-neoplastic lesions constituted 25% (26 cases. Among the neoplastic lesions, benign lesions (53.85% predominated over malignant lesions (21.15%. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest benign neoplastic lesion and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the commonest malignant tumor. Chronic sialadenitis was the predominant lesion in the non-neoplastic group. Conclusion: The principal site for salivary gland tumors was the parotid gland and pleomorphic adenoma outnumbered all the other tumors. Females are more affected in the malignant group.

  7. Advanced methods of treatment of hypophysis adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Ya.A.


    Full Text Available Hypophysis adenomas are mostly spread in the chiasmatic cellular area. They account 18% of all new brain formations, the structure of pituitary adenomas includes prolactinomas in a large number of cases which are manifested by the syndrome of hyperprolactinemia and hormone inactive hypophysis tumours (35%. Somatotropins (13-15% are lower in frequency, the main clinical feature is acromegalia. One can rarely reveal corticotropins (8-10%, gonadotro-pins (7-9% and thyrotropins (1% and their mixed forms. Transsphenoidal surgical interventions are considered to be methods of choice treatment of hypophysis adenomas and other formations in the chiasmatic cellular area. Alternative methods of treatment are conservative. They can be as an addition to microsurgery (radiotherapy

  8. Hyalinising trabecular adenoma of the thyroid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara NINAN


    Full Text Available Hyalinising trebecular adenoma (HTA of the thyroid is rare and controversies remain regarding the diagnosis and management. It is an uncommon benign thyroid tumour that can present as a solitary thyroid nodule, a prominent nodule in a multinodular goitre, or as an incidental finding in a thyroidectomy specimen. Some considered HTA a unique entity, while others have proved it to be a variant of papillary carcinoma or have considered it a nonspecific pattern that may be seen with a variety of thyroid lesions. We report the case of a 31-year-old Chinese lady who presented with four years history of right sided goitre that was gradually increasing in size. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed appearances of follicular adenoma. Intra-operative frozen section histology of the excised right thyroid lobe was reported as trabecular adenoma which was confirmed with histopathological examination.

  9. Tubulovillous Adenoma in a Urethral Neobladder Anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley A. Morganstern


    Full Text Available We present a case of a tubulovillous adenoma arising in a neobladder that was managed by cystoscopic resection. A 64 year-old male underwent a cystectomy with creation of an ileocolic neobladder urinary diversion for T2 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Nine years following his surgery, the patient noted several episodes of gross hematuria. Cystoscopic evaluation revealed the rare occurrence of a 3 cm tubulovillous adenoma with high-grade dysplasia at the neck of the neobladder.

  10. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Genuis


    Full Text Available Background. Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results. Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions. Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs.

  11. Adhesive RFID Sensor Patch for Monitoring of Sweat Electrolytes. (United States)

    Rose, Daniel P; Ratterman, Michael E; Griffin, Daniel K; Hou, Linlin; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R; Hagen, Joshua A; Papautsky, Ian; Heikenfeld, Jason C


    Wearable digital health devices are dominantly found in rigid form factors such as bracelets and pucks. An adhesive radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensor bandage (patch) is reported, which can be made completely intimate with human skin, a distinct advantage for chronological monitoring of biomarkers in sweat. In this demonstration, a commercial RFID chip is adapted with minimum components to allow potentiometric sensing of solutes in sweat, and surface temperature, as read by an Android smartphone app with 96% accuracy at 50 mM Na(+) (in vitro tests). All circuitry is solder-reflow integrated on a standard Cu/polyimide flexible-electronic layer including an antenna, but while also allowing electroplating for simple integration of exotic metals for sensing electrodes. Optional paper microfluidics wick sweat from a sweat porous adhesive allowing flow to the sensor, or the sensor can be directly contacted to the skin. The wearability of the patch has been demonstrated for up to seven days, and includes a protective textile which provides a feel and appearance similar to a standard Band-Aid. Applications include hydration monitoring, but the basic capability is extendable to other mM ionic solutes in sweat (Cl(-), K(+), Mg(2+), NH4(+), and Zn(2+)). The design and fabrication of the patch are provided in full detail, as the basic components could be useful in the design of other wearable sensors.

  12. Heat--sweat--dehydration--rehydration: a praxis oriented approach. (United States)

    Brouns, F


    In any situation where heat production as a result of physical exercise exceeds heat elimination from the body by radiation and convection, the body will depend on sweat secretion and evaporation for its thermoregulation. Sweat secretion will reach maximal levels at high energy expenditures in the heat but will be limited when exercising in the cold climate. Athletes and their coaches should understand some of the principles of thermoregulation in order to make an adequate decision about optimal fluid and carbohydrate replacement in a specific situation. In general it is advised that the carbohydrate content of rehydration drinks should be low (max 80 g l-1) when sweat loss is maximal, may be intermediate when both carbohydrate availability and moderate dehydration influence performance (up to 110 g l-1), and may be maximal (up to 160 g l-1) when the sweat loss is minimized and carbohydrate is the major determinant of the rate of fatigue development. Sodium should be added to rehydration drinks in order to maximize fluid and carbohydrate absorption. A range of electrolyte values for replacement of sweat induced losses, based on whole body wash down procedure is presented.

  13. The reflectance confocal microscopy features of sebaceous adenoma in a case of Muir Torre syndrome

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    Esma İnan Yüksel


    Full Text Available Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by the occurrence of sebaceous gland neoplasms and/or keratoacanthomas associated with visceral malignancies. It is considered as a subtype of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome. Characteristic sebaceous gland neoplasms include sebaceous adenoma, sebaceous carcinoma, sebaceoma, and keratoacanthoma with sebaceous differentiation. The most common visceral malignancies are colorectal and genitourinary tumors. CASE: A 47year-old male patient admitted to our clinic complaining of two lesions on the nose. Dermatological examination revealed a plaque in 1 cm diameter consisting of bright yellowish-white coloured papules with slightly umblicated appearance and telangiectasias on the left site of the nose and had a dome shaped papule in 3 mm diameter with hyperkeratotic plug on the tip of the nose. He had personal history of partial colon resection because of colon cancer and familial Lynch 2 syndrome. On dermoscopic examination of sebaceous adenoma, a few yellow comedo-like globules and branching arborizing vessels were detected. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM revealed a good histopathologic correlation. Sebaceous lobules were composed by clusters of ovoid cells with hyporefractile dark nuclei and bright, hyperrefractile glistening cytoplasm. Numerous roundish to ovoid dark spaces corresponding to sebaceous ducts were detected. The diagnosis of MTS was established based on the personal and family history, dermoscopic, RCM and histopathologic findings. CONCLUSIONS: MTS evaluation is required in patients with biopsy-proven sebaceous adenoma. Early diagnosis may be lifesaving in patients with MTS. A better characterization of RCM features of sebaceous tumors will allow early diagnosis of the patients with MTS.

  14. Mutation and genomic amplification of the PIK3CA proto-oncogene in pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murat, C.B.; Braga, P.B.S.; Fortes, M.A.H.Z. [Laboratório de Endocrinologia Celular e Molecular (LIM-25), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bronstein, M.D. [Unidade de Neuroendocrinologia, Serviço de Endocrinologia, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Corrêa-Giannella, M.L.C.; Giorgi, R.R. [Laboratório de Endocrinologia Celular e Molecular (LIM-25), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The tumorigenesis of pituitary adenomas is poorly understood. Mutations of the PIK3CA proto-oncogene, which encodes the p110-α catalytic subunit of PI3K, have been reported in various types of human cancers regarding the role of the gene in cell proliferation and survival through activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Only one Chinese study described somatic mutations and amplification of the PIK3CA gene in a large series of pituitary adenomas. The aim of the present study was to determine genetic alterations of PIK3CA in a second series that consisted of 33 pituitary adenomas of different subtypes diagnosed by immunohistochemistry: 6 adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting microadenomas, 5 growth hormone-secreting macroadenomas, 7 prolactin-secreting macroadenomas, and 15 nonfunctioning macroadenomas. Direct sequencing of exons 9 and 20 assessed by qPCR was employed to investigate the presence of mutations and genomic amplification defined as a copy number ≥4. Previously identified PIK3CA mutations (exon 20) were detected in four cases (12.1%). Interestingly, the Chinese study reported mutations only in invasive tumors, while we found a PIK3CA mutation in one noninvasive corticotroph microadenoma. PIK3CA amplification was observed in 21.2% (7/33) of the cases. This study demonstrates the presence of somatic mutations and amplifications of the PIK3CA gene in a second series of pituitary adenomas, corroborating the previously described involvement of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the tumorigenic process of this gland.

  15. Excretion of ciprofloxacin in sweat and multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, N; Jarløv, J O; Kemp, M;


    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis develops resistance to ciprofloxacin rapidly. That this antibiotic is excreted in apocrine and eccrine sweat of healthy individuals might be the reason for the development of such resistance. We assessed whether S epidermidis isolated from the axilla and nasal...... flora of healthy people could develop resistance to ciprofloxacin after a 1-week course of this antibiotic. METHODS: The concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat was measured in seven volunteers after oral administration of 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily for 7 days, and the development of resistance...... in S epidermidis from axilla and nostrils was monitored during and 2 months after the treatment. Genotyping of S epidermidis was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism. FINDINGS: The mean concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat increased during the 7 days of treatment-from 2.2 micrograms/mL 2...

  16. Reporting a Rare Case of Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahere Khamechian


    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the most common tumor type in the salivary gland. PA is uncommon in the breast tissue. Only 73 cases of PA of the breast have been reported in the world literature. We are reporting the 74th case of PA of the breast. A 61-year-old woman was referred to Shahid Beheshti Hospital Obstetric Clinic with bloody painless discharge from the right nipple. A bean size mass was detected immediately below the right nipple. After an excisional biopsy, the pathologist found proliferation in epithelial and myoepithelial cells that had small and multiple nuclei, myxoid and chondroid stroma. Immunohistochemistry stain was positive for S-100 and patchy for GFAP in tumor cells and for SMA around the tubule-glandular and tumor cell aggregates and suggested PA of the breast. It is essential for the pathologists to consider PA of the breast as a differential diagnosis of a rounded circumscribed mass in the juxta-areolar areas. Careful paraffin sections should be performed to avoid an unnecessary mastectomy.

  17. Angioscan exploration of morphology of pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabarin, A.; David, J.P.; Drouillard, J. and others


    Considerable progress has been made in the morphologic study of pituitary due to the availability of angioscan programs. An exceptional case is presented of a persistent intrasellar trigeminal artery associated with prolactinoma. Based on technological progress in CT scan imaging the place of angiographic explorations in the investigation of pituitary adenoma is reconsidered.

  18. Genotype phenotype classification of hepatocellular adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paulette Bioulac-Sage; Jean Frédéric Blanc; Sandra Rebouissou; Charles Balabaud; Jessica Zucman-Rossi


    Studies that compare tumor genotype with phenotype have provided the basis of a new histological/molecular classification of hepatocellular adenomas. Based on two molecular criteria (presence of a TCF1/HNF1α or β-catenin mutation), and an additional histological criterion (presence or absence of an inflammatory infiltrate), subgroups of hepatocellular adenoma can be defined and distinguished from focal nodular hyperplasia. Analysis of 96 hepatocellular adenomas performed by a French collaborative network showed that they can be divided into four broad subgroups: the first one is defined by the presence of mutations in TCF1 gene inactivating the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1α); the second by the presence of β-catenin activating mutations; the category without mutations of HNF1α or β-catenin is further divided into 2 subgroups depending on the presence or absence of inflammation. Therefore, the approach to the diagnosis of problematic benign hepatocytic nodules may be entering a new era directed by new molecular information. It is hoped that immunohistological tools will improve significantly diagnosis of liver biopsy in our ability to distinguish hepatocellular adenoma from focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), and to delineate clinically meaningful entities within each group to define the best clinical management. The optimal care of patients with a liver nodule will benefit from the recent knowledge coming from molecular biology and the combined expertise of hepatologists, pathologists, radiologists, and surgeons.

  19. Nephrogenic adenoma. Reports of two cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Starklint, H


    Nephrogenic adenoma is a rare lesion of the urinary tract. Two cases in the urinary bladder are described. Histologically the tumor consists of cystic and tubular structures resembling the distal part of the nephron. The etiology and pathogenesis are discussed and a new etiologic theory...

  20. An analysis of salivary gland neoplasms: a 12-year, single-institution experience in Turkey. (United States)

    Etit, Demet; Ekinci, Nese; Tan, Ayca; Altinel, Deniz; Dag, Filiz


    The epidemiology of salivary gland tumors worldwide is not very well defined. Although many studies on this subject have been undertaken, the data are generally focused on specific topics such as parotid gland neoplasms or tumors of the major salivary glands. We conducted a study to establish the prevalence and distribution of benign and malignant neoplasms of both the major and minor salivary glands at a single institution. We reviewed 244,204 cases that had come through our pathology department from January 1994 through December 2005 and found 235 cases of a salivary gland neoplasm (0.09%). The female-to-male ratio was 1.04:1, and the mean age of the patients was 47 years. Of the 235 neoplasms, 159 (67.66%) were located in the parotid gland, 34 (14.47%) in the submandibular gland, and 42 (17.87%) in the minor salivary glands. A total of 146 tumors (62.13%) were benign and 89 (37.87%) were malignant. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common neoplasm, occurring in 98 cases (41.70%). The most common malignancy was mucoepidermoid carcinoma, with 27 cases (11.49%). Our data demonstrate that the characteristics of salivary gland tumors in a Turkish population at a single institution are similar to those reported in the literature worldwide.

  1. Hydrochromic conjugated polymers for human sweat pore mapping. (United States)

    Lee, Joosub; Pyo, Minkyeong; Lee, Sang-hwa; Kim, Jaeyong; Ra, Moonsoo; Kim, Whoi-Yul; Park, Bum Jun; Lee, Chan Woo; Kim, Jong-Man


    Hydrochromic materials have been actively investigated in the context of humidity sensing and measuring water contents in organic solvents. Here we report a sensor system that undergoes a brilliant blue-to-red colour transition as well as 'Turn-On' fluorescence upon exposure to water. Introduction of a hygroscopic element into a supramolecularly assembled polydiacetylene results in a hydrochromic conjugated polymer that is rapidly responsive (polymer. As a result, the sensor can be used to construct a precise map of active sweat pores on fingertips. The sensor technology, developed in this study, has the potential of serving as new method for fingerprint analysis and for the clinical diagnosis of malfunctioning sweat pores.

  2. Water Transport Models of Moisture Absorption and Sweat Discharge Yarns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fa-ming; ZHOU Xiao-hong; WANG Shan-yuan


    An important property of moisture absorption and sweat discharge yams is their water transport property. In the paper, two water transport models of moisture absorption and sweat discharge yams were developed to investigate the influence factors on their wicking rate. In parallel Column Pores Model, wicking rate is determined by the equivalent capillary radius R and length of the capillary tube L. In Pellets Accumulation Model, wicking rate is decided by the capillary radius r and length of the fiber unit assemble L0.

  3. Nocturnal lowering of thresholds for sweating and vasodilation (United States)

    Wenger, C. B.; Roberts, M. F.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Nadel, E. R.


    The effect of the time of day on the relation of the heat-dissipating responses (sweating and vasodilation) to esophageal and mean skin temperatures was investigated. These parameters were measured in six subjects exercised at 60-70% of maximal aerobic power in a 25 deg C ambient. Results indicate that a circadian rhythm in the thresholds for sweating and vasodilation can account for much of the rhythm of internal body temperature. The circadian rhythm in the operation of the thermoregulatory system seems to be expressed through a reference point shared by vasomotor and sudomotor controls.

  4. Wearable technologies for sweat rate and conductivity sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Salvo, Pietro


    Hauptbeschreibung Wearable sensors present a new frontier in the development of monitoring techniques. They are of great importance in sectors such as sports and healthcare, as they permit the continuous monitoring of physiological and biological elements, such as ECG and human sweat. Until recently, this could only be carried out in specialized laboratories in the presence of cumbersome, and usually, expensive devices. Sweat monitoring sensors integrated onto textile substrates are not only part of a new field of work but, they also represent the first attempt to implement such an

  5. First evidence of TRPV5 and TRPV6 channels in human parathyroid glands: possible involvement in neoplastic transformation. (United States)

    Giusti, Laura; Cetani, Filomena; Da Valle, Ylenia; Pardi, Elena; Ciregia, Federica; Donadio, Elena; Gargini, Claudia; Piano, Ilaria; Borsari, Simona; Jaber, Ali; Caputo, Antonella; Basolo, Fulvio; Giannaccini, Gino; Marcocci, Claudio; Lucacchini, Antonio


    The parathyroid glands play an overall regulatory role in the systemic calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the presence of the Ca(2+) channels transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 5 and TRPV6 in human parathyroid glands. Semi-quantitative and quantitative PCR was carried out to evaluate the presence of TRPV5 and TRPV6 mRNAs in sporadic parathyroid adenomas and normal parathyroid glands. Western blot and immunocytochemical assays were used to assess protein expression, cellular localization and time expression in primary cultures from human parathyroid adenoma. TRPV5 and TRPV6 transcripts were then identified both in normal and pathological tissues. Predominant immunoreactive bands were detected at 75-80 kD for both vanilloid channels. These channels co-localized with the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) on the membrane surface, but immunoreactivity was also detected in the cytosol and around the nuclei. Our data showed that western blotting recorded an increase of protein expression of both channels in adenoma samples compared with normal glands suggesting a potential relation with the cell calcium signalling pathway and the pathological processes of these glands.

  6. Localization of aldosterone-producing adenoma on computed tomography. A comparative study with adrenal scintigraphy and plasma aldosterone concentration in the adrenal or renal vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruyama, K.; Shigetomi, S.; Yamazaki, M.; Toki, T.; Yaginuma, K.; Fukuchi, S. (Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan))


    An abdominal CT scan was performed on six patients with primary aldosteronism, one with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism and one with glucocorticoid responsive hyperaldosteronism; in an attempt to evaluate the utility of this noninvasive procedure. Diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism was made by demonstrating the elevated plasma aldosterone concentration and aldosterone secretion rate, normal excretion rate of urinary 17-OHCS and 17-KS, and low plasma renin activity. The CT scan correctly predicted unilateral adrenal adenoma in all the patients with primary aldosteronism of which the findings were identical to those demonstrated by surgery. The diameter of these tumors ranged from 10 x 7 x 6 to 19 x 17 x 14 mm. Also the CT scan in idiopathic hyperaldosteronism and glucocorticoid responsive hyperaldosteronism showed bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and bilateral normal adrenal glands, respectively. The pathological findings in these two cases disclosed the adrenal hyperplasia of zona glomerulosa and adrenal hyperplasia of zona subglomerulosa accompanied by a normal thickness of the adrenal gland, respectively. The precision of the CT scan, adrenal scintigraphy and determination of plasma aldosterone in the adrenal or renal veins were almost equal to the diagnosis of the localization of adrenal adenoma. It is concluded that the CT scan is a noninvasive and most useful method for the localization of aldosterone-producing adenoma and helpful in distinguishing adrenal adenoma from adrenal hyperplasia.

  7. Comparison of sweat rate during graded exercise and the local rate induced by pilocarpine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimieiro-Gomes A.C.


    Full Text Available Centrally stimulated sweat rate produced by graded exercise until exhaustion was compared to the local sweat rate induced by pilocarpine, often used as a sweating index for healthy individuals. Nine young male volunteers (22 ± 4 years were studied in temperate environment in two situations: at rest and during progressive exercise with 25 W increases every 2 min until exhaustion, on a cycle ergometer. In both situations, sweating was induced on the right forearm with 5 ml 0.5% pilocarpine hydrochloride applied by iontophoresis (1.5 mA, 5 min, with left forearm used as control. Local sweat rate was measured for 15 min at rest. During exercise, whole-body sweat rate was calculated from the body weight variation. Local sweat rate was measured from the time when heart rate reached 150 bpm until exhaustion and was collected using absorbent filter paper. Pharmacologically induced local sweat rate at rest (0.4 ± 0.2 mg cm-2 min-1 and mean exercise-induced whole-body sweat rate (0.4 ± 0.1 mg cm-2 min-1 were the same (P > 0.05 but were about five times smaller than local exercise-induced sweat rate (control = 2.1 ± 1.4; pilocarpine = 2.7 ± 1.2 mg cm-2 min-1, indicating different sudorific mechanisms. Both exercise-induced whole-body sweat rate (P < 0.05 and local sweat rate (P < 0.05 on control forearm correlated positively with pilocarpine-induced local sweat rate at rest. Assuming that exercise-induced sweating was a result of integrated physiological mechanisms, we suggest that local and whole-body sweat rate measured during graded exercise could be a better sweating index than pilocarpine.

  8. /sup 67/Ga-uptake in diseases of large salivary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bihl, H.; Maier, H.


    In a prospective study (59 patients) the pattern of /sup 67/Ga-uptake of the large salivary glands (LSG) in the course of typical disorders of the glands was investigated. Inflammatory and granulomatous disorders revealed - dependent on their acuity - an identical pattern of Ga-uptake. Extraglandular uptake was found in some instances of tuberculosis, sarcoidosis and myoepithelial sialadenitis. Among the benign LSG tumors all cystadenolymphomas showed intensive uptake while all pleomorphic adenomas did not. In 75% of the malignant LSG tumors GA-uptake was pathologically increased, particularly in all adenocarcinomas of the series. /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy seems to be useful in the follow-up of inflammatory and granulomatous LSG disorders and in the differential diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma versus cystadenolymphoma. Extraglandular uptake may give valuable hints for diagnostic work-up.

  9. Sweat lipid mediator profiling: a non-invasive approach for cutaneous research (United States)

    Sweat is a complex biological fluid with potential diagnostic value for the investigation of skin disorders. Previous efforts in sweat testing focused on analysis of small molecules and ions for forensic and diagnostic testing, but with advances in analytical and sweat collection techniques, there h...

  10. Crying for a Vision: The Native American Sweat Lodge Ceremony as Therapeutic Intervention (United States)

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Torres-Rivera, Edil; Brubaker, Michael; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe; Brotherton, Dale; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Conwill, William; Grayshield, Lisa


    The Native American sweat lodge ceremony or sweat therapy is being used increasingly in various medical, mental health, correctional, and substance abuse treatment centers serving both Native and non-Native clients. This article explores the sweat lodge ceremony's background, elements of Native American spirituality, origin story, cultural…

  11. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview (United States)

    ... hormone ( TSH) - TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones, which regulate the body's metabolism, energy balance, growth, and nervous system activity. Read about TSH-secreting ...

  12. Diagnostic criteria in invasive pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldovan Ioana-Maria


    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas are benign pituitary primary tumors, the most frequent type of tumor in the pituitary fossa. An important part, around 1/3 of the pituitary adenomas manifests an aggressive behavior, growing faster and invading into parasellar areas (cavernous sinus, neural tissues and bones. Objectives: the first aim of this paper is to review the last findings about invasiveness diagnostic criteria, imagistic and biomarkers, which can be used in the classification of pituitary tumors and also to predict the probability of invasiveness, tumor recurrence and suspicion of malignancy. The second aim is to highlight the morphological and clinic types of invasive pituitary adenomas. Materials and methods: we performed a systematic review and analysis of the published articles, searching PubMed between January 1985 and December 2015. There were selected articles published in English, reviews and abstracts. During the advanced search type in PubMed, combinations of the following keywords were used: “pituitary adenoma”, “invasive”, “aggressive”, “biomarkers”, “classification”, “histological subtypes”, ‘”immunohistochemical markers”. Results: 215 articles were selected, regarding diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic aspects. There were some histological subtypes of pituitary adenomas known as having an aggressive clinical behavior. Several biomarkers were identified as being associated with the invasive feature: proliferation markers (Ki-67 index, number of mitoses, p53 & p27 expression, microvascularization density, telomerase, topoisomerase 2 Alpha, matrix metalloproteinases, protein kinase C, cyclooxygenase-2, E-cadherin, transcription Factors, genetic alterations (PTTG gene, Galectin-3 protein/ LGALS3 gene, apoptosis markers. Based on their invasion and proliferation characteristics, pituitary tumors are proposed to be classified into five grades (1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3, the grade 2b tumor with high risk of recurrence

  13. Multimodal ultrasonographic characterisation of parotid gland lesions-A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knopf, Andreas, E-mail: [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hals-Nasen-Ohrenklinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Mansour, Naglaa; Chaker, Adam; Bas, Murat [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hals-Nasen-Ohrenklinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Stock, Konrad [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Abteilung fuer Nephrologie der II. Medizinischen Klinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany)


    Objectives: Lesions of the major salivary glands represent a heterogeneous group comprising infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. The reliable pre-operative assessment of the lesional dignity might reduce patient's morbidity preventing re-surgery. To date, there exists no imaging technique which reliably distinguishes tumour entities. Methods: 35 parotid lesions were analysed in this study. B-mode ultrasound, colour duplex imaging and contrast enhanced ultrasound were applied for all patients. After fractionated boli of 4.8 ml SonoVue{sup Registered-Sign} perfusion kinetics, time to peak (TP) and mean transit time (MTT), were analysed for intraparotideal lesion and were normalised by circumjacent parotid tissue. Ultrasonographic data was structured in a multimodal diagnostic pathway. Results: B-mode ultrasound identifies six lymphoepithelial lesions due to Sjoegren's syndrome (p: 0.0001). CDS further differentiates hypovascularised pleomorphic adenoma from hypervascularised Warthin's tumours, monomorphic adenomas, and carcinomas (p < 0.0001). Application of CEUS detected Warthin's tumours being significantly hypervascularised compared to monomorphic adenomas (MTT, p < 0.05) and carcinomas (MTT, p < 0.02). Conclusions: A multimodal diagnostic pathway unifies different ultrasonographic techniques and identifies pleomorphic adenomas, Warthin's tumours and carcinomas with sensitivities of 100%. Further studies have to be performed to validate this diagnostic approach and to specify monomorphic adenomas.

  14. DEET insect repellent: effects on thermoregulatory sweating and physiological strain. (United States)

    Kenefick, Robert W; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Ely, Brett R; Palombo, Laura J; Sawka, Michael N


    Insect repellents (e.g. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide or DEET) applied to the skin can potentially interfere with sweat production and evaporation, thus increasing physiological strain during exercise-heat stress. The purpose was to determine the impact of 33% DEET lotion on sweating responses, whole body thermoregulation and thermal sensation during walking exercise in the heat. Nine volunteers (2 females, 7 males; 22.1 ± 4.9 years; 176.4 ± 10.0 cm; 79.9 ± 12.9 kg) completed 5 days of heat acclimation (45°C, 20% rh; 545 watts; 100 min/day) and performed three trials: control (CON); DEET applied to forearm (DEET(LOC), 12 cm(2)); and DEET applied to ~13% body surface area (DEET(WB),). Trials consisted of 30 min walking (645 watts) in 40°C, 20% rh environment. Local sweat rate (SR), onset and skin wettedness were measured in DEET(LOC), and heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (T (re)), skin temperature (T (sk)), RPE, and thermal sensations (TS) were measured during DEET(WB). No differences (p > 0.05) were observed between DEET(LOC) versus CON, respectively, for steady state SR (1.89 ± 0.44 vs. 2.09 ± 0.84 mg/cm(2)/min), SR area under the curve (46.9 ± 11.7 vs. 55.0 ± 20.8 mg/cm(2)), sweating onset, or skin wettedness. There were no differences (p > 0.05) in HR, T (re), T (sk), Physiological Strain Index, RPE or TS between DEET(WB) versus CON. DEET did not impact measures of local forearm sweating and when applied according to military doctrine, did not adversely impact physiological responses during exercise-heat stress. DEET can be safely worn during military, occupational and recreational activities in hot, insect infested environments.

  15. Androgen receptor expression in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic hepatoid glands in the dog. (United States)

    Pisani, G; Millanta, F; Lorenzi, D; Vannozzi, I; Poli, A


    Neoplasms of the perianal glands are common in the dog, particularly in the male. The occurrence of these tumours appears to be hormone related and castration, without excision of the tumour, has sometimes resulted in regression of the tumour. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of androgen receptors (AR) in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic hepatoid glands in the dog. Thirty-one samples of canine hepatoid gland tissues were investigated. The lesions, classified according to WHO criteria, were comprised of 19 hyperplastic tissues, 10 benign lesions (2 hepatoid gland epithelioma and 8 hepatoid adenomas), and 19 carcinomas. Five samples from normal hepatoid glands were also investigated. The AR expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method. The immunoexpression was scored by two pathologists as the percentage of positive nuclei. The intensity of staining was also considered. AR expression was detected in all normal and abnormal glands. However, in hyperplastic tissues the percentage of positive nuclei was significantly higher than in normal tissue and especially in reserve basaloid cells. A similar increase in the percent of positive nuclei was also observed in hepatoid epitheliomas, while in hepatoid adenoma the percent of AR-immunolabelling was only slightly increased compared to normal tissue. In hepatoid carcinomas the percent of AR-positive cells was similar to that observed in benign tumours. The grade of differentiation of hepatoid carcinomas did not affect AR expression. These results demonstrate that increased AR expression is maintained throughout perianal gland cancer progression and that hepatoid gland carcinomas still express AR. Although further studies may be required to evaluate the hormonal background of these diseases, dogs bearing those carcinomas might benefit from castration or anti hormonal therapy.

  16. Pleomorphic Adenomas of the Parapharyngeal Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İstemihan Akın


    Full Text Available Background. Parapharyngeal space is one of potential facial planes for neoplasms and infections and represents less than 1% of all head and neck tumours. Occurrence of the pleomorphic adenoma in the parapharyngeal space is a rarity. Case Presentation. Here, three giant pleomorphic adenomas of different sizes occupying the parapharyngeal space in three patients are reported. Extensive preoperative diagnostic workup was done in order to verify the nature and size of the tumour and the proximity to the large vessels. Review of the literature, clinical features, pathology, radiological findings, and treatment of these tumours are discussed. Conclusion. The excision of the tumor through submandibular transcervical approach, without cutting the mandible, turned out to be a safe and radical approach in all three cases.

  17. Heterogeneity of secretory granules of silent pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R


    Silent pituitary adenomas were compared with hormonally active tumors taking into account the size, number, and ultrastructural characteristics of secretory granules (SG). The study group (a total of 79 primary pituitary adenomas) comprised 27 silent, 21 growth hormone (GH)-producing-, 16 prolactin...... (PRL)-producing-, 5 GH-PRL-producing- and 10 adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing adenomas. The SG of silent adenomas were significantly smaller than SG in endocrine active adenomas. All hormonally inactive tumors also contained small (mean, 94 nm) specific cytoplasmic granules, designated...... approximately 10 to 50% of the granules in each cell. These granules were not seen in hormonally active tumors and considered therefore diagnostic of silent pituitary adenomas....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Madh


    Full Text Available Adenoma sebaceum, pathognomonic of tuberous sclerosis, are tiny angiofibromas which commonly occur over central part of face. Recurrence after treatment is common and hence a need for inexpensive, safe and efficient treatment is required. Radiofrequency ablation is a safe and an economical procedure and has been known to cause less scarring with good aesthetic results compared to other ablative methods such as electrocautery.

  19. Temozolomide in aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas


    Leon D. Ortiz; Luis V. Syro; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Fabio Rotondo; Humberto Uribe; Camilo E Fadul; Eva Horvath; Kalman Kovacs


    Temozolomide is an alkylating agent used in the treatment of gliomas and, more recently, aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas. Temozolomide methylates DNA and, thereby, has antitumor effects. O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, a DNA repair enzyme, removes the alkylating adducts that are induced by temozolomide, thereby counteracting its effects. A Medline search for all of the available publications regarding the use of temozolomide for the treatment of pituitary tumors was perf...

  20. Metanephric Adenoma: clinical, imaging, and histological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Marchini, Giovanni Scala, E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Urologica; Campos, Rodrigo Sousa Madeira [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Urologia; Gil, Antonio Otero [Instituto Dante Pazanezzi, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Metanephric adenoma (MA), also designated nephrogenic nephroma or renal epithelial tumor resembling immature nephron, has just been recently recognized as a special type of benign renal epithelial tumor. Only few reports are found in the literature regarding this rare renal tumor. The purpose of this paper is to describe our clinical, imaging and histological / immunohistochemical observations of MA diagnosed in two patients and compare these data to previous information reported in medical databases (author)

  1. File list: His.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 Histone Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma ... ...

  2. File list: His.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 Histone Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma ... ...

  3. File list: His.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 Histone Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma ... ...

  4. File list: His.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 Histone Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma ... ...

  5. Lymphocitic infundibuloneurohypophysitis mimicking a pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubertus Maximilian Mehdorn


    Full Text Available A rare case of infundibulo-neurohypophysitis mimicking a pituitary adenoma is presented. A 69-years-old female patient developed polyuria and polydipsia. Laboratory analysis revealed central diabetes insipidus. No hormonal abnormalities. Cranial-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a left sided mass in the adenohypophysis presuming a pituitary adenoma. The mass had contact to both internal carotids. Admission to our department for neurosurgical treatment followed. Ophthalmo - logic examination and neurological examination yielded normal findings. A second MRI focussing on the sellar-region showed a leftsided (T2-MRI.hyperintense, distended adenohypophysis, without contrast enhancement in T1. The stalk appeared thickened. T1- weighted sequences of the neurohypophysis showed loss of signal intensity. We diagnosed an infundibulo-neurohypophysitis and abstai - ned from surgical removal. The patient was discharged under treatment with corticosteroids and desmopressin. Hypophysitis is rare and shows special clinical characteristics. Despite defined radiological features to differentiate between hypophysitis and adenoma the possibility of misdiagnosis, and unnecessary surgical procedures, should always kept in mind.

  6. Adrenal Gland Disorders (United States)

    ... t live without, including sex hormones and cortisol. Cortisol helps you respond to stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not enough hormones. In Cushing's ... too much cortisol, while with Addison's disease, there is too little. ...

  7. Salivary Gland Cancer (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  8. Salivary Gland Secretion. (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others


    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  9. Risk of colorectal cancer in patients with sessile serrated adenomas/polyps is the same magnitude or even higher than in patients with conventinal adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Rune; Baron, John A; Snover, Dale;


    Risk of colorectal cancer in patients with sessile serrated adenomas/polyps is the same magnitude or even higher than in patients with conventinal adenomas......Risk of colorectal cancer in patients with sessile serrated adenomas/polyps is the same magnitude or even higher than in patients with conventinal adenomas...

  10. Detection of cancer clones in human gastric adenoma by increased DNA-instability and other biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sun


    Full Text Available An immunohistochemical differential staining of cancerous cells with anti-cytidine antibody after denaturation of nuclear DNA by acid hydrolysis with 2N HCl at 30°C for 20 min (DNA-instability test has been used as a marker of malignancy. The test was applied to bioptic tissues of human gastric polyp assessed histopathologically as foveolar hyperplastic polyp (13 cases, mild (58 cases, moderate (86 cases, and severe (20 cases dysplasia, and adenocarcinomas (14 cases. The serial sections of the same tissues were also subjected to immunohistochemical staining for Ki67, p53, DNA-fragmentation factor (DFF45, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF. The DNA-instability test was positive in 14 (100% adenocarinoma cases, 20 (100% severe dysplasia cases, 52 (60.5% moderate dysplasia cases, and 12 (20.7% mild dysplasia cases, indicating malignancy. All foveolar hyperplastic polyps were negative to the DNA-instability testing. Furthermore, the percentage of glands positive in the DNA-instability test steadily increased in going from mild (10%, to moderate (40%, to severe (100% dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma (100%. All other biological markers tested in the present study showed significantly higher values in the adenoma glands, being positive to DNA-instability testing, irrespective of the dysplasia grade, as compared to those in the adenoma glands that were negative to DNA-instability testing. Furthermore, the former values were comparable to those in adenocarcinoma. These results indicate that cancer cell clones are already present at the adenoma stages showing a positive DNA-instability test, enhanced proliferative activity, p53 mutation, induction of DFF45 and bFGF. These factors allow cancer cell proliferation, producing heterogeneous subclones due to DNA-instability, enhancing their survival by escaping apoptosis, and providing abundant nutrients during the early-stage progression of gastric cancer. Based on these findings, we herein propose the

  11. Sequels after radiotherapy of adenoma of adenohypophysis. Folgen einer Hypophysenadenombestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuepffer, J.; Helpap, B. (Staedtisches Krankenhaus, Singen (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie); Saeger, W. (Marienkrankenhaus, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Pathologie)


    14 years before his death, iridium seeds were implanted in the adenohypophysis of a 69-year-old patient with a STH producing adenoma of the adenohypophysis and acromegaly. 5 years after recurrence, transsphenoidal hypophysectomy was done. The patient died of central dysregulation due to cerebral insults. At autopsy, a recurrence of the undifferentiated acidophilic adenoma was found within the sphenoidal bone corpus. Immunohistochemistry was positive for STH, prolactin, TSH, LH, and FSH. Besides the adenoma, a mucoepidermoid carcinoma was found within the sphenoid cavity. This carcinoma may be a consequence of the radiotherapy of the adenoma of the adenohypophysis. (orig.).

  12. DNA aneuploidy in colorectal adenomas: Role in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence Aneuploidía del ADN en adenomas colónicos: Papel en la secuencia adenoma-carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alcántara Torres


    Full Text Available Introduction: aneuploidy has been observed in 6-27% of lesions known to be precursors of colorectal cancer, such as adenomas or ulcerative colitis. It has been suggested that aneuploidy may predispose to malignancy in these cases. However, its role in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence has not been definitely established. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of aneuploidy in colon adenomas, as well as to study its possible role in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Material and methods: the study was performed on a series of 57 large bowel adenomas measuring 10 mm or more, collected from 54 consecutive patients. All specimens were obtained either by endoscopic or by surgical resection. There were 49 adenomas with low-grade dysplasia, two with high-grade dysplasia, two intramucous carcinomas, and four microinvasive carcinomas. A flow cytometric DNA analysis was performed in fresh specimens following Vindelov´s method. Results: aneuploid DNA was detected in five out of 49 low-grade dysplasia adenomas (10%, in all four high-grade dysplasia adenomas or intramucous carcinomas (100%, and in three out of four microinvasive carcinomas (75%. The association between aneuploidy and high-grade dysplasia adenomas, intramucous, or microinvasive carcinoma was statistically significant (p Introducción: en patología benigna de intestino grueso precursora del cáncer colorrectal, como adenomas o colitis ulcerosa, se ha observado aneuploidía en el 6-27% de los casos y se ha sugerido que su presencia predispone al desarrollo de malignidad. Sin embargo, su papel en la secuencia adenoma-carcinoma no se ha demostrado de forma concluyente. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue valorar la incidencia de aneuploidía en adenomas colónicos, con y sin signos de malignidad, y estudiar su posible papel en la secuencia adenoma-carcinoma. Material y métodos: el estudio se realizó en una serie de 57 adenomas de intestino grueso, de 10 o más mil

  13. Maspin and MCM2 immunoprofiling in salivary gland carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy Iman M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of salivary gland carcinomas is very complex and prognostic markers are difficult to find in these carcinomas of which the different subtypes have varying malignant potential. The study was conducted to examine the cellular distribution of maspin and MCM2 in salivary gland carcinomas and their value to predict lymph node metastasis. Materials and methods Fifty three paraffin blocks of different lesions (15 muco-epidermoid carcinoma, 14 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 3 epi-myoepithelial carcinoma, 5 salivary duct carcinoma, 5 malignant pleomorphic adenoma, 6 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and 5 acinic cell carcinoma were prepared for immunohistochemical staining with maspin and MCM2 antibodies. ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests were used for the statistical analysis of the results. Results All salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable cellular localization. There was a significant difference in the expression of each antibody between mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. No association was found between examined markers and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions Salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable levels and cellular localization, consisting important markers of biological behavior in these tumors. The level of MCM2 expression can be used in the differential diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Further study with large sample size is recommended to assess their value in prediction of lymph node metastasis.

  14. Standards for the assessment of salivary glands – an update (United States)

    Ochal-Choińska, Aleksandra


    The paper is an update of 2011 Standards for Ultrasound Assessment of Salivary Glands, which were developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society. We have described current ultrasound technical requirements, assessment and measurement techniques as well as guidelines for ultrasound description. We have also discussed an ultrasound image of normal salivary glands as well as the most important pathologies, such as inflammation, sialosis, collagenosis, injuries and proliferative processes, with particular emphasis on lesions indicating high risk of malignancy. In acute bacterial inflammation, the salivary glands appear as hypoechoic, enlarged or normal-sized, with increased parenchymal flow. The echogenicity is significantly increased in viral infections. Degenerative lesions may be seen in chronic inflammations. Hyperechoic deposits with acoustic shadowing can be visualized in lithiasis. Parenchymal fibrosis is a dominant feature of sialosis. Sjögren syndrome produces different pictures of salivary gland parenchymal lesions at different stages of the disease. Pleomorphic adenomas are usually hypoechoic, well-defined and polycyclic in most cases. Warthin tumor usually presents as a hypoechoic, oval-shaped lesion with anechoic cystic spaces. Malignancies are characterized by blurred outlines, irregular shape, usually heterogeneous echogenicity and pathological neovascularization. The accompanying metastatic lesions are another indicator of malignancy, however, final diagnosis should be based on biopsy findings. PMID:27446602

  15. The accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology for diagnosis of parotid gland masses: a clinicopathological study of 114 patients (United States)

    GUDMUNDSSON, Jens Kristjan; AJAN, Aida; ABTAHI, Jahan


    ABSTRACT Objective Fine-needle aspiration cytology is a valuable method for preoperative assessment of head and neck tumors. However, its accuracy in detection of salivary gland masses is controversial compared with other methods. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness and accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of parotid gland masses. Material and Methods Over a 10-year period, 126 parotid gland masses were resected. Retrospective chart reviews of 114 patients were performed. The results of FNAC and final histological diagnosis were compared and the accuracy of FNAC was determined. Results Final histological evaluation revealed 11 malignant tumors and 103 benign lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common neoplasm (63%), followed by Warthin’s tumor (17.5%). The sensitivity of FNAC in detecting malignant tumors was 73% and the specificity was 97%. Positive predictive value (PPV) was 73% and negative predictive value (NPV) was 97%. The overall accuracy of FNAC in detecting parotid masses was 95%. False-negative diagnosis was found in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma, and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma whereas there was false-positive diagnosis in cases of pleomorphic adenoma and normal parotid gland tissue. Conclusion FNAC is a reliable minimally invasive diagnostic method with a high sensitivity in diagnosis of lesions in parotid glands. The sensitivity of detection of malignant tumors in parotid glands was low due to the biopsy technique used, and depended on tumor location. Postoperative complications decreased after superficial parotidectomy. PMID:28076460

  16. The accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology for diagnosis of parotid gland masses: a clinicopathological study of 114 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Kristjan GUDMUNDSSON

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Fine-needle aspiration cytology is a valuable method for preoperative assessment of head and neck tumors. However, its accuracy in detection of salivary gland masses is controversial compared with other methods. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness and accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in the diagnosis of parotid gland masses. Material and Methods Over a 10-year period, 126 parotid gland masses were resected. Retrospective chart reviews of 114 patients were performed. The results of FNAC and final histological diagnosis were compared and the accuracy of FNAC was determined. Results Final histological evaluation revealed 11 malignant tumors and 103 benign lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common neoplasm (63%, followed by Warthin’s tumor (17.5%. The sensitivity of FNAC in detecting malignant tumors was 73% and the specificity was 97%. Positive predictive value (PPV was 73% and negative predictive value (NPV was 97%. The overall accuracy of FNAC in detecting parotid masses was 95%. False-negative diagnosis was found in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma, and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma whereas there was false-positive diagnosis in cases of pleomorphic adenoma and normal parotid gland tissue. Conclusion FNAC is a reliable minimally invasive diagnostic method with a high sensitivity in diagnosis of lesions in parotid glands. The sensitivity of detection of malignant tumors in parotid glands was low due to the biopsy technique used, and depended on tumor location. Postoperative complications decreased after superficial parotidectomy.

  17. Lack of harmonization in sweat testing for cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Christiansen, Anne; Nybo, Mads


    interpretation and referred literature. Results. 14 departments performed the sweat test. One department measured chloride and sodium concentration, while 13 departments measured conductivity. One department used a non-existing NPU code, two departments applied NPU codes inconsistent with the method performed......, four departments applied no NPU code and seven applied a correct NPU code. Ten of the departments measuring conductivity applied reference intervals. Nine departments measuring conductivity had recommendations of a normal area, a grey zone and a pathological value, while four departments only applied...... a normal and grey zone or a pathological value. Cut-off values for normal, grey and pathological areas were like the reference intervals inconsistent. Conclusion. There is inconsistent use of NPU codes, reference intervals and interpretation of sweat conductivity used in the process of diagnosing cystic...

  18. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in diagnosis of gallbladder adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Xia Yuan; Jia-Ying Cao; Wen-Tao Kong; Han-Sheng Xia; Xi Wang; Wen-Ping Wang


    BACKGROUND:Gallbladder adenoma is a pre-cancerous neoplasm and needs surgical resection. It is dififcult to differ-entiate adenoma from other gallbladder polyps using imaging examinations. The study aimed to illustrate characteristics of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and its diagnostic value in gallbladder adenoma. METHODS:Thirty-seven patients with 39 gallbladder adenoma-toid lesions (maximal diameter≥10 mm and without metastasis) were enrolled in this study. Lesion appearances in conventional ultrasound and CEUS were documented. The imaging features were compared individually among gallbladder cholesterol polyp, gallbladder adenoma and malignant lesion. RESULTS:Adenoma lesions showed iso-echogenicity in ul-trasound, and an eccentric enhancement pattern, "fast-in and synchronous-out" contrast enhancement pattern and homo-geneous at peak-time enhancement in CEUS. The homogenic-ity at peak-time enhancement showed the highest diagnostic ability in differentiating gallbladder adenoma from cholesterol polyps. The sensitivity, speciifcity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and Youden index were 100%, 90.9%, 92.9%, 100%, 95.8% and 0.91, respectively. The characteristic of continuous gallbladder wall shown by CEUS had the highest diagnostic ability in differentiating adenoma from malignant lesion (100%, 86.7%, 86.7%, 100%, 92.9% and 0.87, respectively). The characteristic of the eccentric enhance-ment pattern had the highest diagnostic ability in differenti-ating adenoma from cholesterol polyp and malignant lesion, with corresponding indices of 69.2%, 88.5%, 75.0%, 85.2%, 82.1% and 0.58, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:CEUS is valuable in differentiating gallbladder adenoma from other gallbladder polyps (≥10 mm in diameter). Homogeneous echogenicity on peak-time enhancement, a con-tinuous gallbladder wall, and the eccentric enhancement pat-tern are important indicators of gallbladder adenoma on CEUS.

  19. Contemporary issues in the evaluation and management of pituitary adenomas. (United States)

    Pekic, S; Stojanovic, M; Popovic, V


    Pituitary adenomas are common benign monoclonal neoplasms accounting for about 15% of intracranial neoplasms. Data from postmortem studies and imaging studies suggest that 1 of 5 individuals in the general population may have pituitary adenoma. Some pituitary adenomas (mainly microadenomas which have a diameter of less than 1 cm) are exceedingly common and are incidentally diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for an unrelated reason (headache, vertigo, head trauma). Most microadenomas remain clinically occult and stable in size, without an increase in tumor cells and without local mass effects. However, some pituitary adenomas grow slowly, enlarge by expansion and become demarcated from normal pituitary (macroadenomas have a diameter greater than 1 cm). They may be clinically silent or secrete anterior pituitary hormones in excess such as prolactin, growth hormone (GH), or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) causing diseases like prolactinoma, acromegaly, Cushing's disease or rarely thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or gonadotropins (LH, FSH). The incidence of the various subtypes of pituitary adenoma varies but the most common is prolactinoma. Clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), which do not secrete hormones often cause local mass symptoms and represent one-third of pituitary adenomas. Given the high prevalence of pituitary adenomas and their heterogeneity (different tumor subtypes), it is critical that clinicians have a thorough understanding of the potential abnormalities in pituitary function and prognostic factors for behavior of pituitary adenomas in order to timely implement specific treatment modalities. Regarding pathogenesis of these tumors genetics, epigenetics and signaling pathways are the focus of current research yet our understanding of pituitary tumorigenesis remains incomplete. Although several genes and signaling pathways have been identified as important factors in the development of pituitary tumors, current

  20. Complications and recurrence of parotid pleomorphic adenoma after partial parotidectomy at Alzahra hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezamodin Berjis


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The most common neoplasm of the salivary glands is pleomorphic adenoma and the most common complications of its surgical removal are facial nerve dysfunction (temporary or permanent and auriculotemporal syndrome (Frey’s syndrome. One of the surgical techniques in pleomorphic adenoma is partial parotidectomy. The whole excised tumor is surrounded by a safety margin of parotid tissue. Several surgical techniques are used for this operation. In the analytical studies published for partial parotidectomy, we searched for the complication rates of this operation. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 59 patients with pleomorphic adenoma who underwent partial parotidectomy from 1994 to 2000 were selected and their clinical examinations and pathological files were evaluated at the Alzahra hospital which is affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. RESULTS: From the fifty nine patients, who were studied, 44.06% were male and 55.94% were female. The mean age at the time of the onset of symptoms was 37.18. One of the patients had a history of tumor recurrence. Four patients had temporary facial nerve paresis immediately after the surgery. One patient (1.69% had a permanent facial nerve paralysis in one of the facial nerve subdivisions. Two patients (3.38% had Frey’s syndrome. In 1 case (1.69% there was a history of bleeding after the surgery. Two patients (3.38% had wound infection. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with the superficial parotidectomy technique, the partial parotidectomy method indicates more satisfying results in regards to recurrence and complications.

  1. Repetitive ultrasonographic assessment of adrenal size and shape changes: a clue for an asymptomatic sex hormone-secreting adenoma (United States)

    Yoon, Seunghyeon; Oui, Heejin; Lee, Ju-hwan; Son, Kyu-Yeol; Cho, Kyoung-Oh


    Diagnosis of an adrenal tumor without typical clinical signs related to hyperadrenocorticism and elevated alkaline phosphatase is challenging. This report describes a sex hormone-secreting adrenal tumor in a 10-year-old castrated male Shih Tzu evaluated through repetitive ultrasonographic examination. An adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test revealed elevated concentrations of androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone but a normal cortisol concentration. A mass was surgically excised and adenoma was diagnosed histopathologically. In the present case, adrenal tumor was strongly suspected based on a gradual increase in adrenal size and a change from peanut shape to an irregular mass on repetitive ultrasonography. Repetitive ultrasonographic examination of the adrenal gland is recommended when an abnormal ultrasonographic appearance of adrenal gland is identified, even in an asymptomatic dog. PMID:27297418

  2. The use of laser CO2 in salivary gland diseases (United States)

    Ciolfi, C.; Rocchetti, F.; Fioravanti, M.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.; Romeo, U.


    Salivary gland diseases can include reactive lesions, obstructive lesions, and benign tumors. All these clinical entities are slow growing. Salivary glands reactive lesions, such as mucoceles, can result from extravasation of saliva into the surrounding soft tissue or from retention of saliva within the duct. Sialolithiasis, one of the most common obstructive lesions, is generally due to calculi, which are attributed to retention of saliva. Monomorphic adenoma is a salivary gland benign tumor, which is exclusively resulted from proliferation of epithelial cells, with no alterations interesting the connective tissue. The elective therapy of these lesions is surgical excision because sometimes they can be accompained by difficulties during chewing and phonation and can interfere with prosthesis's stability. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of CO2 laser in the treatment of patients with salivary gland diseases. Three different cases - a mucocele, a scialolithiasis and a monomorphic adenoma - were treated with CO2 laser excision (CW and 4W), under local anesthesia. Two different techniques were used: circumferential incision for the adenoma, and mucosa preservation technique for mucocele and sialolithiasis. In each case final haemostasis was obtained by thermocoagulation, but suture was applied to guarantee good healing by sewing up the flaps. The patients were checked after twenty days and the healing was good. The carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) was one of the earliest gas laser to be developed, and is still the highest-power continuous wave laser that is currently available. In dentistry the CO2 laser produces a beam of infrared light with the principal wavelength bands centering around 9.4 and 10.6 micrometers. Laser excision can be very useful in oral surgery. In the cases presented CO2 laser offered, differently from traditional surgery, simplified surgical technique, shorter duration of operation, minimal postoperative pain, minimal scarring

  3. Methylene blue and parathyroid adenoma localization: Three new cases of a rare cutaneous complication. (United States)

    Lieberman, Elliot D; Thambi, Rakhi; Pytynia, Kristen B


    Methylene blue has been safely used for the localization of parathyroid glands during parathyroidectomy, and only a few adverse effects have been documented. Methylene blue administration as a cause of pulse-oximetry-related skin injury is extremely rare. We describe 2 such cases in patients who developed a blister on the second digit at the pulse oximetry site after an uncomplicated excision of a parathyroid adenoma. In another case, a patient became bradycardic intraoperatively; she was successfully resuscitated, but she incurred a second-degree burn at the pulse oximetry site. In all 3 cases, the burns resolved with local wound care. We publish this report to alert surgeons and anesthesiologists to the risk of skin complications with the use of high-dose intraoperative methylene blue.

  4. Intermittent facial spasms as the presenting sign of a recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (United States)

    Machado, Rosalie A; Moubayed, Sami P; Khorsandi, Azita; Hernandez-Prera, Juan C; Urken, Mark L


    The intimate anatomical relationship of the facial nerve to the parotid parenchyma has a significant influence on the presenting signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of parotid neoplasms. However, to our knowledge, hyperactivity of this nerve, presenting as facial spasm, has never been described as the presenting sign or symptom of a parotid malignancy. We report a case of carcinoma arising in a recurrent pleomorphic adenoma of the left parotid gland (i.e., carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma) that presented with hemifacial spasms. We outline the differential diagnosis of hemifacial spasm as well as a proposed pathophysiology. Facial paralysis, lymph node enlargement, skin involvement, and pain have all been associated with parotid malignancies. To date the development of facial spasm has not been reported with parotid malignancies. The most common etiologies for hemifacial spasm are vascular compression of the ipsilateral facial nerve at the cerebellopontine angle (termed primary or idiopathic) (62%), hereditary (2%), secondary to Bell’s palsy or facial nerve injury (17%), and hemifacial spasm mimickers (psychogenic, tics, dystonia, myoclonus, myokymia, myorthythmia, and hemimasticatory spasm) (17%). Hemifacial spasm has not been reported in association with a malignant parotid tumor but must be considered in the differential diagnosis of this presenting symptom. PMID:28246588

  5. Postoperative follow-up of pituitary adenomas after trans-sphenoidal resection: MRI and clinical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, O. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital de Cruces, Baracaldo (Spain); Mateos, B. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital de Cruces, Baracaldo (Spain); Pedraja, R. de la [Servicio de Endocrinologia, Hospital de Cruces, Baracaldo (Spain); Villoria, R. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital de Cruces, Baracaldo (Spain); Hernando, J.I. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital de Cruces, Baracaldo (Spain); Pastor, A. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital de Cruces, Baracaldo (Spain); Pomposo, I. [Servicio de Neurocirugia, Hospital de Cruces, Baracaldo (Spain); Aurrecoechea, J. [Servicio de Neurocirugia, Hospital de Cruces, Baracaldo (Spain)


    Our purpose was to correlate the morphological changes seen on MRI studies of the sellar region after trans-sphenoidal resection of pituitary adenomas with clinical and hormonal studies. Between January 1993 and March 1994, 16 patients with a pituitary adenoma (9 macroadenomas and 7 microadenomas) were subjected to trans-sphenoidal resection and included in a prospective study. The protocol consisted of MRI, hormonal and visual studies at the following times: immediately postoperative (1st week), 1st month, 4th month and 1st year after surgery. The evolution of the contents of the sella turcica (tumour remnant, packing material and gland tissue), effects on the infundibulum, optic chiasm, cavernous sinus and sphenoid sinus were correlated with the clinical and hormonal studies. Stabilisation of the postsurgical changes occurred by the 4th month. Tumour remnants were noted in the immediate postoperative period in macroadenomas. Compression of the infundibulum was the only reliable indicator of possible involvement. Optic chiasm compression, defined as close contact between the chiasm and the tumour, was the only morphological finding that indicated visual impairment. There was no standard repneumatisation pattern in the sphenoid sinus, since mucosal changes resembling sinusitis were one of the postsurgical changes. We found MRI not to be useful for follow-up of microadenomas. (orig.). With 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Heterogeneity of colorectal adenomas, the serrated adenoma, and implications for screening and surveillance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman


    Current algorithms for screening and surveillance for colon cancer are valuable, but may be limited by the underlying nature of the targeted neoplastic lesions. Although part of the success of adenoma removal relates to interruption of so-called "adenoma-carcinoma sequence", an alternate serrated pathway to colon cancer may pose difficulties with the ultimate results achieved by traditional colonoscopic methods. The endpoint carcinoma in this unique pathway may be derived from a dysplastic serrated adenoma. These tend to be located primarily in the right colon, especially in females, and are frequently associated with coexistent colon cancer. Unfortunately, however, there are few, if any, other identifiable risk factors, including age or family history of colon polyps or colon cancer. Moreover, this alternate serrated pathway may itself also be quite biologically heterogeneous as reflected in sessile serrated adenomas (SSA) with virtually exclusive molecular signatures defined by the presence of either BRAF or KRAS mutations. Screening algorithms in the future may need to be modified and individualized, depending on new information that likely will emerge on the natural history of these biologically heterogeneous lesions that differs from traditional adenomatous polyps.

  7. The utility of 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy in the localisation of parathyroid adenomas in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, N


    BACKGROUND: There are conflicting data in the literature about the sensitivity of sestamibi scintigraphy in parathyroid tumour localisation in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). AIM: We aimed to evaluate the overall sensitivity of this modality in parathyroid tumour localisation and to determine clinical and biochemical factors which influence sensitivity of this method. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 57 patients with a biochemical diagnosis of PHPT who had sestamibi scintigraphy performed. RESULTS: The sensitivity of sestamibi scanning was 56% in whole group and 63% in those without nodular thyroid disease. Among the patients with confirmed single gland disease (biochemical cure after surgical removal of a single adenoma), sensitivity was 71%. A positive scan was associated with younger age, greater adenoma weight and higher pre-operative serum calcium. Concordance between the sestamibi and neck ultrasonography was 92% accurate in pre-operative tumour localisation. CONCLUSION: Sestamibi scintigraphy was more likely to be positive in younger patients without nodular thyroid disease who have larger parathyroid adenomas with more severe hyperparathyroidism.

  8. Simple numerical chromosome aberrations in two pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, C U; Pandis, N; Bjerre, P


    Cytogenetic analysis of short-term cultures of one non-secreting and one prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma revealed simple clonal numerical abnormalities in both tumors. The karyotype of the non-secreting adenoma was 48,XX, +4, +9[42]/49,XX, +4, +9, +20[2]/46,XX[6]. In the prolactin-secreting...

  9. Resection of a large ectopic parathyroid adenoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seijiro Sato


    Discussion and conclusions: Parathyroid adenomas and parathyroid carcinomas have disparate natural histories, but they can be difficult to differentiate on the basis of preoperative clinical characteristics. We believe that long-term follow-up of these cases is required because there have been few reports on the postoperative natural history of large parathyroid adenomas.

  10. Expression of Neuropeptide Y in Human Pituitary Adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laizhao Chen; Jingjian Ma; Anchao Zheng; Honggang Zheng


    OBJECTIVE Neuropeptid e Y (NPY) acts as a neuroendocrine modulator in the anterior pituitary, and NPY mRNA and NPY-immunoreactivity have been detected in normal human anterior pituitaries. However, only a few studies of NPY expression in human pituitary adenomas have been published. Our study was conducted to determine whether or not adenomatous cells express NPY, to investigate the relationship between NPY expression and the subtypes of pituitary adenoma and to explore the clinical significance of NPY.METHODS The study included tissues from 58 patients with pituitary adenomas who underwent surgery because of their clinical diagnosis.Using a highly specific anti-NPY polyclonal antibody, immunohistochemical analysis was performed on the surgically removed pituitary adenomas. Six fresh specimens also were examined using immuno-electron microscopy. NPY was labeled with colloidal gold in order to study the distribution of NPY at the subcellular level.RESULTS The NPY expression level was significantly different among subgroups of pituitary adenomas (P<0.05). NPY was immuno-detected in 58.6% of all adenomas, in 91.7% of gonadotrophic adenomas and in 14.3% of prolactinomas. NPY expression was slightly lower in invasive pituitary adenomas compared to noninvasive adenomas, but the difference was not significant (t=1.81, P>0.05). Of particular interest was the finding that vascular endothelial cells showed positive NPY expression in some pituitary adenomas. Parts of strongly positive tumor cells were seen in channels formed without endothelial cells, but which contained some red blood cells in a formation similar to so-called vasculogenic mimicry. Immuno-electron microscopy demonstrated that 4 of the 6 fresh specimens displayed positive NPY staining with a high density of gold particles located mainly in the secretory granulas. In addition, gold particles were sparsely detected in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and cell matrix.CONCLUSION NPY exists in pituitary adenomas

  11. Perfusion characteristics of parotid gland tumors evaluated by contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, Laura V., E-mail: [Department of Surgery, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Gürkov, Robert [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Eichhorn, Martin E. [Department of Surgery, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Siedek, Vanessa; Krause, Eike [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Jauch, Karl-Walter [Department of Surgery, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F.; Clevert, Dirk-Andre [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich, Munich (Germany)


    Purpose: Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CE-US) is a promising imaging modality for non-invasive analysis of parotid gland lesions because their vascularisation differs from normal gland tissue. This clinical study should further investigate CE-US as a diagnostic tool for parotid gland tumors. Materials and methods: 39 patients underwent CE-US measurements after intravenous application of a contrast agent (SonoVue, Bracco, Italy) before surgical tumor resection. Time–intensity curves gradients were calculated and parameters of intratumoral microcirculation were analysed. The vascularisation parameters were compared among the different tumor entities as defined per definitive histological diagnosis. Results: Histological analyses revealed 17 pleomorphic adenoma, 15 cystadenolymphoma and 7 malignoma. A significant difference of area below intensity time curve (AUC) and mean transit time (MTT) was measured in the malignant lesions compared to benign tumors (p < 0.05). A significant difference of AUC and maximum of signal increase (ΔSI{sub max}) for pleomorphic adenoma versus cystadenolymphoma was found (p < 0.05). Conclusion: CE-US seems to be a quantitative and independent method for the assessment of malign and benign parotid gland tumors. Further studies and clinical experience will have to validate this method as a reliable diagnostic tool that facilitates preoperative planning.

  12. Pitfalls in the biopsy diagnosis of intraoral minor salivary gland neoplasms: diagnostic considerations and recommended approach. (United States)

    Turk, Andrew T; Wenig, Bruce M


    Among the more common types of intraoral minor salivary gland neoplasms are pleomorphic adenoma, basal cell adenoma, polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma. These minor salivary gland neoplasms share similar morphologic features and to a large extent immunohistochemical findings. Differentiation between these benign and malignant neoplasms is often predicated on the presence or absence of invasion. As such, in the presence of limited tissue sampling that typifies the initial testing modalities, including fine needle aspiration biopsy and/or incisional biopsy, it often is not possible to differentiate a benign from malignant minor salivary gland neoplasm. The diagnostic difficulties arise from the absence in needle or incisional biopsy of the tumor's periphery to determine whether infiltrative growth is or is not present. In this manuscript we discuss limitations and considerations associated with evaluation of incisional biopsies of intraoral minor salivary gland tumors. We offer a diagnostic approach to evaluating these biopsies, and suggest diagnostic terminology for biopsy specimens in which distinction between benignancy and malignancy is not feasible. The pathologist's approach to this distinction is critical, as treatment of benign neoplasms is generally conservative, whereas malignant lesions may warrant more aggressive management.

  13. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone


    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... and differences between mouse and human gland development with particular emphasis on the identity and localization of stem cells, and the influence of the surrounding microenvironment. It is concluded that while recent advances in the field have contributed immense insight into how the normal mammary gland...... develops and is maintained, significant discrepancies exist between the mouse and human gland which should be taken into consideration in current and future models of mammary stem cell biology....

  14. The cell with a thousand faces: detection of myoepithelial cells and their contributions in the cytological diagnosis of salivary gland tumors. (United States)

    Avci, Arzu; Günhan, Omer; Cakalağaoğlu, Fulya; Günal, Armagan; Celasun, Bülent


    Myoepithelial cells are an important component of salivary gland tumors and are partly responsible from the diverse histology of them. In this study, we focus on the myoepithelial cell differentiation by using cytological morphology in a various types of salivary gland tumors especially with regard to their contribution to the diagnosis. The relation of myoepithelial cells with stromal matrix and the associated epithelial cells were evaluated. Cytologic slides of one hundred and forty one benign and twenty malignant salivary gland tumors were examined for identification of morphologically different myoepithelial cells such as; spindle-stellate, polygonal-epitheloid, plasmacytoid, basal and clear types. The best examples of myoepithelial cells were detected in pleomorphic adenomas, in some monomorphic adenomas and in the adenoid cystic carcinoma cases. Most of the pleomorphic adenomas were composed more than one type of myoepithelial cells and epitheloid-spindle cell combination was frequent. Basal and clear cell types of myoepithelial cells closely resembled the epithelial cells and their identification was relatively difficult. Identification of myoepithelial cell types was easier when they were associated with stromal matrix material and stood as a secondary layer around tubule-forming epithelial cells. Myoepithelial cell components of various salivary gland tumors may be quite different and identification of myoepithelial cell types may pose difficulties. A confident cytologic identification of myoepithelial cells may be critical part of diagnosing salivary gland tumors.

  15. [Colorectal adenomas: postpolypectomy surveillance strategies and chemoprevention]. (United States)

    Castells, Antoni


    Colorectal adenomas are the most fully characterized premalignant lesions in the development of colorectal cancer. Consequently, the identification and resolution of these lesions, as well as the follow-up of affected patients, are a priority in the prevention of this neoplasm. The studies presented in the annual meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association 2008 show that the results of current surveillance strategies can be improved with a view to reducing the rate of interval neoplasia. Improvement of these results includes optimization of the endoscopic technique (colonic preparation, cecal intubation, withdrawal time, etc.) as well as the incorporation of new diagnostic methods and the possible administration of chemopreventive drugs.

  16. Ectopic pituitary adenoma presenting as midline nasopharyngeal mass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, R


    INTRODUCTION: Ectopic pituitary adenomas are extremely rare. We report a case of ectopic pituitary adenoma in the midline of the nasopharynx. This adenoma probably arose from the pharyngeal remnant of Rathke\\'s pouch. METHODS: We discuss a case of a lady who presented to our unit with 2 months history of dryness and sensation of lump in her throat and a long standing history of hypothyroidism. Examination of nasopharynx revealed a smooth and fluctuant midline mass. CT scan of nose and paranasal sinuses confirmed the midline mass with small defect communicating with the sphenoid sinus. An initial diagnosis of Thornwaldt\\'s cyst was made and she underwent upper aerodigestive tract endoscopy and marsupialization of the mass. Histopathological examination revealed ectopic pituitary adenoma. CONCLUSION: Ectopic pituitary adenoma is an important differential diagnosis for a midline nasopharyngeal mass. It is recommended that prior to surgical resection of midline nasopharyngeal mass biopsy is taken and MRI is performed.

  17. Pediatric salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Zachary T. [University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Goud, Asha R. [University of California Irvine Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Orange, CA (United States); Lowe, Lisa H. [Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Shao, Lei [Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Pathology, Kansas City, MO (United States)


    A variety of lesions occur in the pediatric salivary glands. With modern imaging techniques such as Doppler sonography, helical CT, and MRI, identification of a specific etiology is often possible. Knowledge of clinical information, normal anatomy, and imaging characteristics of salivary gland pathology are essential for appropriate radiologic evaluation. This review illustrates the various congenital, neoplastic, and inflammatory entities that can occur within the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual spaces. (orig.)

  18. Mammary gland development. (United States)

    Macias, Hector; Hinck, Lindsay


    The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development—pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation, and involution—occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone (GH) and estrogen, as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy, the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its prepregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease.

  19. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.


    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  20. Wearable Potentiometric Chloride Sweat Sensor: The Critical Role of the Salt Bridge. (United States)

    Choi, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Jin Seob; Cutting, Garry R; Searson, Peter C


    The components of sweat provide an array of potential biomarkers for health and disease. Sweat chloride is of interest as a biomarker for cystic fibrosis, electrolyte metabolism disorders, electrolyte balance, and electrolyte loss during exercise. Developing wearable sensors for biomarkers in sweat is a major technological challenge. Potentiometric sensors provide a relatively simple technology for on-body sweat chloride measurement, however, equilibration between reference and test solutions has limited the time over which accurate measurements can be made. Here, we report on a wearable potentiometric chloride sweat sensor. We performed parametric studies to show how the salt bridge geometry determines equilibration between the reference and test solutions. From these results, we show a sweat chloride sensor can be designed to provide accurate measurements over extended times. We then performed on-body tests on healthy subjects while exercising to establish the feasibility of using this technology as a wearable device.

  1. Adenoma incidence decreases under the effect of polypectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isadora Rosa; Carlos N Leit(a)o; Paulo Fidalgo; José Soares; Susana Vinga; Carla Oliveira; Jo(a)o P Silva; Susana M Ferro; Paula Chaves; António G Oliveira


    AIM:To investigate whether,under the influence of polypectomy,the incidence of adenoma decreases with age.METHODS:Consecutive patients with colonic adenomas identified at index colonoscopy were retrospectively selected if they had undergone three or more complete colonoscopies,at least 24 mo apart.Patients who had any first-degree relative with colorectal cancer were excluded.Data regarding number of adenomas at each colonoscopy,their location,size and histological classification were recorded.The monthly incidence density of adenomas after the index examination was estimated for the study population,by using the person-years method.Baseline adenomas were excluded from incidence calculations but their characteristics were correlated with recurrence at follow-up,using the x2 test.RESULTS:One hundred and fifty-six patients were included (109 male,mean age at index colonoscopy 56.8 ± 10.3 years),with follow-up that ranged from 48 to 232 mo.No significant correlations were observed between the number,the presence of villous component,or the size of adenomas at index colonoscopy and the presence of adenomas at subsequent colonoscopies (P =0.49,0.12 and 0.78,respectively).The incidence of colonic adenomas was observed to decay from 1.4%person-months at the beginning of the study to values close to 0%,at 12 years after index colonoscopy.CONCLUSION:Our results suggest the sporadic formation of adenomas occurs within a discrete period and that,when these adenomas are removed,all neoplasia-prone clones may be extinguished.

  2. Biological and Analytical Variation of the Human Sweating Response: Implications for Study Design and Analysis (United States)


    information This infomation is current as of January 24, 2012. ISSN: 0363-6119, ESSN: 1522-1490. Visit our...sweating rate; reproducibility; exercise-heat stress; sweating onset A FUNDAMENTAL CHALLENGE IN the study of human integrative physiology is in the...analysis software. Analytical variation. To determine the ventilated sweat capsule measurement system CVa, measurements of SR were made in an

  3. Biochemical imaging of normal, adenoma, and colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and morphological correlation by histopathological analysis: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida de Almeida Chaves Piva

    Full Text Available Introduction The colorectal cancer is a major health problem worldwide. Histology is considered the gold standard for differential diagnosis. However, it depends on the observer's experience, which can lead to discrepancies and poor results. Spectroscopic imaging by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR is a technique that may be able to improve the diagnosis, because it is based on biochemical differences of the structural constituents of tissue. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to explore the use of FTIR imaging technique in normal colon tissue, colorectal adenoma, and adenocarcinoma in order to correlate their morphological structures with their biochemical imaging. Methods Samples were collected from normal (n = 4, adenoma (n = 4, and adenocarcinoma human colorectal tissue (n = 4 from patients undergoing colonoscopy or surgical resection of colon lesions. The samples were sectioned with a cryostat in sequential sections; the first slice was placed on CaF2 slide and the second slice was placed on glass slide for histological analysis (HE staining. The cluster analyses were performed by the software Cytospec (1.4.02®. Results In normal samples, biochemical analysis classified six different structures, namely the lamina propria of mucous glands (epithelial cells and goblet cells, central lumen of the gland, mucin, and conjunctive tissue. In samples with adenoma and adenocarcinoma, altered regions could also be identified with high sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate the potential and viability of using infrared spectroscopy to identify and classify colorectal tissues.

  4. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma presenting with recurrent hyperthyroidism in post-treated Graves’ disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogawa Yoshikazu


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The coexistence of autoimmune hyperthyroid disease and thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma is rare. The simple presumption of coincidence of these two diseases has a calculated incidence of less than one/several hundred million, and only four cases with histological confirmation have been reported. A rapid decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone level after pituitary tumor removal may induce subsequent activation of autoimmune responses against the thyroid gland. We report the first case of a sequential and paradoxical occurrence of Graves’ disease and a thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma. Case presentation A 32-year-old Japanese woman had recurrent hyperthyroidism. She had a history of Graves’ hyperthyroidism, which had been successfully treated with propylthiouracil. A head magnetic resonance imaging showed a less enhanced area in the left lateral wing of her sella turcica. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed, and the diagnosis was established as thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting plurihormonal adenoma. A rapid reduction in thyroid hormone levels was achieved, and her blood pressure was normalized after the operation. Conclusion Although incidental occurrence is the most probable etiology, long and repeated followup examinations of both thyroid and pituitary gland should be performed in patients with an atypical clinical course.

  5. Clonal karyotypic abnormalities in colorectal adenomas: clues to the early genetic events in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomme, L; Bardi, G; Pandis, N


    Cytogenetic analysis of short-term cultures from colorectal adenomas revealed acquired clonal chromosome aberrations in 14 of 17 tumors. In 4 adenomas, only numerical changes were found, whereas 10 had structural rearrangements. Trisomy 7 was found as the sole change in one of the tumors and toge......Cytogenetic analysis of short-term cultures from colorectal adenomas revealed acquired clonal chromosome aberrations in 14 of 17 tumors. In 4 adenomas, only numerical changes were found, whereas 10 had structural rearrangements. Trisomy 7 was found as the sole change in one of the tumors...... and together with other numerical changes in another. A +7 was also present in one case with structural aberrations. Other recurrent numerical aberrations were -14 and -18, both found in 2 adenomas with structural karyotypic changes; in addition, one chromosome 14 was lost in one of the tumors with only...

  6. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary gland: Diagnostic challenge to cytopathologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Sehgal


    Full Text Available Myoepithelial carcinoma (MC is rare malignant salivary gland neoplasm and its cytologic features have been rarely described in the literature. Furthermore, MC shows varied cell types and patterns leading to the wide range of differential diagnosis on cytology. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC are necessary to make a definite diagnosis. A 37-year-old female presented with painless, progressive swelling in the infra-auricular region since 2 years. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was performed and cytological possibilities of cellular pleomorphic adenoma and myoepithelial cell neoplasm were rendered and patient was advised excision and histopathologic examination for final diagnosis and subtyping. Final diagnosis of MC was made on hematoxylin and eosin sections and IHC. MC is rare malignant salivary gland tumor showing a clinic-pathologic diversity. The cytological features of MC are diverse and may lack overt feature of malignancy. Pathologists should be aware of this entity while evaluating cytological smears of salivary gland mass.

  7. Pleomorphic adenoma: Choice of radiographic imaging modality - Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging? Illustration through a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalu Rai


    Full Text Available Introduction: Pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the most common benign neoplasm of the major salivary glands arising primarily from the parotid gland. Computed tomography (CT is one of the primary imaging modalities used to assess the tumors of salivary glands. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI may provide additional information over CT. Case Report: We report the case of a 60-year-old male with a slowly enlarging, well-defined, round, painless, non-fixated, rubber-like swelling over the left ramus region below the ear, measuring about 4 × 4.5 cm, covering the lower border of the mandible near the angle. A provisional diagnosis of PA was given and CT and MRI were used to study the lesion. Discussion: Through this case, which was suspected to have undergone malignant transformation because of indistinct margins and focal hypodense areas on CT but was later confirmed to be a benign salivary gland tumor on MRI, we illustrate the role of CT and MRI as diagnostic aids in PA and emphasize on what should be the choice of imaging modality for parotid tumors.

  8. 国内近30年报道的198例异位甲状腺病例的文献分析%Analyzing for 198 cases of ectopic thyroid glands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏; 孙莹; 贾静; 杨松青


    Summary Through analyzing the data of ectopic thyroid glands, to know this kind of congenital lesion deeply. In all the cases, parathyroid gland types were more than aberrant thyroid types; the majority cases were single ectopic thyroid; most of ectopic thyroid were present in the neck and mouth; local mass was the most common symptom; adenoma was often associated with ectopic thyroid and there was a high proportion of combined malignant; most cases could not be correctly diagnosed.

  9. Reg Ⅳ, a differentially expressed gene in colorectal adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇伟; 来茂德; 谷雪梅; 罗敏捷; 邵丽娜


    ObjectiveTo discover and identify differentially expressed genes associated with colorectal adenoma formation and the role of RegⅣ in colorectal adenoma differentiation.MethodsA subtracted cDNA library was constructed with cDNAs that were isolated from either the normal mucosa or adenoma tissue of a single patient. Suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) combined with virtual northern blotting was used to characterize differentially expressed genes and contigs were assembled by electronic cloning (in silico cloning) with the EST database. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was performed in 9 colorectal adenomas.ResultsThe amino acid sequence was determined with open reading frame (ORF) prediction software and was found to be 100% homologous to the protein product of RegⅣ (a novel gene isolated from a large inflammatory bowel disease library). RegⅣ was found to be highly expressed in all of the adenoma samples (9/9) compared with the normal mucosa samples, while 5/6 cases showed RegⅣ to be more strongly expressed in adenocarcinoma.Conclusion RegⅣ may play an important role in the initiation of colorectal adenoma differentiation, and its detection may be useful in the early diagnosis of colorectal adenoma formation.

  10. Evaluation of p27 Expression in Salivary Gland Neoplasms; A Step Forward in Unveiling the Role of p27 (United States)

    Malgaonkar, Nikhil I.; Abuderman, Abdulwahab; Kharma, MY; Al-Maweri, SA; Alaizari, NA; Altamimi, MA.; Darwish, S.


    Introduction Salivary gland neoplasms are not uncommon lesions that are seen in the head and neck region. The role of cell cycle regulators as well as that of oncogenes remains unexplored in the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. Aim Present study was conducted to evaluate the expression of p27 in the three common salivary gland neoplasms. Materials and Methods A total of 34 cases (19 pleomorphic adenoma, 8 mucoepidermoid carcinoma and 7 adenoid cystic carcinoma) were included. The sections were subjected to p27 staining and rated for the expression. Results Of the total 52.6% of pleomorphic adenoma cases, 25% of mucoepidermoid carcinoma cases and only 14.2% of adenoid cystic carcinoma cases showed strong expression suggesting variable p27 expression in both malignant neoplasms. Normal salivary gland tissue was stained as a positive control for the evaluation. Conclusion The results of the study suggest an important role for p27 in pathogenesis of mucoepidermoid carcinoma as well as adenoid cystic carcinoma while its role in pathogenesis of pleomorphic adenoma remains questionable keeping in view the strong expression of p27 in the same. PMID:27630940

  11. Follicle stimulating hormone secreting pituitary adenoma: a challenging diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Alap Mehendale


    Full Text Available FSH secreting pituitary adenomas are relatively uncommon brain tumours and usually non-functioning. But in rare cases they produce ovarian hyperstimulation. We report a case of a 32 year old female P2L2, with amenorrhoea of 1 year, pain in abdomen and galactorrhoea since 6 months. Initially thought to be a simple prolactinoma with multicystic ovaries, but after thorough investigations to our surprise diagnosed to be a rare case of gonadotropin secreting pituitary adenoma. Patient was successfully managed by excision of the pituitary adenoma. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 493-496

  12. Malignant salivary gland tumours

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    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)


    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  13. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.;


    Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases...... of these tumors are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Association with EBV may also be observed in sporadic cases, and detection of EBV gene products may aid their diagnosis. Immunohistology may be employed to resolve the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, comprising...... malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising...

  14. Ectopic parathyroid glands and their anatomical, clinical and surgical implications. (United States)

    Noussios, G; Anagnostis, P; Natsis, K


    Ectopic parathyroid glands result from aberrant migration during early stages of development and lack of successful identification may lead to lack of success in parathyroid surgery. They constitute a common etiology of persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism, when they are missed at initial diagnosis. Their prevalence is about 2-43% in anatomical series and up to 16% and 14% in patients with primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism, respectively. Ectopic inferior parathyroids are most frequently found in the anterior mediastinum, in association with the thymus or the thyroid gland, while the most common position for ectopic superior parathyroids is the tracheoesophageal groove and retroesophageal region. Neck ultrasound and 99mTc Sestamibi scan are first-line imaging modalities, although with low sensitivity and specificity. However, their combination with modern techniques, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) alone or in combination with CT (SPECT/CT) increases their diagnostic accuracy. Fine needle-aspiration cytology of a lesion suspicious for parathyroid tissue and measurement of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the aspired material further assist to the successful preoperative localization of ectopic glands. Common sites for surgical investigation are the upper thyroid pole and the upper vascular thyroid stalk behind the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus for the superior parathyroids, and the carotid artery bifurcation and the thymic tongue, for the inferior parathyroids. Radioguided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy after successful localization, assisted by rapid PTH measurement postoperatively, significantly improves surgical outcomes in patients with ectopic parathyroid adenomas.

  15. FGF-2 is overexpressed in myoepithelial cells of carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma in situ structures. (United States)

    Martinez, Elizabeth F; Demasi, Ana P D; Miguita, Lucyene; Altemani, Albina; Araújo, Ney S; Araújo, Vera C


    Increasing emphasis has been placed on the role of myoepithelial cells, the contractile components of secretory glands, in the in situ to invasive carcinoma transition. These cells are placed at the interface between luminal epithelial cells and the stromal compartment, which favors their cross-talk with all other cell types comprising the tumor micro-environment. To obtain some clues about this cross-talk and also to better understand our previous immunoprofile study of myoepithelial cells in salivary gland carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA), we investigated FGF-2 expression in CXPA in situ structures as well as in cells cultured under conditions attempting to simulate the cellular interactions of this tumor stage. We have observed by immunohistochemistry that myoepithelial cells of CXPA in situ structures overexpress FGF-2. In addition, our results supported by qPCR and Western blotting, demonstrated that the expression of FGF-2 in the benign myoepithelial cells was in fact increased by stimulation with the conditioned medium from malignant cells. Low molecular weight FGF-2, known to be primarily released from the cells to exert its biological activity through receptors, was the predominant FGF-2 form detected in the benign myoepithelial cells. Specific FGF-2 receptors were found in the malignant epithelial but not in the benign myo-epithelial cells of CXPA, indicating a paracrine role for benign myoepithelial cell-derived FGF-2. Abnormal paracrine myo-epithelial/epithelial cell interactions and also myoepithelial/ stromal cell interactions could favor tumor growth, invasion and metastasis.

  16. Salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Andersen, L J; Christensen, M;


    The prognosis of salivary gland carcinomas is difficult to assess. Simple mucin-type carbohydrates (T and sialosyl-T antigens, Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigens) have been shown to be of value in predicting prognosis for carcinomas in other locations. We studied the prognostic significance...... of the expression of these structures in a retrospective study of 133 patients with salivary gland carcinomas, using immunohistochemistry and a panel of well-defined monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Sialosyl-Tn, T and sialosyl-T antigens were not correlated with prognosis...

  17. Clinical analysis of breast tubular adenoma and breast adenoid cystic carcinoma%乳腺管状腺瘤及腺样囊性癌临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云; 陈登庭


    Objective To investigate the incidence of the breast tubular glands lymphoma and the breast adenoid cystic carcinoma,and the correlation of breast tubular glands lymphoma with breast cancer.Methods A retrospective analysis was undertaken to analyze ten thousand pathologic medical records of inpatients and outpatients,and 86 breast tumors constituted by glandular epithelium cells and muscle epithelial cells were collected,which we reviewed again and compared with each other.Results Eighty-six breast tumors constituted by glandular epithelium cells and muscle epithelial cells include 79 breast tubular adenomas and 7 breast adenoid cystic carcinomas.Conclusions Morbidity of breast tubular adenoma which is used as a independent diagnosis trend to rise,and the breast tubular adenoma is proved to have malignant tendancy.The breast tubular adenoma probably is a precancerous lesion of the breast adenoid cystic carcinoma.%目的 探讨乳腺管状腺瘤(BTA)与乳腺腺样囊性癌(BACC)的发病情况,研究乳腺管状腺瘤与乳腺癌的关系.方法 回顾性分析10 000例住院患者及门诊患者病理资料,收集到86例腺上皮细胞和肌上皮细胞构成的乳腺肿瘤,并对该86例病理结果重新再审核、对比.结果 86例中乳腺管状腺瘤79例,乳腺腺样囊性癌7例.结论 乳腺管状腺瘤发病率呈上升趋势,已作为一种独立诊断,并有恶变倾向;乳腺管状腺瘤可能为腺样囊性癌的癌前病变.

  18. Corrosion behavior of nickel-containing alloys in artificial sweat. (United States)

    Randin, J P


    The corrosion resistance of various nickel-containing alloys was measured in artificial sweat (perspiration) using the Tafel extrapolation method. It was found that Ni, CuNi 25 (coin alloy), NiAl (colored intermetallic compounds), WC + Ni (hard metal), white gold (jewelry alloy), FN42 and Nilo Alby K (controlled expansion alloys), and NiP (electroless nickel coating) are in an active state and dissolve readily in oxygenated artificial sweat. By contrast, austenitic stainless steels, TiC + Mo2C + Ni (hard metal), NiTi (shape-memory alloy), Hastelloy X (superalloy), Phydur (precipitation hardening alloy), PdNi and SnNi (nickel-containing coatings) are in a passive state but may pit under certain conditions. Cobalt, Cr, Ti, and some of their alloys were also investigated for the purpose of comparison. Cobalt and its alloys have poor corrosion resistance except for Stellite 20. Chromium and high-chromium ferritic stainless steels have a high pitting potential but the latter are susceptible to crevice corrosion. Ti has a pitting potential greater than 3 V. Comparison between the in vitro measurements of the corrosion rate of nickel-based alloys and the clinical observation of the occurrence of contact dermatitis is discussed.

  19. Hiperparatiroidismo primario por adenoma paratiroideo mediastinal

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    Jeffry Solís-Torres


    Full Text Available El hiperparatiroidismo primario cursa con un aumento de la secreción de hormona paratiroidea, generalmente debido a un adenoma, e hipercalcemia. Su presentación clásica se diagnostica con la determinación de calcio sérico y de hormona paratiroidea, asociada con estudios de imágenes. Su tratamiento es quirúrgico y tiene altas tasas de éxito. Se analiza el caso de una paciente hipertensa, de 63 años, con historia de pérdida de apetito y debilidad de un año y medio de evolución, por lo que se le realizaron exámenes de laboratorio que revelaron hipercalcemia y elevación de la hormona paratiroidea. Se le indicó entonces una gamagrafía con Tecnecio 99, que evidenció un nódulo de 18mm de diámetro, ubicado 2 centímetros caudal al lóbulo tiroideo derecho. Se le efectuó una exploración cervical sin encontrarse la lesión, por lo que requirió una esternotomía media superior, que permitió encontrar un adenoma en el mediastino superior, detrás de la vena braquiocefálica derecha, de manera que se procedió a su extracción. Los controles de calcio y de hormona paratiroidea a las 24 horas estaban entre los límites normales, y se egresó.

  20. HEPACAM1 and 2 are differentially regulated in canine mammary adenomas and carcinomas and its lymph node metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunnberg Leo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell adhesion is an important regulator of cell growth and motility. Recently the hepatocyte cell adhesion molecules 1 and 2 (HEPACAM1 and 2, members of the immunoglobulin family of adhesion genes, have been identified. HEPACAM1 is involved in negative cell cycle regulation via p53, p21 and p27 signalling but also mediates increased human breast cancer cell spread. The role and expression pattern of HEPACAM2 has not been analyzed so far. In the present study we quantified gene expression levels of HEPACAM1 and 2 to evaluate their possible role during the carcinogenesis of canine mammary tumours. Results Adenomas displayed increased HEPACAM1 and 2 mRNA expression levels and decreased HEPACAM1 protein expression levels when compared to normal gland, carcinomas and lymph node metastases. In contrast, metastatic carcinomas, intravascular tumour cells and lymph node metastases had HEPACAM 1 protein and mRNA expression levels similar to normal gland but decreased HEPACAM2 mRNA expression when compared to normal gland of the same dog. Conclusions HEPACAM1 and 2 seem to be important for cell-cell adhesion of normal and neoplastic canine mammary cells. The loss of HEPACAM1 protein expression in adenomas but not in carcinomas questions its role as a tumour suppressor at late stages of malignant transformation and indicates that it might rather be involved in physiologic mammary cell adhesion and canine mammary tumour metastasis. Furthermore, it can be speculated, whether HEPACAM2 plays a different role in malignancy and metastasis of canine mammary tumours since its transcriptional levels are different in carcinomas and their lymph node metastases when compared to HEPACAM1.

  1. Coffee intake and the risk of colorectal adenoma: The colorectal adenoma study in Tokyo. (United States)

    Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro


    Coffee is a commonly consumed beverage which contains several potential anticarcinogenic and chemopreventive compounds, and has been hypothesized to have protective effects in colorectal neoplasia. However, the limited available data on coffee consumption in relation to colorectal adenoma (CRA), a precursor lesion to most colorectal cancers, remain largely inconsistent. In this study, we evaluated the association of coffee intake with the risk of CRA in a middle-aged Japanese population. Study subjects were selected from examinees who underwent total colonoscopy as part of a cancer screening program and responded to self-administered dietary and lifestyle questionnaires. A total of 738 patients with adenoma and 697 controls were included in the study. Coffee intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire, and divided into quartiles based on the distribution among controls. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of CRA, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. High coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of CRA, with a multivariate-adjusted OR for the highest versus lowest quartile of coffee intake of 0.67 (95% CI = 0.48-0.93; ptrend  = 0.02). The inverse association of coffee intake was limited to proximal (OR = 0.64; 95%CI = 0.44-0.95; ptrend  = 0.04) and distal colon adenoma (OR = 0.62; 95%CI = 0.39-0.99; ptrend  = 0.06), and appeared to be more evident with small (OR = 0.68; 95%CI = 0.49-0.96; ptrend  = 0.04) and single adenomas (OR = 0.65; 95%CI = 0.44-0.95; ptrend  = 0.02). Green tea intake was not found to be associated with CRA risk. This study provides support for the protective effect of coffee drinking on colon adenomas, a precursor of colon cancer.

  2. Rare presentation of Brunner's gland adenoma:another differentiation in patients with recurrent"idiopathic" pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soumil Vyas; James RA Skipworth; Dimitrios Lytras; Claire Smyth; Anthony Mee; Adrian Hatfield; Charles Imber; George Webster


    BACKGROUND: Brunner's  gland  adenoma  (BGA)  is  an unusual benign neoplasm arising from Brunner's glands in the duodenum. When symptomatic it presents either with duodenal obstruction  or  bleeding.  However,  pancreatitis  secondary  to ampullary obstruction from a BGA is very rare. METHODS: A  23-year-old  female  presented  with  recurrent episodes  of  "idiopathic"  pancreatitis.  She  was  extensively investigated  and  was  found  to  have  a  large  polypoid  BGA, intermittently obstructing the ampulla. This created a ball-valve  effect  causing  secondary  intermittent  obstruction  of the pancreatic duct resulting in pancreatitis. The condition was cured surgically, through transduodenal excision of the BGA. We reviewed the surgical literature pertaining to these unusual  and  similar  causes  of  obstructive  pancreatitis,  not related to gallstones. RESULTS: BGA of the duodenum is a rare cause of pancreatitis. Extensive  investigations  should  be  carried  out  in  all  cases  of unexplained  pancreatitis  before  classifying  the  condition as  "idiopathic".  Discovery  of  a  lesion  of  this  nature  gives  an opportunity to provide a permanent surgical cure. CONCLUSIONS: BGA adds an unusual etiology for pancreatitis. All  patients  with  pancreatitis  should  undergo  extensive investigations  before  being  termed  "idiopathic".  Surgical excision of the BGA provides a definitive curative treatment for the adenoma and pancreatitis.

  3. Brunner腺瘤研究现状%Research Status on Brunner Gland Adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  4. Coexistent adenocarcinoma and microcystic adenoma of the pancreas. (United States)

    Posniak, H V; Olson, M C; Demos, T C


    A case with coexistent pancreatic adenocarcinoma and microcystic adenoma is presented. These diagnoses were suspected on the basis of their computed tomography (CT) appearances and confirmed with CT-guided fine-needle aspiration.

  5. Spongiocytic adrenocortical adenomas - risk of misinterpretation as cysts in CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, C.H.; Kissler, W.; Bach, D.


    A report on two cases where solid benign tumours of the adrenals (spongiocytic adrenocortical adenomas) were misinterpreted as adrenal cysts due to water-equivalent density values. The CT scans are compared with the microscopic cuts.

  6. Metanephric adenoma: Management in a 7-year-old child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Caldwell


    Full Text Available We report the case of a 7-year-old girl in whom a left renal mass was incidentally discovered on computerized tomography (CT scan during evaluation for acute perforated appendicitis. The presence of polycythemia and the radiographic characteristics of the mass suggested a metanephric adenoma but a Wilm's tumor could not be excluded with preoperative studies. Gross inspection and intra-operative ultrasound of the tumor supported the suspicion of a metanephric adenoma and a partial nephrectomy was performed. Frozen section and permanent pathologic analysis confirmed a benign metanephric adenoma. At current date, patient is recovering well and polycythemia has resolved. A review of the management of metanephric adenoma in the child is presented.

  7. Molecular screening of pituitary adenomas for gene mutations and rearrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, V.; Drazin, N.Z.; Gonskey, R.; Melmed, S. (Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States))


    Although pituitary tumors arise as benign monoclonal neoplasms, genetic alterations have not readily been identified in these adenomas. The authors studied restriction fragment abnormalities involving the GH gene locus, and mutations in the p53 and H-, K-, and N-ras genes in 22 human GH cell adenomas. Twenty two nonsecretory adenomas were also examined for p53 and ras gene mutations. Seven prolactinoma DNA samples were tested for deletions in the multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 (MEN-1) locus, as well as for rearrangements in the hst gene, a member of the fibroblast growth factor family. In DNA from GH-cell adenomas, identical GH restriction patterns were detected in both pituitary and lymphocyte DNA in all patients and in one patient with a mixed GH-TSH cell adenoma. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single stranded conformation polymorphism analysis, no mutations were detected in exons 5, 6, 7 and 8 of the p53 gene in GH cell adenomas nor in 22 nonsecretory adenomas. Codons 12/13 and 61 of H-ras, K-ras, and N-ras genes were also intact on GH cell adenomas and in nonsecretory adenomas. Site-specific probes for chromosome 11q13 including, PYGM, D11S146, and INT2 were used in 7 sporadic PRL-secreting adenomas to detect deletions of the MEN-1 locus on chromosome 11. One patient was identified with a loss of 11p, and the remaining 6 patients did not demonstrate loss of heterozygosity in the pituitary 11q13 locus, compared to lymphocyte DNA. None of these patients demonstrated hst gene rearrangements which also maps to this locus. These results show that p53 and ras gene mutations are not common events in the pathogenesis of acromegaly and nonsecretory tumors. Although hst gene rearrangements and deletions of 11q13 are not associated with sporadic PRl-cell adenoma formation, a single patient was detected with a partial loss of chromosome 11, including the putative MEN-1 site. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Human Lacrimal Gland Gene Expression (United States)

    Aakalu, Vinay Kumar; Parameswaran, Sowmya; Maienschein-Cline, Mark; Bahroos, Neil; Shah, Dhara; Ali, Marwan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian


    Background The study of human lacrimal gland biology and development is limited. Lacrimal gland tissue is damaged or poorly functional in a number of disease states including dry eye disease. Development of cell based therapies for lacrimal gland diseases requires a better understanding of the gene expression and signaling pathways in lacrimal gland. Differential gene expression analysis between lacrimal gland and other embryologically similar tissues may be helpful in furthering our understanding of lacrimal gland development. Methods We performed global gene expression analysis of human lacrimal gland tissue using Affymetrix ® gene expression arrays. Primary data from our laboratory was compared with datasets available in the NLM GEO database for other surface ectodermal tissues including salivary gland, skin, conjunctiva and corneal epithelium. Results The analysis revealed statistically significant difference in the gene expression of lacrimal gland tissue compared to other ectodermal tissues. The lacrimal gland specific, cell surface secretory protein encoding genes and critical signaling pathways which distinguish lacrimal gland from other ectodermal tissues are described. Conclusions Differential gene expression in human lacrimal gland compared with other ectodermal tissue types revealed interesting patterns which may serve as the basis for future studies in directed differentiation among other areas. PMID:28081151

  9. Anatomy of the thymus gland. (United States)

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf


    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important.

  10. Association between measures of obesity and colorectal adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM You Joung; LEE Kang-moon; CHUNG Woo Chul; PAIK Chang Nyol; JUNG Sung Hoon


    Background Few studies have used body mass index (BMI),waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC) at the same time to investigate the association between obesity and colorectal adenoma.This study examined the strength of association between colorectal adenoma and obesity using not only BMI,but also WHR and WC.Methods Subjects of this study included 1322 asymptomatic patients who underwent colonoscopy for cancer screening from January 2006 to June 2008.Anthropometric measurements,blood test results,and a self-administered questionnaire from each subject were analyzed.Results Four hundred and fourteen adenoma cases were identified in 1322 subjects.Using univariate analysis,the prevalence of adenoma was associated with BMI and WHR and was higher among the abdominal obesity group using WC guidelines of the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity,but not using WC guidelines of the International Diabetes Federation.In multiple Logistic regression analysis,general obesity (BMI >25 kg/m2) increased the risk of colorectal adenoma (odds ratio (OR),1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI),1.05-1.94).Also,abdominal obesity by the WC cutoffs and the highest WHR percentile group (WHR >0.95) were significantly associated with adenoma.Among three measures of obesity,however,only BMI had a persistent association with adenoma after adjusting reciprocally for BMI,WC,and WHR (OR,1.30; 95% CI,1.02-1.80; and 1.49; 1.06-2.10,adjusted for WC and WHR,respectively).Conclusion The data suggest that general obesity is associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma.

  11. Minimally invasive treatment of hepatic adenoma in special cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasser, Felipe; Affonso, Breno Boueri; Galastri, Francisco Leonardo [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Odisio, Bruno Calazans [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (United States); Garcia, Rodrigo Gobbo [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Hepatocellular adenoma is a rare benign tumor that was increasingly diagnosed in the 1980s and 1990s. This increase has been attributed to the widespread use of oral hormonal contraceptives and the broader availability and advances of radiological tests. We report two cases of patients with large hepatic adenomas who were subjected to minimally invasive treatment using arterial embolization. One case underwent elective embolization due to the presence of multiple adenomas and recent bleeding in one of the nodules. The second case was a victim of blunt abdominal trauma with rupture of a hepatic adenoma and clinical signs of hemodynamic shock secondary to intra-abdominal hemorrhage, which required urgent treatment. The development of minimally invasive locoregional treatments, such as arterial embolization, introduced novel approaches for the treatment of individuals with hepatic adenoma. The mortality rate of emergency resection of ruptured hepatic adenomas varies from 5 to 10%, but this rate decreases to 1% when resection is elective. Arterial embolization of hepatic adenomas in the presence of bleeding is a subject of debate. This observation suggests a role for transarterial embolization in the treatment of ruptured and non-ruptured adenomas, which might reduce the indication for surgery in selected cases and decrease morbidity and mortality. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a reduction of the embolized lesions and significant avascular component 30 days after treatment in the two cases in this report. No novel lesions were observed, and a reduction in the embolized lesions was demonstrated upon radiological assessment at a 12-month follow-up examination.

  12. [Aspects of the operative treatment of prostatic adenoma]. (United States)

    Gogichaev, Z Kh; zolotarev, I I


    The authors have gained minimum blood losses when suturing with provisional catgut ligature through the urinary bladder bottom between interureteral fold and internal urethral orifice yet before dessection of adenoma surgical capsule and tumor enucleation. Depending on the functional state of the upper urinary tract, the bladder tonus and adenoma size, the method of postoperative drainage of the urinary bladder is selected: cystostomy, microirrigation, active suction, etc.

  13. Canine mammary gland tumors. (United States)

    Sorenmo, Karin


    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women.

  14. Submandibular gland excision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Line Kanstrup; Møller, Martin Nue


    cosmetic result and all scars were ≤6 on the Vancouver Scar Scale. Problems with scarring were more common if there had been postoperative infection. We continue to use the lateral transcervical approach as standard in our institution for patients who cannot be managed by gland-sparing procedures....

  15. Assessment of Correlation between Sweat Chloride Levels and Clinical Features of Cystic Fibrosis Patients (United States)

    Raina, Manzoor A.; Khan, Mosin S.; Malik, Showkat A.; Raina, AB Hameed; Makhdoomi, Mudassir J.; Bhat, Javed I.


    Introduction Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder and the incidence of this disease is undermined in Northern India. The distinguishable salty character of the sweat belonging to individuals suffering from CF makes sweat chloride estimation essential for diagnosis of CF disease. Aim The aim of this prospective study was to elucidate the relationship of sweat chloride levels with clinical features and pattern of CF. Materials and Methods A total of 182 patients, with clinical features of CF were included in this study for quantitative measurement of sweat chloride. Sweat stimulation and collection involved pilocarpine iontophoresis based on the Gibson and Cooks methodology. The quantitative estimation of chloride was done by Schales and Schales method with some modifications. Cystic Fibrosis Trans Membrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) mutation status was recorded in case of patients with borderline sweat chloride levels to correlate the results and for follow-up. Results Out of 182 patients having clinical features consistent with CF, borderline and elevated sweat chloride levels were present in 9 (5%) and 41 (22.5%) subjects respectively. Elevated sweat chloride levels were significantly associated with wheeze, Failure To Thrive (FTT), history of CF in Siblings, product of Consanguineous Marriage (CM), digital clubbing and steatorrhoea on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis only wheeze, FTT and steatorrhoea were found to be significantly associated with elevated sweat chloride levels (pCFTR mutations and rest of the three cases were not having any mutation in CFTR gene. Conclusion The diagnosis is often delayed and the disease is advanced in most patients at the time of diagnosis. Sweat testing is a gold standard for diagnosis of CF patients as genetic mutation profile being heterozygous and unlikely to become diagnostic test. PMID:28208841

  16. Sweat-inducing physiological challenges do not result in acute changes in hair cortisol concentrations. (United States)

    Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Miller, Robert; Gao, Wei; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias


    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are assumed to provide a stable, integrative marker of long-term systemic cortisol secretion. However, contrary to this assumption, some recent observations have raised the possibility that HCC may be subject to acute influences, potentially related to cortisol incorporation from sweat. Here, we provide a first detailed in vivo investigation of this possibility comprising two independent experimental studies: study I (N=42) used a treadmill challenge to induce sweating together with systemic cortisol reactivity while in study II (N=52) a sauna bathing challenge induced sweating without systemic cortisol changes. In both studies, repeated assessments of HCC, salivary cortisol, cortisol in sweat and individuals' sweating rate (single assessment) were conducted on the experimental day and at a next-day follow-up. Results across the two studies consistently revealed that HCC were not altered by the acute interventions. Further, HCC were found to be unrelated to acute salivary cortisol reactivity, sweat cortisol levels, sweating rate or the time of examination. In line with previous data, cortisol levels in sweat were strongly related to total salivary cortisol output across the examined periods. The present results oppose recent case report data by showing that single sweat-inducing interventions do not result in acute changes in HCC. Our data also tentatively speak against the notion that cortisol in sweat may be a dominant source of HCC. Further, our findings also indicate that HCC are not subject to diurnal variation. This research provides further support for hair cortisol analysis as a marker of integrated long-term systemic cortisol secretion.

  17. Efficacy of C-11 L-methionine positron emission tomography and intraoperative methylene blue staining for localization of parathyroid glands in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiromasa; Takahashi, Masato; Taguchi, Kazunori; Takada, Naoyuki; Nakada, Kunihiro; Sasaki, Fumiaki; Todo, Satoru [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine


    For localization of parathyroid glands in primary hyperparathyroidism we carried out C-11 L-methionine positron emission tomography (Met-PET) in 10 patients (one with hyperplasia and 9 with adenoma) and intraoperative methylene blue staining in 20 patients (one with hyperplasia and 19 with adenoma) and compared the predictive value with that of US and {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy (MIBI). Methylene blue was administrated at a calculated dose of 5 mg/kg body weight intravenously for 1 h before surgery. The accuracy of identification of pathological parathyroid glands with Met-PET, US and MIBI was 90%, 80% and 70% respectively. Met-PET was more sensitive than US and MIBI and could identify smaller parathyroid glands, particularly in cases with lower serum calcium levels. Met-PET imaging was not affected even in 2 reoperative cases. Intraoperative methylene blue staining of parathyroid glands was successful in 19 patients without major side effects. Met-PET was the most effective method for preoperative imaging of parathyroid glands. Intraoperative methylene blue staining was a safe and effective method and able to facilitate dissection of pathological glands during surgery. (author)

  18. The incidentaloma of the pituitary gland: Is neurosurgery required

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reincke, M.; Allolio, B.; Saeger, W.; Menzel, J.; Winkelmann, W. (Univ. of Cologne (West Germany))


    The authors describe a series of 18 patients with an intrasellar mass incidentally discovered by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The average size of the mass was 13 mm, with a range from 5 to 25 mm. Initial ophthalmologic examination revealed bitemporal hemianopia in 2 patients. Results of routine endocrine testing showed partial hypopituitarism in 5 patients and growth hormone hypersecretion without signs and symptoms of acromegaly in 1 patient. Four patients underwent neurosurgery. Histologically, one chondroid chordoma and three pituitary adenomas were found. In the remaining 14 patients treated conservatively, repeated computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed no significant change in tumor size at the time of follow-up. The results suggest that the incidentaloma of the pituitary gland is a benign condition that does not necessarily require neurosurgical intervention.

  19. Mena, a new available marker in tumors of salivary glands?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gurzu


    Full Text Available Mena (mammalian Ena is an actin regulatory protein involved in cell motility and adhesion. Based on its potential role in malignant transformation revealed in other organs, we analyzed the Mena expression in normal salivary glands (SG and salivary tumors. Mena expression was determined in normal SG (n=10 and also benign (n=20 and malignant (n=35 lesions of SG. For the immunohistochemical staining we used the anti-Mena antibody. All normal SG and the benign lesions (10 pleomorphic adenomas, 10 Warthin’s tumors were Mena negative. Salivary duct carcinomas (n=5, carcinomas in pleomorphic adenoma (n=5, acinic cell carcinomas (n=5, squamous cell carcinomas (n=10 and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=2 were positive. The lymphomas (n=5 and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=1 were Mena negative. In one case the lymphoblastic cells stained positive for Mena. Some of the endothelial cells, in the peritumoral vessels, were Mena positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature about Mena expression in salivary tumors. Our study suggests that Mena protein seems to play a role in malignant transformation and its intensity is correlated with the type and grade of tumor and also with vascular invasion. Its positivity in endothelial cells may suggest its potential role in tumor angiogenesis.

  20. Does the polystomatic gland exist? (United States)

    Imai, M; Shibata, T; Moriguchi, K; Kinbara, M


    According to the P.N.A., the N.A.J. and some scholars, the sublingual gland has the ductus sublingualis major and ductus sublinguales minores. This means that the gland is a polystomatic gland. We intended to determine whether the so-called polystomatic gland exists or not. 1. According to the P.N.A., the N.A.J. and some scholars, the gl. sublingualis has the ductus sublingualis major and ductus sublinguales minores. This means the gland is a polystomatic gland. However, the formation of one gland with plural excretory ducts is embryologically impossible, in other words, the polystomatic gland does not exist. 2. Many scholars described that the gl. sublingualis was composed of the gl. sublingualis major and g11. sublinguales minores. However, they are completely different kinds of glands. Accordingly, we suggest the terms for these glands: the g1. sublingualis and its ductus sublingualis ("major" is useless), the g11. sublinguales minores and their ductus sublinguales minores. 3. The N.A.V.J. and some scholars use the term g1. sublingualis polystomatica or parvicanalaris. However, this is a group of a number of independent glands each of which has its own excretory duct. Such a gland should not be regarded as a single gland. We suggest that the term g11. sublinguales minores and their excretory ducts should be replaced with the term the ductus sublinguales minores. 4. The g1. lingualis anterior, g1. retromolaris and g1. lacrimalis are not single glands but a group of several independent glands each of which has its own excretory duct. Accordingly, they should be termed the g11. linguales anteriores, g11. retromolares and g11. lacrimales such as the g11. labiales, g11. buccales and g11. palatinae.

  1. ACTH adenomas transforming their clinical expression: report of 5 cases. (United States)

    Zoli, Matteo; Faustini-Fustini, Marco; Mazzatenta, Diego; Marucci, Gianluca; De Carlo, Eugenio; Bacci, Antonella; Pasquini, Ernesto; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Frank, Giorgio


    OBJECT Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) adenomas have been recognized as a more aggressive and invasive subtype of pituitary adenomas. An additional and clinically relevant peculiarity of these tumors is their ability to modify their clinical expression from a silent form to Cushing disease or vice versa. The aim of this study was to review a series of patients with pituitary adenomas and analyze the clinical implications of the transformation of clinical expression in 5 cases that showed this phenomenon. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed a series of patients with pituitary adenoma and collected clinical, biohumoral, and neuroradiological data of those who presented with a transformation from silent ACTH adenomas to functioning tumors or vice versa. In all the cases, preoperative assessment consisted of brain MRI, ophthalmological examination, and complete baseline endocrinological investigation. In patients with clinical and/or biochemical findings suspicious for Cushing syndrome, a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test was performed to rule in or out this diagnosis. Endocrinological evaluations were repeated 1 month after surgery, 3 months after surgery, and every 6 months or annually thereafter. Ophthalmological evaluations and brain MRIs were repeated after 3 months and then every 6 or 12 months thereafter. RESULTS Five patients (2 men and 3 women) included in this series had corticotropic tumors that showed transformation from an endocrinologically silent form to manifest Cushing disease and vice versa. The mean age at presentation was 40 years (range 18-51 years). In 3 of these patients, a transformation from silent to functioning ACTH adenoma with manifest Cushing disease occurred. In 1 patient, the authors observed the transition from a functioning to a silent adenoma with spontaneous resolution of hypercortisolism. Another patient's silent adenoma "shifted" to a functioning adenoma and then regressed back to a silent form with spontaneous

  2. Tumors of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Rasmussen, Peter Kristian; Heegaard, Steffen


    Tumors of the lacrimal gland comprise a wide spectrum, of which the most common demonstrate epithelial and lymphoid differentiation. The diagnosis of lacrimal gland tumors depends primarily on histological evaluation, as do the choice of treatment and prognosis. For some lacrimal gland neoplasms......, such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, the outlook is grave. Optimal treatment for several lacrimal gland tumors is also a matter of controversy. However, recent progress has been made in the molecular and genetic understanding of tumorigenesis for such lesions. This article presents an overview of the histopathology...... of lacrimal gland tumors, together with their epidemiological features, clinical characteristics, and treatment strategies....

  3. Tumors of the sublingual gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Bjørndal, K; Agander, T K


    Tumors of the salivary glands are a heterogeneous group of diseases most often originating in the major salivary glands. Only a minor proportion of mainly malignant tumors arise in the sublingual gland. Due to the rarity of sublingual gland tumors (SGTs), little is known about the clinicopathologic...... (ACC). Patient demography was similar to salivary gland tumors in other locations. All fine needle aspiration cytologies (FNACs) interpreted as benign were from ACCs. Metastatic disease was found in 12.5 % of ACCs at diagnosis with one third of all ACC patients having metastases at the end of follow...

  4. Enhanced Edar signalling has pleiotropic effects on craniofacial and cutaneous glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shie Hong Chang

    Full Text Available The skin carries a number of appendages, including hair follicles and a range of glands, which develop under the influence of EDAR signalling. A gain of function allele of EDAR is found at high frequency in human populations of East Asia, with genetic evidence suggesting recent positive selection at this locus. The derived EDAR allele, estimated to have reached fixation more than 10,000 years ago, causes thickening of hair fibres, but the full spectrum of phenotypic changes induced by this allele is unknown. We have examined the changes in glandular structure caused by elevation of Edar signalling in a transgenic mouse model. We find that sebaceous and Meibomian glands are enlarged and that salivary and mammary glands are more elaborately branched with increased Edar activity, while the morphology of eccrine sweat and tracheal submucosal glands appears to be unaffected. Similar changes to gland sizes and structures may occur in human populations carrying the derived East Asian EDAR allele. As this allele attained high frequency in an environment that was notably cold and dry, increased glandular secretions could represent a trait that was positively selected to achieve increased lubrication and reduced evaporation from exposed facial structures and upper airways.

  5. Metal ion release from electric guitar strings in artificial sweat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezic, Iva [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Textile Technology, University of Zagreb, Prilaz Baruna Filipovica 28a, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail:; Curkovic, Lidija [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb (Croatia); Ujevic, Magdalena [Croatian Institute of Public Health, Zagreb, Croatia (Croatia)


    The aim of this study was to monitor the dissolution of metal ions from electric guitar strings. For characterization of investigated strings, two independent methods of analysis were chosen: ICP-OES and AAS. Electric guitar strings consisted of two separate parts: Sn-plated steel core wire which was hexagonal in cross section and Ni-plated steel wrap which was round in cross section. Dissolution of Ni{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Si{sup 4+}, Sn{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions from electric guitar strings E6 and D4 were measured as a function of time in artificial sweat solution, at temperature of 37 deg. C according to the EN 1811:1999 standard test procedure. The determination of the amount of the metal ions released in the corrosive solutions was carried out by means of inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The mechanism of metal ions eluted in artificial sweat is discussed. The concentrations of dissolved metal ions in corrosive solution from E6 and D4 strings are decreasing in the following order: Fe{sup 3+} > Sn{sup 2+} > Mn{sup 2+} > Si{sup 4+} > Ni{sup 2+}. Among all investigated metal ions, nickel is far the most allergenic. Since the amounts of the eluted Ni{sup 2+} did not exceed 0.5 {mu}g cm{sup -2} week{sup -1}, the investigated electric guitar strings should not induce contact dermatitis.

  6. Skin infections and immunoglobulin A in serum, sweat, and saliva of patients recovered from poststreptococcal acute glomerulonephritis or acute rheumatic fever and their siblings. (United States)

    Potter, E V; Vincente, J B; Mayon-WHite, R T; Shaughnessy, M A; Poon-King, T; Earle, D P


    Differences in hygienic habits and base-line secretory immunoglobulin (Ig) A which might have contributed to the prevalence of skin infections and/or absence of increased serum IgA values were sought in patients with poststreptococcal acute glomerulonephritis (nephritis) in contrast to patients with acute rheumatic fever in Trinidad by studying patients and their siblings after the patients had recovered from these diseases. The overall history of skin infections was similar at this time in all groups, although they had been much more common in patients with nephritis and their families at the time of acute illness. The recovered nephritis patients bathed slightly less often than the other individuals, used a cream or lotion after bathing rather than coconut oil, and tended to sweat less than the others, but none of these differences was statistically significant. Neither were significant differences demonstrated in amounts of IgA and IgG in serum and saliva of recovered nephritis patients and their siblings compared to recovered rheumatic fever patients and their siblings, while only small amounts of IgA and IgG were present in any sweat, and probably had been transuded rather than secreted. These studies suggest that the lower serum IgA titers in patients with nephritis compared to patients with rheumatic fever in Trinidad do not reflect basic differences in serum IgA or secretory IgA as measured in saliva, and that IgA is not secreted by the eccrine glands.

  7. Contralateral adrenal suppression on adrenocortical scintigraphy provides good evidence showing subclinical cortisol overproduction from unilateral adenomas. (United States)

    Katabami, Takuyuki; Ishii, Satoshi; Obi, Ryusei; Asai, Shiko; Tanaka, Yasushi


    Unilateral and/or predominant uptake on adrenocortical scintigraphy (ACS) may be related to autonomous cortisol overproduction in patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS). However, there is no information regarding whether increased tracer uptake on the tumor side or decreased uptake on the contralateral side on ACS is more greatly associated with inappropriate cortisol production. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between quantitative (131)I-6β-iodomethyl-norcholesterol ((131)I-NP-59) uptake in both adrenal glands and parameters of autonomic cortisol secretion and attempted to set a cut off for SCS detection. The study included 90 patients with unilateral adrenal adenoma who fulfilled strict criteria. The diagnosis of SCS was based on serum cortisol ≥3.0 μg/dL after 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) with at least 1 other hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function abnormality. Twenty-two (27.7%) subjects were diagnosed with SCS. The uptake rate on the affected side in the SCS group was comparable to that in the non-functioning adenoma group. In contrast, the uptake rate on the contralateral side was lower and the laterality ratio significantly higher in the SCS group. The two ACS indices were correlated with serum cortisol levels after a 1-mg DST, but uptake on the tumor side was not. Tumor size was also important for the functional statuses of adrenal tumors and NP-59 imaging patterns. The best cut-off point for the laterality ratio to detect SCS was 3.07. These results clearly indicate that contralateral adrenal suppression in ACS is good evidence showing subclinical cortisol overproduction.

  8. The Spectrum of Hormone Immunoreactivity in Typical and Atypical Pituitary Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim ERTAN


    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to assess the spectrum of hormone immunoreactivity in our pituitary adenoma cases and discuss the diagnostic parameters of atypical pituitary adenomas.Material and Methods: A total of 166 pituitary adenoma cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2008 in our department were included in the present study. Hematoxylin-eosin stained and immunohistochemistry performed slides (ACTH, PRL, GH, TSH, FSH, LH, Ki-67, and p53 were evaluated. Cases having more than two mitoses on 10 high power fields besides more than 3% Ki-67 index were accepted in the atypical group.Results: Histologically, 159 cases were typical pituitary adenoma and 7 were atypical pituitary adenoma. Of the atypical pituitary adenoma cases, one case was ACTH, one GH and one both GH and prolactin hormone immunoreactive pituitary adenomas. Four cases were hormone immunonegative adenomas. Of the typical pituitary adenoma cases, 39 cases were GH, 19 ACTH, 17 prolactin, 10 FSH, 8 LH and one TSH immunreactive pituitary adenomas. Fourty-seven cases were hormone immunonegative adenomas.Twenty-two of the all pitutary adenoma cases had recurrence. Of these cases, 18 were typical adenoma and four were atypical adenoma.Conclusion: The ratio of prolactin immunoreactive pituitary adenoma cases in the surgical material of neuropathology is decreasing due to medical therapy. Atypical pituitary adenomas are not the sole factor affecting the recurrence mechanism but these tumors have higher recurrence rate compared with typical pituitary adenomas and we think the proliferation index might be the principal approach in the diagnosis of these lesions.

  9. Gray Synthetic Evaluation on Moisture Comfort of Sportswear Fabrics under the Condition of Heavy Sweating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Min; LIU Yu; ZHANG Wei-yuan


    Moisture and water transfer under the condition of heavy sweating are analyzed. Four different experiments are made to test moisture resistance, water-keep, wicking effect and drying ability of samples. Then gray analysis method is introduced to evaluate the comprehensive comfort of these fabrics. Result shows chemical fiber with high moisture transfer performance has advantage in water transfer and diffusion, which is suitable for human under the condition of heavy sweating. Though natural fiber can absorb moisture well, it cannot transfer fluid sweat. Therefore natural fiber fabrics such as cotton, wool are unsuitable to make functional sportswear.

  10. Morphogenesis of Mammary Glands in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Challana


    Full Text Available The present research was elucidated on the morphogenesis of mammary gland of buffalo during prenatal development. Total of 16 foetuses ranging from 1.2 cm (34 days to 108 cm CVRL (curved crown rump length (317 days were used for study. The study revealed that mammary line was first observed at 1.2 cm CVRL (34 days, mammary hillock at 1.7 cm (37 days, and mammary bud at 2.6 cm CVRL (41 days foetuses. Epidermal cone was found at 6.7 cm CVRL (58 days whereas primary and secondary ducts were observed at 7.4 cm CVRL (62 days and 15 cm CVRL (96 days, respectively. Connective tissue whorls were reported at 18.2 cm CVRL (110 days and internal elastic lamina and muscle layers at 24.1 cm CVRL (129 days. Lobules were observed at 29.3 cm CVRL (140 days, rosette of furstenberg at 39.5 cm CVRL (163 days, and keratin plug at 45.5 cm CVRL (176 days foetus. Primordia of sweat and sebaceous glands around hair follicle were seen at 21.2 cm CVRL (122 days of foetal life. Differentiation of all the skin layers along with cornification was observed at 69 cm (229 days in group III foetuses.

  11. Middle ear adenoma is an amphicrine tumor: why call it adenoma? (United States)

    Ketabchi, S; Massi, D; Franchi, A; Vannucchi, P; Santucci, M


    Middle ear adenoma (MEA) is a rare tumor postulated to take origin from the lining epithelium of the middle ear cavity. The authors report on a case of MEA arising in a 53-year old woman suffering from a sensation of fullness in her left ear, otalgia, and light left-sided hearing loss. Histopathologically, the lesion was composed of cuboidal and polygonal cells displaying a trabecular, tubulo-glandular, and solid pattern of growth. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells diffusely stained with anti-vimentin antibodies and were focally positive for chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, lysozyme, and cytokeratins AE1/AE3. The majority of tumor cells showed weak and diffuse staining with both anti-PP and anti-ACTH antibodies and intense positivity with anti-glucagon and anti Leu-7 antibodies. Ultrastructural investigation revealed both mucinous-glandular and neuroendocrine differentiation. The authors suggest that the appropriate terminology would be adeno-carcinoid or amphicrine tumor of the middle ear rather than "adenoma," a term that does not reflect its dual nature.

  12. Pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms: can imaging reliably discriminate adenomas from carcinomas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynt, Kelsey A.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Smith, Ethan A.; Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Davenport, Matthew S.; Caoili, Elaine M. [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Abdominal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Else, Tobias [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    There is a paucity of literature describing and comparing the imaging features of adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in children and adolescents. To document the CT and MRI features of adrenocortical neoplasms in a pediatric population and to determine whether imaging findings (other than metastatic disease) can distinguish adenomas from carcinomas. We searched institutional medical records to identify pediatric patients with adrenocortical neoplasms. Pre-treatment CT and MRI examinations were reviewed by two radiologists in consensus, and pertinent imaging findings were documented. We also recorded relevant histopathological, demographic, clinical follow-up and survival data. We used the Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare parametric and nonparametric continuous data, and the Fisher exact test to compare proportions. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to evaluate the diagnostic performances of tumor diameter and volume for discriminating carcinoma from adenoma. A P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the adrenocortical lesions, 9 were adenomas, 15 were carcinomas, and 1 was of uncertain malignant potential. There were no differences in mean age, gender or sidedness between adenomas and carcinomas. Carcinomas were significantly larger than adenomas based on mean estimated volume (581 ml, range 16-2,101 vs. 54 ml, range 3-197 ml; P-value = 0.003; ROC area under the curve = 0.92) and mean maximum transverse plane diameter (9.9 cm, range 3.0-14.9 vs. 4.4 cm, range 1.9-8.2 cm; P-value = 0.0001; ROC area under the curve = 0.92). Carcinomas also were more heterogeneous than adenomas on post-contrast imaging (13/14 vs. 2/9; odds ratio [OR] = 45.5; P-value = 0.001). Six of 13 carcinomas and 1 of 8 adenomas contained calcification at CT (OR = 6.0; P-value = 0.17). Seven of 15 children with carcinomas exhibited metastatic disease at diagnosis, and three had inferior vena cava invasion. Median

  13. Adenoma pleomórfico de parótida: aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos Parotid pleomorphic adenoma: clinical, diagnostic and therapeutical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo Suzano Louzeiro Tiago


    Full Text Available As neoplasias da glândula parótida constituem um grupo heterogêneo com mais de 30 tipos histológicos definidos, sendo o adenoma pleomórfico o tumor benigno mais comum. OBJETIVO: Neste trabalho apresentamos uma casuística de adenoma pleomórfico de glândula parótida, com o objetivo de discutir a apresentação clínica, o diagnóstico e as técnicas cirúrgicas mais adequadas no tratamento desta doença. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foi realizado estudo clínico retrospectivo de um grupo de 68 pacientes com diagnóstico histopatológico de adenoma pleomórfico de glândula parótida, operados no Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia do HSPE-FMO, de janeiro de 1982 a junho de 2002. Foram colhidos os dados referentes a idade, sexo, sintomas mais freqüentes, exames complementares, localização, tamanho, técnica cirúrgica empregada, complicações do tratamento e evolução. RESULTADOS: Nesta casuística observamos maior incidência no sexo feminino, e mais freqüente na 5ª década de vida. A apresentação clínica mais comum foi nódulo na região parotídea, sendo este sinal presente em 100% dos casos. A parotidectomia superficial com identificação e preservação do nervo facial foi a cirurgia mais realizada (91,2% dos casos. As complicações pós-operatórias mais freqüentes foram paresia (14,7% e paralisia (7,3% do nervo facial, seguida da síndrome de Frey (4,4%. CONCLUSÃO: O adenoma pleomórfico é a neoplasia benigna mais comum na glândula parótida, sendo mais freqüente no sexo feminino, a partir da 5ª década de vida. É uma neoplasia de diagnóstico clínico, com confirmação a partir do exame histopatológico. A parotidectomia superficial é procedimento mínimo para o diagnóstico e terapêutica, sendo baixa a taxa de recidiva com esta cirurgia.The neoplasias of the parotid gland are a heterogeneous group with more than 30 histological kinds already defined, and the pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumor. AIM: In

  14. Cushing-type ectopic pituitary adenoma with unusual pathologic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher T. Kimmell, MD


    Full Text Available Ectopic pituitary adenomas comprise, by varying reports, approximately 1-2% of all pituitary adenomas. They are often located in the nasopharyngeal region associated with the pharyngeal pituitary. The location and pathologic features of these masses make them atypical when compared with intrasellar pituitary adenomas. A 54-year-old man presented with vertebral compression fracture and physical stigmata of Cushing’s disease. Biochemical testing confirmed hypercortisolemia responsive to high dose dexamethasone suppression. MRI of the head demonstrated an enhancing mass in the posterior aspect of the sphenoid sinus not involving the sella turcica. Endoscopic biopsy followed by resection confirmed this mass to be a pituitary adenoma with unusual pathologic features. Most notably, the tumor cells demonstrated large, eosinophilic, vacuolated cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical profile of the tumor was typical of an ACTH secreting tumor, notably with positivity for ACTH. The patient did well from his surgery. Post-operatively his serum cortisol level normalized and he remains in chemical remission one year after surgery. Ectopic pituitary adenomas are an unusual manifestation of hormonally active pituitary neoplastic disease. Their atypical clinical presentations, location, and pathologic features can make them a diagnostic challenge. Clinicians should be aware of these entities, especially when considering differential diagnosis for a mass in the sphenoid sinus and nasopharyngeal region.

  15. Chondroid chordoma of the sella turcica mimicking a pituitary adenoma. (United States)

    Wu, Arthur W; Bhuta, Sunita; Salamon, Noriko; Martin, Neil; Wang, Marilene B


    We report an unusual case of a chondroid chordoma of the sella turcica that mimicked the clinical and radiologic presentation of the more common pituitary adenoma. A 50-year-old man presented with bitemporal visual field deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected a sellar mass that was suggestive of a pituitary adenoma. However, the intraoperative appearance of the mass was not consistent with an adenoma, and frozen-section pathology was obtained. Pathology identified the mass as a malignant lesion. Based on this finding, the mass was treated more aggressively. Chondroid chordomas are rare and slowly growing but locally aggressive tumors. The prognosis depends on the ability to totally resect the mass, so differentiating this tumor from a benign lesion is critical. An intrasellar chordoma can be confused clinically and radiologically with a pituitary adenoma. These two lesions are nearly identical on MRI, although T2-weighted imaging sometimes demonstrates higher intensity with a chondroid chordoma. Computed tomography may be helpful in demonstrating bony destruction by these lesions, as can the presence of intralesional calcifications. Intraoperative findings of bony invasion or a purple-red color may also lead the surgeon to suspect a diagnosis other than pituitary adenoma.

  16. Expression of gelatinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) and cyclooxygenases (COX-1, COX-2) in some benign salivary gland tumors. (United States)

    Lipari, L; Mauro, A; Gallina, S; Tortorici, S; Buscemi, M; Tete, S; Gerbino, A


    Salivary gland tumors, most of which are rare benign tumors, represent a histologically heterogenous group with the greatest diversity of morphological and cellular features. The aim of this study is to analyse the expression and possible interactions between gelatinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) and cyclooxygenases (COX-1, COX-2) in some benign salivary gland tumors. We investigated the expression of gelatinases and cyclooxigenases in control salivary gland, Pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's tumor through immunohistochemistry and Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). We identified the expression of both classes of enzyme in normal samples and in the two types of pathological samples without any quantitative differences. From the present data no significant differences emerge in the expression of these enzymes among the different pathologies examined. Nevertheless, due to the small number of samples included in this study, general statements regarding correlation between the degree of severity of the tumoral pathology and the quantitative expression of these potential tumoral markers can not be made.

  17. A survey of 110 cases of primary hyperparathyroidism in Dr.Shariati Hospital and the results of localizing the adenoma via MIBI scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayat A


    Full Text Available Primary Hyperparathyroidism is a fairly common disease that is much more predominant in females. Treatment is surgery and includes removing the parathyroid adenoma or the hyperplastic parathyroid glands. Considering the difficulty of this operation procedure, localization test are utilized including ultrasound, MRI, CT scan, Thallium-Technesium subtraction scan, MIBI scan and a series of other tests. According to the studies regarding these tests, MIBI scan is superior to all the others. In this survery we have studied 110 primary hyperparathyroidism patients that were operated on in Dr.Shariati Hospital between 1356 and 1376. In order to localize the adenoma ultrasound was used in ten patients, thallium-technesium subtraction scan in 38 patients. MIBI scan in 30 patients and CT scan in 3 patients. The sensitivity of MIBI scan was 86% and its specificity was 100%. In comparison, the sensitivity of thallium-technesium scan was found to be about 65%. Our results show that MIBI scan has had a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in our patients and has shown to be the best localization test. Therefore we suggest this test for the localization of all parathyroid adenomas.

  18. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression in the progression of colorectal adenoma to carcinoma : Matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression in the colorectal adenoma and carcinoma. (United States)

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; El-Hawary, Amira K; Abdel-Aziz, Azza


    Most colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) are considered to arise from conventional adenoma based on the concept of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to be overexpressed as normal mucosa progresses to adenomas and carcinomas. There has been little previous investigation about MMP-13 expression in adenoma-carcinoma sequence. In this study, we aimed to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of MMP-13 in colorectal adenoma and CRC specimens using tissue microarray (TMA) technique. A total of 40 cases of CRC associated with adenoma were collected from files of the Pathology laboratory at Mansoura Gastroenterology Center between January 2007 and January 2012. Sections from TMA blocks were prepared and stained for MMP-13. Immunoreactivity to MMP-13 staining was localized to the cytoplasm of mildly, moderately, and severely dysplatic cells of adenomas and CRC tumor cells that were either homogenous or heterogeneous. There was no significant difference in MMP-13 expression between adenomas and CRCs either non-mucinous or mucinous. Adenomas with high MMP-13 expression were significantly associated with moderate to marked degree of inflammatory cellular infiltrate and presence of familial adenomatous polyps. In conclusion, MMP-13 may be a potential biological marker of early tumorigenesis in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence.

  19. Lacrimal glands: Size does matter!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyash Mohan


    Full Text Available A 40-year-old woman presented with vague headaches and blurred vision. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed bilaterally symmetrical diffuse enlargement of the lacrimal glands. A fine needle biopsy of the lacrimal gland was consistent with sarcoidosis. Although, isolated lacrimal gland involvement is rare, it may be the initial clinical presentation of sarcoidosis, as seen in this patient. Imaging plays a vital role in these unsuspected cases and careful evaluation of the lacrimal glands with dedicated thin section, fat suppressed, axial and coronal orbital imaging, may help identify a pathological cause and avoid a delay in diagnosis.

  20. Abnormal Axon Reflex-Mediated Sweating Correlates with High State of Anxiety in Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kijima


    Conclusions: Although the number of study subjects was little, abnormal AXR sweating in patients with AD was observed. Correlative analysis suggests possible involvement of continuous anxiety and the immune system in such abnormal sudomotor function.

  1. 盗汗不尽属阴虚%Excessive Night Sweat Attributing to Yin Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟伟; 林榕; 都荣


    The definition and classification of sweat syndrome were discussed in this text, which emphasized on the pathogenesis and treatment based on syndrome differentiation of spontaneous sweat and night sweat.A theory was put forward that the night sweat not only attributed to interior heat caused by yin deficiency, but also to the yang deficiency.Two cases have obtained satisfactory therapeutic effect by applying this theory to guide the clinical practice.%该文讨论了汗证的概念、分类,重点阐述了自汗和盗汗的中医病机及辨证论治,进而提出盗汗不尽是阴虚内热所致,也有阳虚盗汗之说,并列举了临床两个实例进行说明,见解独到,理论指导临床,收效满意.

  2. Right Axillary Sweating After Left Thoracoscopic Sypathectomy in Two-Stage Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkant Ozpolat


    Full Text Available One stage bilateral or two stage unilateral video assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy could be performed in the treatment of primary focal hyperhidrosis. Here we present a case with compensatory sweating of contralateral side after a two stage operation.

  3. Familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the pituitary adenoma predisposition due to mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene. (United States)

    Beckers, Albert; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Daly, Adrian F; Karhu, Auli


    Pituitary adenomas are one of the most frequent intracranial tumors and occur with a prevalence of approximately 1:1000 in the developed world. Pituitary adenomas have a serious disease burden, and their management involves neurosurgery, biological therapies, and radiotherapy. Early diagnosis of pituitary tumors while they are smaller may help increase cure rates. Few genetic predictors of pituitary adenoma development exist. Recent years have seen two separate, complimentary advances in inherited pituitary tumor research. The clinical condition of familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) has been described, which encompasses the familial occurrence of isolated pituitary adenomas outside of the setting of syndromic conditions like multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Carney complex. FIPA families comprise approximately 2% of pituitary adenomas and represent a clinical entity with homogeneous or heterogeneous pituitary adenoma types occurring within the same kindred. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene has been identified as causing a pituitary adenoma predisposition of variable penetrance that accounts for 20% of FIPA families. Germline AIP mutations have been shown to associate with the occurrence of large pituitary adenomas that occur at a young age, predominantly in children/adolescents and young adults. AIP mutations are usually associated with somatotropinomas, but prolactinomas, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, Cushing disease, and other infrequent clinical adenoma types can also occur. Gigantism is a particular feature of AIP mutations and occurs in more than one third of affected somatotropinoma patients. Study of pituitary adenoma patients with AIP mutations has demonstrated that these cases raise clinical challenges to successful treatment. Extensive research on the biology of AIP and new advances in mouse Aip knockout models demonstrate multiple pathways by which AIP may contribute to tumorigenesis. This review assesses

  4. Pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland selectively secreting dopamine -- a case report. (United States)

    Belowska-Bień, Kinga; Kucharski, Wojciech; Janczak, Dariusz; Urban, Joanna


    Pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland secreting catecholamines is a relatively rare endocrinological cause of secondary arterial hypertension, usually developing in people aged between 40 and 50, more often in women than in men. Each accidentally diagnosed lesion in adrenal glands is an incidentalom0a. Incidentalomas are most commonly benign tumours: adenomas, adipomas and angiomas; less often they are of a malignant or metastatic character. Establishing the character of the lesion and its hormonal activity is of crucial diagnostic significance. Diagnostics of pheochromocytoma covers marking the urine output of catecholamines and their metabolites, as well as marking serum amine concentration. Possible treatment of hormonally active lesions includes their surgical removal. This thesis presents the case of a young female suffering from arterial hypertension for several years, including organ complications, who was diagnosed with pheochromocytoma selectively secreting dopamine.

  5. Clinical results of stereotactic hellium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Lyman, J.T.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Lawrence, J.H.; Tobias, C.A.


    The first therapeutic clinical trial using accelerated heavy-charged particles in humans was performed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the treatment of various endocrine and metabolic disorders of the pituitary gland, and as suppressive therapy for adenohypophyseal hormone-responsive carcinomas and diabetic retinopathy. In acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome and prolactin-secreting tumors, the therapeutic goal in the 433 patients treated has been to destroy or inhibit the growth of the pituitary tumor and control hormonal hypersecretion, while preserving a functional rim of tissue with normal hormone-secreting capacity, and minimizing neurologic injury. An additional group of 34 patients was treated for nonsecreting chromophobe adenomas. This paper discusses the methods and results of stereotactic helium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. 11 refs.

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  10. Coexisting intracranial tumors with pituitary adenomas: Genetic association or coincidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furtado Sunil


    Full Text Available The co-occurrence of two or more brain tumors with different histological features is rare. The authors report three rare cases of intracranial tumors associated with pituitary adenomas. Two of the pituitary tumors were functioning adenomas: a prolactinoma and a thyrotropin secreting adenoma. Two of the associated intracranial neoplasms were gliomas and one was a meningioma. Radiological and clinical examination for syndromal association was negative in all cases. We briefly discuss the presentation and treatment options of these cases and review the 19 previous publications in the literature of pituitary tumors occurring in association with other neoplasms and explore the possible links underlying these co-occurring neoplasms. Our three cases represent 0.86% of all pituitary tumors operated at our institute over a 9-year period.

  11. Pictures of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christine; Sempoux; Charles; Balabaud; Paulette; Bioulac-Sage


    This practical atlas aims to help liver and non liver pa-thologists to recognize benign hepatocellular nodules on resected specimen. Macroscopic and microscopic views together with immunohistochemical stains illustrate typical and atypical aspects of focal nodular hyperplasia and of hepatocellular adenoma, including hepatocel-lular adenomas subtypes with references to clinical and imaging data. Each step is important to make a correct diagnosis. The specimen including the nodule and the non-tumoral liver should be sliced, photographed and all different looking areas adequately sampled for par-affin inclusion. Routine histology includes HE, trichrome and cytokeratin 7. Immunohistochemistry includes glu-tamine synthase and according to the above results ad-ditional markers such as liver fatty acid binding protein, C reactive protein and beta catenin may be realized to differentiate focal nodular hyperplasia from hepatocel-lular adenoma subtypes. Clues for differential diagnosis and pitfalls are explained and illustrated.

  12. Evaluation of ultrasound in the diagnosis of parotid gland masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parotid gland


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate accuracy and usefulness of sonography and choose it as preliminary investigation method in pathologic processes of parotid gland, 50 patients were studied in duration of 16 months. The lesions were evaluated with ultrasound and sonographic images were obtained before surgery and then were compared with pathologic results after surgery. All lesions were detected with sonography. This method could differentiate intraglandular from extraglandular lesions with accuracy of 100%. Except one case of lipomatosis which was hyperechoic, all other lesions of parotid gland were hypoechoic. All lesions with sharp and well-defined borders were benign whereas malignant processes had ill-defined borders. The results obtained show that sonography is a reliable diagnostic method to differentiate benign from malignant lesions and it has a high diagnostic value to detect warthin's tumor, plemorphic adenoma, Sjogren's syndrome and lipomatosis. Presence of calcification in a parotid mass of young patient with high probabye is related to cavernous hemangioma.

  13. Does Replacing Sodium Excreted in Sweat Attenuate the Health Benefits of Physical Activity? (United States)

    Turner, Martin J; Avolio, Alberto P


    International guidelines suggest limiting sodium intake to 86-100 mmol/day, but average intake exceeds 150 mmol/day. Participants in physical activities are, however, advised to increase sodium intake before, during and after exercise to ensure euhydration, replace sodium lost in sweat, speed rehydration and maintain performance. A similar range of health benefits is attributable to exercise and to reduction in sodium intake, including reductions in blood pressure (BP) and the increase of BP with age, reduced risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases, and reduced risk of osteoporosis and dementia. Sweat typically contains 40-60 mmol/L of sodium, leading to approximately 20-90 mmol of sodium lost in one exercise session with sweat rates of 0.5-1.5 L/h. Reductions in sodium intake of 20-90 mmol/day have been associated with substantial health benefits. Homeostatic systems reduce sweat sodium as low as 3-10 mmol/L to prevent excessive sodium loss. "Salty sweaters" may be individuals with high sodium intake who perpetuate their "salty sweat" condition by continual replacement of sodium excreted in sweat. Studies of prolonged high intensity exercise in hot environments suggest that sodium supplementation is not necessary to prevent hyponatremia during exercise lasting up to 6 hr. We examine the novel hypothesis that sodium excreted in sweat during physical activity offsets a significant fraction of excess dietary sodium, and hence may contribute part of the health benefits of exercise. Replacing sodium lost in sweat during exercise may improve physical performance, but may attenuate the long-term health benefits of exercise.

  14. System-level design of an RFID sweat electrolyte sensor patch. (United States)

    Rose, Daniel P; Ratterman, M; Griffin, Daniel K; Hou, Linlin; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh K; Hagen, Joshua A; Papautsky, I; Heikenfeld, Jason


    Wearable digital health devices are dominantly found in rigid form factors such as bracelets and pucks. An adhesive RFID sensor bandage (patch) is reported, which can be made completely intimate with human skin, a distinct advantage for chronological monitoring of biomarkers in sweat. In this demonstration, a commercial RFID chip is adapted with minimum components to allow potentiometric sensing of mM ionic solutes in sweat, and surface temperature, as read by an Android smart-phone app (in-vitro tests).

  15. Wearable chemical sensing – sensor design and sampling techniques for real-time sweat analysis



    Wearable chemical sensors have the potential to provide new methods of non-invasive physiological measurement. The nature of chemical sensors involves an active surface where a chemical reaction must occur to elicit a response. This adds complexity to a wearable system which creates challenges in the design of a reliable long-term working system. This work presents the design of a real-time sweat sensing platform to analyse sweat loss and composition. Sampling methods have an impact on...

  16. Sweat Collecting Device and Methods for Use and Detection of Tampering (United States)


    Cocaine Metabolite, Amphetamines , Opiates, Cannabinoid and Cannabinoid Metabolites, and 18 Phencyclidine (PCP) Through the Skin. PharmChem...Laboratories, Inc. Menlo Park, CA. 1999. 19 An article by P. Kintz , Drug Testing in Addicts: a Comparison between Urine , Sweat, 20 and Hair, Therapeutic Drug...Enzyme Immunoassay Validation for Qualitative Detection of Cocaine in Sweat, 7 Clinical Chemistry, 42(1) (1996) 34-38 states that the transparent film

  17. Hydration profile and sweat loss perception of male and female division II basketball players during practice. (United States)

    Thigpen, Lauren K; Green, James M; OʼNeal, Eric K


    Hydration affects multiple aspects of basketball performance, but few investigations have examined the hydration profiles of collegiate basketball players. We examined multiday prepractice hydration status of 11 male and 11 female NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division II basketball players' sweat losses, fluid intake, and how accurately players estimated their sweat losses. Urine-specific gravity (USG) was spontaneously assessed before 2 practices. Sweat losses and fluid intakes were measured during a conditioning practice (CP) and sport-specific practice (SP). After practices, players filled 1,030 ml practice bottles to estimate their sweat losses. Urine-specific gravity between practices exhibited a moderate correlation (r = 0.54; p = 0.012) and were consistently high (17% of samples = USG >1.030) with no difference in mean USG between men (1.026 ± 0.004) and women (1.022 ± 0.008). Athletes' estimations of their sweat loss volumes between CP and the longer SP were strongly correlated (r = 0.88; p < 0.001). Estimation error was high (absolute error for both practices = 71 ± 52%) and error direction varied greatly within men. Women consistently underestimated sweat losses by 63 ± 28% and 65 ± 20% during CP and SP. Sweat losses during SP equaled 2,471 ± 495 ml and 1,910 ± 441 ml for men and women, respectively, but high practice fluid intake limited body mass losses to 1.1 ± 0.6% by the end of practice. It is plausible that hypohydration is related to poor conceptualization of sweat losses. Simulating the methodology of this study could help identify chronically hypohydrated athletes and be used to educate on between-practice fluid needs.

  18. The Radiological Spectrum of Orbital Pathologies that Involve the Lacrimal Gland and the Lacrimal Fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Sang; Ahn, Kook Jin; Park, Mi Ra; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Jae Jeong; Kim, Bum Soo; Hahn, Seong Tai [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    CT and MRI are utilized to differentiate between different types of masses and to determine the extent of lesions involving the lacrimal gland and the fossa. In lacrimal gland epithelial tumors, benign pleomorphic adenomas are seen most commonly with a well defined benign appearance, and a malignant adenoid cystic carcinoma is seen with a typical invasive malignant appearance. However, a malignant myoepithelial carcinoma is seen with a benign looking appearance. Lymphomatous lesions of the lacrimal gland include a broad spectrum ranging from reactive hyperplasia to malignant lymphoma. These lesions can be very difficult to differentiate both radiologically and pathologically. Generally, lymphomas tend to occur in older patients. The developmental cystic lesions found in the lacrimal fossa such as dermoid and epidermoid cysts can be diagnosed when the cyst involves the superior temporal quadrant of the orbit and manifests as a nonenhancing cystic mass and, in case of a lipoma, it is diagnosed as a total fatty mass. However, masses of granulocytic sarcoma and xanthogranuloma, as well as vascular masses, such as a hemangiopericytoma, are difficult to diagnose correctly on the basis of preoperative imaging findings alone. Clinically, the lesions of the lacrimal gland and fossa are found as palpable masses in the superior lateral aspect of the orbit, and these lesions constitute about 5-13% of all of the orbital masses confirmed by biopsy. Many different pathological entities arise from the lacrimal gland and fossa, and as each of them requires a different therapeutic approach, the radiological characterization of each lesion is important. Approximately, half of the lacrimal gland masses are tumors of epithelial origin and the rest are lesions that arise from lymphoid or inflammatory diseases. Pseudotumors, metastatic masses and developmental cysts may also occur in the lacrimal fossa. This paper aims to discuss the radiologic findings of the lesions that are found in

  19. Microadenomas e adenomas hipersecretantes da hipófise, aspectos anátomo-radiológicos Microadenomas and hypersecreting pituitary adenomas: radiographic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Lorrain Vezina


    Full Text Available São apresentados os primeiros sinais radiográficos de alteração selar encontrados nos casos de adenomas hipofisários hipersecretantes. O achado de duplo contôrno selar e de pequenas bosseladuras com o auxílio da tomografia selar tem permitido o diagnóstico da localização de microadenomas, a partir do que tem sido possível operar os pacientes no estágio inicial, quando o tumor não causou ainda lesões irreversíveis nos tecidos circunjacentes, o que facilita sobremaneira a cirurgia sem lesar o tecido hipofisário sadio, dando maiores possibilidades para o restabelecimento das funções hipofisárias ao normal. É feita uma classificação anátomo-radiológica da sela túrcica em 4 estágios, que é de grande utilidade para o prognóstico cirúrgico pois observa-se a cura em mais de 90% dos casos no estágio 1, de 75% no estágio 2, de 50% no estágio 3 e de menos de 10% no estágio 4, na primeira cirurgia.The early radiographic changes of the sella turcica in the cases of hypersecreting pituitary adenomas (Cushing disease, acromegaly, amenorrhea-galac- torrhea are reported and discussed. The finding of the double contour of the sellar floor and the small crescentic bulging of its antero-inferior wall, with the aid of the tomographic cuts of the sella, has permited the diagnosis of the microadenoma's localization. With this it is possible the achievement of a seletive excision of the lesion in the initial stage, when the tumor has not caused yet irreversible damage to the inside normal pituitary tissue. This surgery is perfomed in the precocious stage with the primary goal to preserve the normal gland, without hurt it to avoid postoperative hipopituitarism. A anatomo-radiologic classification of the alterations sella turcica in 4 grades is made, which is of great utility for the surgical prognostic, since we have observed clinical and biological cure over 90% in the grade 1, 75% in the grade 2, 50% in the grade 3 and up to 10% in the

  20. 多层螺旋CT对甲状旁腺腺瘤的诊断价值%The value of multi-slice spiral CT in diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永慧; 朱吉高; 贾志东; 王立兴; 吴海涛


    Objective:To study the value of multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) in diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma. Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed in clinical data and CT images of 10 cases of parathyroid adenoma proved surgically and pathologically. Results: All of the parathyroid adenomas were originated from the inferior pole of parathyroid gland with 4 cases at the right side and 6 cases at the left side. All located at the recess between trachea and esophagus. The sizes of adenomas ranged from 0. 9 cm× 1. 0 cm~3. 0 cm×8. 0 cm. The tumors were round or oval. Well-demarcated. Iso-attenuated yet higher than that of thyroid gland on plain CT scan. After contrast medium administration, the adenomas revealed enhancement with various degrees but lower than that of thyroid and adjacent blood vessels. 8 cases of adenomas were enhanced homogeneously. 2 cases showed no enhancement in necrosis. Conclusion: The location. Shape. Size. And the relationship with surrounding structures of parathyroid adenoma could be precisely displayed on enhanced MSCT and 3D reconstruction, which is valuable for surgery.%目的:探讨多层螺旋CT(MSCT)对甲状旁腺腺瘤的诊断价值.方法:回顾性分析10例经手术病理证实为甲状旁腺腺瘤的CT及临床资料.结果:10例甲状旁腺腺瘤均起源于下甲状旁腺.右侧4例,左侧6例,均位于气管食管沟内.肿瘤大小约0.9cm×1.0cm~3.0cm×8.0cm.呈圆形或卵圆形,边缘光滑完整.平扫肿瘤呈等密度.较正常甲状腺为低密度.增强后10例肿瘤均有不同程度强化,但均较周围血管密度及正常甲状腺密度低.增强后肿瘤呈均匀强化者8例,坏死不均匀强化者2例.结论:MSCT增强及三维重建检查可准确显示甲状旁腺腺瘤的部位、形态、大小及其与周围结构的关系,对临床手术有重要的指导意义.

  1. Implementation of a microfluidic conductivity sensor -- a potential sweat electrolyte sensing system for dehydration detection. (United States)

    Gengchen Liu; Smith, Kyle; Kaya, Tolga


    As dehydration continues to plague performance athletes and soldiers, the need for improved dehydration detection is clear. We propose the use of a conductometric sensor as the foundation of a sweat-sensing patch to address this need. The conductometric sensor evaluates the conductivity of solutions with varying sodium concentrations. A lithographic process was used to fabricate a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel through which solution was flowed. The ionization of the solution that occurs when a voltage is applied results in an effective resistance across the channel. The measured resistance therefore, reflects the ionization of the solution and the corresponding sodium concentration. The potential application of the conductometric sensor in a sweat-sensing patch requires compatibility with a microcontroller and Bluetooth module. Thus, a circuit interface was created. A voltage divider was utilized to convert the output resistance of the sensor to a voltage that could be input into a microcontroller. An AC voltage signal with a frequency of 10 kHz was used as the source voltage of the voltage divider to minimize the faradaic impedance and the double layer effect of the ionized solution. Tests have revealed that the conductometric is capable of precisely measuring the conductivity of a sodium solution. The conductometric sensor will be applied to a sweat sensing patch through future work involving studying the link between sodium concentration in sweat and an individual's dehydration level, developing a sweat-collection method, and developing a method of consideration for the other ions contained in sweat.

  2. Human Excretion of Bisphenol A: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Genuis


    Full Text Available Background. Bisphenol A (BPA is an ubiquitous chemical contaminant that has recently been associated with adverse effects on human health. There is incomplete understanding of BPA toxicokinetics, and there are no established interventions to eliminate this compound from the human body. Using 20 study participants, this study was designed to assess the relative concentration of BPA in three body fluids—blood, urine, and sweat—and to determine whether induced sweating may be a therapeutic intervention with potential to facilitate elimination of this compound. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems and analyzed for various environmental toxicants including BPA. Results. BPA was found to differing degrees in each of blood, urine, and sweat. In 16 of 20 participants, BPA was identified in sweat, even in some individuals with no BPA detected in their serum or urine samples. Conclusions. Biomonitoring of BPA through blood and/or urine testing may underestimate the total body burden of this potential toxicant. Sweat analysis should be considered as an additional method for monitoring bioaccumulation of BPA in humans. Induced sweating appears to be a potential method for elimination of BPA.

  3. SOX10 is a novel marker of acinus and intercalated duct differentiation in salivary gland tumors: a clue to the histogenesis for tumor diagnosis. (United States)

    Ohtomo, Rie; Mori, Taisuke; Shibata, Shinsuke; Tsuta, Koji; Maeshima, Akiko M; Akazawa, Chihiro; Watabe, Yukio; Honda, Kazufumi; Yamada, Tesshi; Yoshimoto, Seiichi; Asai, Masao; Okano, Hideyuki; Kanai, Yae; Tsuda, Hitoshi


    Salivary gland tumors are relatively rare and morphologically diverse and heterogeneous tumors; therefore, histogenesis-based tumor markers are sorely needed to aid in diagnosing and determining the cell type of origin. SRY-related HMG-box 10 (SOX10) protein is a transcription factor known to be crucial in the specification of the neural crest and maintenance of Schwann cells and melanocytes. In addition, positive expression has also been implicated in the major salivary gland. Here, we examined SOX10 expression in various salivary gland tumors to correlate this expression with myoepithelial markers. Overall, 76 malignant and 14 benign tumors were examined. SOX10 expression clearly delineated two distinct subtypes of human salivary gland tumors; acinic cell carcinomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas, myoepithelial carcinomas, and pleomorphic adenomas, including the pleomorphic adenoma component of carcinoma, were SOX10 positive, while salivary duct carcinomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas, an oncocytic carcinoma, Oncocytomas, and Warthin tumors were SOX10 negative. Also, SOX10 was expressed in solid-type or non-specific morphology salivary gland tumors, but was not expressed in poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. In normal human salivary gland tissue, SOX10 expression was specific to the nuclei of acini and both luminal and abluminal cells of intercalated ducts but not in other sites. Moreover, the murine model suggested that SOX10 continued to be expressed from the developmental stage to adulthood in the acinar and both luminal and abluminal intercalated ducts in the major salivary gland. Thus, SOX10 is a novel marker for diagnosing and understanding the histogenesis of salivary gland tumors.

  4. The prevalence of human papillomavirus in colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Louise; Thomsen, Louise T; Olesen, Tina Bech;


    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in colorectal cancer has been widely studied with conflicting results. We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in colorectal adenocarcinomas and adenomas, and test the potential association.......The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in colorectal cancer has been widely studied with conflicting results. We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in colorectal adenocarcinomas and adenomas, and test the potential association....

  5. Late effects of external radiotherapy on the thyroid gland; Effets tardifs de la radiotherapie externe sur la glande thyroide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnier, A. [Centre Hospitalier general A-Boulloche, 25 - Montbeliard (France)


    The thyroid is the purest endocrine gland in the body and is likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after external radiotherapy. Functional clinical modifications after direct irradiation exceeding 30 Gy are essentially related to hypothyroidism which may be clinically overt or subclinical with normal serum free thyroxine levels and high thyrotropin concentrations; the risk of hyperthyroidism, silent thyroiditis and Hashimoto`s disease is also increased. secondary hypothyroidism related to irradiation of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland may arise with doses over 40-50 Gy following treatment for brain and nasopharyngeal tumors - Morphological glandular modifications induced by radiotherapy are responsible for the appearance of benign adenomas, more rarely cystic degenerations and specially well differentiated papillary or follicular carcinomas among children and adults. After irradiation during childhood for benign or malignant tumors, thyroid cancers are more frequent, higher for younger children, and the relative excess risk is increased from 15.6-to 53-fold; tumors can belatedly occur, more than 35 years after initial therapy. Thereby, in order to limit excess morbidity, it is evident that long term supervision with careful clinical and biological evaluations is necessary for patients who previously received neck, upper mediastinum and pituitary radiation therapy. (author)

  6. Treatment Options by Stage (Salivary Gland Cancer) (United States)

    ... and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland ... in diagnosing salivary gland cancer. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  7. Análisis de un registro de adenomas pituitarios Analysis of a pituitary adenoma registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Albiero


    Full Text Available Dada la complejidad que reviste el enfoque diagnóstico y terapéutico de los tumores pituitarios, el registro y análisis de la experiencia clínica acumulada es de gran ayuda en la toma de decisiones. En este trabajo se informan datos clínico-terapéuticos, extraídos de un registro computarizado, sobre 519 de un total de 670 pacientes con adenomas pituitarios. Trescientos cuarenta y cinco fueron mujeres (66% y 174 varones (34%, de 14 a 80 años de edad. El diagnóstico final fue: acromegalia en 176, enfermedad de Cushing en 153, prolactinoma en 101 y adenoma clínicamente no-funcionante (ANF en 89. La edad media al momento del diagnóstico de acromegalia fue 43.9 ± 13.5 (16-80, para enfermedad de Cushing 35.7 ± 12.9 (14-72, para prolactinomas 30.0 ± 13.4 (15-79 y para ANF 52.1 ± 15.2 (17-79 años. La creación de un registro institucional de tumores de hipófisis es un instrumento de gran utilidad para el análisis de la experiencia adquirida y constituye una herramienta valiosa para mejorar la estrategia terapéutica, optimizar la relación costo/beneficio y mejorar el cuidado del paciente. Contribuye a la docencia médica, tanto en el pre como en el posgrado y da base a la realización de trabajos de investigación clínica, aportando a la difusión y transferencia de conocimientos.Collection and analysis of data obtained during the clinical treatment of pituitary tumours are of great utility in the decision making process, when facing clinical situations. We report here data on 519 from 670 patients with pituitary adenomas obtained from a computerized registry. Three hundred and forty five were females (66% and 174 males (34%, aged 14-80. Final diagnosis was acromegaly in 176, Cushing's disease in 153, prolactinoma in 101 and clinically non-functioning adenoma in 89. Mean age at diagnosis was 43.9 ± 13.5 (16-80 for acromegalics, 35.7 ± 12.9 (14-72 for Cushing's, 30.0 ± 13.4 (15-79 for prolactinoma and 52.1 ± 15.2 (17-79, for non

  8. Influence of sex and growth hormone deficiency on sweating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Nilsson, K O; Skakkebaek, N E


    in sweat excretion rate from childhood to adulthood showed a difference between the sexes. Both pre-pubertal and pubertal boys had a lower secretion value than adult men (p less than 0.001 and 0.01, respectively), whereas girls showed higher secretion values than adult women (p less than 0.01 and p less...... than 0.001, respectively). There was a significant increase in SSR from prepuberty to puberty (p less than 0.001) for both sexes. The children with GH deficiency, all pre-pubertal, showed significantly reduced SSR (p less than 0.001) compared with the healthy children (median values: 32.8 vs 80.0 mg 30...... (GH) deficiency (aged 4.2 to 13.5 years, mean age 8.9 years). Boys had higher median values for SSR than girls (pre-pubertal children: 92.7 vs 64.5 mg 30 min-1 pubertal children: 110.3 vs 73.1 mg 30 min-1), and men showed higher values than women (135.5 vs 49.2 mg 30 min-1). In addition, the change...

  9. A novel cell line derived from pleomorphic adenoma expresses MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2, and shows numeric chromosomal anomalies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Semblano Carreira Falcão

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common salivary gland neoplasm, and it can be locally invasive, despite its slow growth. This study aimed to establish a novel cell line (AP-1 derived from a human pleomorphic adenoma sample to better understand local invasiveness of this tumor. AP-1 cell line was characterized by cell growth analysis, expression of epithelial and myoepithelial markers by immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, 3D cell culture assays, cytogenetic features and transcriptomic study. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs was also analyzed by immunofluorescence and zymography. Furthermore, epithelial and myoepithelial markers, MMPs and TIMPs were studied in the tumor that originated the cell line. AP-1 cells showed neoplastic epithelial and myoepithelial markers, such as cytokeratins, vimentin, S100 protein and smooth-muscle actin. These molecules were also found in vivo, in the tumor that originated the cell line. MMPs and TIMPs were observed in vivo and in AP-1 cells. Growth curve showed that AP-1 exhibited a doubling time of 3.342 days. AP-1 cells grown inside Matrigel recapitulated tumor architecture. Different numerical and structural chromosomal anomalies were visualized in cytogenetic analysis. Transcriptomic analysis addressed expression of 7 target genes (VIM, TIMP2, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, ACTA2 e PLAG1. Results were compared to transcriptomic profile of non-neoplastic salivary gland cells (HSG. Only MMP9 was not expressed in both libraries, and VIM was expressed solely in AP-1 library. The major difference regarding gene expression level between AP-1 and HSG samples occurred for MMP2. This gene was 184 times more expressed in AP-1 cells. Our findings suggest that AP-1 cell line could be a useful model for further studies on pleomorphic adenoma biology.

  10. A novel cell line derived from pleomorphic adenoma expresses MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2, and shows numeric chromosomal anomalies. (United States)

    Falcão, Aline Semblano Carreira; Kataoka, Maria Sueli da Silva; Ribeiro, Nélson Antonio Bailão; Diniz, José Antonio Picanço; Alves, Sérgio Melo; Ribeiro, André L Ribeiro; de Siqueira, Adriane Sousa; da Silva, Artur Luiz; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Freitas, Vanessa M; Jaeger, Ruy G; Pinheiro, João J V


    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common salivary gland neoplasm, and it can be locally invasive, despite its slow growth. This study aimed to establish a novel cell line (AP-1) derived from a human pleomorphic adenoma sample to better understand local invasiveness of this tumor. AP-1 cell line was characterized by cell growth analysis, expression of epithelial and myoepithelial markers by immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, 3D cell culture assays, cytogenetic features and transcriptomic study. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) was also analyzed by immunofluorescence and zymography. Furthermore, epithelial and myoepithelial markers, MMPs and TIMPs were studied in the tumor that originated the cell line. AP-1 cells showed neoplastic epithelial and myoepithelial markers, such as cytokeratins, vimentin, S100 protein and smooth-muscle actin. These molecules were also found in vivo, in the tumor that originated the cell line. MMPs and TIMPs were observed in vivo and in AP-1 cells. Growth curve showed that AP-1 exhibited a doubling time of 3.342 days. AP-1 cells grown inside Matrigel recapitulated tumor architecture. Different numerical and structural chromosomal anomalies were visualized in cytogenetic analysis. Transcriptomic analysis addressed expression of 7 target genes (VIM, TIMP2, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, ACTA2 e PLAG1). Results were compared to transcriptomic profile of non-neoplastic salivary gland cells (HSG). Only MMP9 was not expressed in both libraries, and VIM was expressed solely in AP-1 library. The major difference regarding gene expression level between AP-1 and HSG samples occurred for MMP2. This gene was 184 times more expressed in AP-1 cells. Our findings suggest that AP-1 cell line could be a useful model for further studies on pleomorphic adenoma biology.

  11. Management of salivary gland tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andry, Guy; Hamoir, Marc; Locati, Laura D.; Licitra, Lisa; Langendijk, Johannes A.


    Surgery after proper imaging (MRI or CT scan) is the main stay of treatment for salivary gland tumors. Although excision margins should be >= 5 mm for malignant tumors in cases of parotid gland carcinoma, the facial nerve should be preserved whenever it is not infiltrated. Adjuvant external radiatio


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆汉魁; 林祥通; 等


    Tissues from 30 human pituitary adenomas are monolayer-cell-cultured in vitro.Hormone secretion of GH,PRL,TSH,LH and FSH by cells into medium is detected by radioimmunoassay .The pattern and amount of hormone(s0 in the medium are used to determine the nature of the cells and thus to establish functional classification of pituitary adenomas.The results show that cell culture technique provides and easy and suitable mode for investigating the nature of pituitary adenomas.Hormone radioimmunoassay of culture medium is precise and reliable and represents the whole adenoma tissue.Further studies can lead to clearer understandngs of the pathology of pituitary adenomas.

  13. Seesaw nystagmus caused by giant pituitary adenoma: case report Nistagmo em gangorra causado por adenoma pituitário gigante: relato de caso


    Frederico Castelo Moura; Allan Christian Pieroni Gonçalves; Mário Luiz Ribeiro Monteiro


    Giant pituitary adenomas are uncommonly large tumors, greater than 4 cm in size that can produces endocrine symptoms, visual loss and cranial nerve palsies. We report the rare occurrence of seesaw nystagmus as the presenting sign of giant pituitary adenoma. A 50-year-old man presented with headache associated with visual loss and seesaw nystagmus. Perimetry revealed bitemporal hemianopia and magnetic resonance imaging showed a giant pituitary adenoma. After surgery, nystagmus disappeared. Our...

  14. The structure of thyroid gland in its pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayrullin R.M.


    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the microscopic features of the structure of the thyroid gland in different forms of its pathology. Materials and Methods. The study is based on the thyroid glands of 199 patients of both sexes aged 21 to 74 years. Results. At the micro-macrofollicular nontoxic goiter was found flattened thyroid epithelium with flattened normochromic nucleus, the small size of cells and nuclei, low nuclear-cytoplasmic index, intrafollicular moderate epithelial proliferation, homogeneous colloid and moderate diffuse lymphoid infiltration. At the micro-macrofollicular toxic goiter detected cubic epithelium with rounded normochromic kernel, smallest size of cells and nuclei, nuclear-cytoplasmic minimum index intrafollicular focal proliferation of the epithelium, colloid mesh boundary with severe vacuolization, focal lymphoid infiltration and hemorrhage. When diffuse toxic goiter detected cubic form cells of medium size with a fairly high nuclear-cytoplasmic index, rounded normochromic kernel, rare intrafollicular epithelial proliferation, homogeneous colloid with an edge vacuolization. With the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis was observed flattened epithelium with rounded normochromic nucleus, the small size of cells and nuclei, found the average nuclear-cytoplasmic index, homogeneous colloid and extensive lymphoid infiltration with light propagation centers. Adenoma of the thyroid gland epithelium was found with a cubic cell shape, round hyperchromatic nucleus, the large size of cells and nuclei, high nuclear-cytoplasmic index intrafollicular diffuse proliferation of epithelial and dense colloid. When thyroid cancer found the prevalence of papillary structures with short broad papillae formed polymorphic cells with round hyperchromatic nucleus, there is the largest size of cells and nuclei, nuclear-cytoplasmic maximum index expressed intrafollicular diffuse proliferation of the epithelium. Conclusions. Each form of thyroid disease

  15. A case with tumor of left parotid gland and denture stomatitis. (United States)

    MercuŢ, Veronica; Iorgulescu, Daniel; Popescu, Sanda Mihaela; Mărgăritescu, Claudiu; MercuŢ, Răzvan; CrăiŢoiu, Monica Mihaela; Scrieciu, Monica


    The article discuss the case of an edentulous patient presented to the dental clinic for pain and burning sensation of oral mucosa and diagnosed subsequently with oxyphilic adenoma. A 58-year-old patient, with maxillary edentulism, treated with complete denture, presented to the Clinic of Prosthetic Dentistry of the Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania, for pain of oral mucosa and bad stability of denture. The diagnosis of erythematous denture stomatitis as consequence of salivary flow reduction was establish after patient's clinical examination, and by unstimulated sialometry. Clinical exam suggested hyposalivation could be a consequence of a tumor situated at the level of the left parotid gland. The echography confirmed the diagnosis of left parotid gland tumor. The tumor was surgical removed and histopathological exam confirmed oxyphilic adenoma. Education of patient for wearing new denture while maintaining a strict oral hygiene and dealing with low salivary flow was the treatment for denture stomatitis. General dentist has an important role in finding and diagnosing patients with systemic diseases, especially salivary tumors.

  16. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma in a Brazilian population: clinico-pathological analysis of 38 cases. (United States)

    Mariano, F V; Noronha, A L F; Gondak, R O; Altemani, A M de A M; de Almeida, O P; Kowalski, L P


    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is a rare tumour, with different prevalence rates reported among studies. Epidemiological studies of large series of CXPAs in developing countries are scarce. The aim of the present study was to describe Brazilian patients with CXPA; this was a retrospective study of 38 patients. Demographic and clinico-pathological features were evaluated. No preferential gender was found, and the mean age at diagnosis was 57.6 years. The most commonly involved site was the parotid, followed by the submandibular and the minor salivary glands. A prevalence of clinical stages III and IV was observed at diagnosis. The most common histological subtypes were salivary duct carcinoma, adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, myoepithelial carcinoma, and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma. Moreover, by invasive phase, most were frankly invasive carcinoma. Recurrence was observed in seven out of 24 patients with outcome information available, and all were invasive cases. All seven patients died of causes related to the disease. The distributions of cases according to age, gender, tumour location, and clinical stage were similar to those reported in the literature. Frankly invasive cases presented a worse prognosis. More information is needed to further our understanding of the clinico-pathological aspects of CXPA.

  17. Corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome caused by an ectopic adrenal adenoma. (United States)

    Ayala, A R; Basaria, S; Udelsman, R; Westra, W H; Wand, G S


    Although nonsecreting suprarenal embryonic remnants are frequently found in the urogenital tract, adenomatous transformation resulting in glucocorticoid excess is a rare phenomenon. We report a case of a 63-yr-old woman that presented with new-onset hirsutism, facial plethora, hypertension, centripetal obesity, and a proximal myopathy. The 24-h urinary free cortisol excretion rate was elevated, and the serum ACTH level was suppressed. The patient failed an overnight and low dose dexamethasone suppression test and did not respond to CRH stimulation. In light of the undetectable baseline morning ACTH levels and the blunt response to CRH, the diagnosis of corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome was made. Imaging studies revealed normal adrenal glands and enlargement of a left pararenal nodule incidentally observed 4 yr before the onset of symptoms. Dramatic resolution of symptoms was observed after surgical removal of the 3.5-cm mass. Pathological exam confirmed adrenocortical adenoma in ectopic adrenal tissue. The case reported here represents the unusual circumstance in which the development of adenomatous transformation of ectopic adrenal tissue has been prospectively observed with imaging studies. It illustrates the importance of considering ectopic corticosteroid-secreting tumors in the context of corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome.

  18. Normal sweat secretion despite impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M;


    Adults with GH deficiency are known to exhibit reduced sweating. Whether sweating capacity is impacted in obese subjects with impaired GH secretion have not previously been investigated. The main objective was to investigate sweat secretion rate and the GH-IGF-I axis in obese subjects before......, and impaired insulin sensitivity, which all were normalised after diet-induced weight loss of 30 ± 5 kg. Sweat secretion rates were similar comparing obese and nonobese subjects (78 ± 10 versus 82 ± 9 mg/30 minutes) and sweat secretion did not change after a diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects. We...... conclude that although obese subjects have markedly reduced GH release and impaired IGF-I levels, sweat secretion rate is found to be normal....

  19. Salivary gland branching morphogenesis: a quantitative systems analysis of the Eda/Edar/NFκB paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnick Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ectodysplasin-A appears to be a critical component of branching morphogenesis. Mutations in mouse Eda or human EDA are associated with absent or hypoplastic sweat glands, sebaceous glands, lacrimal glands, salivary glands (SMGs, mammary glands and/or nipples, and mucous glands of the bronchial, esophageal and colonic mucosa. In this study, we utilized EdaTa (Tabby mutant mice to investigate how a marked reduction in functional Eda propagates with time through a defined genetic subcircuit and to test the proposition that canonical NFκB signaling is sufficient to account for the differential expression of developmentally regulated genes in the context of Eda polymorphism. Results The quantitative systems analyses do not support the stated hypothesis. For most NFκB-regulated genes, the observed time course of gene expression is nearly unchanged in Tabby (EdaTa as compared to wildtype mice, as is NFκB itself. Importantly, a subset of genes is dramatically differentially expressed in Tabby (Edar, Fgf8, Shh, Egf, Tgfa, Egfr, strongly suggesting the existence of an alternative Eda-mediated transcriptional pathway pivotal for SMG ontogeny. Experimental and in silico investigations have identified C/EBPα as a promising candidate. Conclusion In Tabby SMGs, upregulation of the Egf/Tgfα/Egfr pathway appears to mitigate the potentially severe abnormal phenotype predicted by the downregulation of Fgf8 and Shh. Others have suggested that the buffering of the phenotypic outcome that is coincident with variant Eda signaling could be a common mechanism that permits viable and diverse phenotypes, normal and abnormal. Our results support this proposition. Further, if branching epithelia use variations of a canonical developmental program, our results are likely applicable to understanding the phenotypes of other branching organs affected by Eda (EDA mutation.

  20. Management of Duodenal Adenomas Involving the Ampulla of Vater – A Warning against Limited Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Rossaak


    Full Text Available Duodenal adenomas are uncommon, however, when present a proportion have dysplasia associated with the adenoma and therefore require treatment. The options range from less invasive endoscopic treatments to a pancreaticoduodenectomy. This case report describes two patients with adenomas involving the ampulla of Vater. One patient had familial adenomatous polyposis, the other was a renal transplant patient with a large adenoma. Both patients’ adenomas contained high-grade dysplasia. Both patients underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy. Histology of both specimens demonstrated that the adenoma had migrated up the bile duct for at least 7 mm, and the pancreatic duct for 8 mm in one patient. Limited resection of ampullary adenomas may leave residual adenomatous tissue in the bile duct with the risk of recurrent adenomatous disease and malignant transformation.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU Zhao-de; LI Zi-yu; XIE Yu-quan; JI Jia-fu; SU Xiang-qian


    Objective: To evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics of rectal cancer diagnosed as adenoma in biopsy. Methods: 50 rectal cancer cases diagnosed as adenoma in biopsy were analyzed retrospectively in this study by comparing the biopsy and postoperative pathology. Results: Among these 50 patients, biopsy pathology showed 26% (13/50) adenoma with mild dysplasia, 30% (15/50) adenoma with moderate dysplasia, and 44% (22/50) adenoma with severe dysplasia. In 8 cases, the adenomas were smaller than 2cm. On postoperatively surgical pathology, only 10 cases were carcinoma-in-situ, while 40 cases were invasive cancer. Conclusion: Special emphasis should be taken to biopsy-negative rectal adenomas and those smaller than 2cm.

  2. Evidence for colorectal sarcomatoid carcinoma arising from tubulovillous adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Sarcomatoid carcinomas of the colorectum are rare tu- mors that display both malignant epithelial and stromal components. Clinically, they are aggressive tumors with early metastasis. Due to their infrequent occurrence, the pathogenesis is poorly understood. We report a case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with a rectal mass and intermittent hematochezia. Superficial biopsies during colonoscopy revealed a tubulovillous adenoma with high-grade dysplasia. Endoscopic ultra- sonography confirmed an invasive nature of the mass, and deeper biopsies revealed the presence of neoplasm with mixed histological components. The surgically- excised specimen demonstrated the presence of poorly differentiated spindle cells underneath the tubulovillous adenoma and an intermediate stage of invasive acleno- carcinoma. Based on the histological appearance and imrnunohistochemical studies, a diagnosis of sarcoma- toid carcinoma was made. Only nine cases of sarcoma- told carcinomas of the colorectum have been reported to date. As a result, the terminology and pathogenesis of sarcomatoid carcinoma remain speculative. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of co- existence of sarcomatoid carcinoma and invasive ad-enocarcinoma with tubulovillous adenoma; all stagesrepres ented within the same tumor. This observation supports the "monoclonal theory" of pathogenesis with an adenoma-sarcoma progression with or without an intermediate stage of carcinoma.

  3. Clinico-pathological aspects of colorectal serrated adenomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish Chandra; Adnan A Sheikh; Anton Cerar; Ian C Talbot


    AIM: To study the association of colorectal serrated adenomas (SAs) with invasive carcinoma, local recurrence, synchronicity and metachronicity of lesions.METHODS: A total of 4536 polyps from 1096patients over an eight-year period (1987-1995) were retrospectively examined. Adenomas showing at least 50% of serrated architecture were called SAs by three reviewing pathologists.RESULTS: Ninety-one (2%) of all polyps were called SAs, which were found in 46 patients. Invasive carcinomas were seen in 3 out of 46 (6.4%) patients, of whom one was a case of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). A male preponderance was noted and features of a mild degree of dysplasia were seen in majority (n=75,83%) of serrated adenomas. Follow-up ranged 1-12years with a mean time of 5.75 years. Recurrences of SAs were seen in 3 (6.4%) cases, synchronous SAs in 16 (34.8%) cases and metachronous SAs in 9 (19.6%)cases.CONCLUSION: Invasive carcinoma arising in serrated adenoma is rare, accounting for 2 (4.3%) cases studied in this series.

  4. Adrenal myelolipoma within myxoid cortical adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-sheng LU; Mei-fu GAN; Han-song CHEN; Shan-qiang HUANG


    The coexistence of myelolipoma within adrenal cortical adenoma is extremely rare, for both tumors present usually as separate entities. There are only 16 such cases reported worldwide. To the best of our knowledge, the case we reported here is the first one of myxoid adrenal cortical adenoma associated with myelolipoma reported. A 32-year-old Chinese woman with 4-year history of hypertension was presented in our study. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed a large heterogeneously-enhancing mass (4.5cm in diameter) in the left suprarenal region. Clinical history and laboratory results suggest a metabolic disorder as Conn's syndrome. The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy, and a histopathological study confirmed the mass to be a myxoid adrenal cortical adenoma containing myelolipoma. The patient was postoperatively well and discharged uneventfully. In the present case report, we also discuss the etiology of simultaneous myelolipoma and adrenal adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome, and the methods of the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.

  5. Outcomes following Purely Endoscopic Endonasal Resection of Pituitary adenomas

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    Rezaul Amin


    Full Text Available Background: The use of endoscope for the management of pituitary adenoma is not new. The better magnification and illumination provided by the endoscope gives better outcome than microscopic pituitary surgery. Objective: To find out the benefits of endoscope in relation to microscopic surgery. Materials and Methods: We performed 45 cases of pituitary adenoma surgery by endoscopic endonasal approach from July 2008 to July 2010. Results: Forty five cases underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal approach. Gross total removal was done in 35 cases and subtotal removal was done in 10 cases. Residual tumours were seen in 10 cases (22% in postoperative follow-up MRI scan. Visual improvement was satisfactory, and hormonal improvement of functional adenoma was nice. Postoperative visual acuity and visual field were improved in 75% cases. There were 37% cases of temporary diabetes insipidus and about 4.5% cases of permanent diabetes insipidus. The average duration of follow-up was 20 months. One patient required reexploration to correct visual deterioration in the immediate postoperative period. There were 4.5% cases of CSF leak and 6.6% mortality. Mortality was due to electrolyte imbalance and improper management of infection and hydrocephalus. Conclusion: Endoscopic endonasal pituitary surgery now has become a gold standard surgery for most of the pituitary adenomas because of its better advantages in relation to microscopic surgery and less complications and less hospital stay.

  6. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in the treatment of pituitary adenomas

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    Kopp, C.; Theodorou, M.; Poullos, N.; Astner, S.T.; Geinitz, H.; Molls, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie; Stalla, G.K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Psychiatrie, Muenchen (Germany). Klinische Neuroendokrinologie; Meyer, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik; Nieder, C. [Nordland Hospital, Bodoe (Norway). Dept. of Oncology and Palliative Medicine; Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Grosu, A.L [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde


    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate tumor control and side effects associated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in the management of residual or recurrent pituitary adenomas. Patients and methods: We report on 37 consecutive patients with pituitary adenomas treated with FSRT at our department. All patients had previously undergone surgery. Twenty-nine patients had nonfunctioning, 8 had hormone-producing adenoma. The mean total dose delivered by a linear accelerator was 49.4 Gy (range 45-52.2 Gy), 5 x 1.8 Gy weekly. The mean PTV was 22.8 ccm (range 2.0-78.3 ccm). Evaluation included serial imaging tests, endocrinologic and ophthalmologic examination. Results: Tumor control was 91.9 % for a median follow-up time of 57 months (range 2-111 months). Before FSRT partial hypopituitarism was present in 41 % of patients, while 35 % had anterior panhypopituitarism. After FSRT pituitary function remained normal in 22 %, 43 % had partial pituitary dysfunction, and 35 % had anterior panhypopituitarism. Visual acuity was stable in 76 % of patients, improved in 19 %, and deteriorated in 5 %. Visual fields remained stable in 35 patients (95 %), improved in one and worsened in 1 patient (2.7 %). Conclusion: FSRT is an effective and safe treatment for recurrent or residual pituitary adenoma. Good local tumor control and preservation of adjacent structures can be reached, even for large tumors. (orig.)

  7. The pathology of pituitary adenomas from a clinical perspective. (United States)

    Dworakowska, Dorota; Korbonits, Marta; Aylwin, Simon; McGregor, Alan; Grossman, Ashley B


    Pituitary adenomas present with a variety of clinical endocrine manifestations and arise in a sporadic setting or rarely as part of hereditary genetic syndromes. Molecular analysis of familial pituitary adenomas has provided significant insight into pituitary tumorigenesis. Some specific genes have been identified that predispose to pituitary neoplasia, but these are rarely involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic tumors. The number of identified genes involved in pituitary tumorigenesis is progressively increasing. The possible resulting mechanisms of action involve abnormalities in signal transduction pathways, cell cycle regulators, growth factors, chromosome stability and others. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical significance of genetic alterations and their implications for patient prognosis, as well as to identify targets for existing and new therapeutic options. The aim of this review is to focus on the molecular pathology of pituitary adenomas from a practical perspective and discuss the possible clinical implications which may relate to particular molecular alterations. We have summarised familial syndromes related to pituitary adenomas and considered the prognostic value of selected molecular alterations in these tumors.

  8. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.


    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  9. Role of radionuclide scintigraphy in the detection of parathyroid adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh N


    Full Text Available Background: Preoperative detection of parathyroid adenoma is a diagnostic challenge. The sonography and computerized tomography (CT scan demonstrate high sensitivity but low specificity. The advent of radionuclide scanning technique has enhanced the specificity in this context. Aim: We undertook a study to assess the role of radionuclide scanning in suspected cases of parathyroid adenomas. Materials And Methods: Totally 28 cases were incorporated in the study. The suspicion was raised either due to raised PTH levels or recurrent calcinosis. Most of these patients had estimation of calcium done as a routine or specific investigation. The parathyroid scan was performed using either of the two techniques - Dual isotope subtraction or Sestamibi washout technique. We also used the recent approach of fusion imaging (CT + tomographic nuclear images in selected cases. Results: There were 16 true positive, 10 true negative, 1 false negative and 1 equivocal scan findings. The findings were compared with sonography, CT Scan and PTH values. The true positive yield in our study was 57%, true negative 35% and the overall sensitivity and specificity was found to be 94% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that parathyroid scintigraphy is a reliable and sensitive technique in the preoperative detection of parathyroid adenomas and should be the first choice of imaging modality in suspicion of parathyroid adenoma.

  10. Systematic review of hepatocellular adenoma in China and other regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Lin; J. van den Esschert; C. Liu; T.M. van Gulik


    Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a benign liver neoplasm with a risk of spontaneous bleeding and malignant transformation. The aim of this review article is to review all the case reports and case series of patients with HCA from 1998 to 2008 in China and other parts of the world in order to compare

  11. [Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism with sella turcica tumor syndrome: gonadotropic adenoma?]. (United States)

    Sidibe, E H


    A 43-year-old patient, known for infertility for ten years, presented hypogonadism (low libido, impotence, low testosteronemia) with hypergonadotropism (high FSH contrasting with low LH) and a tumor syndrome of the sella turcica. The biological, immunohistochemical and clinical features of gonadotropic adenoma are presented.

  12. Profiling of adrenocorticotropic hormone and arginine vasopressin in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS. (United States)

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R; Changelian, Armen; Laws, Edward R; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie Y R; Van Berkel, Gary J


    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections, using a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectrometric detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this method and data obtained with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland. AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis), and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH-secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH-secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared with non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis, as expected. This work reveals that a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS-MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, including AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity, and specificity of this method support the potential of this basic technology, with further advancement, for assisting surgical decision-making. Graphical Abstract Mass spectrometry based profiling of hormones in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections.

  13. Unusual mixed gangliocytoma-pituitary adenoma in sellar region

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    Jie-tian JIN


    Full Text Available Background The presence of ganglion cells within an endocrine pituitary adenoma in sellar region is rare, and is usually diagnosed as "mixed gangliocytoma-pituitary adenoma". Due to lack of radiological characteristics, it is very difficult to make an accurate diagnosis preoperatively. Herein we describe one case of unusual mixed gangliocytoma - growth hormone (GH secreting pituitary adenoma in sellar region and review related literatures, so as to summarize the clinicopathological characteristics and improve the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this tumor. Methods and Results A 28 - year - old female presented with headache and blurred vision for 8 months. She also complained of acromegaly and amenorrhea. Head CT and MRI examinations showed a sellar and suprasellar mass with clear boundary compressing the optic chiasm and buttom of the third ventricle. The mass exhibited isointense signal or mild hypointensity on T1WI and mild hyperintensity on T2WI with heterogeneous enhancement on the contrast MRI. The tumor was removed totally. The histological sections demonstrated two parts of intermixed areas. One part of areas was marked by a proliferation of scattered gangliocyte - like cells arranged in a fibrillary background. Other areas were marked by a sheet - like or locally papillary proliferation of round and oval cells. Immunohistochemically, cytoplasm of gangliocyte-cells were diffusely positive for synaptophysin (Syn, and negative for adenohypophysial hormones; cytoplasm of round and oval cells were diffusely positive for Syn, and almost 30% cells were positive for GH, and negative for other neurohypophysial hormones. A final diagnosis of mixed gangliocytoma-GH secreting pituitary adenoma in sellar region (WHO grade Ⅰ was made. The patient did not receive postoperatively adjuvant therapy and was followed-up for one year, without any neurological deficit or signs of recurrence. Conclusions Mixed gangliocytoma - pituitary


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novianto Ari Wibowo


    Full Text Available Iklan merupakan jembatan  yang menghubungkan antara perusahaan dengan konsumen. Saat ini belanja iklan di Indonesia kategori makanan dan minuman tergolong paling banyak mengeluarkan anggaran besar untuk iklan. Dari data yang di olah oleh AGB Nielsen Media Research Indonesia memperlihatkan bahwa kategori belanja iklan minuman lebih banyak peminat dibanding kategori makanan. Maka dari itu penulis lebih tertarik untuk membuat iklan kategori minuman, yaitu tentang minuman isotonic berjudul “Iklan Animasi 3D Pocari Sweat Youth Sweet Beautiful Versi Pinokio”. Berdasarkan Frontier Consulting Group Pocari Sweat terpilih menjadi Market Leader dan menjadi Top Brand Index selama 3 tahun terakhir. Penulis bertujuan menjadikan pocari sweat sebagai Market Leader di tahun berikutnya. Penulis membuat iklan animasi berbasis full 3D karena dalam pembuatan iklan animasi tidak membutuhkan model manusia sehingga lebih menghemat biaya dan waktu, karya yang penulis buat merupakan redesain yang menggabungkan antara iklan pocari sweat versi pinokio dan versi youth sweet beautiful yang diperankan oleh model cantik dan imut yang sampai sekarang iklan ini membius dan membuat penasaran masyarakat. Pembuatan iklan 3D dibutuhkan software-software untuk membangun sebuah karakter dan efek animasi, penulis menggunakan software 3D Max 2010 untuk karakter dan efek animasinya. Iklan Pocari Sweat merupakan iklan reminder dimana iklan ini membuat pocari sweat menjadi suatu kebutuhan bagi setiap orang dalam beraktifitas. Dalam berkreativitas membuat karya iklan animasi 3D lebih dianjurkan menggunakan software yang bersifat free atau open source agar karya yang kita komersilkan bebas dari biaya penggunaan software tersebut. Kata kunci : 3D, animasi, iklan, pocari sweat, redesign

  15. Cryopreservation of Parathyroid Glands

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    Marlon A. Guerrero


    Full Text Available The risk of permanent hypoparathyroidism following thyroid and parathyroid surgery is around 1% in the hands of experienced endocrine surgeons. Although this complication is rare, rendering a patient permanently aparathyroid has significant consequences on the health and quality of life of the patient. Immediate autotransplantation of parathyroid glands that are injured or unintentionally removed offers the best possibility of graft viability and functionality. However, since the majority of cases of hypoparathyroidism are transient, immediate autotransplantation can complicate postoperative surveillance in certain patients, especially those with primary hyperparathyroidism. Cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue is an alternate technique that was developed to treat patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism. This method allows for parathyroid tissue to be stored and then autotransplanted in a delayed fashion once permanent hypoparathyroidism is confirmed. This article provides a contemporary review on cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue and its current role in thyroid and parathyroid surgery.

  16. Organizing the thymus gland. (United States)

    Muñoz, Juan José; García-Ceca, Javier; Alfaro, David; Stimamiglio, Marco Augusto; Cejalvo, Teresa; Jiménez, Eva; Zapata, Agustín G


    Eph receptors and their ligands, ephrins, are molecules involved in the morphogenesis of numerous tissues, including the central nervous system in which they play a key role in determining cell positioning and tissue domains containing or excluding nerve fibers. Because common features have been suggested to occur in the microenvironmental organization of brain and thymus, a highly compartmentalized organ central for T cell differentiation, we examined the expression and possible role of Eph/ephrins in the biology of the thymus gland. We reviewed numerous in vivo and in vitro results that confirm a role for Eph and ephrins in the maturation of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC) network and T cell differentiation. Their possible involvement in different steps of early thymus organogenesis, including thymus primordium branching, lymphoid colonization, and thymocyte-TEC interactions, that determine the organization of a mature three-dimensional thymic epithelial network is also analyzed.

  17. [Expression of CD10 in tumor-associated fibroblast of cancerized or recurrent colorectal adenomas]. (United States)

    Zheng, Jiangjiang; Zhu, Yin; Li, Changshui; Li, Yinya; Nie, Qianqian; Zhu, Ziling; Deng, Hong


    Objective: To investigate the expression of CD10 in tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF) in colorectal adenomas and its relation to cancerization and recurrence of adenoma. Methods: Tissue samples of low-grade adenoma (n=50), high-grade adenoma (n=50) and colorectal adenocarcinoma (n=50) were collected, and tissue samples at the distal margin of corresponding colorectal lesions were taken as controls. The expression of CD10 in the stromal TAFs, and the expressions of β-catenin, Ki-67, p53 and CyclinD1 in tumor cells were detected by immunohistochemistry (Envision). The correlation of CD10 expression in stromal TAFs with the expressions of β-catenin, Ki-67, p53 and CyclinD1 in tumor cells was analyzed by Spearmen. One hundred samples of low-grade colorectal adenoma were collected, including 57 non-recurrent cases and 43 recurrent cases (16 cases of recurrent adenoma and 27 cases of recurrent adenocarcinoma); the expression of stromal TAF CD10 were determined and compared among groups. Results: There was no TAF in normal colorectal mucosa. The expression rates of TAF CD10 in low-grade adenoma, high-grade adenoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma were 22%, 50% and 78%, respectively (all P0.05). The expression of p53 in colorectal adenocarcinoma and high-grade adenoma was higher than that in low grade adenoma (all P0.05). The TAF CD10 level was significantly higher in low-grade adenoma with recurrence than that in those without recurrence (Pcancer, indicating that it may play an important role in the canceration of adenoma. Adenomas with high expression of CD10 TAF are likely to be recurrent and cancerized, and detection of TAF CD10 combined with p53, Ki-67 and β-catenin may be of value in predicting canceration or recurrence of colorectal adenoma.

  18. Characterization of Coastal Hydraulics: Simple Tools and Sweat Equity (United States)

    McInnis, D.; Fertenbaugh, C.; Orou-Pete, S.; Mullen, A.; Smith, C.; Silliman, S. E.; Yalo, N.; Boukari, M.


    Field efforts are targeted at providing characterization of surface / subsurface interaction along coastal Benin as part of an overall research effort examining coastal hydrology and salt-water intrusion near the large urban center of Cotonou, Benin. Specifically, efforts at adapting an existing numerical model indicate substantial sensitivity of the model results to assumed conditions in a vast region of interconnected fresh-water / salt-water lagoons which are home to a distributed human population. Limits on funding for this project resulted in choice of a series of field techniques that focused predominantly on manual labor (truly sweat equity of undergraduate and graduate students from Benin and the United States) in order to characterize the shallow (less than 10 meters) hydrology and geochemistry of this coastal region. An integrated picture is therefore being developed through application of shallow geochemical analysis to depths less than 10 meters (collection of samples using a manual direct-push drilling method based on a Geoprobe® apparatus and chemical analyses of Cl, Na, Br, Fl, and conductivity performed using specific-ion electrodes), monitoring of the rate of advance of the direct-push to determine vertical distribution of sediment resistance, a home-made falling-head field permeameter to measure shallow (less than 2 meters) permeabilities, manually installed, multi-level piezometers at several points within Lake Nokoue (a large, shallow-water lake bordering Cotonou and the southern coast), and electrical resistivity imaging (using an entry-level resistivity assembly). All tests are performed by students and faculty from the U.S. and Benin, with plans in place for the Benin students to return multiple times per year to monitor changes at the field stations. Results to date have provided significant insight into spatial structure within the surface/subsurface that was not apparent in either satellite imagery or ground-level inspection of the region

  19. Spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of experimental Wistar rats and beagle dogs. (United States)

    Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R


    A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ∼110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The


    Arakawa, Yoshiki; Mizowaki, Takashi; Ogura, Kengo; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Hojo, Masato; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Susumu; Murata, Daiki


    BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy is an available treatment modality for pituitary adenoma. In particular, it is effective for the case unable to be removed with surgery or repeating recurrence. However, hypopituitarism and optic nerve injury associated with radiation therapy become a problem. Novalis® (Brain Lab) is an equipment of radiation to establish the detailed irradiation area, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (fSRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Retrospectively, we review local control and morbidity following fSRT with Novalis in pituitary adenoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2007 and 2012, 29 patients with pituitary adenoma (9 functioning, 20 non-functioning) received fSRT with Novalis in our institute. Total radiation dose was 50.4-54Gy (1.8 Gy per fraction) and prescribed to the gross target volume + 2 mm. The effectiveness of fSRT was evaluated by tumor volume and clinical symptoms on pre- fSRT, and every 1-year. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 59.1 months (20 to 83 months). Tumor regrowth was observed in 2 cases. Progression free survival rate was 93%. New visual field deficit was observed in 1 case, and new pituitary dysfunction were not observed in all patients. CONCLUSION: fSRT with Novalis is safe and effective in the treatment for pituitary adenoma. Although follow-up time is short, any problematic complications were not observed. In the future, fSRT is expected to make for safe and effective treatment in pituitary adenoma impossible to cure surgically.