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Sample records for adeno-associated virus-mediated microrna

  1. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated microRNA delivery into the postnatal mouse brain reveals a role for miR-134 in dendritogenesis in vivo

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    Mette Christensen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies using primary neuronal cultures have revealed important roles of the microRNA pathway in the regulation of neuronal development and morphology. For example, miR-134 is involved in dendritogenesis and spine development in hippocampal neurons by regulating local mRNA translation in dendrites. The in vivo roles of microRNAs in these processes are still uninvestigated, partly due to the lack of tools enabling stable in vivo delivery of microRNAs or microRNA inhibitors into neurons of the mammalian brain. Here we describe the construction and validation of a vector-based tool for stable delivery of microRNAs in vivo by use of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV. rAAV-mediated overexpression of miR-134 in neurons of the postnatal mouse brain provided evidence for a negative role of miR-134 in dendritic arborization of cortical layer V pyramidal neurons in vivo, thereby confirming previous findings obtained with cultured neurons. Our system provides researchers with a unique tool to study the role of any candidate microRNA in vivo and can easily be adapted to microRNA loss-of-function studies. This platform should therefore greatly facilitate investigations on the role of microRNAs in synapse development, plasticity and behavior in vivo.

  2. Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated microRNA Delivery into the Postnatal Mouse Brain Reveals a Role for miR-134 in Dendritogenesis in Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Larsen, Lars A; Kauppinen, Sakari;

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies using primary neuronal cultures have revealed important roles of the microRNA pathway in the regulation of neuronal development and morphology. For example, miR-134 is involved in dendritogenesis and spine development in hippocampal neurons by regulating local mRNA translation...

  3. Adeno-associated virus mediated delivery of Tregitope 167 ameliorates experimental colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sander van der Marel; Anna Majowicz; Karin Kwikkers; Richard van Logtenstein; Anje A te Velde; Anne S De Groot; Sybren L Meijer

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To explore the anti-inflammatory potential of adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of Tregitope 167 in an experimental colitis model.METHODS:The trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) model of induced colitis was used in Balb/c mice.Subsequently after intravenous adeno-associated virusmediated regulatory T-cell epitopes (Tregitope) delivery,acute colitis was initiated by intra-rectal administration of 1.5 mg TNBS in 40% ethanol followed by a second treatment with TNBS (0.75 mg in 20% ethanol) 8 d later.Control groups included mice not treated with TNBS (healthy control group) and mice treated by TNBS only (diseased group).At the time of sacrifice colon weight,the disease activity index and histology damage score were determined.Immunohistochemical staining of the colonic tissues was performed to asses the cellular infiltrate and the presence of transcription factor forkhead Box-P3 (Foxp3).Thymus,mesenteric lymph nodes,liver and spleen tissue were collected and the corresponding lymphocyte populations were further assessed by flow cytometry analysis for the expression of CD4+ T cell and regulatory T cell associated markers.RESULTS:The Tregitope 167 treated mice gained an average of 4% over their initial body weight at the time of sacrifice.In contrast,the mice treated with TNBS alone (no Tregitope) developed colitis,and lost 4% of their initial body weight at the time of sacrifice (P < 0.01).The body weight increase that had been observed in the mice pre-treated with Tregitope 167 was substantiated by a lower disease activity index and a decreased colon weight as compared to the diseased control group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001,respectively).Immunohistochemical staining of the colonic tissues for CD4+ showed that inflammatory cell infiltrates were present in TNBS treated mice with or without administration with tregitope 167 and that these cellular infiltrates consisted mainly of CD4+ cells.For both TNBS treated groups CD4+ T cell infiltrates were

  4. Adeno-associated Virus Mediated LacZ Gene Transfect to Cultured Human Iris Pigment Epithelium Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Zhang; Shibo Tang; Yan Luo; Xiaoling Liang; Jing Ma; Shaofen Lin

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To study the feasibility of adeno-associated virus mediated gene transfection tocultured human iris pigment epithelium (IPE) cells in vitro.Methods: Recombinant replication deficient adeno-associated viruses (AAV) expressingLacZ gene were produced without helper virus. The LacZ gene was transduced into culturedhuman IPE cells.Results: Cultured human IPE cells stained positively anticytokeratin, The titer ofrAAV-LacZ was 2.1 × 108 virus particles/ml, 42% cultured human IPE cells expressedβ-galactosidase 7 days after transfection and 67% after 14 days.Conclusions: Recombined AAV produced without helper virus can transfer a foreign geneinto human IPE cells with high efficiency in vitro.

  5. Adeno-associated virus mediated gene therapy for retinal degenerative diseases.

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    Stieger, Knut; Cronin, Therese; Bennett, Jean; Rolling, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    Retinal gene therapy holds great promise for the treatment of inherited and noninherited blinding diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. The most widely used vectors for ocular gene delivery are based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) because it mediates long-term transgene expression in a variety of retinal cell types and elicits minimal immune responses. Inherited retinal diseases are nonlethal and have a wide level of genetic heterogeneity. Many of the genes have now been identified and their function elucidated, providing a major step towards the development of gene-based treatments. Extensive preclinical evaluation of gene transfer strategies in small and large animal models is key to the development of successful gene-based therapies for the retina. These preclinical studies have already allowed the field to reach the point where gene therapy to treat inherited blindness has been brought to clinical trial.In this chapter, we focus on AAV-mediated specific gene therapy for inherited retinal degenerative diseases, describing the disease targets, the preclinical studies in animal models and the recent success of the LCA-RPE65 clinical trials.

  6. Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Gene Transfer to Renal Tubule Cells via a Retrograde Ureteral Approach

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    Daniel C. Chung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Gene therapy involves delivery of exogenous DNA to provide a therapeutic protein. Ideally, a gene therapy vector should be non-toxic, non-immunogenic, easy to produce, and efficient in protecting and delivering DNA into target cells. Methods: Adeno-associated virus (AAV offers these advantages and few, if any, disadvantages, and over 100 isolates exist. We previously showed that AAV-mediated gene therapy can be used to restore vision to patients with Leber’s congenital amaurosis, a disease of childhood blindness. Results: Here we show that novel recombinant AAV2/8 and AAV2/9 transduce kidney tubule cells with high efficiency both in vitroin cell culture and in vivoin mice. In addition, we adapted and modified a retrograde approach to allow for optimal transgene delivery to renal tubular cells that further minimizes the risk of an immunogenic reaction. Conclusions: We believe that recombinant AAV2, especially AAV2/8, gene delivery to renal tubule cells via a retrograde approach represents a viable method for gene therapy for a multitude of renal disorders ranging from autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease to acute kidney injury.

  7. Adeno-associated virus-mediated human IL-10 gene transfer suppresses the development of experimental autoimmune orchitis.

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    Watanabe, M; Kashiwakura, Y; Kusumi, N; Tamayose, K; Nasu, Y; Nagai, A; Shimada, T; Daida, H; Kumon, H

    2005-07-01

    Testicular germ cell-induced autoimmune orchitis is characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration followed by disturbance of spermatogenesis. Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is an animal model for human immunological male infertility; delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response plays a key role in its induction. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a regulatory cytokine that is critical in preventing organ-specific autoimmune inflammation. To determine the effects on EAO of human IL-10 (hIL-10) gene transfer, C3H/He mice immunized by unilateral testicular injury were administered intramuscular (i.m.) injections of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-encoding hIL-10 on the day of immunization. Serum hIL-10 was detected beginning at 1 week postinjection, and peaked at 3 weeks. Histological examinations showed a significantly low incidence of orchitis and disturbance of spermatogenesis in AAV hIL-10-treated mice, and the DTH response to autologous testicular cells was significantly suppressed. Immunohistochemical analysis of IFN- and IL-2, T-cell-associated cytokines, in the spleen and testes revealed significantly fewer cytokine-expressing cells after treatment. We conclude that a single i.m. administration of AAV hIL-10 significantly suppresses EAO and hypospermatogenesis by regulating cell-mediated immunity in the testes.

  8. Adeno-associated virus-mediated doxycycline-regulatable TRAIL expression suppresses growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice

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    Zheng Liu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL functions as a cytokine to selectively kill various cancer cells without toxicity to most normal cells. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential use of recombinant soluble TRAIL as a cancer therapeutic agent. We have showed previous administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV vector expressing soluble TRAIL results in an efficient suppression of human tumor growth in nude mice. In the present study, we introduced Tet-On gene expression system into the rAAV vector to control the soluble TRAIL expression and evaluate the efficiency of the system in cancer gene therapy. Methods Controllability of the Tet-On system was determined by luciferase activity assay, and Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The breast cancer xenograft animal model was established and recombinant virus was administrated through tail vein injection to evaluate the tumoricidal activity. Results The expression of soluble TRAIL could be strictly controlled by the Tet-On system in both normal and cancer cells. Transduction of human cancer cell lines with rAAV-TRE-TRAIL&rAAV-Tet-On under the presence of inducer doxycycline resulted in a considerable cell death by apoptosis. Intravenous injection of the recombinant virus efficiently suppressed the growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice when activated by doxycycline. Conclusion These data suggest that rAAV-mediated soluble TRAIL expression under the control of the Tet-On system is a promising strategy for breast cancer therapy.

  9. Adeno-associated virus-mediated rescue of the cognitive defects in a mouse model for Angelman syndrome.

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    Jennifer L Daily

    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome (AS, a genetic disorder occurring in approximately one in every 15,000 births, is characterized by severe mental retardation, seizures, difficulty speaking and ataxia. The gene responsible for AS was discovered to be UBE3A and encodes for E6-AP, an ubiquitin ligase. A unique feature of this gene is that it undergoes maternal imprinting in a neuron-specific manner. In the majority of AS cases, there is a mutation or deletion in the maternally inherited UBE3A gene, although other cases are the result of uniparental disomy or mismethylation of the maternal gene. While most human disorders characterized by severe mental retardation involve abnormalities in brain structure, no gross anatomical changes are associated with AS. However, we have determined that abnormal calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII regulation is seen in the maternal UBE3A deletion AS mouse model and is responsible for the major phenotypes. Specifically, there is an increased αCaMKII phosphorylation at the autophosphorylation sites Thr(286 and Thr(305/306, resulting in an overall decrease in CaMKII activity. CaMKII is not produced until after birth, indicating that the deficits associated with AS are not the result of developmental abnormalities. The present studies are focused on exploring the potential to rescue the learning and memory deficits in the adult AS mouse model through the use of an adeno-associated virus (AAV vector to increase neuronal UBE3A expression. These studies show that increasing the levels of E6-AP in the brain using an exogenous vector can improve the cognitive deficits associated with AS. Specifically, the associative learning deficit was ameliorated in the treated AS mice compared to the control AS mice, indicating that therapeutic intervention may be possible in older AS patients.

  10. Adeno-associated virus-mediated Bcl-xL prevents aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss in mice

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    LIU Yu-he; KE Xiao-mei; QIN Yong; GU Zhi-ping; XIAO Shui-fang

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent studies showed that aminoglycosides destroyed the cochlear cells and induced ototoxicity by producing reactive oxygen species, including free radicals in the mitochondria, damaging the membrane of mitochondria and resulting in apoptotic cell death. Bcl-xL is a well characterized anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. The aim of this study was to determine the potential cochlear protective effect of Bcl-xL as a therapeutic agent in the murine model of aminoglycoside ototoxicity.Methods Serotype 2 of adeno-associated virus (AAV2) as a vector encoding the mouse Bcl-xL gene was injected into mice cochleae prior to injection of kanamycin. Bcl-xL expression in vitro and in vivo was examined with Western blotting and immunohistochemistry separately. Cochlear dissection and auditory steady state responses were checked to evaluate the cochlear structure and function.Results The animals in the AAV2-Bcl-xL/kanamycin group displayed better auditory steady state responses hearing thresholds and cochlear structure than those in the artificial perilymph/kanamycin or AAV2-enhanced humanized green fluorescent protein/kanamycin control group at all tested frequencies. The auditory steady state responses hearing thresholds and cochlear structure in the inoculated side were better than that in the contralateral side.Conclusions AAV2-Bcl-xL afforded significant preservation of the cochlear hair cells against ototoxic insults and protected the cochlear function. AAV2-mediated Bcl-xL might be an approach with respect to potential therapeutic application in the cochlear degeneration.

  11. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of antisense angiotensin Ⅱ receptor 1 gene attenuates hypertension development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-guang LI; Jiang-tao YAN; Xi-zheng XU; Jia-ning WANG; Li-ming CHENG; Tao WANG; Ping ZUO; Dao-wen WANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim:The renin-angiotensin system plays a crucial role in the development and establishment of hypertension,and the pharmacological blockade of the system results in a reduction in blood pressure. In the present study,we investigated whether the effects of a novel,double-stranded,recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (rAAV)-mediated antisense angiotensin Ⅱ receptor l (AT1R) gene efficiently prevents the development of hypertension induced by a high-salt diet in adult,male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods:A rAAV was prepared with a cassette containing a cytomegalovirus promoter and partial cDNA (660 base pairs) for the AT1R inserted in the antisense direction (rAAV-AT1AS). A single tail vein injection of the rAAV-AT1-AS or rAAV-GFP (green fluorescent protein,a reporter gene) was performed in adult,male SD rats. Two weeks after injection,the animals were fed a diet containing 8% NaCI,and the systolic blood pressure was measured weekly using the tail-cuff method for 12 weeks. Results:The high-salt diet induced a significant rise in systolic blood pressure in the rAAV-GFP-treated animals;however,the rAAV-AT:AS treatment attenuated the rise in blood pressure (142.7±4.5 mmHg vs 117±3.8 mmHg,P<0.01),and the hypotensive effect was maintained until the experiments ended at 12 weeks. In the rAAV-GFP-treated animals AT1 was overexpressed in various tissues,especially in the aorta and kidney at mRNA levels;in contrast,rAAV-AT:AS treatment markedly attenuated AT1 expression. Furthermore,rAAV-AT:AS treatment prevented target organ damages from hypertension,including cardiac dysfunction and renal injury compared to the rAAV-GFP group. Conclusion:These results suggest that rAAVmediated anti-AT1 delivery attenuates the development of hypertension and protects against renal injury and cardiac remodeling.

  12. Adeno-associated virus mediated interferon-gamma inhibits the progression of hepatic fibrosis in vitro and in vivo

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    Miao Chen; Guang-Ji Wang; Yong Diao; Rui-An Xu; Hai-Tang Xie; Xin-Yan Li; Jian-Guo Sun

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated expression of human interferon-γ for gene therapy in experimental hepatic fibrosisin vitro and in vivo.METHODS: We constructed the recombinant AAV encoding human INF-γ (rAAV- INF-γ) and took the primary rat hepatic stellate cells and carbon tetrachloride induced rats as the experimental hepatic fibrosis model in vitro and in vivo. Immunocytochemistry analysis was used to reveal the expression of α-SMA, the marker protein expressed in hepatic stellate cells. The mRNA expression of TGF-β, TIMP-L, and MMP-13 were analyzed by RT-PCR method. In vivo study, the hydroxyproline content in liver and serum AST, ALT were also detected.RESULTS: In vitro study, AAV vector could mediated efficient expression of human INF-γ,, which inhibit the activation of hepatic stellate cells, decrease the expression of α-SMA and mRNA of TIMP-1, TGF-β, with the MMP-13unchanged. In vivo study, the histological examination revealed that rAAV- INF-γ could inhibit the progression of the hepatic fibrosis. In the rAAV-INF-γ induced group,the hydroxyproline content and serum AST, ALT level were decreased to 177±28 μg/g wet liver, 668.5±140.0,458.4±123.5 U/L, compare with the fibrosis control group 236±31 μg/g wet liver, 1 019.1±276.3, 770.5±154.3 U/L,respectively (P<0.01). mRNA expression of TIMP-1 in the rAAV-INF-γ induced rat liver was decreased while no significant change was observed in TGF-β and MMP-13.CONCLUSION: All these results indicated that rAAV-INF-γhas potential effects for gene therapy of hepatic fibrosis,which could inhibit the progression of hepatic fibrosis.

  13. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated human kallikrein gene therapy protects against hypertensive target organ injuries through inhibiting cell apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-tao YAN; Tao WANG; Dao-wen WANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Overexpression of human tissue kallikrein (HK), mediated by recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV), decreased blood pres-sure in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) and reduced injury to the heart, aorta and kidney. In this study, we used both an in vivo animal model and in vitro cell culture system to investigate whether rAAV-rnediated HK gene therapy protects against organ damage by inhibiting cell apoptosis. Methods: rAAV encoding HK(rAAV-HK) or LacZ(rAAV-lacZ) were delivered as a control to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and cultured human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. Results: Treatment with rAAV-HK decreased cell apoptosis in the target organs of SHRs and also inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-in-duced HEK 293 apoptosis. The rAAV-HK delivery system also increased the levels of apoptosis-inhibiting proteins bcl-2 and bcl-x_L, and decreased the level of Bax and the activity of caspase 3, two promoters of apoptosis. In addition to its role in the inhibition of apopto-sis, rAAV-HK also activated the cell survival and proliferation signaling pathways ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT. Conclusion: rAAV-mediated HK gene delivery has multiple therapeutic possibilities for treating hypertension, not only by decreasing blood pressure, but also by directly inhibiting end-organ damage.

  14. Ocular gene therapy: an evaluation of recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene therapy interventions for the treatment of ocular disease.

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    Roy, Kamolika; Stein, Linda; Kaushal, Shalesh

    2010-08-01

    Both gene replacement therapy and alteration of host gene expression are playing increasingly important roles in the treatment of ocular diseases. Ocular gene therapy may provide alternatives to current treatments for eye diseases that are either greatly invasive and thus run the risk of complications, that offer only short-term relief from disease symptoms, or that are unable to directly treat vision loss. The success of three separate phase I clinical trials investigating a gene therapy intervention for the treatment of the retinal degenerative disorder Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA) has unveiled the therapeutic potential of gene therapy. Preliminary results have demonstrated ocular gene transfer, using nonpathogenic recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors specifically, to be a safe, effective, and long-term treatment for LCA, a previously untreatable disorder. Nonpathogenic rAAV vectors offer the potential for long-term treatment. Many of the genes implicated in human ocular diseases have been identified, and animal models for such diseases have been developed, which have greatly facilitated the application of experimental rAAV-mediated gene therapy. This review highlights the key features of rAAV-mediated gene therapy that make it the most suitable gene therapy treatment approach for ocular diseases. Furthermore, it summarizes the current progress of rAAV-mediated gene therapy interventions/applications for a wide variety of ophthalmologic disorders.

  15. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated human kallikrein gene therapy prevents high-salt diet-induced hypertension without effect on basal blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-tao YAN; Tao WANG; Juan LI; Xiao XIAO; Dao-wen WANG

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of the expression of human kallikrein (HK) on basal level blood pressure and high-salt diet-induced hypertension. Methods: We delivered the recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV)-mediated HK (rAAV-HK) gene and rAAV-LacZ (as the control) to normal, adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were administered a normal diet in the first 4 weeks, followed by a high-salt diet. The expression of HK in the rats was assessed by ELISA and RT-PCR. Blood pressure and Na~ and K~ urinary excretion were monitored. Results: Under the normal diet, no obvious changes in blood pressure and Na+ and K+ urinary excretion were observed. When the high-salt diet was administered, sys-tolic blood pressure in the control animals receiving rAAV-LacZ increased from 122.3±1. 13 mmHg to a stable 142.4±1.77 mmHg 8 weeks after the high-salt diet. In contrast, there was no significant increase in the blood pressure in the rAAV-HK-treated group, in which the blood pressure remained at 121.9±1.73 mmHg. In the rAAV-HK-treated group, Na+ and K+ urinary excretion were higher compared to those of the control group. The morphological analysis showed that HK delivery remarkably protected against renal damage induced by a high-salt intake. Conclusion: Our study indicates that rAAV-mediated human tissue kallikrein gene delivery is a potentially safe method for the long-term treatment of hypertension. More importantly, it could be applied in the salt-sensitive population to prevent the occurrence of hypertension.

  16. Adeno-associated virus mediated delivery of a non-membrane targeted human soluble CD59 attenuates some aspects of diabetic retinopathy in mice.

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    Mehreen Adhi

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of visual dysfunction in working adults and is attributed to retinal vascular and neural cell damage. Recent studies have described elevated levels of membrane attack complex (MAC and reduced levels of membrane associated complement regulators including CD55 and CD59 in the retina of diabetic retinopathy patients as well as in animal models of this disease. We have previously described the development of a soluble membrane-independent form of CD59 (sCD59 that when delivered via a gene therapy approach using an adeno-associated virus vector (AAV2/8-sCD59 to the eyes of mice, can block MAC deposition and choroidal neovascularization. Here, we examine AAV2/8-sCD59 mediated attenuation of MAC deposition and ensuing complement mediated damage to the retina of mice following streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetes. We observed a 60% reduction in leakage of retinal blood vessels in diabetic eyes pre-injected with AAV2/8-sCD59 relative to negative control virus injected diabetic eyes. AAV2/8-sCD59 injected eyes also exhibited protection from non-perfusion of retinal blood vessels. In addition, a 200% reduction in retinal ganglion cell apoptosis and a 40% reduction in MAC deposition were documented in diabetic eyes pre-injected with AAV2/8-sCD59 relative to diabetic eyes pre-injected with the control virus. This is the first study characterizing a viral gene therapy intervention that targets MAC in a model of diabetic retinopathy. Use of AAV2/8-sCD59 warrants further exploration as a potential therapy for advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy.

  17. Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Mini-Agrin Delivery Is Unable to Rescue Disease Phenotype in a Mouse Model of Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2I.

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    Vannoy, Charles H; Zhou, Haowen; Qiao, Chunping; Xiao, Xiao; Bang, Anne G; Lu, Qi L

    2017-02-01

    Agrin is a basement membrane-specific proteoglycan that can regulate orientation of cytoskeleton proteins and improve function of dystrophic skeletal muscle. In skeletal muscle, agrin binds with high affinity to laminin(s) and α-dystroglycan (α-DG), an integral part of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Miniaturized forms of agrin (mAgrin) have been shown to ameliorate disease pathology in a laminin-α2 knockout mouse model of muscular dystrophy, acting as a link between α-DG and laminin(s). Here, we test whether mAgrin might also improve pathologies associated with FKRP-related dystroglycanopathies, another form of muscular dystrophy characterized by weak interactions between muscle and basement membranes. We demonstrate in vitro that mAgrin enhances laminin binding to primary myoblasts and fibroblasts from an FKRP mutant mouse model and that this enhancement is abrogated when mAgrin is in molar excess relative to laminin. However, in vivo delivery of mAgrin via adeno-associated virus (AAV) into FKRP mutant mice was unable to improve dystrophic phenotypes, both histologically and functionally. These results likely reflect insufficient binding of mAgrin to hypoglycosylated α-DG on muscle fibers and possibly abrogation of binding from molar excess of overexpressed AAV-delivered mAgrin. Further exploration of mAgrin modification is necessary to strengthen its binding to other membrane components, including hypoglycosylated α-DG, for potential therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gene therapy strategy for long-term myocardial protection using adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of heme oxygenase gene.

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    Melo, Luis G; Agrawal, Reitu; Zhang, Lunan; Rezvani, Mojgan; Mangi, Abeel A; Ehsan, Afshin; Griese, Daniel P; Dell'Acqua, Giorgio; Mann, Michael J; Oyama, Junichi; Yet, Shaw-Fang; Layne, Matthew D; Perrella, Mark A; Dzau, Victor J

    2002-02-05

    Ischemia and oxidative stress are the leading mechanisms for tissue injury. An ideal strategy for preventive/protective therapy would be to develop an approach that could confer long-term transgene expression and, consequently, tissue protection from repeated ischemia/reperfusion injury with a single administration of a therapeutic gene. In the present study, we used recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) as a vector for direct delivery of the cytoprotective gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) into the rat myocardium, with the purpose of evaluating this strategy as a therapeutic approach for long-term protection from ischemia-induced myocardial injury. Human HO-1 gene (hHO-1) was delivered to normal rat hearts by intramyocardial injection. AAV-mediated transfer of the hHO-1 gene 8 weeks before acute coronary artery ligation and release led to a dramatic reduction (>75%) in left ventricular myocardial infarction. The reduction in infarct size was accompanied by decreases in myocardial lipid peroxidation and in proapoptotic Bax and proinflammatory interleukin-1beta protein abundance, concomitant with an increase in antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein level. This suggested that the transgene exerts its cardioprotective effects in part by reducing oxidative stress and associated inflammation and apoptotic cell death. This study documents the beneficial therapeutic effect of rAAV-mediated transfer, before myocardial injury, of a cytoprotective gene that confers long-term myocardial protection from ischemia/reperfusion injury. Our data suggest that this novel "pre-event" gene transfer approach may provide sustained tissue protection from future repeated episodes of injury and may be beneficial as preventive therapy for patients with or at risk of developing coronary ischemic events.

  19. 腺相关病毒介导的狨猴 P53基因沉默%Adeno-associated virus mediated p53 gene silence in marmosets

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    石亮; 张晨; 向志光; 邓仪晨; 苏静芬; 刘云波

    2016-01-01

    目的:在细胞和整体动物水平,利用RNA干扰技术下调绒猴p53基因表达。方法对狨猴p53基因做生物信息学分析,针对靶序列设计shRNA干扰序列,构建在腺相关病毒载体上,转染非洲绿猴肾细胞( cos-7),在细胞水平用荧光定量PCR检测p53mRNA抑制效果,以Western blot 方法检测p53蛋白水平表达变化;优选shRNA干扰序列,包装含shRNA干扰序列的8型腺相关病毒,静脉注射感染狨猴;手术取少量肝脏组织,用Western blot和免疫组化方法检测p53蛋白水平的变化。结果细胞水平研究发现2个有效RNA干扰靶点,mRNA干扰效率分别为(82.7±8.1)%和(80.7±7.5)%(P<0.05);蛋白表达下调(77.3±11.5)%和(73.7±10.7)%(P<0.05);2只绒猴感染病毒后,经活体荧光成像分析可见病毒在肝脏、睾丸、颈部等位置分布,狨猴肝脏P53蛋白经Western blot、免疫组化分析未见明显变化。结论本研究在细胞水平实现绒猴P53基因表达下调,但整体动物水平狨猴肝脏P53蛋白表达未发现明显变化;今后需在感染方式等方面做进一步优化。%Objective To decrease the p53 gene expression at cellular and animal levels in marmoset using RNA interference technique.Methods The shRNA interference sequences were designed and inserted into the adeno-associated virus vector plasmid after bioinformatics analysis.The plasmids were transfected into African green monkey kidney cos-7 cells.The suppression of p53 mRNA was detected by real-time PCR, and the changes of p53 protein expression were detected by Western bolt.The adeno-associated virus-8 was injected through the hind leg vein.The changes of p53 protein expression in the liver tissue was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry.Results We screened two RNA interference effective arget sequences.The expression of p53 mRNA was suppressed ( 82.7 ±8.1 )% and ( 80.7 ± 7.5)%, respectively (P<0

  20. In vitro and in vivo induction of bone formation based on adeno-associ-ated virus-mediated BMP-7 gene therapy using human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan KANG; Wei-ming LIAO; Zhen-hua YUAN; Pu-yi SHENG; Long-juan ZHANG; Xiang-wei YUAN; Lei LEI

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether adeno-associated virus (AAV)-2-mediated, bone mor-phogenetic protein (BMP)-7-expressing human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMS) cells would induce bone formation in vitro and in vivo.Methods:ADMS cells were harvested from patients undergoing selective suction-assisted fipectomy and transduced with AAV carrying the human BMP-7 gene. Non-trans-duced cells and cells transduced with AAV serotype 2 carrying the enhanced green fluorescence protein gene served as controls. ADMS cells were qualita-tively assessed for the production of BMP-7 and osteocalcin, and subjected to alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Chinalizarin staining. A total of 2.5x 106 cells mixed with type Ⅰ collagen were implanted into the hind limb of severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice and subjected to a histological analysis 3 weeks post implantation.Results: Transfection of the ADMS cells achieved an effi-ciency of 99% at d 7. Transduction with AAV2-BMP-7 induced the expression of BMP-7 until d 56, which was markedly increased by d 7. The cells were positively stained for ALP. Osteocalcin production and matrix mineralization further con-firmed that these cells differentiated into osteoblasts and induced bone formation in vitro. A histological examination demonstrated that implantation of BMP-7-expressing ADMS cells could induce new bone formation in vivo.Conclusion: The present in vitro and in vivo study demonstrated that human ADMS cells would be a promising source of autologous mesenchymal stem cells for BMP gene therapy and tissue engineering.

  1. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated global anterograde delivery of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor to the spinal cord: comparison of rubrospinal and corticospinal tracts in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Kevin D; Flotte, Terence R; Reier, Paul J; Mandel, Ronald J

    2008-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by progressive loss of spinal lower motoneurons. Gene delivery is a promising strategy to deliver therapeutic molecules to these vulnerable cells. However, definition of an optimal route of delivery capable of accessing neurons over a considerable extent of the neuraxis represents a significant logistical problem. Intramuscular vector injections are not ideal as this approach would involve hundreds of injections to completely treat an ALS patient and also would be dependent on retrograde transport of the viral platform of choice. Alternatively, upper motoneurons could deliver trophic factors over considerable distances by anterograde transport after a relatively localized intracerebral injection. To test this approach, the present study was designed to compare the corticospinal (CST) and rubrospinal (RST) tracts for their ability to transport recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (rAAV5)-derived green fluorescent protein (GFP) or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to the spinal cord. Unilateral injections of rAAV5-GFP into the red nucleus (RN) or motor cortex of normal rats produced GFP-positive fibers in the appropriate descending tracts extending to the lumbar spinal cord. For both tracts, GFP-positive axonal projections into the spinal gray matter were consistently observed. GDNF immunohistochemistry demonstrated that confirmed RN injections resulted in GDNF-positive fibers projecting into spinal gray matter as seen in the GFP group. In contrast, confirmed cortical rAAV5-GDNF injections resulted in less evident staining in spinal cord. Spinal cord GDNF levels were elevated at distances up to 72 mm from the injection sites, and confirmed that RST-related GDNF transport to spinal cord surpassed CST-associated delivery.

  2. 重组腺相关病毒介导遗传性色盲基因治疗的研究进展%Advance in recombinant adeno-associated virus mediated gene therapy for color blindness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红霞; 邱一果

    2013-01-01

    色盲是缺乏或完全没有辨色能力的一类遗传性疾病,长期被认为是不可治愈性疾病.近年来以腺相关病毒(AAV)为载体介导的基因疗法主要用于对由视蛋白缺乏引起的红绿色盲及由视锥细胞环核苷酸门控离子通道A3(CNGA3)A或B(CNGB3)亚单位基因缺失引起的全色盲的治疗,已在动物实验中获得成功.人类色盲患者与一些实验动物存在着相同的基因缺陷,因此相关的动物实验研究结果用AAV介导的基因疗法为色盲患者进行治疗提供了有用的信息.%Color blindness represents a group of vision disorders characterized by lack of ability to distinguish different colors.The inherited color blindness has been regarded as incurable for a long period of time.Recently,adeno-associated virus(AAV) mediated gene therapy has successfully restored cone system vision in animal models with color blindness caused by different gene mutations.These mutations are presented in human color blindness patients.It is predicted that gene therapy will become a novel treatment for these color blindness victims.In addition,a single gene transfer may achieve long-term correction of color deficiency.

  3. Successful disabling of the 5' UTR of HCV using adeno-associated viral vectors to deliver modular multimeric primary microRNA mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourhill, Tarryn; Arbuthnot, Patrick; Ely, Abdullah

    2016-09-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health concern and is strongly associated with cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver-related mortality. The HCV genome is the template for both protein translation and viral replication and, being RNA, is amenable to direct genetic silencing by RNA interference (RNAi). HCV is a highly mutable virus and is capable of escaping RNAi-mediated silencing. This has highlighted the importance of developing RNAi-based therapy that simultaneously targets multiple regions of the HCV genome. To develop a multi-targeting RNAi activator, a novel approach for the generation of anti-HCV gene therapy was investigated. Five artificial primary miRNA (pri-miR) were each designed to mimic the naturally occurring monomeric pri-miR-31. Potent knockdown of an HCV reporter was seen with four of the five constructs and were processed according to the intended design. The design of the individual pri-miR mimics enabled the modular assembly into multimeric mimics of any possible conformation. Consequently the four potent pri-miR mimics were used to generate polycistronic cassettes, which showed impressive silencing of an HCV target. To further their application as a gene therapy, recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors that express the polycistronic pri-miR mimics were generated. All AAV-delivered anti-HCV pri-miR mimics significantly knocked down the expression of an HCV target and showed inhibition of HCV replicon replication. Here we describe a protocol for the generation of therapeutic rAAVs that express modular polycistronic pri-miR cassettes allowing for rapid alteration and generation of tailored therapeutic constructs against HCV.

  4. Potent anti-melanoma effect by combination of mytomycin C with recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated tumor-targeting expressed Smac/DIABLO%丝裂霉素C与表达Smac/DIABLO的肿瘤靶向腺相关病毒联用对抗恶性黑色素瘤的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王坚; 林茂; 吴平; 何惠娟; 刘新垣

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated tumor-targeting expressed Smac/DIABLO can improve sensitivity of melanoma to mitomycin C both in vitro and in vivo. Methods Tumor-targeting expressed Smac/DIABLO or green fluorescence protein (EGFP) in recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors (rAAV-hTERT/Smac/DIABLO or rAAV-hTERT/EGFP) was constructed. The culture cells were transfected with rAAV-hTERT/Smac/DIABLO or rAAV-hTERT/EGFP. The expression of EGFP in culture cells was observed with fluorescence microscope. Smac/DIABLO expression was detected by RT-PCR method. Proliferation of tumor cells was measured by MTT method. Apoptosis of tumor cells at different drug concentrations was examined by flow cytometry. Synergistic anti-tumor activity of mitomycin C combined with rAAV-hTERT/ Smac/DIABLO was measured by MTT in vitro and animal experiment in vivo. Data was evaluated by SPSS statisticssoftware analysis. Results Green fluorescence could be observed in tumor cells but not in normal cells 48 h after rAAV-hTERT/EGFP transfection. Almost all tumor cells displayed bright yellow-green fluorescence after 96 h. The expression of Smac/DIABLO in rAAV-hTERT/Smac/DIABLO transfected tumor cells showed Smac/DIABLO mRNA band 24 h after transfection and stabilized 48 h after transfection. Tumor cell inhibition rate was increased obviously higher in group of combination of mitomycin C with rAAV-hTERT/Smac/DIABLO than mitomycin C alone (P<0.01). Flow cytometry results indicated that mitomycin C combined with rAAV-hTERT/Smac/DIABLO group had the highest apoptosis-induced effect in groups of negative, mitomycin C, and rAAV-hTERT/Smac/ DIABLO (P<0.01). Animal experiment result indicated that tumor growth was inhibited and survival rate was improved significantly in mitomycin C combined with rAAV-hTERT/Smac/DIABLO group compared to rAAV-hTERT/Smac/DIABLO or mitomycin C aione. Conclusion Tumor-targeting rAAV-hTERT/Smac/DIABLO can improve sensitivity of tumor cells

  5. 重组腺相关病毒介导的MDA-7基因对人肝癌细胞的选择性凋亡诱导效应%Selective apoptosis-inducing effect of adeno-associated virus mediated gene transfer of MDA-7 on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐波; 朱光辉; 夏金堂; 翁杰锋; 李书华; 李雯

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨PEG启动子调控腺相关病人毒介导的黑色素瘤分化相关基因MDA-7对肝癌细胞的选择性凋亡诱导效应.方法 以重组腺相关病人毒rAAV-PEG-MDA-7表达系统感染人肝癌细胞株HepG2细胞和正常人肝细胞株LO2细胞,Westerm Blot检测转染细胞内MDA-7蛋白,MTT法检测细胞增殖抑制率,流式细胞术分析细胞周期、Annexin-Ⅴ、线粒体跨膜电位(△Ψm),RT-PCR检测bcl-2基因mRNA.结果 重组腺相关病毒rAAV-PEG-MDA7可特异性转染HepG2细胞,MDA7蛋白在HepG2细胞中高效表达,并呈时间依赖性;重组腺相关病毒rAAV-PEC-MDA-7可抑制HepG2细胞增殖并诱导其凋亡,细胞周期分析处于G0/G1期细胞百分比明显增多,处于G2/M期的细胞减少,并且可见到较明显的凋亡峰的形成,从24 h开始Annexin-Ⅴ阳性细胞比例增多,△Ψm降低,抗凋亡基因bcl-2 mRNA表达降低.而重组腺相关病毒rAAV-PEG-MDA-7对LO2细胞无类似效应.结论 构建出的重组腺相关病毒rAAV-PEG-MDA-7表达系统可选择性抑制肝癌细胞增殖和诱导其凋亡,其诱导凋亡机制受到bcl-2家族经线粒体途径的调节.%Objective To investigate the selective apoptosis-inducing effect of adeno-associated virus mediated gene transfer of MDA-7 regulated by PEG promoter on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.Methods We transduced human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and normal human hepatocytes LO2 with rAAV-PEG-MDA-7 and assessed the cell growth inhibition,cell cycle and apoptosis.MDA-7 protein was detected by Western blotting,cell growth-inhibiting rate evaluated by MTT and cell cycle, Annexin-Ⅴ labeling and mitochondrial transmembrane potential were determined by flow eytometry.The expression of bcl-2 mRNA was determined bv RT-PCR.Results rAAV-PEG-MDA-7 was effectively transfected into HepG2 cells.MDA-7 protein was highly expressed in HepG2 cells in a time-dependent manner.rAAV-PEG-MDA-7 suppressed HepG2 cell growth.The cells

  6. 重组腺相关病毒神经肽Y基因转染对癫(癎)大鼠海马病理变化的影响%Effect of recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated human-derived neuropeptide Y gene transfection on pathological change of the hippocampus in epileptic rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董长征; 董秀芳; 李文玲; 岳向勇; 郭韬; 梁传栋; 赵文清

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察重组腺相关病毒介导人源性神经肽Y(rAA V-hNPY-EGFP)基因转染对癫(癎)大鼠海马病理变化的影响.方法 28只Wistar大鼠随机分为点燃组(n=20)和正常对照组(n=8).正常对照组不进行特殊处理,点燃组以大鼠海马内多次注射红藻氨酸(KA)建立慢性癫(癎)模型,造模成功16只,其随机分为模型组和神经肽Y(NPY)治疗组,每组各8只大鼠.NPY治疗组大鼠转染rAA V2/I- hNPY-EGFP基因,模型组未转染.转染4周后,每组取6只大鼠海马行苏木精-伊红染色,2只行电镜观察.结果 苏木精-伊红染色显示:正常对照组大鼠海马CA3区神经元形态正常;模型组海马CA3区神经元丢失,胶质细胞增生;NPY治疗组基因转染后神经元丢失减少.模型组神经元数目为(10.67±7.87)个/视野,正常对照组为(81.42±5.63)个/视野,明显多于模型组(P<0.05);而NPY治疗组神经元数目为(65.73±2.81)个/视野,明显多于模型组(P<0.05).电镜显示:正常对照组神经元结构正常;模型组神经元固缩,线粒体肿胀;NPY治疗组神经元线粒体结构完整.结论 rAA V-hNPY-EGFP基因转染可减轻大鼠癫(癎)发作引起的病理改变,发挥抑制癫(癎)的作用.%Objective To investigate the effect of recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated human-derived neuropeptide Y gene (rAAV-hNPY-EGFP gene) transfection on pathological change of hippocampus in epileptic rat. Methods A total of 28 Wistar rats were randomly divided into kindling group (n=20) and normal control group (n=8). No special treatment was performed on rats in normal control group. The chronic epileptic models were successfully established in 16 rats by repeated injection of kainic acid into the hippocampi of rats in kindling group which were equally subdivided into two groups: model group and neuropeptide Y (NPY) treatment group. The rats were transfected with rAAV2/1-hNPV-EGFP gene in NPY treatment group and no transfection was made in model

  7. Bac-to-Bac杆状病毒昆虫表达系统介导的重组腺相关病毒制备%Production of adeno-associated virus mediated by Bac-to-Bac baculovirus insect expression system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雅宁; 王春荣; 杨宗灿; 姬朝霞; 张延瑞; 韩双印

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立高效的临床级重组腺相关病毒( rAAV)制备方法.方法 将rAAV的反向末端重复序列( ITR)及目的基因表达框(2053 bp)从pAAV-MCS剪切引入杆状病毒载体中构建顺式载体,rAAV血清型2的衣壳和复制蛋白基因在反式载体pFastBacDual中利用真核基因遗漏扫描原理表达,两者分别制备成杆状病毒,共感染昆虫细胞sf9包装rAAV.增强绿色荧光蛋白(EGFP)作为报告基因验证其可行性.结果 顺式和反式杆状病毒载体分别在DH 10BacTM中转座形成杆粒bacmid、昆虫细胞sf9中制备成杆状病毒,病毒滴度可达1×108~3 ×108 v.g./ml.二杆状病毒共感染昆虫细胞sf9,完成rAAV拯救、复制和包装过程,经rAAV-EGFP感染293T细胞测试具有良好的生物学活性.结论 该系统具有高效、安全、简便等特点,为临床级rAAV制备和基因治疗奠定了基础.%Objective To establish an efficient and safe method for production of recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAV) of clinical scale.Methods The 2053 bp of rAAV inverted terminal repeat (ITR) and foreign gene expression cassette was cloned into baculovirus vector as cis-acting vector.The capsid and replication proteins of rAAV serum type 2 were expressed in a trans-acting baculovirus vector (pFastBacDual) by leaky scanning mechanism of eukaryotic gene transcription.Both constructs were made into baculovirus which infected insect cells st9 for packaging rAAV.Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was used as reporter gene to verify the feasibility of system.Results Transposition of cis-acting and trans-acting vector into bacmid was carried out in DH10BacTM reswctively.Two baculoviruses were prepared in insect cells sf9 and the titers were about 1×108-3×108 v.g./mL.rAAV were rescued,replicated and packaged by co-infection of two baculoviruses into sf9.The biological activity of rAAV-EGFP was proved by infecting 293T cells.Conclusion This system provides an experimental data for making

  8. 腺伴随病毒介导 ADNF-9基因转染对豚鼠卡那霉素致聋的治疗作用%Treatment of adeno-associated virus mediated ADNF-9 gene transfection on guinea pig cochlea deafened by kanamycin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景阳; 郑国玺; 祝康; 刘晖; 张文

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of rAAV-NT4-ADNF-9 in treating ototoxicity associated with aminoglycoside antibiotics.Methods:The guinea pigs were used,and its auvicle reflex and auditory brain-stem response(ABR)were normal.The ototoxic animal model of guinea pigs were made by the method of hypodemic injection of Kanamycin(400 mg/kg).In animals under general anesthesia,the guinea pigs were cut off the skin of ringt ear sulcus posterior and opened acoustic capsule,then injected the rAAV-NT4-AD-NF-9 10 μL from fossula rotunda.After 14 days,the right acoustic capsule were dislodged.The cochlear were stained with AgNO3 .The cochlear hair cells were observed by contrast phase microscope.Results:Taking the group for rAAV-NT4-ADNF-9 as example,the threshold ABR decreased remarkably after treat-ment(P <0.05).Through the phase contrast microscope the cochlear basilar membrane was complete and the outer hair cells had dot deletion.The thresholds of ABR had no notable differences for the other three groups before and after treatment.Taking comparison between the artificial endolymph control group and empty vector group,through the phase contrast microscope after treatment,hair cells showed a patchy loss in the former group and there was no such phenomenon in the latter group.The average number of hair cells observed in the group of ADNF was significantly higher than that of the artificial endolymph control group and empty vector group(P <0.05).Conclusion:rAAV-NT4-ADNF-9 is able to be transfected into cochle-ar,and to express secretory NT4-ADNF-9 peptide,which preventing hair cells from impairment.%目的:观察包装重组的腺伴随病毒(adeno-associated virus,AAV)rAAV-NT4-ADNF-9对卡拉霉素致聋豚鼠的治疗作用。方法:选用耳廓反射和听性脑干反应(auditory brainstem response,ABR)正常的白色红目豚鼠,在大腿内侧肌肉注射卡那霉素400 mg/(kg·d),连续注射6 d,制备耳聋模型。在全身麻醉的条件

  9. Effects of adeno-associated virus-mediated klotho gene delivery on the expression of runx2 and MMP-13 gene in the bone of the ovariectomy rats%腺相关病毒介导的klotho基因表达对去势大鼠骨Runx2及MMP-13表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳娇; 马厚勋; 李宝善; 吴平

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨腺相关病毒介导的klotho(KL)基因表达对去势骨质疏松大鼠的调控作用.方法 SD雌性大鼠随机分为假手术组(S组)和手术组,外科去势术后12周再随机分为模型组(O组)、17β-雌二醇组(E组)、KL基因组(KO组)和空质粒组(GO组),实验12周后处死.取股骨、胫骨测骨密度;冰冻切片及免疫组化法观察肾KL荧光及KL蛋白表达;RT-PCR和免疫组化法检测骨Runx2、MMP-13 mRNA及蛋白表达;HE染色观察骨组织形态学变化.结果 KO组和E组骨密度高于O组和GO组(P<0.05);KO组大鼠肾有小鼠KL基因特异性表达;与O组相比,KO组Runx2 mRNA表达明显上调,MMP-13 mRNA表达显著下调(P<0.05);免疫组化分析KO组Runx2吸光度值为411±96,显著高于O组的353±50(P<0.05);KO组MMP-13吸光度值为397±84,显著低于O组的656±89(P<0.05).KO组、E组和S组大鼠骨小梁排列紧密,连接成网,形态结构较完整,明显优于O组和GO组.结论 KL基因表达上调可减缓去势大鼠骨质疏松症的发展及骨组织微结构的破坏,提示KL基因可能在骨质疏松症的发展中扮演重要角色.%Objective To research the effect of the recombinant adeno-associated virus vector containing klotho gene delivery on the regulating of osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Methods Female SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group (S group) and model group. Model was successfully constructed with ovariectomy after 12 weeks,they were randomly divided into model group (0 group), 17(β-estradiol (E group), klotho gene group (K0 group), empty vector group (GO group), all were sacrificed after 12 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the femurs and tibia were measured. The fluorescent expression of renal klotho was observed by Cryo-sectioning technique. The Runx2 and MMP-13 mRNA expression of bone tissue were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). Expression of klotho protein in kidney and Runx

  10. Attenuation of Dengue Virus Infection by Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated siRNA Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-09

    safe and efficacious in Phase I clinical trials for gene therapy of cystic fibrosis and hemophilia B and are regarded as a potential alternative to...retroviral and adenoviral vectors for gene therapy in humans. The AAV vectors have a number of advantages over other vectors. They are not pathogenic and...did not induce significant acute inflammatory responses and, therefore, is useful in gene therapy for DEN infection in humans. In conclusion, we

  11. MicroRNA-19b-3p Modulates Japanese Encephalitis Virus-Mediated Inflammation via Targeting RNF11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Usama; Zhu, Bibo; Ye, Jing; Wan, Shengfeng; Nie, Yanru; Chen, Zheng; Cui, Min; Wang, Chong; Duan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Huanchun; Cao, Shengbo

    2016-05-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) can invade the central nervous system and consequently induce neuroinflammation, which is characterized by profound neuronal cell damage accompanied by astrogliosis and microgliosis. Albeit microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as major regulatory noncoding RNAs with profound effects on inflammatory response, it is unknown how astrocytic miRNAs regulate JEV-induced inflammation. Here, we found the involvement of miR-19b-3p in regulating the JEV-induced inflammatory responsein vitroandin vivo The data demonstrated that miR-19b-3p is upregulated in cultured cells and mouse brain tissues during JEV infection. Overexpression of miR-19b-3p led to increased production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, after JEV infection, whereas knockdown of miR-19b-3p had completely opposite effects. Mechanistically, miR-19b-3p modulated the JEV-induced inflammatory response via targeting ring finger protein 11, a negative regulator of nuclear factor kappa B signaling. We also found that inhibition of ring finger protein 11 by miR-19b-3p resulted in accumulation of nuclear factor kappa B in the nucleus, which in turn led to higher production of inflammatory cytokines.In vivosilencing of miR-19b-3p by a specific antagomir reinvigorates the expression level of RNF11, which in turn reduces the production of inflammatory cytokines, abrogates gliosis and neuronal cell death, and eventually improves the survival rate in the mouse model. Collectively, our results demonstrate that miR-19b-3p positively regulates the JEV-induced inflammatory response. Thus, miR-19b-3p targeting may constitute a thought-provoking approach to rein in JEV-induced inflammation. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is one of the major causes of acute encephalitis in humans worldwide. The pathological features of JEV-induced encephalitis are inflammatory reactions and neurological diseases

  12. Adeno-associated virus for cystic fibrosis gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Martini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is an alternative treatment for genetic lung disease, especially monogenic disorders such as cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis is a severe autosomal recessive disease affecting one in 2500 live births in the white population, caused by mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. The disease is classically characterized by pancreatic enzyme insufficiency, an increased concentration of chloride in sweat, and varying severity of chronic obstructive lung disease. Currently, the greatest challenge for gene therapy is finding an ideal vector to deliver the transgene (CFTR to the affected organ (lung. Adeno-associated virus is the most promising viral vector system for the treatment of respiratory disease because it has natural tropism for airway epithelial cells and does not cause any human disease. This review focuses on the basic properties of adeno-associated virus and its use as a vector for cystic fibrosis gene therapy.

  13. Intracranial Injection of Adeno-associated Viral Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Lowery, Rebecca L.; Ania K Majewska

    2010-01-01

    Intracranial injection of viral vectors engineered to express a fluorescent protein is a versatile labeling technique for visualization of specific subsets of cells in different brain regions both in vivo and in brain sections. Unlike the injection of fluorescent dyes, viral labeling offers targeting of individual cell types and is less expensive and time consuming than establishing transgenic mouse lines. In this technique, an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector is injected intracranially us...

  14. Adeno-Associated Virus Gene Therapy for Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattenhorn, Lisa M.; Tipper, Christopher H.; Stoica, Lorelei; Geraghty, Deborah S.; Wright, Teresa L.; Clark, K. Reed; Wadsworth, Samuel C.

    2016-01-01

    The field of adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy has progressed rapidly over the past decade, with the advent of novel capsid serotype and organ-specific promoters, and an increasing understanding of the immune response to AAV administration. In particular, liver-directed therapy has made remarkable strides, with a number of clinical trials currently planned and ongoing in hemophilia A and B, as well as other liver disorders. This review focuses on liver-directed AAV gene therapy, including historic context, current challenges, and future developments. PMID:27897038

  15. Engineering adeno-associated viruses for clinical gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotterman, Melissa A; Schaffer, David V

    2014-07-01

    Clinical gene therapy has been increasingly successful owing both to an enhanced molecular understanding of human disease and to progressively improving gene delivery technologies. Among these technologies, delivery vectors based on adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) have emerged as safe and effective and, in one recent case, have led to regulatory approval. Although shortcomings in viral vector properties will render extension of such successes to many other human diseases challenging, new approaches to engineer and improve AAV vectors and their genetic cargo are increasingly helping to overcome these barriers.

  16. Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors (AAV Expressing Phenylalanine Hydroxylase (PAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Akbay Yarpuzlu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent articles have appeared in the literature reporting use of adeno-associated virus vectors (AAV expressing phenylalanine hydroxylase in animal trials and suggesting its use in treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU as a form of gene therapy However, agents used in gene therapy to deliver genes are not site-specific and DNA is may be put in the wrong place, causing damage to the organism. The adverse immunogenicity of AAVs also needs to be reconsidered. This letter is written to discuss present unreadiness for Phase 1 clinical trials of gene therapy of PKU. Turk Jem 2009; 13: 18-9

  17. Biosafety of recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dismuke, David J; Tenenbaum, Liliane; Samulski, R Jude

    2013-12-01

    It is hoped that the use of gene transfer technology to treat both monogenetic and acquired diseases may soon become a common therapy option in medicine. For gene therapy to achieve this objective, any gene delivery method will have to meet several criteria, including ease of manufacturing, efficient gene transfer to target tissue, long-term gene expression to alleviate the disease, and most importantly safety in patients. Viral vectors are an attractive choice for use in gene therapy protocols due to their relative efficiency in gene delivery. Since there is inherent risk in using viruses, investigators in the gene therapy community have devoted extensive efforts toward reengineering viral vectors for enhance safety. Here we review the approaches and technologies that are being evaluated for the use of recombinant vectors based upon adeno-associated virus (AAV) in the treatment of a variety of human diseases. AAV is currently the only known human DNA virus that is non-pathogenic and AAV-based vectors are classified as Risk Group 1 agents for all laboratory and animal studies carried out in the US. Although its apparent safety in natural infection and animals appears well documented, we examine the accumulated knowledge on the biology and vectorology of AAV, lessons learned from gene therapy clinical trials, and how this information is impacting current vector design and manufacturing with an overall emphasis on biosafety.

  18. Perinatal systemic gene delivery using adeno-associated viral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajvinder eKarda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative monogenic diseases can also affect a broad range of tissues and organs throughout the body. An effective treatment would require a systemic approach. The intravenous administration of novel therapies is ideal but is hampered by the inability of such drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier and precludes efficacy in the central nervous system. A number of these early lethal intractable diseases also present devastating irreversible pathology at birth or soon after. Therefore, any therapy would ideally be administered during the perinatal period to prevent, stop or ameliorate disease progression. The concept of perinatal gene therapy has moved a step further towards being a feasible approach to treating such disorders. This has primarily been driven by the recent discoveries that particular serotypes of adeno-associated virus (AAV gene delivery vectors have the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier following intravenous administration. Furthermore, this has been safely demonstrated in perinatal mice and non-human primates. This review focuses on the progress made in using AAV to achieve systemic transduction and what this means for developing perinatal gene therapy for early lethal neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Adeno-associated viral vectors for the treatment of hemophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    High, Katherine A.; Anguela, Xavier M.

    2016-01-01

    Gene transfer studies for the treatment of hemophilia began more than two decades ago. A large body of pre-clinical work evaluated a variety of vectors and target tissues, but by the start of the new millennium it became evident that adeno-associated viral (AAV)-mediated gene transfer to the liver held great promise as a therapeutic tool. The transition to the clinical arena uncovered a number of unforeseen challenges, mainly in the form of a human-specific immune response against the vector that poses a significant limitation in the application of this technology. While the full nature of this response has not been elucidated, long-term expression of therapeutic levels of factor IX is already a reality for a small number of patients. Extending this success to a greater number of hemophilia B patients remains a major goal of the field, as well as translating this strategy to clinical therapy for hemophilia A. This review summarizes the progress of AAV-mediated gene therapy for the hemophilias, along with its upcoming prospects and challenges. PMID:26614390

  20. Adeno-associated virus mediated endostatin gene therapy in combination with topoisomerase inhibitor effectively controls liver tumor in mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Yi Hong; Myun Hee Lee; Kyung Sup Kim; Hyun Cheol Jung; Jae Kyung Roh; Woo Jin Hyung; Sung Hoon Noh; Seung Ho Choi

    2004-01-01

    AIM: rAAV mediated endostatin gene therapy has been examined as a new method for treating cancer. However,a sustained and high protein delivery is required to achieve the desired therapeutic effects. We evaluated the impact of topoisomerase inhibitors in rAAV delivered endostatin gene therapy in a liver tumor model.METHODS: rAAV containing endostatin expression cassettes were transduced into hepatoma cell lines. To test whether the topoisomerase inhibitor pretreatment increased the expression of endostatin, Western blotting and ELISA were performed. The biologic activity of endostatin was confirmed by endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation assays.The anti-tumor effects of the rAAV-endostatin vector combined with a topoisomerase inhibitor, etoposide, were evaluated in a mouse liver tumor model.RESULTS: Topoisomerase inhibitors, including camptothecin and etoposide, were found to increase the endostatin expression level in vitro. The over-expressed endostatin,as a result of pretreatment with a topoisomerase inhibitor,was also biologically active. In animal experiments, the combined therapy of topoisomerase inhibitor, etoposide with the rAAV-endostatin vector had the best tumorsuppressive effect and tumor foci were barely observed in livers of the treated mice. Pretreatment with an etoposide increased the level of endostatin in the liver and serum of rAAV-endostatin treated mice. Finally, the mice treated with rAAV-endostatin in combination with etoposide showed the longest survival among the experimental models.CONCLUSION: rAAV delivered endostatin gene therapy in combination with a topoisomerase inhibitor pretreatment is an effective modality for anticancer gene therapy.

  1. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated inhibiting of interleukin-4 expression in rat model of asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction, airway hyper- responsiveness, and inflammation of airways. Th2 cells, one sort of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are currently considered to play an important role in the chronic airway inflammation of asthma. Meanwhile, a number of laboratories have clearly established the importance of the Th2-derived cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) in mediating the airway inflammatory response. Anti-IL-4 therapy might be beneficial in treatment of chronic asthma.

  2. Adeno-associated virus-mediated microdystrophin expression protects young mdx muscle from contraction-induced injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Mingju; Yue, Yongping; Harper, Scott Q; Grange, Robert W; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S; Duan, Dongsheng

    2005-01-01

    ... a CMV.DeltaR4/DeltaC cassette in AAV-5 and evaluated the transduction and muscle contractile profiles in the extensor digitorum longus muscles of young (7-week-old) and adult (9-month-old) mdx mice...

  3. Production and titering of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Christina; Cole, Katy L H; Wulff, Peer; Klugmann, Matthias; Murray, Andrew J

    2011-11-27

    In recent years recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) have become increasingly valuable for in vivo studies in animals, and are also currently being tested in human clinical trials. Wild-type AAV is a non-pathogenic member of the parvoviridae family and inherently replication-deficient. The broad transduction profile, low immune response as well as the strong and persistent transgene expression achieved with these vectors has made them a popular and versatile tool for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. rAAVs can be easily and cheaply produced in the laboratory and, based on their favourable safety profile, are generally given a low safety classification. Here, we describe a method for the production and titering of chimeric rAAVs containing the capsid proteins of both AAV1 and AAV2. The use of these so-called chimeric vectors combines the benefits of both parental serotypes such as high titres stocks (AAV1) and purification by affinity chromatography (AAV2). These AAV serotypes are the best studied of all AAV serotypes, and individually have a broad infectivity pattern. The chimeric vectors described here should have the infectious properties of AAV1 and AAV2 and can thus be expected to infect a large range of tissues, including neurons, skeletal muscle, pancreas, kidney among others. The method described here uses heparin column purification, a method believed to give a higher viral titer and cleaner viral preparation than other purification methods, such as centrifugation through a caesium chloride gradient. Additionally, we describe how these vectors can be quickly and easily titered to give accurate reading of the number of infectious particles produced.

  4. In vivo adeno-associated viral vector-mediated genetic engineering of white and brown adipose tissue in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Veronica; Muñoz, Sergio; Casana, Estefania; Mallol, Cristina; Elias, Ivet; Jambrina, Claudia; Ribera, Albert; Ferre, Tura; Franckhauser, Sylvie; Bosch, Fatima

    2013-12-01

    Adipose tissue is pivotal in the regulation of energy homeostasis through the balance of energy storage and expenditure and as an endocrine organ. An inadequate mass and/or alterations in the metabolic and endocrine functions of adipose tissue underlie the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. To fully understand the metabolic and molecular mechanism(s) involved in adipose dysfunction, in vivo genetic modification of adipocytes holds great potential. Here, we demonstrate that adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, especially serotypes 8 and 9, mediated efficient transduction of white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult lean and obese diabetic mice. The use of short versions of the adipocyte protein 2 or uncoupling protein-1 promoters or micro-RNA target sequences enabled highly specific, long-term AAV-mediated transgene expression in white or brown adipocytes. As proof of concept, delivery of AAV vectors encoding for hexokinase or vascular endothelial growth factor to WAT or BAT resulted in increased glucose uptake or increased vessel density in targeted depots. This method of gene transfer also enabled the secretion of stable high levels of the alkaline phosphatase marker protein into the bloodstream by transduced WAT. Therefore, AAV-mediated genetic engineering of adipose tissue represents a useful tool for the study of adipose pathophysiology and, likely, for the future development of new therapeutic strategies for obesity and diabetes.

  5. In Vivo Adeno-Associated Viral Vector–Mediated Genetic Engineering of White and Brown Adipose Tissue in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Veronica; Muñoz, Sergio; Casana, Estefania; Mallol, Cristina; Elias, Ivet; Jambrina, Claudia; Ribera, Albert; Ferre, Tura; Franckhauser, Sylvie; Bosch, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is pivotal in the regulation of energy homeostasis through the balance of energy storage and expenditure and as an endocrine organ. An inadequate mass and/or alterations in the metabolic and endocrine functions of adipose tissue underlie the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. To fully understand the metabolic and molecular mechanism(s) involved in adipose dysfunction, in vivo genetic modification of adipocytes holds great potential. Here, we demonstrate that adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, especially serotypes 8 and 9, mediated efficient transduction of white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult lean and obese diabetic mice. The use of short versions of the adipocyte protein 2 or uncoupling protein-1 promoters or micro-RNA target sequences enabled highly specific, long-term AAV-mediated transgene expression in white or brown adipocytes. As proof of concept, delivery of AAV vectors encoding for hexokinase or vascular endothelial growth factor to WAT or BAT resulted in increased glucose uptake or increased vessel density in targeted depots. This method of gene transfer also enabled the secretion of stable high levels of the alkaline phosphatase marker protein into the bloodstream by transduced WAT. Therefore, AAV-mediated genetic engineering of adipose tissue represents a useful tool for the study of adipose pathophysiology and, likely, for the future development of new therapeutic strategies for obesity and diabetes. PMID:24043756

  6. Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors Transduce Mature Human Adipocytes in Three-Dimensional Slice Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallendrusch, Sonja; Schopow, Nikolas; Stadler, Sonja C; Büning, Hildegard; Hacker, Ulrich T

    2016-10-01

    Adipose tissue plays a pivotal role, both in the regulation of energy homeostasis and as an endocrine organ. Consequently, adipose tissue dysfunction is closely related to insulin resistance, morbid obesity, and metabolic syndrome. To study molecular mechanisms and to develop novel therapeutic strategies, techniques are required to genetically modify mature adipocytes. Here, we report on adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors as a versatile tool to transduce human mature adipocytes in organotypic three-dimensional tissue cultures.

  7. Stable producer cell lines for adeno-associated virus (AAV) assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadeuf, Gilliane; Salvetti, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Stable producer cell lines containing both the rep and cap genes and recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors can be infected with a helper virus to provide reliable and efficient production of rAAV stocks. However, the development of these cell lines is time-consuming. The procedure described here is therefore recommended only for studies requiring the production of high amounts of rAAV, such as preclinical studies performed in large animals.

  8. [Advances in the application of gene therapy for Parkinson's disease with adeno-associated virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Lü, Ying-Hui; Li, Zhao-Fa

    2014-05-01

    Vectors used to carry foreign genes play an important role in gene therapy, among which, the adeno-associated virus (AAV) has many advantages, such as nonpathogenicity, low immunogenicity, stable and long-term expression and multiple-tissue-type infection, etc. These advantages have made AAV one of the most potential vectors in gene therapy, and widely used in many clinical researches, for example, Parkinson's disease. This paper introduces the biological characteristics of AAV and the latest research progress of AAV carrying neurotrophic factor, dopamine synthesis related enzymes and glutamic acid decarboxylase gene in the gene therapy of Parkinson's disease.

  9. Construction of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors in human neurenergen-3 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangli Wang; Haili Wang; Baojie Mi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research of transgene brings hope for gene therapy of various diseases; in addition, some projects have been tested in clinic. Recently, the focus has been to find an ideal vehicle and a suitable therapeutic gene.OBJECTIVE: To explore an effective way to construct recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors expression in human neurnnergen-3 gene. DESIGN: Gene directed cloning.SETTING: Central Laboratory of Northern China Coal Medical College.MATERIALS: DH5a competent bacillus coli strain was provided by Capital Medical University; pCDNA3-NT-3 by professor Chen from Bengbu Medical College; pAAV-Laze, pAAV-Helper, pAAV-RC and pAAV-MCS plasmids by Capital Medical University; HEK293 cells by Cell Center of Basic Medical College of Tongji Medical University.METHODS: NT-3 genes which were selected from pCDNA3-NT-3 plasmids were cloned in pAAV-MCS to form a recombinant adeno-associated viral plasmid (pAAV-NT-3). pAAV-NT-3, pAAV-RC, pAAV-LacZ and pHelper plasmids were extracted, purified and subjected to enzyme-shearing evaluation. In addition, pAAV-NT-3 and pAAV-LacZ were cotransfected with pHelper and pAAV-RC, respectively into AVV-293 cells with DNA mediated by calcium superphosphate transfection gene; and then, AVV-293 cells were packed into recombinant adeno-associated viral rAAV-NT-3 and rAAV-LacZ. After collection of viral particles, rAAV-LacZ viral stock solution was diluted based on ratio of 10:1 and the mixture was used to infect HT1080 cells. X-gal stain was used to measure virus liter.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Size of targeted gene fragments, validity of vehicle construction and virus liter.RESULTS: Targeted gene NT-3 was successfully inserted into the relative vehicle pAAV and pAAV-NT-3 was correctly recongnized by enzyme-shearing evaluation. Enzyme-shearing electrophoresis demonstrated that pAAV-NT-3, pAAV-RC, pAAV-LacZ and pHelper plasmids were successfully extracted and purified.β-galactoside staining in situ indicated that LacZ genes were

  10. Adeno-associated virus serotype rh.10 displays strong muscle tropism following intraperitoneal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jianzhong; Li, Jia; Gessler, Dominic J; Su, Qin; Wei, Qiang; Li, Hong; Gao, Guangping

    2017-01-09

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) is an attractive tool for basic science and translational medicine including gene therapy, due to the versatility in its cell and organ transduction. Previous work indicates that rAAV transduction patterns are highly dependent on route of administration. Based on this relationship, we hypothesized that intraperitoneal (IP) administration of rAAV produces unique patterns of tissue tropism. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the transduction efficiency of 12 rAAV serotypes carrying an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene in a panel of 12 organs after IP injection. Our data suggest that IP administration emphasizes transduction patterns that are different from previously reported intravascular delivery methods. Using this approach, rAAV efficiently transduces the liver, pancreas, skeletal muscle, heart and diaphragm without causing significant histopathological changes. Of note, rAAVrh.10 showed excellent muscle transduction following IP administration, highlighting its potential as a new muscle-targeting vector.

  11. Systemic gene delivery to the central nervous system using Adeno-associated virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eBOURDENX

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV-mediated gene delivery has emerged as an effective and safe tool for both preclinical and clinical studies of neurological disorders. The recent discovery that several serotypes are able to cross the blood-brain-barrier when administered systemically has been a real breakthrough in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. Widespread transgene expression after systemic injection could spark interest as a therapeutic approach. Such strategy will avoid invasive brain surgery and allow non-focal gene therapy promising for CNS diseases affecting large portion of the brain. Here, we will review the recent results achieved through different systemic routes of injection generated in the last decade using systemic AAV-mediated delivery and propose a brief assessment of their values. In particular, we emphasize how the methods used for virus engineering could improve brain transduction after peripheral delivery.

  12. Manufacturing of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors for clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Nathalie; Grieger, Joshua C

    2016-01-01

    The ability to elicit robust and long-term transgene expression in vivo together with minimal immunogenicity and little to no toxicity are only a few features that make recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors ideally suited for many gene therapy applications. Successful preclinical studies have encouraged the use of rAAV for therapeutic gene transfer to patients in the clinical setting. Nevertheless, the use of rAAV in clinical trials has underscored the need for production and purification systems capable of generating large amounts of highly pure rAAV particles. To date, generating vector quantities sufficient to meet the expanding clinical demand is still a hurdle when using current production systems. In this chapter, we will provide a description of the current methods to produce clinical grade of rAAV under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) settings.

  13. Surface immobilization of hexa-histidine-tagged adeno-associated viral vectors for localized gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J-H; Koerber, J T; Gujraty, K; Bethi, S R; Kane, R S; Schaffer, D V

    2010-11-01

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, which are undergoing broad exploration in clinical trials, have significant promise for therapeutic gene delivery because of their safety and delivery efficiency. Gene delivery technologies capable of mediating localized gene expression may further enhance the potential of AAV in a variety of therapeutic applications by reducing spread outside a target region, which may thereby reduce off-target side effects. We have genetically engineered an AAV variant capable of binding to surfaces with high affinity through a hexa-histidine metal-binding interaction. This immobilized AAV vector system mediates high-efficiency delivery to cells that contact the surface and thus may have promise for localized gene delivery, which may aid numerous applications of AAV delivery to gene therapy.

  14. Site-specific integration by the adeno-associated virus rep protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Alessandra; Mavilio, Fulvio

    2011-10-01

    Inserting genetic information at precise locations into the human genome has been the goal of gene transfer technology for almost two decades. The spectacular progress of mammalian genetics has led to the development of technology for genome editing and homologous recombination in human somatic cells that is finally approaching efficiency compatible with clinical application. Site-specific integration, or the insertion of genes at known locations by enzymes with target recognition capacity, has progressed slowly but steadily in recent years, and could very well be the basis of the next generation of gene transfer technology. This review focuses on the use of Rep, the replicase/integrase of the adeno-associated virus (AAV), to insert genes at the natural AAV integration site on human chromosome 19. This region (AAVS1) has characteristics that make it an ideal target for somatic transgenesis.

  15. An adeno-associated virus vector-mediated multiple gene transfer for dopamine synthetic enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊东升; 沈扬

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To explore a multiple gene transfer approach with separate adeno-associated virus vectors. Methods: The genes of dopamine synthetic enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylasc (TH), GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH, an enzyme critical for tetrahydrobioptcrin synthesis), and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), were cotransduced into 293 cells with separate AAV vectors. Expressions of TH, GCH, and AADC were detected by Western blot analysis. L-dopa and dopamine levels in the ceils were assayed by HPLC. Results: TH, GCH, and AADC proteins were effectively cocxpressed in the transduced cells with three separate AAV vectors, AAV-TH, AAV-GCH, and AAV-AADC. Furthermore, the coexpression of these three proteins resulted in an effectively spontaneous dopainc production in the cotransduced cells. Conclusion: The triple transduction of TH, GCH, and AADC genes with separate AAV vectors is effective, which might be important to gene therapy for Parkinson's disease.

  16. Chimeric adeno-associated virus and bacteriophage: a potential targeted gene therapy vector for malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavarut, Paladd; O'Neill, Kevin; Syed, Nelofer; Hajitou, Amin

    2014-01-01

    The incipient development of gene therapy for cancer has fuelled its progression from bench to bedside in mere decades. Of all malignancies that exist, gliomas are the largest class of brain tumors, and are renowned for their aggressiveness and resistance to therapy. In order for gene therapy to achieve clinical success, a multitude of barriers ranging from glioma tumor physiology to vector biology must be overcome. Many viral gene delivery systems have been subjected to clinical investigation; however, with highly limited success. In this review, the current progress and challenges of gene therapy for malignant glioma are discussed. Moreover, we highlight the hybrid adeno-associated virus and bacteriophage vector as a potential candidate for targeted gene delivery to brain tumors.

  17. Capsid modification of adeno-associated virus and tumor targeting gene therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU ZengHu; ZHOU XiuMei; SHI WenFang; QIAN QiJun

    2008-01-01

    Targeting is critical for successful tumor gene therapy. The adeno-associated virus (AAV) has aroused wide concern due to its excellent advantages over other viral vectors in gene therapy. AAV has a broad infection spectrum, which also results in poor specificity towards tissues or cells and low transduction efficiency. Therefore, it is imperative to improve target and transduction efficiency in AAV-mediated gene therapy. Up to now, researchers have developed many strategies to modify AAV capsids for improving targeting or retargeting only desired cells. These strategies include not only traditional chemical modification, phage display technology, modification of AAV capsid genome, chimeric vectors and so on, but also many novel strategies involved in marker rescue strategy, direct evolution of capsid proteins, direct display random peptides on AAV capsid, AAVP (AAV-Phage), and etc. This review will summarize the advances of researches on the capsid modification of AAV to target malignant cells.

  18. Adeno-associated viral vector transduction of human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Murphy, Mary; O'Brien, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have received considerable attention in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. One aspect of MSC research focuses on genetically modifying the cells with the aim of enhancing their regenerative potential. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) holds promise as a vector...... in human MSCs and to assess whether AAV transduction affects MSC multipotentiality. The results indicated that human MSCs could indeed be transiently transduced in vitro by the AAV2 vector with efficiencies of up to 65%. The percentage of GFP-positive cells peaked at 4 days post-transduction and declined...... rapidly towards 0% after day 8. The level of transgene expression in the GFP-positive population increased 4-fold over a 10,000 fold viral dose increase. This dose-response contrasted with the 200-fold increase observed in similarly transduced 293-cells, indicating a relatively restricted transgene...

  19. Genome Engineering Using Adeno-associated Virus: Basic and Clinical Research Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaj, Thomas; Epstein, Benjamin E; Schaffer, David V

    2016-03-01

    In addition to their broad potential for therapeutic gene delivery, adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors possess the innate ability to stimulate homologous recombination in mammalian cells at high efficiencies. This process--referred to as AAV-mediated gene targeting--has enabled the introduction of a diverse array of genomic modifications both in vitro and in vivo. With the recent emergence of targeted nucleases, AAV-mediated genome engineering is poised for clinical translation. Here, we review key properties of AAV vectors that underscore its unique utility in genome editing. We highlight the broad range of genome engineering applications facilitated by this technology and discuss the strong potential for unifying AAV with targeted nucleases for next-generation gene therapy.

  20. A novel and highly efficient production system for recombinant adeno-associated virus vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Zhijian(伍志坚); WU; Xiaobing(吴小兵); CAO; Hui(曹晖); DONG; Xiaoyan(董小岩); WANG; Hong(王宏); HOU; Yunde(侯云德)

    2002-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus(rAAV) has proven to be a promising gene delivery vector for human gene therapy. However, its application has been limited by difficulty in obtaining enough quantities of high-titer vector stocks. In this paper, a novel and highly efficient production system for rAAV is described. A recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1(rHSV-1) designated HSV1-rc/△UL2, which expressed adeno-associated virus type2(AAV-2) Rep and Cap proteins, was constructed previously. The data confirmed that its functions were to support rAAV replication and packaging, and the generated rAAV was infectious. Meanwhile, an rAAV proviral cell line designated BHK/SG2, which carried the green fluorescent protein(GFP) gene expression cassette, was established by transfecting BHK-21 cells with rAAV vector plasmid pSNAV-2-GFP. Infecting BHK/SG2 with HSV1-rc/△UL2 at an MOI of 0.1 resulted in the optimal yields of rAAV, reaching 250 transducing unit(TU) or 4.28×104 particles per cell. Therefore, compared with the conventional transfection method, the yield of rAAV using this "one proviral cell line, one helper virus" strategy was increased by two orders of magnitude. Large-scale production of rAAV can be easily achieved using this strategy and might meet the demands for clinical trials of rAAV-mediated gene therapy.

  1. Adeno-Associated Viral Vector-Induced Overexpression of Neuropeptide Y Y2 Receptors in the Hippocampus Suppresses Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldbye, David P. D.; Angehagen, Mikael; Gotzsche, Casper R.; Elbrond-Bek, Heidi; Sorensen, Andreas T.; Christiansen, Soren H.; Olesen, Mikkel V.; Nikitidou, Litsa; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Kanter-Schlifke, Irene; Kokaia, Merab

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors overexpressing neuropeptide Y in the hippocampus exerts seizure-suppressant effects in rodent epilepsy models and is currently considered for clinical application in patients with intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Seizure suppression by neuropeptide Y in the hippocampus is…

  2. Noninvasive Imaging Reveals Stable Transgene Expression in Mouse Airways After Delivery of a Nonintegrating Recombinant Adeno-Associated Viral Vector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidovic, D; Gijsbers, R; Quiles Jimenez, A; Dooley, J; Van Den Haute, C; Van der Perren, A; Liston, A; Baekelandt, V; Debyser, Z; Carlon, MS

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy holds promise to cure a wide range of genetic and acquired diseases. Recent successes in recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV)-based gene therapy in the clinic for hereditary disorders such as Leber's congenital amaurosis and hemophilia B encouraged us to reexplore an rAAV

  3. Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) Serotypes Have Distinctive Interactions with Domains of the Cellular AAV Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Sirika; Zou, Wei; Cheng, Fang; Puschnik, Andreas S.; Meyer, Nancy L.; Ganaie, Safder S.; Deng, Xuefeng; Wosen, Jonathan E.; Davulcu, Omar; Yan, Ziying; Engelhardt, John F.; Brown, Kevin E.; Chapman, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adeno-associated virus (AAV) entry is determined by its interactions with specific surface glycans and a proteinaceous receptor(s). Adeno-associated virus receptor (AAVR) (also named KIAA0319L) is an essential cellular receptor required for the transduction of vectors derived from multiple AAV serotypes, including the evolutionarily distant serotypes AAV2 and AAV5. Here, we further biochemically characterize the AAV-AAVR interaction and define the domains within the ectodomain of AAVR that facilitate this interaction. By using a virus overlay assay, it was previously shown that the major AAV2 binding protein in membrane preparations of human cells corresponds to a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 150 kDa. By establishing a purification procedure, performing further protein separation by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and utilizing mass spectrometry, we now show that this glycoprotein is identical to AAVR. While we find that AAVR is an N-linked glycosylated protein, this glycosylation is not a strict requirement for AAV2 binding or functional transduction. Using a combination of genetic complementation with deletion constructs and virus overlay assays with individual domains, we find that AAV2 functionally interacts predominantly with the second Ig-like polycystic kidney disease (PKD) repeat domain (PKD2) present in the ectodomain of AAVR. In contrast, AAV5 interacts primarily through the first, most membrane-distal, PKD domain (PKD1) of AAVR to promote transduction. Furthermore, other AAV serotypes, including AAV1 and -8, require a combination of PKD1 and PKD2 for optimal transduction. These results suggest that despite their shared dependence on AAVR as a critical entry receptor, different AAV serotypes have evolved distinctive interactions with the same receptor. IMPORTANCE Over the past decade, AAV vectors have emerged as leading gene delivery tools for therapeutic applications and biomedical research. However, fundamental aspects of the AAV life

  4. ADENO-ASSOCIATED VIRUS INTRODUCED INTEGRATION AND EXPRESSION OF FOREIGN GENES IN PC12 CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate integration and expression of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors in neuronal PC12 cells,the result of which can be applied in further gene therapy of diseases of the central nervous system. Methods Human neurotrophin-3(hNT3)genes were inserted into AAV vectors. Then the recombinat AAV plasmids were encapsidated as recombinant virions. PC12 cells were transfected with the virions and the positive cells were selected by G418. The transfection positive (hNT3 modified)PC12 cells were cultured for several generations and the cellular genomic DNA and total RNA were extracted. We investigated the integration locus of AAV vectors by Southern blot and transcript situation of foreign genes by dot blot. Results The hybridization tests showed that AAV introduced foreign genes were stably integrated, but at random locus, and robustly transcribed in hNT3 modified PC12cells. Conclusion AAV vectors can serve as high efficiency vectors of target genes in neuronal PC12 cells.

  5. A simplified purification protocol for recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors

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    Mark Potter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new rapid, low cost, and scalable method for purification of various recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs from the lysates of producer cells of either mammalian or insect origin. The method takes advantage of two general biochemical properties of all characterized AAV serotypes: (i low isoelectric point of a capsid and (ii relative biological stability of the viral particle in the acidic environment. A simple and rapid clarification of cell lysate toremove the bulk of proteins and DNA is accomplished by utilizing inexpensive off-the-shelf reagents such as sodium citrate and citric acid. After the low-speed centrifugation step, the supernatant is subjected to cation exchange chromatography via sulfopropyl (SP column. The eluted virus may then be further concentrated by either centrifugal spin devices or tangential flow filtration yielding material of high titer and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP grade biochemical purity. The protocol is validated for rAAV serotypes 2, 8, and 9. The described method makes rAAV vector technology readily available for the low budget research laboratories and could be easily adapted for a large scale GMP production format.

  6. Identification of an adeno-associated virus binding epitope for AVB sepharose affinity resin

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    Qiang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent successes of adeno-associated virus (AAV–based gene therapy have created a demand for large-scale AAV vector manufacturing and purification techniques for use in clinical trials and beyond. During the development of purification protocols for rh.10, hu.37, AAV8, rh.64R1, AAV3B, and AAV9 vectors, based on a widely used affinity resin, AVB sepharose (GE, we found that, under the same conditions, different serotypes have different affinities to the resin, with AAV3B binding the best and AAV9 the poorest. Further analysis revealed a surface-exposed residue (amino acid number 665 in AAV8 VP1 numbering differs between the high-affinity AAV serotypes (serine in AAV3B, rh.10, and hu.37 and the low-affinity ones (asparagine in AAV8, rh.64R1, and AAV9. The residue locates within a surface-exposed, variable epitope flanked by highly conserved residues. The substitution of the epitope in AAV8, rh.64R1, and AAV9 with the corresponding epitope of AAV3B (SPAKFA resulted in greatly increased affinity to AVB sepharose with no reduction in the vectors’ in vitro potency. The presence of the newly identified AVB-binding epitope will be useful for affinity resin selection for the purification of novel AAV serotypes. It also suggests the possibility of vector engineering to yield a universal affinity chromatography purification method for multiple AAV serotypes.

  7. A Hypoxia-Regulated Adeno-Associated Virus Vector for Cancer-Specific Gene Therapy

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    Hangjun Ruan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of hypoxic cells in human brain tumors is an important factor leading to resistance to radiation therapy. However, this physiological difference between normal tissues and tumors also provides the potential for designing cancer-specific gene therapy. We compared the increase of gene expression under anoxia (<0.01% oxygen produced by 3, 6, and 9 copies of hypoxia-responsive elements (HRE from the erythropoietin gene (Epo, which are activated through the transcriptional complex hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1. Under anoxic conditions, nine copies of HIRE (9XHRE yielded 27- to 37-fold of increased gene expression in U-251 MG and U-87 MG human brain tumor cell lines. Under the less hypoxic conditions of 0.3% and 1% oxygen, gene activation by 9XHRE increased expression 11- to 18-fold in these cell lines. To generate a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV in which the transgene can be regulated by hypoxia, we inserted the DNA fragment containing 9XHRE and the LacZ reporter gene into an AAV vector. Under anoxic conditions, this vector produced 79- to 110-fold increase in gene expression. We believe this hypoxia-regulated rAAV vector will provide a useful delivery vehicle for cancer-specific gene therapy.

  8. The Helper Activities of Different Avian Viruses for Propagation of Recombinant Avian Adeno-Associated Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG An-ping; SUN Huai-chang; WANG Jian-ye; WANG Yong-juan; YUAN Wei-feng

    2007-01-01

    To compare the helper activities of different avian viruses for propagation of recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (rAAAV), AAV-293 cells were cotransfected with the AAAV vector pAITR-GFP containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, the AAAV helper vector pcDNA-ARC expressing the rep and cap genes, and the adenovirus helper vector pHelper expressing Ad5 E2A, E4, and VA-RNA genes. Chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF) or chicken embryonic liver (CEL) cells were cotransfected with the AAAV vector and the AAAV helper vector, followed by infection with Marek's disease virus (MDV), avian adenovirus, chicken embryo lethal orphan (CELO) virus or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Infectious rAAAV particles generated by the two strategies were harvested and titrated on CEF and CEL cells. A significantly higher viral titer was obtained with the helper activity provided by the pHelper vector than by MDV or CELO virus. Further experiments showed that rAAAV-mediated green fluorescent protein (gfp) expression was overtly enhanced by MDV or CELO virus super infection or treatment with sodium butyric acid, but not by IBDV super infection. These data demonstrated that MDV and CELO viruses could provide weak helper activity for propagation of rAAAV, and rAAAV-mediated transgene expression could be enhanced by super infection with the helper viruses.

  9. Ectopic catalase expression in mitochondria by adeno-associated virus enhances exercise performance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dejia; Lai, Yi; Yue, Yongping; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Hakim, Chady; Duan, Dongsheng

    2009-08-19

    Oxidative stress is thought to compromise muscle contractility. However, administration of generic antioxidants has failed to convincingly improve performance during exhaustive exercise. One possible explanation may relate to the inability of the supplemented antioxidants to effectively eliminate excessive free radicals at the site of generation. Here, we tested whether delivering catalase to the mitochondria, a site of free radical production in contracting muscle, could improve treadmill performance in C57Bl/6 mice. Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype-9 (AV.RSV.MCAT) was generated to express a mitochondria-targeted catalase gene. AV.RSV.MCAT was delivered to newborn C57Bl/6 mouse circulation at the dose of 10(12) vector genome particles per mouse. Three months later, we observed a approximately 2 to 10-fold increase of catalase protein and activity in skeletal muscle and the heart. Subcellular fractionation western blot and double immunofluorescence staining confirmed ectopic catalase expression in the mitochondria. Compared with untreated control mice, absolute running distance and body weight normalized running distance were significantly improved in AV.RSV.MCAT infected mice during exhaustive treadmill running. Interestingly, ex vivo contractility of the extensor digitorum longus muscle was not altered. Taken together, we have demonstrated that forced catalase expression in the mitochondria enhances exercise performance. Our result provides a framework for further elucidating the underlying mechanism. It also raises the hope of applying similar strategies to remove excessive, pathogenic free radicals in certain muscle diseases (such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy) and ameliorate muscle disease.

  10. Ectopic catalase expression in mitochondria by adeno-associated virus enhances exercise performance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejia Li

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is thought to compromise muscle contractility. However, administration of generic antioxidants has failed to convincingly improve performance during exhaustive exercise. One possible explanation may relate to the inability of the supplemented antioxidants to effectively eliminate excessive free radicals at the site of generation. Here, we tested whether delivering catalase to the mitochondria, a site of free radical production in contracting muscle, could improve treadmill performance in C57Bl/6 mice. Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype-9 (AV.RSV.MCAT was generated to express a mitochondria-targeted catalase gene. AV.RSV.MCAT was delivered to newborn C57Bl/6 mouse circulation at the dose of 10(12 vector genome particles per mouse. Three months later, we observed a approximately 2 to 10-fold increase of catalase protein and activity in skeletal muscle and the heart. Subcellular fractionation western blot and double immunofluorescence staining confirmed ectopic catalase expression in the mitochondria. Compared with untreated control mice, absolute running distance and body weight normalized running distance were significantly improved in AV.RSV.MCAT infected mice during exhaustive treadmill running. Interestingly, ex vivo contractility of the extensor digitorum longus muscle was not altered. Taken together, we have demonstrated that forced catalase expression in the mitochondria enhances exercise performance. Our result provides a framework for further elucidating the underlying mechanism. It also raises the hope of applying similar strategies to remove excessive, pathogenic free radicals in certain muscle diseases (such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and ameliorate muscle disease.

  11. Magnetically enhanced adeno-associated viral vector delivery for human neural stem cell infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunmi; Oh, Ji-Seon; Ahn, Ik-Sung; Park, Kook In; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2011-11-01

    Gene therapy technology is a powerful tool to elucidate the molecular cues that precisely regulate stem cell fates, but developing safe vehicles or mechanisms that are capable of delivering genes to stem cells with high efficiency remains a challenge. In this study, we developed a magnetically guided adeno-associated virus (AAV) delivery system for gene delivery to human neural stem cells (hNSCs). Magnetically guided AAV delivery resulted in rapid accumulation of vectors on target cells followed by forced penetration of the vectors across the plasma membrane, ultimately leading to fast and efficient cellular transduction. To combine AAV vectors with the magnetically guided delivery, AAV was genetically modified to display hexa-histidine (6xHis) on the physically exposed loop of the AAV2 capsid (6xHis AAV), which interacted with nickel ions chelated on NTA-biotin conjugated to streptavidin-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NiStNPs). NiStNP-mediated 6xHis AAV delivery under magnetic fields led to significantly enhanced cellular transduction in a non-permissive cell type (i.e., hNSCs). In addition, this delivery method reduced the viral exposure times required to induce a high level of transduction by as much as to 2-10 min of hNSC infection, thus demonstrating the great potential of magnetically guided AAV delivery for numerous gene therapy and stem cell applications.

  12. [Innate immune mechanisms against recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Yong; Xu, Ruian

    2012-05-04

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) is one of the most commonly used vectors for gene therapy. Despite the promising safety profile demonstrated in preclinical trials, the clinic efficacy of using rAAV was hampered by undesired response from the immune system. It is important to understand the mechanisms that lead to the induction of immune response against rAAV. Although a crucial role for innate immunity is shaping adaptive immune responses, the innate immune to rAAV was ignored in the past. Till now, at least three human cell types (dendritic cells, macrophages and endothelial cells) were discovered to be involved in sensing rAAV infection. The engagement of TLR9 by rAAV vector genomes triggers the activation of NF-kappaB signaling cascades, leading to the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes. The viral capsid components are detected by TLR2, and this leads to the production of type I interferon mediated by interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) pathway. Self-complementary rAAV vectors induced higher TLR9 dependent innate immune response than single stranded rAAV. This review highlights the recent findings regarding the innate immune responses to rAAV vectors, the signaling pathways involved, and the impacts of innate immunity on the adaptive immune response to rAAV and its transgene expression.

  13. Recruitment of wild-type and recombinant adeno-associated virus into adenovirus replication centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, M D; Fisher, K J; Wilson, J M

    1996-03-01

    Replication of a human parvovirus, adeno-associated virus (AAV), is facilitated by coinfection with adeno-virus to provide essential helper functions. We have used the techniques of in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry to characterize the localization of AAV replication within infected cells, Previous studies have shown that adenovirus establishes foci called replication centers within the nucleus, where adenoviral replication and transcription occur. Our studies indicate that AAV is colocalized with the adenovirus replication centers, where it may utilize adenovirus and cellular proteins for its own replication. Expression of the AAV Rep protein inhibits the normal maturation of the adenovirus centers. Similar experiments were performed with recombinant AAV (rAAV) to establish a relationship between intranuclear localization and rAAV transduction. rAAV efficiently entered the cell, and its genome was faintly detectable in a perinuclear distribution and was mobilized to replication centers when the cell was infected with adenovirus. The recruitment of the replication-defective genome into the intranuclear adenovirus domains resulted in enhanced transduction. These studies illustrate the importance of intracellular compartmentalization for such complex interactions as the relationship between AAV and adenovirus.

  14. Notch1 augments intracellular trafficking of adeno-associated virus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Changchun; White, April F; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

    2007-02-01

    We report here the significance of the Notch1 receptor in intracellular trafficking of recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 (rAAV2). RNA profiling of human prostate cancer cell lines with various degrees of AAV transduction indicated a correlation of the amount of Notch1 with rAAV transgene expression. A definitive role of Notch1 in enhancing AAV transduction was confirmed by developing clonal derivatives of DU145 cells overexpressing either full-length or intracellular Notch1. To discern stages of AAV2 transduction influenced by Notch1, competitive binding with soluble heparin and Notch1 antibody, intracellular trafficking using Cy3-labeled rAAV2, and blocking assays for proteasome and dynamin pathways were performed. Results indicated that in the absence or low-level expression of Notch1, only binding of virus was found on the cell surface and internalization was impaired. However, increased Notch1 expression in these cells allowed efficient perinuclear accumulation of labeled capsids. Nuclear transport of the vector was evident by transgene expression and real-time PCR analyses. Dynamin levels were not found to be different among these cell lines, but blocking dynamin function abrogated AAV2 transduction in DU145 clones overexpressing full-length Notch1 but not in clones overexpressing intracellular Notch1. These studies provide evidence for the role of activated Notch1 in intracellular trafficking of AAV2, which may have implications in the optimal use of AAV2 in human gene therapy.

  15. Copackaging of multiple adeno-associated viral vectors in a single production step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, Phillip A; Byrne, Barry J; Clément, Nathalie

    2014-10-01

    Limiting factors in large preclinical and clinical studies utilizing adeno-associated virus (AAV) for gene therapy are focused on the restrictive packaging capacity, the overall yields, and the versatility of the production methods for single AAV vector production. Furthermore, applications where multiple vectors are needed to provide long expression cassettes, whether because of long cDNA sequences or the need of different regulatory elements, require that each vector be packaged and characterized separately, directly affecting labor and cost associated with such manufacturing strategies. To overcome these limitations, we propose a novel method of vector production that allows for the packaging of multiple expression cassettes in a single transfection step. Here we combined two expression cassettes in predetermined ratios before transfection and empirically demonstrate that the output vector recapitulates the predicted ratios. Titration by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of AAV vector genome copies using shared or unique genetic elements allowed for delineation of the individual vector contribution to the total preparation that showed the predicted differential packaging outcomes. By copackaging green fluorescent protein (GFP) and mCherry constructs, we demonstrate that both vector genome and infectious titers reiterated the ratios utilized to produce the constructs by transfection. Copackaged therapeutic constructs that only differ in transcriptional elements produced a heterogeneous vector population of both constructs in the predefined ratios. This study shows feasibility and reproducibility of a method that allows for two constructs, differing in either transgene or transcription elements, to be efficiently copackaged and characterized simultaneously, reducing cost of manufacturing and release testing.

  16. The potential of adeno-associated viral vectors for gene delivery to muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Zhong, Li; Nahid, M Abu; Gao, Guangping

    2014-03-01

    Muscle-directed gene therapy is rapidly gaining attention primarily because muscle is an easily accessible target tissue and is also associated with various severe genetic disorders. Localized and systemic delivery of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors of several serotypes results in very efficient transduction of skeletal and cardiac muscles, which has been achieved in both small and large animals, as well as in humans. Muscle is the target tissue in gene therapy for many muscular dystrophy diseases, and may also be exploited as a biofactory to produce secretory factors for systemic disorders. Current limitations of using rAAVs for muscle gene transfer include vector size restriction, potential safety concerns such as off-target toxicity and the immunological barrier composing of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies and CD8(+) T-cell response against AAV capsid in humans. In this article, we will discuss basic AAV vector biology and its application in muscle-directed gene delivery, as well as potential strategies to overcome the aforementioned limitations of rAAV for further clinical application. Delivering therapeutic genes to large muscle mass in humans is arguably the most urgent unmet demand in treating diseases affecting muscle tissues throughout the whole body. Muscle-directed, rAAV-mediated gene transfer for expressing antibodies is a promising strategy to combat deadly infectious diseases. Developing strategies to circumvent the immune response following rAAV administration in humans will facilitate clinical application.

  17. Adeno-associated virus serotype 9 transduction in the central nervous system of nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranch, Lluis; Salegio, Ernesto A; San Sebastian, Waldy; Kells, Adrian P; Foust, Kevin D; Bringas, John R; Lamarre, Clementine; Forsayeth, John; Kaspar, Brian K; Bankiewicz, Krystof S

    2012-04-01

    Widespread distribution of gene products at clinically relevant levels throughout the CNS has been challenging. Adeno-associated virus type 9 (AAV9) vector has been reported as a good candidate for intravascular gene delivery, but low levels of preexisting antibody titers against AAV in the blood abrogate cellular transduction within the CNS. In the present study we compared the effectiveness of vascular delivery and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) delivery of AAV9 in transducing CNS tissue in nonhuman primates. Both delivery routes generated similar distribution patterns, although we observed a more robust level of transduction after CSF delivery. Consistent with previous reports administering AAV9, we found greater astrocytic than neuronal tropism via both routes, although we did find a greater magnitude of CNS transduction after CSF delivery compared with intravascular delivery. Last, we have demonstrated that delivery of AAV9 into the CSF does not shield against AAV antibodies. This has obvious implications when developing and/or implementing any clinical trial studies.

  18. Construction of Adeno-associated Virus System for Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke SONG; Nianjing RAO; Meiling CHEN; Yingguang CAO

    2008-01-01

    To construct the recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector with human bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) and observe the BMP7 mRNA expression in vitro, BMP7 CDS se- quence was cloned into expression plasmid pAAV-MCS of AAV Helper Free System. The recombi- nant plasmid was identified with enzyme digestion and sequencing. The recombinant plasmid, pAAV-RC, pHelper were co-transfected into AAV-293 cells according to the calcium phosphate-based protocol. The viral stock was collected by 4 rounds of freeze/thaw. After purified and concentrated,the recombinant virus titer was determined by dot-blot assay. HEK293 cells were transfected with the recombinant virus at different MOI, and the expression of BMP7 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. The results showed rAAV-BMP7 was constructed and packaged successfully. The physical particle titer was 2.5×1011 vector genomes/mL. There was different expression level of BMP7 mRNA after transfecton. These data suggested that recombinant AAV mediated a stable expression of hBMP7 mRNA in 293 cells. The AAV production method may pave the way of an effective strategy for the jaw bone defection around dental implants.

  19. Adeno-associated virus type 2 binding study on model heparan sulfate surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Atsuko; Liu, Jian; McCarty, Douglas; Samulski, Jude; Superfine, Richard

    2003-11-01

    Understanding the mechanisms involved in virus infections is useful in its application in areas such as gene therapy, drug development and delivery, and biosensors. In collaboration with UNC Gene Therapy Center and School of Pharmacy, we are specifically looking at the interaction between human parvovirus adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2), a potential viral vector, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), a known cell surface receptor for AAV2. Recent development in glycobiology has shown that some protein-polysaccharide binding is sugar sequence dependent. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide chain of sulfated iduronic/glucuronic and sulfate glucosamine residues and can be differentiated into sequence specific structures by enzymes. These enzymatic modifications, known as heparan sulfate sulfotransferase modified modifications, have been shown to change the biological nature of heparan sulfate such as specific binding to proteins and viruses. For understanding HS-assisted viral infection mechanisms, we are interested in investigating the binding affinity and stability of AAV to different HS structures. We have developed a model heparan sulfate surface in which AAV adsorption studies are done and analyzed using the atomic force microscope (AFM). In addition, a miniArray assay has been created to facilitate to this study. Adsorption studies are done in 4 white LED wells with approximately 3 mm2 reaction areas which minimize sample use and waste.

  20. Creation of a cardiotropic adeno-associated virus: the story of viral directed evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adeno-associated virus (AAV is an important vector system for human gene therapy. Although use of AAV serotypes can result in efficient myocardial gene transfer, improvements in the transduction efficiency and specificity are still required. As a method for artificial modification and selection of gene function, directed evolution has been used for diverse applications in genetic engineering of enzymes and proteins. Since 2000, pioneering work has been performed on directed evolution of viral vectors. We further attempted to evolve the AAV using DNA shuffling and in vivo biopanning in a mouse model. An AAVM41 mutant was characterized, which was found to have improved transduction efficiency and specificity in myocardium, an attribute unknown for any natural AAV serotypes. This review focuses on the development of AAV vector for cardiac gene transfer, the history of directed evolution of viral vectors, and our creation of a cardiotropic AAV, which might have implications for the future design and application of viral vectors.

  1. Novel recombinant adeno-associated viruses for Cre activated and inactivated transgene expression in neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpiar eSaunders

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the organization of the nervous system requires methods for dissecting the contributions of each component cell type to circuit function. One widely used approach combines genetic targeting of Cre recombinase to specific cell populations with infection of recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs whose transgene expression is activated by Cre (Cre-On. Distinguishing how the Cre-expressing neurons differ functionally from neighboring Cre-negative neurons requires rAAVs that are inactivated by Cre (Cre-Off and can be used in tandem with Cre-On viruses. Here we introduce two rAAV vectors that are inactivated by Cre and carry different fluorophore and optogenetic constructs. We demonstrate single and dual rAAV systems to achieve Cre-On and Cre-Off expression in spatially-intermingled cell populations of the striatum. Using these systems, we uncovered cryptic genomic interactions that occur between multiple Cre-sensitive rAAVs or between Cre-sensitive rAAVs and somatic Cre-conditional alleles and devised methods to avoid these interactions. Our data highlight both important experimental caveats associated with Cre-dependent rAAV use as well as opportunities for the development of improved rAAVs for gene delivery.

  2. Adeno-Associated Virus 9-Mediated Airway Expression of Antibody Protects Old and Immunodeficient Mice against Influenza Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Virginie S.; Crosariol, Marco; Kumar, Sachin; Ge, Moyar Q.; Czack, Sarah E.; Roy, Soumitra; Haczku, Angela; Tretiakova, Anna; Wilson, James M.; Limberis, Maria P.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza causes serious and sometimes fatal disease in individuals at risk due to advanced age or immunodeficiencies. Despite progress in the development of seasonal influenza vaccines, vaccine efficacy in elderly and immunocompromised individuals remains low. We recently developed a passive immunization strategy using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to deliver a neutralizing anti-influenza antibody at the site of infection, the nasal airways. Here we show that young, old, and immunod...

  3. A comparative analysis of constitutive promoters located in adeno-associated viral vectors.

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    Lkhagvasuren Damdindorj

    Full Text Available The properties of constitutive promoters within adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors have not yet been fully characterized. In this study, AAV vectors, in which enhanced GFP expression was directed by one of the six constitutive promoters (human β-actin, human elongation factor-1α, chicken β-actin combined with cytomegalovirus early enhancer, cytomegalovirus (CMV, simian virus 40, and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase, were constructed and introduced into the HCT116, DLD-1, HT-1080, and MCF-10A cell lines. Quantification of GFP signals in infected cells demonstrated that the CMV promoter produced the highest GFP expression in the six promoters and maintained relatively high GFP expression for up to eight weeks after infection of HCT116, DLD-1, and HT-1080. Exogenous human CDKN2A gene expression was also introduced into DLD-1 and MCF-10A in a similar pattern by using AAV vectors bearing the human β-actin and the CMV promoters. The six constitutive promoters were subsequently placed upstream of the neomycin resistance gene within AAV vectors, and HCT116, DLD-1, and HT-1080 were infected with the resulting vectors. Of the six promoters, the CMV promoter produced the largest number of G418-resistant colonies in all three cell lines. Because AAV vectors have been frequently used as a platform to construct targeting vectors that permit gene editing in human cell lines, we lastly infected the three cell lines with AAV-based targeting vectors against the human PIGA gene in which one of the six promoters regulate the neomycin resistance gene. This assay revealed that the CMV promoter led to the lowest PIGA gene targeting efficiency in the investigated promoters. These results provide a clue to the identification of constitutive promoters suitable to express exogenous genes with AAV vectors, as well as those helpful to conduct efficient gene targeting using AAV-based targeting vectors in human cell lines.

  4. Effects of adeno-associated virus on adenovirus replication and gene expression during coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpe, Jennifer M; Verrill, Kristin C; Trempe, James P

    2006-08-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a nonpathogenic parvovirus that requires adenovirus (Ad) or another helper virus for a fully permissive infection. AAV-mediated inhibition of Ad is well documented, yet many details of this interaction remain unclear. In this study, we observed a maximum 50-fold decrease in infectious virus production and a 10- to 40-fold reduction in Ad DNA synthesis during coinfections with AAV. With the exception of the E3 gene, AAV decreased all steady-state Ad mRNA levels at 24 h postinfection (hpi) in a dose-dependent manner. However, not all transcription units were affected equally. E4 and late transcription were the most strongly inhibited, and E1A and E2A were the least affected. The temporal effects of AAV on Ad mRNA transcript levels also varied among the Ad genes. Ad protein expression paralleled mRNA levels at 24 hpi, suggesting that coinfecting AAV does not exert substantial effects on translation. In plasmid transfection assays, Rep78 protein most effectively limited Ad amplification, while Rep40 had no effect. Since E2a and E4 proteins are essential for efficient Ad DNA amplification, we examined the relationship between reduced E2A and E4 expression and decreased DNA amplification. Transfected Rep78 did not reduce E2A and E4 transcript levels prior to DNA replication. Also, AAV-induced inhibition of E2A and E4 mRNA production did not occur in the presence of hydroxyurea. It is therefore unlikely that decreased early gene expression is solely responsible for AAV's suppression of Ad DNA replication. Our results suggest that AAV amplification and/or Rep gene expression inhibits Ad DNA synthesis.

  5. Structural Studies of Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 8 Capsid Transitions Associated with Endosomal Trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Hyun-Joo; Gurda, Brittney L.; McKenna, Robert; Potter, Mark; Byrne, Barry; Salganik, Maxim; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis (Florida)

    2012-09-17

    The single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) parvoviruses enter host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, and infection depends on processing in the early to late endosome as well as in the lysosome prior to nuclear entry for replication. However, the mechanisms of capsid endosomal processing, including the effects of low pH, are poorly understood. To gain insight into the structural transitions required for this essential step in infection, the crystal structures of empty and green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene-packaged adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) have been determined at pH values of 6.0, 5.5, and 4.0 and then at pH 7.5 after incubation at pH 4.0, mimicking the conditions encountered during endocytic trafficking. While the capsid viral protein (VP) topologies of all the structures were similar, significant amino acid side chain conformational rearrangements were observed on (i) the interior surface of the capsid under the icosahedral 3-fold axis near ordered nucleic acid density that was lost concomitant with the conformational change as pH was reduced and (ii) the exterior capsid surface close to the icosahedral 2-fold depression. The 3-fold change is consistent with DNA release from an ordering interaction on the inside surface of the capsid at low pH values and suggests transitions that likely trigger the capsid for genome uncoating. The surface change results in disruption of VP-VP interface interactions and a decrease in buried surface area between VP monomers. This disruption points to capsid destabilization which may (i) release VP1 amino acids for its phospholipase A2 function for endosomal escape and nuclear localization signals for nuclear targeting and (ii) trigger genome uncoating.

  6. Recombination and population mosaic of a multifunctional viral gene, adeno-associated virus cap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination is a dominant force in evolution and results in genetic mosaics. To detect evidence of recombination events and assess the biological significance of genetic mosaics, genome sequences for various viral populations of reasonably large size are now available in the GenBank. We studied a multi-functional viral gene, the adeno-associated virus (AAV cap gene, which codes for three capsid proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3. VP1-3 share a common C-terminal domain corresponding to VP3, which forms the viral core structure, while the VP1 unique N-terminal part contains an enzymatic domain with phospholipase A2 activity. Our recombinant detection program (RecI revealed five novel recombination events, four of which have their cross-over points in the N-terminal, VP1 and VP2 unique region. Comparison of phylogenetic trees for different cap gene regions confirmed discordant phylogenies for the recombinant sequences. Furthermore, differences in the phylogenetic tree structures for the VP1 unique (VP1u region and the rest of cap highlighted the mosaic nature of cap gene in the AAV population: two dominant forms of VP1u sequences were identified and these forms are linked to diverse sequences in the rest of cap gene. This observation together with the finding of frequent recombination in the VP1 and 2 unique regions suggests that this region is a recombination hot spot. Recombination events in this region preserve protein blocks of distinctive functions and contribute to convergence in VP1u and divergence of the rest of cap. Additionally the possible biological significance of two dominant VP1u forms is inferred.

  7. Structural studies of adeno-associated virus serotype 8 capsid transitions associated with endosomal trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyun-Joo; Gurda, Brittney L; McKenna, Robert; Potter, Mark; Byrne, Barry; Salganik, Maxim; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2011-11-01

    The single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) parvoviruses enter host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, and infection depends on processing in the early to late endosome as well as in the lysosome prior to nuclear entry for replication. However, the mechanisms of capsid endosomal processing, including the effects of low pH, are poorly understood. To gain insight into the structural transitions required for this essential step in infection, the crystal structures of empty and green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene-packaged adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) have been determined at pH values of 6.0, 5.5, and 4.0 and then at pH 7.5 after incubation at pH 4.0, mimicking the conditions encountered during endocytic trafficking. While the capsid viral protein (VP) topologies of all the structures were similar, significant amino acid side chain conformational rearrangements were observed on (i) the interior surface of the capsid under the icosahedral 3-fold axis near ordered nucleic acid density that was lost concomitant with the conformational change as pH was reduced and (ii) the exterior capsid surface close to the icosahedral 2-fold depression. The 3-fold change is consistent with DNA release from an ordering interaction on the inside surface of the capsid at low pH values and suggests transitions that likely trigger the capsid for genome uncoating. The surface change results in disruption of VP-VP interface interactions and a decrease in buried surface area between VP monomers. This disruption points to capsid destabilization which may (i) release VP1 amino acids for its phospholipase A2 function for endosomal escape and nuclear localization signals for nuclear targeting and (ii) trigger genome uncoating.

  8. Supraspinal gene transfer by intrathecal adeno-associated virus serotype 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Schuster

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the pattern of transgene expression across brain regions after intrathecal delivery of adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5. Labeling in hindbrain appeared to be primarily neuronal, and was detected in sensory nuclei of medulla, pontine nuclei, and all layers of cerebellar cortex. Expression in midbrain was minimal, and generally limited to isolated neurons and astrocytes in the cerebral peduncles. GFP immunoreactivity (-ir in thalamus was most prominent in medial geniculate nucleus, and otherwise limited to posterior nuclei of the dorsal and lateral margins. Labeling was also observed in neurons and astrocytes of the hippocampal formation and amygdaloid complex. In the hippocampal formation, GFP-ir was found in neuronal cell bodies of the rostral ventral portion, but was largely restricted to fiber-like staining in the molecular layer of dentate gyrus and stratum lacunosum-moleculare of the rostral dorsal region. GFP-ir was seen in neurons and astroglia throughout caudal cortex, whereas in rostral regions of neocortex it was limited to isolated astrocytes and neurons. Labeling was also present in olfactory bulb. These results demonstrate that intrathecal delivery of AAV5 vector leads to transgene expression in discrete CNS regions throughout the rostro-caudal extent of the neuraxis. A caudal-to-rostral gradient of decreasing GFP-ir was present in choroid plexus and Purkinje cells, suggesting that spread of virus through cerebrospinal fluid plays a role in the resulting transduction pattern. Other factors contributing to the observed expression pattern likely include variations in cell-surface receptors and inter-parenchymal space.

  9. Defective-interfering particles of the human parvovirus adeno-associated virus. [uv radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, C.A.; Myers, M.W.; Risin, D.L.; Carter, B.J.

    1979-04-15

    We have previously shown that adeno-associated virus (AAV) grown in KB cells with a helper adenovirus, produced several classes of particles defined by their buoyant density in CsCl. The predominant density classes were referred to as AAV(1.45), AAV(1.41), AAV (1.35), and AAV(1.32), respectively, where the density of the particle was written in the parentheses. The AAV(1.45) and AAV(1.41) particles which contained standard genomes were the only infectious AAV these infectious AAV particles exhibited autointerference. The ligh-density AAV(1.35) and (1.32) particles contained aberrant (deleted and/or snap-back) genomes. We report here experiments which show that the light-density AAV particles were noninfectious but interfered with the replication of AAV(1.41). The interference was intracellular and resulted in inhibition of synthesis of standard (14.5S) AAV genomes. In some cases there was also a concomitant increase in synthesis of aberrant, shorter AAV DNA. The inhibitory activity of the light-density particles was abolished by uv irradiation. These results show that the population of light AAV particles contained DI particles. The observed autointerference of AAV(1.45) or AAV(1.41) virus is postulated to be due to AAV DI particles. Replication of AAV DI genomes appeared to require the presence of replicating, standard AAV genomes. This is interpreted to mean that progeny strand replication of AAV requires an AAV-specified product, presumably the AAV capsid protein. In contrast to standard, infectious AAV, the AAV DI particles alone do not inhibit replication of the helper adenovirus.

  10. Adeno associated viral-mediated intraosseous labeling of bone marrow derived cells for CNS tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenica, Maj-Linda B; Reid, Patrick; Pena, Gabriela; Alvarez, Jennifer; Hunt, Jerry B; Nash, Kevin R; Morgan, Dave; Gordon, Marcia N; Lee, Daniel C

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation, including microglial activation in the CNS, is an important hallmark in many neurodegenerative diseases. Microglial stimuli not only impact the brain microenvironment by production and release of cytokines and chemokines, but also influence the activity of bone marrow derived cells and blood born macrophage populations. In many diseases including brain disorders and spinal cord injury, researchers have tried to harbor the neuroprotective and repair properties of these subpopulations. Hematopoietic bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) are of great interest, especially during gene therapy because certain hematopoietic cell subpopulations traffic to the sites of injury and inflammation. The aim of this study was to develop a method of labeling endogenous bone marrow derived cells through intraosseous impregnation of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) or lentivirus. We utilized rAAV serotype 9 (rAAV-9) or lentivirus for gene delivery of green florescence protein (GFP) to the mouse bone marrow cells. Flow cytometry showed that both viruses were able to efficiently transduce mouse bone marrow cells in vivo. However, the rAAV9-GFP viral construct transduced BMDCs more efficiently than the lentivirus (11.2% vs. 6.8%), as indicated by cellular GFP expression. We also demonstrate that GFP labeled cells correspond to bone marrow cells of myeloid origin using CD11b as a marker. Additionally, we characterized the ability of bone marrow derived, GFP labeled cells to extravasate into the brain parenchyma upon acute and subchronic neuroinflammatory stimuli in the mouse CNS. Viral mediated over expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) or intracranial injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) recruited GFP labeled BMDCs from the periphery into the brain parenchyma compared to vehicle treated mice. Altogether our findings demonstrate a useful method of labeling endogenous BMDCs via viral transduction and the ability to track subpopulations throughout the body

  11. Construction of adeno-associated virus coexpression system for human angiopoietin-1 and VEGF gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德杰; 谭最; 谢友利; 刘芳

    2004-01-01

    Background Ischemic disease is one of the leading causes of death in the world. In order to further study gene therapy for ischemic disease, we constructed a recombinant plasmid for co-expression of human angiopoietin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165) gene in adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene delivery system.Methods Human angiopoietin 1 and VEGF165 gene were obtained using PCR. The upstream of angiopoietin 1 contained restriction enzyme site Hind Ⅲ, and the downstream of angiopoietin 1contained restriction enzyme site BamH Ⅰ. The upstream of VEGF165 contained restriction enzyme site Bgl Ⅱ, and the downstream of VEGF165 contained restriction enzyme site BamH Ⅰ . Using the multiple cloning sites (MCS) in plasmid pZero ++ such as BamH Ⅰ , Bgl Ⅱ, Hind Ⅲ, Not Ⅰ , XhoⅠ,Xba Ⅰ , Sal Ⅰ , BspH Ⅰ , Ksp Ⅰ and the corresponding MCS in plasmid pAAV-MCS, angiopoietin 1 and VEGF165 gene were subcloned into pAAV-MCS.Results DNA sequencing revealed that the PCR- amplified angiopoietin 1 and VEGF165 were consistent with NCBI Gene Bank. The recombinant plasmid was identified using PCR and digestion,which proved to be consistent with our hypothesis. In recombinant plasmid, angiopoietin1 and VEGF possessed a CMV promoter and polyA terminator system respectively, thus assuring co-expression of the two genes.Conclusion Successful construction of AAV co-expression system for human angiopoietin 1 and VEGF165 gene will provide the foundation for gene therapy to cure severe ischemic disease.

  12. Synthetic scaffold coating with adeno-associated virus encoding BMP2 to promote endogenous bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Kenneth M; Boerckel, Joel D; Stevens, Hazel Y; Diab, Tamim; Kolambkar, Yash M; Takahata, Masahiko; Schwarz, Edward M; Guldberg, Robert E

    2012-03-01

    Biomaterial scaffolds functionalized to stimulate endogenous repair mechanisms via the incorporation of osteogenic cues offer a potential alternative to bone grafting for the treatment of large bone defects. We first quantified the ability of a self-complementary adeno-associated viral vector encoding bone morphogenetic protein 2 (scAAV2.5-BMP2) to enhance human stem cell osteogenic differentiation in vitro. In two-dimensional culture, scAAV2.5-BMP2-transduced human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) displayed significant increases in BMP2 production and alkaline phosphatase activity compared with controls. hMSCs and human amniotic-fluid-derived stem cells (hAFS cells) seeded on scAAV2.5-BMP2-coated three-dimensional porous polymer Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds also displayed significant increases in BMP2 production compared with controls during 12 weeks of culture, although only hMSC-seeded scaffolds displayed significantly increased mineral formation. PCL scaffolds coated with scAAV2.5-BMP2 were implanted into critically sized immunocompromised rat femoral defects, both with or without pre-seeding of hMSCs, representing ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy treatments, respectively. After 12 weeks, defects treated with acellular scAAV2.5-BMP2-coated scaffolds displayed increased bony bridging and had significantly higher bone ingrowth and mechanical properties compared with controls, whereas defects treated with scAAV2.5-BMP2 scaffolds pre-seeded with hMSCs failed to display significant differences relative to controls. When pooled, defect treatment with scAAV2.5-BMP2-coated scaffolds, both with or without inclusion of pre-seeded hMSCs, led to significant increases in defect mineral formation at all time points and increased mechanical properties compared with controls. This study thus presents a novel acellular bone-graft-free endogenous repair therapy for orthotopic tissue-engineered bone regeneration.

  13. Establishment of a recombinant adeno-associated virus expressing hVEGF165

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianghui Huang; Zhibin Shi; Xiaoqian Dang; Chen Zhang; Pengbo Yu; Kunzheng Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because certain gene vectors could have deleterious effects in the central nervous system, the choice of a safe and effective vector system has become more important for gene therapy of nerve regeneration. OBJECTIVE: To construct a non-pathogenic, recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) simultaneously expressing human vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (hVEGF165) and green fluorescent protein (GFP). DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized controlled experiment was performed at the Virology Laboratory of Shaanxi Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention between March and September 2007. MATERIALS: AAV helper-free system, AAV-293 packaging cell line, and AAV HT-1080 cells were purchased from Stratagene, USA. E. Coli DH5α was a stocked strain from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Shaanxi, China. Plasmid pUC18-hHVEGF165 was a gift from Zhibin Shi. METHODS: The hVEGF165 gene was amplified by PCR from pUC18-hHVEGF165 and inserted into plasmid pAAV-IRES-hrGFP to construct recombinant plasmid pAAV-hVEGF165-IRES-hrGFP. Subsequently pAAV-hVEGF165-IRES-hrGFP, pAAV-RC (the rep/cap-gene containing plasmid), and pHelper were co-transfected into AAV-293 cells to complete rAAV-hVEGF165-IRES-hrGFP packaging through homologous recombination. The efficiency of AAV packaging was monitored under a fluorescent microscope, and the recombinant viral particles were harvested from infected AAV-293 cells, and further concentrated and purified. AAV HT-1080 cells were infected with the recombinant virus AAV-hVEGF165-IRES-hrGFP. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Recombinant virus titer was measured by fluorescent cell counting, and infection efficiency was detected by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter (FACS) upon infecting AAV-HT1080 cells. The recombination with the exogenous gene was verified by PCR. RESULTS: The PCR amplified products were verified as hVEGF165 gene by DNA sequencing, and the recombinant pAAV-hVEGF165-IRES-GFP was confirmed by double digestion

  14. Continuous Collection of Adeno-Associated Virus from Producer Cell Medium Significantly Increases Total Viral Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benskey, Matthew J; Sandoval, Ivette M; Manfredsson, Fredric P

    2016-02-01

    The ability to efficiently produce large amounts of high-titer recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a prerequisite to the continued success of AAV as a gene therapy tool targeted toward large-animal preclinical studies or human clinical therapeutics. Current manufacturing procedures necessitate laborious and time-consuming purification procedures to obtain AAV particles of sufficient titer and purity for these demanding biomedical applications. The finding that AAV can be harvested and purified from producer cell medium may represent an efficient alternative to purifying AAV from cellular lysates. Here we sought to determine the maximum duration of time, and frequency within which AAV can be harvested from producer cell medium, in order to maximize the yield obtained from a single transfection preparation. Human embryonic kidney 293T cells were transfected with polyethylenimine to produce AAV2/5 expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), and cellular medium was harvested every 2 days until a maximum duration of 19 days posttransfection. AAV2/5-GFP was released into producer cell medium at a steady state until 7 days posttransfection, at which time titers dropped dramatically. Harvesting medium every two days resulted in the maximum yield of AAV from a single preparation, and the cumulative yield of AAV harvested from the producer cell medium was 4-fold higher than the yield obtained from a traditional purification of AAV from cellular lysates. The AAV2/5 harvested from medium within the 7-day collection time-course mediated high levels of transduction in vivo, comparable to AAV2/5 harvested from cellular lysates. AAV purified from cell lysates showed increasing amounts of empty particles at 5 and 7 days posttransfection, whereas AAV purified from cell medium did not show an increase in the amount of empty particles throughout the 7-day time course. Finally, we extended these findings to AAV2/9, demonstrating that a comparable ratio of AAV2/9 particles are

  15. Impact of Capsid Conformation and Rep-Capsid Interactions on Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 Genome Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Bleker, Svenja; Pawlita, Michael; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen A.

    2006-01-01

    Single-stranded genomes of adeno-associated virus (AAV) are packaged into preformed capsids. It has been proposed that packaging is initiated by interaction of genome-bound Rep proteins to the capsid, thereby targeting the genome to the portal of encapsidation. Here we describe a panel of mutants with amino acid exchanges in the pores at the fivefold axes of symmetry on AAV2 capsids with reduced packaging and reduced Rep-capsid interaction. Mutation of two threonines at the rim of the fivefol...

  16. Complete Correction of Hemophilia A with Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors Containing a Full-Size Expression Cassette

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Hui; Chen, Lingxia; Wang, Jinhui; Huack, Bernd; Sarkar, Rita; Zhou, Shangzhen; Xu, Ray; Ding, Qiulan; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, HongLi; Xiao, Weidong

    2008-01-01

    Hemophilia A is caused by a deficiency in the factor VIII (FVIII) gene. Constrained by limited packaging capacity, even the 4.3-kb B domain-deleted FVIII remained a challenge for delivery by a single adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector. Studies have shown that up to a 6.6-kb vector sequence may be packaged into AAV virions, which suggested an alternative strategy for hemophilia A gene therapy. To explore the usefulness of AAV vectors carrying an oversized FVIII gene, we constructed the AAV-FV...

  17. Targeted CNS delivery using human MiniPromoters and demonstrated compatibility with adeno-associated viral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles N de Leeuw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical for human gene therapy is the availability of small promoters tools to drive gene expression in a highly specific and reproducible manner. We tackled this challenge by developing human DNA MiniPromoters (MiniPs using computational biology and phylogenetic conservation. MiniPs were tested in mouse as single-copy knock-ins at the Hprt locus on the X chromosome and evaluated for lacZ reporter expression in central nervous system (CNS and non–CNS tissue. Eighteen novel MiniPs driving expression in mouse brain were identified, 2 MiniPs for driving pan-neuronal expression and 17 MiniPs for the mouse eye. Key areas of therapeutic interest were represented in this set: the cerebral cortex, embryonic hypothalamus, spinal cord, bipolar and ganglion cells of the retina, and skeletal muscle. We also demonstrated that three retinal ganglion cell MiniPs exhibit similar cell type specificity when delivered via adeno-associated virus vectors intravitreally. We conclude that our methodology and characterization has resulted in desirable expression characteristics that are intrinsic to the MiniPromoter, not dictated by copy-number effects or genomic location, and results in constructs predisposed to success in adeno-associated virus. These MiniPs are immediately applicable for preclinical studies toward gene therapy in humans and are publicly available to facilitate basic and clinical research, and human gene therapy.

  18. Targeted CNS delivery using human MiniPromoters and demonstrated compatibility with adeno-associated viral vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Charles N; Dyka, Frank M; Boye, Sanford L; Laprise, Stéphanie; Zhou, Michelle; Chou, Alice Y; Borretta, Lisa; McInerny, Simone C; Banks, Kathleen G; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Swanson, Magdalena I; D’Souza, Cletus A; Boye, Shannon E; Jones, Steven JM; Holt, Robert A; Goldowitz, Daniel; Hauswirth, William W; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Simpson, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    Critical for human gene therapy is the availability of small promoters tools to drive gene expression in a highly specific and reproducible manner. We tackled this challenge by developing human DNA MiniPromoters (MiniPs) using computational biology and phylogenetic conservation. MiniPs were tested in mouse as single-copy knock-ins at the Hprt locus on the X chromosome and evaluated for lacZ reporter expression in central nervous system (CNS) and non–CNS tissue. Eighteen novel MiniPs driving expression in mouse brain were identified, 2 MiniPs for driving pan-neuronal expression and 17 MiniPs for the mouse eye. Key areas of therapeutic interest were represented in this set: the cerebral cortex, embryonic hypothalamus, spinal cord, bipolar and ganglion cells of the retina, and skeletal muscle. We also demonstrated that three retinal ganglion cell MiniPs exhibit similar cell type specificity when delivered via adeno-associated virus vectors intravitreally. We conclude that our methodology and characterization has resulted in desirable expression characteristics that are intrinsic to the MiniPromoter, not dictated by copy-number effects or genomic location, and results in constructs predisposed to success in adeno-associated virus. These MiniPs are immediately applicable for preclinical studies toward gene therapy in humans and are publicly available to facilitate basic and clinical research, and human gene therapy. PMID:24761428

  19. Adeno-associated viral vector-induced overexpression of neuropeptide Y Y2 receptors in the hippocampus suppresses seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldbye, David Paul Drucker; Ängehagen, Mikael; Gøtzsche, Casper René;

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors overexpressing neuropeptide Y in the hippocampus exerts seizure-suppressant effects in rodent epilepsy models and is currently considered for clinical application in patients with intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Seizure...... suppression by neuropeptide Y in the hippocampus is predominantly mediated by Y2 receptors, which, together with neuropeptide Y, are upregulated after seizures as a compensatory mechanism. To explore whether such upregulation could prevent seizures, we overexpressed Y2 receptors in the hippocampus using...... and neuropeptide Y had a more pronounced seizure-suppressant effect. These results demonstrate that overexpression of Y2 receptors (alone or in combination with neuropeptide Y) could be an alternative strategy for epilepsy treatment....

  20. Identification of the heparin binding site on adeno-associated virus serotype 3B (AAV-3B)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerch, Thomas F.; Chapman, Michael S. (Oregon HSU)

    2012-05-24

    Adeno-associated virus is a promising vector for gene therapy. In the current study, the binding site on AAV serotype 3B for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) receptor has been characterized. X-ray diffraction identified a disaccharide binding site at the most positively charged region on the virus surface. The contributions of basic amino acids at this and other sites were characterized using site-directed mutagenesis. Both heparin and cell binding are correlated to positive charge at the disaccharide binding site, and transduction is significantly decreased in AAV-3B vectors mutated at this site to reduce heparin binding. While the receptor attachment sites of AAV-3B and AAV-2 are both in the general vicinity of the viral spikes, the exact amino acids that participate in electrostatic interactions are distinct. Diversity in the mechanisms of cell attachment by AAV serotypes will be an important consideration for the rational design of improved gene therapy vectors.

  1. Identification of the heparin binding site on adeno-associated virus serotype 3B (AAV-3B)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerch, Thomas F.; Chapman, Michael S., E-mail: chapmami@ohsu.edu

    2012-02-05

    Adeno-associated virus is a promising vector for gene therapy. In the current study, the binding site on AAV serotype 3B for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) receptor has been characterized. X-ray diffraction identified a disaccharide binding site at the most positively charged region on the virus surface. The contributions of basic amino acids at this and other sites were characterized using site-directed mutagenesis. Both heparin and cell binding are correlated to positive charge at the disaccharide binding site, and transduction is significantly decreased in AAV-3B vectors mutated at this site to reduce heparin binding. While the receptor attachment sites of AAV-3B and AAV-2 are both in the general vicinity of the viral spikes, the exact amino acids that participate in electrostatic interactions are distinct. Diversity in the mechanisms of cell attachment by AAV serotypes will be an important consideration for the rational design of improved gene therapy vectors.

  2. Drawing a high-resolution functional map of adeno-associated virus capsid by massively parallel sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kei; Enoki, Tatsuji; Kawano, Yasuhiro; Veraz, Michael; Nakai, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid engineering is an emerging approach to advance gene therapy. However, a systematic analysis on how each capsid amino acid contributes to multiple functions remains challenging. Here we show proof-of-principle and successful application of a novel approach, termed AAV Barcode-Seq, that allows us to characterize phenotypes of hundreds of different AAV strains in a high-throughput manner and therefore overcomes technical difficulties in the systematic analysis. In this approach, we generate DNA barcode-tagged AAV libraries and determine a spectrum of phenotypes of each AAV strain by Illumina barcode sequencing. By applying this method to AAV capsid mutant libraries tagged with DNA barcodes, we can draw a high-resolution map of AAV capsid amino acids important for the structural integrity and functions including receptor binding, tropism, neutralization and blood clearance. Thus, Barcode-Seq provides a new tool to generate a valuable resource for virus and gene therapy research.

  3. A novel recombinant adeno-associated virus vector packaging system with HSV-1 amplicon providing helper functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒跃龙; 吴小兵; 杨天忠; 贡惠宇; 侯云德; 颜子颖

    1999-01-01

    A novel packaging system for producing recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector was described. Instead of the conventional method for rAAV production by two-plasmid co-transfection followed by superinfection with adenovirus 5, an HSV-1 amplicon system expressing AAV-2 rep and cap genes from their native promoters was used to provide complete helper functions for rAAV replicating and packaging. This HSV-1 ampticon stock consisted of two kinds of infectious HSV-1 virions, a replicating-defective HSV-1 amplicon pseudovirus harboring multi-copies of AAV-2 rep and cap gene and a temperature-sensitive HSV-1 mutant strain ts-KOS. High-titer rAAV was generated with this new packaging system. This packaging system gives a simple and scaleable process for rAAV production.

  4. Adeno-associated virus at 50: a golden anniversary of discovery, research, and gene therapy success--a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Eric; Samulski, R Jude

    2015-05-01

    Fifty years after the discovery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) and more than 30 years after the first gene transfer experiment was conducted, dozens of gene therapy clinical trials are in progress, one vector is approved for use in Europe, and breakthroughs in virus modification and disease modeling are paving the way for a revolution in the treatment of rare diseases, cancer, as well as HIV. This review will provide a historical perspective on the progression of AAV for gene therapy from discovery to the clinic, focusing on contributions from the Samulski lab regarding basic science and cloning of AAV, optimized large-scale production of vectors, preclinical large animal studies and safety data, vector modifications for improved efficacy, and successful clinical applications.

  5. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors mediate efficient gene transduction in cultured neonatal and adult microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei; Kang, John; Sopher, Bryce; Gillespie, James; Aloi, Macarena S; Odom, Guy L; Hopkins, Stephanie; Case, Amanda; Wang, David B; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S; Garden, Gwenn A

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are a specialized population of myeloid cells that mediate CNS innate immune responses. Efforts to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate microglia behaviors have been hampered by the lack of effective tools for manipulating gene expression. Cultured microglia are refractory to most chemical and electrical transfection methods, yielding little or no gene delivery and causing toxicity and/or inflammatory activation. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAVs) vectors are non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA vectors commonly used to transduce many primary cell types and tissues. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility and efficiency of utilizing rAAV serotype 2 (rAAV2) to modulate gene expression in cultured microglia. rAAV2 yields high transduction and causes minimal toxicity or inflammatory response in both neonatal and adult microglia. To demonstrate that rAAV transduction can induce functional protein expression, we used rAAV2 expressing Cre recombinase to successfully excise a LoxP-flanked miR155 gene in cultured microglia. We further evaluated rAAV serotypes 5, 6, 8, and 9, and observed that all efficiently transduced cultured microglia to varying degrees of success and caused little or no alteration in inflammatory gene expression. These results provide strong encouragement for the application of rAAV-mediated gene expression in microglia for mechanistic and therapeutic purposes. Neonatal microglia are functionally distinct from adult microglia, although the majority of in vitro studies utilize rodent neonatal microglia cultures because of difficulties of culturing adult cells. In addition, cultured microglia are refractory to most methods for modifying gene expression. Here, we developed a novel protocol for culturing adult microglia and evaluated the feasibility and efficiency of utilizing Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus (rAAV) to modulate gene expression in cultured microglia.

  6. A phase 1 study to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant HIV type 1 subtype C adeno-associated virus vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, Sanjay; van Lunzen, Jan; Clumeck, Nathan; Rockstroh, Jurgen; Vets, Eva; Johnson, Philip R.; Anklesaria, Pervin; Barin, Burc; Boaz, Mark; Kochhar, Sonali; Lehrman, Jennifer; Schmidt, Claudia; Peeters, Mathieu; Schwarze-Zander, Carolynne; Kabamba, Kabeya; Glaunsinger, Tobias; Sahay, Seema; Thakar, Madhuri; Paranjape, Ramesh; Gilmour, Jill; Excler, Jean-Louis; Fast, Patricia; Heald, A1lison E.

    2008-01-01

    A novel prophylactic AIDS vaccine candidate, consisting of single-stranded DNA for HIV-1 subtype C gag, protease, and part of reverse transcriptase genes, enclosed within a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype-2 protein capsid (tgAAC09) induced T cell responses and antibodies in nonhuman prim

  7. A phase 1 study to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant HIV type 1 subtype C adeno-associated virus vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, Sanjay; van Lunzen, Jan; Clumeck, Nathan; Rockstroh, Jurgen; Vets, Eva; Johnson, Philip R.; Anklesaria, Pervin; Barin, Burc; Boaz, Mark; Kochhar, Sonali; Lehrman, Jennifer; Schmidt, Claudia; Peeters, Mathieu; Schwarze-Zander, Carolynne; Kabamba, Kabeya; Glaunsinger, Tobias; Sahay, Seema; Thakar, Madhuri; Paranjape, Ramesh; Gilmour, Jill; Excler, Jean-Louis; Fast, Patricia; Heald, A1lison E.

    A novel prophylactic AIDS vaccine candidate, consisting of single-stranded DNA for HIV-1 subtype C gag, protease, and part of reverse transcriptase genes, enclosed within a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype-2 protein capsid (tgAAC09) induced T cell responses and antibodies in nonhuman

  8. Immunological inhibition of transplanted liver allografts by adeno-associated virus vector encoding CTLA4Ig in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sen Lu; Yue Yu; Yun Gao; Guo-Qiang Li; Xue-Hao Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blockade interaction between CD28 and B7 with CTLA4Ig has been shown to induce experimental transplantation tolerance. In order to prolong the inhibitory effect of CTLA4Ig, a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector pSNAV expressing CTLA4Ig was constructed, and its effects on transplanted liver allografts were investigated. METHODS:The pSNAV-CTLA4Ig construct was infused into partial liver allografts of rats via the portal vein during transplantation. CTLA4Ig expression in the transplanted livers was detected with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, real-time quantita-tive PCR was used to measure the expression of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 in the allografts. RESULTS:The expression of CTLA4Ig in the partial allograft was detected successfully and pSNAV-CTLA4Ig improved the survival rate of rats after liver transplantation. Agarose gel analysis of RT-PCR products indicated the presence of CTLA4Ig in the pSNAV-CTLA4Ig treatment group. Cytokines expressed in allografts on day 7 after orthotopic liver transplantation showed that IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA levels decreased in transplant recipients treated with pSNAV-CTLA4Ig compared with those treated with pSNAV-LacZ (1.62±0.09, 1.52±0.11, 1.50± 0.07 and 1.43±0.07 versus 1.29±0.09, 1.32±0.07, 1.34±0.06 and 1.35±0.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:pSNAV-CTLA4Ig effectively expressed CTLA4Ig in liver allografts. CTLA4Ig improved the pathological ifndings after liver transplantation. CTLA4Ig induced immune tolerance of liver transplantation, and the mechanism involved induced alteration of Th1 and Th2 cytokine transcripts. The adeno-associated virus vector encoding CTLA4Ig may be useful in the clinical study of transplantation tolerance.

  9. A Regulatory Element Near the 3′ End of the Adeno-Associated Virus rep Gene Inhibits Adenovirus Replication in cis by Means of p40 Promoter-Associated Short Transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Eva; Gonsior, Melanie; Stutika, Catrin; Heilbronn, Regine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has long been known to inhibit helper adenovirus (Ad) replication independently of AAV Rep protein expression. More recently, replication of Ad serotype 5 (Ad5)/AAV serotype 2 (AAV-2) hybrid vectors was shown to be inhibited in cis by a sequence near the 3′ end of AAV rep, termed the Rep inhibition sequence for adenoviral replication (RIS-Ad). RIS-Ad functions independently of Rep protein expression. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of adenoviral replication by RIS-Ad requires an active AAV p40 promoter and the 5′ half of the intron. In addition, Ad inhibition is critically dependent on the integrity of the p40 transcription start site (TSS) leading to short p40-associated transcripts. These do not give rise to effector molecules capable of inhibiting adenoviral replication in trans, like small polypeptides or microRNAs. Our data point to an inhibitory mechanism in which RNA polymerase II (Pol II) pauses directly downstream of the p40 promoter, leading to interference of the stalled Pol II transcription complex with the adenoviral replication machinery. Whereas inhibition by RIS-Ad is mediated exclusively in cis, it can be overcome by providing a replication-competent adenoviral genome in trans. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of RIS-Ad is not limited to AAV-2 but could also be shown for the corresponding regions of other AAV serotypes, including AAV-5. These findings have important implications for the future generation of Ad5/AAV hybrid vectors. IMPORTANCE Insertion of sequences from the 3′ part of the rep gene of adeno-associated virus (AAV) into the genome of its helper adenovirus strongly reduces adenoviral genome replication. We could show that this inhibition is mediated exclusively in cis without the involvement of trans-acting regulatory RNAs or polypeptides but nevertheless requires an active AAV-2 p40 promoter and p40-associated short transcripts. Our results suggest a novel inhibitory mechanism that has so

  10. Transient suppression of hepatocellular replication in the mouse liver following transduction with recombinant adeno-associated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, A P; Cunningham, S C; Kok, C Y; Logan, G J; Alexander, I E

    2015-11-01

    Recombinant vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) are proving to be powerful tools for genetic manipulation of the liver, for both discovery and therapeutic purposes. The system can be used to deliver transgene cassettes for expression or, alternatively, DNA templates for genome editing via homologous recombination. The replicative state of target cells is known to influence the efficiency of these processes and knowledge of the host-vector interactions involved is required for optimally effective vector deployment. Here we show, for the first time in vivo, that in addition to the known effects of hepatocellular replication on AAV-mediated gene transfer, the vector itself exerts a potent, albeit transient suppressive effect on cell cycle progression that is relieved on a time course that correlates with the known rate of clearance of input single-stranded vector DNA. This finding requires further mechanistic investigation, delineates an excellent model system for such studies and further deepens our insight into the complexity of interactions between AAV vectors and the cell cycle in a clinically promising target tissue.

  11. Adeno-associated virus gene transfer in Morquio A disease - effect of promoters and sulfatase-modifying factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Montaño, Adriana M; Tomatsu, Shunji; Barrera, Luis A

    2010-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IVA is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetylgalatosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS), which leads to the accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate, mainly in bone. To explore the possibility of gene therapy for Morquio A disease, we transduced the GALNS gene into HEK293 cells, human MPS IVA fibroblasts and murine MPS IVA chondrocytes by using adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors, which carry human GALNS cDNA. The effects of the promoter and the cotransduction with the sulfatase-modifying factor 1 gene (SUMF1) on GALNS activity levels was evaluated. Downregulation of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early enhancer/promoter was not observed for 10 days post-transduction. The eukaryotic promoters induced equal or higher levels of GALNS activity than those induced by the CMV promoter in HEK293 cells. Transduction of human MPS IVA fibroblasts induced GALNS activity levels that were 15-54% of those of normal human fibroblasts, whereas in transduced murine MPS IVA chondrocytes, the enzyme activities increased up to 70% of normal levels. Cotransduction with SUMF1 vector yielded an additional four-fold increase in enzyme activity, although the level of elevation depended on the transduced cell type. These findings suggest the potential application of AAV vectors for the treatment of Morquio A disease, depending on the combined choice of transduced cell type, selection of promoter, and cotransduction of SUMF1.

  12. Attenuation of vesicular stomatitis virus infection of brain using antiviral drugs and an adeno-associated virus-interferon vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollmann, Guido; Paglino, Justin C; Maloney, Patrick R; Ahmadi, Sebastian A; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2015-01-15

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) shows promise as a vaccine-vector and oncolytic virus. However, reports of neurotoxicity of VSV remain a concern. We compared 12 antiviral compounds to control infection of VSV-CT9-M51 and VSV-rp30 using murine and human brain cultures, and in vivo mouse models. Inhibition of replication, cytotoxicity and infectivity was strongest with ribavirin and IFN-α and to some extent with mycophenolic acid, chloroquine, and adenine 9-β-d-arabinofuranoside. To generate continuous IFN exposure, we made an adeno-associated virus vector expressing murine IFN; AAV-mIFN-β protected mouse brain cells from VSV, as did a combination of IFN, ribavirin and chloroquine. Intracranial AAV-mIFN-β protected the brain against VSV-CT9-M51. In SCID mice bearing human glioblastoma, AAV-mIFN-β moderately enhanced survival. VSV-CT9-M51 doubled median survival when administered after AAV-mIFN-β; some surviving mice showed complete tumor destruction. Together, these data suggest that AAV-IFN or IFN with ribavirin and chloroquine provide an optimal anti-virus combination against VSV in the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy and safety of myocardial gene transfer of adenovirus, adeno-associated virus and lentivirus vectors in the mouse heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merentie, M; Lottonen-Raikaslehto, L; Parviainen, V; Huusko, J; Pikkarainen, S; Mendel, M; Laham-Karam, N; Kärjä, V; Rissanen, R; Hedman, M; Ylä-Herttuala, S

    2016-03-01

    Gene therapy is a promising new treatment option for cardiac diseases. For finding the most suitable and safe vector for cardiac gene transfer, we delivered adenovirus (AdV), adeno-associated virus (AAV) and lentivirus (LeV) vectors into the mouse heart with sophisticated closed-chest echocardiography-guided intramyocardial injection method for comparing them with regards to transduction efficiency, myocardial damage, effects on the left ventricular function and electrocardiography (ECG). AdV had the highest transduction efficiency in cardiomyocytes followed by AAV2 and AAV9, and the lowest efficiency was seen with LeV. The local myocardial inflammation and fibrosis in the left ventricle (LV) was proportional to transduction efficiency. AdV caused LV dilatation and systolic dysfunction. Neither of the locally injected AAV serotypes impaired the LV systolic function, but AAV9 caused diastolic dysfunction to some extent. LeV did not affect the cardiac function. We also studied systemic delivery of AAV9, which led to transduction of cardiomyocytes throughout the myocardium. However, also diffuse fibrosis was present leading to significantly impaired LV systolic and diastolic function and pathological ECG changes. Compared with widely used AdV vector, AAV2, AAV9 and LeV were less effective in transducing cardiomyocytes but also less harmful. Local administration of AAV9 was safer and more efficient compared with systemic administration.

  14. Enhanced gene delivery in porcine vasculature tissue following incorporation of adeno-associated virus nanoparticles into porous silicon microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kellie I; Rhudy, Jessica; Yokoi, Kenji; Gu, Jianhua; Mack, Aaron; Suh, Junghae; La Francesca, Saverio; Sakamoto, Jason; Serda, Rita E

    2014-11-28

    There is an unmet clinical need to increase lung transplant successes, patient satisfaction and to improve mortality rates. We offer the development of a nanovector-based solution that will reduce the incidence of lung ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI) leading to graft organ failure through the successful ex vivo treatment of the lung prior to transplantation. The innovation is in the integrated application of our novel porous silicon (pSi) microparticles carrying adeno-associated virus (AAV) nanoparticles, and the use of our ex vivo lung perfusion/ventilation system for the modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines initiated by ischemic pulmonary conditions prior to organ transplant that often lead to complications. Gene delivery of anti-inflammatory agents to combat the inflammatory cascade may be a promising approach to prevent IRI following lung transplantation. The rationale for the device is that the microparticle will deliver a large payload of virus to cells and serve to protect the AAV from immune recognition. The microparticle-nanoparticle hybrid device was tested both in vitro on cell monolayers and ex vivo using either porcine venous tissue or a pig lung transplantation model, which recapitulates pulmonary IRI that occurs clinically post-transplantation. Remarkably, loading AAV vectors into pSi microparticles increases gene delivery to otherwise non-permissive endothelial cells.

  15. Long-term sex-biased correction of circulating propionic acidemia disease markers by adeno-associated virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzel, Adam J; Collard, Renata; Kraus, Jan P; Matern, Dietrich; Barry, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Propionic academia (PA) occurs because of mutations in the PCCA or PCCB genes encoding the two subunits of propionyl-CoA carboxylase, a pivotal enzyme in the breakdown of certain amino acids and odd-chain fatty acids. There is no cure for PA, but dietary protein restriction and liver transplantation can attenuate its symptoms. We show here that a single intravenous injection of adeno-associated virus 2/8 (AAV8) or AAVrh10 expressing PCCA into PA hypomorphic mice decreased systemic propionylcarnitine and methyl citrate for up to 1.5 years. However, long-term phenotypic correction was always better in male mice. AAV-mediated PCCA expression was similar in most tissues in males and females at early time points and differed only in the liver. Over 1.5 years, luciferase and PCCA expression remained elevated in cardiac tissue for both sexes. In contrast, transgene expression in the liver and skeletal muscles of female, but not male, mice waned—suggesting that these tissues were major sinks for systemic phenotypic correction. These data indicate that single systemic intravenous therapy by AAV vectors can mediate long-term phenotype correction for PA. However, tissue-specific loss of expression in females reduces efficacy when compared with males. Whether similar sex-biased AAV effects occur in human gene therapy remains to be determined.

  16. Identification of adeno-associated viral vectors suitable for intestinal gene delivery and modulation of experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Steven; Mach, Annette; Porvasnik, Stacy; Dixon, Lisa; Conlon, Thomas; Erger, Kirsten E; Acosta, Andres; Wright, Amy J; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Zolotukhin, Irene; Wasserfall, Clive; Mah, Cathryn

    2012-02-01

    Effective gene transfer with sustained gene expression is an important adjunct to the study of intestinal inflammation and future therapy in inflammatory bowel disease. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are ideal for gene transfer and long-term transgene expression. The purpose of our study was to identify optimal AAV pseudotypes for transduction of the epithelium in the small intestine and colon, which could be used for studies in experimental colitis. The tropism and transduction efficiencies of AAV pseudotypes 1-10 were examined in murine small intestine and colon 8 wk after administration by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. The clinical and histopathological effects of IL-10-mediated intestinal transduction delivered by AAVrh10 were examined in the murine IL-10⁻/⁻ enterocolitis model. Serum IL-10 levels and IL-10 expression were followed by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. AAV pseudotypes 4, 7, 8, 9, and 10 demonstrated optimal intestinal transduction. Transgene expression was sustained 8 wk after administration and was frequently observed in enteroendocrine cells. Long-term IL-10 gene expression and serum IL-10 levels were observed following AAV transduction in an IL-10-/- model of enterocolitis. Animals treated with AAVrh10-IL-10 had lower disease activity index scores, higher colon weight-to-length ratios, and lower microscopic inflammation scores. This study identifies novel AAV pseudotypes with small intestine and colon tropism and sustained transgene expression capable of modulating mucosal inflammation in a murine model of enterocolitis.

  17. Prevalence of adeno-associated virus and human papillomavirus DNA in Iranian women with and without cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei-Jandaghi, Nazanin Zahra; Yavarian, Jila; Faghihloo, Ebrahim; Ghavami, Nastaran; Yousefi Ghalejoogh, Zohreh; Kiani, Seyed Jalal; Shatizadeh Malekshahi, Somayeh; Shahsiah, Reza; Jahanzad, Eisa; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mokhtari Azad, Talat

    2017-02-24

    There is plenty of substantial evidence to support anti-tumor activity of viruses. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) may interact with human papillomavirus (HPV) to modify the risk of cervical neoplasia. The seroprevalence of AAV among women with cervical cancer has been reported to be lower than healthy ones. In spite of this finding, detection of AAV DNA in cervical biopsies does not entirely support the inverse association between AAV seropositivity and cervical cancer. This association is still controversial and requires more thorough evaluation in different countries. The aim of this case-control study was to find the prevalence of AAV and HPV DNA sequences in Iranian women with and without cervical cancer to assess the probable association of AAV infection and cervical cancer. In this study, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 61 cervical cancer cases and 50 healthy controls (HCs) were investigated for AAV and HPV DNA by semi-nested and nested PCRs respectively. AAV DNA was detected in 7 cases (14%) of HCs and 9 specimens (14.8%) of case group. According to the branching in the phylogenetic tree, AAV2 was the only type detected in this study. Moreover, HPV DNA was detected in 8 cases (16%) of HCs and 44 specimens (72.13%) of case group. In conclusion, a low proportion of cervical biopsies from Iranian women contained AAV-2 genome. No significant difference in correlation between HPV and cervical cancer in presence or absence of AAV genome in cervix was found.

  18. Targeted Genome Editing by Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus (rAAV) Vectors for Generating Genetically Modified Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yonglun Luo; Emil Kofod-Olsen; Rikke Christensen; Charlotte Brandt S(φ)rensen; Lars Bolund

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have been extensively used for experimental gene therapy of inherited human diseases.Several advantages,such as simple vector construction,high targeting frequency by homologous recombination,and applicability to many cell types,make rAAV an attractive approach for targeted genome editing.Combined with cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT),this technology has recently been successfully adapted to generate gene-targeted pigs as models for cystic fibrosis,hereditary tyrosinemia type 1,and breast cancer.This review summarizes the development of rAAV for targeted genome editing in mammalian cells and provides strategies for enhancing the rAAV-mediated targeting frequency by homologous recombination.We discuss current development and application of the rAAV vectors for targeted genome editing in porcine primary fibroblasts,which are subsequently used as donor cells for SCNT to generate cloned genetically designed pigs and provide positive perspectives for the generation of gene-targeted pigs with rAAV in the future.

  19. Peripheral transvenular delivery of adeno-associated viral vectors to skeletal muscle as a novel therapy for hemophilia B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Valder R.; Stedman, Hansell H.; Haurigot, Virginia; Buchlis, George; Baila, Stefano; Favaro, Patricia; Chen, Yifeng; Franck, Helen G.; Zhou, Shangzhen; Wright, J. Fraser; Couto, Linda B.; Jiang, Haiyan; Pierce, Glenn F.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Mingozzi, Federico; Nichols, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Muscle represents an important tissue target for adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated gene transfer of the factor IX (FIX) gene in hemophilia B (HB) subjects with advanced liver disease. Previous studies of direct intramuscular administration of an AAV-FIX vector in humans showed limited efficacy. Here we adapted an intravascular delivery system of AAV vectors encoding the FIX transgene to skeletal muscle of HB dogs. The procedure, performed under transient immunosuppression (IS), resulted in widespread transduction of muscle and sustained, dose-dependent therapeutic levels of canine FIX transgene up to 10-fold higher than those obtained by intramuscular delivery. Correction of bleeding time correlated clinically with a dramatic reduction of spontaneous bleeding episodes. None of the dogs (n = 14) receiving the AAV vector under transient IS developed inhibitory antibodies to canine FIX; transient inhibitor was detected after vector delivery without IS. The use of AAV serotypes with high tropism for muscle and low susceptibility to anti-AAV2 antibodies allowed for efficient vector administration in naive dogs and in the presence of low- but not high-titer anti-AAV2 antibodies. Collectively, these results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for treatment of HB and highlight the importance of IS to prevent immune responses to the FIX transgene product. PMID:20335222

  20. Development of next generation adeno-associated viral vectors capable of selective tropism and efficient gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanling; Yao, Tianzhuo; Zheng, Yongxiang; Li, Zhongjun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Lihe; Zhou, Demin

    2016-02-01

    Virus-based nanoparticles have shown promise as vehicles for delivering therapeutic genes. However, the rational design of viral vectors that enable selective tropism towards particular types of cells and tissues remains challenging. Here, we explored structural-functional relationships of the adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vector by expanding its genetic code during production. As a proof-of-principle, an azide moiety was strategically displayed on the vector capsid as a bioorthogonal chemical reporter. Upon bioorthogonal conjugation of AAV2 with fluorophores and cyclic arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid ligands at certain modifiable sites, we characterized in vitro and in vivo AAV2 movement and enhanced tropism selectivity towards integrin-expressing tumor cells. Targeting AAV2 vectors resulted in selective killing of U87 glioblastoma cells and derived xenografts via the herpes simplex virus suicide gene thymidine kinase, with the potency of ganciclovir being increased by 25-fold. Our results demonstrated successful rational modification of AAV2 as a targeting delivery vehicle, establishing a facile platform for precision engineering of virus-based nanoparticles in basic research and therapeutic applications.

  1. Vector design Tour de Force: integrating combinatorial and rational approaches to derive novel adeno-associated virus variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsic, Damien; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Currlin, Seth; Markusic, David M; Tseng, Yu-Shan; Herzog, Roland W; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Zolotukhin, Sergei

    2014-11-01

    Methodologies to improve existing adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors for gene therapy include either rational approaches or directed evolution to derive capsid variants characterized by superior transduction efficiencies in targeted tissues. Here, we integrated both approaches in one unified design strategy of "virtual family shuffling" to derive a combinatorial capsid library whereby only variable regions on the surface of the capsid are modified. Individual sublibraries were first assembled in order to preselect compatible amino acid residues within restricted surface-exposed regions to minimize the generation of dead-end variants. Subsequently, the successful families were interbred to derive a combined library of ~8 × 10(5) complexity. Next-generation sequencing of the packaged viral DNA revealed capsid surface areas susceptible to directed evolution, thus providing guidance for future designs. We demonstrated the utility of the library by deriving an AAV2-based vector characterized by a 20-fold higher transduction efficiency in murine liver, now equivalent to that of AAV8.

  2. Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in Human Osteosarcoma Cells Transfected with Adeno-associated Virus-antisense VEGF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐卫国; 陈安民; 张衣北; 易成腊

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The expression of protein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in osteosarcoma cells transfected with adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-antisense VEGF was studied to provide the foundation of osteosarcoma treatment through antivascularization. The rAAV-antisense VEGF at different doses (0, 20, 50, 100, 200, 240 μl) was transfected into osteosarcoma MG-63 cell. The cells and culture supernatants were collected before and after tansfection. The expression of VEGF protein was detected by using immunohistochemical staining (SP) and Western blot. SP and Western-blot tests revealed that the MG-63 Cells transfected with rAAV-antisense VEGF had less staining than those without transfection with rAAV-antisense VEGF, and the staining intensity was negatively correlated with the doses of genes. The corresponding A values of transfected genes with different doses of rAAV-antisense VEGF (0, 20, 50, 100, 200, 240 μA) were 86 614±13 776, 73 245±15 414, 61 078±12 124, 54 657±10 953, 39 802±11 308, 32 014±15 057 respectively,w ith the difference being significant (P<0.05). It was concluded that the expression of VEGF protein in MG-63 cells could be inhibited by rAAV-antisense VEGF.

  3. Novel adeno-associated viral vector delivering the utrophin gene regulator jazz counteracts dystrophic pathology in mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strimpakos, Georgios; Corbi, Nicoletta; Pisani, Cinzia; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Onori, Annalisa; Luvisetto, Siro; Severini, Cinzia; Gabanella, Francesca; Monaco, Lucia; Mattei, Elisabetta; Passananti, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    Over-expression of the dystrophin-related gene utrophin represents a promising therapeutic strategy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The strategy is based on the ability of utrophin to functionally replace defective dystrophin. We developed the artificial zinc finger transcription factor "Jazz" that up-regulates both the human and mouse utrophin promoter. We observed a significant recovery of muscle strength in dystrophic Jazz-transgenic mdx mice. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of an experimental gene therapy based on the systemic delivery of Jazz gene in mdx mice by adeno-associated virus (AAV). AAV serotype 8 was chosen on the basis of its high affinity for skeletal muscle. Muscle-specific expression of the therapeutic Jazz gene was enhanced by adding the muscle α-actin promoter to the AAV vector (mAAV). Injection of mAAV8-Jazz viral preparations into mdx mice resulted in muscle-specific Jazz expression coupled with up-regulation of the utrophin gene. We show a significant recovery from the dystrophic phenotype in mAAV8-Jazz-treated mdx mice. Histological and physiological analysis revealed a reduction of fiber necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration associated with functional recovery in muscle contractile force. The combination of ZF-ATF technology with the AAV delivery can open a new avenue to obtain a therapeutic strategy for treatment of DMD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Imaging calcium microdomains within entire astrocyte territories and endfeet with GCaMPs expressed using adeno-associated viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigetomi, Eiji; Bushong, Eric A; Haustein, Martin D; Tong, Xiaoping; Jackson-Weaver, Olan; Kracun, Sebastian; Xu, Ji; Sofroniew, Michael V; Ellisman, Mark H; Khakh, Baljit S

    2013-05-01

    Intracellular Ca(2+) transients are considered a primary signal by which astrocytes interact with neurons and blood vessels. With existing commonly used methods, Ca(2+) has been studied only within astrocyte somata and thick branches, leaving the distal fine branchlets and endfeet that are most proximate to neuronal synapses and blood vessels largely unexplored. Here, using cytosolic and membrane-tethered forms of genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicators (GECIs; cyto-GCaMP3 and Lck-GCaMP3), we report well-characterized approaches that overcome these limitations. We used in vivo microinjections of adeno-associated viruses to express GECIs in astrocytes and studied Ca(2+) signals in acute hippocampal slices in vitro from adult mice (aged ∼P80) two weeks after infection. Our data reveal a sparkling panorama of unexpectedly numerous, frequent, equivalently scaled, and highly localized Ca(2+) microdomains within entire astrocyte territories in situ within acute hippocampal slices, consistent with the distribution of perisynaptic branchlets described using electron microscopy. Signals from endfeet were revealed with particular clarity. The tools and experimental approaches we describe in detail allow for the systematic study of Ca(2+) signals within entire astrocytes, including within fine perisynaptic branchlets and vessel-associated endfeet, permitting rigorous evaluation of how astrocytes contribute to brain function.

  5. BTK gene targeting by homologous recombination using a helper-dependent adenovirus/adeno-associated virus hybrid vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H; Ishimura, M; Ochiai, M; Takada, H; Kusuhara, K; Nakatsu, Y; Tsuzuki, T; Mitani, K; Hara, T

    2016-02-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is one of the most common humoral immunodeficiencies, which is caused by mutations in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene. To examine the possibility of using gene therapy for XLA, we constructed a helper-dependent adenovirus/adeno-associated virus BTK targeting vector (HD-Ad.AAV BTK vector) composed of a genomic sequence containing BTK exons 6-19 and a green fluorescence protein-hygromycin cassette driven by a cytomegalovirus promoter. We first used NALM-6, a human male pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, as a recipient to measure the efficiency of gene targeting by homologous recombination. We identified 10 clones with the homologous recombination of the BTK gene among 107 hygromycin-resistant stable clones isolated from two independent experiments. We next used cord blood CD34⁺ cells as the recipient cells for the gene targeting. We isolated colonies grown in medium containing cytokines and hygromycin. We found that the targeting of the BTK gene occurred in four of the 755 hygromycin-resistant colonies. Importantly, the gene targeting was also observed in CD19⁺ lymphoid progenitor cells that were differentiated from the homologous recombinant CD34⁺ cells during growth in selection media. Our study shows the potential for the BTK gene therapy using the HD-Ad.AAV BTK vector via homologous recombination in hematopoietic stem cells.

  6. Thymosin Beta-4 Recombinant Adeno-associated Virus Enhances Human Nucleus Pulposus Cell Proliferation and Reduces Cell Apoptosis and Senescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Yi Wang; Qing-San Zhu; Yi-Wei Wang; Ruo-Feng Yin

    2015-01-01

    Background:Thymosin beta-4 (TB-4) is considered key roles in tissue development,maintenance and pathological processes.The study aimed to prove TB-4 positive biological function on nucleus pulposus (NP) cell apoptosis and slowing the process of cell aging while increasing the cell proliferation.Methods:TB-4 recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) was constructed and induced to human NP cells.Cell of same group were cultured without gene modification as controlled group.Proliferation capacity and cell apoptosis were observed during 6 passages of the cells.Morphology and expression of the TB-4 gene were documented as parameter of cell activity during cell passage.Results:NP cells with TB-4 transfection has normal TB-4 expression and exocytosis.NP cells with TB-4 transfection performed significantly higher cell activity than that at the control group in each generation.TB-4 recombinant AAV-transfected human NP cells also show slower cell aging,lower cell apoptosis and higher cell proliferation than control group.Conclusions:TB-4 can prevent NP cell apoptosis,slow NP cell aging and promote NP cell proliferation.AAV transfection technique was able to highly and stably express TB-4 in human NP cells,which may provide a new pathway for innovation in the treatment of intervertebral disc degenerative diseases.

  7. Peripheral transvenular delivery of adeno-associated viral vectors to skeletal muscle as a novel therapy for hemophilia B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Valder R; Stedman, Hansell H; Haurigot, Virginia; Buchlis, George; Baila, Stefano; Favaro, Patricia; Chen, Yifeng; Franck, Helen G; Zhou, Shangzhen; Wright, J Fraser; Couto, Linda B; Jiang, Haiyan; Pierce, Glenn F; Bellinger, Dwight A; Mingozzi, Federico; Nichols, Timothy C; High, Katherine A

    2010-06-10

    Muscle represents an important tissue target for adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated gene transfer of the factor IX (FIX) gene in hemophilia B (HB) subjects with advanced liver disease. Previous studies of direct intramuscular administration of an AAV-FIX vector in humans showed limited efficacy. Here we adapted an intravascular delivery system of AAV vectors encoding the FIX transgene to skeletal muscle of HB dogs. The procedure, performed under transient immunosuppression (IS), resulted in widespread transduction of muscle and sustained, dose-dependent therapeutic levels of canine FIX transgene up to 10-fold higher than those obtained by intramuscular delivery. Correction of bleeding time correlated clinically with a dramatic reduction of spontaneous bleeding episodes. None of the dogs (n = 14) receiving the AAV vector under transient IS developed inhibitory antibodies to canine FIX; transient inhibitor was detected after vector delivery without IS. The use of AAV serotypes with high tropism for muscle and low susceptibility to anti-AAV2 antibodies allowed for efficient vector administration in naive dogs and in the presence of low- but not high-titer anti-AAV2 antibodies. Collectively, these results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for treatment of HB and highlight the importance of IS to prevent immune responses to the FIX transgene product.

  8. Riboswitch-mediated Attenuation of Transgene Cytotoxicity Increases Adeno-associated Virus Vector Yields in HEK-293 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Benjamin; Klauser, Benedikt; Hartig, Jörg S; Lamla, Thorsten; Gantner, Florian; Kreuz, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    Cytotoxicity of transgenes carried by adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors might be desired, for instance, in oncolytic virotherapy or occur unexpectedly in exploratory research when studying sparsely characterized genes. To date, most AAV-based studies use constitutively active promoters (e.g., the CMV promoter) to drive transgene expression, which often hampers efficient AAV production due to cytotoxic, antiproliferative, or unknown transgene effects interfering with producer cell performance. Therefore, we explored artificial riboswitches as novel tools to control transgene expression during AAV production in mammalian cells. Our results demonstrate that the guanine-responsive GuaM8HDV aptazyme efficiently attenuates transgene expression and associated detrimental effects, thereby boosting AAV vector yields up to 23-fold after a single addition of guanine. Importantly, riboswitch-harboring vectors preserved their ability to express functional transgene at high levels in the absence of ligand, as demonstrated in a mouse model of AAV-TGFβ1-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, our study provides the first application-ready biotechnological system-based on aptazymes, which should enable high viral vector yields largely independent of the transgene used. Moreover, the RNA-intrinsic, small-molecule regulatable mode of action of riboswitches provides key advantages over conventional transcription factor-based regulatory systems. Therefore, such riboswitch vectors might be ultimately applied to temporally control therapeutic transgene expression in vivo.

  9. Effect and Mechanism of Mitomycin C Combined with Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Type II against Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemotherapy drug Mitomycin C (MMC in combination with recombinant adeno-associated virus II (rAAV2 in cancer therapy was investigated, and the mechanism of MMC affecting rAAV2’s bioactivity was also studied. The combination effect was evaluated by the level of GFP and TNF expression in a human glioma cell line, and the mechanism of MMC effects on rAAV mediated gene expression was investigated by AAV transduction related signal molecules. C57 and BALB/c nude mice were injected with rAAV-EGFP or rAAV-TNF alone, or mixed with MMC, to evaluate the effect of MMC on AAV-mediated gene expression and tumor suppression. MMC was shown to improve the infection activity of rAAV2 both in vitro and in vivo. Enhancement was found to be independent of initial rAAV2 receptor binding stage or subsequent second-strand synthesis of target DNA, but was related to cell cycle retardation followed by blocked genome degradation. In vivo injection of MMC combined with rAAV2 into the tumors of the animals resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth. It was thus demonstrated for the first time that MMC could enhance the expression level of the target gene mediated by rAAV2. The combination of rAAV2 and MMC may be a promising strategy in cancer therapy.

  10. Adeno-associated virus activates an innate immune response in normal human cells but not in osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laredj, Leila N; Beard, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a small, DNA-containing dependovirus with promising potential as a gene delivery vehicle. Given the variety of applications of AAV-based vectors in the treatment of genetic disorders, numerous studies have focused on the immunogenicity of recombinant AAV. In general, AAV vectors appear not to induce strong inflammatory responses. We have found that AAV2, when it infects the osteosarcoma cells U2OS, can initiate part of its replicative cycle in the absence of helper virus. This does not occur in untransformed cells. We set out to test whether the cellular innate antiviral defenses control this susceptibility and found that, in nonimmune normal human fibroblasts, AAV2 induces type I interferon production and release and the accumulation of nuclear promyelocytic leukemia bodies. AAV fails to mobilize this defense pathway in the U2OS cells. This permissiveness is in large part due to impairment of the viral sensing machinery in these cells. Our investigations point to Toll-like receptor 9 as a potential intracellular sensor that detects AAV2 and triggers the antiviral state in AAV-infected untransformed cells. Efficient sensing of the AAV genome and the ensuing activation of an innate antiviral response are thus crucial cellular events dictating the parvovirus infectivity in host cells.

  11. Analysis of particle content of recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 8 vectors by ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Martin; Alvira, Mauricio R; Wilson, James M

    2012-02-01

    Advances in adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy have brought the possibility of commercial manufacturing of AAV vectors one step closer. To realize this prospect, a parallel effort with the goal of ever-increasing sophistication for AAV vector production technology and supporting assays will be required. Among the important release assays for a clinical gene therapy product, those monitoring potentially hazardous contaminants are most critical for patient safety. A prominent contaminant in many AAV vector preparations is vector particles lacking a genome, which can substantially increase the dose of AAV capsid proteins and lead to possible unwanted immunological consequences. Current methods to determine empty particle content suffer from inconsistency, are adversely affected by contaminants, or are not applicable to all serotypes. Here we describe the development of an ion-exchange chromatography-based assay that permits the rapid separation and relative quantification of AAV8 empty and full vector particles through the application of shallow gradients and a strong anion-exchange monolith chromatography medium.

  12. Mutational Analysis of the Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 (AAV2) Capsid Gene and Construction of AAV2 Vectors with Altered Tropism

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Pei; Xiao, Wu; Conlon, Thomas; Hughes, Jeffrey; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; FERKOL, THOMAS; Flotte, Terence; Muzyczka, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) has proven to be a valuable vector for gene therapy. Characterization of the functional domains of the AAV capsid proteins can facilitate our understanding of viral tissue tropism, immunoreactivity, viral entry, and DNA packaging, all of which are important issues for generating improved vectors. To obtain a comprehensive genetic map of the AAV capsid gene, we have constructed 93 mutants at 59 different positions in the AAV capsid gene by site-directed mut...

  13. Cytotoxic-T-Lymphocyte-Mediated Elimination of Target Cells Transduced with Engineered Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 Vector In Vivo▿

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chengwen; Hirsch, Matt; DiPrimio, Nina; Asokan, Aravind; Goudy, Kevin; Tisch, Roland; Samulski, R. Jude

    2009-01-01

    A recent clinical trial in patients with hemophilia B has suggested that adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) eliminated AAV-transduced hepatocytes and resulted in therapeutic failure. AAV capsids elicit a CTL response in animal models; however, these capsid-specific CTLs fail to kill AAV-transduced target cells in mice. To better model the human clinical trial data in mice, we introduced an immunodominant epitope derived from ovalbumin (OVA; SIINFEKL) i...

  14. A novel method for the quantification of adeno-associated virus vectors for RNA interference applications using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and purified genomic adeno-associated virus DNA as a standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anke; Röhrs, Viola; Kedzierski, Radoslaw; Fechner, Henry; Kurreck, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are promising tools in gene therapy, but accurate quantification of the vector dose remains a critical issue for their successful application. We therefore aimed at the precise determination of the titer of self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vectors to improve the reliability of RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown approaches. Vector titers were initially determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using four primer sets targeting different regions within the AAV vector genome (VG) and either coiled or linearized plasmid standards. Despite very low variability between replicates in each assay, these quantification experiments revealed up to 20-fold variation in vector titers. Therefore, we developed a novel approach for the reproducible determination of titers of scAAV vectors based on the use of purified genomic vector DNA as a standard (scAAVStd). Consistent results were obtained in qPCR assays using the four primer sets mentioned above. RNAi-mediated silencing of human cyclophilin B (hCycB) by short hairpin RNA-expressing scAAV vectors was investigated in HeLa cells using two independent vector preparations. We found that the required vector titers for efficient knockdown differed by a factor of 3.5 between both preparations. Hence, we also investigated the number of internalized scAAV vectors, termed transduction units (TUs). TUs were determined by qPCR applying the scAAVStd. Very similar values for 80% hCycB knockdown were obtained for the two AAV vector preparations. Thus, only the determination of TUs, rather than vector concentration, allows for reproducible results in functional analyses using AAV vectors.

  15. Single Amino Acid Changes Can Influence Titer, Heparin Binding, and Tissue Tropism in Different Adeno-Associated Virus Serotypes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhijian; Asokan, Aravind; Grieger, Joshua C.; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Samulski, R. Jude

    2006-01-01

    Despite the high degree of sequence homology between adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 1 and 6 capsids (99.2%), these viruses have different liver transduction profiles when tested as vectors. Examination of the six amino acid residues that differ between AAV1 and AAV6 revealed that a lysine-to-glutamate change (K531E) suppresses the heparin binding ability of AAV6. In addition, the same mutation in AAV6 reduces transgene expression to levels similar to those achieved with AAV1 in HepG2 cells in vitro and in mouse liver following portal vein administration. In corollary, the converse E531K mutation in AAV1 imparts heparin binding ability and increases transduction efficiency. Extraction of vector genomes from liver tissue suggests that the lysine 531 residue assists in preferential transduction of parenchymal cells by AAV6 vectors in comparison with AAV1. Lysine 531 is unique to AAV6 among other known AAV serotypes and is located in a basic cluster near the spikes that surround the icosahedral threefold axes of the AAV capsid. Similar to studies with autonomous parvoviruses, this study describes the first example of single amino acid changes that can explain differential phenotypes such as viral titer, receptor binding, and tissue tropism exhibited by closely related AAV serotypes. In particular, a single lysine residue appears to provide the critical minimum charged surface required for interacting with heparin through electrostatic interaction and simultaneously plays an unrelated yet critical role in the liver tropism of AAV6 vectors. PMID:16943302

  16. Early, sustained efficacy of adeno-associated virus vector-mediated gene therapy in glycogen storage disease type Ia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeberl, D D; Sun, B D; Damodaran, T V; Brown, T; Millington, D S; Benjamin, D K; Bird, A; Schneider, A; Hillman, S; Jackson, M; Beaty, R M; Chen, Y T

    2006-09-01

    The deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) underlies life-threatening hypoglycemia and growth retardation in glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia). An adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector encoding G6Pase was pseudotyped as AAV8 and administered to 2-week-old GSD-Ia mice (n = 9). Median survival was prolonged to 7 months following vector administration, in contrast to untreated GSD-Ia mice that survived for only 2 weeks. Although GSD-Ia mice were initially growth-retarded, treated mice increased fourfold in weight to normal size. Blood glucose was partially corrected by 2 weeks following treatment, whereas blood cholesterol normalized. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was partially corrected to 25% of the normal level at 7 months of age in treated mice, and blood glucose during fasting remained lower in treated, affected mice than in normal mice. Glycogen storage was partially corrected in the liver by 2 weeks following treatment, but reaccumulated to pre-treatment levels by 7 months old (m.o.). Vector genome DNA decreased between 3 days and 3 weeks in the liver following vector administration, mainly through the loss of single-stranded genomes; however, double-stranded vector genomes were more stable. Although CD8+ lymphocytic infiltrates were present in the liver, partial biochemical correction was sustained at 7 m.o. The development of efficacious AAV vector-mediated gene therapy could significantly reduce the impact of long-term complications in GSD-Ia, including hypoglycemia, hyperlipidemia and growth failure.

  17. Hepatorenal correction in murine glycogen storage disease type I with a double-stranded adeno-associated virus vector.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Luo, Xiaoyan

    2011-11-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) is caused by the deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). Long-term complications of GSD-Ia include life-threatening hypoglycemia and proteinuria progressing to renal failure. A double-stranded (ds) adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) vector encoding human G6Pase was pseudotyped with four serotypes, AAV2, AAV7, AAV8, and AAV9, and we evaluated efficacy in 12-day-old G6pase (-\\/-) mice. Hypoglycemia during fasting (plasma glucose <100 mg\\/dl) was prevented for >6 months by the dsAAV2\\/7, dsAAV2\\/8, and dsAAV2\\/9 vectors. Prolonged fasting for 8 hours revealed normalization of blood glucose following dsAAV2\\/9 vector administration at the higher dose. The glycogen content of kidney was reduced by >65% with both the dsAAV2\\/7 and dsAAV2\\/9 vectors, and renal glycogen content was stably reduced between 7 and 12 months of age for the dsAAV2\\/9 vector-treated mice. Every vector-treated group had significantly reduced glycogen content in the liver, in comparison with untreated G6pase (-\\/-) mice. G6Pase was expressed in many renal epithelial cells of with the dsAAV2\\/9 vector for up to 12 months. Albuminuria and renal fibrosis were reduced by the dsAAV2\\/9 vector. Hepatorenal correction in G6pase (-\\/-) mice demonstrates the potential of AAV vectors for the correction of inherited diseases of metabolism.

  18. Characterization of Adeno-Associated Viral Vector-Mediated Human Factor VIII Gene Therapy in Hemophilia A Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Jenny A; Wang, Qiang; Reicherter, Amanda L; Chen, Shu-Jen; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Tipper, Christopher H; Clark, K Reed; Wadsworth, Samuel; Wang, Lili; Wilson, James M

    2017-05-01

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are promising vehicles for hemophilia gene therapy, with favorable clinical trial data seen in the treatment of hemophilia B. In an effort to optimize the expression of human coagulation factor VIII (hFVIII) for the treatment of hemophilia A, an extensive study was performed with numerous combinations of liver-specific promoter and enhancer elements with a codon-optimized hFVIII transgene. After generating 42 variants of three reduced-size promoters and three small enhancers, transgene cassettes were packaged within a single AAV capsid, AAVrh10, to eliminate performance differences due to the capsid type. Each hFVIII vector was administered to FVIII knockout (KO) mice at a dose of 10(10) genome copies (GC) per mouse. Criteria for distinguishing the performance of the different enhancer/promoter combinations were established prior to the initiation of the studies. These criteria included prominently the level of hFVIII activity (0.12-2.12 IU/mL) and the pattern of development of anti-hFVIII antibodies. In order to evaluate the impact of capsid on hFVIII expression and antibody formation, one of the enhancer and promoter combinations that exhibited high hFVIII immunogenicity was evaluated using AAV8, AAV9, AAVrh10, AAVhu37, and AAVrh64R1 capsids. The capsids subdivided into two groups: those that generated anti-hFVIII antibodies in ≤20% of mice (AAV8 and AAV9), and those that generated anti-hFVIII antibodies in >20% of mice (AAVrh10, AAVhu37, and AAVrh64R1). The results of this study, which entailed extensive vector optimization and in vivo testing, demonstrate the significant impact that transcriptional control elements and capsid can have on vector performance.

  19. Phase 2 clinical trial of a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector expressing α1-antitrypsin: interim results.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flotte, Terence R

    2011-10-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors offer promise for the gene therapy of α(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. In our prior trial, an rAAV vector expressing human AAT (rAAV1-CB-hAAT) provided sustained, vector-derived AAT expression for >1 year. In the current phase 2 clinical trial, this same vector, produced by a herpes simplex virus complementation method, was administered to nine AAT-deficient individuals by intramuscular injection at doses of 6.0×10(11), 1.9×10(12), and 6.0×10(12) vector genomes\\/kg (n=3 subjects\\/dose). Vector-derived expression of normal (M-type) AAT in serum was dose dependent, peaked on day 30, and persisted for at least 90 days. Vector administration was well tolerated, with only mild injection site reactions and no serious adverse events. Serum creatine kinase was transiently elevated on day 30 in five of six subjects in the two higher dose groups and normalized by day 45. As expected, all subjects developed anti-AAV antibodies and interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot responses to AAV peptides, and no subjects developed antibodies to AAT. One subject in the mid-dose group developed T cell responses to a single AAT peptide unassociated with any clinical effects. Muscle biopsies obtained on day 90 showed strong immunostaining for AAT and moderate to marked inflammatory cell infiltrates composed primarily of CD3-reactive T lymphocytes that were primarily of the CD8(+) subtype. These results support the feasibility and safety of AAV gene therapy for AAT deficiency, and indicate that serum levels of vector-derived normal human AAT >20 μg\\/ml can be achieved. However, further improvements in the design or delivery of rAAV-AAT vectors will be required to achieve therapeutic target serum AAT concentrations.

  20. Effects of Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype and Tissue-Specific Expression on Circulating Biomarkers of Propionic Acidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzel, Adam J.; Hillestad, Matthew L.; Matern, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Propionic acidemia (PA) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). This enzyme is composed of six PCCA and six PCCB subunits and mediates a critical step in catabolism of odd chain fatty acids and certain amino acids. Current treatment options for PA are limited to stringent dietary restriction of protein consumption and some patients undergo elective liver transplantation. We previously generated a hypomorphic model of PA, designated Pcca−/−(A138T), with 2% of wild-type enzyme activity that mimics many aspects of the human disease. In this study, we used the differing tissue tropisms of adeno-associated virus (AAV) to probe the ability of liver or muscle-directed gene therapy to treat systemic aspects of this disease that affects many cell types. Systemic therapy with muscle-biased AAV1, liver-biased AAV8, and broadly tropic AAVrh10 mediated significant biochemical corrections in circulating propionylcarnitine (C3) and methyl citrate by all vectors. The innate tissue bias of AAV1 and AAV8 gene expression was made more specific by the use of muscle-specific muscle creatine kinase (specifically MCK6) and hepatocyte-specific transthyretin (TTR) promoters, respectively. Under these targeted conditions, both vectors mediated significant long-term correction of circulating metabolites, demonstrating that correction of muscle and likely other tissue types in addition to liver is necessary to fully correct pathology caused by PA. Liver-specific AAV8-TTR-PCCA mediated better correction than AAV1-MCK-PCCA. These data suggest that targeted gene therapy may be a viable alternative to liver transplantation for PA. They also demonstrate the effects of tissue-specific and broad gene therapy on a cell autonomous systemic genetic disease. PMID:25046265

  1. Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors Serotype 8 for Cell-Specific Delivery of Therapeutic Genes in the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignataro, Diego; Sucunza, Diego; Vanrell, Lucia; Lopez-Franco, Esperanza; Dopeso-Reyes, Iria G.; Vales, Africa; Hommel, Mirja; Rico, Alberto J.; Lanciego, Jose L.; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria

    2017-01-01

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) have become highly promising tools for research and clinical applications in the central nervous system (CNS). However, specific delivery of genes to the cell type of interest is essential for the success of gene therapy and therefore a correct selection of the promoter plays a very important role. Here, AAV8 vectors carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) as reporter gene under the transcriptional control of different CNS-specific promoters were used and compared with a strong ubiquitous promoter. Since one of the main limitations of AAV-mediated gene delivery lies in its restricted cloning capacity, we focused our work on small-sized promoters. We tested the transduction efficacy and specificity of each vector after stereotactic injection into the mouse striatum. Three glia-specific AAV vectors were generated using two truncated forms of the human promoter for glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) as well as a truncated form of the murine GFAP promoter. All three vectors resulted in predominantly glial expression; however we also observed eGFP expression in other cell-types such as oligodendrocytes, but never in neurons. In addition, robust and neuron-specific eGFP expression was observed using the minimal promoters for the neural protein BM88 and the neuronal nicotinic receptor β2 (CHRNB2). In summary, we developed a set of AAV vectors designed for specific expression in cells of the CNS using minimal promoters to drive gene expression when the size of the therapeutic gene matters. PMID:28239341

  2. Impact of capsid conformation and Rep-capsid interactions on adeno-associated virus type 2 genome packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleker, Svenja; Pawlita, Michael; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen A

    2006-01-01

    Single-stranded genomes of adeno-associated virus (AAV) are packaged into preformed capsids. It has been proposed that packaging is initiated by interaction of genome-bound Rep proteins to the capsid, thereby targeting the genome to the portal of encapsidation. Here we describe a panel of mutants with amino acid exchanges in the pores at the fivefold axes of symmetry on AAV2 capsids with reduced packaging and reduced Rep-capsid interaction. Mutation of two threonines at the rim of the fivefold pore nearly completely abolished Rep-capsid interaction and packaging. This suggests a Rep-binding site at the highly conserved amino acids at or close to the pores formed by the capsid protein pentamers. A different mutant (P. Wu, W. Xiao, T. Conlon, J. Hughes, M. Agbandje-McKenna, T. Ferkol, T. Flotte, and N. Muzyczka, J. Virol. 74:8635-8647, 2000) with an amino acid exchange at the interface of capsid protein pentamers led to a complete block of DNA encapsidation. Analysis of the capsid conformation of this mutant revealed that the pores at the fivefold axes were occupied by VP1/VP2 N termini, thereby preventing DNA introduction into the capsid. Nevertheless, the corresponding capsids had more Rep proteins bound than wild-type AAV, showing that correct Rep interaction with the capsid depends on a defined capsid conformation. Both mutant types together support the conclusion that the pores at the fivefold symmetry axes are involved in genome packaging and that capsid conformation-dependent Rep-capsid interactions play an essential role in the packaging process.

  3. Expression of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies mediated by recombinant adeno-associated virus 8 in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongjiao; Fu, Lu; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Guan, Shanshan; Kuai, Ziyu; Kong, Wei; Shi, Yuhua; Shan, Yaming

    2016-12-01

    Despite unremitting efforts since the discovery of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), an effective vaccine has not been generated. Viral vector-mediated transfer for expression of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) is an attractive strategy. In this study, a recombinant adeno-associated virus 8 (rAAV8) vector was used to encode full-length antibodies against HIV-1 in 293T cells and Balb/c mice after gene transfer. The 10E8 or NIH45-46 BnAb was expressed from a single open reading frame by linking the heavy and light chains with a furin cleavage and a 2A self-processing peptide (F2A). The results showed that the BnAbs could be expressed in the 293T cell culture medium. A single intramuscular injection of rAAV8 led to long-term expression of BnAbs in Balb/c mice. The expressed antibodies in the supernatant of 293T cells and in Balb/c mice showed neutralization effects against HIV-1 pseudoviruses. Combined immunization of rAAV8 expressing 10E8 and rAAV8 expressing NIH45-46 in Balb/c mice could increase these neutralization effects on strains of HIV-1 sensitive to 10E8 or NIH45-46 antibody compared with a single injection of rAAV8 expressing either antibody alone. Therefore, the combined immunization may be a potential vaccine approach against HIV-1.

  4. Complete correction of hemophilia A with adeno-associated viral vectors containing a full-size expression cassette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Chen, Lingxia; Wang, Jinhui; Huack, Bernd; Sarkar, Rita; Zhou, Shangzhen; Xu, Ray; Ding, Qiulan; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Hongli; Xiao, Weidong

    2008-06-01

    Hemophilia A is caused by a deficiency in the factor VIII (FVIII) gene. Constrained by limited packaging capacity, even the 4.3-kb B domain-deleted FVIII remained a challenge for delivery by a single adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector. Studies have shown that up to a 6.6-kb vector sequence may be packaged into AAV virions, which suggested an alternative strategy for hemophilia A gene therapy. To explore the usefulness of AAV vectors carrying an oversized FVIII gene, we constructed the AAV-FVIII vector under the control of a beta-actin promoter with a cytomegalovirus enhancer (CB) and a bovine growth hormone (bGH) poly(A) sequence. The CB promoter plus bGH signal was shown to be 3- to 5-fold more potent than the mini-transthyretin (TTR) promoter with a synthetic poly(A) sequence for directing FVIII expression in the liver. Despite the 5.75-kb genome size of pAAV-CB-FVIII, sufficient AAV vectors were produced for in vivo testing. Approximately 3- to 5-fold more FVIII secretion was observed in animals receiving AAV-CB-FVIII vectors than in those receiving standard-sized AAV-TTR-FVIII vectors. Both the activated partial thromboplastin time assay and the whole blood thromboelastographic analysis confirmed that AAV-FVIII vectors fully corrected the bleeding phenotype of hemophilia mice. These results suggest that AAV vectors with an oversized genome should be useful for not only hemophilia A gene therapy but also other diseases with large cDNA such as muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis.

  5. Evaluation of a rapamycin-regulated serotype 2 adeno-associated viral vector in macaque parotid glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Changyu; Voutetakis, Antonis; Metzger, Mark; Wainer, Sandra; Cotrim, Ana P.; Eckhaus, Michael A.; Rivera, Victor M.; Clackson, Tim; Chiorini, John A.; Donahue, Robert E.; Dunbar, Cynthia E.; Baum, Bruce J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Salivary glands are useful target organs for local and systemic gene therapeutics. For such applications, the regulation of transgene expression is important. Previous studies by us in murine submandibular glands showed that a rapamycin transcriptional regulation system in a single serotype 2, adeno-associated viral (AAV2) vector was effective for this purpose. The present study evaluated if such a vector was similarly useful in rhesus macaque parotid glands. METHODS A recombinant AAV2 vector (AAV-TF-RhEpo-2.3w), encoding rhesus erythropoietin (RhEpo) and a rapamycin-inducible promoter, was constructed. The vector was administered to macaques at either of two doses (1.5×1011 [low dose] or 1.5×1012 [high dose] vector genomes) via cannulation of Stensen’s duct. Animals were followed for 12–14 weeks and treated at intervals with rapamycin (0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg) to induce gene expression. Serum chemistry, hematology and RhEpo levels were measured at interval. RESULTS AAV-TF-RhEpo-2.3w administration led to low levels of rapamycin-inducible RhEpo expression in the serum of most macaques. In five animals no significant changes were seen in serum chemistry and hematology values over the study. One macaque, however, developed pneumonia, became anemic and subsequently required euthanasia. After the onset of anemia, a single administration of rapamycin led to significant RhEpo production in this animal. CONCLUSION Administration of AAV-TF-RhEpo-2.3w to macaque parotid glands was generally safe, but led only to low levels of serum RhEpo in healthy animals following rapamycin treatment. PMID:20374510

  6. Characterization of Fabry mice treated with recombinant adeno-associated virus 2/8-mediated gene transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Jin-Ok

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT with α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A is currently the most effective therapeutic strategy for patients with Fabry disease, a lysosomal storage disease. However, ERT has limitations of a short half-life, requirement for frequent administration, and limited efficacy for patients with renal failure. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV vector-mediated gene therapy for a Fabry disease mouse model and compared it with that of ERT. Methods A pseudotyped rAAV2/8 vector encoding α-Gal A cDNA (rAAV2/8-hAGA was prepared and injected into 18-week-old male Fabry mice through the tail vein. The α-Gal A expression level and globotriaosylceramide (Gb3 levels in the Fabry mice were examined and compared with Fabry mice with ERT. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies were conducted. Results Treatment of Fabry mice with rAAV2/8-hAGA resulted in the clearance of accumulated Gb3 in tissues such as liver, spleen, kidney, heart, and brain with concomitant elevation of α-Gal A enzyme activity. Enzyme activity was elevated for up to 60 weeks. In addition, expression of the α-Gal A protein was identified in the presence of rAAV2/8-hAGA at 6, 12, and 24 weeks after treatment. α-Gal A activity was significantly higher in the mice treated with rAAV2/8-hAGA than in Fabry mice that received ERT. Along with higher α-Gal A activity in the kidney of the Fabry mice treated with gene therapy, immunohistochemical studies showed more α-Gal A expression in the proximal tubules and glomerulus, and less Gb3 deposition in Fabry mice treated with this gene therapy than in mice given ERT. The α-gal A gene transfer significantly reduced the accumulation of Gb3 in the tubules and podocytes of the kidney. Electron microscopic analysis of the kidneys of Fabry mice also showed that gene therapy was more effective than ERT. Conclusions The rAAV2/8-hAGA mediated α-Gal A gene

  7. The X gene of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is involved in viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Maohua; You, Hong; Hermonat, Paul L

    2014-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) (type 2) is a popular human gene therapy vector with a long active transgene expression period and no reported vector-induced adverse reactions. Yet the basic molecular biology of this virus has not been fully addressed. One potential gene at the far 3' end of the AAV2 genome, previously referred to as X (nt 3929 to 4393), overlapping the 3' end of the cap gene, has never been characterized, although we did previously identify a promoter just up-stream (p81). Computer analysis suggested that X was involved in replication and transcription. The X protein was identified during active AAV2 replication using a polyclonal antibody against a peptide starting at amino acid 98. Reagents for the study of X included an AAV2 deletion mutant (dl78-91), a triple nucleotide substitution mutant that destroys all three 5' AUG-initiation products of X, with no effect on the cap coding sequence, and X-positive-293 cell lines. Here, we found that X up-regulated AAV2 DNA replication in differentiating keratinocytes (without helper virus, autonomous replication) and in various forms of 293 cell-based assays with help from wild type adenovirus type 5 (wt Ad5) or Ad5 helper plasmid (pHelper). The strongest contribution by X was seen in increasing wt AAV2 DNA replication in keratinocytes and dl78-91 in Ad5-infected X-positive-293 cell lines (both having multi-fold effects). Mutating the X gene in pAAV-RC (pAAV-RC-3Xneg) yielded approximately a ∼33% reduction in recombinant AAV vector DNA replication and virion production, but a larger effect was seen when using this same X-knockout AAV helper plasmid in X-positive-293 cell lines versus normal 293 cells (again, multi-fold). Taken together these data strongly suggest that AAV2 X encodes a protein involved in the AAV life cycle, particularly in increasing AAV2 DNA replication, and suggests that further studies are warranted.

  8. Adeno-associated viral vector serotypes 1 and 5 targeted to the neonatal rat and pig striatum induce widespread transgene expression in the forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Stott, Simon R W; Mattsson, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    Viral vector-mediated gene transfer has emerged as a powerful means to target transgene expression in the central nervous system. Here we characterized the efficacy of serotypes 1 and 5 recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) after stereotaxic....... Our results show that striatal delivery of rAAV5 vectors in the neonatal brain represents a useful tool to express genes of interest both in the basal ganglia and the neocortex. Furthermore, we apply, for the first time, viral vector-mediated gene transfer to the pig brain providing the opportunity...

  9. Insight into the mechanism of inhibition of adeno-associated virus by the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Thomas B; Samulski, R Jude

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a dependent virus of the family Parvoviridae. The gene expression and replication of AAV and derived recombinant AAV (rAAV) vectors are severely limited (>10-fold) by the cellular DNA damage-sensing complex made up of Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1 (MRN). The AAV genome does not encode the means to circumvent this block to productive infection but relies on coinfecting helper virus to do so. Using adenovirus helper proteins E1B55k and E4orf6, which enhance the transduction of AAV via degradation of MRN, we investigated the mechanism through which this DNA damage complex inhibits gene expression from rAAV. We tested the substrate specificity of inhibition and the contribution of different functions of the MRN complex. Our results demonstrate that both single- and double-stranded rAAV vectors are inhibited by MRN, which is in contrast to the predominant model that inhibition is the result of a block to second-strand synthesis. Exploring the contribution of known functions of MRN, we found that inhibition of rAAV does not require downstream DNA damage response factors, including signaling kinases ATM and ATR. The nuclease domain of Mre11 appears to play only a minor role in inhibition, while the DNA binding domain makes a greater contribution. Additionally, mutation of the inverted terminal repeat of the rAAV genome, which has been proposed to be the signal for interaction with MRN, is tolerated by the mechanism of inhibition. These results articulate a model of inhibition of gene expression in which physical interaction is more important than enzymatic activity and several key downstream damage repair factors are dispensable. Many viruses modulate the host DNA damage response (DDR) in order to create a cellular environment permissive for infection. The MRN complex is a primary sensor of damage in the cell but also responds to invading viral genomes, often posing a block to infection. AAV is greatly inhibited by MRN and dependent on coinfecting

  10. Preparation of a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector with a mutation of human factor IX in large scale and its expression in vitro and in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A series of adeno-associated viral vectors conraining a mutation of human factor IX (hFIXR338A) with different regulation elements were constructed and used to transduce cell lines. The plasmids and the stable transduction cell clones with high expression level of hFIXR338Awere obtained by selecting and optimizing, and then, the recombinant adeno-associated viral vector with hFIXR338Awas prepared via novel rHSV/AAV hybrid virus packaging system on a large scale, which contained the capsid protein genes. A method for producing rAAV-hFIXR338A viral stocks on a large scale and higher fiter was established,which can be used for industrial purpose. The titer of rAAV-hFIXR338A was more than 1.25x1012 particle/mL, and then, a mammalian cell line, C2C12 and the factor IXknock-out mice were transfected with the rAAV-hFIXR338Ain vitro and in vivo. The results show that the high-level expression of rAAV-hFIXR338A was achieved in cell line and hemophilia B mice. It reached at (2551.32±92.14) ng@ (106cells)-1 @ (24 h)-1 in C2C12 cell in vitro and had a peak concentration of 463.28 ng/mL in mice treated with rAAV-hFIX R338A, which was as high as the expression of rAAV-hFIX -wt (2565.76±64.36) ng@ (106 cells)-1@ (24 h)-1 in C2C12 and 453.92 ng/mL in the mice treated with rAAV-hFIX-wt) in vitro and in vivo, there is no any difference between two groups, but the clotting activity of hFIXR338A is about 2.46times higher than that of hFIX-wt. It was first reported that a mutation of human factor IX was used into gene therapy research for hemophilia B, meanwhile, a novel packaging system, rAAV/HSV was used for preparation of rAAV-hFIX R338A on a large scale, which laid the foundation of industrial production for applying rAAV viral stocks to gene therapy clinical trial for hemophilia B mediated with rAAV-hFIX.``

  11. Adeno-associated virus and lentivirus vectors mediate efficient and sustained transduction of cultured mouse and human dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, J; Ginn, S L; Weinberger, R P; Trahair, T N; Smythe, J A; Alexander, I E

    2001-01-01

    Peripheral nervous system (PNS) sensory neurons are directly involved in the pathophysiology of numerous inherited and acquired neurological conditions. Therefore, efficient and stable gene delivery to these postmitotic cells has significant therapeutic potential. Among contemporary vector systems capable of neuronal transduction, only those based on herpes simplex virus have been extensively evaluated in PNS neurons. We therefore investigated the transduction performance of recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV) and VSV-G-pseudotyped lentivirus vectors derived from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in newborn mouse and fetal human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. In dissociated mouse DRG cultures both vectors achieved efficient transduction of sensory neurons at low multiplicities of infection (MOIs) and sustained transgene expression within a 28-day culture period. Interestingly, the lentivirus vector selectively transduced neurons in murine cultures, in contrast to human cultures, in which Schwann and fibroblast-like cells were also transduced. Recombinant AAV transduced all three cell types in both mouse and human cultures. After direct microinjection of murine DRG explants, maximal transduction efficiencies of 20 and 200 transducing units per neuronal transductant were achieved with AAV and lentivirus vectors, respectively. Most importantly, both vectors achieved efficient and sustained transduction of human sensory neurons in dissociated cultures, thereby directly demonstrating the exciting potential of these vectors for gene therapy applications in the PNS.

  12. Partial correction of sensitivity to oxidant stress in Friedreich ataxia patient fibroblasts by frataxin-encoding adeno-associated virus and lentivirus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jane; Spinoulas, Afroditi; Zheng, Maolin; Cunningham, Sharon C; Ginn, Samantha L; McQuilty, Robert C; Rowe, Peter B; Alexander, Ian E

    2005-08-01

    Peripheral nervous system (PNS) sensory neurons are directly involved in the pathophysiology of a number of debilitating inherited and acquired neurological conditions. The lack of effective treatments for many such conditions provides a strong rationale for exploring novel therapeutic approaches, including gene therapy. Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), a sensory neuropathy, is a progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with a loss of large sensory neurons from the dorsal root ganglia. Because a mouse model for this well-characterized disease has been generated, we elected to use FRDA as a model disease. In previous studies we achieved efficient and sustained delivery of a reporter gene to PNS sensory neurons, using recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) and lentiviral (LV) vectors. In the current study, AAV and LV vectors encoding the human frataxin cDNA were constructed and assessed for frataxin expression and function in primary FRDA patient fibroblast cell lines. FRDA fibroblasts have been shown to exhibit subtle biochemical changes, including increased mitochondrial iron and sensitivity to oxidant stress. Despite the inherent difficulty in working with primary cells, transduction of patient fibroblasts with either vector resulted in the expression of appropriately localized frataxin and partial reversal of phenotype.

  13. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 replication by adeno-associated virus rep proteins depends on their combined DNA-binding and ATPase/helicase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauser, Daniel L; Seyffert, Michael; Strasser, Regina; Franchini, Marco; Laimbacher, Andrea S; Dresch, Christiane; de Oliveira, Anna Paula; Vogel, Rebecca; Büning, Hildegard; Salvetti, Anna; Ackermann, Mathias; Fraefel, Cornel

    2010-04-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has previously been shown to inhibit the replication of its helper virus herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and the inhibitory activity has been attributed to the expression of the AAV Rep proteins. In the present study, we assessed the Rep activities required for inhibition of HSV-1 replication using a panel of wild-type and mutant Rep proteins lacking defined domains and activities. We found that the inhibition of HSV-1 replication required Rep DNA-binding and ATPase/helicase activities but not endonuclease activity. The Rep activities required for inhibition of HSV-1 replication precisely coincided with the activities that were responsible for induction of cellular DNA damage and apoptosis, suggesting that these three processes are closely linked. Notably, the presence of Rep induced the hyperphosphorylation of a DNA damage marker, replication protein A (RPA), which has been reported not to be normally hyperphosphorylated during HSV-1 infection and to be sequestered away from HSV-1 replication compartments during infection. Finally, we demonstrate that the execution of apoptosis is not required for inhibition of HSV-1 replication and that the hyperphosphorylation of RPA per se is not inhibitory for HSV-1 replication, suggesting that these two processes are not directly responsible for the inhibition of HSV-1 replication by Rep.

  14. Production and characterization of novel recombinant adeno-associated virus replicative-form genomes: a eukaryotic source of DNA for gene transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Li

    Full Text Available Conventional non-viral gene transfer uses bacterial plasmid DNA containing antibiotic resistance genes, cis-acting bacterial sequence elements, and prokaryotic methylation patterns that may adversely affect transgene expression and vector stability in vivo. Here, we describe novel replicative forms of a eukaryotic vector DNA that consist solely of an expression cassette flanked by adeno-associated virus (AAV inverted terminal repeats. Extensive structural analyses revealed that this AAV-derived vector DNA consists of linear, duplex molecules with covalently closed ends (termed closed-ended, linear duplex, or "CELiD", DNA. CELiD vectors, produced in Sf9 insect cells, require AAV rep gene expression for amplification. Amounts of CELiD DNA produced from insect cell lines stably transfected with an ITR-flanked transgene exceeded 60 mg per 5 × 10(9 Sf9 cells, and 1-15 mg from a comparable number of parental Sf9 cells in which the transgene was introduced via recombinant baculovirus infection. In mice, systemically delivered CELiD DNA resulted in long-term, stable transgene expression in the liver. CELiD vectors represent a novel eukaryotic alternative to bacterial plasmid DNA.

  15. Bioengineered coagulation factor VIII enables long-term correction of murine hemophilia A following liver-directed adeno-associated viral vector delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison C Brown

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical data support the feasibility and safety of adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors in gene therapy applications. Despite several clinical trials of AAV-based gene transfer for hemophilia B, a unique set of obstacles impede the development of a similar approach for hemophilia A. These include (i the size of the factor VIII (fVIII transgene, (ii humoral immune responses to fVIII, (iii inefficient biosynthesis of human fVIII, and (iv AAV vector immunity. Through bioengineering approaches, a novel fVIII molecule, designated ET3, was developed and shown to improve biosynthetic efficiency 10- to 100-fold. In this study, the utility of ET3 was assessed in the context of liver-directed, AAV-mediated gene transfer into hemophilia A mice. Due to the large size of the expression cassette, AAV-ET3 genomes packaged into viral particles as partial genome fragments. Despite this potential limitation, a single peripheral vein administration of AAV-ET3 into immune-competent hemophilia A mice resulted in correction of the fVIII deficiency at lower vector doses than previously reported for similarly oversized AAV-fVIII vectors. Therefore, ET3 appears to improve vector potency and mitigate at least one of the critical barriers to AAV-based clinical gene therapy for hemophilia A.

  16. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against liver-tropic adeno-associated virus serotype vectors in 100 healthy Chinese and its potential relation to body constitutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ling; Irene Zolotukhin; Arun Srivastava; Chang-quan Ling; Yuan Wang; Ying-lu Feng; Ya-ni Zhang; Jun Li; Xin-rui Hu; Li-na Wang; Mao-feng Zhong; Xiao-feng Zhai

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) serotype 2, 3 and 8 vectors are the most promising liver-tropic AAV serotype vectors. Liver diseases are signiifcant problems in China. However, to date, few studies on AAV neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) were working with the Chinese population or with the rAAV3 vectors. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Nabs in Chinese population against wild-type AAV2, AAV3 and AAV8 capsids as wel as additional two AAV3 variants. In addition, we performed a preliminary analysis to investigate the potential inlfuence of traditional Chinese medicine body constitutions on AAV Nabs. Our work demonstrated that the majority of healthy Chinese subjects were positive for AAV Nabs, with the order of AAV2 > AAV3 = AAVLK03 > AAV8. There was no difference between: 1) AAV3 and its variants; 2) male and female subjects; and 3) different age cohorts (≤ 35, 36–50, and ≥ 51 years old). People in the Qi-deifciency constitution had signiifcantly increased AAV8 Nabs than people in the Gentleness constitution. Our studies may have impact on the future clinical design of AAV-based gene therapy in the Chinese population.

  17. Ex vivo intracoronary gene transfer of adeno-associated virus 2 leads to superior transduction over serotypes 8 and 9 in rat heart transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raissadati, Alireza; Jokinen, Janne J; Syrjälä, Simo O; Keränen, Mikko A I; Krebs, Rainer; Tuuminen, Raimo; Arnaudova, Ralica; Rouvinen, Eeva; Anisimov, Andrey; Soronen, Jarkko; Pajusola, Katri; Alitalo, Kari; Nykänen, Antti I; Lemström, Karl

    2013-11-01

    Heart transplant gene therapy requires vectors with long-lasting gene expression, high cardiotropism, and minimal pathological effects. Here, we examined transduction properties of ex vivo intracoronary delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 2, 8, and 9 in rat syngenic and allogenic heart transplants. Adult Dark Agouti (DA) rat hearts were intracoronarily perfused ex vivo with AAV2, AAV8, or AAV9 encoding firefly luciferase and transplanted heterotopically into the abdomen of syngenic DA or allogenic Wistar-Furth (WF) recipients. Serial in vivo bioluminescent imaging of syngraft and allograft recipients was performed for 6 months and 4 weeks, respectively. Grafts were removed for PCR-, RT-PCR, and luminometer analysis. In vivo bioluminescent imaging of recipients showed that AAV9 induced a prominent and stable luciferase activity in the abdomen, when compared with AAV2 and AAV8. However, ex vivo analyses revealed that intracoronary perfusion with AAV2 resulted in the highest heart transplant transduction levels in syngrafts and allografts. Ex vivo intracoronary delivery of AAV2 resulted in efficient transgene expression in heart transplants, whereas intracoronary AAV9 escapes into adjacent tissues. In terms of cardiac transduction, these results suggest AAV2 as a potential vector for gene therapy in preclinical heart transplants studies, and highlight the importance of delivery route in gene transfer studies.

  18. Hsp70 gene transfer by adeno-associated virus inhibits MPTP-induced nigrostriatal degeneration in the mouse model of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhizhong; Wolfer, David P; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Büeler, Hansruedi

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been implicated in Parkinson disease (PD). In addition, genetic evidence points to an important role of protein misfolding, aggregation, and failure in the proteasomal degradation of specific neuronal proteins in the pathogenesis of PD. The chaperone heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) reduces protein misfolding and aggregation and protects cells against a variety of adverse conditions, including oxidative stress. Moreover, Hsp70 exerts antiapoptotic activity by blocking the function of several key proapoptotic factors. Recently, Hsp70 was shown to inhibit alpha-synuclein toxicity in a Drosophila model of inherited PD. Here we tested the potential of Hsp70 (approved gene symbol HSPA1A) for gene therapy in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of idiopathic PD. We show that Hsp70 gene transfer to dopamine neurons by a recombinant adeno-associated virus significantly protects the mouse dopaminergic system against MPTP-induced dopamine neuron loss and the associated decline in striatal dopamine levels and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive fibers. Hsp70 reduced MPTP-induced apoptosis in the substantia nigra, and unilateral protection of the dopaminergic system by Hsp70 was associated with increased amphetamine-induced turning toward the uninjected side. Collectively, these results suggest that increasing chaperone activity may be beneficial for the treatment of idiopathic PD.

  19. Osteogenic differentiation of recombinant adeno-associated virus 2-transduced murine mesenchymal stem cells and development of an immunocompetent mouse model for ex vivo osteoporosis gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Mahendra, Gandham; Nagy, Tim R; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

    2004-12-01

    Gene therapy for osteopenic conditions including osteoporosis is a potential alternative to pharmacotherapy for cost effectiveness, long-term viability, and the ability to enhance bone mass by anabolic approaches. Increased understanding of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) lineage differentiation during osteogenesis, and of the molecular pathways involved in bone cell production, provides an opportunity for the advancement of gene therapy approaches for osteopenic conditions. The potential of MSCs in osteoblast differentiation and the relative ease of MSC isolation and culturing offer a promising resource for the development of ex vivo gene therapy for bone defects. In an effort to develop ex vivo gene therapy for osteoporosis, we used gene-modified MSCs in a preclinical mouse model to determine the efficiency of transduction of murine MSCs by recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV) vectors carrying reporter genes and determined their osteogenic potential after recombinant AAV-mediated expression of bone morphogenic protein 2, known to induce osteoblast differentiation. Although surgical ovariectomy is believed to induce progressive bone loss in mouse models, similar to an osteoporosis-like phenotype in humans, several factors, including hormonal alteration and dietary habits, significantly affect both the onset and progression of the disease. Thus, in the present study, we determined the influence of these factors and developed an immunocompetent mouse model of osteoporosis with degenerative bone loss as in the human pathology.

  20. The use of an adeno-associated viral vector for efficient bicistronic expression of two genes in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Thomas Haynes; Kathe, Claudia; Menezes, Sean Christopher; Rooney, Marie-Claire; Bueler, Hansruedi; Moon, Lawrence David Falcon

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are one of the most promising therapeutic delivery systems for gene therapy to the central nervous system (CNS). Preclinical testing of novel gene therapies requires the careful design and production of AAV vectors and their successful application in a model of CNS injury. One major limitation of AAV vectors is their limited packaging capacity (genes (e.g., from two promoters) difficult. An internal ribosomal entry site has been used to express two genes: However, the second transgene is often expressed at lower levels than the first. In addition to this, achieving high levels of transduction in the CNS can be challenging. In this chapter we describe the cloning of a bicistronic AAV vector that uses the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A sequence to efficiently express two genes from a single promoter. Bicistronic expression of a therapeutic gene and a reporter gene is desirable so that the axons from transduced neurons can be tracked and, after CNS injury, the amount of axonal sprouting or regeneration quantified. We go on to describe how to perform a pyramidotomy model of CNS injury and the injection of AAV vectors into the sensorimotor cortex to provide efficient transduction and bicistronic gene expression in cortical neurons such that transduced axons are detectable in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord.

  1. Neuropathological and behavioral consequences of adeno-associated viral vector-mediated continuous intrastriatal neurotrophin delivery in a focal ischemia model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andsberg, Gunnar; Kokaia, Zaal; Klein, Ronald L; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Lindvall, Olle; Mandel, Ronald J

    2002-03-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were continuously delivered to the striatum at biologically active levels via recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) gene transfer 4-5 weeks prior to 30 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The magnitude of the deficits in a battery of behavioral tests designed to assess striatal function was highly correlated to the extent of ischemic damage determined by unbiased stereological estimations of striatal neuron numbers. The delivery of neurotrophins lead to mild functional improvements in the ischemia-induced motor impairments assessed 3-5 weeks after the insult, in agreement with a small but significant increase of the survival of dorsolateral striatal neurons. Detailed phenotypic analysis demonstrated that the parvalbumin-containing interneurons were spared to a greater extent by the neurotrophin treatment as compared to the projection neurons, which agreed with the specificity for interneuron transduction by the rAAV vector. These data show the advantage of the never previously performed combination of precise quantification of the ischemia-induced neuropathology along with detailed behavioural analysis for assessing neuroprotection after stroke. We observe that intrastriatal delivery of NGF and BDNF using a viral vector system can mitigate, albeit only moderately, neuronal death following stroke, which leads to detectable functional sparing.

  2. Successful gene therapy in older Rpe65-deficient dogs following subretinal injection of an adeno-associated vector expressing RPE65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annear, Matthew J; Mowat, Freya M; Bartoe, Joshua T; Querubin, Janice; Azam, Selina A; Basche, Mark; Curran, Paul G; Smith, Alexander J; Bainbridge, James W B; Ali, Robin R; Petersen-Jones, Simon M

    2013-10-01

    Young Rpe65-deficient dogs have been used as a model for human RPE65 Leber congenital amaurosis (RPE65-LCA) in proof-of-concept trials of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene therapy. However, there are relatively few reports of the outcome of rAAV gene therapy in Rpe65-deficient dogs older than 2 years of age. The purpose of this study was to investigate the success of this therapy in older Rpe65-deficient dogs. Thirteen eyes were treated in dogs between 2 and 6 years old. An rAAV2 vector expressing the human RPE65 cDNA driven by the human RPE65 promoter was delivered by subretinal injection. Twelve of the 13 eyes had improved retinal function as assessed by electroretinography, and all showed improvement in vision at low lighting intensities. Histologic examination of five of the eyes was performed but found no correlation between electroretinogram (ERG) rescue and numbers of remaining photoreceptors. We conclude that functional rescue is still possible in older dogs and that the use of older Rpe65-deficient dogs, rather than young Rpe65-deficient dogs that have very little loss of photoreceptors, more accurately models the situation when treating human RPE65-LCA patients.

  3. Targeted delivery of self-complementary adeno-associated virus serotype 9 to the brain, using magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenot, Emmanuel; Jordão, Jessica F; O'Reilly, Meaghan A; Markham, Kelly; Weng, Ying-Qi; Foust, Kevin D; Kaspar, Brian K; Hynynen, Kullervo; Aubert, Isabelle

    2012-11-01

    Noninvasive drug delivery to the brain remains a major challenge for the treatment of neurological disorders. Transcranial focused ultrasound combined with lipid-coated gas microspheres injected into the bloodstream has been shown to increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier locally and transiently. Coupled with magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound can be guided to allow therapeutics administered in the blood to reach brain regions of interest. Using this approach, we perform gene transfer from the blood to specific regions of the mouse brain. Focused ultrasound was targeted to the right hemisphere, at multiple foci, or restricted to one focal point of the hippocampus or the striatum. Doses from 5 × 10(8) to 1.25 × 10(10) vector genomes per gram (VG/g) of self-complementary adeno-associated virus serotype 9 carrying the green fluorescent protein were injected into the tail vein. A dose of 2.5 × 10(9) VG/g was optimal to express the transgene, 12 days later, in neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in brain regions targeted with ultrasound, while minimizing the infection of peripheral organs. In the hippocampus and striatum, predominantly neurons and astrocytes were infected, respectively. Transcranial focused ultrasound applications could fulfill a long-term goal of gene therapy: delivering vectors to diseased brain areas directly from the circulation, in a noninvasive manner.

  4. Immobilization of FLAG-Tagged Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus 2 onto Tissue Engineering Scaffolds for the Improvement of Transgene Delivery in Cell Transplants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Li

    Full Text Available The technology of virus-based genetic modification in tissue engineering has provided the opportunity to produce more flexible and versatile biomaterials for transplantation. Localizing the transgene expression with increased efficiency is critical for tissue engineering as well as a challenge for virus-based gene delivery. In this study, we tagged the VP2 protein of type 2 adeno-associated virus (AAV with a 3×FLAG plasmid at the N-terminus and packaged a FLAG-tagged recombinant AAV2 chimeric mutant. The mutant AAVs were immobilized onto the tissue engineering scaffolds with crosslinked anti-FLAG antibodies by N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithiol propionate (SPDP. Cultured cells were seeded to scaffolds to form 3D transplants, and then tested for viral transduction both in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that our FLAG-tagged AAV2 exerted similar transduction efficiency compared with the wild type AAV2 when infected cultured cells. Following immobilization onto the scaffolds of PLGA or gelatin sponge with anti-FLAG antibodies, the viral mediated transgene expression was significantly improved and more localized. Our data demonstrated that the mutation of AAV capsid targeted for antibody-based immobilization could be a practical approach for more efficient and precise transgene delivery. It was also suggested that the immobilization of AAV might have attractive potentials in applications of tissue engineering involving the targeted gene manipulation in 3D tissue cultures.

  5. Effect of hydroxyurea and etoposide on transduction of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem and progenitor cell by adeno-associated virus vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-dong JU; Si-quan LOU; Wei-guo WANG; Jian-qiang PENG; Hua TIAN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of hydroxyurea and etoposide on transduction of human marrow mesenchymal and progenitor stem cells by adeno-associated virus (AAV). METHODS: Isolated human bone marrow mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells (hMSCs) were cultured in DMEM containing 10 % FBS or 5 % FBS and dexamethasone 1 μmol/L respectively. After being treated with hydroxyurea and etoposide, hMSCs were transduced by AAV-LUC.After two days luciferase activity (relative light unites per second or RLU/s) were tested, which indirectly reflected the relative transduction efficiency of different groups, and virus DNA was isolated by Hirt extraction for Southern hybridization. RESULTS: Transduction luciferase activity and transduction efficiency in cultures treated with hydroxyurea and etoposide were significantly higher than that in control cultures. Dividing cells had about 20-fold higher transduction efficiency compared with control cells. Transduction efficiency in stationary cells was about 50 times higher than that in control cells. Southern analysis showed that hydroxyurea and etoposide enhanced second-strand DNA synthesis by rAAV. CONCLUSION: Hydroxyurea and etoposide could increase transduction efficiency of hMSCs by AAV vectors, and stationary cells were more sensitive to these drugs than dividing cells.

  6. NIH oversight of human gene transfer research involving retroviral, lentiviral, and adeno-associated virus vectors and the role of the NIH recombinant DNA advisory committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Marina; Shipp, Allan; Rosenthal, Eugene; Jambou, Robert; Shih, Tom; Montgomery, Maureen; Gargiulo, Linda; Patterson, Amy; Corrigan-Curay, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    In response to public and scientific concerns regarding human gene transfer research, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) developed a transparent oversight system that extends to human gene transfer protocols that are either conducted with NIH funding or conducted at institutions that receive NIH funding for recombinant DNA research. The NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) has been the primary advisory body to NIH regarding the conduct of this research. Human gene transfer research proposals that are subject to the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines) must be submitted to the NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA), and protocols that raise novel scientific, safety, medical, ethical, or social issues are publicly discussed at the RAC's quarterly public meetings. OBA also convenes gene transfer safety symposia and policy conferences to provide a public forum for scientific experts to discuss emerging issues in the field. This transparent system of review promotes the rapid exchange of important scientific information and dissemination of data. The goal is to optimize the conduct of individual research protocols and to advance gene transfer research generally. This process has fostered the development of retroviral, lentiviral, and adeno-associated viral vector mediated gene delivery.

  7. Production and characterization of novel recombinant adeno-associated virus replicative-form genomes: a eukaryotic source of DNA for gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lina; Dimitriadis, Emilios K; Yang, Yu; Li, Juan; Yuan, Zhenhua; Qiao, Chunping; Beley, Cyriaque; Smith, Richard H; Garcia, Luis; Kotin, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Conventional non-viral gene transfer uses bacterial plasmid DNA containing antibiotic resistance genes, cis-acting bacterial sequence elements, and prokaryotic methylation patterns that may adversely affect transgene expression and vector stability in vivo. Here, we describe novel replicative forms of a eukaryotic vector DNA that consist solely of an expression cassette flanked by adeno-associated virus (AAV) inverted terminal repeats. Extensive structural analyses revealed that this AAV-derived vector DNA consists of linear, duplex molecules with covalently closed ends (termed closed-ended, linear duplex, or "CELiD", DNA). CELiD vectors, produced in Sf9 insect cells, require AAV rep gene expression for amplification. Amounts of CELiD DNA produced from insect cell lines stably transfected with an ITR-flanked transgene exceeded 60 mg per 5 × 10(9) Sf9 cells, and 1-15 mg from a comparable number of parental Sf9 cells in which the transgene was introduced via recombinant baculovirus infection. In mice, systemically delivered CELiD DNA resulted in long-term, stable transgene expression in the liver. CELiD vectors represent a novel eukaryotic alternative to bacterial plasmid DNA.

  8. Parvovirus B19 promoter at map unit 6 confers autonomous replication competence and erythroid specificity to adeno-associated virus 2 in primary human hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X S; Yoder, M C; Zhou, S Z; Srivastava, A

    1995-01-01

    The pathogenic human parvovirus B19 is an autonomously replicating virus with a remarkable tropism for human erythroid progenitor cells. Although the target cell specificity for B19 infection has been suggested to be mediated by the erythrocyte P-antigen receptor (globoside), a number of nonerythroid cells that express this receptor are nonpermissive for B19 replication. To directly test the role of expression from the B19 promoter at map unit 6 (B19p6) in the erythroid cell specificity of B19, we constructed a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV), in which the authentic AAV promoter at map unit 5 (AAVp5) was replaced by the B19p6 promoter. Although the wild-type (wt) AAV requires a helper virus for its optimal replication, we hypothesized that inserting the B19p6 promoter in a recombinant AAV would permit autonomous viral replication, but only in erythroid progenitor cells. In this report, we provide evidence that the B19p6 promoter is necessary and sufficient to impart autonomous replication competence and erythroid specificity to AAV in primary human hematopoietic progenitor cells. Thus, expression from the B19p6 promoter plays an important role in post-P-antigen receptor erythroid-cell specificity of parvovirus B19. The AAV-B19 hybrid vector system may also prove to be useful in potential gene therapy of human hemoglobinopathies. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8618912

  9. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylation and DNA Methylation Improves Gene Expression Mediated by the Adeno-Associated Virus/Phage in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Hajitou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage (phage, viruses that infect bacteria only, have become promising vectors for targeted systemic delivery of genes to cancer, although, with poor efficiency. We previously designed an improved phage vector by incorporating cis genetic elements of adeno-associated virus (AAV. This novel AAV/phage hybrid (AAVP specifically targeted systemic delivery of therapeutic genes into tumors. To advance the AAVP vector, we recently introduced the stress-inducible Grp78 tumor specific promoter and found that this dual tumor-targeted AAVP provides persistent gene expression, over time, in cancer cells compared to silenced gene expression from the CMV promoter in the parental AAVP. Herein, we investigated the effect of histone deacetylation and DNA methylation on AAVP-mediated gene expression in cancer cells and explored the effect of cell confluence state on AAVP gene expression efficacy. Using a combination of AAVP expressing the GFP reporter gene, flow cytometry, inhibitors of histone deacetylation, and DNA methylation, we have demonstrated that histone deacetylation and DNA methylation are associated with silencing of gene expression from the CMV promoter in the parental AAVP. Importantly, inhibitors of histone deacetylases boost gene expression in cancer cells from the Grp78 promoter in the dual tumor-targeted AAVP. However, cell confluence had no effect on AAVP-guided gene expression. Our findings prove that combination of histone deacetylase inhibitor drugs with the Grp78 promoter is an effective approach to improve AAVP-mediated gene expression in cancer cells and should be considered for AAVP-based clinical cancer gene therapy.

  10. A human parvovirus, adeno-associated virus, as a eucaryotic vector: Transient expression and encapsidation of the procaryotic gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tratschin, J.D.; West, M.H.P.; Sandbank, T.; Carter, B.J.

    1984-10-01

    The authors have used the defective human parvovirus adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a novel eurocaryotic vector (parvector) for the expression of a foreign gene in human cells. The recombinant, pAV2, contains the AAV genome in a pBR322-derived bacterial plasmid. When pAV2 is transfected into human cells together with helper adenovirus particles, the AAV genome is rescued from the recombinant plasmid and replicated to produce infectious AAV particles at high efficiency. To create a vector, we inserted a procaryotic sequence coding for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) into derivatives of pAV2 following either of the AAV promoters p/sub 40/ (pAVHiCAT) and p/sub 19/ (pAVBcCAT). When transfected into human 293 cells or HeLa cells, pAVHiCAT expressed CAT activity in the absence of adenovirus. In the presence of adenovirus, this vector produced increased amounts of CAT activity and the recombinant AAV-CAT genome was replicated. In 293 cells, pAVBcCAT expressed a similar amount of CAT activity in the absence or presence of adenovirus and the recombinant AAV-CAT genome was not replicated. In HeLa cells, pAVBcCAT expressed low levels of CAT activity, but this level was elevated by coinfection with adenovirus particles or by cotransfection with a plasmid which expressed the adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) product. The E1A product is a transcriptional activator and is expressed in 293 cells. Thus, expression from two AAV promoters is differentially regulated: expression from p/sub 19/ is increased by E1A, whereas p/sub 40/ yields high levels of constitutive expression in the absence of E1A. Both AAV vectors were packaged into AAV particles by complementation with wild-type AAV and yielded CAT activity when subsequently infected into cells in the presence of adenovirus.

  11. Cervical cancer isolate PT3, super-permissive for adeno-associated virus replication, over-expresses DNA polymerase δ, PCNA, RFC and RPA

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    Melchert Russell B

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adeno-associated virus (AAV type 2 is an important virus due to its use as a safe and effective human gene therapy vector and its negative association with certain malignancies. AAV, a dependo-parvovirus, autonomously replicates in stratified squamous epithelium. Such tissue occurs in the nasopharynx and anogenitals, from which AAV has been clinically isolated. Related autonomous parvoviruses also demonstrate cell tropism and preferentially replicate in oncogenically transformed cells. Combining these two attributes of parvovirus tropism, squamous and malignant, we assayed if AAV might replicate in squamous cervical carcinoma cell isolates. Results Three primary isolates (PT1-3 and two established cervical cancer cell lines were compared to normal keratinocytes (NK for their ability to replicate AAV. One isolate, PT3, allowed for high levels of AAV DNA replication and virion production compared to others. In research by others, four cellular components are known required for in vitro AAV DNA replication: replication protein A (RPA, replication factor C (RFC, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, and DNA polymerase delta (POLD1. Thus, we examined PT3 cells for expression of these components by DNA microarray and real-time quantitative PCR. All four components were over-expressed in PT3 over two representative low-permissive cell isolates (NK and PT1. However, this super-permissiveness did not result in PT3 cell death by AAV infection. Conclusion These data, for the first time, provide evidence that these four cellular components are likely important for AAV in vivo DNA replication as well as in vitro. These data also suggest that PT3 will be a useful reagent for investigating the AAV-permissive transcriptome and AAV anti-cancer effect.

  12. Adeno-Associated Vector mediated gene transfer of Transforming Growth Factor-beta1 to normal and osteoarthritic human chondrocytes stimulates cartilage anabolism

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    Ulrich-Vinther M.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate whether cartilage anabolism in human primary osteoarthritic chondrocytes could be improved by adeno-associated virus (AAV vector-mediated gene transduction of transforming growth factor TGF-beta1 (TGF-beta1. A bi-cistronic AAV-TGF-beta1-IRES-eGFP (AAV-TGF-beta1 vector was generated and used for transduction of a normal human articular chondrocyte cell line (tsT/AC62 and primary human osteoarthritic articular chondrocytes harvested from 8 patients receiving total knee joint arthroplasty. Transduction efficiency was detected by fluorescent microscopy for gene expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP. TGF-beta1 synthesis was determined by ELISA. To assess the influence of TGF-beta1 gene therapy on chondrocyte cartilage metabolism, mRNA expressions of type II collagen, aggrecan, and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3 were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. AAV-TGF-beta1 transduction resulted in increased synthesis of TGF-beta1 in both osteoarthritic chondrocytes and the normal articular chondrocyte cell line. The expression levels of the transduced genes were correlated to "multiplicity of infection" (MOI and post-infectious time. In both osteoarthritic chondrocytes and the normal articular chondrocyte cell line, AAV-TGF-beta1 treatment increased mRNA expression of both type II collagen and aggrecan, but decreased MMP-3 mRNA expression. Osteoarthritic chondrocytes and the normal articular chondrocyte cell line could be transduced with equal efficiencies. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that AAV-TGF-beta1 gene transfer stimulates cartilage anabolism and decreases expression of enzymes responsible for cartilage degradation in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. The results indicate that the AAV vector is an efficient mediator of growth factors to human articular chondrocytes, and that it might be useful in future chondrocyte gene therapy.

  13. Suppressing tumor growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by hTERTC27 polypeptide delivered through adeno-associated virus plus adenovirus vector cocktail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Liu; Xiang-Ping Li; Ying Peng; Samuel S.Ng; Hong Yao; Zi-Feng Wang; Xiao-Mei Wang; Hsiang-Fu Kung; Marie C.M.Lin

    2012-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) is a metastatic carcinoma that is highly prevalent in Southeast Asia.Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that the C-terminal 27-kDa polypeptide of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERTC27) inhibits the growth and tumorigenicity of human glioblastoma and melanoma cells.In this study,we investigated the antitumor effect of hTERTC27 in human C666-1 NPC cells xenografted in a nude mouse model.A cocktail of vectors comprising recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) and recombinant adenovirus (rAdv) that each carry hTERTC27 (rAAV-hTERTC27 and rAdv-hTERTC27; the cocktail was abbreviated to rAAV/rAdv-hTERTC27) was more effective than either rAAV-hTERTC27 or rAdv-hTERTC27 alone in inhibiting the growth of C666-1 NPC xenografts.Furthermore,we established three tumors on each mouse and injected rAAV/rAdv-hTERTC27 into one tumor per mouse.Although hTERTC27 expression could only be detected in the injected tumors,reduced tumor growth was observed in the injected tumor as well as the uninjected tumors,demonstrating that the vector cocktail could provoke an antitumor effect on distant,metastasized tumors.Further studies showed the observed antitumor effects included inducing necrosis and apoptosis and reducing microvessel density.Together,our data suggest that the rAAV/rAdv-hTERTC27 cocktail can potently inhibit NPC tumor growth in both local and metastasized tumors and should be further developed as a novel gene therapy strategy for NPC.

  14. Good manufacturing practice production of self-complementary serotype 8 adeno-associated viral vector for a hemophilia B clinical trial.

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    Allay, James A; Sleep, Susan; Long, Scott; Tillman, David M; Clark, Rob; Carney, Gael; Fagone, Paolo; McIntosh, Jenny H; Nienhuis, Arthur W; Davidoff, Andrew M; Nathwani, Amit C; Gray, John T

    2011-05-01

    To generate sufficient clinical-grade vector to support a phase I/II clinical trial of adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8)-mediated factor IX (FIX) gene transfer for hemophilia B, we have developed a large-scale, good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compatible method for vector production and purification. We used a 293T-based two-plasmid transient transfection system coupled with a three-column chromatography purification process to produce high-quality self-complementary AAV2/8 FIX clinical-grade vector. Two consecutive production campaigns using a total of 432 independent 10-stack culture chambers produced a total of ∼2 × 10(15) vector genomes (VG) by dot-blot hybridization. Benzonase-treated microfluidized lysates generated from pellets of transfected cells were purified by group separation on Sepharose beads followed by anion-exchange chromatography. The virus-containing fractions were further processed by gel filtration and ultrafiltration, using a 100-kDa membrane. The vector was formulated in phosphate-buffered saline plus 0.25% human serum albumin. Spectrophotometric analysis suggested ∼20% full particles, with only low quantities of nonviral proteins were visible on silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. A sensitive assay for the detection of replication-competent AAV was developed, which did reveal trace quantities of such contaminants in the final product. Additional studies have confirmed the long-term stability of the vector at -80°C for at least 24 months and for at least 24 hr formulated in the clinical diluent and stored at room temperature within intravenous bags. This material has been approved for use in clinical trials in the United States and the United Kingdom.

  15. Efficient delivery of Cre-recombinase to neurons in vivo and stable transduction of neurons using adeno-associated and lentiviral vectors

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    Sablitzky Fred

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactivating genes in vivo is an important technique for establishing their function in the adult nervous system. Unfortunately, conventional knockout mice may suffer from several limitations including embryonic or perinatal lethality and the compensatory regulation of other genes. One approach to producing conditional activation or inactivation of genes involves the use of Cre recombinase to remove loxP-flanked segments of DNA. We have studied the effects of delivering Cre to the hippocampus and neocortex of adult mice by injecting replication-deficient adeno-associated virus (AAV and lentiviral (LV vectors into discrete regions of the forebrain. Results Recombinant AAV-Cre, AAV-GFP (green fluorescent protein and LV-Cre-EGFP (enhanced GFP were made with the transgene controlled by the cytomegalovirus promoter. Infecting 293T cells in vitro with AAV-Cre and LV-Cre-EGFP resulted in transduction of most cells as shown by GFP fluorescence and Cre immunoreactivity. Injections of submicrolitre quantities of LV-Cre-EGFP and mixtures of AAV-Cre with AAV-GFP into the neocortex and hippocampus of adult Rosa26 reporter mice resulted in strong Cre and GFP expression in the dentate gyrus and moderate to strong labelling in specific regions of the hippocampus and in the neocortex, mainly in neurons. The pattern of expression of Cre and GFP obtained with AAV and LV vectors was very similar. X-gal staining showed that Cre-mediated recombination had occurred in neurons in the same regions of the brain, starting at 3 days post-injection. No obvious toxic effects of Cre expression were detected even after four weeks post-injection. Conclusion AAV and LV vectors are capable of delivering Cre to neurons in discrete regions of the adult mouse brain and producing recombination.

  16. An adeno-associated virus-based intracellular sensor of pathological nuclear factor-κB activation for disease-inducible gene transfer.

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    Abdelwahed Chtarto

    Full Text Available Stimulation of resident cells by NF-κB activating cytokines is a central element of inflammatory and degenerative disorders of the central nervous system (CNS. This disease-mediated NF-κB activation could be used to drive transgene expression selectively in affected cells, using adeno-associated virus (AAV-mediated gene transfer. We have constructed a series of AAV vectors expressing GFP under the control of different promoters including NF-κB -responsive elements. As an initial screen, the vectors were tested in vitro in HEK-293T cells treated with TNF-α. The best profile of GFP induction was obtained with a promoter containing two blocks of four NF-κB -responsive sequences from the human JCV neurotropic polyoma virus promoter, fused to a new tight minimal CMV promoter, optimally distant from each other. A therapeutical gene, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF cDNA under the control of serotype 1-encapsidated NF-κB -responsive AAV vector (AAV-NF was protective in senescent cultures of mouse cortical neurons. AAV-NF was then evaluated in vivo in the kainic acid (KA-induced status epilepticus rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy, a major neurological disorder with a central pathophysiological role for NF-κB activation. We demonstrate that AAV-NF, injected in the hippocampus, responded to disease induction by mediating GFP expression, preferentially in CA1 and CA3 neurons and astrocytes, specifically in regions where inflammatory markers were also induced. Altogether, these data demonstrate the feasibility to use disease-activated transcription factor-responsive elements in order to drive transgene expression specifically in affected cells in inflammatory CNS disorders using AAV-mediated gene transfer.

  17. CONSTRUCTING ADENO-ASSOCIATED VIRUS-TGFp3 AND COMPARING ITS BIOLOGICAL EFFECT ON PROTEOGLYCAN SYNTHESIS IN DEDIFFERENTIATED NUCLEUS PULPOUS CELLS WITH ADENOVIRUS-TGFβ1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-ming Sai; You-gu Hu; De-chun Wang

    2007-01-01

    Objective To construct adeno-associated virus (AAV) expression system for transforming growth factor β3 (TGFβ3) and detect its biological effect on proteoglycan synthesis of the earlier and later dedifferentiated rabbit lumbar disc nucleus pulpous (NP) cells, which was compared with that of adenovirus (AV) expression system for TGFβ1.Methods TGFβ3 gene was obtained using PCR. Its upstream contained restriction enzyme site Kpn Ⅰ, and its downstream contained restriction enzyme site Sal Ⅰ. Using the restriction enzyme sites of PCR product of TGFβ3 and the corresponding multiple cloning site (MCS) in plasmid AAV, TGFβ3 was subcloned into AAV. The recombinant plas-mid AAV-TGFβ3 was transfected into H293 cells with Lipofectamine(tm) 2000, and the expression of TGFβ3 gene was detected using immunofluorescent analysis. After AAV-TGFβ3 virus particle with infectious activity was packaged, TGFβ3 expression in NP cells was detected by immunoblotting, and its biological effect on proteoglycan synthesis was detected by antonopulos method and compared with that of AV-TGFβ, in the earlier and later dedifferentiated NP cells.Results For the earlier dedifferentiated NP cells, AAV-TGFβ slowly and stably enhanced proteoglycan synthesis, but AV-TGFβ, rapidly and transiently enhanced its synthesis. For the later dedifferentiated NP cells, AAV-TGFβ3 stably enhanced proteoglycan synthesis, but AV-TGFβ, inhibited its synthesis.Conclusion AAV expression system can mediate TGFβ3 gene to be expressed stably, and AAV-TGFβ3 can enhance proteoglycan synthesis of the earlier and later dedifferentiated NP cells.

  18. Activation of the NF-kappaB pathway by adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors and its implications in immune response and gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayandharan, Giridhara R; Aslanidi, George; Martino, Ashley T; Jahn, Stephan C; Perrin, George Q; Herzog, Roland W; Srivastava, Arun

    2011-03-01

    Because our in silico analysis with a human transcription factor database demonstrated the presence of several binding sites for NF-κB, a central regulator of cellular immune and inflammatory responses, in the adeno-associated virus (AAV) genome, we investigated whether AAV uses NF-κB during its life cycle. We used small molecule modulators of NF-κB in HeLa cells transduced with recombinant AAV vectors. VP16, an NF-κB activator, augmented AAV vector-mediated transgene expression up to 25-fold. Of the two NF-κB inhibitors, Bay11, which blocks both the canonical and the alternative NF-κB pathways, totally ablated transgene expression, whereas pyrrolidone dithiocarbamate, which interferes with the classical NF-κB pathway, had no effect. Western blot analyses confirmed the abundance of the nuclear p52 protein component of the alternative NF-κB pathway in the presence of VP16, which was ablated by Bay11, suggesting that AAV transduction activates the alternative NF-κB pathway. In vivo, hepatic AAV gene transfer activated the canonical NF-κB pathway within 2 h, resulting in expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (likely reflecting the sensing of viral particles by antigen-presenting cells), whereas the alternative pathway was activated by 9 h. Bay11 effectively blocked activation of both pathways without interfering with long-term transgene expression while eliminating proinflammatory cytokine expression. These studies suggest that transient immunosuppression with NF-κB inhibitors before transduction with AAV vectors should lead to a dampened immune response, which has significant implications in the optimal use of AAV vectors in human gene therapy.

  19. Sodium Chloride Enhances Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Production in a Serum-Free Suspension Manufacturing Platform Using the Herpes Simplex Virus System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson-Small, Laura; Potter, Mark; Byrne, Barry J; Clément, Nathalie

    2017-02-01

    The increase in effective treatments using recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors has underscored the importance of scalable, high-yield manufacturing methods. Previous work from this group reported the use of recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 (rHSV) vectors to produce rAAV in adherent HEK293 cells, demonstrating the capacity of this system and quality of the product generated. Here we report production and optimization of rAAV using the rHSV system in suspension HEK293 cells (Expi293F) grown in serum and animal component-free medium. Through adjustment of salt concentration in the medium and optimization of infection conditions, titers greater than 1 × 10(14) vector genomes per liter (VG/liter) were observed in purified rAAV stocks produced in Expi293F cells. Furthermore, this system allowed for high-titer production of multiple rAAV serotypes (2, 5, and 9) as well as multiple transgenes (green fluorescent protein and acid α-glucosidase). A proportional increase in vector production was observed as this method was scaled, with a final 3-liter shaker flask production yielding an excess of 1 × 10(15) VG in crude cell harvests and an average of 3.5 × 10(14) total VG of purified rAAV9 material, resulting in greater than 1 × 10(5) VG/cell. These results support the use of this rHSV-based rAAV production method for large-scale preclinical and clinical vector production.

  20. Successful expansion but not complete restriction of tropism of adeno-associated virus by in vivo biopanning of random virus display peptide libraries.

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    Stefan Michelfelder

    Full Text Available Targeting viral vectors to certain tissues in vivo has been a major challenge in gene therapy. Cell type-directed vector capsids can be selected from random peptide libraries displayed on viral capsids in vitro but so far this system could not easily be translated to in vivo applications. Using a novel, PCR-based amplification protocol for peptide libraries displayed on adeno-associated virus (AAV, we selected vectors for optimized transduction of primary tumor cells in vitro. However, these vectors were not suitable for transduction of the same target cells under in vivo conditions. We therefore performed selections of AAV peptide libraries in vivo in living animals after intravenous administration using tumor and lung tissue as prototype targets. Analysis of peptide sequences of AAV clones after several rounds of selection yielded distinct sequence motifs for both tissues. The selected clones indeed conferred gene expression in the target tissue while gene expression was undetectable in animals injected with control vectors. However, all of the vectors selected for tumor transduction also transduced heart tissue and the vectors selected for lung transduction also transduced a number of other tissues, particularly and invariably the heart. This suggests that modification of the heparin binding motif by target-binding peptide insertion is necessary but not sufficient to achieve tissue-specific transgene expression. While the approach presented here does not yield vectors whose expression is confined to one target tissue, it is a useful tool for in vivo tissue transduction when expression in tissues other than the primary target is uncritical.

  1. Neonatal intraperitoneal or intravenous injections of recombinant adeno-associated virus type 8 transduce dorsal root ganglia and lower motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Kevin D; Poirier, Amy; Pacak, Christina A; Mandel, Ronald J; Flotte, Terence R

    2008-01-01

    Targeting lower motor neurons (LMNs) for gene delivery could be useful for disorders such as spinal muscular atrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. LMNs reside in the ventral gray matter of the spinal cord and send axonal projections to innervate skeletal muscle. Studies have used intramuscular injections of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) to deliver viral vectors to LMNs via retrograde transport. However, treating large areas of the spinal cord in a human would require numerous intramuscular injections, thereby increasing viral titer and risk of immune response. New AAV serotypes, such as AAV8, have a dispersed transduction pattern after intravenous or intraperitoneal injection in neonatal mice, and may transduce LMNs by retrograde transport or through entry into the nervous system. To test LMN transduction after systemic injection, we administered recombinant AAV8 (rAAV8) carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene by intravenous or intraperitoneal injection to neonatal mice on postnatal day 1. Tissues were harvested 5 and 14 days postinjection and analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and GFP immunohistochemistry to assess the presence of AAV genomes and GFP expression, respectively. Spinal cords were positive for AAV genomes at both time points. GFP immunohistochemistry revealed infrequent labeling of LMNs across all time points and injection routes. Somewhat surprisingly, there was extensive labeling of fibers in the dorsal horns and columns, indicating dorsal root ganglion transduction across all time points and injection routes. Our data suggest that systemic injection of rAAV8 is not an effective delivery route to target lower motor neurons, but could be useful for targeting sensory pathways in chronic pain.

  2. Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 9 with p65 ribozyme protects H9c2 cells from oxidative stress through inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan SUN; Yi-Tong MA; Bang-Dang CHEN; Fen LIU

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress is a major mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. It can trigger inflammatory cascades which are primarily mediated via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). The NF-κB transcription factor family includes several subunits (p50, p52, p65, c-Rel, and Rel B) that respond to myocardial ischemia. It has been proved that persistent myocyte NF-κB p65 activation in heart failure exacerbates cardiac remodeling. Mechods A recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 9 carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein and anti-NF-κB p65 ribozyme (AAV9-R65-CMV-eGFP) was constructed. The cells were assessed by MTT assay, Annexin V–propidium iodide dual staining to study apoptosis. The expression of P65 and P50 were assessed by Western blot to investigate the under-lying molecular mechanisms. Results After stimulation with H2O2 for 6 h, H9c2 cells viability decreased significantly, a large fraction of cells underwent apoptosis. We observed a rescue of H9c2 cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis in pretreatment with AAV9-R65-CMV-eGFP. Moreover, AAV9-R65-CMV-eGFP decreased H2O2-induced P65 expression. Conclusions AAV9-R65-CMV-eGFP protects H9c2 cells from oxidative stress induced apoptosis through down-regulation of P65 expression. These observations indicate that AAV9-R65-CMV-eGFP has the potential to exert cardioprotective effects against oxidative stress, which might be of great importance to clinical efficacy for cardiovascular disease.

  3. A fragmented adeno-associated viral dual vector strategy for treatment of diseases caused by mutations in large genes leads to expression of hybrid transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, Michelle E.; Charbel Issa, Peter; Blouin, Véronique; MacLaren, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Dual vector AAV systems are being utilised to enable gene therapy for disorders in which the disease gene is too large to fit into a single capsid. Fragmented adeno-associated viral (fAAV) vectors containing single inverted terminal repeat truncated transgenes have been considered as one such gene replacement strategy. Here we aim to add to the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms employed by fAAV dual vector systems. Methods Oversized (>8kb) transgene constructs containing ABCA4 coding sequence were packaged as truncated fragments <5kb in size into various AAV serotypes. In vitro transductions with these fAAV vector preparations were conducted with mRNA and protein expression products assessed by way of RT-PCR, qPCR and western blot techniques. Results Transductions with fAAV vector preparations yielded ABCA4 mRNA, but did not generate detectable levels of protein. Sequencing of the transcript population revealed the presence of full length ABCA4 CDS with additional hybrid ABCA4 variants, indicating truncated transgenes without regions of overlap were joining and forming stable hybrid transgenes. In contrast, an ABCA4 overlapping dual vector system (OV) with a defined complementary region generated only full length mRNA transcripts plus detectable ABCA4 protein. Conclusion Despite previous success shown with the fAAV approach, the lack of repeatability and identification of stable hybrid transcripts capable of protein production suggests there is more refinement required before considering this approach in a clinical setting. PMID:28239514

  4. Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) capsid-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes eliminate only vector-transduced cells coexpressing the AAV2 capsid in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwen; Hirsch, Matthew; Asokan, Aravind; Zeithaml, Brian; Ma, Hong; Kafri, Tal; Samulski, R Jude

    2007-07-01

    A recent clinical trial has suggested that recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector transduction in humans induces a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the AAV2 capsid. To directly address the ability of AAV capsid-specific CTLs to eliminate rAAV-transduced cells in vitro and in vivo in mice, we first demonstrated that AAV2 capsid-specific CTLs could be induced by dendritic cells with endogenous AAV2 capsid expression or pulsed with AAV2 vectors. These CTLs were able to kill a cell line stable for capsid expression in vitro and also in a mouse tumor xenograft model in vivo. Parent colon carcinoma (CT26) cells transduced with a large amount of AAV2 vectors in vitro were also destroyed by these CTLs. To determine the effect of CTLs on the elimination of target cells transduced by AAV2 vectors in vivo, we carried out adoptive transfer experiments. CTLs eliminated liver cells with endogenous AAV2 capsid expression but not liver cells transduced by AAV2 vectors, regardless of the reporter genes. Similar results were obtained for rAAV2 transduction in muscle. Our data strongly suggest that AAV vector-transduced cells are rarely eliminated by AAV2 capsid-specific CTLs in vivo, even though the AAV capsid can induce a CTL response. In conclusion, AAV capsid-specific CTLs do not appear to play a role in elimination of rAAV-transduced cells in a mouse model. In addition, our data suggest that the mouse model may not mimic the immune response noted in humans and additional modification to AAV vectors may be required for further study in order to elicit a similar cellular immune response.

  5. Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 (AAV2) Capsid-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Eliminate Only Vector-Transduced Cells Coexpressing the AAV2 Capsid In Vivo▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwen; Hirsch, Matthew; Asokan, Aravind; Zeithaml, Brian; Ma, Hong; Kafri, Tal; Samulski, R. Jude

    2007-01-01

    A recent clinical trial has suggested that recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector transduction in humans induces a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the AAV2 capsid. To directly address the ability of AAV capsid-specific CTLs to eliminate rAAV-transduced cells in vitro and in vivo in mice, we first demonstrated that AAV2 capsid-specific CTLs could be induced by dendritic cells with endogenous AAV2 capsid expression or pulsed with AAV2 vectors. These CTLs were able to kill a cell line stable for capsid expression in vitro and also in a mouse tumor xenograft model in vivo. Parent colon carcinoma (CT26) cells transduced with a large amount of AAV2 vectors in vitro were also destroyed by these CTLs. To determine the effect of CTLs on the elimination of target cells transduced by AAV2 vectors in vivo, we carried out adoptive transfer experiments. CTLs eliminated liver cells with endogenous AAV2 capsid expression but not liver cells transduced by AAV2 vectors, regardless of the reporter genes. Similar results were obtained for rAAV2 transduction in muscle. Our data strongly suggest that AAV vector-transduced cells are rarely eliminated by AAV2 capsid-specific CTLs in vivo, even though the AAV capsid can induce a CTL response. In conclusion, AAV capsid-specific CTLs do not appear to play a role in elimination of rAAV-transduced cells in a mouse model. In addition, our data suggest that the mouse model may not mimic the immune response noted in humans and additional modification to AAV vectors may be required for further study in order to elicit a similar cellular immune response. PMID:17475652

  6. Preclinical characterization of a recombinant adeno-associated virus type 1-pseudotyped vector demonstrates dose-dependent injection site inflammation and dissemination of vector genomes to distant sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flotte, Terence R; Conlon, Thomas J; Poirier, Amy; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Byrne, Barry J

    2007-03-01

    To translate the potential advantages of recombinant adeno-associated virus type 1 (rAAV1) vectors into a clinical application for muscle-directed gene therapy for alpha1 -antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, we performed safety studies in 170 C57BL/6 mice and 26 New Zealand White rabbits. A mouse toxicology study included 8 cohorts of 10 mice each (5 per sex). Mice were killed either 21 or 90 days after intramuscular injection of doses ranging up to 1x10(13)vector genomes (VG), equivalent to 4 x 10(14)VG/kg. A mouse biodistribution study was performed in 5 cohorts of 10 mice, receiving intramuscular injections at the same doses; as well as in a lower dose cohort (3 x 10(8) VG; equivalent to 1.2 x 10(10)VG/kg); and in 4 other cohorts (excluding the vehicle control) injected with identical doses intravenously. Finally, biodistribution was examined in rabbits, with serial collection of blood and semen, as well as terminal tissue collection. Two significant findings were present, both of which were dose dependent. First, inflammatory cell infiltrates were detected at the site of injection 21, 60, or 90 days after intramuscular injection of 1 x 10(13)VG. This was not associated with loss of transgene expression. Second, vector DNA sequences were detected in most animals, levels being highest with the highest doses and earliest time points. Vector DNA was also present in liver, spleen, kidneys, and a number of other organs, including the gonads of animals receiving the highest dose. Likewise, vector DNA was present in the semen of male rabbits at higher doses. The copy number of vector DNA in the blood and semen declined over time throughout the study. These two dose-dependent findings have served to guide to the design of a phase 1 human trial of rAAV1-AAT.

  7. Cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-mediated elimination of target cells transduced with engineered adeno-associated virus type 2 vector in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwen; Hirsch, Matt; DiPrimio, Nina; Asokan, Aravind; Goudy, Kevin; Tisch, Roland; Samulski, R Jude

    2009-07-01

    A recent clinical trial in patients with hemophilia B has suggested that adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) eliminated AAV-transduced hepatocytes and resulted in therapeutic failure. AAV capsids elicit a CTL response in animal models; however, these capsid-specific CTLs fail to kill AAV-transduced target cells in mice. To better model the human clinical trial data in mice, we introduced an immunodominant epitope derived from ovalbumin (OVA; SIINFEKL) into the AAV capsid and tested CTL-mediated killing of AAV2-transduced target tissues in vivo. Initially, in vitro experiments demonstrated both classical class I and cross-presentation of the OVA antigen, following endogenous expression or AAV2-OVA vector transduction, respectively. Furthermore, an OVA-specific CTL response was elicited after muscular or systemic injection of the AAV2-OVA vector. Finally, CTL reactivity was enhanced in mice with established SIINFEKL-specific immunity after AAV2-OVA/alpha1 anti-trypsin (AAT) administration. Most importantly, these OVA-specific CTLs decreased AAT expression in mice treated with AAV2-OVA/AAT vector that followed a time course mimicking uncoating kinetics of AAV2 transduction in OVA-immunized mice. These results demonstrate that AAV capsid-derived antigens elicit CD8(+) CTL reactivity, and these CTLs eliminated AAV-transduced target cells in mice. Notably, this model system can be exploited to study the kinetics of capsid presentation from different serotypes of AAV and permit the design of novel strategies to block CTL-mediated killing of AAV-transduced cells.

  8. An siRNA Screen Identifies the U2 snRNP Spliceosome as a Host Restriction Factor for Recombinant Adeno-associated Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Claire A; Sakuma, Toshie; Izumiya, Yoshihiro; Holditch, Sara J; Hickey, Raymond D; Bressin, Robert K; Basu, Upamanyu; Koide, Kazunori; Asokan, Aravind; Ikeda, Yasuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) have evolved to exploit the dynamic reorganization of host cell machinery during co-infection by adenoviruses and other helper viruses. In the absence of helper viruses, host factors such as the proteasome and DNA damage response machinery have been shown to effectively inhibit AAV transduction by restricting processes ranging from nuclear entry to second-strand DNA synthesis. To identify host factors that might affect other key steps in AAV infection, we screened an siRNA library that revealed several candidate genes including the PHD finger-like domain protein 5A (PHF5A), a U2 snRNP-associated protein. Disruption of PHF5A expression selectively enhanced transgene expression from AAV by increasing transcript levels and appears to influence a step after second-strand synthesis in a serotype and cell type-independent manner. Genetic disruption of U2 snRNP and associated proteins, such as SF3B1 and U2AF1, also increased expression from AAV vector, suggesting the critical role of U2 snRNP spliceosome complex in this host-mediated restriction. Notably, adenoviral co-infection and U2 snRNP inhibition appeared to target a common pathway in increasing expression from AAV vectors. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of U2 snRNP by meayamycin B, a potent SF3B1 inhibitor, substantially enhanced AAV vector transduction of clinically relevant cell types. Further analysis suggested that U2 snRNP proteins suppress AAV vector transgene expression through direct recognition of intact AAV capsids. In summary, we identify U2 snRNP and associated splicing factors, which are known to be affected during adenoviral infection, as novel host restriction factors that effectively limit AAV transgene expression. Concurrently, we postulate that pharmacological/genetic manipulation of components of the spliceosomal machinery might enable more effective gene transfer modalities with recombinant AAV vectors.

  9. An siRNA Screen Identifies the U2 snRNP Spliceosome as a Host Restriction Factor for Recombinant Adeno-associated Viruses.

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    Claire A Schreiber

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated viruses (AAV have evolved to exploit the dynamic reorganization of host cell machinery during co-infection by adenoviruses and other helper viruses. In the absence of helper viruses, host factors such as the proteasome and DNA damage response machinery have been shown to effectively inhibit AAV transduction by restricting processes ranging from nuclear entry to second-strand DNA synthesis. To identify host factors that might affect other key steps in AAV infection, we screened an siRNA library that revealed several candidate genes including the PHD finger-like domain protein 5A (PHF5A, a U2 snRNP-associated protein. Disruption of PHF5A expression selectively enhanced transgene expression from AAV by increasing transcript levels and appears to influence a step after second-strand synthesis in a serotype and cell type-independent manner. Genetic disruption of U2 snRNP and associated proteins, such as SF3B1 and U2AF1, also increased expression from AAV vector, suggesting the critical role of U2 snRNP spliceosome complex in this host-mediated restriction. Notably, adenoviral co-infection and U2 snRNP inhibition appeared to target a common pathway in increasing expression from AAV vectors. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of U2 snRNP by meayamycin B, a potent SF3B1 inhibitor, substantially enhanced AAV vector transduction of clinically relevant cell types. Further analysis suggested that U2 snRNP proteins suppress AAV vector transgene expression through direct recognition of intact AAV capsids. In summary, we identify U2 snRNP and associated splicing factors, which are known to be affected during adenoviral infection, as novel host restriction factors that effectively limit AAV transgene expression. Concurrently, we postulate that pharmacological/genetic manipulation of components of the spliceosomal machinery might enable more effective gene transfer modalities with recombinant AAV vectors.

  10. Characterization of cognitive deficits in rats overexpressing human alpha-synuclein in the ventral tegmental area and medial septum using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Hall

    Full Text Available Intraneuronal inclusions containing alpha-synuclein (a-syn constitute one of the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD and are accompanied by severe neurodegeneration of A9 dopaminergic neurons located in the substantia nigra. Although to a lesser extent, A10 dopaminergic neurons are also affected. Neurodegeneration of other neuronal populations, such as the cholinergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic cell groups, has also been documented in PD patients. Studies in human post-mortem PD brains and in rodent models suggest that deficits in cholinergic and dopaminergic systems may be associated with the cognitive impairment seen in this disease. Here, we investigated the consequences of targeted overexpression of a-syn in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic and septohippocampal cholinergic pathways. Rats were injected with recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors encoding for either human wild-type a-syn or green fluorescent protein (GFP in the ventral tegmental area and the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca, two regions rich in dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons, respectively. Histopathological analysis showed widespread insoluble a-syn positive inclusions in all major projections areas of the targeted nuclei, including the hippocampus, neocortex, nucleus accumbens and anteromedial striatum. In addition, the rats overexpressing human a-syn displayed an abnormal locomotor response to apomorphine injection and exhibited spatial learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze task, in the absence of obvious spontaneous locomotor impairment. As losses in dopaminergic and cholinergic immunoreactivity in both the GFP and a-syn expressing animals were mild-to-moderate and did not differ from each other, the behavioral impairments seen in the a-syn overexpressing animals appear to be determined by the long term persisting neuropathology in the surviving neurons rather than by neurodegeneration.

  11. α2,3 and α2,6 N-Linked Sialic Acids Facilitate Efficient Binding and Transduction by Adeno-Associated Virus Types 1 and 6

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    Wu, Zhijian; Miller, Edward; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Samulski, Richard Jude

    2006-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are promising vectors in the field of gene therapy. Different AAV serotypes display distinct tissue tropism, believed to be related to the distribution of their receptors on target cells. Of the 11 well-characterized AAV serotypes, heparan sulfate proteoglycan and sialic acid have been suggested to be the attachment receptors for AAV type 2 and types 4 and 5, respectively. In this report, we identify the receptor for the two closely related serotypes, AAV1 and AAV6. First, we demonstrate using coinfection experiments and luciferase reporter analysis that AAV1 and AAV6 compete for similar receptors. Unlike heparin sulfate, enzymatic or genetic removal of sialic acid markedly reduced AAV1 and AAV6 binding and transduction. Further analysis using lectin staining and lectin competition assays identified that AAV1 and AAV6 use either α2,3-linked or α2,6-linked sialic acid when transducing numerous cell types (HepG2, Pro-5, and Cos-7). Treatment of cells with proteinase K but not glycolipid inhibitor reduced AAV1 and AAV6 infection, supporting the hypothesis that the sialic acid that facilitates infection is associated with glycoproteins rather than glycolipids. In addition, we determined by inhibitor (N-benzyl GalNAc)- and cell line-specific (Lec-1) studies that AAV1 and AAV6 require N-linked and not O-linked sialic acid. Furthermore, a resialylation experiment on a deficient Lec-2 cell line confirmed a 2,3 and 2,6 N-linked sialic acid requirement, while studies of mucin with O-linked sialic acid showed no inhibition effect for AAV1 and AAV6 transduction on Cos-7 cells. Finally, using a glycan array binding assay we determined that AAV1 efficiently binds to NeuAcα2-3GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc, as well as two glycoproteins with α2,3 and α2,6 N-linked sialic acids. Taken together, competition, genetic, inhibitor, enzymatic reconstitution, and glycan array experiments support α2,3 and α2,6 sialic acids that are present on N

  12. Adeno-associated virus type 2 infection activates caspase dependent and independent apoptosis in multiple breast cancer lines but not in normal mammary epithelial cells

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    Tandon Apurva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In normal cells proliferation and apoptosis are tightly regulated, whereas in tumor cells the balance is shifted in favor of increased proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Anticancer agents mediate tumor cell death via targeting multiple pathways of programmed cell death. We have reported that the non-pathogenic, tumor suppressive Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 (AAV2 induces apoptosis in Human Papillomavirus (HPV positive cervical cancer cells, but not in normal keratinocytes. In the current study, we examined the potential of AAV2 to inhibit proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 (both weakly invasive, as well as MDA-MB-231 (highly invasive human breast cancer derived cell lines. As controls, we used normal human mammary epithelial cells (nHMECs isolated from tissue biopsies of patients undergoing breast reduction surgery. Results AAV2 infected MCF-7 line underwent caspase-independent, and MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines underwent caspase-dependent apoptosis. Death of MDA-MB-468 cells was marked by caspase-9 activation, whereas death of MDA-MB-231 cells was marked by activation of both caspase-8 and caspase-9, and resembled a mixture of apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Cellular demise was correlated with the ability of AAV2 to productively infect and differentially express AAV2 non-structural proteins: Rep78, Rep68 and Rep40, dependent on the cell line. Cell death in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 lines coincided with increased S phase entry, whereas the MDA-MB-468 cells increasingly entered into G2. AAV2 infection led to decreased cell viability which correlated with increased expression of proliferation markers c-Myc and Ki-67. In contrast, nHMECs that were infected with AAV2 failed to establish productive infection or undergo apoptosis. Conclusion AAV2 regulated enrichment of cell cycle check-point functions in G1/S, S and G2 phases could create a favorable environment for Rep protein expression. Inherent Rep associated

  13. Intrathecal long-term gene expression by self-complementary adeno-associated virus type 1 suitable for chronic pain studies in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen William GM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrathecal (IT gene transfer is an attractive approach for targeting spinal mechanisms of nociception but the duration of gene expression achieved by reported methods is short (up to two weeks impairing their utility in the chronic pain setting. The overall goal of this study was to develop IT gene transfer yielding true long-term transgene expression defined as ≥ 3 mo following a single vector administration. We defined "IT" administration as atraumatic injection into the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF modeling a lumbar puncture. Our studies focused on recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV, one of the most promising vector types for clinical use. Results Conventional single stranded rAAV2 vectors performed poorly after IT delivery in rats. Pseudotyping of rAAV with capsids of serotypes 1, 3, and 5 was tested alone or in combination with a modification of the inverted terminal repeat. The former alters vector tropism and the latter allows packaging of self-complementary rAAV (sc-rAAV vectors. Combining both types of modification led to the identification of sc-rAAV2/l as a vector that performed superiorly in the IT space. IT delivery of 3 × 10e9 sc-rAAV2/l particles per animal led to stable expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP for ≥ 3 mo detectable by Western blotting, quantitative PCR, and in a blinded study by confocal microscopy. Expression was strongest in the cauda equina and the lower sections of the spinal cord and only minimal in the forebrain. Microscopic examination of the SC fixed in situ with intact nerve roots and meninges revealed strong EGFP fluorescence in the nerve roots. Conclusion sc-rAAVl mediates stable IT transgene expression for ≥ 3 mo. Our findings support the underlying hypothesis that IT target cells for gene transfer lack the machinery for efficient conversion of the single-stranded rAAV genome into double-stranded DNA and favor uptake of serotype 1 vectors over 2

  14. Novel Vector Design and Hexosaminidase Variant Enabling Self-Complementary Adeno-Associated Virus for the Treatment of Tay-Sachs Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karumuthil-Melethil, Subha; Nagabhushan Kalburgi, Sahana; Thompson, Patrick; Tropak, Michael; Kaytor, Michael D; Keimel, John G; Mark, Brian L; Mahuran, Don; Walia, Jagdeep S; Gray, Steven J

    2016-07-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis is a family of three genetic neurodegenerative disorders caused by the accumulation of GM2 ganglioside (GM2) in neuronal tissue. Two of these are due to the deficiency of the heterodimeric (α-β), "A" isoenzyme of lysosomal β-hexosaminidase (HexA). Mutations in the α-subunit (encoded by HEXA) lead to Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), whereas mutations in the β-subunit (encoded by HEXB) lead to Sandhoff disease (SD). The third form results from a deficiency of the GM2 activator protein (GM2AP), a substrate-specific cofactor for HexA. In their infantile, acute forms, these diseases rapidly progress with mental and psychomotor deterioration resulting in death by approximately 4 years of age. After gene transfer that overexpresses one of the deficient subunits, the amount of HexA heterodimer formed would empirically be limited by the availability of the other endogenous Hex subunit. The present study used a new variant of the human HexA α-subunit, μ, incorporating critical sequences from the β-subunit that produce a stable homodimer (HexM) and promote functional interactions with the GM2AP- GM2 complex. We report the design of a compact adeno-associated viral (AAV) genome using a synthetic promoter-intron combination to allow self-complementary (sc) packaging of the HEXM gene. Also, a previously published capsid mutant, AAV9.47, was used to deliver the gene to brain and spinal cord while having restricted biodistribution to the liver. The novel capsid and cassette design combination was characterized in vivo in TSD mice for its ability to efficiently transduce cells in the central nervous system when delivered intravenously in both adult and neonatal mice. This study demonstrates that the modified HexM is capable of degrading long-standing GM2 storage in mice, and it further demonstrates the potential of this novel scAAV vector design to facilitate widespread distribution of the HEXM gene or potentially other similar-sized genes to the nervous system.

  15. Determination of Anti-Adeno-Associated Viral Vector Neutralizing Antibodies in Patients With Heart Failure in the Cardiovascular Foundation of Colombia (ANVIAS): Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Carlos E; Lopez, Marcos; Castillo, Victor; Echeverria, Luis Eduardo; Serrano, Norma

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent progress in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) has led to the development of new therapeutic options such as gene therapy and the use of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors. Despite the promising results in early clinical trials of gene therapy for HF, various obstacles have been faced, such as the presence of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against the capsid vectors. NAb activity limits vector transduction levels and therefore diminishes the final therapeutic response. Recent studies evaluating the prevalence of NAbs in various populations found considerable geographic variability for each AAV serotype. However, the levels of NAbs in Latin American populations are unknown, becoming a limiting factor to conducting AAV vector therapeutic trials in this population. Objective The goal of this study is to determine for the first time, the prevalence of anti-AAV NAbs for the serotypes 1, 2, and 9 in HF patients from the city of Bucaramanga, Colombia, using the in vitro transduction inhibition assay. Methods We will conduct a cross-sectional study with patients who periodically attend the HF clinic of the Cardiovascular Foundation of Colombia and healthy volunteers matched for age and sex. For all participants, we will evaluate the NAb levels against serotypes AAV1, AAV2, and AAV9. We will determine NAb levels using the in vitro transduction inhibition assay. In addition, participants will answer a survey to evaluate their epidemiological and socioeconomic variables. Participation in the study will be voluntary and all participants will sign an informed consent document before any intervention. Results The project is in the first phase: elaboration of case report forms and the informed consent form, and design of the recruitment strategy. Patient recruitment is expected to begin in the spring of 2016. We expect to have preliminary results, including the titer of the viral vectors, multiplicity of infections that we will use for each serotype

  16. Expression of human nerve growth factor β gene in central nervous system mediated by recombinant adeno-associated viruses type-2 vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凯; 吴勇杰; 吴小兵; 饶春明; 王军志

    2004-01-01

    Background Neurone atrophy and loss are major causes of chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Despite many pharmacotherapies for neurodegeneration, there are no accepted treatments. We investigated the feasibility of human nerve growth factor β (hNGFβ) gene expression mediated by recombinant adeno-associated viruses type-2 (rAAV-2) vector in the central nervous system (CNS) after blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption.Methods rAAV-2 containing hNGFβ gene was constructed. The ability of hNGFβ gene mediated by rAAV-2 vector (rAAV-2/hNGFβ) to transfect cells in vitro was confirmed by both ELISA and bioassay of hNGFβ in the culture supernatant of BHK-21 cells infected by rAAV-2/hNGFβ. rAAV-2/hNGFβ and rAAV-2/green fluorescence protein (GFP) were administrated separately to rat brains through internal carotid intubation after BBB disruption with hypertonic mannitol. Brain hNGFβ concentration was measured by ELISA and GFP in brain sections was examined by laser scan confocal microscope.Results After 48 hours, hNGFβ content in supernatant was up to (188.0±28.6) pg/ml when BHK-21 cells were infected by rAAV-2/hNGFβ at multiplicity of infection (MOI)1.0×106 vector genome. Neurone fibre outgrowths were obvious in dorsal root ganglion neurone assays by adding serum free culture medium harvested from BHK-21 cells exposed to rAAV-2/hNGFβ. Whole brain hNGFβ content in rAAV-2/hNGFβ transferred group was up to (636.2±140.6) pg/ml. hNGFβ content of BBB disruption in rAAV-2/hNGFβ infused group increased significantly compared to the control group (P<0.05). GFP expression was clearly observed in brain sections of rAAV-2/GFP transferred group.Conclusion rAAV-2/hNGFβ successfully expresses in the CNS after BBB disruption induced by hypertonic mannitol.

  17. A Single Vector Platform for High-Level Gene Transduction of Central Neurons: Adeno-Associated Virus Vector Equipped with the Tet-Off System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jaerin; Takahashi, Megumu; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Ishida, Yoko; Furuta, Takahiro; Hioki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Visualization of neurons is indispensable for the investigation of neuronal circuits in the central nervous system. Virus vectors have been widely used for labeling particular subsets of neurons, and the adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector has gained popularity as a tool for gene transfer. Here, we developed a single AAV vector Tet-Off platform, AAV-SynTetOff, to improve the gene-transduction efficiency, specifically in neurons. The platform is composed of regulator and response elements in a single AAV genome. After infection of Neuro-2a cells with the AAV-SynTetOff vector, the transduction efficiency of green fluorescent protein (GFP) was increased by approximately 2- and 15-fold relative to the conventional AAV vector with the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) or human synapsin I (SYN) promoter, respectively. We then injected the AAV vectors into the mouse neostriatum. GFP expression in the neostriatal neurons infected with the AAV-SynTetOff vector was approximately 40-times higher than that with the CMV or SYN promoter. By adding a membrane-targeting signal to GFP, the axon fibers of neostriatal neurons were clearly visualized. In contrast, by attaching somatodendritic membrane-targeting signals to GFP, axon fiber labeling was mostly suppressed. Furthermore, we prepared the AAV-SynTetOff vector, which simultaneously expressed somatodendritic membrane-targeted GFP and membrane-targeted red fluorescent protein (RFP). After injection of the vector into the neostriatum, the cell bodies and dendrites of neostriatal neurons were labeled with both GFP and RFP, whereas the axons in the projection sites were labeled only with RFP. Finally, we applied this vector to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-positive (VIP+) neocortical neurons, one of the subclasses of inhibitory neurons in the neocortex, in layer 2/3 of the mouse primary somatosensory cortex. The results revealed the differential distribution of the somatodendritic and axonal structures at the population level. The

  18. Position-independent human beta-globin gene expression mediated by a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector carrying the chicken beta-globin insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T; Yamaza, H; Sakai, Y; Mizuno, S; Ohno, M; Hamasaki, N; Fukumaki, Y

    1999-01-01

    The position-independent expression of transgenes in target cells is an essential subject for determining effective gene therapies. The chicken beta-globin insulator blocks the effects of regulatory sequences on transcriptional units at differential domains. We prepared a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) containing various combinations of the DNase I-hypersensitive site 2 (HS2), 3 (HS3), and 4 (HS4) core elements from the human beta-globin locus control region (LCR), the human beta-globin gene, and the herpes virus thymidine kinase promoter driven neomycin-resistant gene (neoR) (rHS432, rHS43, rHS42, rHS32, and rHS2), and also rAAV containing two copies of the 250-bp core sequence of the chicken beta-globin insulator on both sides of the rHS2 (rIns/HS2/2Ins). After isolating neomycin-resistant mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells infected with each rAAV, we analyzed the rAAV genome by Southern blots and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using primers specific for HS core elements and the human beta-globin gene. All clones contained a single copy of the rAAV genome in the chromosome, however, some of them had a rearranged proviral genome. In five clones with a single unrearranged rAAV genome for each rAAV construct, we assayed the expression of the human b-globin gene relative to the endogenous mouse beta maj-globin gene, using quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. In clones infected with rHS432, the expression level of the human beta-globin gene ranged from 51.6% to 765.6% of that in the mouse beta maj-globin gene. Likewise, in rHS43, the expression level ranged from 36.7% to 259.0%; in rHS42, from 47.8% to 207.0%; in rHS32, from 47.9% to 105.4%; and in rHS2, from 6.1% to 172.1%, indicating a high variability of expression level in clones infected with recombinant virus lacking the insulator. In contrast, in clones infected with rIns/HS2/Ins, the range of expression of the human beta-globin gene ranged from 52.8% to 58.3% of that in the mouse beta maj

  19. Mutational Analysis of the Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 (AAV2) Capsid Gene and Construction of AAV2 Vectors with Altered Tropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei; Xiao, Wu; Conlon, Thomas; Hughes, Jeffrey; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Ferkol, Thomas; Flotte, Terence; Muzyczka, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) has proven to be a valuable vector for gene therapy. Characterization of the functional domains of the AAV capsid proteins can facilitate our understanding of viral tissue tropism, immunoreactivity, viral entry, and DNA packaging, all of which are important issues for generating improved vectors. To obtain a comprehensive genetic map of the AAV capsid gene, we have constructed 93 mutants at 59 different positions in the AAV capsid gene by site-directed mutagenesis. Several types of mutants were studied, including epitope tag or ligand insertion mutants, alanine scanning mutants, and epitope substitution mutants. Analysis of these mutants revealed eight separate phenotypes. Infectious titers of the mutants revealed four classes. Class 1 mutants were viable, class 2 mutants were partially defective, class 3 mutants were temperature sensitive, and class 4 mutants were noninfectious. Further analysis revealed some of the defects in the class 2, 3, and 4 mutants. Among the class 4 mutants, a subset completely abolished capsid formation. These mutants were located predominantly, but not exclusively, in what are likely to be β-barrel structures in the capsid protein VP3. Two of these mutants were insertions at the N and C termini of VP3, suggesting that both ends of VP3 play a role that is important for capsid assembly or stability. Several class 2 and 3 mutants produced capsids that were unstable during purification of viral particles. One mutant, R432A, made only empty capsids, presumably due to a defect in packaging viral DNA. Additionally, five mutants were defective in heparan binding, a step that is believed to be essential for viral entry. These were distributed into two amino acid clusters in what is likely to be a cell surface loop in the capsid protein VP3. The first cluster spanned amino acids 509 to 522; the second was between amino acids 561 and 591. In addition to the heparan binding clusters, hemagglutinin epitope tag

  20. Gene therapy for hemophilia B mediated by recombinant adeno-associated viral vector with hFIXR338A, a high catalytic activity mutation of human coagulation factor IX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Huazhong; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Chang, J., Jin, J., Lollar, P. et al., Changing residue 338 in human factor IX from arginine to alanine causes an increase in catalytic activity, J. Bio. Chem., 1998, 273 (20): 12089-12094.[2]Lai, L., Chen, L., Zhou, H. et al., Clinical phenotype and genetic stability of factor IX gene knock out mice, J. Fudan Uni., 1999, 38 (4): 435-438.[3]Wu, Z. J., Wu, X. B., Hou, Y. D., Generation of a recombinant herps simplex virus which can provide packaging function for recombinant adeno-associated virus, Chinese Sci. Bull., 1999, 44 (8): 715-719.[4]Snyder, R. O., Miao, C. H., Patijn, G. A. et al., Persistent and therapeutic concentrations of human factor IX in mice after hepatic gene transfer of recombinant AAV vectors, Nat. Genet., 1997, 16 (3): 270-276.[5]Lai, L. H., Chen, L., Wang, J. M. et al., Skeletal muscle-specific expression of human blood coagulation factor IX rescues factor IX deficiency mouse by AAV-mediated gene transfer, Science in China, Ser. C, 1999, 42 (6): 628-634.[6]Snyder, R. O., Miao, C., Meuse, L. et al., Correction of hemophilia B in canine and murine models using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors, Nat. Med., 1999, 5 (1): 64-70.[7]Kung, S. H., Hagstrom, J. N., Cass, D. et al., Human factor IX corrects the bleeding diathesis of mice with hemophilia B, Blood, 1998, 91(3): 784-790.[8]Hirt, B., Selective extraction of polyoma DNA from infected mouse cell culture, J. Mol. Biol., 1967, 26: 365-369.[9]Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E., Maniatis, T., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1989, 6, 20-21.[10]Chao, H., Samulski, R. J., Bellinger, D. A. et al., Persistent expression of canine factor IX in hemophilia B canines, Gene Ther., 1999, 6: 1695-1704.[11]Kaufman, R. J., Advances toward gene therapy for hemophilia at the millennium, Hum. Gene Ther., 1999, 10 (13): 2091-2107.[12]Lu, D. R., Zhou, J. M., Zheng, B. et al., Stage I clinical trial of gene

  1. Gene therapy for hemophilia B mediated by recombinant adeno-associated viral vector with hFIXR338A, a high catalytic activity mutation of human coagulation factor IX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆华中; 陈立; 王红卫; 伍志坚; 吴小兵; 王学峰; 王鸿利; 卢大儒; 邱信芳; 薛京伦

    2001-01-01

    A mutant human factor IX with arginine at 338 residual changed to alanine (hFIXR338A) by site-directed mutagenesis was introduced into AAV vectors, and a recombinant adeno-associ- ated viral vector containing hFIXR338A, prepared by rHSV/AAV hybrid helper virus system, was directly introduced to the hind leg muscle of factor IX knock out mice. The expression and the biological activity of human factor IX mutant, hFIXR338A, and the immune response against it in the treated mice were assayed and detected. The results showed that (i) the high-level expression of human factor IX mutant protein, hFIXR338A, has been detected in rAAV-hFIXR338A treated hemophilia B mice and lasted more than 15 weeks; (ii) the clotting activity of hFIXR338A in plasma is 34.2%± 5.23%, which is remarkably higher than that of (14.27% ± 3.4%) of wild type hFIX treated mice in the activated partial thromboplastin assay; (iii) immune response against factor IX R338A was absent, with no factor IX mutant protein (hFIXR338A) inhibitors development in the treated mice; and (iv) no local or systemic side-effects and toxicity associated with the gene transfer were found. It demonstrated the potential use of treating hemophilia B by recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors with mutant hFIXR338A gene, an alternative strategy for hemophilia B gene therapy to wild-type human factor IX.

  2. Virus-mediated FCC iron nanoparticle induced synthesis of uranium dioxide nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Tao; Yu, Huimin; Shen, Zhongyao; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Jing

    2008-03-19

    A reducing system involving M13 virus-mediated FCC Fe nanoparticles was employed to achieve uranium reduction and synthesize uranium dioxide nanocrystals. Here we show that metastable face-centered cubic (FCC) Fe nanoparticles were fabricated around the surface of the M13 virus during the specific adsorption of the virus towards Fe ions under a reduced environment. The FCC phase of these Fe nanoparticles was confirmed by careful TEM characterization. Moreover, this virus-mediated FCC Fe nanoparticle system successfully reduced contaminable U(VI) into UO(2) crystals with diameters of 2-5 nm by a green and convenient route.

  3. Wnt11 gene therapy with adeno-associated virus 9 improves the survival of mice with myocarditis induced by coxsackievirus B3 through the suppression of the inflammatory reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Koichi; Morishita, Yoshihiro; Maeda, Kengo; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-07-01

    The wnt signaling pathway plays important roles in development and in many diseases. Recently several reports suggest that non-canonical Wnt proteins contribute to the inflammatory response in adult animals. However, the effects of Wnt proteins on virus-induced myocarditis have not been explored. Here, we investigated the effect of Wnt11 protein in a model of myocarditis induced by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) using recombinant adeno-associated virus 9 (rAAV9). The effect of Wnt11 gene therapy on a CVB3-induced myocarditis model was examined using male BALB/c mice. Mice received a single intravenous injection of either rAAV9-Wnt11 or rAAV9-LacZ 2 weeks before intraperitoneal administration of CVB3. Intravenous injection of the rAAV9 vector resulted in efficient, durable, and relatively cardiac-specific transgene expression. Survival was significantly greater among rAAV9-Wnt11 treated mice than among mice treated with rAAV9-LacZ (87.5% vs. 54.1%, P myocarditis. AAV9-mediated Wnt11 gene therapy produces beneficial effects on cardiac function and increases the survival of mice with CVB3-induced myocarditis through the suppression of both infiltration of inflammatory cells and gene expression of inflammatory cytokines.

  4. Package of recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding cell division cycle 2-siRNA%携带cdc2-siRNA重组腺相关病毒的包装

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏佳军; 王卓然

    2009-01-01

    背景:细胞分裂周期2(cell division cycle 2,cdc2)在神经变性疾病如阿尔茨海默病的神经元变性过程中扮演了重要角色.以腺相关病毒为载体对cdc2基因进行沉默,可能对神经变性疾病的神经元起保护作用.目的:包装携带cdc2-siRNA的重组腺相关病毒(recombinant adeno-associated virus,rAAV).设计、时间及地点:空白对照实验,于2007-10/2008-08在武汉同济医院神经科实验室完成.材料:Helper Free腺相关病毒系统(pAAV-MCS-EGFP、p-RC、p-Helper)及AAV-293细胞为Stratagene公司产品.方法:应用分子生物学方法构建生成pAAV-MCS-U6-cdc2-slRNA-EGFP表达质粒;用磷酸钙法将该质粒和p-RC、p-Helper质粒共转染AAV-293细胞,包装生成携带cdc2-siRNA的重组腺相关病毒(rAAV-U6-cdc2-siRNA-EGFP).病毒感染AAV-293细胞后行Western Blot检测cdc2-siRNA对细胞内cdc2基因的沉默效果,并用斑点杂交方法测定该病毒的滴度.主要观察指标:pAAV-MCS-U6-cdc2-siRNA-EGFP质粒中插入片段U6-cdc2-siRNA的测序;3质粒pAAV-MCS-U6-cdc2-siRNA-EGFP、p-RC、p-Helper共转染AAV-293细胞; rAAV-U6-cdc2-siRNA-EGFP感染AAV-293细胞后cdc2的表达.结果:①DNA测序证明U6-cdc2-siRNA已成功构建到表达质粒pAAV-MCS-EGFP中.②AAV-293细胞表达绿色荧光蛋白,共转染成功.③包装得到的重组腺相关病毒(rAAV-U6-cdC2-siRNA-EGFP)感染AAV-293细胞后能显著下调AAV-293细胞cdc2基因的表达量.④rAAV-U6-cdc2-siRNA-EGFP的滴度为1×1012v.g/mL.结论:携带cdc2-siRNA重组腺相关病毒的包装获得成功.它具有沉默cdc2基因表达的功能.%BACKGROUND: Cell division cycle 2 (cdc2) plays an important role in the course of neuronal degeneration in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The silencing of cdc2 gene with adeno-associated virus vector might protect the neurons in neurodegenerative diseases.OBJECTIVE: To pack recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) encoding cdc2-siRNA. DESIGN, TIME AND

  5. A Novel Adeno-Associated Virus-Based Genetic Vaccine Encoding the Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4 Protein Exhibits Immunogenic Properties in Mice Superior to Those of an NS3-Protein-Based Vaccine.

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    Fengqin Zhu

    Full Text Available More than 170 million individuals worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV, and up to an estimated 30% of chronically infected individuals will go on to develop progressive liver disease. Despite the recent advances in antiviral treatment of HCV infection, it remains a major public health problem. Thus, development of an effective vaccine is urgently required. In this study, we constructed novel adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors expressing the full-length NS3 or NS3/4 protein of HCV genotype 1b. The expression of the NS3 or NS3/4 protein in HepG2 cells was confirmed by western blotting. C57BL/6 mice were intramuscularly immunised with a single injection of AAV vectors, and the resultant immune response was investigated. The AAV2/rh32.33.NS3/4 vaccine induced stronger humoral and cellular responses than did the AAV2/rh32.33.NS3 vaccine. Our results demonstrate that AAV-based vaccines exhibit considerable potential for the development of an effective anti-HCV vaccine.

  6. Cloning of avian adeno-associated virus genome and rescue of the infectious virus%禽腺联病毒全基因组的克隆及感染性病毒的拯救

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建业; 孙怀昌; 朱国强

    2007-01-01

    为了克隆禽腺联病毒(Avian adeno-associated virus,AAAV)全基因组用于构建基因转移载体研究,以鸡胚致死孤儿病毒(CELO)作为辅助病毒与AAAV共接种SPF鸡胚进行AAAV的增殖,将AAAV约4.7 kb双链基因组DNA与pCR2.1载体连接,构建了含AAAV全基因组的重组质粒pAAAV并进行了测序.序列分析表明,AAAV YZ-1株的基因组为4 684 bp,两端具有141 bp的末端倒置重复序列和Rep蛋白结合位点特征序列,与GenBank中收录的AAAV DA-1株和VR-865株的核苷酸序列同源性分别为95.0%和92.2%.将pAAAV质粒转染CELO病毒感染的鸡胚肝细胞系,获得了感染性AAAV病毒粒子,结果证明克隆的AAAV基因组中存在与病毒复制和包装相关的正确关键序列,可用于重组AAAV载体的构建.

  7. Comprehensive Small RNA-Seq of Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV)-Infected Human Cells Detects Patterns of Novel, Non-Coding AAV RNAs in the Absence of Cellular miRNA Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutika, Catrin; Mietzsch, Mario; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Weger, Stefan; Sohn, Madlen; Chen, Wei; Heilbronn, Regine

    2016-01-01

    Most DNA viruses express small regulatory RNAs, which interfere with viral or cellular gene expression. For adeno-associated virus (AAV), a small ssDNA virus with a complex biphasic life cycle miRNAs or other small regulatory RNAs have not yet been described. This is the first comprehensive Illumina-based RNA-Seq analysis of small RNAs expressed by AAV alone or upon co-infection with helper adenovirus or HSV. Several hotspots of AAV-specific small RNAs were detected mostly close to or within the AAV-ITR and apparently transcribed from the newly identified anti-p5 promoter. An additional small RNA hotspot was located downstream of the p40 promoter, from where transcription of non-coding RNAs associated with the inhibition of adenovirus replication were recently described. Parallel detection of known Ad and HSV miRNAs indirectly validated the newly identified small AAV RNA species. The predominant small RNAs were analyzed on Northern blots and by human argonaute protein-mediated co-immunoprecipitation. None of the small AAV RNAs showed characteristics of bona fide miRNAs, but characteristics of alternative RNA processing indicative of differentially regulated AAV promoter-associated small RNAs. Furthermore, the AAV-induced regulation of cellular miRNA levels was analyzed at different time points post infection. In contrast to other virus groups AAV infection had virtually no effect on the expression of cellular miRNA, which underscores the long-established concept that wild-type AAV infection is apathogenic. PMID:27611072

  8. Trafficking of adeno-associated virus vectors across a model of the blood-brain barrier; a comparative study of transcytosis and transduction using primary human brain endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Steven F; Andrews, Allison M; Lutton, Evan M; Mu, Dakai; Hudry, Eloise; Hyman, Bradley T; Maguire, Casey A; Ramirez, Servio H

    2017-01-01

    Developing therapies for central nervous system (CNS) diseases is exceedingly difficult because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Notably, emerging technologies may provide promising new options for the treatment of CNS disorders. Adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) has been shown to transduce cells in the CNS following intravascular administration in rodents, cats, pigs, and non-human primates. These results suggest that AAV9 is capable of crossing the BBB. However, mechanisms that govern AAV9 transendothelial trafficking at the BBB remain unknown. Furthermore, possibilities that AAV9 may transduce brain endothelial cells or affect BBB integrity still require investigation. Using primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells as a model of the human BBB, we performed transduction and transendothelial trafficking assays comparing AAV9 to AAV2, a serotype that does not cross the BBB or transduce endothelial cells effectively in vivo. Results of our in vitro studies indicate that AAV9 penetrates brain microvascular endothelial cells barriers more effectively than AAV2, but has reduced transduction efficiency. In addition, our data suggest that (i) AAV9 penetrates endothelial barriers through an active, cell-mediated process, and (ii) AAV9 fails to disrupt indicators of BBB integrity such as transendothelial electrical resistance, tight junction protein expression/localization, and inflammatory activation status. Overall, this report shows how human brain endothelial cells configured in BBB models can be utilized for evaluating transendothelial movement and transduction kinetics of various AAV capsids. Importantly, the use of a human in vitro BBB model can provide import insight into the possible effects that candidate AVV gene therapy vectors may have on the status of BBB integrity. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on page 192.

  9. Comparison of murine leukemia virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and adeno-associated virus vectors for gene transfer in multiple myeloma: lentiviral vectors demonstrate a striking capacity to transduce low-proliferating primary tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, John; Bagnis, Claude; Bonnafoux, Lydie; Requirand, Guilhem; Jourdan, Michel; Imbert, Marie-Christine; Jourdan, Eric; Rossi, Jean-François; Mannoni, Patrice; Klein, Bernard

    2003-12-10

    Genetic modification of primary tumor cells by gene transfer is of major interest to study the role of specific genes in the biology of a given malignancy and to modify tumor cells for therapeutic use. Multiple myeloma (MM) is a low-proliferating cancer, with often less than 1% of the cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. As primary myeloma cells are notoriously difficult to transduce, we conducted a comparison of various viral vectors, known to integrate the transgene of interest into the target genome, for their ability to stably promote the expression of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene. We compared three murine leukemia virus-based vectors, differing only in their viral envelope, a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-based vector pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G), and an adeno-associated virus type 2 vector. Transduction characteristics of these vectors were evaluated in human myeloma cell lines and in primary myeloma cells. Unequivocally, we observed that the VSV-G/HIV vector was the most efficient vector for transducing the cell lines and the only one able to transduce primary myeloma cells reproducibly. The mean percentage of transduced primary myeloma cells was 43.6% (range, 16.3-77.6%), with one round of infection at a low multiplicity of infection, including MM cell samples with less than 1% of cells in the S phase. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay demonstrated that this more efficient EGFP expression was associated with a higher GFP copy number in the targeted cell. We propose that lentiviral vectors should be used for transduction of nonproliferating primary tumor cells such as myeloma cells.

  10. Comparative efficacy and safety of multiple routes of direct CNS administration of adeno-associated virus gene transfer vector serotype rh.10 expressing the human arylsulfatase A cDNA to nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Jonathan B; Sondhi, Dolan; Rubin, David G; Monette, Sébastien; Chen, Alvin; Cram, Sara; De, Bishnu P; Kaminsky, Stephen M; Sevin, Caroline; Aubourg, Patrick; Crystal, Ronald G

    2014-09-01

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), a fatal disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme arylsulfatase A (ARSA), is associated with an accumulation of sulfatides, causing widespread demyelination in both central and peripheral nervous systems. On the basis of prior studies demonstrating that adeno-associated virus AAVrh.10 can mediate widespread distribution in the CNS of a secreted lysosomal transgene, and as a prelude to human trials, we comparatively assessed the optimal CNS delivery route of an AAVrh.10 vector encoding human ARSA in a large animal model for broadest distribution of ARSA enzyme. Five routes were tested (each total dose, 1.5 × 10(12) genome copies of AAVrh.10hARSA-FLAG): (1) delivery to white matter centrum ovale; (2) deep gray matter delivery (putamen, thalamus, and caudate) plus overlying white matter; (3) convection-enhanced delivery to same deep gray matter locations; (4) lateral cerebral ventricle; and (5) intraarterial delivery with hyperosmotic mannitol to the middle cerebral artery. After 13 weeks, the distribution of ARSA activity subsequent to each of the three direct intraparenchymal administration routes was significantly higher than in phosphate-buffered saline-administered controls, but administration by the intraventricular and intraarterial routes failed to demonstrate measurable levels above controls. Immunohistochemical staining in the cortex, white matter, deep gray matter of the striatum, thalamus, choroid plexus, and spinal cord dorsal root ganglions confirmed these results. Of the five routes studied, administration to the white matter generated the broadest distribution of ARSA, with 80% of the brain displaying more than a therapeutic (10%) increase in ARSA activity above PBS controls. No significant toxicity was observed with any delivery route as measured by safety parameters, although some inflammatory changes were seen by histopathology. We conclude that AAVrh.10-mediated delivery of ARSA via CNS

  11. Treatment of leber congenital amaurosis due to RPE65 mutations by ocular subretinal injection of adeno-associated virus gene vector: short-term results of a phase I trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauswirth, William W; Aleman, Tomas S; Kaushal, Shalesh; Cideciyan, Artur V; Schwartz, Sharon B; Wang, Lili; Conlon, Thomas J; Boye, Sanford L; Flotte, Terence R; Byrne, Barry J; Jacobson, Samuel G

    2008-10-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a group of autosomal recessive blinding retinal diseases that are incurable. One molecular form is caused by mutations in the RPE65 (retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65-kDa) gene. A recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (rAAV2) vector, altered to carry the human RPE65 gene (rAAV2-CBSB-hRPE65), restored vision in animal models with RPE65 deficiency. A clinical trial was designed to assess the safety of rAAV2-CBSB-hRPE65 in subjects with RPE65-LCA. Three young adults (ages 21-24 years) with RPE65-LCA received a uniocular subretinal injection of 5.96 x 10(10) vector genomes in 150 microl and were studied with follow-up examinations for 90 days. Ocular safety, the primary outcome, was assessed by clinical eye examination. Visual function was measured by visual acuity and dark-adapted full-field sensitivity testing (FST); central retinal structure was monitored by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Neither vector-related serious adverse events nor systemic toxicities were detected. Visual acuity was not significantly different from baseline; one patient showed retinal thinning at the fovea by OCT. All patients self-reported increased visual sensitivity in the study eye compared with their control eye, especially noticeable under reduced ambient light conditions. The dark-adapted FST results were compared between baseline and 30-90 days after treatment. For study eyes, sensitivity increases from mean baseline were highly significant (p gene therapy for RPE65-LCA that were carried out contemporaneously and reported.

  12. Comparison of efficacy of the disease-specific LOX1- and constitutive cytomegalovirus-promoters in expressing interleukin 10 through adeno-associated virus 2/8 delivery in atherosclerotic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqing Zhu

    Full Text Available The development of gene therapy vectors for treating diseases of the cardiovascular system continues at a steady pace. Moreover, in the field of gene therapy the utility of "disease-specific promoters" has strong appeal. Many therapeutic genes, including transforming growth factor beta 1 or interleukin 10, are associated to adverse effects. The use of a disease-specific promoter might minimize toxicity. The lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 is a marker of cardiovascular disease and a potential therapeutic target. The lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 is known to be up-regulated early during disease onset in a number of cell types at the sites where the disease will be clinically evident. In this study an adeno-associated virus-2 DNA vector (AAV2 using the AAV8 capsid, and containing the full length The lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 promoter, was generated and assayed for its ability to express human interleukin 10 in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice on high cholesterol diet. The cytomegalovirus early promoter was used for comparison in a similarly structured vector. The two promoters were found to have equal efficacy in reducing atherogenesis as measured by aortic systolic blood velocity, aortic cross sectional area, and aortic wall thickness. This is the first head-to-head comparison of a constitutive with a disease-specific promoter in a therapeutic context. These data strongly suggest that the use of a disease-specific promoter is appropriate for therapeutic gene delivery.

  13. Partial correction of the CNS lysosomal storage defect in a mouse model of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis by neonatal CNS administration of an adeno-associated virus serotype rh.10 vector expressing the human CLN3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondhi, Dolan; Scott, Emma C; Chen, Alvin; Hackett, Neil R; Wong, Andrew M S; Kubiak, Agnieszka; Nelvagal, Hemanth R; Pearse, Yewande; Cotman, Susan L; Cooper, Jonathan D; Crystal, Ronald G

    2014-03-01

    Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL or CLN3 disease) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease resulting from mutations in the CLN3 gene that encodes a lysosomal membrane protein. The disease primarily affects the brain with widespread intralysosomal accumulation of autofluorescent material and fibrillary gliosis, as well as the loss of specific neuronal populations. As an experimental treatment for the CNS manifestations of JNCL, we have developed a serotype rh.10 adeno-associated virus vector expressing the human CLN3 cDNA (AAVrh.10hCLN3). We hypothesized that administration of AAVrh.10hCLN3 to the Cln3(Δex7/8) knock-in mouse model of JNCL would reverse the lysosomal storage defect, as well as have a therapeutic effect on gliosis and neuron loss. Newborn Cln3(Δex7/8) mice were administered 3 × 10(10) genome copies of AAVrh.10hCLN3 to the brain, with control groups including untreated Cln3(Δex7/8) mice and wild-type littermate mice. After 18 months, CLN3 transgene expression was detected in various locations throughout the brain, particularly in the hippocampus and deep anterior cortical regions. Changes in the CNS neuronal lysosomal accumulation of storage material were assessed by immunodetection of subunit C of ATP synthase, luxol fast blue staining, and periodic acid-Schiff staining. For all parameters, Cln3(Δex7/8) mice exhibited abnormal lysosomal accumulation, but AAVrh.10hCLN3 administration resulted in significant reductions in storage material burden. There was also a significant decrease in gliosis in AAVrh.10hCLN3-treated Cln3(Δex7/8) mice, and a trend toward improved neuron counts, compared with their untreated counterparts. These data demonstrate that AAVrh.10 delivery of a wild-type cDNA to the CNS is not harmful and instead provides a partial correction of the neurological lysosomal storage defect of a disease caused by a lysosomal membrane protein, indicating that this may be an effective therapeutic strategy for JNCL and

  14. High-throughput functional microRNAs profiling by recombinant AAV-based microRNA sensor arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhong Tian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRNAs are small and non-coding RNAs which play critical roles in physiological and pathological processes. A number of methods have been established to detect and quantify miRNA expression. However, method for high-throughput miRNA function detection is still lacking. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe an adeno-associated virus (AAV vector-based microRNA (miRNA sensor (Asensor array for high-throughput functional miRNA profiling. Each Asensor contains a Gaussia luciferase (Gluc and a firefly luciferase (Fluc expression cassette to sense functional miRNA and to serve as an internal control respectively. Using this array, we acquired functional profiles of 115 miRNAs for 12 cell lines and found "functional miRNA signatures" for several specific cell lines. The activities of specific miRNAs including the let-7 family, miR-17-92 cluster, miR-221, and miR-222 in HEK 293 cells were compared with their expression levels determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR. We also demonstrate two other practical applications of the array, including a comparison of the miRNA activity between HEK293 and HEK293T cells and the ability to monitor miRNA activity changes in K562 cells treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our approach has potential applications in the identification of cell types, the characterization of biological and pathological processes, and the evaluation of responses to interventions.

  15. hTRX-PR39重组腺相关病毒载体的构建%Construction of a hTRX-PR39 recombinant adeno-associated vires vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮喜云; 魏敏; 毕建忠; 杨广笑; 王全颍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To construct a vector of recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) containing the fusion gene hTRX-PR39, and explore the role of fusion gene hTRX-PR39 as a target gene in the treatment of cerebral ischemic disease. Methods The constructed fusion gene hTRX-PR39 was inserted into the EcoRI-BamHI site of vector plasmid pSSCMV, and the vector of hTRX-PR39 recombinant AAV was constructed. The recombinant AAV stock was packaged. Renal embryo 293 cells were co-transfected with the recombinant AAV vector of plasmid pSSCMV/hTRX-PR39,packaging plasmid pAAV/Ad and helper adenovirus plasmid pFG140. Recombinant AAV was produced by homologous recombination of the 3 plasmids in renal embryo 293 cells and its titer was measured by quantitative dot blot hybridization. Results The vector of hTRX-PR39 recombinant AAV was successfully constructed. High titer of recombinant AAV was obtained by homologous recombination in renal embryo 293 cells (3.46 x 1012-3.46 × 1013 PFU/mL).Conclusion The recombinant AAV vector encoding the gene hTRX-PR39 was successfully constructed in this study by molecular cloning and in vitro recombination techniques, laying the foundation for further research into genetic therapy of cerebral ischemic disease.%目的 探讨hTRX-PR39融合基因在脑缺血疾病中的治疗作用.方法 将已经构建好的hTRX-PR39融合基因插入到具有相应酶切位点的pSSCMV病毒载体质粒中,得到重组腺相关病毒载体质粒,酶切电泳鉴定.将已构建的重组腺相关病毒载体质粒、腺病毒辅助质粒PFG140和包装质粒pAAV/Ad,三质粒磷酸钙共沉淀法转染293细胞系,通过同源重组获得hTRX-PR39重组腺相关病毒载体,收集病毒,斑点杂交(Dot blot)法测定病毒滴度.结果 成功构建重组腺相关病毒质粒pSSCMV/hTRX-PR39.包装、回收病毒后,Dot b1ot法测定重组病毒滴度为3.46×(1012~1013)PFU/mL.结论 成功构建pSSCMV/hTRX-PR39重组腺相关病毒载体,并包装较高浓度的重组病毒.

  16. MicroRNAs and drug addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Kenny

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is considered a disorder of neuroplasticity in brain reward and cognition systems resulting from aberrant activation of gene expression programs in response to prolonged drug consumption. Noncoding RNAs are key regulators of almost all aspects of cellular physiology. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small (~21–23 nucleotides noncoding RNA transcripts that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recently, microRNAs were shown to play key roles in the drug-induced remodeling of brain reward systems that likely drives the emergence of addiction. Here, we review evidence suggesting that one particular miRNA, miR-212, plays a particularly prominent role in vulnerability to cocaine addiction. We review evidence showing that miR-212 expression is increased in the dorsal striatum of rats that show compulsive-like cocaine-taking behaviors. Increases in miR-212 expression appear to protect against cocaine addiction, as virus-mediated striatal miR-212 over-expression decreases cocaine consumption in rats. Conversely, disruption of striatal miR-212 signaling using an antisense oligonucleotide increases cocaine intake. We also review data that identify two mechanisms by which miR-212 may regulate cocaine intake. First, miR-212 has been shown to amplify striatal CREB signaling through a mechanism involving activation of Raf1 kinase. Second, miR-212 was also shown to regulate cocaine intake by repressing striatal expression of methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2, consequently decreasing protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. The concerted actions of miR-212 on striatal CREB and MeCP2/BDNF activity greatly attenuate the motivational effects of cocaine. These findings highlight the unique role for miRNAs in simultaneously controlling multiple signaling cascades implicated in addiction.

  17. 腺相关病毒2-ND4基因转染细胞线粒体的研究%Study on transfection of adeno associated virus 2-ND4 gene into mitochondria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨硕; 刘磊; 裴晗; 万幸; 陆朵朵; 胡维琨; 李斌

    2014-01-01

    Background Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) disease and mainly leads to optical nerve degeneration.Its primary mechanism is synthesis disorder of DN4 protein due to variation of mtDNA 11778 locus.So to construct a vector with exogenous normal ND4 and transfect into mitochondria is a key of gene therapy for LHON.Objective This study was to investigate the in vitro transfection of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-ND4 gene into mitochondria.Methods Human renal epithelial cell lines transfected adenovirus E1A (293 cells) were regularly cultured and divided into two groups.Framework plasmids of recombinant AAV-ND4 or simple AAV2 were added to the cell medium respectively.The expression of ND4 in cells were located 12,24,36 and 48 hours after transfected by Y03 dual fluorescent quantum dots staining.The positive response for ND4 showed the green fluorescence.Results Cultured 293 cells grew well with 80% confluence.Abundant green fluorescence particles were seen in cytoplasm in the AAV-ND4 transfected group,but only red fluorescence from mitochondrial protein was seen in the simple AAV transfected group under the fluorescence microscope.Conclusions Exogenous ND4 protein can been successfully transfected into mitochondria using the ND4 gene constructed AAV.This result provides experimental evidence for the further study on gene therapy of LHON.%背景 Leber遗传性视神经病变(LHON)是导致视神经退行性变的线粒体遗传性疾病,主要与线粒体11778位点突变导致ND4蛋白合成异常有关,构建含正常ND4蛋白的载体是基因治疗的关键.由于ND4 DNA存在于线粒体,而转染的外源基因只能进入细胞核,不能作用于突变的线粒体DNA.探讨将ND4基因成功转染到线粒体是LHON的基因治疗的关键. 目的 验证人工合成的ND4基因所构建的重组腺相关病毒(AAV)转染细胞后产生的ND4蛋白能否进入线粒体.方法 常规体外培养转染腺病毒E1A

  18. Culture of 293 cells for the package of adeno-associated viruses%用于包装腺相关病毒293细胞的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏佳军; 张苏明; 徐金枝

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a main gene engineering vector, adeno-associated virus (AAV) is characterized by its extensive host cells, lasting and stable expression and less immune response to hosts, and is applied widely. But AAV is a kind of defective virus, and need incasing cells to supply E1 protein. As important and special AAV incasing cells, AAV-293 cells can produce E1 in trans. But AAV-293 cells are delicated and cultivated difficultly, and the biological character is easy to be changed. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a culture method of AAV-293 cells to meet the need of gene engineering.OBJECTIVE: To establish a culture method of AAV-293 cells in vitro.DESIGN: An opening study.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology.MATERIALS: AAV-293 cells line was provided by Stratagene Corporation; high-carbohydrate OMEM (H-DMEM) powder by Gibco Company; there plasmids in AAV Helper-Free by Stratagene Company.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the neurology laboratory of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan during the period from October 2006 to April 2007. AAV-293 cells were resuscitated and cultivated with H-DMEM growth medium in vitro, and were passaged and stored in liquid nitrogen when the cells monolayer confluence reached 50%. At the same time, their growing state was observed by inverted microscope, and their growth curve was noted. According to whether AAV-293 cells could give out green fluorescence or not (observed by fluorescence inverted microscope) after they were cotransfected with the there AAV system plasmids and infected with AAV supernatant, their biological character of packing AAV was assessed.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Morphological observation of AAV-293 cells; ② the growth curve; ③ the package of AAV.RESULTS: ① AAV-293 cells observed by fluorescence inverted microscope were growing adhesively well with irregular polygons, light endochylemas and ambiguous nuclei

  19. MicroRNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devaux, Yvan; Stammet, Pascal; Friberg, Hans

    2015-01-01

    cardiac arrest would allow subsequent health care delivery to be tailored to individual patients. However, currently available predictive methods and biomarkers lack sufficient accuracy and therefore cannot be generally recommended in clinical practice. MicroRNAs have recently emerged as potential...... biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases. While the biomarker value of microRNAs for myocardial infarction or heart failure has been extensively studied, less attention has been devoted to their prognostic value after cardiac arrest. This review highlights the recent discoveries suggesting that microRNAs may...

  20. 介导p73去阻抑肽表达的重组腺伴病毒的构建和鉴定%Construction and identification of recombinant adeno-associated virus vector mediating the expression of the derepressing p73 peptide-p53 (N37)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白艳霞; 闫利英; 马清涌; 杨广笑; 王全颖

    2012-01-01

    目的 构建编码融合基因NT4-p53(N37)-HA2-TAT的重组腺伴病毒表达载体,为恶性肿瘤基因治疗的实验研究奠定基础.方法 采用互补引物二次PCR法以及T载体克隆法获得p53(N37)基因克隆,酶切后将其连同穿膜肽HA2-TAT片段一起连入pUC19/NT4质粒,再将融合基因NT4-p53(N37)-HA2-TAT亚克隆至腺伴病毒的穿梭质粒pSSHG-CMV中,构建重组质粒pSSHG-CMV/NT4-p53(N37)-HA2-TAT并进行酶切鉴定;应用磷酸钙沉淀法,pSSHCCMV/NT4-p53(N37)-HA2-TAT、辅助质粒pAAV-Ad,腺病毒全基因组质粒pFG140三种质粒共转染HEK293细胞,包装出重组腺伴病毒rAAV/NT4-p53(N37)-HA2-TAT并用斑点杂交法测定重组病毒的滴度;MTT比色法、流式细胞仪观察重组腺伴病毒rAAV/NT4-p53(N37)-HA2-TAT对HepG2细胞的抑制作用.结果 克隆出p53(N37)基因,经酶切及测序证实结果正确;得到高滴度的(2×1013pfu/L)重组腺伴病毒表达载体并对HepG2细胞有明显的抑制作用,且这一作用是通过诱导肿瘤细胞凋亡实现的.结论 通过分子克隆体外重组技术成功制备了rAAV/NT4-p53(N37)-HA2-TAT复制缺陷型重组腺伴病毒,为下一步开展在p53突变或缺失肿瘤中针对p73的靶向性肿瘤基因治疗研究奠定了基础.%Objective To construct a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector mediating the expression of the derepressing p73 peptide-p53(N37) so as to lay a foundation for further research on gene therapy of malignant tumors. Methods The p53(N37) gene was obtained by self-complementary primer PCR and T-vector cloning techniques; then the p53(N37) gene and HA2-TAT segment were cloned into pUC19/NT4 vector after digested with restriction enzyme. The fusion gene of NT4-p53(N37)-HA2-TAT was subcloned into the shuttle plasmid of adeno-associated pSSHG-CMV, and recombinant plasmid pSSHG-CMV/NT4-p53 (N37)-HA2-TAT was constructed and identified by enzyme cutting analysis. The rAAV/NT4-p53 (N37 )-HA2-TAT was produced by using calcium

  1. 禽腺联病毒Rep78和VP3蛋白的原核表达及抗血清制备%Prokaryotic expression of the Rep78 and VP3 proteins of avian adeno-associated virus and preparation of specific antisera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建业; 孙怀昌; 朱国强

    2008-01-01

    分别将禽腺联病毒(Avian adeno-associated virus,AAAV)的Rep78基因和VP3基因克隆入pET-47b原核表达载体并转化BL21(DE3)大肠杆菌,在1PTG的诱导下2种目的蛋白均成功得到了表达.SDS-PAGE显示,Rep78蛋白的相对分子质量约为85 000,而VP3蛋白相对分子质量约为60 000.Western-blot分析显示,表达产物均能与抗AAAV的阳性血清反应.将目的蛋白切胶免疫BALB/c小鼠分别制备了针对2种蛋白的多克隆血清.间接免疫荧光试验显示制备的抗血清能够与AAAV抗原特异反应.不与鸡胚致死孤儿病毒(CELO)抗原反应.结果表明,制备的抗Rep78和VP3蛋白的血清可以用于检测重组AAAV载体制备过程中Rep和Cap基因的表达水平.

  2. Micro-RNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taipaleenmäki, H.; Hokland, L. B.; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    Osteoblast differentiation and bone formation (osteogenesis) are regulated by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Recently, a novel class of regulatory factors termed microRNAs has been identified as playing an important role in the regulation of many aspects of osteoblast biology...... including proliferation, differentiation, metabolism and apoptosis. Also, preliminary data from animal disease models suggest that targeting miRNAs in bone can be a novel approach to increase bone mass. This review highlights the current knowledge of microRNA biology and their role in bone formation...

  3. microRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Xiong; Ning, Zhou

    2007-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, 20-22 nucleotide RNA molecules that function as negative regulators of gene expression in eukaryotic organisms. RNA mediated gene silencing pathways have essential roles in development, cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell death. It is becoming clear that microRNAs can play a very important role in regulation of gene expression. Understanding the basic mechanism of miRNA biogenesis is one of the central aims of molecular biologists in the future. MicroRN...

  4. MicroRNA-15b Modulates Molecular Mediators of Blood Induced Arthropathy in Hemophilia Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Dwaipayan; Jayandharan, Giridhara R.

    2016-01-01

    The development of arthropathy is a major co-morbidity in patients with hemophilia. The present study was designed to study the role of a microRNA biomarker (miR-15b) in the development of joint disease. To investigate the expression profile of miR-15b during the development of arthropathy, we first isolated and studied small RNA from the acute and chronic hemarthrosis model of hemophilia A mice. We observed that miR-15b was consistently repressed (~1- to 4-fold) from the onset of joint bleeding (1, 3, 7 and 24 h) until six bleeding episodes (up to 90 days). To test if reconstitution of miR-15b modulates biomarkers of joint damage in a chronic hemarthrosis model, we administered an adeno-associated virus (AAV) 5-miR-15b vector intra-articularly alone or in combination with systemic administration of AAV2-factor VIII. miR-15b overexpression downregulated markers of angiogenesis and hypoxia (vascular epithelial growth factor α (VEGF-α) and hypoxia inducing factor 2α (HIF-2α), ~70% and ~34%, respectively) in the affected joints. In addition, the co-administration of miR-15b and factor VIII vectors reduced the levels of the chondrodegenerative matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) 1, 3, 9 and 14 (~14% to 60%) in the injured joints. These data demonstrate for the first time the role of a miR-15b in the development of hemophilic arthropathy and has implications in development of miR based therapies for joint disease. PMID:27070581

  5. MicroRNA-15b Modulates Molecular Mediators of Blood Induced Arthropathy in Hemophilia Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwaipayan Sen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of arthropathy is a major co-morbidity in patients with hemophilia. The present study was designed to study the role of a microRNA biomarker (miR-15b in the development of joint disease. To investigate the expression profile of miR-15b during the development of arthropathy, we first isolated and studied small RNA from the acute and chronic hemarthrosis model of hemophilia A mice. We observed that miR-15b was consistently repressed (~1- to 4-fold from the onset of joint bleeding (1, 3, 7 and 24 h until six bleeding episodes (up to 90 days. To test if reconstitution of miR-15b modulates biomarkers of joint damage in a chronic hemarthrosis model, we administered an adeno-associated virus (AAV 5-miR-15b vector intra-articularly alone or in combination with systemic administration of AAV2-factor VIII. miR-15b overexpression downregulated markers of angiogenesis and hypoxia (vascular epithelial growth factor α (VEGF-α and hypoxia inducing factor 2α (HIF-2α, ~70% and ~34%, respectively in the affected joints. In addition, the co-administration of miR-15b and factor VIII vectors reduced the levels of the chondrodegenerative matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs 1, 3, 9 and 14 (~14% to 60% in the injured joints. These data demonstrate for the first time the role of a miR-15b in the development of hemophilic arthropathy and has implications in development of miR based therapies for joint disease.

  6. MicroRNA pharmacogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rukov, Jakob Lewin; Shomron, Noam

    2011-01-01

    polymorphisms, copy number variations or differences in gene expression levels of drug metabolizing or transporting genes and drug targets. In this review paper, we focus instead on microRNAs (miRNAs): small noncoding RNAs, prevalent in metazoans, that negatively regulate gene expression in many cellular...... processes. We discuss how miRNAs, by regulating the expression of pharmacogenomic-related genes, can play a pivotal role in drug efficacy and toxicity and have potential clinical implications for personalized medicine....

  7. Sustained Inhibition of HBV Replication In Vivo after Systemic Injection of AAVs Encoding Artificial Antiviral Primary MicroRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohube Betty Maepa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV remains a problem of global significance and improving available treatment is important to prevent life-threatening complications arising in persistently infected individuals. HBV is susceptible to silencing by exogenous artificial intermediates of the RNA interference (RNAi pathway. However, toxicity of Pol III cassettes and short duration of silencing by effectors of the RNAi pathway may limit anti-HBV therapeutic utility. To advance RNAi-based HBV gene silencing, mono- and trimeric artificial primary microRNAs (pri-miRs derived from pri-miR-31 were placed under control of the liver-specific modified murine transthyretin promoter. The sequences, which target the X sequence of HBV, were incorporated into recombinant hepatotropic self-complementary adeno-associated viruses (scAAVs. Systemic intravenous injection of the vectors into HBV transgenic mice at a dose of 1 × 1011 per animal effected significant suppression of markers of HBV replication for at least 32 weeks. The pri-miRs were processed according to the intended design, and intrahepatic antiviral guide sequences were detectable for 40 weeks after the injection. There was no evidence of toxicity, and innate immunostimulation was not detectable following the injections. This efficacy is an improvement on previously reported RNAi-based inhibition of HBV replication and is important to clinical translation of the technology.

  8. [MicroRNAs in neurobiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Yukio

    2008-12-01

    MicroRNAs have emerged as a new regulatory factor of gene expression. They mediate translational repression or degradation of their target mRNAs by RNA interference (RNAi). The expression of each microRNA is tightly regulated in a development- and cell-specific manner by various mechanisms such as blockade of let-7 family expression by Lin-28 or RNA editing. They also act as regulatory switches for development, organogenesis, and cellular differentiation or for controlling distinct functions that are required for the maintenance of each tissue and cell subtypes. The abundant expression of microRNAs as well as the exclusive expression of certain microRNAs in the central nervous system highlights their biological importance at all stages of neural development and in postmitotic and differentiated neurons. Further, some microRNAs, such as miRNA-134, and miRNA-132 are localized and are synthesized in part at synaptic sites in dendrites to regulate synaptic formation and plasticity. In addition to the imparting of basic knowledge about the biogenesis and mechanism of action of microRNAs, this review focuses on the recent advances in microRNA studies in neurobiology, including the expression pattern of microRNAs in the mammalian brain, the role of microRNAs in neural differentiation and maturation, formation and plasticity of synaptic connections, and maintenance of neural function such as the synthesis of the neurotransmitters in selected neurons. Finally, the possible connection between microRNA dysfunction and neurological diseases, and future implications for diagnosis, and treatment of defects in human brain development and neurodegenerative diseases are discussed.

  9. 重组8型腺相关病毒介导双荧光素酶基因在小鼠体内的表达%Recombinant adeno-associated virus type 8 mediated dual-luciferase gene expression in mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 尉迟捷; 董小岩; 田文洪; 吴小兵

    2012-01-01

    目的 利用共表达的分泌型荧光素酶Gluc(gaussia princeps luciferase)和非分泌型荧光素酶Fluc(firefly luciferase)研究重组8型腺相关病毒(recombinant adeno-associated virus type 8,rAAV8)介导的转基因在小鼠体内的表达特点.方法 制备携带双荧光素酶基因的重组8型腺相关病毒rAAV8-Gluc/Fluc,体外感染HEK293细胞并检测上清和胞内Gluc和Fluc活性;将不同剂量的rAAV8-Gluc/Fluc尾静脉注射或肌内注射至BALB/c小鼠,通过尾静脉采血检测Gluc活性,通过活体成像和裂解组织检测Fluc活性.结果 成功制备了rAAV8-Gluc/Fluc,可以有效感染HEK293细胞,同时分泌表达Gluc和胞内表达Fluc;尾静脉注射或肌内注射rAAV8-Gluc/Fluc至小鼠后,外周血Gluc活性均在注射后10 ~20 d达到高峰并稳定持续120 d以上,Gluc活性随注射剂量增加而增高;静脉注射rAAV8-Gluc/Fluc时Fluc主要在肝脏表达,在骨骼肌和心肌有少量表达,而肌内注射时Fluc既在肌内注射局部表达同时也在肝脏中表达.结论 本研究成功制备了携带双荧光素酶基因rAAV8-Gluc/Fluc,研究了其介导的转基因在小鼠体内的表达特点,为rAAV8的临床前应用打下基础.%Objective Recombinant adeno-associated virus type 8 (rAAV8) mediating transgene expression in mice was investigated using co-expressed report gene of secreted Gaussia princeps luciferase (Gluc) and non-secreted firefly luciferase(Fluc).Methods rAAV8-Gluc/Fluc was prepared and infected HEK293 cells to test its performance in vitro.BALB/c mice were received rAAV8-Gluc/Fluc at different doses by intravenous injection (iv) or intramuscular injection (im).Then Gluc activities in blood were measured,the whole-body images for Fluc activities were performed and Fluc activities of tissue lysate were also detected.Results rAAV8-Gluc/Fluc was successfully prepared and could infected HEK293 cells.The Gluc was mainly detected in the culture media while the Fluc was mainly

  10. Overview of MicroRNA Biology

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In considering an overview of microRNA biology, it is useful to consider microRNAs as a part of cellular communication. At the simplest level, microRNAs act to decrease the expression of mRNAs that contain stretches of sequence complementary to the microRNA. This function can be likened to the function of endogenous or synthetic short interfering RNA (siRNA). However, microRNA function is more complicated and nuanced than this ‘on-off’ model would suggest. Further, many microRNA targets are t...

  11. MicroRNA and cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansson, Martin D; Lund, Anders H

    2012-01-01

    .... The best characterized non‐coding RNA family consists in humans of about 1400 microRNAs for which abundant evidence have demonstrated fundamental importance in normal development, differentiation, growth control and in human...

  12. Construction and identification of SHH-N gene adeno-associated virus vector and its impact on genes related to proliferation in neural stem cells%SHH-N基因腺相关病毒表达载体的构建及其对神经干细胞增殖相关基因的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东升; 崔岩; 申仑; 杜延平; 李桂林; 王任直; 王岩; 张波

    2011-01-01

    Objective To construct and identify SHH-N gene adeno-associated virus vector and to detect its effect on genes controlling to proliferation in neural stem cells(NSCs). Methods The neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of postnatal rat brain were used to collect SHH-N. pSNAV2. 0-CMV-SHH-N-IRES-EGFP was established by enzyme cutting and ligation , and then transfected packaging cell line 293T. Real time PCR was performed after SHH-N transfection of neural stem cells by rAAV-SHH-N-EGFP vector for 48 hours, SHH-N gene expression of infected cells after 2 week examined by fluorescence microscopy. Results ( 1 ) SHH-N gene was coincident with NCBI report. (2) pSNAV2. 0-CMV-SHH-N-IRES-EGFP expression vector and rAAV-SHH-N-EGFP vector was successful established and packaged. (3)Real time PCR was performed after SHH-N infection for 48 hour, induction of Nmyc and Glil in rAAV-SHH-N-EGFP-treated group was enhanced compared to control group. Conclusion rAAV-SHH-N-EGFP vector has been successfully established and it can stably express in neural stem cells. Forced expression of SHH-N in NSCs resulted in enhanced induction of Nmyc and Glil.%目的 构建rAAV-SHH-N-EGFP载体并检测其对神经干细胞增殖相关基因影响.方法 分离并培养大鼠脑室下区神经干细胞,提取RNA、反转录、PCR得到SHH-N的cDNA,克隆入pSNAV2.0-CMV-IRES-EGFP,包装得到腺相关病毒rAAV-SHH-N-EGFP,感染神经干细胞48 h后,采用实时定量PCR检测SHH信号通路下游相关基因的mRNA水平变化,并观察rAAV-SHH-N-EGFP载体在神经干细胞内的表达情况.结果 (1)克隆得到SHH-N基因,测序结果与NCBI报道序列一致.(2)成功构建pSNAV2.0-CMV-SHH-N-EGFP表达载体并鉴定,包装得到rAAV-SHH-N-EGFP.(3)实时定量PCR分析rAAV-SHH-N-EGFP感染神经干细胞48 h后,rAAV-SHH-N-EGFP处理组较感染rAAV-EGFP的对照组,Glil和Nmyc的mRNA水平上调.(4)rAAV-SHH-N-EGFP可有效感染神经干细胞,在感染14 d后稳定表达SHH-N.结论

  13. Isolation of microRNA targets using biotinylated synthetic microRNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørom, Ulf Andersson; Lund, Anders H

    2007-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small regulatory RNAs found in multicellular organisms where they post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. In animals, microRNAs bind mRNAs via incomplete base pairings making the identification of microRNA targets inherently difficult. Here, we present a detailed method...... for experimental identification of microRNA targets based on affinity purification of tagged microRNAs associated with their targets. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Oct...

  14. [MicroRNAs and kidneys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stříteská, Jana; Nekvindová, Jana; Cerný, Vladimír; Palička, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are short non-coding ribonucleic acid molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level thus affecting important physiological as well as pathophysiological processes in the organism, for example cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and metabolism. They are involved in pathogenesis of many diseases including cancer. Many microRNAs are tissue or organ-specific which implies their possible potential as biomarkers or maybe even therapeutical agents as documented by microRNA research interest rising exponentially during last years. Among all, microRNAs are important also for physiological function of the kidney and they are involved in various renal disorders. Today research is focused mainly on renal and urinary tract carcinogenesis, acute kidney injury, chronic renal diseases (polycystic kidney disease) or renal complications of systemic diseases such as diabetic or hypertension nephropathy and autoimmune kidney injury including acute allograft rejection after kidney transplantation. The review summarizes current information about microRNA effect on kidney development and function and also on the most common kidney diseases.

  15. Combinatorial microRNA target predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krek, Azra; Grün, Dominic; Poy, Matthew N.

    2005-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that recognize and bind to partially complementary sites in the 3' untranslated regions of target genes in animals and, by unknown mechanisms, regulate protein production of the target transcript1, 2, 3. Different combinations of microRNAs are expressed...... in different cell types and may coordinately regulate cell-specific target genes. Here, we present PicTar, a computational method for identifying common targets of microRNAs. Statistical tests using genome-wide alignments of eight vertebrate genomes, PicTar's ability to specifically recover published micro......RNA targets, and experimental validation of seven predicted targets suggest that PicTar has an excellent success rate in predicting targets for single microRNAs and for combinations of microRNAs. We find that vertebrate microRNAs target, on average, roughly 200 transcripts each. Furthermore, our results...

  16. 重组腺相关病毒转导人树突状细胞体外诱导抗肝癌免疫应答%Generation of antitumor response against hepatocellular carcinoma by in vitro transduction of dendritic cells with adeno-associated virus expressing α-fetoprotein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜文贞; 于天霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the generation of antitumor response against hepatocellular carcinoma by in vitro transduction of dendritic cells (DC)with recombinant adeno-associated virus expressing α-fetoprotein (rAAV-AFP). Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from healthy volunteers. Adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells were transduced with AAV-AFP and cultured in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin-4 to generate dendritic cells.MTS assay was used to measure the ability of DC transduced with AAV-AFP ( AAV-AFP + DC) to stimulate the proliferation of T cell. The phenotype and AFP protein expression of DC and the secretion of IFN (interferon)-γ and IL (interleukin)-4 by T cells were detected by flow cytometry. The killing efficacy of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) activated by AAV-AFP + DC against AFP positive hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines was detected by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. Results AAV-AFP + DC expressed HLA Ⅰ (97. 12%), HLAⅡ (97.32%), CD80(38.94%), CD83(60.84%)and CD86(98. 14%). AFP was secreted by 81.2% of AAV-AFP + DC. And it could stimulate effectively the proliferation of T cell.19. 84% of CD4 + T cells and 18.65% of CD8 + T cells activated by AAV-AFP + DC produced IFN-γbut not IL-4 and showed distinct killing activities against AFP positive hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HepG2 (56. 45% ) and BEL7402 (78. 84% ). Conclusion AAV-AFP + DC can elicit distinct antitumor responses against AFP positive hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines so as to provide a basis for further researches on the clinical application of AAV-AFP + DC in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.%目的 探讨携带甲胎蛋白基因的重组腺相关病毒(rAAV-AFP)转导人树突状细胞(DC)体外诱导抗肝癌免疫应答.方法 分离健康志愿者外周血单核细胞,贴壁细胞转导rAAV-AFP后,在粒细胞巨噬细胞集落刺激因子(GMCSF)和白细胞介素4(IL-4)的联

  17. The Contrast Tranfecting Efficiency of a Double Stranded Recombinant Adeno -associated Virus Expressing Exendin -4 Compared with Single Stranded AAV%重组双链及单链腺相关病毒介导Exendin -4表达效率的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊红; 问姣; 董鹏; 张静; 焦杨; 郭永红

    2015-01-01

    To construct a recombinant double -strands adeno -associated virus(dsAAV)expressing Exendin -4,compared trans-fecting efficiency in cells with a single stranded AAV(ssAAV).The recombinant dsAAV vector pSSHG/Exendin -4 was reconstructed which Exendin -4 by gene engineering method.The recombinant virus was packaged by human embryo kidney 293 cells and the virus titer was measured .The expression GFPs of dsAAV and ssAAV in NIH3T3 cell were detected by fluorescence microscope.Exendin -4 level in the superment of NIH3T3 transferred by dsAAV /pSSHG/Exendin -4or ssAAV /pSSHG/Exendin -4 were determined by ELISA.The expression Exendin -4 of dsAAV and ssAAV in NIH3T3 cell were detected by immunohistochemical.Recombinant dsAAV vector was successfμl constructed and confirmed by restriction enzymes and DNA sequencing.The more higher titer of recombi-nant virus was by homologous recombinationin dsAAV (2.5 ×10 11 pfu)than by ssAAV(2.5 ×109 pfu).There was higher fluorescence intensity in transfected NIH3T3 cells by dsAAV.The Exendin -4 level was higer in supernatant of dsAAV than in ssAAV(181.1 ± 8.75 pmol/mlvs133.81 ±8.09 pmol/ml).The Exendin -4 expression was positive both in dsAAV and ssAAV.The Exendin -4 ex-pression system in dsAAV has relatively high transfecting ability.It should play a significant and fundamental role for further researches about diabetes gene therapy.%比较双链腺相关病毒(Double -stranded adeno -associated virus,dsAAV)及单链 AAV(Single -stranded adeno -associated virus,ssAAV)介导 Exendin -4分泌表达效率。应用基因工程方法构建 dsAAV /pSSHG/Exendin -4,与重组 ssAAV 比较转染 NIH3T3细胞效率及转染后细胞上清 Exendin -4浓度,免疫组化检测 Exendin -4表达。经限制性内切酶及测序证实载体构建成功,测定重组 dsAAV pSSHG/Exendin -4滴度为2.5×1011 pfu,较重组 ssAA 滴度高(2.5×109 pfu);dsAAV /pSSHG/GFP 转染 NIH3T3细

  18. 人血管内皮生长因子与绿色荧光蛋白标记双基因共表达AAV载体的构建及鉴定%Construction and identification of recombinant adeno- associated virus vector co-expressing human vascular endothelial growth factor and green fluorescent protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄向辉; 时志斌; 王坤正; 党晓谦; 杨佩; 余鹏博

    2008-01-01

    取重组病毒基因组成功扩增出外源目的基因片段hVEGF165,证实重组病毒rAAV-VEGF165-GFP包装成功.结论:成功构建带有绿色荧光蛋白标记并携带hVEGF165基因的无致病性重组腺相关病毒rAAV-VEGF165-GFP.收获的病毒具有较高滴度和感染活性.%BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can specifically promote the division and proliferation of endothelial cells and the revascularization, finally induce angiopoiesis. Recently, VEGF-based gene therapy has been gradually used in clinical trials, but some limits on usually used vectors deserve further studies, including the low transfection efficiency of plasmid vector, the immunogenicity of adnovirus vector to host cells and the potential risk of infection. OBJECTIVE: To construct the non-pathogenic recombinant adeno-associated vires (AAV) co-expressing human vascular endethelial growth factor 165 (hVEGF165) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) label and measure the virus titer and assess its biological activity.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The open experiment was performed at the Vitrus Laboratory of Shanxi Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention from March to September 2007.MATERIALS: AAV-293 virus packaging cell line, AAV HT-1080 cells were purchased from Swatagene, USA. E.coli DH5α was a stocked strain from Shanxi Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. AAV Helper Free System (pAAV-IRES-GFP vector containing GFP label) was purchased from Stratagene, USA. Plasmid pUC18-hVEGF165 was constructed previously by Dr.Shi from Department of Orthopaedics of Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University.METHODS: The hVEGF165 gone from plasmid pUC18-hVEGF165 was amplified and inserted into plasmid pAAV-IRES-hrGFP. Then recombinant plasmid pAAV-hVEGF165-IRES-hrGFP, pAAV-RC and pAAV-Helper were co-transfected into AAV-293 cells to complete rAAV-hVEGF165-IRES-hrGFP packaging through homologous recombination. The efficiency of A

  19. Experimental identification of microRNA targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørom, Ulf Andersson; Lund, Anders H

    2009-01-01

    microRNAs are small RNAs that regulate protein synthesis post-transcriptionally. Animal microRNAs recognize their targets by incomplete base pairing to sequence motifs most often present in the 3' untranslated region of their target mRNAs. This partial complementarity vastly expands the repertoire...... of potential targets and constitutes a problem for computational target prediction. Although computational analyses have shed light on important aspects of microRNA target recognition, several questions remain regarding how microRNAs can recognize and regulate their targets. Forward experimental approaches...... allow for an unbiased study of microRNA target recognition and may unveil novel, rare or uncommon target binding patterns. In this review we focus on animal microRNAs and the experimental approaches that have been described for identification of their targets....

  20. MicroRNA and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Martin D; Lund, Anders H

    2012-01-01

    biological phenomena and pathologies. The best characterized non-coding RNA family consists in humans of about 1400 microRNAs for which abundant evidence have demonstrated fundamental importance in normal development, differentiation, growth control and in human diseases such as cancer. In this review, we...... summarize the current knowledge and concepts concerning the involvement of microRNAs in cancer, which have emerged from the study of cell culture and animal model systems, including the regulation of key cancer-related pathways, such as cell cycle control and the DNA damage response. Importantly, microRNA......With the advent of next generation sequencing techniques a previously unknown world of non-coding RNA molecules have been discovered. Non-coding RNA transcripts likely outnumber the group of protein coding sequences and hold promise of many new discoveries and mechanistic explanations for essential...

  1. Toward the promise of microRNAs - Enhancing reproducibility and rigor in microRNA research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witwer, Kenneth W; Halushka, Marc K

    2016-11-01

    The fields of applied and translational microRNA research have exploded in recent years as microRNAs have been implicated across a spectrum of diseases. MicroRNA biomarkers, microRNA therapeutics, microRNA regulation of cellular physiology and even xenomiRs have stimulated great interest, which have brought many researchers into the field. Despite many successes in determining general mechanisms of microRNA generation and function, the application of microRNAs in translational areas has not had as much success. It has been a challenge to localize microRNAs to a given cell type within tissues and assay them reliably. At supraphysiologic levels, microRNAs may regulate hosts of genes that are not the physiologic biochemical targets. Thus the applied and translational microRNA literature is filled with pitfalls and claims that are neither scientifically rigorous nor reproducible. This review is focused on increasing awareness of the challenges of working with microRNAs in translational research and recommends better practices in this area of discovery.

  2. Enhanced viral production and virus-mediated mortality of bacterioplankton in a natural iron-fertilized bloom event above the Kerguelen Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Malits

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Above the Kerguelen Plateau in the Southern Ocean natural iron fertilization sustains a large phytoplankton bloom over three months during austral summer. During the KEOPS1 project (KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study1 we sampled this phytoplankton bloom during its declining phase along with the surrounding HNLC waters to study the effect of natural iron fertilization on the role of viruses in the microbial food web. Bacterial and viral abundances were 1.7 and 2.1 times, respectively, higher within the bloom than in HNLC waters. Viral production and virus-mediated mortality of bacterioplankton was 4.1 and 4.9 times, respectively, higher in the bloom, while the fraction of infected cells (FIC and the fraction of lysogenic cells (FLC showed no significant differences between environments. The present study suggests viruses to be more important for bacterial mortality within the bloom and dominate over protozoan grazing during the late bloom phase. As a consequence, at least at a late bloom stage, viral lysis shunts part of the photosynthetically fixed carbon in iron-fertilized regions into the dissolved organic matter (DOM pool with potentially less particulate organic carbon transfered to larger members of the food web or exported.

  3. Enhanced viral production and virus-mediated mortality of bacterioplankton in a natural iron-fertilized bloom event above the Kerguelen Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malits, A.; Christaki, U.; Obernosterer, I.; Weinbauer, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Above the Kerguelen Plateau in the Southern Ocean natural iron fertilization sustains a large phytoplankton bloom over 3 months during austral summer. During the KEOPS1 project (KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study1) we sampled this phytoplankton bloom during its declining phase along with the surrounding high-nutrient-low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters to study the effect of natural iron fertilization on the role of viruses in the microbial food web. Bacterial and viral abundances were 1.7 and 2.1 times, respectively, higher within the bloom than in HNLC waters. Viral production and virus-mediated mortality of bacterioplankton were 4.1 and 4.9 times, respectively, higher in the bloom, while the fraction of infected cells (FIC) and the fraction of lysogenic cells (FLC) showed no significant differences between environments. The present study suggests viruses to be more important for bacterial mortality within the bloom and dominate over grazing of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNFs) during the late bloom phase. As a consequence, at least at a late bloom stage, viral lysis shunts part of the photosynthetically fixed carbon in iron-fertilized regions into the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool with potentially less particulate organic carbon transferred to larger members of the food web or exported.

  4. Dysregulated microRNAs in neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Pierre; de Strooper, Bart

    2010-09-01

    The complexity of the nervous system arises in part, from the large diversity of neural cell types that support the architecture of neuronal circuits. Recent studies have highlighted microRNAs as important players in regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and therefore the phenotype of neural cells. A link between microRNAs and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease is becoming increasingly evident. Here, we discuss microRNAs in neurodegeneration, from the fruit fly and mouse utilized as experimental models to dysregulated microRNAs in human neurodegenerative disorders. We propose that studying microRNAs and their mRNA targets in the context of neurodegeneration will significantly contribute to the identification of proteins important for neuronal function and might reveal underlying molecular networks that drive these diseases.

  5. microRNA Decay: Refining microRNA Regulatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Genevieve; Gantier, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short 19-25 nucleotide RNA molecules that impact on most biological processes by regulating the efficiency of messenger RNA (mRNA) translation. To date, most research activities have been focused on the control of miRNA expression and its functional consequences. Nonetheless, much remains unknown about the mechanisms affecting the level of specific miRNAs in the cell, a critical feature impacting their regulatory activity. This review focuses on the factors that regulate the abundance of miRNAs, including synthesis, post-transcriptional modifications, nucleases, target binding, and secretion.

  6. Phenotypic MicroRNA Microarrays

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Microarray technology has become a very popular approach in cases where multiple experiments need to be conducted repeatedly or done with a variety of samples. In our lab, we are applying our high density spots microarray approach to microscopy visualization of the effects of transiently introduced siRNA or cDNA on cellular morphology or phenotype. In this publication, we are discussing the possibility of using this micro-scale high throughput process to study the role of microRNAs in the bio...

  7. MicroRNA Regulation in Renal Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghui Hou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate a considerable amount of human genes on the post-transcriptional level, and participate in many key biological processes. MicroRNA deregulation has been found associated with major kidney diseases. Here, we summarize current knowledge on the role of microRNAs in renal glomerular and tubular pathologies, with emphasis on the mesangial cell and podocyte dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy, the proximal tubular cell survival in acute kidney injury, the transport function of the thick ascending limb in Ca++ imbalance diseases, and the regulation of salt, K+ and blood pressure in the distal tubules. Identification of microRNAs and their target genes provides novel therapeutic candidates for treating these diseases. Manipulation of microRNA function with its sense or antisense oligonucleotide enables coordinated regulation of the entire downstream gene network, which has effectively ameliorated several renal disease phenotypes. The therapeutic potentials of microRNA based treatments, though promising, are confounded by major safety issues related to its target specificity, which remain to be fully elucidated.

  8. MicroRNAs in neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushati, Natascha; Cohen, Stephen M

    2008-06-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in diverse cellular and developmental processes. Many miRNAs are expressed specifically in the central nervous system, where they have roles in differentiation, neuronal survival, and potentially also in plasticity and learning. The absence of miRNAs in a variety of specific postmitotic neurons can lead to progressive loss of these neurons and behavioral defects reminiscent of the phenotypes seen in the pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review recent studies which provide a link between miRNA function and neurodegeneration. We also discuss evidence which might suggest involvement of miRNAs in the emergence or progression of neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. MicroRNAs as regulatory elements in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic, autoimmune, and complex genetic disorder that affects 23% of the European population. The symptoms of Psoriatic skin are inflammation, raised and scaly lesions. microRNA, which is short, nonprotein-coding, regulatory RNAs, plays critical roles in psoriasis. microRNA participates in nearly all biological processes, such as cell differentiation, development and metabolism. Recent researches reveal that multitudinous novel microRNAs have been identified in skin. Some of these substantial novel microRNAs play as a class of posttranscriptional gene regulator in skin disease, such as psoriasis. In order to insight into microRNAs biological functions and verify microRNAs biomarker, we review diverse references about characterization, profiling and subtype of microRNAs. Here we will share our opinions about how and which microRNAs are as regulatory in psoriasis.

  10. MicroRNA: Biogenesis, Function and Role in Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small, highly conserved non-coding RNA molecules involved in the regulation of gene expression. MicroRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerases II and III, generating precursors that undergo a series of cleavage events to form mature microRNA. The conventional biogenesis pathway consists of two cleavage events, one nuclear and one cytoplasmic. However, alternative biogenesis pathways exist that differ in the number of cleavage events and enzymes responsible. How microRNA precursors...

  11. Expression profiling identifies microRNA signature in pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun Joo; Gusev, Yuriy; Jiang, Jinmai; Gerard J Nuovo; Lerner, Megan R; Frankel, Wendy L.; Morgan, Daniel L.; Postier, Russell G.; Brackett, Daniel J; Schmittgen, Thomas D.

    2007-01-01

    microRNAs are functional, 22 nt, noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression. Disturbance of microRNA expression may play a role in the initiation and progression of certain diseases. A microRNA expression signature has been identified that is associated with pancreatic cancer. This has been accomplished with the application of real-time PCR profiling of over 200 microRNA precursors on specimens of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma, paired benign tissue, normal pancreas, chronic pan...

  12. Role of MicroRNA in Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0491 TITLE: Role of MicroRNA in Aggressive Prostate... MicroRNA in Aggressive Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0491 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jer...action is not fully characterized. Using microRNA microarray screening, we found microRNA -363 (miR363) is significantly down regulated in several

  13. The repertoire and features of human platelet microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Plé

    Full Text Available Playing a central role in the maintenance of hemostasis as well as in thrombotic disorders, platelets contain a relatively diverse messenger RNA (mRNA transcriptome as well as functional mRNA-regulatory microRNAs, suggesting that platelet mRNAs may be regulated by microRNAs. Here, we elucidated the complete repertoire and features of human platelet microRNAs by high-throughput sequencing. More than 492 different mature microRNAs were detected in human platelets, whereas the list of known human microRNAs was expanded further by the discovery of 40 novel microRNA sequences. As in nucleated cells, platelet microRNAs bear signs of post-transcriptional modifications, mainly terminal adenylation and uridylation. In vitro enzymatic assays demonstrated the ability of human platelets to uridylate microRNAs, which correlated with the presence of the uridyltransferase enzyme TUT4. We also detected numerous microRNA isoforms (isomiRs resulting from imprecise Drosha and/or Dicer processing, in some cases more frequently than the reference microRNA sequence, including 5' shifted isomiRs with redirected mRNA targeting abilities. This study unveils the existence of a relatively diverse and complex microRNA repertoire in human platelets, and represents a mandatory step towards elucidating the intraplatelet and extraplatelet role, function and importance of platelet microRNAs.

  14. Integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression: Adding biological significance to microRNA target predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Iterson (Mat); S. Bervoets (Sander); E.J. de Meijer (Emile); H.P. Buermans (Henk); P.A.C. 't Hoen (Peter); R.X. Menezes (Renée); J.M. Boer (Judith)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCurrent microRNA target predictions are based on sequence information and empirically derived rules but do not make use of the expression of microRNAs and their targets. This study aimed to improve microRNA target predictions in a given biological context, using in silico predictions, mi

  15. MicroRNA Expression Profiling of the Porcine Developing Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolska, Agnieszka; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Busk, Peter Kamp

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play an important role in the control of developmental and physiological processes. In particular, the developing brain contains an impressive diversity of microRNAs. Most microRNA...... and the growth curve when compared to humans. Considering these similarities, studies examining microRNA expression during porcine brain development could potentially be used to predict the expression profile and role of microRNAs in the human brain....

  16. MicroRNAs, epigenetics and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silahtaroglu, Asli; Stenvang, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetics is defined as the heritable chances that affect gene expression without changing the DNA sequence. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression can be through different mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and nucleosome positioning. MicroRNAs are short RNA molecules...... which do not code for a protein but have a role in post-transcriptional silencing of multiple target genes by binding to their 3' UTRs (untranslated regions). Both epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, and the microRNAs are crucial for normal differentiation...... diseases. In the present chapter we will mainly focus on microRNAs and methylation and their implications in human disease, mainly in cancer....

  17. MicroRNA and gynecological reproductive diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Xavier; Taylor, Hugh

    2014-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs estimated to regulate the translation of mRNAs in 30% of all genes in animals by inhibiting translation. Aberrant miRNA expression is associated with many human diseases, including gynecological diseases, cancer, inflammatory diseases, and cardiovascular disorders. Abnormal expression of miRNAs has been observed in multiple human reproductive tract diseases including preeclampsia, endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma, uterine leiomyomata, ovarian carcinoma, endometriosis, and recurrent pregnancy loss. In the following review, an update of the role of microRNA and gynecological diseases is performed covering, not only impact of microRNA dysregulation in the origin of each disease, but also showing the potential useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool that miRNA may play in these gynecological pathologies.

  18. Epigenetic microRNA Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, Erik Digman

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to complementary sequences in the 3’UTR of target mRNAs in the cytoplasm. However, recent evidence suggests that certain miRNAs are enriched in the nucleus......, and their targets do not seem restricted to mRNA 3’UTRs. Therefore, miRNAs are predicted to have a variety functions throughout mammalian cells. MiRNA genes appear to be regulated in much the same way as coding genes, but current insight into transcriptional miRNA control lacks detail, as mapping miRNA promoters...... and confirming transcriptional start sites can be difficult. Epigenetics, gene regulatory and DNA modification mechanisms not involving a change to the primary sequence, have been implied in the regulation of a number of miRNA loci. Both epigenetic and miRNA signatures are broadly altered in cancer...

  19. MicroRNAs and spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaja, Noora

    2014-06-01

    In mammals, male gametes are produced inside the testis by spermatogenesis, which has three phases: mitotic proliferation of spermatogonia, meiosis of spermatocytes, and haploid differentiation of spermatids. The genome of male germ cells is actively transcribed to produce phase-specific gene expression patterns. Male germ cells have a complex transcriptome. In addition to protein-coding messenger RNAs, many noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), are produced. The miRNAs are important regulators of gene expression. They function mainly post-transcriptionally to control the stability or translation of their target messenger RNAs. The miRNAs are expressed in a cell-specific manner during spermatogenesis to participate in the control of each step of male germ cell differentiation. Genetically modified mouse models have demonstrated the importance of miRNA pathways for normal spermatogenesis, and functional studies have been designed to dissect the roles of specific miRNAs in distinct cell types. Clinical studies have exploited the well-defined expression profiles of miRNAs, and human spermatozoal or seminal plasma miRNAs have been explored as potential biomarkers for male factor infertility. This review article discusses the current findings that support the central role of miRNAs in the regulation of spermatogenesis and male fertility.

  20. MicroRNAs in Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienberg, Sara; Geiger, Julian; Madsen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have within the past decade emerged as key regulators of metabolic homeostasis. Major tissues in intermediary metabolism important during development of the metabolic syndrome, such as β-cells, liver, skeletal and heart muscle as well as adipose tissue have all been shown to be...... diabetes and atherosclerosis stresses their potential as therapeutic targets. This review emphasizes current ideas and controversies within miRNA research in metabolism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have within the past decade emerged as key regulators of metabolic homeostasis. Major tissues in intermediary metabolism important during development of the metabolic syndrome, such as β-cells, liver, skeletal and heart muscle as well as adipose tissue have all been shown...... to be affected by miRNAs. In the pancreatic β-cell a number of miRNAs are important in maintaining the balance between differentiation and proliferation (miR-200 and miR-29 families) and insulin exocytosis in the differentiated state is controlled by miR-7, miR-375 and miR-335. MiR-33a and -33b play crucial...

  1. Functional MicroRNA Involved in Endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Chad J.; Han, Derek Y.; Zariff, Azam; Anderson, Matthew L.; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common disease seen by gynecologists. Clinical features involve pelvic pain and unexplained infertility. Although endometriosis is pathologically characterized by endometrial tissue outside the normal uterine location, endometriosis is otherwise not easily explained. Endometriomas, endometriotic cysts of the ovary, typically cause pain and distortion of pelvic anatomy. To begin to understand the pathogenesis of endometriomas, we describe the first transcriptome-microRNAome analysis of endometriomas and eutopic endometrium using next-generation sequencing technology. Using this approach, we generated a total of more than 54 million independent small RNA reads from our 19 clinical samples. At the microRNA level, we found 10 microRNA that were up-regulated (miR-202, 193a-3p, 29c, 708, 509-3-5p, 574-3p, 193a-5p, 485-3p, 100, and 720) and 12 microRNA that were down-regulated (miR-504, 141, 429, 203, 10a, 200b, 873, 200c, 200a, 449b, 375, and 34c-5p) in endometriomas compared with endometrium. Using in silico prediction algorithms, we correlated these microRNA with their corresponding differentially expressed mRNA targets. To validate the functional roles of microRNA, we manipulated levels of miR-29c in an in vitro system of primary cultures of human endometrial stromal fibroblasts. Extracellular matrix genes that were potential targets of miR-29c in silico were significantly down-regulated using this biological in vitro system. In vitro functional studies using luciferase reporter constructs further confirmed that miR-29c directly affects specific extracellular matrix genes that are dysregulated in endometriomas. Thus, miR-29c and other abnormally regulated microRNA appear to play important roles in the pathophysiology of uterine function and dysfunction. PMID:21436257

  2. Novel role of microRNAs in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jun-jie; XIA Shu-jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the novel biomarkers of microRNAs in prostate cancer.Data sources The literatures about microRNAs and prostate cancer cited in this review were obtained mainly from Pubmed published in English from 2004 to 2012.Study selection Original articles regarding the novel role of microRNAs in prostate cancer were selected.Results MicroRNAs play an important role in prostate cancer such as cell differentiation,proliferation,apoptosis,and invasion.Especially microRNAs correlate with prostate cancer cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT),cancer stem cells (CSCs),drug sensitivity,cancer microenvironment,energy metabolism,androgen independence transformation,and diagnosis prediction.Conclusions MicroRNAs are involved in various aspects of prostate cancer biology.The role of microRNA in the initiation and development of prostate cancer deserves further study.

  3. Online resources for microRNA analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Alexiou

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of online tools for bioinformatics analyses is becoming increasingly widespread. Resources specific to the field of microRNAs are available, varying in scope and usability. Online tools are the most useful for casual as well as power users since they need no installation, are hardware independent and are used mostly through graphic user interfaces and links to external sources. Here, we present an overview of useful online resources that have to do with microRNA genomics, gene finding, target prediction and functional analysis.

  4. Prediction of viral microRNA precursors based on human microRNA precursor sequence and structural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shiva; Ansari, Faraz A; Scaria, Vinod

    2009-08-20

    MicroRNAs (small approximately 22 nucleotide long non-coding endogenous RNAs) have recently attracted immense attention as critical regulators of gene expression in multi-cellular eukaryotes, especially in humans. Recent studies have proved that viruses also express microRNAs, which are thought to contribute to the intricate mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions. Computational predictions have greatly accelerated the discovery of microRNAs. However, most of these widely used tools are dependent on structural features and sequence conservation which limits their use in discovering novel virus expressed microRNAs and non-conserved eukaryotic microRNAs. In this work an efficient prediction method is developed based on the hypothesis that sequence and structure features which discriminate between host microRNA precursor hairpins and pseudo microRNAs are shared by viral microRNA as they depend on host machinery for the processing of microRNA precursors. The proposed method has been found to be more efficient than recently reported ab-initio methods for predicting viral microRNAs and microRNAs expressed by mammals.

  5. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced tumor suppressor microRNA MiR-34a is growth promoting in EBV-infected B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Eleonora; Salinas, Raul E; Chang, Christina; Zhou, Ting; Linnstaedt, Sarah D; Gottwein, Eva; Jacobs, Cassandra; Jima, Dereje; Li, Qi-Jing; Dave, Sandeep S; Luftig, Micah A

    2012-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of primary human B cells drives their indefinite proliferation into lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). B cell immortalization depends on expression of viral latency genes, as well as the regulation of host genes. Given the important role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating fundamental cellular processes, in this study, we assayed changes in host miRNA expression during primary B cell infection by EBV. We observed and validated dynamic changes in several miRNAs from early proliferation through immortalization; oncogenic miRNAs were induced, and tumor suppressor miRNAs were largely repressed. However, one miRNA described as a p53-targeted tumor suppressor, miR-34a, was strongly induced by EBV infection and expressed in many EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-infected lymphoma cell lines. EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) was sufficient to induce miR-34a requiring downstream NF-κB activation but independent of functional p53. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-34a was not toxic in several B lymphoma cell lines, and inhibition of miR-34a impaired the growth of EBV-transformed cells. This study identifies a progrowth role for a tumor-suppressive miRNA in oncogenic-virus-mediated transformation, highlighting the importance of studying miRNA function in different cellular contexts.

  6. Pervasive microRNA Duplication in Chelicerates: Insights from the Embryonic microRNA Repertoire of the Spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Daniel J; Ninova, Maria; Hilbrant, Maarten; Arif, Saad; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Ronshaugen, Matthew; McGregor, Alistair P

    2016-08-03

    MicroRNAs are small (∼22 nt) noncoding RNAs that repress translation and therefore regulate the production of proteins from specific target mRNAs. microRNAs have been found to function in diverse aspects of gene regulation within animal development and many other processes. Among invertebrates, both conserved and novel, lineage specific, microRNAs have been extensively studied predominantly in holometabolous insects such as Drosophila melanogaster However little is known about microRNA repertoires in other arthropod lineages such as the chelicerates. To understand the evolution of microRNAs in this poorly sampled subphylum, we characterized the microRNA repertoire expressed during embryogenesis of the common house spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum We identified a total of 148 microRNAs in P. tepidariorum representing 66 families. Approximately half of these microRNA families are conserved in other metazoans, while the remainder are specific to this spider. Of the 35 conserved microRNAs families 15 had at least two copies in the P. tepidariorum genome. A BLAST-based approach revealed a similar pattern of duplication in other spiders and a scorpion, but not among other chelicerates and arthropods, with the exception of a horseshoe crab. Among the duplicated microRNAs we found examples of lineage-specific tandem duplications, and the duplication of entire microRNA clusters in three spiders, a scorpion, and in a horseshoe crab. Furthermore, we found that paralogs of many P. tepidariorum microRNA families exhibit arm switching, which suggests that duplication was often followed by sub- or neofunctionalization. Our work shows that understanding the evolution of microRNAs in the chelicerates has great potential to provide insights into the process of microRNA duplication and divergence and the evolution of animal development.

  7. MicroRNA expression profiling and DNA methylation signature for deregulated microRNA in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Juan; Díaz-Lagares, Angel; Salgado, Rocío; Servitje, Octavio; Climent, Fina; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L; Pérez-Ferriols, Amparo; Garcia-Muret, Maria P; Estrach, Teresa; Garcia, Mar; Nonell, Lara; Esteller, Manel; Pujol, Ramon M; Espinet, Blanca; Gallardo, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNAs usually regulate gene expression negatively, and aberrant expression has been involved in the development of several types of cancers. Microarray profiling of microRNA expression was performed to define a microRNA signature in a series of mycosis fungoides tumor stage (MFt, n=21) and CD30+ primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (CD30+ cALCL, n=11) samples in comparison with inflammatory dermatoses (ID, n=5). Supervised clustering confirmed a distinctive microRNA profile for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) with respect to ID. A 40 microRNA signature was found in MFt including upregulated onco-microRNAs (miR-146a, miR-142-3p/5p, miR-21, miR-181a/b, and miR-155) and downregulated tumor-suppressor microRNAs (miR-200ab/429 cluster, miR-10b, miR-193b, miR-141/200c, and miR-23b/27b). Regarding CD30+ cALCL, 39 differentially expressed microRNAs were identified. Particularly, overexpression of miR-155, miR-21, or miR-142-3p/5p and downregulation of the miR-141/200c clusters were observed. DNA methylation in microRNA gene promoters, as expression regulatory mechanism for deregulated microRNAs, was analyzed using Infinium 450K array and approximately one-third of the differentially expressed microRNAs showed significant DNA methylation differences. Two different microRNA methylation signatures for MFt and CD30+ cALCL were found. Correlation analysis showed an inverse relationship for microRNA promoter methylation and microRNA expression. These results reveal a subgroup-specific epigenetically regulated microRNA signatures for MFt and CD30+ cALCL patients.

  8. 腺相关病毒介导转化生长因子β1和血管内皮生长因子联合转染促进糖尿病溃疡愈合的生物学效应%Biological effects of co-transfection of transforming growth factor beta 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor mediated by adeno-associated virus on promoting the dermal ulcer healing in diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赛佳明; 张慧琴

    2006-01-01

    使溃疡组织中毛细血管密度明显增多,愈合组织中Ⅰ型和Ⅲ型胶原构成比中Ⅰ型胶原的比例明显提高,并有效地促进溃疡愈合.%BACKGROUND: The ulcer wound is hard to heal in diabetic patients,and it is believed to be caused by the microcirculatory disorder of wound and decreased contents of endogenous growth factors in patients with diabetes mellitus.OBJECTIVE: To observe the biological effects of adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated transforming growth factor beta1 (AAV-TGFβ1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (AAV-VEGF) in promoting the dermal ulcer healing of diabetic rabbits.DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTINGS: Medical College, Qingdao University; Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University.MATERIALS: The experiments were carried out in the gynecological laboratory, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University from July 2004 to January 2006. Twenty-four healthy adult New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into co-transfection group (n=12) and control group (n=12).METHODS: ① The dermal ulcer models of diabetic rabbits was established by injecting alloxan (130 mg/kg) via ear vein, and the ulcer wound was made by operation. ② In the co-transfection group, the wound was locally infiltrated, and injected with AAV-TGFβ1 virus and AAV-VEGF virus (the concentration was 9×106 virus granules/mL respectively). The rabbits in the control group were treated with injection of saline.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① The levels of TGFβ1 and VEGF gene transcription in the healing tissue were detected with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at 1 month postoperatively. ② The capillary density in the wound margin was counted with microcirculation microscope at 3 weeks postoperatively. ③ The collagen Ⅰ and Ⅲ were isolated and detected with Western blotting by protein gel electrophoresis and semi-dry electrophoretic transfer. ④ The content of collagen in the ulcer healing issue

  9. Deregulated microRNAs in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetatos, Leonidas; Vartholomatos, George

    2012-02-15

    MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAS involved in gene expression regulation under physiological and pathological situations. They bind to mRNA of target genes and are potential regulators of gene expression at a post-transcription level through the RNA interference pathway. They are estimated to represent 1% to 2% of the known eukaryotic genome, and it has been demonstrated that they are involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, metabolism disorders, and heart disease. MicroRNAs are known to act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in cancer biology. The authors describe the current knowledge on microRNA involvement in regulatory pathways that characterize multiple myeloma pathogenesis gained from in vitro and in vivo studies. These small molecules interact with important factors such as p53, SOCS1, IGF-1, IGF-1R, vascular endothelial growth factor, NF-κB, and others. As such, microRNAs represent an attractive therapeutic target in the context of multiple myeloma interfering with the myeloma regulatory networks. Further studies are needed to better understand their role in myelomagenesis and their therapeutic potential.

  10. microRNA in Human Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Iris; Kotaja, Noora; Goldman-Wohl, Debra; Imbar, Tal

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs constitute a large family of approximately 21-nucleotide-long, noncoding RNAs. They emerged more than 20 years ago as key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. The regulatory role of these small RNA molecules has recently begun to be explored in the human reproductive system. microRNAs have been shown to play an important role in control of reproductive functions, especially in the processes of oocyte maturation, folliculogenesis, corpus luteum function, implantation, and early embryonic development. Knockout of Dicer, the cytoplasmic enzyme that cleaves the pre-miRNA to its mature form, results in postimplantation embryonic lethality in several animal models, attributing to these small RNA vital functions in reproduction and development. Another intriguing characteristic of microRNAs is their presence in body fluids in a remarkably stable form that is protected from endogenous RNase activity. In this chapter we will describe the current knowledge on microRNAs, specifically relating to human gonadal cells. We will focus on their role in the ovarian physiologic process and ovulation dysfunction, regulation of spermatogenesis and male fertility, and putative involvement in human normal and aberrant trophoblast differentiation and invasion through the process of placentation.

  11. Studying microRNAs in lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluiver, Joost; Slezak-Prochazka, Izabella; van den Berg, Anke

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in development, differentiation, homeostasis, and also in diseases such as lymphoma. This chapter describes methods to study the role of miRNAs in lymphoma. First, we describe a multiplex RT reaction followed by qPCR that can be used to determine differential

  12. MicroRNA mimicry blocks pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montgomery, Rusty L; Yu, Guoying; Latimer, Paul A; Stack, Christianna; Robinson, Kathryn; Dalby, Christina M; Kaminski, Naftali; van Rooij, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, great enthusiasm has evolved for microRNA (miRNA) therapeutics. Part of the excitement stems from the fact that a miRNA often regulates numerous related mRNAs. As such, modulation of a single miRNA allows for parallel regulation of multiple genes involved in a particular diseas

  13. Beginning to understand microRNA function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tingting Du; Phillip D Zamore

    2007-01-01

    @@ MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are -22 nt small RNAs expressed by plants, animals, viruses and at least one unicellular organism, the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [1]. Most miRNAs are transcribed as primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) by RNA polymerase Ⅱ, although a few are transcribed by RNA polymerase Ⅲ.

  14. Comparison of microRNA expression levels between initial and recurrent glioblastoma specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan-Mutlu, Aysegül; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Berghoff, Anna Sophie; Widhalm, Georg; Marosi, Christine; Wagner, Ludwig; Preusser, Matthias

    2013-05-01

    Glioblastoma is the most frequent primary brain tumour in adults. Recent therapeutic advances increased patient's survival, but tumour recurrence inevitably occurs. The pathobiological mechanisms involved in glioblastoma recurrence are still unclear. MicroRNAs are small RNAs proposed o have important roles for cancer including proliferation, aggressiveness and metastases development. There exist only few data on the involvement of microRNAs in glioblastoma recurrence. We selected the following 7 microRNAs with potential relevance for glioblastoma pathobiology by means of a comprehensive literature search: microRNA-10b, microRNA-21, microRNA-181b, microRNA-181c, microRNA-195, microRNA-221 and microRNA-222. We further selected 15 primary glioblastoma patients, of whom formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue (FFPE) of the initial and recurrence surgery were available. All patients had received first line treatment consisting of postoperative combined radiochemotherapy with temozolomide (n = 15). Non-neoplastic brain tissue samples from 3 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy served as control. The expression of the microRNAs were analysed by RT-qPCR. These were correlated with each other and with clinical parameters. All microRNAs showed detectable levels of expressions in glioblastoma group, whereas microRNA-10b was not detectable in epilepsy patients. MicroRNAs except microRNA-21 showed significantly higher levels in epilepsy patients when compared to the levels of first resection of glioblastoma. Comparison of microRNA levels between first and second resections revealed no significant change. Cox regression analyses showed no significant association of microRNA expression levels in the tumor tissue with progression free survival times. Expression levels of microRNA-10b, microRNA-21, microRNA-181b, microRNA-181c, microRNA-195, microRNA-221 and microRNA-222 do not differ significantly between initial and recurrent glioblastoma.

  15. MicroRNA signature of the human developing pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa-Medina Mayrin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression including differentiation and development by either inhibiting translation or inducing target degradation. The aim of this study is to determine the microRNA expression signature during human pancreatic development and to identify potential microRNA gene targets calculating correlations between the signature microRNAs and their corresponding mRNA targets, predicted by bioinformatics, in genome-wide RNA microarray study. Results The microRNA signature of human fetal pancreatic samples 10-22 weeks of gestational age (wga, was obtained by PCR-based high throughput screening with Taqman Low Density Arrays. This method led to identification of 212 microRNAs. The microRNAs were classified in 3 groups: Group number I contains 4 microRNAs with the increasing profile; II, 35 microRNAs with decreasing profile and III with 173 microRNAs, which remain unchanged. We calculated Pearson correlations between the expression profile of microRNAs and target mRNAs, predicted by TargetScan 5.1 and miRBase altgorithms, using genome-wide mRNA expression data. Group I correlated with the decreasing expression of 142 target mRNAs and Group II with the increasing expression of 876 target mRNAs. Most microRNAs correlate with multiple targets, just as mRNAs are targeted by multiple microRNAs. Among the identified targets are the genes and transcription factors known to play an essential role in pancreatic development. Conclusions We have determined specific groups of microRNAs in human fetal pancreas that change the degree of their expression throughout the development. A negative correlative analysis suggests an intertwined network of microRNAs and mRNAs collaborating with each other. This study provides information leading to potential two-way level of combinatorial control regulating gene expression through microRNAs targeting multiple mRNAs and, conversely, target mRNAs regulated in

  16. Capsid protein expression and adeno-associated virus like particles assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backovic Ana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae supports replication of many different RNA or DNA viruses (e.g. Tombusviruses or Papillomaviruses and has provided means for up-scalable, cost- and time-effective production of various virus-like particles (e.g. Human Parvovirus B19 or Rotavirus. We have recently demonstrated that S. cerevisiae can form single stranded DNA AAV2 genomes starting from a circular plasmid. In this work, we have investigated the possibility to assemble AAV capsids in yeast. Results To do this, at least two out of three AAV structural proteins, VP1 and VP3, have to be simultaneously expressed in yeast cells and their intracellular stoichiometry has to resemble the one found in the particles derived from mammalian or insect cells. This was achieved by stable co-transformation of yeast cells with two plasmids, one expressing VP3 from its natural p40 promoter and the other one primarily expressing VP1 from a modified AAV2 Cap gene under the control of the inducible yeast promoter Gal1. Among various induction strategies we tested, the best one to yield the appropriate VP1:VP3 ratio was 4.5 hour induction in the medium containing 0.5% glucose and 5% galactose. Following such induction, AAV virus like particles (VLPs were isolated from yeast by two step ultracentrifugation procedure. The transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that their morphology is similar to the empty capsids produced in human cells. Conclusions Taken together, the results show for the first time that yeast can be used to assemble AAV capsid and, therefore, as a genetic system to identify novel cellular factors involved in AAV biology.

  17. Adeno-associated viral vector serotype 5 poorly transduces liver in rat models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula S Montenegro-Miranda

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies in mice and non-human primates showed that AAV serotype 5 provides efficient liver transduction and as such seems a promising vector for liver directed gene therapy. An advantage of AAV5 compared to serotype 8 already shown to provide efficient correction in a phase 1 trial in patients suffering from hemophilia B, is its lower seroprevalence in the general population. Our goal is liver directed gene therapy for Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I, inherited severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia caused by UGT1A1 deficiency. In a relevant animal model, the Gunn rat, we compared the efficacy of AAV 5 and 8 to that of AAV1 previously shown to be effective. Ferrying a construct driving hepatocyte specific expression of UGT1A1, both AAV8 and AAV1 provided an efficient correction of hyperbilirubinemia. In contrast to these two and to other animal models AAV5 failed to provide any correction. To clarify whether this unexpected finding was due to the rat model used or due to a problem with AAV5, the efficacy of this serotype was compared in a mouse and two additional rat strains. Administration of an AAV5 vector expressing luciferase under the control of a liver specific promoter confirmed that this serotype poorly performed in rat liver, rendering it not suitable for proof of concept studies in this species.

  18. Addressing immune tolerance issues in inflammatory bowel disease and adeno-associated virus based gene transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majowicz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is focusing on cell-mediated induction of immune tolerance and consists of two parts. The studies described in Part I report the development of strategies for possible treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). Induction of immune tolerance, in IBD mouse model, with the use of regul

  19. Activation of the cellular unfolded protein response by recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Balakrishnan

    Full Text Available The unfolded protein response (UPR is a stress-induced cyto-protective mechanism elicited towards an influx of large amount of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. In the present study, we evaluated if AAV manipulates the UPR pathways during its infection. We first examined the role of the three major UPR axes, namely, endoribonuclease inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1α, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6 and PKR-like ER kinase (PERK in AAV infected cells. Total RNA from mock or AAV infected HeLa cells were used to determine the levels of 8 different ER-stress responsive transcripts from these pathways. We observed a significant up-regulation of IRE1α (up to 11 fold and PERK (up to 8 fold genes 12-48 hours after infection with self-complementary (scAAV2 but less prominent with single-stranded (ssAAV2 vectors. Further studies demonstrated that scAAV1 and scAAV6 also induce cellular UPR in vitro, with AAV1 vectors activating the PERK pathway (3 fold while AAV6 vectors induced a significant increase on all the three major UPR pathways [6-16 fold]. These data suggest that the type and strength of UPR activation is dependent on the viral capsid. We then examined if transient inhibition of UPR pathways by RNA interference has an effect on AAV transduction. siRNA mediated silencing of PERK and IRE1α had a modest effect on AAV2 and AAV6 mediated gene expression (∼1.5-2 fold in vitro. Furthermore, hepatic gene transfer of scAAV2 vectors in vivo, strongly elevated IRE1α and PERK pathways (2 and 3.5 fold, respectively. However, when animals were pre-treated with a pharmacological UPR inhibitor (metformin during scAAV2 gene transfer, the UPR signalling and its subsequent inflammatory response was attenuated concomitant to a modest 2.8 fold increase in transgene expression. Collectively, these data suggest that AAV vectors activate the cellular UPR pathways and their selective inhibition may be beneficial during AAV mediated gene transfer.

  20. In utero recombinant adeno-associated virus gene transfer in mice, rats, and primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marrero Luis

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene transfer into the amniotic fluid using recombinant adenovirus vectors was shown previously to result in high efficiency transfer of transgenes into the lungs and intestines. Adenovirus mediated in utero gene therapy, however, resulted in expression of the transgene for less than 30 days. Recombinant adenovirus associated viruses (rAAV have the advantage of maintaining the viral genome in daughter cells thus providing for long-term expression of transgenes. Methods Recombinant AAV2 carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP was introduced into the amniotic sac of fetal rodents and nonhuman primates. Transgene maintenance and expression was monitor. Results Gene transfer resulted in rapid uptake and long-term gene expression in mice, rats, and non-human primates. Expression and secretion of the reporter gene, GFP, was readily demonstrated within 72 hours post-therapy. In long-term studies in rats and nonhuman primates, maintenance of GFP DNA, protein expression, and reporter gene secretion was documented for over one year. Conclusions Because only multipotential stem cells are present at the time of therapy, these data demonstrated that in utero gene transfer with AAV2 into stem cells resulted in long-term systemic expression of active transgene roducts. Thus, in utero gene transfer via the amniotic fluid may be useful in treatment of gene disorders.

  1. MicroRNAs in neural cell development and brain diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Feng, Yue

    2011-12-01

    MicroRNAs play important roles in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by inhibiting protein translation and/or promoting mRNA degradation. Importantly, biogenesis of microRNAs displays specific temporal and spatial profiles in distinct cell and tissue types and hence affects a broad spectrum of biological functions in normal cell growth and tumor development. Recent discoveries have revealed sophisticated mechanisms that control microRNA production and homeostasis in response to developmental and extracellular signals. Moreover, a link between dysregulation of microRNAs and human brain disorders has become increasingly evident. In this review, we focus on recent advances in understanding the regulation of microRNA biogenesis and function in neuronal and glial development in the mammalian brain, and dysregulation of the microRNA pathway in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Micro-RNA profiling in kidney and bladder cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardo, Fedra; Liu, Chang Gong; Ferracin, Manuela; Calin, George A; Fassan, Matteo; Bassi, Pierfrancesco; Sevignani, Cinzia; Byrne, Dolores; Negrini, Massimo; Pagano, Francesco; Gomella, Leonard G; Croce, Carlo M; Baffa, Raffaele

    2007-01-01

    Micro-RNAs are a group of small noncoding RNAs with modulator activity of gene expression. Recently, micro-RNA genes were found abnormally expressed in several types of cancers. To study the role of the micro-RNAs in human kidney and bladder cancer, we analyzed the expression profile of 245 micro-RNAs in kidney and bladder primary tumors. A total of 27 kidney specimens (20 carcinomas, 4 benign renal tumors, and 3 normal parenchyma) and 27 bladder specimens (25 urothelial carcinomas and 2 normal mucosa) were included in the study. Total RNA was used for hybridization on an oligonucleotide microchip for micro-RNA profiling developed in our laboratories. This microchip contains 368 probes in triplicate, corresponding to 245 human and mouse micro-RNA genes. A set of 4 human micro-RNAs (miR-28, miR-185, miR-27, and let-7f-2) were found significantly up-regulated in renal cell carcinoma (P micro-RNAs miR-223, miR-26b, miR-221, miR-103-1, miR-185, miR-23b, miR-203, miR-17-5p, miR-23a, and miR-205 were significantly up-regulated in bladder cancers (P micro-RNA expression across various stages, whereas with increasing tumor-nodes-metastasis staging in bladder cancer, miR-26b showed a moderate decreasing trend (P = 0.082). Our results show that different micro-RNAs are deregulated in kidney and bladder cancer, suggesting the involvement of these genes in the development and progression of these malignancies. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of micro-RNAs in neoplastic transformation and to test the potential clinical usefulness of micro-RNAs microarrays as diagnostic and prognostic tool.

  3. MicroRNA expression profiling of the porcine developing brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolska, Agnieszka; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Busk, Peter Kamp;

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play an important role in the control of developmental and physiological processes. In particular, the developing brain contains an impressive diversity of microRNAs. Most micro...... and the growth curve when compared to humans. Considering these similarities, studies examining microRNA expression during porcine brain development could potentially be used to predict the expression profile and role of microRNAs in the human brain....

  4. MicroRNAs: Emerging Novel Clinical Biomarkers for Hepatocellular Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumadi Lukman Anwar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of small non-coding RNAs known as microRNAs has refined our view of the complexity of gene expression regulation. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, the fifth most frequent cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide, dysregulation of microRNAs has been implicated in all aspects of hepatocarcinogenesis. In addition, alterations of microRNA expression have also been reported in non-cancerous liver diseases including chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. MicroRNAs have been proposed as clinically useful diagnostic biomarkers to differentiate HCC from different liver pathologies and healthy controls. Unique patterns of microRNA expression have also been implicated as biomarkers for prognosis as well as to predict and monitor therapeutic responses in HCC. Since dysregulation has been detected in various specimens including primary liver cancer tissues, serum, plasma, and urine, microRNAs represent novel non-invasive markers for HCC screening and predicting therapeutic responses. However, despite a significant number of studies, a consensus on which microRNA panels, sample types, and methodologies for microRNA expression analysis have to be used has not yet been established. This review focuses on potential values, benefits, and limitations of microRNAs as new clinical markers for diagnosis, prognosis, prediction, and therapeutic monitoring in HCC.

  5. MicroRNAs, cancer and ionizing radiation: Where are we?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nader Marta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary The aim of this study is to describe the biogenesis of microRNA, its relations with carcinogenesis, and the correlation between microRNA and ionizing radiation (IR, focusing on radioresponsiveness. It is known that microRNA biogenesis is well established and involves different enzymatic cleavages, resulting in the production of mature microRNA. MicroRNAs are involved in carcinogenesis. Their interaction is related to the genetic and epigenetic changes associated with activation of proto-oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Several studies have shown that the levels of expression of some microRNAs vary significantly after irradiation. There are evidences that microRNAs can influence cellular response after IR. In addition, microRNAs are related to modulation of the expression of several post-transcriptional targets in DNA damage response pathways, and to the DNA damage repair regulation mechanism. Future studies can clarify a possible clinical use of microRNAs as a new class of radiosensitive agents.

  6. MicroRNAs, epigenetics and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silahtaroglu, Asli; Stenvang, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetics is defined as the heritable chances that affect gene expression without changing the DNA sequence. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression can be through different mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and nucleosome positioning. MicroRNAs are short RNA molecules...... which do not code for a protein but have a role in post-transcriptional silencing of multiple target genes by binding to their 3' UTRs (untranslated regions). Both epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, and the microRNAs are crucial for normal differentiation......, development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression. These mechanisms also explain how cells with the same DNA content can differentiate into cells with different functions. Changes in epigenetic processes can lead to changes in gene function, cancer formation and progression, as well as other...

  7. MicroRNA signatures in liver diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xian-Ming

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an emerging class of highly conserved non-coding small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. It is now clear that miRNAs can potentially regulate every aspect of cellular activity, including differentiation and development, metabolism, proliferation, apoptotic cell death, viral infection and tumorigenesis. Recent studies provide clear evidence that miRNAs are abundant in the liver and modulate a diverse spectrum of liver functions. Deregu...

  8. Scleral micro-RNA signatures in adult and fetal eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metlapally, Ravikanth; Gonzalez, Pedro; Hawthorne, Felicia A; Tran-Viet, Khanh-Nhat; Wildsoet, Christine F; Young, Terri L

    2013-01-01

    In human eyes, ocular enlargement/growth reflects active extracellular matrix remodeling of the outer scleral shell. Micro-RNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by base pairing with target sequences. They serve as nodes of signaling networks. We hypothesized that the sclera, like most tissues, expresses micro-RNAs, some of which modulate genes regulating ocular growth. In this study, the scleral micro-RNA expression profile of rapidly growing human fetal eyes was compared with that of stable adult donor eyes using high-throughput microarray and quantitative PCR analyses. Scleral samples from normal human fetal (24 wk) and normal adult donor eyes were obtained (n=4 to 6, each group), and RNA extracted. Genome-wide micro-RNA profiling was performed using the Agilent micro-RNA microarray platform. Micro-RNA target predictions were obtained using Microcosm, TargetScan and PicTar algorithms. TaqMan® micro-RNA assays targeting micro-RNAs showing either highest significance, detection, or fold differences, and collagen specificity, were applied to scleral samples from posterior and peripheral ocular regions (n=7, each group). Microarray data were analyzed using R, and quantitative PCR data with 2^-deltaCt methods. Human sclera was found to express micro-RNAs, and comparison of microarray results for adult and fetal samples revealed many to be differentially expressed (pmicro-RNA expression has been catalogued in human sclera. Some micro-RNAs show age-related differential regulation, higher in the sclera of rapidly growing fetal eyes, consistent with a role in ocular growth regulation. Thus micro-RNAs represent potential targets for ocular growth manipulation, related to myopia and/or other disorders such as scleral ectasia.

  9. Inferring data-specific micro-RNA function through the joint ranking of micro-RNA and pathways from matched micro-RNA and gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Ellis; Buckley, Michael; Müller, Samuel; Lin, David M; Yang, Jean Y H

    2015-09-01

    In practice, identifying and interpreting the functional impacts of the regulatory relationships between micro-RNA and messenger-RNA is non-trivial. The sheer scale of possible micro-RNA and messenger-RNA interactions can make the interpretation of results difficult. We propose a supervised framework, pMim, built upon concepts of significance combination, for jointly ranking regulatory micro-RNA and their potential functional impacts with respect to a condition of interest. Here, pMim directly tests if a micro-RNA is differentially expressed and if its predicted targets, which lie in a common biological pathway, have changed in the opposite direction. We leverage the information within existing micro-RNA target and pathway databases to stabilize the estimation and annotation of micro-RNA regulation making our approach suitable for datasets with small sample sizes. In addition to outputting meaningful and interpretable results, we demonstrate in a variety of datasets that the micro-RNA identified by pMim, in comparison to simpler existing approaches, are also more concordant with what is described in the literature. This framework is implemented as an R function, pMim, in the package sydSeq available from http://www.ellispatrick.com/r-packages. jean.yang@sydney.edu.au Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Many novel mammalian microRNA candidates identified by extensive cloning and RAKE analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berezikov, Eugene; van Tetering, Geert; Verheul, Mark; van de Belt, Jose; van Laake, Linda; Vos, Joost; Verloop, Robert; van de Wetering, Marc; Guryev, Victor; Takada, Shuji; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Mano, Hiroyuki; Plasterk, Ronald; Cuppen, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    MicroRNAs are 20- to 23-nucleotide RNA molecules that can regulate gene expression. Currently > 400 microRNAs have been experimentally identified in mammalian genomes, whereas estimates go up to 1000 and beyond. Here we show that many more mammalian microRNAs exist. We discovered novel microRNA cand

  11. Hypoxia-regulated MicroRNAs in Gastroesophageal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Mette; Alsner, Jan; Sørensen, Brita Singers

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: The present study aimed to identify hypoxia-regulated microRNAs (HRMs) in vitro and investigate the clinical role of candidate HRMs in patients with gastroesophageal cancer (GEC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: microRNA expression changes induced by hypoxia in human GEC cell lines were...

  12. MicroRNAs in rhabdomyosarcoma: pathogenetic implications and translational potentiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Antonio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is growing evidence that interconnections among molecular pathways governing tissue differentiation are nodal points for malignant transformation. In this scenario, microRNAs appear as crucial players. This class of non-coding small regulatory RNA molecules controls developmental programs by modulating gene expression through post-transcriptional silencing of target mRNAs. During myogenesis, muscle-specific and ubiquitously-expressed microRNAs tightly control muscle tissue differentiation. In recent years, microRNAs have emerged as prominent players in cancer as well. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a pediatric skeletal muscle-derived soft-tissue sarcoma that originates from myogenic precursors arrested at different stages of differentiation and that continue to proliferate indefinitely. MicroRNAs involved in muscle cell fate determination appear down-regulated in rhabdomyosarcoma primary tumors and cell lines compared to their normal counterparts. More importantly, they behave as tumor suppressors in this malignancy, as their re-expression is sufficient to restore the differentiation capability of tumor cells and to prevent tumor growth in vivo. In addition, up-regulation of pro-oncogenic microRNAs has also been recently detected in rhabdomyosarcoma. In this review, we provide an overview of current knowledge on microRNAs de-regulation in rhabdomyosarcoma. Additionally, we examine the potential of microRNAs as prognostic and diagnostic markers in this soft-tissue sarcoma, and discuss possible therapeutic applications and challenges of a "microRNA therapy".

  13. Hypoxia-regulated MicroRNAs in gastroesophageal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, M.; Alsner, J.; Sørensen, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    Background/aim: The present study aimed to identify hypoxia-regulated microRNAs (HRMs) in vitro and investigate the clinical role of candidate HRMs in patients with gastroesophageal cancer (GEC). Materials and Methods: microRNA expression changes induced by hypoxia in human GEC cell lines were...

  14. Semiconserved regulation of mesendoderm differentiation by microRNAs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketting, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs are known to play important roles in many different processes. However, their roles in shaping the early steps in embryogenesis have remained largely hidden. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Rosa et al. show that the miR-430/427/302 family of microRNAs has a distinct effect on Nodal

  15. MicroRNA-126 inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cell line A549

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun Yang; Bei-Bei Chen; Ming-Hua Zhang; Xin-Rong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the role of microRNA-126 in the development of lung cancer.Methods:The biological function of microRNA-126 was detected using EdU assay and CCK-8 assay;the target gene of microRNA-126 was analyzed using real time RT-PCR and Western blot assay.Results: In A549 cell line, overexpression of microRNA-126 inhibits the proliferation rate; VEGF is the target gene of microRNA-126; microRNA-126 exerts its function via regulating VEGF protein level.Conclusions: microRNA-126 inhibits the proliferation in A549 cell line.

  16. MicroRNAs in dysfunctional adipose tissue: cardiovascular implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icli, Basak; Feinberg, Mark W

    2017-07-01

    In this review, we focus on the emerging role of microRNAs, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and signaling pathways, in dysfunctional adipose tissue. We highlight current paradigms of microRNAs involved in adipose differentiation and function in depots such as white, brown, and beige adipose tissues and potential implications of microRNA dysregulation in human disease such as obesity, inflammation, microvasculature dysfunction, and related cardiovascular diseases. We highlight accumulating studies indicating that adipocyte-derived microRNAs may not only serve as biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease, but also may directly regulate gene expression of other tissues. Finally, we discuss the future prospects, challenges, and emerging strategies for microRNA delivery and targeting for therapeutic applications in cardiovascular disease states associated with adipocyte dysfunction. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Regulation of cardiac microRNAs by serum response factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jeanne Y

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Serum response factor (SRF regulates certain microRNAs that play a role in cardiac and skeletal muscle development. However, the role of SRF in the regulation of microRNA expression and microRNA biogenesis in cardiac hypertrophy has not been well established. In this report, we employed two distinct transgenic mouse models to study the impact of SRF on cardiac microRNA expression and microRNA biogenesis. Cardiac-specific overexpression of SRF (SRF-Tg led to altered expression of a number of microRNAs. Interestingly, downregulation of miR-1, miR-133a and upregulation of miR-21 occurred by 7 days of age in these mice, long before the onset of cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that SRF overexpression impacted the expression of microRNAs which contribute to cardiac hypertrophy. Reducing cardiac SRF level using the antisense-SRF transgenic approach (Anti-SRF-Tg resulted in the expression of miR-1, miR-133a and miR-21 in the opposite direction. Furthermore, we observed that SRF regulates microRNA biogenesis, specifically the transcription of pri-microRNA, thereby affecting the mature microRNA level. The mir-21 promoter sequence is conserved among mouse, rat and human; one SRF binding site was found to be in the mir-21 proximal promoter region of all three species. The mir-21 gene is regulated by SRF and its cofactors, including myocardin and p49/Strap. Our study demonstrates that the downregulation of miR-1, miR-133a, and upregulation of miR-21 can be reversed by one single upstream regulator, SRF. These results may help to develop novel therapeutic interventions targeting microRNA biogenesis.

  18. Rapid Generation of MicroRNA Sponges for MicroRNA Inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluiver, Joost; Gibcus, Johan H.; Hettinga, Chris; Adema, Annelies; Richter, Mareike K. S.; Halsema, Nancy; Slezak-Prochazka, Izabella; Ding, Ye; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; van den Berg, Anke

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) sponges are transcripts with repeated miRNA antisense sequences that can sequester miRNAs from endogenous targets. MiRNA sponges are valuable tools for miRNA loss-of-function studies both in vitro and in vivo. We developed a fast and flexible method to generate miRNA sponges and tes

  19. Functional microRNA screening using a comprehensive lentiviral human microRNA expression library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, J.B.; van Haastert, R.J.; Cerisoli, F.; Bolijn, A.S.; Timmer, L.M.; Diosdado-Calvo, B.; Meijer, G.A.; van Puijenbroek, A.A.; Berezikov, E.; Schaapveld, R.Q.; Cuppen, E.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small regulatory RNAs that target sequences in messenger RNAs (mRNAs) to inhibit their protein output. Dissecting the complexities of miRNA function continues to prove challenging as miRNAs are predicted to have thousands of targets, and mRNAs

  20. Rapid Generation of MicroRNA Sponges for MicroRNA Inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluiver, Joost; Gibcus, Johan H.; Hettinga, Chris; Adema, Annelies; Richter, Mareike K. S.; Halsema, Nancy; Slezak-Prochazka, Izabella; Ding, Ye; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; van den Berg, Anke

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) sponges are transcripts with repeated miRNA antisense sequences that can sequester miRNAs from endogenous targets. MiRNA sponges are valuable tools for miRNA loss-of-function studies both in vitro and in vivo. We developed a fast and flexible method to generate miRNA sponges and

  1. MicroRNA in 2012: Biotherapeutic potential of microRNAs in rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pers, Yves-Marie; Jorgensen, Christian

    2013-02-01

    A number of microRNAs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various rheumatic diseases, and evidence in support of the therapeutic potential of microRNA-based strategies for these conditions is growing, as demonstrated by several new findings published in 2012.

  2. Regulation of mammalian microRNA processing and function by cellular signaling and subcellular localization

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    For many microRNAs, in many normal tissues and in cancer cells, the cellular levels of mature microRNAs are not simply determined by transcription of microRNA genes. This mini-review will discuss how microRNA biogenesis and function can be regulated by various nuclear and cytoplasmic processing events, including emerging evidence that microRNA pathway components can be selectively regulated by control of their subcellular localization and by modifications that occur during dynamic cellular si...

  3. MicroRNAs in Sjögren’s syndrome as a prototypic autoimmune disease

    OpenAIRE

    Alevizos, Ilias; Illei, Gabor G.

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenous non-coding RNAs, approximately 22 nucleotides in length. They regulate gene expression and are important in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. MicroRNA expression is tightly regulated during hematopoiesis and lymphoid cell differentiation and disruption of the entire microRNA network or selected microRNAs may lead to dysregulated immune responses. Abnormalities in microRNA expression related to inflammatory cytokines, Th-17 and regulatory T cell...

  4. MicroRNAs and Osteolytic Bone Metastasis: The Roles of MicroRNAs in Tumor-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayoshi Kagiya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteolytic bone metastasis frequently occurs in the later stages of breast, lung, and several other cancers. Osteoclasts, the only cells that resorb bone, are hijacked by tumor cells, which break down bone remodeling systems. As a result, osteolysis occurs and may cause patients to suffer bone fractures, pain, and hypercalcemia. It is important to understand the mechanism of bone metastasis to establish new cancer therapies. MicroRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that are involved in various biological processes, including cellular differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. MicroRNAs have significant clinical potential, including their use as new therapeutic targets and disease-specific biomarkers. Recent studies have revealed that microRNAs are involved in osteoclast differentiation and osteolytic bone metastasis. In this review focusing on microRNAs, the author discusses the roles of microRNAs in osteoclastogenesis and osteolytic bone metastasis.

  5. Novel microRNA revealed by systematic analysis of the microRNA transcriptome in dentate gyrus granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Brigid; Williams, Joanna M

    2016-09-06

    Post-transcriptional control of gene expression by microRNAs provides an important regulatory system within neurons, allowing co-ordinate and fine-tuned expression of plasticity-related proteins. Indeed, specific microRNAs have been shown to be regulated by synaptic activity in the dentate gyrus, and contribute to the regulated gene expression that underlies the persistence of long-term potentiation (LTP), a model of memory. To fully explore the contribution of microRNAs in synaptic plasticity, it is important to characterize the complete microRNA transcriptome in regions such as the dentate gyrus. Accordingly we used deep sequencing and miRDeep* analysis to search for novel microRNAs expressed in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer. Drawing on combined sequencing and bioinformatics analyses, including hairpin stability and patterns of precursor microRNA processing, we identified nine putative novel microRNAs. We did not find evidence of differential expression of any of these putative microRNAs following LTP at perforant path-granule cell synapses in awake rats (5h post-tetanus; p>0.05). Focusing on novel_miR-1, the most abundant novel miRNA, we showed that this sequence could be amplified from RNA extracted from dentate gyrus granule cells by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Further, by computationally predicting mRNA targets of this microRNA, we found that this novel microRNA likely contributes to the regulation of proteins that function at synapses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. MicroRNAs in renal fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Chi-Kong Chung

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous short noncoding RNAs that regulate most of important cellular processes by inhibiting gene expression through the post-transcriptional repression of their target mRNAs. . In kidneys, miRNAs have been associated in renal development, homeostasis, and physiological functions. Results from clinical and experimental animal studies demonstrate that miRNAs play essential roles in the pathogenesis of various renal diseases. Chronic kidney diseases (CKD is characterized by renal fibrosis. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β is recognized as a major mediator of renal fibrosis because it is able to stimulate the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins to impair normal kidney function. Recently, emerging evidence demonstrate the relationship between TGF-β signaling and miRNAs expression during renal diseases. TGF-β regulates expression of several microRNAs, such as miR-21, miR-192, miR-200, miR-433, and miR-29. MiR-21, miR-192, and miR-433 which are positively induced by TGF-β signaling play a pathological role in kidney diseases. In contrast, members in both miR-29 and miR-200 families which are inhibited by TGF-β signaling protect kidneys from renal fibrosis by suppressing the deposition of extracellular matrix and preventing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, respectively. Clinically, the presence of miRNAs in blood and urine has been examined to be early biomarkers for detecting renal diseases. From experimental animal studies of CKD, targeting microRNAs also provides evidence about therapeutic potential of miRNAs during renal diseases. Now, it comes to the stage to examine the exact mechanisms of miRNAs during the initiation and progression of renal diseases. Therefore, determining the function of miRNAs in renal fibrosis may facilitate the development of both early diagnosis and treatment of renal diseases.

  7. Diversifying microRNA sequence and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameres, Stefan L; Zamore, Phillip D

    2013-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of most genes in animals, but we are only now beginning to understand how they are generated, assembled into functional complexes and destroyed. Various mechanisms have now been identified that regulate miRNA stability and that diversify miRNA sequences to create distinct isoforms. The production of different isoforms of individual miRNAs in specific cells and tissues may have broader implications for miRNA-mediated gene expression control. Rigorously testing the many discrepant models for how miRNAs function using quantitative biochemical measurements made in vivo and in vitro remains a major challenge for the future.

  8. MicroRNAs: Potential biomarkers in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    George, G. P.; Mittal, Rama Devi

    2010-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved small noncoding RNAs, also known as micromanagers of gene expression. Polymorphisms in the miRNA pathway (miR-polymorphisms) are emerging as powerful tools to study the biology of a disease and have the potential to be used in disease prognosis and diagnosis. Advancements in the miRNA field also indicate a clear involvement of deregulated miRNA gene signatures in cancers, and several polymorphisms in pre-miRNA, miRNA binding sites or targets hav...

  9. MicroRNA Delivery for Regenerative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Bo; Chen, Yongming; Leong, Kam W.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) directs post-transcriptional regulation of a network of genes by targeting mRNA. Although relatively recent in development, many miRNAs direct differentiation of various stem cells including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), a major player in regenerative medicine. An effective and safe delivery of miRNA holds the key to translating miRNA technologies. Both viral and nonviral delivery systems have seen success in miRNA delivery, and each approach possesses advantages an...

  10. Identification of plant microRNA homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezulian, Tobias; Remmert, Michael; Palatnik, Javier F; Weigel, Detlef; Huson, Daniel H

    2006-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a recently discovered class of non-coding RNAs that regulate gene and protein expression in plants and animals. MiRNAs have so far been identified mostly by specific cloning of small RNA molecules, complemented by computational methods. We present a computational identification approach that is able to identify candidate miRNA homologs in any set of sequences, given a query miRNA. The approach is based on a sequence similarity search step followed by a set of structural filters.

  11. MicroRNAs in the Hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meister, Björn; Herzer, Silke; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (∼22 nucleotides) non-coding ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules that negatively regulate the expression of protein-coding genes. Posttranscriptional silencing of target genes by miRNA is initiated by binding to the 3'-untranslated regions of target mRNAs, resulting in s...... of the hypothalamus and miRNAs have recently been shown to be important regulators of hypothalamic control functions. The aim of this review is to summarize some of the current knowledge regarding the expression and role of miRNAs in the hypothalamus....

  12. Virus-mediated chemical changes in rice plants impact the relationship between non-vector planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål and its egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaochan; Xu, Hongxing; Gao, Guanchun; Zhou, Xiaojun; Zheng, Xusong; Sun, Yujian; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the impacts of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) infection on rice plants, rice planthoppers and natural enemies, differences in nutrients and volatile secondary metabolites between infected and healthy rice plants were examined. Furthermore, the impacts of virus-mediated changes in plants on the population growth of non-vector brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, and the selectivity and parasitic capability of planthopper egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae were studied. The results showed that rice plants had no significant changes in amino acid and soluble sugar contents after SRBSDV infection, and SRBSDV-infected plants had no significant effect on population growth of non-vector BPH. A. nilaparvatae preferred BPH eggs both in infected and healthy rice plants, and tended to parasitize eggs on infected plants, but it had no significant preference for infected plants or healthy plants. GC-MS analysis showed that tridecylic aldehyde occurred only in rice plants infected with SRBSDV, whereas octanal, undecane, methyl salicylate and hexadecane occurred only in healthy rice plants. However, in tests of behavioral responses to these five volatile substances using a Y-tube olfactometer, A. nilaparvatae did not show obvious selectivity between single volatile substances at different concentrations and liquid paraffin in the control group. The parasitic capability of A. nilaparvatae did not differ between SRBSDV-infected plants and healthy plant seedlings. The results suggested that SRBSDV-infected plants have no significant impacts on the non-vector planthopper and its egg parasitoid, A. nilaparvatae.

  13. MicroRNAs in sensorineural diseases of the ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy eUshakov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding microRNAs have a fundamental role in gene regulation and expression in almost every multicellular organism. Only discovered in the last decade, microRNAs are already known to play a leading role in many aspects of disease. In the vertebrate inner ear, microRNAs are essential for controlling development and survival of hair cells. Moreover, dysregulation of microRNAs has been implicated in sensorineural hearing impairment, as well as in other ear diseases such as cholesteatomas, vestibular schwannomas and otitis media. Due to the inaccessibility of the ear in humans, animal models have provided the optimal tools to study microRNA expression and function, in particular mice and zebrafish. A major focus of current research has been to discover the targets of the microRNAs expressed in the inner ear, in order to determine the regulatory pathways of the auditory and vestibular systems. The potential for microRNA manipulation in development of therapeutic tools for hearing impairment is as yet unexplored, paving the way for future work in the field.

  14. Emerging roles of microRNAs in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Atsushi; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2014-11-01

    Chronic pain is a debilitating syndrome caused by a variety of disorders, and represents a major clinical problem because of the lack of adequate medication. In chronic pain, massive changes in gene expression are observed in a variety of cells, including neurons and glia, in the overall somatosensory system from the sensory ganglia to the higher central nervous system. The protein expressions of hundreds of genes are thought to be post-transcriptionally regulated by a single type of microRNA in a sequence-specific manner. Recently, critical roles of microRNAs in the pathophysiology of chronic pain have been emerging. Genome-wide screenings of microRNA expression changes have been reported in a variety of painful conditions, including peripheral nerve injury, inflammatory diseases, cancer and spinal cord injury. The data obtained suggest that a wide range of microRNAs change their expressions in individual pain conditions, although the pathological significance of individual microRNAs as causal mediators in distinct pain conditions remains to be revealed for a limited number of microRNAs. Insights into the roles of microRNAs in chronic pain will enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic pain and allow prompt therapeutic application of microRNA-related drugs against intractable persistent pain.

  15. Bio-barcode gel assay for microRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyojin; Park, Jeong-Eun; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2014-02-01

    MicroRNA has been identified as a potential biomarker because expression level of microRNA is correlated with various cancers. Its detection at low concentrations would be highly beneficial for cancer diagnosis. Here, we develop a new type of a DNA-modified gold nanoparticle-based bio-barcode assay that uses a conventional gel electrophoresis platform and potassium cyanide chemistry and show this assay can detect microRNA at aM levels without enzymatic amplification. It is also shown that single-base-mismatched microRNA can be differentiated from perfectly matched microRNA and the multiplexed detection of various combinations of microRNA sequences is possible with this approach. Finally, differently expressed microRNA levels are selectively detected from cancer cells using the bio-barcode gel assay, and the results are compared with conventional polymerase chain reaction-based results. The method and results shown herein pave the way for practical use of a conventional gel electrophoresis for detecting biomolecules of interest even at aM level without polymerase chain reaction amplification.

  16. MicroRNA gene expression in malignant lymphoproliferative disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei; LI Jian-yong

    2007-01-01

    Objective To review the recent studies about microRNAs and advances in malignant lymphoproliferative disorders.Data sources Published articles (2001-2006) about microRNAs and malignant iymphoproliferative disorders were selected using MEDLINE.Study selection After independent review by two observers, 43 of 421 originally identified articles were selected that specifically addressed the stated purpose.Results Two observers independently assessed studies using explicit methodological criteria for evaluating microRNAs in malignant lymphoproliferative disorders. Recent work has revealed a class of small noncoding RNA species,microRNAs, which affect various biological processes. MicroRNAs inhibit the expression of protein encoding genes at the posttranscriptional level in a variety of eukaryotic organisms. In this review, we focused on the biogenetic pathways of microRNAs (miR-15a, miR-16-1, miR-155, miR-17-92 cluster, miR-142) and discussed the implications for human malignant lymphoproliferative disorders.Conclusions microRNAs are involved in tumorigenesis and mediate gene regulation as a fundamental genetic program at the posttranscriptional level. Further study of microRNAs may lead to novel concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of malignant lymphoproliferative disorders.

  17. The Biology of Circulating MicroRNAs in Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Pil-Ki; Chan, Stephen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Since their first description in mammalian cells, more than 2,500 microRNA molecules have been predicted or verified within human cells. Recently, extracellular microRNAs have been described, protected from degradation by specialized packaging in extracellular vesicles or RNA-binding proteins. Such microRNAs, circulating in the bloodstream and extracellular space, have been proposed as attractive candidates as both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in various diseases, including a spectrum of cardiovascular conditions. Moreover, consistent with our evolving appreciation of the role of exosomes and microvesicles in intercellular communication, it has been proposed that delivery of active microRNAs to recipient tissues may serve as a primary mode of intercellular communication. Indeed, the transfer of functional microRNAs has been demonstrated in in vitro models and has been reported in a few in vivo contexts. In this review, we will discuss the recent data of circulating microRNAs in cardiovascular disease with an emphasis on their potential roles as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers as well as the challenges of proving their potential clinical utility. In addition, we will discuss the evidence regarding the role of circulating microRNAs in intercellular communication as well as known molecular factors affecting their packaging, transfer, and uptake in recipient cardiovascular cell types. PMID:26046787

  18. microRNAs in Essential Hypertension and Blood Pressure Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Francine Z; Charchar, Fadi J

    2015-01-01

    Unravelling the complete genetic predisposition to high blood pressure (BP) has proven to be challenging. This puzzle and the fact that coding regions of the genome account for less than 2 % of the entire human DNA support the hypothesis that mechanisms besides coding genes are likely to contribute to BP regulation. Non-coding RNAs, especially microRNAs, are emerging as key players of transcription regulation in both health and disease states. They control basic functions in virtually all cell types relevant to the cardiovascular system and, thus, a direct involvement with BP regulation is highly probable. Here we review the literature about microRNAs associated with regulation of BP and hypertension, highlighting investigations, methodology and difficulties arising in the field. These molecules are being studied for exploitation in diagnostics, prognostics and therapeutics in many diseases. There have been some studies that examined biological fluid microRNAs as biomarkers for hypertension, but most remain inconclusive due to the small sample sizes and differences in methodological standardisation. Fewer studies have analysed tissue microRNA levels in vascular smooth muscle cells and the kidney. Others focused on the interaction between single nucleotide polymorphisms and microRNA binding sites. Studies in animals have shown that angiotensin II, high-salt diet and exercise change microRNA levels in hypertension. Treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats with a miR-22 inhibitor and treatment of hypertensive Schlager BPH/2J mice with a miR-181a mimic decreased their BP. This supports the use of microRNAs as therapeutic targets in hypertension, and future studies should test the use of other microRNAs found in human association studies. In conclusion, there is a clear need of increased pace of human, animal and functional studies to help us understand the multifaceted roles of microRNAs as critical regulators of the development and physiology of BP.

  19. Dietary MicroRNA Database (DMD): An Archive Database and Analytic Tool for Food-Borne microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kevin; Shu, Jiang; Zempleni, Janos; Cui, Juan

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of high throughput technology, a huge amount of microRNA information has been added to the growing body of knowledge for non-coding RNAs. Here we present the Dietary MicroRNA Databases (DMD), the first repository for archiving and analyzing the published and novel microRNAs discovered in dietary resources. Currently there are fifteen types of dietary species, such as apple, grape, cow milk, and cow fat, included in the database originating from 9 plant and 5 animal species. Annotation for each entry, a mature microRNA indexed as DM0000*, covers information of the mature sequences, genome locations, hairpin structures of parental pre-microRNAs, cross-species sequence comparison, disease relevance, and the experimentally validated gene targets. Furthermore, a few functional analyses including target prediction, pathway enrichment and gene network construction have been integrated into the system, which enable users to generate functional insights through viewing the functional pathways and building protein-protein interaction networks associated with each microRNA. Another unique feature of DMD is that it provides a feature generator where a total of 411 descriptive attributes can be calculated for any given microRNAs based on their sequences and structures. DMD would be particularly useful for research groups studying microRNA regulation from a nutrition point of view. The database can be accessed at http://sbbi.unl.edu/dmd/.

  20. MicroRNA expression profiles associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and ampullary adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nicolai A; Werner, Jens; Willenbrock, Hanni;

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs have potential as diagnostic cancer biomarkers. The aim of this study was (1) to define microRNA expression patterns in formalin-fixed parafin-embedded tissue from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, ampullary adenocarcinoma, normal pancreas and chronic pancreatitis without using micro......, normal pancreas and duodenal adenocarcinoma. In all, 43 microRNAs had higher and 41 microRNAs reduced expression in pancreatic cancer compared with normal pancreas. In all, 32 microRNAs were differently expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma compared with chronic pancreatitis (17 higher; 15 reduced......-dissection and (2) to discover new diagnostic microRNAs and combinations of microRNAs in cancer tissue. The expression of 664 microRNAs in tissue from 170 pancreatic adenocarcinomas and 107 ampullary adenocarcinomas were analyzed using a commercial microRNA assay. Results were compared with chronic pancreatitis...

  1. MicroRNA and Brain Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) were first described in 1993 by Lee and colleagues, and the term microRNA was only introduced in 2001 in a set of three articles in Science[1]. One of the biggest surprises in the past few years has been the emergence of miRNAs as a major new class of gene expression regulators. Recent studies suggest that miRNA alterations are involved in the initiation and progression of human cancer. The brain tumor,glioblastoma multiforme, is the most malignant and deadly form of gliomas.The prognosis is poor and the median survival with combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy is only 14.6 months. With the discovery of miRNA, the miRNA profiles may become useful biomarkers for brain tumor diagnostics,and miRNA therapy could be a powerful tool for brain tumor prevention and therapeutics. This review outlines the background of miRNA and its expression and therapeutic potential for brain tumors.

  2. Circulating microRNAs in Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlicka-Płocka, Marta; Gurda, Dorota; Fedoruk-Wyszomirska, Agnieszka; Smolarek, Iwona; Wyszko, Eliza

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular Diseases (CD) are currently one of the most common causes of death. Because heart related deaths occur on such an enormous scale this phenomenon is referred to as an epidemic. Chronic and acute injury of the heart could be an effect of cardiac remodeling, which is a result of molecular, cellular and interstitial changes, influenced by hemodynamic load or neurohormonal activation (Cohn et al., 2000). These small deviations in cardiac activity and morphology may lead to an enormous negative effect. Despite a significant progress, knowledge of standard risk factors for cardiovascular diseases has become less and less effective, which is why predicting and seeking an appropriate treatment is very challenging. As a result, there is a growing interest in finding new markers of the CD. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), are short, non-coding RNAs responsible for regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Among them that have the greatest potential are microRNA molecules that circulate in the blood plasma or serum, that are related to direct activation of signaling pathways, implicated in the aging process and thus for the development of cardiovascular disease. This paper is a summary of the current state of knowledge on miRNAs, their biogenesis and potential role as biomarkers to diagnose heart disease.

  3. MicroRNAs as Novel Regulators of Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Justyna Ksiazek-Winiarek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are relatively recently discovered class of small noncoding RNAs, which function as important regulators of gene expression. They fine-tune protein expression either by translational inhibition or mRNA degradation. MicroRNAs act as regulators of diverse cellular processes, such as cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Their defective biogenesis or function has been identified in various pathological conditions, like inflammation, neurodegeneration, or autoimmunity. Multiple sclerosis is one of the predominated debilitating neurological diseases affecting mainly young adults. It is a multifactorial disorder of as yet unknown aetiology. As far, it is suggested that interplay between genetic and environmental factors is responsible for MS pathogenesis. The role of microRNAs in this pathology is now extensively studied. Here, we want to review the current knowledge of microRNAs role in multiple sclerosis.

  4. MicroRNA-33 in atherosclerosis etiology and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wu-Jun; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Guo-Jun; Fu, Yuchang; Zhang, Da-Wei; Zhu, Hai-Bo; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2013-04-01

    MicroRNAs are a group of endogenous, small non-coding RNA molecules that can induce translation repression of target genes within metazoan cells by specific base pairing with the mRNA of target genes. Recently, microRNA-33 has been discovered as a key regulator in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. This review highlights the impact of microRNA-33-mediated regulation in the major cardiometabolic risk factors of atherosclerosis including lipid metabolism (HDL biogenesis and cholesterol homeostasis, fatty acid, phospholipid and triglyceride, bile acids metabolism), inflammatory response, insulin signaling and glucose/energy homeostasis, cell cycle progression and proliferation, and myeloid cell differentiation. Understanding the etiology and pathophysiology of microRNA-33 in atherosclerosis may provide basic knowledge for the development of novel therapeutic targets for ameliorating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.

  5. Role of micro-RNA in colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Montes, José Antonio; Menéndez Sánchez, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    MicroRNAs are involved in carcinogenesis through postranscriptional gene regulatory activity. These molecules are involved in various physiological and pathological functions, such as apoptosis, cell proliferation and differentiation, which indicates their functionality in carcinogenesis as tumour suppressor genes or oncogenes. Several studies have determined the presence of microRNAs in different neoplastic diseases such as colon, prostate, breast, stomach, pancreas, and lung cancer. There are promising data on the usefulness of quantifying microRNAs in different organic fluids and tissues. We have conducted a review of the determinations of microRNAs in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. The locus of microRNA-10b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, Francesca; Bossel Ben-Moshe, Noa; Fontemaggi, Giulia; Yarden, Yosef; Domany, Eytan; Blandino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary microRNA research has led to significant advances in our understanding of the process of tumorigenesis. MicroRNAs participate in different events of a cancer cell’s life, through their ability to target hundreds of putative transcripts involved in almost every cellular function, including cell cycle, apoptosis, and differentiation. The relevance of these small molecules is even more evident in light of the emerging linkage between their expression and both prognosis and clinical outcome of many types of human cancers. This identifies microRNAs as potential therapeutic modifiers of cancer phenotypes. From this perspective, we overview here the miR-10b locus and its involvement in cancer, focusing on its role in the establishment (miR-10b*) and spreading (miR-10b) of breast cancer. We conclude that targeting the locus of microRNA 10b holds great potential for cancer treatment. PMID:23839045

  7. MicroRNA expression profiles and functions in the brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanting Qi; Yu Zhao; Zhuyin Chen; Xiaona Chen; Marie C. Lin; Xiangfu Kong; Lihui Lai

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs are abundant in the brains of vertebrates and some show a brain-specific or brain-enriched expression pattern. Because microRNAs regulate the expression of hundreds of target genes, it is not surprising that they have profoundly important functions in brain development and pathological processes. For example, miR-124 plays an important role in inducing and maintaining neuronal identity through targeting at least two anti-neural factors. MicroRNAs have also been implicated in brain disorders, including brain tumors and neurodegenerative diseases. This review aims to present an overview of the expression profiles and functions of microRNAs in the developing brains of vertebrates.

  8. Identification of Cassava MicroRNAs under Abiotic Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ballén-Taborda, Carolina; Plata, Germán; Ayling, Sarah; Rodríguez-Zapata, Fausto; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Duitama, Jorge; Tohme, Joe

    2013-01-01

      The study of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants has gained significant attention in recent years due to their regulatory role during development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although cassava...

  9. Functional analysis of microRNA 840 in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Zhijian

    2011-01-01

    Three mechanisms have been implicated for plant microRNAs (miRNAs) to regulate gene expression, i.e. directing target RNA cleavage, transcriptional silencing and translational repression. A great number of target genes of plant miRNAs were predicted using different algorithms and verified through experimental methods. In the present work, one miRNA from Arabidopsis, microRNA 840 (miR840) was initially analyzed through the high-through put sequencing and bioinformatic method (Rajagopa...

  10. The miR-10 microRNA precursor family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tehler, Disa; Høyland-Kroghsbo, Nina Molin; Lund, Anders H

    2011-01-01

    The miR-10 microRNA precursor family encodes a group of short non-coding RNAs involved in gene regulation. The miR-10 family is highly conserved and has sparked the interest of many research groups because of the genomic localization in the vicinity of, coexpression with and regulation of the Hox...... gene developmental regulators. Here, we review the current knowledge of the evolution, physiological function and involvement in cancer of this family of microRNAs....

  11. Role of MicroRNA in Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) specimens (Fig. 8A and B) because BPH is considered benign tissue detected with DAB2IP expression. Furthermore, the...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0491 TITLE: Role of microRNA in aggressive prostate ...SUBTITLE Role of microRNA in aggressive prostate cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0491 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  12. Identification and validation of human papillomavirus encoded microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Qian

    Full Text Available We report here identification and validation of the first papillomavirus encoded microRNAs expressed in human cervical lesions and cell lines. We established small RNA libraries from ten human papillomavirus associated cervical lesions including cancer and two human papillomavirus harboring cell lines. These libraries were sequenced using SOLiD 4 technology. We used the sequencing data to predict putative viral microRNAs and discovered nine putative papillomavirus encoded microRNAs. Validation was performed for five candidates, four of which were successfully validated by qPCR from cervical tissue samples and cell lines: two were encoded by HPV 16, one by HPV 38 and one by HPV 68. The expression of HPV 16 microRNAs was further confirmed by in situ hybridization, and colocalization with p16INK4A was established. Prediction of cellular target genes of HPV 16 encoded microRNAs suggests that they may play a role in cell cycle, immune functions, cell adhesion and migration, development, and cancer. Two putative viral target sites for the two validated HPV 16 miRNAs were mapped to the E5 gene, one in the E1 gene, two in the L1 gene and one in the LCR region. This is the first report to show that papillomaviruses encode their own microRNA species. Importantly, microRNAs were found in libraries established from human cervical disease and carcinoma cell lines, and their expression was confirmed in additional tissue samples. To our knowledge, this is also the first paper to use in situ hybridization to show the expression of a viral microRNA in human tissue.

  13. Characteristics of microRNA co-target networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Yong

    2011-07-01

    The database of microRNAs and their predicted target genes in humans were used to extract a microRNA co-target network. Based on the finding that more than two miRNAs can target the same gene, we constructed a microRNA co-target network and analyzed it from the perspective of the complex network. We found that a network having a positive assortative mixing can be characterized by small-world and scale-free characteristics which are found in most complex networks. The network was further analyzed by the nearest-neighbor average connectivity, and it was shown that the more assortative a microRNA network is, the wider the range of increasing average connectivity. In particular, an assortative network has a power-law relationship of the average connectivity with a positive exponent. A percolation analysis of the network showed that, although the network is diluted, there is no percolation transition in the network. From these findings, we infer that the microRNAs in the network are clustered together, forming a core group. The same analyses carried out on different species confirmed the robustness of the main results found in the microRNA networks of humans.

  14. MicroRNA Dysregulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar ede Faria Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by central nervous system (CNS demyelination and axonal degeneration. Although the cause of MS is still unknown, it is widely accepted that novel drug targets need to focus on both decreasing inflammation and promoting CNS repair. In MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE non-coding small microRNAs (miRNAs are dysregulated in the immune and central nervous systems. Since individual miRNAs are able to downregulate multiple targeted mRNA transcripts, even minor changes in miRNA expression may lead to significant alterations in post-transcriptional gene expression. Herein, we review miRNA signatures reported in CNS tissue and immune cells of MS patients and consider how altered miRNA expression may influence MS pathology.

  15. MicroRNAs in mantle cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, Simon; Geisler, Christian; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare and aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. New treatment modalities, including intensive induction regimens with immunochemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant, have improved survival. However, many patients still relapse, and there is a need...... for novel therapeutic strategies. Recent progress has been made in the understanding of the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in MCL. Comparisons of tumor samples from patients with MCL with their normal counterparts (naive B-cells) have identified differentially expressed miRNAs with roles in cellular growth...... and survival pathways, as demonstrated in various biological model systems. In addition, MCL clinico-pathological and prognostic subtypes can be identified using individual miRNAs or miRNA classifiers. miRNA based therapies have now shown efficacy in animal models, and many efforts are currently being made...

  16. MicroRNAs in autoimmune rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.D. Sebastiani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of autoimmune diseases remains largely unknown. In recent years, besides genetic factors, several studies proposed that the epigenome may hold the key to a better understanding of autoimmunity initiation and perpetuation. More specifically epigenetic regulatory mechanisms comprise DNA methylation, a variety of histone modifications, and microRNA (miRNA activity, all of which act upon gene and protein expression levels. In particular it is well known that epigenetic mechanisms are important for controlling the pattern of gene expression during development, the cell cycle, and the response to biological or environmental changes. In the present review a description of the most frequent epigenetic deregulations, in particular the role of miRNA, in rheumatic autoimmune disorders will be analyzed.

  17. Targeting of microRNAs for therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenvang, Jan; Lindow, Morten; Kauppinen, Sakari

    2008-01-01

    miRNAs (microRNAs) comprise a class of small endogenous non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally repress gene expression by base-pairing with their target mRNAs. Recent evidence has shown that miRNAs play important roles in a wide variety of human diseases, such as viral infections, cancer...... and cardiovascular diseases, and thus miRNAs have rapidly emerged as potential targets for therapeutics. LNAs (locked nucleic acids) comprise a class of bicyclic conformational analogues of RNA, which exhibit high binding affinity to complementary RNA molecules and high stability in blood and tissues in vivo. Recent...... reports on LNA-mediated miRNA silencing in rodents and primates support the potential of LNA-modified oligonucleotides in studying miRNA functions in vivo and in the future development of miRNA-based therapeutics....

  18. MicroRNAs, Regulatory Networks, and Comorbidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, Francesco; Belling, Kirstine; Jensen, Anders Boeck

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Each miRNA targets a specific set of mRNAs. Upon binding the miRNA inhibits mRNA translation or facilitate mRNA degradation. miRNAs are frequently deregulated in several pathologies...... including cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Since miRNAs have a crucial role in fine-tuning the expression of their targets, they have been proposed as biomarkers of disease progression and prognostication.In this chapter we discuss different approaches for computational predictions of miRNA targets based...... on sequence complementarity and integration of expression data. In the last section of the chapter we discuss new opportunities in the study of miRNA regulatory networks in the context of temporal disease progression and comorbidities....

  19. microRNAs in CNS disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocerha, Jannet; Kauppinen, Sakari; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a shift in the conventional paradigms for transcriptional and translational regulation as extensive sequencing efforts have yielded new insights into the landscape of the human genome and transcriptome. Hundreds of non-coding regulatory RNA molecules called microRNAs...... (miRNAs) have been identified in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and are reported to mediate pivotal roles in many aspects of neuronal functions. Disruption of miRNA-based post-transcriptional regulation has been implicated in a range of CNS disorders as one miRNA is predicted to impact...... the expression of numerous downstream mRNA targets. The intricate molecular networks mediated by an miRNA form a robust mechanism for rapid and potent responses to cellular events throughout the development of the human brain. Recent studies have identified a molecular and ultimately pathogenic role for a subset...

  20. MicroRNA regulation of Autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Lisa B; Lund, Anders H

    2012-01-01

    recently contributed to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the autophagy machinery, yet several gaps remain in our knowledge of this process. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) established a new paradigm of post-transcriptional gene regulation and during the past decade these small non......-coding RNAs have been closely linked to virtually all known fundamental biological pathways. Deregulation of miRNAs can contribute to the development of human diseases, including cancer, where they can function as bona fide oncogenes or tumor suppressors.In this review, we highlight recent advances linking miRNAs...... perspective, but also from a therapeutic view, where miRNAs can be harnessed experimentally to alter autophagy levels in human tumors, affecting parameters such as tumor survival and treatment sensitivity....

  1. MicroRNA biomarkers in glioblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Simon Kjær; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in initiation and progression of many cancers, including gliomas and that miRNAs hold great potential as future diagnostic and therapeutic tools in cancer. MiRNAs are a class of short non-coding RNA sequences (18......-24 nucleotides), which base-pair to target messenger RNA (mRNA) and thereby cause translational repression or mRNA degradation based on the level of complementarity between strands. Profiling miRNAs in clinical glioblastoma samples has shown aberrant expression of numerous miRNAs when compared to normal brain...... tissues. Understanding these alterations is key to developing new biomarkers and intelligent treatment strategies. This review presents an overview of current knowledge about miRNA alterations in glioblastoma while focusing on the clinical future of miRNAs as biomarkers and discussing the strengths...

  2. MicroRNAs in pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumortier, O; Van Obberghen, E

    2012-10-01

    The development of the pancreas is a tightly regulated process involving extensive morphogenesis, proliferation and differentiation of the epithelium. The finely orchestrated control of gene expression plays a key role in this equilibrium by coordinating the expression of selected gene products at specific moments and in precise locations. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that function in general as negative regulators of gene transcripts by interacting with the three prime untranslated regions (3'UTR) of target mRNAs. MiRNAs modulate the expression of numerous target genes that are involved in a variety of cellular systems. Hence the homeostatic control of miRNA biosynthesis and activity is important for the fine-tuning of many physiological processes such as cell differentiation, cell proliferation and organ development. In the present review, we will focus on the implication of these miRNAs on the development of the pancreas and more specifically on β-cells.

  3. MicroRNAs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeff P Bruce; Fei-Fei Liu

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) provide insight into both the biology and clinical behavior of many human cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The dysregulation of miRNAs in NPC results in a variety of tumor-promoting effects. Furthermore, several miRNAs are prognostic markers for NPC. In addition to celular miRNAs, NPC samples also often contain miRNAs encoded by Epstein-Barr virus, and these miRNAs may impact NPC biology by targeting both celular and viral genes. Given their numerous putative roles in NPC development and progression, a thorough understanding of the impact of miRNA dysregulation in NPC is expected to shed light on useful biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the clinical management of this disease. In this review, we describe the efforts to date to identify and characterize such miRNAs in the context of NPC.

  4. Targeting microRNAs in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huangming; Sun, Lei; Lodish, Harvey F

    2009-10-01

    Obesity is a serious health problem worldwide associated with an increased risk of life-threatening diseases such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and certain types of cancer. Fundamental for the development of novel therapeutics for obesity and its associated metabolic syndromes is an understanding of the regulation of fat cell development. Recent computational and experimental studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in metabolic tissue development, lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis. In addition, many miRNAs are dysregulated in metabolic tissues from obese animals and humans, which potentially contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated complications. In this review we summarize the current state of understanding of the roles of miRNAs in metabolic tissues under normal development and obese conditions, and discuss the potential use of miRNAs as therapeutic targets.

  5. MicroRNA: Biological and Computational Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Kong; Jin-Hua Han

    2005-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously expressed non-coding RNAs of 20-24nucleotides, which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in plants and animals. Recently it has been recognized that miRNAs comprise one of the abundant gene families in multicellular species, and their regulatory functions in various biological processes are widely spread. There has been a surge in the research activities in this field in the past few years. From the very beginning, computational methods have been utilized as indispensable tools, and many discoveries have been obtained through combination of experimental and computational approaches. In this review, both biological and computational aspects of miRNA will be discussed.A brief history of the discovery of miRNA and discussion of microarray applications in miRNA research are also included.

  6. MicroRNAs in the Hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meister, Björn; Herzer, Silke; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (∼22 nucleotides) non-coding ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules that negatively regulate the expression of protein-coding genes. Posttranscriptional silencing of target genes by miRNA is initiated by binding to the 3'-untranslated regions of target mRNAs, resulting...... in specific cleavage and subsequent degradation of the mRNA or by translational repression resulting in specific inhibition of protein synthesis. An increasing amount of evidence shows that miRNAs control a large number of biological processes and there exists a direct link between miRNAs and disease. miRNA...... molecules are abundantly expressed in tissue-specific and regional patterns and have been suggested as potential biomarkers, disease modulators and drug targets. The central nervous system is a prominent site of miRNA expression. Within the brain, several miRNAs are expressed and/or enriched in the region...

  7. MicroRNAs in Human Pituitary Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Hui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of recently identified noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level. Due to the large number of genes regulated by miRNAs, miRNAs play important roles in many cellular processes. Emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs are dysregulated in pituitary adenomas, a class of intracranial neoplasms which account for 10–15% of diagnosed brain tumors. Deregulated miRNAs and their targets contribute to pituitary adenomas progression and are associated with cell cycle control, apoptosis, invasion, and pharmacological treatment of pituitary adenomas. To provide an overview of miRNAs dysregulation and functions of these miRNAs in pituitary adenoma progression, we summarize the deregulated miRNAs and their targets to shed more light on their potential as therapeutic targets and novel biomarkers.

  8. Role of microRNAs in spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Rudneva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Male germ cells have a complex transcriptome. In addition to proteincoding messenger RNAs, many noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs, are produced. The miRNAs are important regulators of gene expression. They function mainly post-transcriptionally to control the stability or translation of their target messenger RNAs. The miRNAs are expressed in a cell-specific manner during spermatogenesis to participate in the control of each stage of male germ cell differentiation. Clinical studies have exploited the well-defined expression profiles of miRNAs, and human spermatozoal or seminal plasma miRNAs have been explored as potential biomarkers for male factor infertility.

  9. MicroRNA in Human Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mengfeng, E-mail: limf@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Department of Microbiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Li, Jun [Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Department of Biochemistry, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Liu, Lei; Li, Wei [Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Department of Microbiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Yang, Yi [Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Department of Pharmacology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Yuan, Jie [Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Key Laboratory of Functional Molecules from Oceanic Microorganisms (Sun Yat-sen University), Department of Education of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2013-10-23

    Glioma represents a serious health problem worldwide. Despite advances in surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeting therapy, the disease remains one of the most lethal malignancies in humans, and new approaches to improvement of the efficacy of anti-glioma treatments are urgently needed. Thus, new therapeutic targets and tools should be developed based on a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of glioma. In this context, microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small, non-coding RNAs, play a pivotal role in the development of the malignant phenotype of glioma cells, including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, tumor angiogenesis, and stem cell generation. This review will discuss the biological functions of miRNAs in human glioma and their implications in improving clinical diagnosis, prediction of prognosis, and anti-glioma therapy.

  10. MicroRNA Implication in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker BADIOLA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNA are a new class of posttranscriptional regulators. These small non-coding RNAs regulate the expression of target mRNA transcripts and are linked to several human disease such as Alzheimer, cancer or heart disease. But it has been the cancer disease which has experimented the major number of studies of miRNA linked to the disease progression. In the last years it has been reported the deregulation pattern of the miRNAs in malignant cells which have disrupted the control of the proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis. The evidence of the presence of specific miRNA deregulated in concrete cancer types has become the miRNAs like possible biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The specific miRNA patterns deregulated in concrete cancer cell types open new opportunities to the diagnosis and therapy.

  11. MicroRNA-155 Reinforces HIV Latency*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelas, Debbie S.; Chan, Jonathan K.; Oh, Eugene; Heidersbach, Amy J.; Hebbeler, Andrew M.; Chavez, Leonard; Verdin, Eric; Rape, Michael; Greene, Warner C.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a small number of infected but transcriptionally dormant cells currently thwarts a cure for the more than 35 million individuals infected with HIV. Reactivation of these latently infected cells may result in three fates: 1) cell death due to a viral cytopathic effect, 2) cell death due to immune clearance, or 3) a retreat into latency. Uncovering the dynamics of HIV gene expression and silencing in the latent reservoir will be crucial for developing an HIV-1 cure. Here we identify and characterize an intracellular circuit involving TRIM32, an HIV activator, and miR-155, a microRNA that may promote a return to latency in these transiently activated reservoir cells. Notably, we demonstrate that TRIM32, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, promotes reactivation from latency by directly modifying IκBα, leading to a novel mechanism of NF-κB induction not involving IκB kinase activation. PMID:25873391

  12. microRNAs and Cardiovascular Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Koh

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality attributable largely to structural changes in the heart and with associated cardiac dysfunction. Remodeling is defined as alteration of the mass, dimensions, or shape of the heart (termed cardiac or ventricular remodeling) and vessels (vascular remodeling) in response to hemodynamic load and/or cardiovascular injury in association with neurohormonal activation. Remodeling may be described as physiologic or pathologic; alternatively, remodeling may be classified as adaptive or maladaptive. The importance of remodeling as a pathogenic mechanism has been controversial because factors leading to remodeling as well as the remodeling itself may be major determinants of patients' prognosis. The basic mechanisms of cardiovascular remodeling, and especially the roles of microRNAs in HF progression and vascular diseases, will be reviewed here.

  13. Regulation of pigmentation by microRNAs: MITF-dependent microRNA-211 targets TGF-β receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaodan; Rao, Chunbao; Li, Huirong; Chen, Yu; Fan, Lilv; Geng, Huiqin; Li, Shuang; Qu, Jia; Hou, Ling

    2015-03-01

    There is growing evidence that microRNAs are important regulators of gene expression in a variety of cell types. Using immortalized cell lines and primary neural crest cell explants, we show that microRNA-211, previously implicated in the regulation of melanoma proliferation and invasiveness, promotes pigmentation in melanoblasts and melanocytes. Expression of this microRNA is regulated by the key melanocyte transcription factor MITF and regulates pigmentation by targeting the TGF-β receptor 2. Transfection with pre-miR-211 precursor molecules in melb-a and melan-a cells leads to a decrease in the expression of TGF-β receptor 2 and reduces the TGF-β signaling-mediated downregulation of two melanogenic enzymes, tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1. Conversely, downregulation of microRNA-211 using specific microRNA inhibitors has the opposite effects. It appears, therefore, that microRNA-211 serves as a negative regulator of TGF-β signaling which is known to play a important roles in vivo in melanocyte stem cell maintenance and pigmentation.

  14. The Decapping Scavenger Enzyme DCS-1 Controls MicroRNA Levels in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In metazoans, microRNAs play a critical role in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes required for cell proliferation and differentiation. microRNAs themselves are regulated by a multitude of mechanisms influencing their transcription and post-transcriptional maturation. However, there is only sparse knowledge on pathways regulating the mature, functional form of a microRNA. Here, we identify a new player in the control of microRNA turnover, the decapping scavenger protein DCS-1. In Ca...

  15. Regulation of MicroRNA Biogenesis: A miRiad of mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract microRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that influence diverse biological functions through the repression of target genes during normal development and pathological responses. Widespread use of microRNA arrays to profile microRNA expression has indicated that the levels of many microRNAs are altered during development and disease. These findings have prompted a great deal of investigation into the mechanism and function of microRNA-mediated repression. However, the mechanisms which gov...

  16. MicroRNA-153 regulates glutamine metabolism in glioblastoma through targeting glutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenyang; Wang, Junyu; Li, Yunjun; Fan, Juan; Chen, Lihua; Xu, Ruxiang

    2017-02-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive manifestation of malignant gliomas and considered to be among the deadliest forms of human cancers. MicroRNAs are found to tightly regulate diverse biological processes and considered to play important roles in cancer etiology. In this study, we found that microRNA-153 was significantly downregulated in glioblastoma tissues compared to matched non-tumor tissues and in glioblastoma cell lines. To investigate the potential function of microRNA-153 in glioblastoma, we transfected glioblastoma cell line U87MG as well as U373MG with synthetic microRNA-153 oligos and observed decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. We further found that microRNA-153 restrained glutamine utilization and glutamate generation. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that glutaminase, which catalyzed the formation of glutamate from glutamine, is the potential target of microRNA-153. Indeed, microRNA-153 cannot further reduce glutamine utilization when glutaminase was knocked down. Overexpression of glutaminase abrogates the effect of microRNA-153 on glutamine utilization. Furthermore, the relative expression of microRNA-153 and glutaminase in glioblastoma versus matched non-tumor tissues showed a reverse correlation, further indicating that microRNA-153 may negatively regulate glutaminase in vivo. These results demonstrate an unexpected role of microRNA-153 in regulating glutamine metabolism and strengthen the role of microRNA-153 as a therapeutic target in glioblastoma.

  17. Functional profiling of precursor MicroRNAs identifies MicroRNAs essential for glioma proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saija Haapa-Paananen

    Full Text Available Cancer initiation and progression involve microRNAs that can function like tumor suppressors and oncogenes. The functional significance of most miRNAs is currently unknown. To determine systematically which microRNAs are essential for glioma growth, we screened a precursor microRNA library in three human glioblastoma and one astroglial cell line model systems. The most prominent and consistent cell proliferation-reducing hits were validated in secondary screening with an additional apoptosis endpoint. The functional screening data were integrated in the miRNA expression data to find underexpressed true functional tumor suppressor miRNAs. In addition, we used miRNA-target gene predictions and combined siRNA functional screening data to find the most probable miRNA-target gene pairs with a similar functional effect on proliferation. Nine novel functional miRNAs (hsa-miR-129, -136, -145, -155, -181b, -342-5p, -342-3p, -376a/b in GBM cell lines were validated for their importance in glioma cell growth, and similar effects for six target genes (ROCK1, RHOA, MET, CSF1R, EIF2AK1, FGF7 of these miRNAs were shown functionally. The clinical significance of the functional hits was validated in miRNA expression data from the TCGA glioblastoma multiforme (GBM tumor cohort. Five tumor suppressor miRNAs (hsa-miR-136, -145, -342, -129, -376a showed significant underexpression in clinical GBM tumor samples from the TCGA GBM cohort further supporting the role of these miRNAs in vivo. Most importantly, higher hsa-miR-145 expression in GBM tumors yielded significantly better survival (p<0.005 in a subset of patients thus validating it as a genuine tumor suppressor miRNA. This systematic functional profiling provides important new knowledge about functionally relevant miRNAs in GBM biology and may offer new targets for treating glioma.

  18. Analysis of MicroRNA Niches: Techniques to Measure Extracellular MicroRNA and Intracellular MicroRNA In Situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Victoria N.; Chan, Stephen Y.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression and control a wide range of cellular processes. Extracellular forms of miRNA circulating in the bloodstream (circulating miRNA, c-miRNA) are of increasing interest for their potential as biomarkers and long-range physiological signaling molecules. Precise measurement of intracellular miRNA expression is possible but can be challenging, especially in the context of specialized tissue niches in vivo. The accurate measurement of extracellular miRNA presents other obstacles stemming from their low concentrations and confounding sources of intracellular miRNA that contaminate RNA extraction protocols. Here, we describe multiple methods to isolate extracellular miRNA from cell culture media, serum, and plasma in order to accurately measure their variable expression under different conditions. We additionally describe an in situ staining protocol designed not only to quantify, but also to localize miRNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, that may prove useful in describing the action of c-miRNA before they leave their tissue of origin and after they potentially arrive at their target destination. PMID:23719949

  19. Hypoxia-regulated microRNAs in human cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guomin SHEN; Xiaobo LI; Yong-feng JIA; Gary A PIAZZA; Yaguang XI

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia plays an important role in the tumor microenvironment by allowing the development and maintenance of cancer cells,but the regulatory mechanisms by which tumor cells adapt to hypoxic conditions are not yet well understood.MicroRNAs are recognized as a new class of master regulators that control gene expression and are responsible for many normal and pathological cellular processes.Studies have shown that hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1) regulates a panel of microRNAs,whereas some of microRNAs target HIF1.The interaction between microRNAs and HIF1 can account for many vital events relevant to tumorigenesis,such as angiogenesis,metabolism,apoptosis,cell cycle regulation,proliferation,metastasis,and resistance to anticancer therapy.This review will summarize recent findings on the roles of hypoxia and microRNAs in human cancer and illustrate the machinery by which microRNAs interact with hypoxia in tumor cells,It is expected to update our knowledge about the regulatory roles of microRNAs in regulating tumor microenvironments and thus benefit the development of new anticancer drugs.

  20. 转化生长因子-β3与基质金属蛋白酶抑制剂-2联合转染兔骨髓间充质干细胞复合丝素蛋白/壳聚糖生物支架修复兔软骨缺损%Resurfacing rabbit's cartilage defects using mesenchymal stem cells co-transfected with transforming growth factor-β3 and matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors-2 by adeno-associated virus embedded in Silk fibroin/chitosan scaffolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟飞; 吕成昱; 张海宁; 申成凯; 冯尚祥

    2015-01-01

    conditions,we took the third generation of the logarithmic growth phase of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs).And we used recombinant adeno-associated virus which carrying each group' s purpose gene to transfected them.After two months we killed the rabbits,as well as visually assessed of cartilage defect repair situation by hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) staining.And conduct characteristic of cartilage cells that stained with toluidine blue staining and type Ⅱ collagen immunohistochemical staining.Results We observed that:after two months,cartilage-like substance formed in each expermental group' s cariliage defect area,and the co-transfection group induced cartilage were closer to hyaline cartilage.We found the Moran score of difference groups were:concrol group:0.600 ± 0.548,non-transfection group:1.800 ± 0.447,pure TGF-β3 transfected group:3.800 ± 0.837,co-transfection group:5.400 ± 0.548.And the difference of score between co-transfection group and pure TGF-β3 transfected group was statistically significant (P < 0.01).HE staining results suggested that co-transfected cartilage repair group' s result was better than pure TGF-β3 transfected group.Conclusion In animal experiments,pure TGF-β3 transfected rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can repair rabbit articular cartilage defects,TGF-β3 and matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors-2 (TIMP-2) co-transfection group was more effective.

  1. MicroRNAs in Cardiometabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are ~22-nucleotide noncoding RNAs with critical functions in multiple physiological and pathological processes. An explosion of reports on the discovery and characterization of different miRNA species and their involvement in almost every aspect of cardiac biology and diseases has established an exciting new dimension in gene regulation networks for cardiac development and pathogenesis. CONTENT: Alterations in the metabolic control of lipid and glucose homeostasis predispose an individual to develop cardiometabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Work over the last years has suggested that miRNAs play an important role in regulating these physiological processes. Besides a cell-specific transcription factor profile, cell-specific miRNA-regulated gene expression is integral to cell fate and activation decisions. Thus, the cell types involved in atherosclerosis, vascular disease, and its myocardial sequelae may be differentially regulated by distinct miRNAs, thereby controlling highly complex processes, for example, smooth muscle cell phenotype and inflammatory responses of endothelial cells or macrophages. The recent advancements in using miRNAs as circulating biomarkers or therapeutic modalities, will hopefully be able to provide a strong basis for future research to further expand our insights into miRNA function in cardiovascular biology. SUMMARY: MiRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. They are potent modulators of diverse biological processes and pathologies. Recent findings demonstrated the importance of miRNAs in the vasculature and the orchestration of lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis. MiRNA networks represent an additional layer of regulation for gene expression that absorbs perturbations and ensures the robustness of biological systems. A detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of mi

  2. Transcriptome dynamics of the microRNA inhibition response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Jiayu; Leucci, Elenora; Vendramin, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We report a high-resolution time series study of transcriptome dynamics following antimiR-mediated inhibition of miR-9 in a Hodgkin lymphoma cell-line-the first such dynamic study of the microRNA inhibition response-revealing both general and specific aspects of the physiological response. We show...... validate the key observations with independent time series qPCR and we experimentally validate key predicted miR-9 targets. Methodologically, we developed sensitive functional data analytic predictive methods to analyse the weak response inherent in microRNA inhibition experiments. The methods...... of this study will be applicable to similar high-resolution time series transcriptome analyses and provides the context for more accurate experimental design and interpretation of future microRNA inhibition studies....

  3. microRNA Therapeutics in Cancer - An Emerging Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Maitri Y; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Sood, Anil K; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Calin, George A

    2016-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an evolutionarily conserved class of small, regulatory non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate protein coding gene and other non-coding transcripts expression. miRNAs have been established as master regulators of cellular processes, and they play a vital role in tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. Further, widespread deregulation of microRNAs have been reported in several cancers, with several microRNAs playing oncogenic and tumor suppressive roles. Based on these, miRNAs have emerged as promising therapeutic tools for cancer management. In this review, we have focused on the roles of miRNAs in tumorigenesis, the miRNA-based therapeutic strategies currently being evaluated for use in cancer, and the advantages and current challenges to their use in the clinic.

  4. microRNA Therapeutics in Cancer — An Emerging Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitri Y. Shah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are an evolutionarily conserved class of small, regulatory non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate protein coding gene and other non-coding transcripts expression. miRNAs have been established as master regulators of cellular processes, and they play a vital role in tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. Further, widespread deregulation of microRNAs have been reported in several cancers, with several microRNAs playing oncogenic and tumor suppressive roles. Based on these, miRNAs have emerged as promising therapeutic tools for cancer management. In this review, we have focused on the roles of miRNAs in tumorigenesis, the miRNA-based therapeutic strategies currently being evaluated for use in cancer, and the advantages and current challenges to their use in the clinic.

  5. microRNAs in the Malignant Transformation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Anne E; Li, Lihua; Kartha, Reena V; Subramanian, Subbaya

    2015-01-01

    Many cancers originate as benign neoplasms that transform into malignant cancerous tumors in a multistep progression that is regulated, in part, by microRNAs. Benign neoplasms, by definition, lack the ability to invade adjacent tissues or spread to distant sites through metastasis. The benign to malignant transition is a critical intervention stage as tumors diagnosed in subsequent nonlocalized and malignant stages are exponentially more difficult to treat successfully. This chapter explores the critical roles that microRNAs play in the transformation from benign to malignant in four representative cancers: colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and prostate cancer. Understanding how these microRNAs control this progression and transformation will lead to new therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers, resulting in improved treatments and patient outcomes.

  6. MicroRNAs in diabetes and diabetes-associated complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Johan; Kumarswamy, Regalla; Dangwal, Seema; Thum, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus due to its high prevalence and associated complications is a major socioeconomic health problem. Diabetes is characterized by multiple macro- and microvascular complications (e.g. diabetic nephropathy, cardiomyopathy, neuropathy, retinopathy). Research efforts aim to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the disease process. MicroRNAs are endogenous small single stranded molecules regulating targets through mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. MicroRNAs regulate many biological cellular functions and are often deregulated during diseases. The aim of the present article is to summarize the current knowledge of the impact of microRNAs on the development of diabetes and its associated complications including endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction, diabetic cardiomyopathy, diabetic nephropathy, regulation of pancreatic beta cell function as well as skeletal muscle and hepatic involvement.

  7. MicroRNA profiling in the malignant progression of gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupak, E. V.; Veryaskina, Yu. A.; Titov, S. E.; Achmerova, L. G.; Stupak, V. V.; Ivanov, M. K.; Zhimulev, I. F.; Kolesnikov, N. N.

    2016-08-01

    Wealth of data indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) are directly involved in carcinogenesis and that miRNA can, on their own, act as diagnostic and prognostic markers for various types of cancers, including gliomas. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of expression profile for 10 microRNAs (miR-124, -125b, -16, -181b, -191, -21, -221, -223, -31, and -451) in surgical specimens of various hystotypes of glioimatissues vs adjacent normal tissues from the same patient (n = 77). The study identified specific microRNA expression profiles for different histotypes of tumors that are related to their degree of malignancy. We have outlined approaches to development of miRNA-based diagnostic and prognostic panel, which may be used to compensate for the lack of appropriate screening methods.

  8. Progress, challenges and new concepts in microRNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG YouYi

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a group of small noncoding RNAs.They have rapidly gained attention in the field as novel regulators of cellular morphology and function.Currently hundreds of microRNAs have been described in human genome.MicroRNAs play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by inhibiting protein translation and/or promoting mRNA degradation.MicroRNAs were initially thought to be subtle regulators of gene expression,but increasing evidence demonstrates that the regulatory functions of microRNAs are crucial for the cell.MicroRNAs have been found to be involved in the development,tissue homeostasis as well as diseases.

  9. MicroRNA regulation network in colorectal cancer metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao-Jiao; Zhou; Shu; Zheng; Li-Feng; Sun; Lei; Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Metastasis is a major cause of colorectal cancer-related death. Mechanisms of metastasis remain largely obscure. MicroRNA is one of the most important epigenetic regulators by targeting mRNAs posttranscriptionally. Accumulated evidence has supported its significant role in the metastasis of colorectal cancer, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis. Dissecting microRNAome potentially identifies specific microRNAs as biomarkers of colorectal cancer metastasis. Better understanding of the complex network of microRNAs in colorectal cancer metastasis provide new insights in the biological process of metastasis and in the potential targets for colorectal cancer therapies and for diagnosis of recurrent and metastatic colorectal cancer.

  10. MicroRNAs and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major macrovascular complication of diabetes mellitus. Recently, although CVD morbidity and mortality have decreased as a result of comprehensive control of CVD risk factors, CVD remains the leading cause of death of patients with diabetes in many countries, indicating the potential underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. MicroRNAs are a class of noncoding, single-stranded RNA molecules that are involved in β-cell function, insulin secretion, insulin resistance, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue and which play an important role in glucose homeostasis and the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Here, we review recent progress in research on microRNAs in endothelial cell and vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction, macrophage and platelet activation, lipid metabolism abnormality, and cardiomyocyte repolarization in diabetes mellitus. We also review the progress of microRNAs as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets of CVD in patients with diabetes.

  11. Genomic Organization of Zebrafish microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paydar Ima

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs are small (~22 nt non-coding RNAs that regulate cell movement, specification, and development. Expression of miRNAs is highly regulated, both spatially and temporally. Based on direct cloning, sequence conservation, and predicted secondary structures, a large number of miRNAs have been identified in higher eukaryotic genomes but whether these RNAs are simply a subset of a much larger number of noncoding RNA families is unknown. This is especially true in zebrafish where genome sequencing and annotation is not yet complete. Results We analyzed the zebrafish genome to identify the number and location of proven and predicted miRNAs resulting in the identification of 35 new miRNAs. We then grouped all 415 zebrafish miRNAs into families based on seed sequence identity as a means to identify possible functional redundancy. Based on genomic location and expression analysis, we also identified those miRNAs that are likely to be encoded as part of polycistronic transcripts. Lastly, as a resource, we compiled existing zebrafish miRNA expression data and, where possible, listed all experimentally proven mRNA targets. Conclusion Current analysis indicates the zebrafish genome encodes 415 miRNAs which can be grouped into 44 families. The largest of these families (the miR-430 family contains 72 members largely clustered in two main locations along chromosome 4. Thus far, most zebrafish miRNAs exhibit tissue specific patterns of expression.

  12. Insights in microRNAs biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargalionis, Antonios N; Basdra, Efthimia K

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs, that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Recent studies now predict that numerous miRNA molecules regulate a large proportion of the human transcriptome, thus creating a whole new research field that utilizes their potential impact on gene expression in favor of diagnosis, prognosis and drug development. MiRNAs are generated from transcription of respective genes into primary structures that usually follow a two-step maturation process in the cell nucleus and cytoplasm. Active miRNA folds downregulate protein expression either via direct repression of targeted messenger RNA (mRNA) or mRNA cleavage. They are critical factors that control human development and organogenesis and reemerge as key-molecules that profoundly influence adult cells and tissues under stress-responsive conditions. Therefore, several miRNAs exhibit dysregulated functions in almost all aspects of human pathology such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, genetic and neurodegenerative diseases, forming tissue-specific molecular profiles that further define salient pathologic features. The present article offers an overview on miRNAs biogenesis and functional processes, major aspects of their participation in human development and milestones regarding their contribution in human diseases. Furthermore, their utility as extracellular biomarkers and the rationale behind miRNA inhibition or miRNA delivery are being discussed.

  13. MicroRNAs in neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junn, Eunsung; Mouradian, M Maral

    2010-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, small, noncoding RNAs regulating eukaryotic gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. During the last decade, considerable advances have been made in our understanding the biogenesis of miRNAs, the molecular mechanisms by which they regulate gene expression and their functional role in various physiological situations. miRNAs are abundant in the brain where they have crucial roles in development and synaptic plasticity. Accumulating evidence from postmortem brain analyses and animal model studies has begun to suggest that miRNA dysfunction contributes to neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we discuss several examples of investigations demonstrating the role of miRNAs in neurodegenerative disorders. As the expression of disease-causing genes is regulated by certain miRNA(s), changes in these miRNAs could lead to the accumulation of disease-causing proteins, and subsequently to neuronal dysfunction and death. Detailed understanding of these mechanisms can provide potential new therapeutic approaches to slow down or halt the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. microRNAs and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lifeng; Tan, Eng King; Zeng, Li

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules that through imperfect base-pairing with complementary sequences of target mRNA molecules, typically cleave target mRNA, causing subsequent degradation or translation inhibition. Although an increasing number of studies have identified misregulated miRNAs in the neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which suggests that alterations in the miRNA regulatory pathway could contribute to disease pathogenesis, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathological implications of misregulated miRNA expression and the regulation of the key genes involved in NDDs remain largely unknown. In this chapter, we provide evidence of the function and regulation of miRNAs and their association with the neurological events in NDDs. This will help improve our understanding of how miRNAs govern the biological functions of key pathogenic genes in these diseases, which potentially regulate several pathways involved in the progression of neurodegeneration. Additionally, given the growing interest in the therapeutic potential of miRNAs, we discuss current clinical challenges to developing miRNA-based therapeutics for NDDs.

  15. MicroRNAs as Haematopoiesis Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Babu Undi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of different types of blood cells including their formation, development, and differentiation is collectively known as haematopoiesis. Blood cells are divided into three lineages erythriod (erythrocytes, lymphoid (B and T cells, and myeloid (granulocytes, megakaryocytes, and macrophages. Haematopoiesis is a complex process regulated by several mechanisms including microRNAs (miRNAs. miRNAs are small RNAs which regulate the expression of a number of genes involved in commitment and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells. Evidence shows that miRNAs play an important role in haematopoiesis; for example, myeloid and erythroid differentiation is blocked by the overexpression of miR-15a. miR-221, miR-222, and miR-24 inhibit the erythropoiesis, whereas miR-150 plays a role in B and T cell differentiation. miR-146 and miR-10a are downregulated in megakaryopoiesis. Aberrant expression of miRNAs was observed in hematological malignancies including chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myelomas, and B cell lymphomas. In this review we have focused on discussing the role of miRNA in haematopoiesis.

  16. MicroRNAs in cardiac arrhythmia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedley, Paula L; Carlsen, Anting L; Christiansen, Kasper M

    2014-01-01

    LQTS-causing mutations have been identified in 13 genes worldwide. Despite this, the genetic cause of 30-50% of LQTS is presently unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (∼ 22 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by binding complementary sequences within...... messenger RNAs (mRNAs). The human genome encodes over 1800 miRNAs, which target about 60% of human genes. Consequently, miRNAs are likely to regulate many complex processes in the body, indeed aberrant expression of various miRNA species has been implicated in numerous disease states, including...... cardiovascular diseases. MiR-1 and MiR-133A are the most abundant miRNAs in the heart and have both been reported to regulate cardiac ion channels. We hypothesized that, as a consequence of their role in regulating cardiac ion channels, genetic variation in the genes which encode MiR-1 and MiR-133A might explain...

  17. SIRT1 and microRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munekazu eYamakuchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available SIRT1 is an NAD-dependent deacetylase that regulates the cellular response to stressors. SIRT1 is intensively studied as a potental regulator of cellular metabolism and longevity. Pathways of SIRT1 regulation may lead to a greater understanding of metabolism and aging. Post-transcriptional regulation of SIRT1 is mediated by two classes of molecules, RNA-binding proteins and non-coding small RNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that regulate target gene expression in a post-transcriptional manner. More than 10 miRNAs modulate SIRT1 expression, including miR-34a. MiR-34a induces colon cancer apoptosis through SIRT1, and miR-34a also promotes senescence in endothelial cells via SIRT1. In this review, I describe the impact of miRNAs on SIRT1. First I outline the background of SIRT1 and miRNAs, then I demonstrate the mechanism by which several key miRNAs alter SIRT1 levels. I focus on the modulation of SIRT1 function by these miRNAs in the cardiovascular systems, metabolic pathway and cancer. Next I address the regulatory mechanism of SIRT1 by another important molecule, a RNA-binding protein HuR, which associates with SIRT1 mRNA and regulates its expression.

  18. Cancer Cachexia and MicroRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Rodolfo Gonzalez; Quintas Teixeira Ribeiro, Henrique; Geraldo, Murilo Vieira; Matos-Neto, Emídio; Neves, Rodrigo Xavier; Carnevali, Luiz Carlos; Donatto, Felipe Fedrizzi; Alcântara, Paulo S M; Ottoch, José P; Seelaender, Marília

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a paraneoplastic syndrome compromising quality of life and survival, mainly characterized by involuntary weight loss, fatigue, and systemic inflammation. The syndrome is described as a result of tumor-host interactions characterized by an inflammatory response by the host to the presence of the tumor. Indeed, systemic inflammation is considered a pivotal feature in cachexia progression and maintenance. Cytokines are intimately related to chronic systemic inflammation and the mechanisms underlying the release of these factors are not totally elucidated, the etiology of cachexia being still not fully understood. Therefore, the understanding of cachexia-related mechanisms, as well as the establishment of markers for the syndrome, is very relevant. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs interfering with gene regulation. Different miRNA expression profiles are associated with different diseases and inflammatory processes. miRNAs modulate adipose and skeletal muscle tissue metabolism in cancer cachexia and also tumor and tissue derived inflammation. Therefore, we propose a possible role for miRNAs in the modulation of the host inflammatory response during cachexia. Moreover, the establishment of a robust body of evidence in regard to miRNAs and the mechanisms underlying cachexia is mandatory, and shall contribute to the improvement of its diagnosis and treatment.

  19. MicroRNA and Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Lee Wong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF imposes significant economic and public health burdens upon modern society. It is known that disturbances in neurohormonal status play an important role in the pathogenesis of HF. Therapeutics that antagonize selected neurohormonal pathways, specifically the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, have significantly improved patient outcomes in HF. Nevertheless, mortality remains high with about 50% of HF patients dying within five years of diagnosis thus mandating ongoing efforts to improve HF management. The discovery of short noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs and our increasing understanding of their functions, has presented potential therapeutic applications in complex diseases, including HF. Results from several genome-wide miRNA studies have identified miRNAs differentially expressed in HF cohorts suggesting their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of HF and their potential as both biomarkers and as therapeutic targets. Unravelling the functional relevance of miRNAs within pathogenic pathways is a major challenge in cardiovascular research. In this article, we provide an overview of the role of miRNAs in the cardiovascular system. We highlight several HF-related miRNAs reported from selected cohorts and review their putative roles in neurohormonal signaling.

  20. Circulating microRNAs in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Margherita; Piscopo, Paola; Crestini, Alessio; Confaloni, Annamaria; Denti, Michela A

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are caused by a combination of events that impair normal neuronal function. Although they are considered different disorders, there are overlapping features among them from the clinical, pathological, and genetic points of view. Synaptic dysfunction and loss, neurite retraction, and the appearance of other abnormalities such as axonal transport defects normally precede the neuronal loss that is a relatively late event. The diagnosis of many neurodegenerative diseases is mainly based on patient's cognitive function analysis, and the development of diagnostic methods is complicated by the brain's capacity to compensate for neuronal loss over a long period of time. This results in the late clinical manifestation of symptoms, a time when successful treatment is no longer feasible. Thus, a noninvasive diagnostic method based on early events detection is particularly important. In the last years, some biomarkers expressed in human body fluids have been proposed. microRNAs (miRNAs), with their high stability, tissue- or cell type-specific expression, lower cost, and shorter time in the assay development, could constitute a good tool to obtain an early disease diagnosis for a wide number of human pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases. The possibilities and challenges of using these small RNA molecules as a signature for neurodegenerative disorders is a highly promising approach for developing minimally invasive screening tests and to identify new therapeutic targets.

  1. MicroRNAs regulate osteogenesis and chondrogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shiwu, E-mail: shiwudong@gmail.com [Laboratory of Biomechanics, Department of Anatomy, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Yang, Bo; Guo, Hongfeng; Kang, Fei [Laboratory of Biomechanics, Department of Anatomy, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To focus on the role of miRNAs in chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Involved in the regulation of miRNAs in osteoarthritis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To speculate some therapeutic targets for bone diseases. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small molecules and non-coding single strand RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by binding to specific sequences within target genes. miRNAs have been recognized as important regulatory factors in organism development and disease expression. Some miRNAs regulate the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and chondrocytes, eventually influencing metabolism and bone formation. miRNAs are expected to provide potential gene therapy targets for the clinical treatment of metabolic bone diseases and bone injuries. Here, we review the recent research progress on the regulation of miRNAs in bone biology, with a particular focus on the miRNA-mediated control mechanisms of bone and cartilage formation.

  2. Platelet MicroRNAs: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Neetu; Sarachana, Tewarit; Vu, Long; Becker, Kevin G; Wood, William H; Zhang, Yongqing; Atreya, Chintamani D

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short ~22-nucleotide noncoding RNA that have been found to influence the expression of many genes and cellular processes by either repressing translation or degrading messenger RNA transcripts. Platelet miRNA expression has been shown to be perturbed during ex vivo storage of platelets and in platelet-associated disorders. Although bioinformatics-based miRNA target predictions have been established, direct experimental validation of the role of miRNAs in platelet biology has been rather slow. Target prediction studies are, nonetheless, valuable in directing the design of appropriate experiments to test specific miRNA:messenger RNA interactions relevant to the underlying mechanisms of platelet function in general and in disease as well as in ex vivo storage-associated "storage lesions," a collective term used to include physiologic, biochemical, and morphologic changes that occur in stored platelets. This brief review will focus on emerging human platelet miRNA studies to emphasize their potential role relevant to transfusion medicine field in terms of regulating platelet signaling pathways, markers of platelet associated disorders, and remote impactors of gene expression (intercellular biomodulators) as well as potential platelet quality markers of storage and pathogen reduction treatments.

  3. MicroRNAs horizon in retinoblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Mirakholi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the retinoblastoma research, it is of great interest to identify molecular markers associated with the genetics of tumorigenesis. microRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that play a regulatory role in many crucial cellular pathways such as differentiation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. A body of evidences showed dysregulation of miRNAs in tumor biology and many diseases. They potentially play a significant role in tumorigenesis processes and have been the subject of research in many types of cancers including retinal tumorigenesis. miRNA expression profiling was found to be associated with tumor development, progression and treatment. These associations demonstrate the putative applications of miRNAs in monitoring of different aspect of tumors consisting diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic. Herein, we review the current literature concerning to the study of miRNA target recognition, function to tumorigenesis and treatment in retinoblastoma. Identification the specific miRNA biomarkers associated with retinoblastoma cancer may help to establish new therapeutic approaches for salvage affected eyes in patients.

  4. The microRNA toolkit of insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylla, Guillem; Fromm, Bastian; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Belles, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Is there a correlation between miRNA diversity and levels of organismic complexity? Exhibiting extraordinary levels of morphological and developmental complexity, insects are the most diverse animal class on earth. Their evolutionary success was in particular shaped by the innovation of holometabolan metamorphosis in endopterygotes. Previously, miRNA evolution had been linked to morphological complexity, but astonishing variation in the currently available miRNA complements of insects made this link unclear. To address this issue, we sequenced the miRNA complement of the hemimetabolan Blattella germanica and reannotated that of two other hemimetabolan species, Locusta migratoria and Acyrthosiphon pisum, and of four holometabolan species, Apis mellifera, Tribolium castaneum, Bombyx mori and Drosophila melanogaster. Our analyses show that the variation of insect miRNAs is an artefact mainly resulting from poor sampling and inaccurate miRNA annotation, and that insects share a conserved microRNA toolkit of 65 families exhibiting very low variation. For example, the evolutionary shift toward a complete metamorphosis was accompanied only by the acquisition of three and the loss of one miRNA families. PMID:27883064

  5. MicroRNA-155 Reinforces HIV Latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelas, Debbie S; Chan, Jonathan K; Oh, Eugene; Heidersbach, Amy J; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Chavez, Leonard; Verdin, Eric; Rape, Michael; Greene, Warner C

    2015-05-29

    The presence of a small number of infected but transcriptionally dormant cells currently thwarts a cure for the more than 35 million individuals infected with HIV. Reactivation of these latently infected cells may result in three fates: 1) cell death due to a viral cytopathic effect, 2) cell death due to immune clearance, or 3) a retreat into latency. Uncovering the dynamics of HIV gene expression and silencing in the latent reservoir will be crucial for developing an HIV-1 cure. Here we identify and characterize an intracellular circuit involving TRIM32, an HIV activator, and miR-155, a microRNA that may promote a return to latency in these transiently activated reservoir cells. Notably, we demonstrate that TRIM32, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, promotes reactivation from latency by directly modifying IκBα, leading to a novel mechanism of NF-κB induction not involving IκB kinase activation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Regulation of MicroRNA Biogenesis: A miRiad of mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Brandi N

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract microRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that influence diverse biological functions through the repression of target genes during normal development and pathological responses. Widespread use of microRNA arrays to profile microRNA expression has indicated that the levels of many microRNAs are altered during development and disease. These findings have prompted a great deal of investigation into the mechanism and function of microRNA-mediated repression. However, the mechanisms which govern the regulation of microRNA biogenesis and activity are just beginning to be uncovered. Following transcription, mature microRNA are generated through a series of coordinated processing events mediated by large protein complexes. It is increasingly clear that microRNA biogenesis does not proceed in a 'one-size-fits-all' manner. Rather, individual classes of microRNAs are differentially regulated through the association of regulatory factors with the core microRNA biogenesis machinery. Here, we review the regulation of microRNA biogenesis and activity, with particular focus on mechanisms of post-transcriptional control. Further understanding of the regulation of microRNA biogenesis and activity will undoubtedly provide important insights into normal development as well as pathological conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  7. Expression profiles of microRNAs after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengguo Zhai; Xiuping Zhang; Yue Guan; Xudong Yang; Yang Li; Gaochen Song; Lixin Guan

    2012-01-01

    Rat models of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury were established by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Microarray analysis showed that 24 hours after cerebral ischemia, there were nine up-regulated and 27 down-regulated microRNA genes in cortical tissue. Bioinformatic analysis showed that bcl-2 was the target gene of microRNA-384-5p and microRNA-494, and caspase-3 was the target gene of microRNA-129, microRNA-320 and microRNA-326. Real-time PCR and western blot analyses showed that 24 hours after cerebral ischemia, bcl-2 mRNA and protein levels in brain tissue were significantly decreased, while caspase-3 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased. This suggests that following cerebral ischemia, differentially expressed microRNA-384-5p, microRNA-494, microRNA-320, microRNA-129 and microRNA-326 can regulate bcl-2 and caspase-3 expression in brain tissue.

  8. MicroRNAs and essential components of the microRNA processing machinery are not encoded in the genome of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background MicroRNAs play a vital role in the regulation of gene expression and have been identified in every animal with a sequenced genome examined thus far, except for the placozoan Trichoplax. The genomic repertoires of metazoan microRNAs have become increasingly endorsed as phylogenetic characters and drivers of biological complexity. Results In this study, we report the first investigation of microRNAs in a species from the phylum Ctenophora. We use short RNA sequencing and the...

  9. Assessing an improved protocol for plasma microRNA extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Moret

    Full Text Available The first step in biomarkers discovery is to identify the best protocols for their purification and analysis. This issue is critical when considering peripheral blood samples (plasma and serum that are clinically interesting but meet several methodological problems, mainly complexity and low biomarker concentration. Analysis of small molecules, such as circulating microRNAs, should overcome these disadvantages. The present study describes an optimal RNA extraction method of microRNAs from human plasma samples. Different reagents and commercially available kits have been analyzed, identifying also the best pre-analytical conditions for plasma isolation. Between all of them, the column-based approaches were shown to be the most effective. In this context, miRNeasy Serum/Plasma Kit (from Qiagen rendered more concentrated RNA, that was better suited for microarrays studies and did not require extra purification steps for sample concentration and purification than phenol based extraction methods. We also present evidences that the addition of low doses of an RNA carrier before starting the extraction process improves microRNA purification while an already published carrier dose can result in significant bias over microRNA profiles. Quality controls for best protocol selection were developed by spectrophotometry measurement of contaminants and microfluidics electrophoresis (Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer for RNA integrity. Selected donor and patient plasma samples and matched biopsies were tested by Affymetrix microarray technology to compare differentially expressed microRNAs. In summary, this study defines an optimized protocol for microRNA purification from human blood samples, increasing the performance of assays and shedding light over the best way to discover and use these biomarkers in clinical practice.

  10. Assessing an improved protocol for plasma microRNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Inés; Sánchez-Izquierdo, Dolors; Iborra, Marisa; Tortosa, Luis; Navarro-Puche, Ana; Nos, Pilar; Cervera, José; Beltrán, Belén

    2013-01-01

    The first step in biomarkers discovery is to identify the best protocols for their purification and analysis. This issue is critical when considering peripheral blood samples (plasma and serum) that are clinically interesting but meet several methodological problems, mainly complexity and low biomarker concentration. Analysis of small molecules, such as circulating microRNAs, should overcome these disadvantages. The present study describes an optimal RNA extraction method of microRNAs from human plasma samples. Different reagents and commercially available kits have been analyzed, identifying also the best pre-analytical conditions for plasma isolation. Between all of them, the column-based approaches were shown to be the most effective. In this context, miRNeasy Serum/Plasma Kit (from Qiagen) rendered more concentrated RNA, that was better suited for microarrays studies and did not require extra purification steps for sample concentration and purification than phenol based extraction methods. We also present evidences that the addition of low doses of an RNA carrier before starting the extraction process improves microRNA purification while an already published carrier dose can result in significant bias over microRNA profiles. Quality controls for best protocol selection were developed by spectrophotometry measurement of contaminants and microfluidics electrophoresis (Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer) for RNA integrity. Selected donor and patient plasma samples and matched biopsies were tested by Affymetrix microarray technology to compare differentially expressed microRNAs. In summary, this study defines an optimized protocol for microRNA purification from human blood samples, increasing the performance of assays and shedding light over the best way to discover and use these biomarkers in clinical practice.

  11. A conformation-induced fluorescence method for microRNA detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aw, Sherry S; Tang, Melissa Xm; Teo, Yin Nah

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs play important roles in a large variety of biological systems and processes through their regulation of target mRNA expression, and show promise as clinical biomarkers. However, their small size presents challenges for tagging or direct detection. Innovation in techniques to sense...... and quantify microRNAs may aid research into novel aspects of microRNA biology and contribute to the development of diagnostics. By introducing an additional stem loop into the fluorescent RNA Spinach and altering its 3' and 5' ends, we have generated a new RNA, Pandan, that functions as the basis for a microRNA...... sensor. Pandan contains two sequence-variable stem loops that encode complementary sequence for a target microRNA of interest. In its sensor form, it requires the binding of a target microRNA in order to reconstitute the RNA scaffold for fluorophore binding and fluorescence. Binding of the target microRNA...

  12. MicroRNAs as potential therapeutics for treating spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hualin Yan; Peiwei Hong; Mei Jiang; Hedong Li

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of recently discovered, small non-coding RNAs that have been shown to play essential roles in a vast majority of biological processes. Very little is known about the role of microRNAs during spinal cord injury. This review summarizes the changes in expression levels of microRNAs after spinal cord injury. These aberrant changes suggest that microRNAs play an important role in inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, glial scar formation and axonal regeneration. Given their small size and specificity of action, microRNAs could be potential therapeutics for treating spinal cord injury in the future. There are rapidly developing techniques for manipulating microRNA levels in animals; we review different chemical modification and delivery strategies. These may provide platforms for designing efficient microRNA delivery protocols for use in the clinic.

  13. A custom microarray platform for analysis of microRNA gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, J Michael; Parker, Joel; Perou, Charles M; Hammond, Scott M

    2004-10-01

    MicroRNAs are short, noncoding RNA transcripts that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Several hundred microRNA genes have been identified in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, plants and mammals. MicroRNAs have been linked to developmental processes in C. elegans, plants and humans and to cell growth and apoptosis in Drosophila. A major impediment in the study of microRNA function is the lack of quantitative expression profiling methods. To close this technological gap, we have designed dual-channel microarrays that monitor expression levels of 124 mammalian microRNAs. Using these tools, we observed distinct patterns of expression among adult mouse tissues and embryonic stem cells. Expression profiles of staged embryos demonstrate temporal regulation of a large class of microRNAs, including members of the let-7 family. This microarray technology enables comprehensive investigation of microRNA expression, and furthers our understanding of this class of recently discovered noncoding RNAs.

  14. Generation of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene knockout rabbits by homologous recombination and gene trapping through somatic cell nuclear transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Mingru Yin; Weihua Jiang; Zhenfu Fang; Pengcheng Kong; Fengying Xing; Yao Li; Xuejin Chen; Shangang Li

    2015-01-01

    The rabbit is a common animal model that has been employed in studies on various human disorders, and the generation of genetically modified rabbit lines is highly desirable. Female rabbits have been successfully cloned from cumulus cells, and the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology is well established. The present study generated hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene knockout rabbits using recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated homologous recombination and SCNT....

  15. Update on non-canonical microRNAs

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Non-canonical microRNAs are a recently-discovered subset of microRNAs. They structurally and functionally resemble canonical miRNAs, but were found to follow distinct maturation pathways, typically bypassing one or more steps of the classic canonical biogenesis pathway. Non-canonical miRNAs were found to have diverse origins, including introns, snoRNAs, endogenous shRNAs and tRNAs. Our knowledge about their functions remains relatively primitive; however, many interesting discoveries have tak...

  16. Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola ePiscopo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD includes a spectrum of disorders characterized by changes of personality and social behaviour and, often, a gradual and progressive language dysfunction. In the last years, several efforts have been fulfilled in identifying both genetic mutations and pathological proteins associated with FTLD. The molecular bases undergoing the onset and progression of the disease remain still unknown. Recent literature prompts an involvement of RNA metabolism in FTLD, particularly miRNAs. Dysregulation of miRNAs in several disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, and increasing importance of circulating miRNAs in different pathologies has suggested to implement the study of their possible application as biological markers and new therapeutic targets; moreover, miRNA-based therapy is becoming a powerful tool to deepen the function of a gene, the mechanism of a disease, and validate therapeutic targets. Regarding FTLD, different studies showed that miRNAs are playing an important role. For example, several reports have evaluated miRNA regulation of the progranulin gene suggesting that it is under their control, as described for miR-29b, miR-107 and miR-659. More recently, it has been demonstrated that TMEM106B gene, which protein is elevated in FTLD-TDP brains, is repressed by miR-132/212 cluster; this post-transcriptional mechanism increases intracellular levels of progranulin, affecting its pathways. These findings if confirmed could suggest that these microRNAs have a role as potential targets for some related-FTLD genes. In this review, we focus on the emerging roles of the miRNAs in the pathogenesis of FTLD.

  17. MicroRNA Control of p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Zhang, Cen; Zhao, Yuhan; Feng, Zhaohui

    2017-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 plays a central role in tumor suppression. As a transcription factor, p53 mainly exerts its tumor suppressive function through transcriptional regulation of many target genes. To maintain the proper function of p53, p53 protein level and activity are exquisitely controlled by a group of positive and negative regulators in cells. Thus, p53, its regulators, and regulated genes form a complicated p53 signaling network. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of endogenous small non-coding RNA molecules. miRNAs play an important role in regulation of gene expression by blocking translational protein synthesis and/or degrading target mRNAs. Recent studies have demonstrated that p53 and its network are regulated by miRNAs at multiple levels. Some miRNAs regulate the level and function of p53 through directly targeting p53, whereas some other miRNAs target regulators of p53, such as MDM2 and MDM4, to indirectly regulate the activity and function of p53. On the other hand, p53 also regulates the transcriptional expression and the biogenesis of a group of miRNAs, which contributes to the tumor suppressive function of p53. p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer. Many tumor-associated mutant p53, which have "gain-of-function" activities in tumorigenesis independently of wild type p53, can regulate the expression of different miRNAs and modulate the biogenesis of specific miRNAs to promote tumorigenesis. These findings have demonstrated that miRNAs are important regulators and mediators of p53 and its signaling pathway, which highlights a pivotal role of miRNAs in the p53 network and cancer. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 7-14, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus microRNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in clinical samples can affect microRNA processing, level of expression, and silencing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Soo-Jin; Marshall, Vickie; Barsov, Eugene; Quiñones, Octavio; Ray, Alex; Labo, Nazzarena; Trivett, Matthew; Ott, David; Renne, Rolf; Whitby, Denise

    2013-11-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes 12 pre-microRNAs that can produce 25 KSHV mature microRNAs. We previously reported single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in KSHV-encoded pre-microRNA and mature microRNA sequences from clinical samples (V. Marshall et al., J. Infect. Dis., 195:645-659, 2007). To determine whether microRNA SNPs affect pre-microRNA processing and, ultimately, mature microRNA expression levels, we performed a detailed comparative analysis of (i) mature microRNA expression levels, (ii) in vitro Drosha/Dicer processing, and (iii) RNA-induced silencing complex-dependent targeting of wild-type (wt) and variant microRNA genes. Expression of pairs of wt and variant pre-microRNAs from retroviral vectors and measurement of KSHV mature microRNA expression by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) revealed differential expression levels that correlated with the presence of specific sequence polymorphisms. Measurement of KSHV mature microRNA expression in a panel of primary effusion lymphoma cell lines by real-time RT-PCR recapitulated some observed expression differences but suggested a more complex relationship between sequence differences and expression of mature microRNA. Furthermore, in vitro maturation assays demonstrated significant SNP-associated changes in Drosha/DGCR8 and/or Dicer processing. These data demonstrate that SNPs within KSHV-encoded pre-microRNAs are associated with differential microRNA expression levels. Given the multiple reports on the involvement of microRNAs in cancer, the biological significance of these phenotypic and genotypic variants merits further studies in patients with KSHV-associated malignancies.

  19. MYC and the art of microRNA maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psathas, James N; Thomas-Tikhonenko, Andrei

    2014-04-15

    MYC is a noncanonical transcription factor that binds to thousands of genomic loci and affects >15% of the human transcriptome, with surprisingly little overlap between MYC-bound and -regulated genes. This discordance raises the question whether MYC chooses its targets based on their individual biological effects ("a la carte") or by virtue of belonging to a certain group of genes (on a "prix fixe" basis). This review presents evidence for a prix fixe, posttranscriptional model whereby MYC initially deregulates a select number of microRNAs. These microRNAs then target a broad spectrum of genes based solely on the presence in their 3' UTRs (untranslated regions) of distinct "seed" sequences. Existing evidence suggests that there are significant microRNA components to all key MYC-driven phenotypes, including cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, metastasis, stemness, and hematopoiesis. Furthermore, each of these cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic phenotypes is likely attributable to deregulation of multiple microRNA targets acting in different, yet frequently overlapping, pathways. The habitual targeting of multiple genes within the same pathway might account for the robustness and persistence of MYC-induced phenotypes.

  20. MicroRNA targeting to modulate tumor microenvironment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuninty, Praneeth R.; Schnittert, Jonas; Storm, G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073356328; Prakash, Jai

    2016-01-01

    Communication between stromal cells and tumor cells initiates tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Stromal cells include cancer-associated fibroblasts, tumor-associated macrophages, pericytes, endothelial cells, and infiltrating immune cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in the tumor

  1. Circulating microRNAs as biomarkers of adult Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael D; Andersen, Rikke F; Christensen, Henry

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have found a differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the blood of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) compared with healthy controls. The aim of this study was to identify circulating miRNAs expressed in CD and assess their performance as biomarkers in patients...

  2. MicroRNA networks direct neuronal development and plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Loohuis, N.F.; Kos, A.; Martens, G.J.; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van; Nadif Kasri, N.; Aschrafi, A.

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a class of small, non-coding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. In neurons, the functions of individual miRNAs are just beginning to emerge, and recent studies have elucidated roles for neural miRNAs at various stages of neuronal develo

  3. MicroRNAs in kidney health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijkerk, Roel

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes a role for microRNAs in kidney (patho)physiology. First, it is shown that miR-155 negatively regulates RhoA signaling in TGF-β-induced endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EndoMT). EndoMT associates with reorganization of the cytoskeleton and production of extracellular matri

  4. Brain expressed microRNAs implicated in schizophrenia etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas; Olsen, Line; Lindow, Morten;

    2007-01-01

    Protein encoding genes have long been the major targets for research in schizophrenia genetics. However, with the identification of regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) as important in brain development and function, miRNAs genes have emerged as candidates for schizophrenia-associated genetic factors...

  5. Pharmacogenomics genes show varying perceptibility to microRNA regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rukov, Jakob Lewin; Vinther, Jeppe; Shomron, Noam

    2011-01-01

    The aim of pharmacogenomics is to identify individual differences in genome and transcriptome composition and their effect on drug efficacy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate expression of the majority of animal genes, including many genes involved in drug...

  6. MicroRNA related polymorphisms and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Khan (Sofia); D. Greco (Dario); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); R.L. Milne (Roger); T.A. Muranen (Taru); T. Heikkinen (Tuomas); K. Aaltonen (Kirsimari); J. Dennis (Joe); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); J. Liu (Jianjun); P. Hall (Per); A. Irwanto (Astrid); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); J. Li (Jingmei); K. Czene (Kamila); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); R. Hein (Rebecca); A. Rudolph (Anja); P. Seibold (Petra); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); O. Fletcher (Olivia); J. Peto (Julian); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); N. Johnson (Nichola); L.J. Gibson (Lorna); A. Aitken; J.L. Hopper (John); H. Tsimiklis (Helen); M. Bui (Minh); E. Makalic (Enes); D.F. Schmidt (Daniel); M.C. Southey (Melissa); C. Apicella (Carmel); J. Stone (Jennifer); Q. Waisfisz (Quinten); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); M.A. Adank (Muriel); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); A. Meindl (Alfons); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); P. Lichtner (Peter); C. Turnbull (Clare); N. Rahman (Nazneen); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); D. Hunter (David); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); L.J. van 't Veer (Laura); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); P.A. Fasching (Peter); A. Schrauder (André); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); S.F. Nielsen (Sune); H. Flyger (Henrik); J. Benítez (Javier); P.M. Zamora (Pilar M.); J.I.A. Perez (Jose Ignacio Arias); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); B.E. Henderson (Brian); F.R. Schumacher (Fredrick); L.L. March (Loic Le); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); A.M. Dunning (Alison); M. Shah (Mitul); R.N. Luben (Robert); J. Brown (Judith); F.J. Couch (Fergus); X. Wang (X.); C. Vachon (Celine); J.E. Olson (Janet); D. Lambrechts (Diether); M. Moisse (Matthieu); R. Paridaens (Robert); M.R. Christiaens (Marie Rose); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); P. Laurent-Puig (Pierre); C. Mulot (Claire); F. Marme (Frederick); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); A. Schneeweiss (Andreas); C. Sohn (Christof); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); S. Tchatchou (Srine); A.-M. Mulligan (Anna-Marie); T. Dörk (Thilo); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); N.N. Antonenkova (Natalia); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); H. Darabi (Hatef); M. Eriksson (Mats); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); L.A. Brinton (Louise); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); V. Kristensen (Vessela); S. Slager (Susan); A.E. Tol (Ama E.); C.B. Ambrosone (Christine); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); A. Lindblom (Annika); S. Margolin (Sara); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); M. Barile (Monica); P. Mariani (Paolo); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); J.W.M. Martens (John); J. Margriet Collée; A. Jager (Agnes); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); G.G. Giles (Graham); C.A. McLean (Catriona Ann); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); T. Brüning (Thomas); Y.-D. Ko (Yon-Dschun); H.B. The Genica Network (Hermann Brenner); A.K. Dieffenbach (Aida Karina); V. Arndt (Volker); C. Stegmaier (Christa); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); A. Ashworth (Alan); N. Orr (Nick); M. Jones (Michael); J. Simard (Jacques); M.S. Goldberg (Mark); F. Labrèche (France); M. Dumont (Martine); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); M. Grip (Mervi); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); A. Mannermaa (Arto); U. Hamann (Ute); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); C. Blomqvist (Carl); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); D.F. Easton (Douglas); H. Nevanlinna (Heli)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractGenetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility

  7. Fast and Simple micro-RNA Northern Blots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nham Tran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA northern blots provide robust measurements of gene expression. The simple northern blot technique described in this report has been optimised to provide rapid, reproducible detection and analysis of mature and precursor forms of microRNAs. This protocol economises on the use of commercially available components and secondly reduces the hybridisation step to 2 hours.

  8. MicroRNA's are novel biomarkers in sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Edith Smed; Alamili, Mahdi; Coskun, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). The discovery of small non-coding microRNAs (miRs) and their correlation to sepsis has gained increasing interest. Our aim was to systematically review the literature examining the association...

  9. Differential microRNA expression in blood in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Hesse, Dan; Krakauer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of the genome at the post-transcriptional level. They play a role in autoimmunity and inflammation, and show potential for use as therapeutic targets in many diseases. With the recent detection of miRNAs in body fluids, the possibility for using miRNAs...

  10. The Multifarious Hippocampal Functions of MicroRNA-137

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kos, A.; Aschrafi, A.; Nadif Kasri, N.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) have emerged as a powerful class of endogenous noncoding RNAs involved in posttranscriptional gene expression regulation. miR-137 has repeatedly been associated with schizophrenia and intellectual disability. Recent studies describe the mechanisms of miR-137 in mediating basic synap

  11. MicroRNA Related Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Michailidou, Kyriaki

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer...

  12. Identification of microRNA in the protist Trichomonas vaginalis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Wen-Chang; Lin, Wei-Chen; Li, Sung-Chou; Shin, Jyh-Wei; Hu, Song-Nian; Yu, Xiao-Min; Huang, Ting-Yun; Huang, Po-Jung; Chen, Hua-Chien; Chen, Shu-Jen; Chen, Shih-Chieh; Ruei-Chi Gan, Richie; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Tang, Petrus

    2009-01-01

    .... However, miRNA has never been identified experimentally in protist. Direct cloning of 438 expressed miRNA tags by microRNA serial analysis of gene expression from the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis identified nine candidate miRNAs...

  13. Sickle cell microRNAs inhibit the malaria parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraisingh, Manoj T; Lodish, Harvey F

    2012-08-16

    Sickle cell hemoglobin conveys resistance to malaria. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, LaMonte et al. (2012) demonstrate a surprising mechanism for this innate immunity. A microRNA enriched in sickle red blood cells is translocated into the parasite, incorporated covalently into P. falciparum mRNAs and inhibits parasite growth.

  14. The role of microRNA in nutritional control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolte - t Hoen, Esther; Van Rooij, E.; Bushell, M.; Zhang, C. Y.; Dashwood, R. H.; James, W. P T; Harris, C.; Baltimore, D.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one of a growing class of noncoding RNAs that are involved in the regulation of a wide range of metabolic processes including cellular differentiation, cell proliferation and apoptosis. The generation of miRNA is regulated in complex ways, for example by small interfering RNAs

  15. MicroRNAs, macrocontrol : Regulation of miRNA processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slezak-Prochazka, Izabella; Durmus, Selvi; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; van den Berg, Anke

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a set of small, non-protein-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Maturation of miRNAs comprises several regulated steps resulting in similar to 22-nucleotide single-stranded mature miRNAs. Regulation of miRNA expression can occur both at

  16. MicroRNA targeting to modulate tumor microenvironment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuninty, Praneeth R.; Schnittert, Jonas; Storm, G; Prakash, Jai

    2016-01-01

    Communication between stromal cells and tumor cells initiates tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Stromal cells include cancer-associated fibroblasts, tumor-associated macrophages, pericytes, endothelial cells, and infiltrating immune cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in the tumor microenv

  17. MicroRNA related polymorphisms and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Khan (Sofia); D. Greco (Dario); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); R.L. Milne (Roger); T.A. Muranen (Taru); T. Heikkinen (Tuomas); K. Aaltonen (Kirsimari); J. Dennis (Joe); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); J. Liu (Jianjun); P. Hall (Per); A. Irwanto (Astrid); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); J. Li (Jingmei); K. Czene (Kamila); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); R. Hein (Rebecca); A. Rudolph (Anja); P. Seibold (Petra); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); O. Fletcher (Olivia); J. Peto (Julian); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); N. Johnson (Nichola); L.J. Gibson (Lorna); A. Aitken; J.L. Hopper (John); H. Tsimiklis (Helen); M. Bui (Minh); E. Makalic (Enes); D.F. Schmidt (Daniel); M.C. Southey (Melissa); C. Apicella (Carmel); J. Stone (Jennifer); Q. Waisfisz (Quinten); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); M.A. Adank (Muriel); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); A. Meindl (Alfons); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); P. Lichtner (Peter); C. Turnbull (Clare); N. Rahman (Nazneen); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); D. Hunter (David); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); L.J. van 't Veer (Laura); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); P.A. Fasching (Peter); A. Schrauder (André); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); S.F. Nielsen (Sune); H. Flyger (Henrik); J. Benítez (Javier); P.M. Zamora (Pilar M.); J.I.A. Perez (Jose Ignacio Arias); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); B.E. Henderson (Brian); F.R. Schumacher (Fredrick); L.L. March (Loic Le); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); A.M. Dunning (Alison); M. Shah (Mitul); R.N. Luben (Robert); J. Brown (Judith); F.J. Couch (Fergus); X. Wang (X.); C. Vachon (Celine); J.E. Olson (Janet); D. Lambrechts (Diether); M. Moisse (Matthieu); R. Paridaens (Robert); M.R. Christiaens (Marie Rose); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); P. Laurent-Puig (Pierre); C. Mulot (Claire); F. Marme (Frederick); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); A. Schneeweiss (Andreas); C. Sohn (Christof); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); S. Tchatchou (Srine); A.-M. Mulligan (Anna-Marie); T. Dörk (Thilo); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); N.N. Antonenkova (Natalia); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); H. Darabi (Hatef); M. Eriksson (Mats); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); L.A. Brinton (Louise); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); V. Kristensen (Vessela); S. Slager (Susan); A.E. Tol (Ama E.); C.B. Ambrosone (Christine); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); A. Lindblom (Annika); S. Margolin (Sara); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); M. Barile (Monica); P. Mariani (Paolo); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); J.W.M. Martens (John); J. Margriet Collée; A. Jager (Agnes); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); G.G. Giles (Graham); C.A. McLean (Catriona Ann); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); T. Brüning (Thomas); Y.-D. Ko (Yon-Dschun); H.B. The Genica Network (Hermann Brenner); A.K. Dieffenbach (Aida Karina); V. Arndt (Volker); C. Stegmaier (Christa); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); A. Ashworth (Alan); N. Orr (Nick); M. Jones (Michael); J. Simard (Jacques); M.S. Goldberg (Mark); F. Labrèche (France); M. Dumont (Martine); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); M. Grip (Mervi); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); A. Mannermaa (Arto); U. Hamann (Ute); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); C. Blomqvist (Carl); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); D.F. Easton (Douglas); H. Nevanlinna (Heli)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractGenetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility

  18. Bioavailability of transgenic microRNAs in genetically modified plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic expression of small RNAs is a prevalent approach in agrobiotechnology for the global enhancement of plant foods. Meanwhile, emerging studies have, on the one hand, emphasized the potential of transgenic microRNAs (miRNAs) as novel dietary therapeutics and, on the other, suggested potentia...

  19. MicroRNA Expression in Alzheimer Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyman M. Schipper

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Various coding genes representing multiple functional categories are downregulated in blood mononuclear cells (BMC of patients with sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD. Noncoding microRNAs (miRNA regulate gene expression by degrading messages or inhibiting translation. Using BMC as a paradigm for the study of systemic alterations in AD, we investigated whether peripheral miRNA expression is altered in this condition. MicroRNA levels were assessed using the microRNA microarray (MMChip containing 462 human miRNA, and the results validated by real time PCR. Sixteen AD patients and sixteen normal elderly controls (NEC were matched for ethnicity, age, gender and education. The expression of several BMC miRNAs was found to increase in AD relative to NEC levels, and may differ between AD subjects bearing one or two APOE4 alleles. As compared to NEC, miRNAs signifi cantly upregulated in AD subjects and confi rmed by qPCR were miR-34a and 181b. Predicted target genes downregulated in Alzheimer BMC that correlated with the upregulated miRNAs were largely represented in the functional categories of Transcription/Translation and Synaptic Activity. Several miRNAs targeting the same genes were within the functional category of Injury response/Redox homeostasis. Taken together, induction of microRNA expression in BMC may contribute to the aberrant systemic decline in mRNA levels in sporadic AD.

  20. Uncovering growth-suppressive MicroRNAs in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xi; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Galimberti, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles improve classification, diagnosis, and prognostic information of malignancies, including lung cancer. This study uncovered unique growth-suppressive miRNAs in lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: miRNA arrays were done on normal lung tissues and adenocar...

  1. microRNAs as neuroregulators, biomarkers and therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Indranil; Patil, Ketan S; Alves, Guido; Larsen, Jan Petter; Møller, Simon Geir

    2016-02-01

    The last decade has experienced the emergence of microRNAs as a key molecular tool for the diagnosis and prognosis of human diseases. Although the focus has mostly been on cancer, neurodegenerative diseases present an exciting, yet less explored, platform for microRNA research. Several studies have highlighted the significance of microRNAs in neurogenesis and neurodegeneration, and pre-clinical studies have shown the potential of microRNAs as biomarkers. Despite this, no bona fide microRNAs have been identified as true diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for neurodegenerative disease. This is mainly due to the lack of precisely defined patient cohorts and the variability within and between individual cohorts. However, the discovery that microRNAs exist as stable molecules at detectable levels in body fluids has opened up new avenues for microRNAs as potential biomarker candidates. Furthermore, technological developments in microRNA biology have contributed to the possible design of microRNA-mediated disease intervention strategies. The combination of these advancements, with the availability of well-defined longitudinal patient cohort, promises to not only assist in developing invaluable diagnostic tools for clinicians, but also to increase our overall understanding of the underlying heterogeneity of neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of the existing knowledge of microRNAs in neurodegeneration and provide a perspective of the applicability of microRNAs as a basis for future therapeutic intervention strategies.

  2. Characterization and identification of microRNA core promoters in four model species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Zhou

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are short, noncoding RNAs that play important roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Although many functions of microRNAs in plants and animals have been revealed in recent years, the transcriptional mechanism of microRNA genes is not well-understood. To elucidate the transcriptional regulation of microRNA genes, we study and characterize, in a genome scale, the promoters of intergenic microRNA genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, Homo sapiens, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Oryza sativa. We show that most known microRNA genes in these four species have the same type of promoters as protein-coding genes have. To further characterize the promoters of microRNA genes, we developed a novel promoter prediction method, called common query voting (CoVote, which is more effective than available promoter prediction methods. Using this new method, we identify putative core promoters of most known microRNA genes in the four model species. Moreover, we characterize the promoters of microRNA genes in these four species. We discover many significant, characteristic sequence motifs in these core promoters, several of which match or resemble the known cis-acting elements for transcription initiation. Among these motifs, some are conserved across different species while some are specific to microRNA genes of individual species.

  3. Different microRNA profiles in chronic epilepsy versus acute seizure mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmann, Anita; Danis, Benedicte; Andonovic, Lidija; Abnaof, Khalid; van Rikxoort, Marijke; Siegel, Franziska; Mazzuferi, Manuela; Godard, Patrice; Hanon, Etienne; Fröhlich, Holger; Kaminski, Rafal M; Foerch, Patrik; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Epilepsy affects around 50 million people worldwide, and in about 65% of patients, the etiology of disease is unknown. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that have been suggested to play a role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Here, we compared microRNA expression patterns in the hippocampus using two chronic models of epilepsy characterised by recurrent spontaneous seizures (pilocarpine and self-sustained status epilepticus (SSSE)) and an acute 6-Hz seizure model. The vast majority of microRNAs deregulated in the acute model exhibited increased expression with 146 microRNAs up-regulated within 6 h after a single seizure. In contrast, in the chronic models, the number of up-regulated microRNAs was similar to the number of down-regulated microRNAs. Three microRNAs-miR-142-5p, miR-331-3p and miR-30a-5p-were commonly deregulated in all three models. However, there is a clear overlap of differentially expressed microRNAs within the chronic models with 36 and 15 microRNAs co-regulated at 24 h and at 28 days following status epilepticus, respectively. Pathway analysis revealed that the altered microRNAs are associated with inflammation, innate immunity and cell cycle regulation. Taken together, the identified microRNAs and the pathways they modulate might represent candidates for novel molecular approaches for the treatment of patients with epilepsy.

  4. Upregulated microRNA-224 promotes ovarian cancer cell proliferation by targeting KLLN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ke; Liang, Meng

    2017-02-01

    Human epithelial ovarian cancer is a complex disease, with low 5-yr survival rate largely due to the terminal stage at diagnosis in most patients. MicroRNAs play critical roles during epithelial ovarian cancer progression in vivo and have also been shown to regulate characteristic of ovarian cancer cell line in vitro. Alterative microRNA-224 (microRNA-224) expression affects human epithelial ovarian cancer cell survival, apoptosis, and metastasis. However, people know little about the effects of microRNA-224 on epithelial ovarian cancer cell proliferation. In the current study, we found that the microRNA-224 expression level of human syngeneic epithelial ovarian cancer cells HO8910 (low metastatic ability) was lower than that of HO8910PM (high metastatic ability). Furthermore, microRNA-224 was confirmed to target KLLN in HO8910 and HO8910PM. The known KLLN downstream target cyclin A was regulated by microRNA-224 in HO8910 and HO8910PM. In addition, overexpression of microRNA-224 enhanced the proliferation abilities of HO8910 and knockdown of microRNA-224 suppressed the proliferation abilities of HO8910PM by KLLN-cyclin A pathway. Our results provide new data about microRNAs and their targets involved in proliferation of epithelial ovarian cancer cells by modulating the downstream signaling.

  5. [Digital droplet PCR - a prospective technological approach to quantitative profiling of microRNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, Y Y; Ptitsyn, K G; Radko, S P; Zgoda, V G; Archakov, A I

    2016-05-01

    MicroRNA is a special type of regulatory molecules governing gene expression. Circulating microRNAs found in blood and other biological fluids are considered today as potential biomarkers of human pathology. Presently, quantitative alterations of particular microRNAs are revealed for a large number of oncological diseases and other disorders. The recently emerged method of digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) possesses a number of advantages making this method the most suitable for verification and validation of perspective microRNA markers of human pathologies. Among these advantages are the high accuracy and reproducibility of microRNA quantification as well as the capability to directly measure the absolute number of microRNA copies with the large dynamic range and a high throughput. The paper reviews microRNA biogenesis, the origin of circulating microRNAs, and methods used for their quantification. The special technical features of ddPCR, which make it an attractive method both for studying microRNAs as biomarkers of human pathologies and for basic research devoted to aspects of gene regulation by microRNA molecules, are also discussed.

  6. Ago2 immunoprecipitation identifies predicted microRNAs in human embryonic stem cells and neural precursors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyal A Goff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are required for maintenance of pluripotency as well as differentiation, but since more microRNAs have been computationally predicted in genome than have been found, there are likely to be undiscovered microRNAs expressed early in stem cell differentiation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SOLiD ultra-deep sequencing identified >10(7 unique small RNAs from human embryonic stem cells (hESC and neural-restricted precursors that were fit to a model of microRNA biogenesis to computationally predict 818 new microRNA genes. These predicted genomic loci are associated with chromatin patterns of modified histones that are predictive of regulated gene expression. 146 of the predicted microRNAs were enriched in Ago2-containing complexes along with 609 known microRNAs, demonstrating association with a functional RISC complex. This Ago2 IP-selected subset was consistently expressed in four independent hESC lines and exhibited complex patterns of regulation over development similar to previously-known microRNAs, including pluripotency-specific expression in both hESC and iPS cells. More than 30% of the Ago2 IP-enriched predicted microRNAs are new members of existing families since they share seed sequences with known microRNAs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Extending the classic definition of microRNAs, this large number of new microRNA genes, the majority of which are less conserved than their canonical counterparts, likely represent evolutionarily recent regulators of early differentiation. The enrichment in Ago2 containing complexes, the presence of chromatin marks indicative of regulated gene expression, and differential expression over development all support the identification of 146 new microRNAs active during early hESC differentiation.

  7. Computational Characterization of Exogenous MicroRNAs that Can Be Transferred into Human Circulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Shu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been long considered synthesized endogenously until very recent discoveries showing that human can absorb dietary microRNAs from animal and plant origins while the mechanism remains unknown. Compelling evidences of microRNAs from rice, milk, and honeysuckle transported to human blood and tissues have created a high volume of interests in the fundamental questions that which and how exogenous microRNAs can be transferred into human circulation and possibly exert functions in humans. Here we present an integrated genomics and computational analysis to study the potential deciding features of transportable microRNAs. Specifically, we analyzed all publicly available microRNAs, a total of 34,612 from 194 species, with 1,102 features derived from the microRNA sequence and structure. Through in-depth bioinformatics analysis, 8 groups of discriminative features have been used to characterize human circulating microRNAs and infer the likelihood that a microRNA will get transferred into human circulation. For example, 345 dietary microRNAs have been predicted as highly transportable candidates where 117 of them have identical sequences with their homologs in human and 73 are known to be associated with exosomes. Through a milk feeding experiment, we have validated 9 cow-milk microRNAs in human plasma using microRNA-sequencing analysis, including the top ranked microRNAs such as bta-miR-487b, miR-181b, and miR-421. The implications in health-related processes have been illustrated in the functional analysis. This work demonstrates the data-driven computational analysis is highly promising to study novel molecular characteristics of transportable microRNAs while bypassing the complex mechanistic details.

  8. MicroRNA evolution, expression, and function during short germband development in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninova, Maria; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Griffiths-Jones, Sam

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are well-established players in the development of multicellular animals. Most of our understanding of microRNA function in arthropod development comes from studies in Drosophila. Despite their advantages as model systems, the long germband embryogenesis of fruit flies is an evolutionary derived state restricted to several holometabolous insect lineages. MicroRNA evolution and expression across development in animals exhibiting the ancestral and more widespread short germband mode of embryogenesis has not been characterized. We sequenced small RNA libraries of oocytes and successive intervals covering the embryonic development of the short germband model organism, Tribolium castaneum. We analyzed the evolution and temporal expression of the microRNA complement and sequenced libraries of total RNA to investigate the relationships with microRNA target expression. We show microRNA maternal loading and sequence-specific 3' end nontemplate oligoadenylation of maternally deposited microRNAs that is conserved between Tribolium and Drosophila. We further uncover large clusters encoding multiple paralogs from several Tribolium-specific microRNA families expressed during a narrow interval of time immediately after the activation of zygotic transcription. These novel microRNAs, together with several early expressed conserved microRNAs, target a significant number of maternally deposited transcripts. Comparison with Drosophila shows that microRNA-mediated maternal transcript targeting is a conserved process in insects, but the number and sequences of microRNAs involved have diverged. The expression of fast-evolving and species-specific microRNAs in the early blastoderm of T. castaneum is consistent with previous findings in Drosophila and shows that the unique permissiveness for microRNA innovation at this stage is a conserved phenomenon.

  9. MicroRNAs and essential components of the microRNA processing machinery are not encoded in the genome of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Evan K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs play a vital role in the regulation of gene expression and have been identified in every animal with a sequenced genome examined thus far, except for the placozoan Trichoplax. The genomic repertoires of metazoan microRNAs have become increasingly endorsed as phylogenetic characters and drivers of biological complexity. Results In this study, we report the first investigation of microRNAs in a species from the phylum Ctenophora. We use short RNA sequencing and the assembled genome of the lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi to show that this species appears to lack any recognizable microRNAs, as well as the nuclear proteins Drosha and Pasha, which are critical to canonical microRNA biogenesis. This finding represents the first reported case of a metazoan lacking a Drosha protein. Conclusions Recent phylogenomic analyses suggest that Mnemiopsis may be the earliest branching metazoan lineage. If this is true, then the origins of canonical microRNA biogenesis and microRNA-mediated gene regulation may postdate the last common metazoan ancestor. Alternatively, canonical microRNA functionality may have been lost independently in the lineages leading to both Mnemiopsis and the placozoan Trichoplax, suggesting that microRNA functionality was not critical until much later in metazoan evolution.

  10. MicroRNAs and essential components of the microRNA processing machinery are not encoded in the genome of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Evan K; Ryan, Joseph F; Schnitzler, Christine E; Browne, William E; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2012-12-20

    MicroRNAs play a vital role in the regulation of gene expression and have been identified in every animal with a sequenced genome examined thus far, except for the placozoan Trichoplax. The genomic repertoires of metazoan microRNAs have become increasingly endorsed as phylogenetic characters and drivers of biological complexity. In this study, we report the first investigation of microRNAs in a species from the phylum Ctenophora. We use short RNA sequencing and the assembled genome of the lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi to show that this species appears to lack any recognizable microRNAs, as well as the nuclear proteins Drosha and Pasha, which are critical to canonical microRNA biogenesis. This finding represents the first reported case of a metazoan lacking a Drosha protein. Recent phylogenomic analyses suggest that Mnemiopsis may be the earliest branching metazoan lineage. If this is true, then the origins of canonical microRNA biogenesis and microRNA-mediated gene regulation may postdate the last common metazoan ancestor. Alternatively, canonical microRNA functionality may have been lost independently in the lineages leading to both Mnemiopsis and the placozoan Trichoplax, suggesting that microRNA functionality was not critical until much later in metazoan evolution.

  11. MicroRNAs Form Triplexes with Double Stranded DNA at Sequence-Specific Binding Sites; a Eukaryotic Mechanism via which microRNAs Could Directly Alter Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W Paugh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, acting primarily by binding to sequence-specific locations on already transcribed messenger RNAs (mRNA and typically down-regulating their stability or translation. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs may also play a role in up-regulating mRNA transcription levels, although a definitive mechanism has not been established. Double-helical DNA is capable of forming triple-helical structures through Hoogsteen and reverse Hoogsteen interactions in the major groove of the duplex, and we show physical evidence (i.e., NMR, FRET, SPR that purine or pyrimidine-rich microRNAs of appropriate length and sequence form triple-helical structures with purine-rich sequences of duplex DNA, and identify microRNA sequences that favor triplex formation. We developed an algorithm (Trident to search genome-wide for potential triplex-forming sites and show that several mammalian and non-mammalian genomes are enriched for strong microRNA triplex binding sites. We show that those genes containing sequences favoring microRNA triplex formation are markedly enriched (3.3 fold, p<2.2 × 10(-16 for genes whose expression is positively correlated with expression of microRNAs targeting triplex binding sequences. This work has thus revealed a new mechanism by which microRNAs could interact with gene promoter regions to modify gene transcription.

  12. MicroRNA profiling in intraocular medulloepitheliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak P Edward

    Full Text Available To study the differential expression of microRNA (miRNA profiles between intraocular medulloepithelioma (ME and normal control tissue (CT.Total RNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE intraocular ME (n=7 and from age matched ciliary body controls (n=8. The clinical history and phenotype was recorded. MiRNA profiles were determined using the Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA Arrays analyzed using expression console 1.3 software. Validation of significantly dysregulated miRNA was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. The web-based DNA Intelligent Analysis (DIANA-miRPath v2.0 was used to perform enrichment analysis of differentially expressed (DE miRNA gene targets in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway.The pathologic evaluation revealed one benign (benign non-teratoid, n=1 and six malignant tumors (malignant teratoid, n=2; malignant non-teratoid, n = 4. A total of 88 miRNAs were upregulated and 43 miRNAs were downregulated significantly (P<0.05 in the tumor specimens. Many of these significantly dysregulated miRNAs were known to play various roles in carcinogenesis and tumor behavior. RT-PCR validated three significantly upregulated miRNAs and three significantly downregulated miRNAs namely miR-217, miR-216a, miR-216b, miR-146a, miR-509-3p and miR-211. Many DE miRNAs that were significant in ME tumors showed dysregulation in retinoblastoma, glioblastoma, and precursor, normal and reactive human cartilage. Enriched pathway analysis suggested a significant association of upregulated miRNAs with 15 pathways involved in prion disease and several types of cancer. The pathways involving significantly downregulated miRNAs included the toll-like receptor (TLR (p<4.36E-16 and Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathways (p<9.00E-06.We report significantly dysregulated miRNAs in intraocular ME tumors, which exhibited abnormal profiles in other cancers as well such as retinoblastoma and glioblastoma. Pathway analysis

  13. MicroRNA and nephropathy: emerging concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung AC

    2013-09-01

    effects in rodent models of chronic kidney disease. However, mechanisms and roles of miRNAs under disease conditions remain to be explored. Thus, understanding the function of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases may offer an innovative approach for both early diagnosis and treatment of renal diseases. Keywords: microRNAs, kidney diseases, renal fibrosis, TGF-β signaling

  14. Annotation of mammalian primary microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enright Anton J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important regulators of gene expression and have been implicated in development, differentiation and pathogenesis. Hundreds of miRNAs have been discovered in mammalian genomes. Approximately 50% of mammalian miRNAs are expressed from introns of protein-coding genes; the primary transcript (pri-miRNA is therefore assumed to be the host transcript. However, very little is known about the structure of pri-miRNAs expressed from intergenic regions. Here we annotate transcript boundaries of miRNAs in human, mouse and rat genomes using various transcription features. The 5' end of the pri-miRNA is predicted from transcription start sites, CpG islands and 5' CAGE tags mapped in the upstream flanking region surrounding the precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA. The 3' end of the pri-miRNA is predicted based on the mapping of polyA signals, and supported by cDNA/EST and ditags data. The predicted pri-miRNAs are also analyzed for promoter and insulator-associated regulatory regions. Results We define sets of conserved and non-conserved human, mouse and rat pre-miRNAs using bidirectional BLAST and synteny analysis. Transcription features in their flanking regions are used to demarcate the 5' and 3' boundaries of the pri-miRNAs. The lengths and boundaries of primary transcripts are highly conserved between orthologous miRNAs. A significant fraction of pri-miRNAs have lengths between 1 and 10 kb, with very few introns. We annotate a total of 59 pri-miRNA structures, which include 82 pre-miRNAs. 36 pri-miRNAs are conserved in all 3 species. In total, 18 of the confidently annotated transcripts express more than one pre-miRNA. The upstream regions of 54% of the predicted pri-miRNAs are found to be associated with promoter and insulator regulatory sequences. Conclusion Little is known about the primary transcripts of intergenic miRNAs. Using comparative data, we are able to identify the boundaries of a significant proportion of

  15. Nutrition, microRNAs, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Juan; Zhou, Beiyan; Ross, Sharon A; Zempleni, Janos

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) hybridize with complementary sequences in mRNA and silence genes by destabilizing mRNA or preventing translation of mRNA. Over 60% of human protein-coding genes are regulated by miRs, and 1881 high-confidence miRs are encoded in the human genome. Evidence suggests that miRs not only are synthesized endogenously, but also might be obtained from dietary sources, and that food compounds alter the expression of endogenous miR genes. The main food matrices for studies of biological activity of dietary miRs include plant foods and cow milk. Encapsulation of miRs in exosomes and exosome-like particles confers protection against RNA degradation and creates a pathway for intestinal and vascular endothelial transport by endocytosis, as well as delivery to peripheral tissues. Evidence suggests that the amount of miRs absorbed from nutritionally relevant quantities of foods is sufficient to elicit biological effects, and that endogenous synthesis of miRs is insufficient to compensate for dietary miR depletion and rescue wild-type phenotypes. In addition, nutrition alters the expression of endogenous miR genes, thereby compounding the effects of nutrition-miR interactions in gene regulation and disease diagnosis in liquid biopsies. For example, food components and dietary preferences may modulate serum miR profiles that may influence biological processes. The complex crosstalk between nutrition, miRs, and gene targets poses a challenge to gene network analysis and studies of human disease. Novel pipelines and databases have been developed recently, including a dietary miR database for archiving reported miRs in 15 dietary resources. miRs derived from diet and endogenous synthesis have been implicated in physiologic and pathologic conditions, including those linked with nutrition and metabolism. In fact, several miRs are actively regulated in response to overnutrition and tissue inflammation, and are involved in facilitating the development of chronic

  16. Micro-RNA speciation in fetal, adult and Alzheimer's disease hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukiw, Walter J

    2007-02-12

    Micro-RNAs constitute a family of small noncoding ribonucleic acids that are posttranscriptional regulators of messenger RNA activity. Although micro-RNAs are known to be dynamically regulated during neural development, the role of micro-RNAs in brain aging and neurodegeneration is not known. This study examined micro-RNA abundance in the hippocampal region of fetal, adult and Alzheimer's disease brain. The data indicate that micro-RNAs encoding miR-9, miR-124a, miR-125b, miR-128, miR-132 and miR-219 are abundantly represented in fetal hippocampus, are differentially regulated in aged brain, and an alteration in specific micro-RNA complexity occurs in Alzheimer hippocampus. These data are consistent with the idea that altered micro-RNA-mediated processing of messenger RNA populations may contribute to atypical mRNA abundance and neural dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease brain.

  17. MicroRNA: a small molecule with a big biological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2012-01-01

    One of the most significant achievements in biological science in the last decade is the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi), a process within living cells that regulates gene expression at post-transcriptional levels. Historically, this process was described by other more generic names, such as co-suppression and post transcriptional gene silencing. Only after the molecular mechanism underlying these apparently unrelated processes was fully understood did it become apparent that they all described the RNAi phenomenon. In 2006, Dr. Andrew Fire and Dr. Craig C. Mello were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work on RNAi interference. RNAi is an RNA-dependent gene silencing process that is controlled by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and is initiated by two types of small RNA molecules - microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA). However, the function of microRNA appears to be far beyond RNAi alone, including direct interaction with the gene promoter and epigenetic regulation of the DNA methylation and histone modification. By regulating gene expression, miRNAs are likely to be involved in diverse biological activities, such as tumorigenesis, immune response, insulin secretion, neurotransmitter synthesis, and circadian rhythm, to name a few. MicroRNAs are 21-23 nucleotide single stranded RNA molecules found in eukaryotic cells. The first miRNA, lin-4, was characterized in C. elegans in the early 1990s [1]. In the early years, the progress on microRNA research was slow and experienced substantial growing pains. The short length and uniqueness of each microRNA rendered many conventional hybridization based methods ineffective; very small RNAs are difficult to reliably amplify or label without introducing bias. In addition, hybridization-based methods for microRNA profiling relied on probes designed to detect known microRNAs or known microRNA species previously identified by sequencing or homology search. Recent evidence of

  18. Uridylation of RNA Hairpins by Tailor Confines the Emergence of MicroRNAs in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Reimão-Pinto, Madalena M.; Ignatova, Valentina; Burkard, Thomas R.; Hung, Jui-Hung; Manzenreither, Raphael A.; Sowemimo, Ivica; Herzog, Veronika A.; Reichholf, Brian; Fariña-Lopez, Sara; Ameres, Stefan L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Uridylation of RNA species represents an emerging theme in post-transcriptional gene regulation. In the microRNA pathway, such modifications regulate small RNA biogenesis and stability in plants, worms, and mammals. Here, we report Tailor, an uridylyltransferase that is required for the majority of 3′ end modifications of microRNAs in Drosophila and predominantly targets precursor hairpins. Uridylation modulates the characteristic two-nucleotide 3′ overhang of microRNA hairpins, which...

  19. Circulating MicroRNAs as Biomarkers and Mediators of Cell–Cell Communication in Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Molly A.

    2015-01-01

    The realization of personalized medicine for cancer will rely not only on the development of new therapies, but on biomarkers that direct these therapies to the right patient. MicroRNA expression profiles in the primary tumor have been shown to differ between cancer patients and healthy individuals, suggesting they might make useful biomarkers. However, examination of microRNA expression in the primary tumor requires an invasive biopsy procedure. More recently, microRNAs have been shown to be...

  20. MicroRNA-33 promotes the replicative senescence of mouse embryonic fibroblasts by suppressing CDK6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Shun; Huang, Haijiao; Li, Nanhong; Zhang, Bing; Jia, Yubin; Yang, Yukun; Yuan, Yuan; Xiong, Xing-dong; Wang, Dengchuan; Zheng, Hui-ling [Institute of Aging Research, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Diagnostics, Dongguan (China); Institute of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang (China); Liu, Xinguang, E-mail: xgliu64@126.com [Institute of Aging Research, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Diagnostics, Dongguan (China); Institute of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang (China)

    2016-05-13

    MicroRNAs are a large class of tiny noncoding RNAs, which have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression, and thus are involved in multiple cellular processes, including cellular senescence. MicroRNA-33 has previously been established to exert crucial effect on cell proliferation, lipid metabolism and cholesterol metabolism. Nonetheless, the association between microRNA-33 and cellular senescence and its underlying molecular mechanism are far to be elucidated. The present study has attempted to probe into the effect of microRNA-33 on MEFs senescence. Our data unveiled that microRNA-33 was dramatically down-regulated in senescent MEFs compared to the young MEFs, and ectopic expression of microRNA-33 promoted MEFs senescence, while knock-down of microRNA-33 exhibited a protective effect against senescence phenotype. Moreover, we verified CDK6 as a direct target of microRNA-33 in mouse. Silencing of CDK6 induced the premature senescence phenotype of MEFs similarly as microRNA-33, while enforced expression of CDK6 significantly reverse the senescence-induction effect of microRNA-33. Taken together, our results suggested that microRNA-33 enhanced the replicative senescence of MEFs potentially by suppressing CDK6 expression. -- Highlights: •MicroRNA-33 was dramatically down-regulated in senescent MEF cells. •Altered expression of microRNA-33 exerted a critical role in MEFs senescence. •MicroRNA-33 promoted the replicative senescence of MEFs via targeting of CDK6.

  1. Review of MicroRNA Deregulation in Oral Cancer. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Kolokythas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. Cancer development and progression requires inactivation of tumour suppressor genes and activation of proto-oncogenes. Expression of these genes is in part dependant on RNA and microRNA based mechanisms. MicroRNAs are essential regulators of diverse cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, survival, motility, invasion and morphogenesis. Several microRNAs have been found to be aberrantly expressed in various cancers including oral cancer.Material and Methods: A comprehensive review of the available literature from 2000 to 2011 relevant to microRNA deregulation in oral cancer was undertaken using PubMed, Medline, Scholar Google and Scopus. Keywords for the search were: microRNA and oral cancer, microRNA and squamous cell carcinoma, microRNA deregulation. Only full length articles in the English language were included. Strengths and limitations of each study are presented in this review.Results: Several studies were identified that investigated microRNA alternations in the head and neck/oral cavity cancers. Significant progress has been made in identification of microRNA deregulation in these cancers. It has been evident that several microRNAs were found to be deregulated specifically in oral cavity cancers. Among these, several microRNAs have been functionally validated and their potential target genes have been identified.Conclusions: These findings on microRNA deregulation in cancer further enhance our understanding of the disease progression, response to treatment and may assist with future development of targeted therapy.

  2. MicroRNAs are potential therapeutic targets in fibrosing kidney disease: lessons from animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Duffield, Jeremy S; Grafals, Monica; Portilla, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Chronic disease of the kidneys has reached epidemic proportions in industrialized nations. New therapies are urgently sought. Using a combination of animal models of kidney disease and human biopsy samples, a pattern of dysregulated microRNA expression has emerged which is common to chronic diseases. A number of these dysregulated microRNA have recently been shown to have functional consequences for the disease process and therefore may be potential therapeutic targets. We highlight microRNA-...

  3. MicroRNA expression profiling in neurogenesis of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jung Ah Cho; Ho Park; Eun Hye Lim; Kyo Won Lee

    2011-04-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are one population of adult stem cells that can self renew and differentiate into multiple lineages. Because of advantages in method and quantity of acquisition, ADSCs are gaining attention as an alternative source of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we performed microRNA profiling of undifferentiated and of neurally-differentiated ADSCs to identify the responsible microRNAs in neurogenesis using this type of stem cell. MicroRNAs from four different donors were analysed by microarray. Compared to the undifferentiation control, we identified 39–101 microRNAs with more than two-fold higher expression and 3–9 microRNAs with two-fold lower expression. The identified microRNAs were further analysed in terms of gene ontology (GO) in relation with neurogenesis, based on their target mRNAs predicted by computational analysis. This study revealed the specific microRNAs involved in neurogenesis via microRNA microarray, and may provide the basic information for genetic induction of adult stem cell differentiation using microRNAs.

  4. Arabidopsis microRNA expression regulation in a wide range of abiotic stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barciszewska-Pacak, Maria; Milanowska, Kaja; Knop, Katarzyna; Bielewicz, Dawid; Nuc, Przemyslaw; Plewka, Patrycja; Pacak, Andrzej M; Vazquez, Franck; Karlowski, Wojciech; Jarmolowski, Artur; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis microRNA expression regulation was studied in a wide array of abiotic stresses such as drought, heat, salinity, copper excess/deficiency, cadmium excess, and sulfur deficiency. A home-built RT-qPCR mirEX platform for the amplification of 289 Arabidopsis microRNA transcripts was used to study their response to abiotic stresses. Small RNA sequencing, Northern hybridization, and TaqMan® microRNA assays were performed to study the abundance of mature microRNAs. A broad response on the level of primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) was observed. However, stress response at the level of mature microRNAs was rather confined. The data presented show that in most instances, the level of a particular mature miRNA could not be predicted based on the level of its pri-miRNA. This points to an essential role of posttranscriptional regulation of microRNA expression. New Arabidopsis microRNAs responsive to abiotic stresses were discovered. Four microRNAs: miR319a/b, miR319b.2, and miR400 have been found to be responsive to several abiotic stresses and thus can be regarded as general stress-responsive microRNA species.

  5. Differential expression of microRNAs in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anjie Lu; Zufa Huang; Chaoyue Zhang; Xianfang Zhang; Jiuhong Zhao; Haiying Zhang; Quanpeng Zhang; Song Wu; Xinan Yi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the possible involvement of microRNAs in the regulation of genes that participate in peripheral neural regeneration. A microRNA microarray analysis was conducted and 23 microRNAs were identiifed whose expression was signiifcantly changed in rat dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve transection. The expression of one of the downregulated microRNAs, microRNA-214, was validated using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. MicroRNA-214 was predicted to target the 3′-untranslated region of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3. In situ hybridization veriifed that microRNA-214 was located in the cytoplasm of dorsal root ganglia primary neurons and was downregulated following sciatic nerve transection. Moreover, a com-bination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that microRNA-214 and Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 were co-localized in dorsal root ganglion primary neu-rons. Western blot analysis suggested that Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 was upregulated in dorsal root ganglion neurons after sciatic nerve transection. These data demonstrate that mi-croRNA-214 is located and differentially expressed in dorsal root ganglion primary neurons and may participate in regulating the gene expression of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 after sciatic nerve transection.

  6. MicroRNAs in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Blood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Common blood disorders include hematopoietic cell malignancies or leukemias and plasma cell dyscrasia, all of which have associated microRNA abnormalities. In this paper, we discuss several leukemias including acute myeloid leukemia (AML and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL and identify altered microRNAs and their targets. Immune disorders with altered blood levels of antibodies include autoimmune disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE with associated anti-self-autoantibodies and immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN also have related microRNA abnormalities. The alterations in microRNAs may serve as therapeutic targets in these blood disorders.

  7. Ineffective delivery of diet-derived microRNAs to recipient animal organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Jonathan W.; Hale, Andrew E.; Isaacs, Stephanie K.; Baggish, Aaron L.; Chan, Stephen Y.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-kingdom delivery of specific microRNAs to recipient organisms via food ingestion has been reported recently. However, it is unclear if such delivery of microRNAs occurs frequently in animal organisms after typical dietary intake. We found substantial levels of specific microRNAs in diets commonly consumed orally by humans, mice, and honey bees. Yet, after ingestion of fruit replete with plant microRNAs (MIR156a, MIR159a, and MIR169a), a cohort of healthy athletes did not carry detectable plasma levels of those molecules. Similarly, despite consumption of a diet with animal fat replete in endogenous miR-21, negligible expression of miR-21 in plasma or organ tissue was observed in miR-21 −/− recipient mice. Correspondingly, when fed vegetarian diets containing the above plant microRNAs, wild-type recipient mice expressed insignificant levels of these microRNAs. Finally, despite oral uptake of pollen containing these plant microRNAs, negligible delivery of these molecules was observed in recipient honeybees. Therefore, we conclude that horizontal delivery of microRNAs via typical dietary ingestion is neither a robust nor a frequent mechanism to maintain steady-state microRNA levels in a variety of model animal organisms, thus defining the biological limits of these molecules in vivo. PMID:23669076

  8. MicroRNAs in obesity-associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abente, Eugenio J; Subramanian, Murugan; Ramachandran, Vimal; Najafi-Shoushtari, S Hani

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of a worldwide obesity epidemic has dramatically increased the prevalence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, predisposing individuals to a greater risk for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, type II diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Current available pharmacological interventions combined with diet and exercise-based managements are still poorly effective for weight management, likely in part due to an incomplete understanding of regulatory mechanisms and pathways contributing to the systemic metabolic abnormalities under disturbed energy homeostasis. MicroRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that regulate posttranscriptional gene expression, have been increasingly described to influence shifts in metabolic pathways under various obesity-related disease settings. Here we review recent discoveries of the mechanistic role that microRNAs play in regulating metabolic functions in liver and adipose tissues involved in obesity associated disorders, and briefly discusses the potential candidates that are being pursued as viable therapeutic targets.

  9. MicroRNAs and potential target interactions in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibert, John Robert; Løvendorf, Marianne B.; Litman, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease often seen in patients with a genetic susceptibility. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are endogenous, short RNA molecules that can bind to parts of mRNA target genes, thus inhibiting their translation and causing accelerated turnover or transcript...... degradation. MicroRNAs are important in the pathogenesis of human diseases such as immunological disorders, as they regulate a broad range of biological processes. OBJECTIVE: We investigated miRNA-mRNA interactions in involved (PP) and non-involved (PN) psoriatic skin compared with healthy skin (NN). METHODS......: Biopsies were obtained from PP, PN and NN, the miRNA and mRNA expression was analyzed by microarray techniques and a subset of miRNAs and mRNAs were validated by q-RT-PCR. Novel target interactions in psoriasis were found using PubMed, miRBase and RNAhybrid. In addition, TIMP3 protein expression...

  10. Rapid generation of microRNA sponges for microRNA inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Kluiver

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA sponges are transcripts with repeated miRNA antisense sequences that can sequester miRNAs from endogenous targets. MiRNA sponges are valuable tools for miRNA loss-of-function studies both in vitro and in vivo. We developed a fast and flexible method to generate miRNA sponges and tested their efficiency in various assays. Using a single directional ligation reaction we generated sponges with 10 or more miRNA binding sites. Luciferase and AGO2-immuno precipitation (IP assays confirmed effective binding of the miRNAs to the sponges. Using a GFP competition assay we showed that miR-19 sponges with central mismatches in the miRNA binding sites are efficient miRNA inhibitors while sponges with perfect antisense binding sites are not. Quantification of miRNA sponge levels suggests that this is at least in part due to degradation of the perfect antisense sponge transcripts. Finally, we provide evidence that combined inhibition of miRNAs of the miR-17∼92 cluster results in a more effective growth inhibition as compared to inhibition of individual miRNAs. In conclusion, we describe and validate a method to rapidly generate miRNA sponges for miRNA loss-of-function studies.

  11. Pathological microRNAs in acute cardiovascular diseases and microRNA therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Salman Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. In recent researches, it is demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs are expressed extensively in cardiovascular system and regulate gene expression in various cardiovascular diseases. Here, we are giving overview on number of miRNAs involved in pathophysiology of various cardiovascular diseases, and diagnostic and therapeutic potentials of miRNAs in these diseases. MiRNAs are a group of small non-coding mRNAs with approximately 18–22 nucleotides in length that regulate gene expression post transcriptionally. MiRNAs are regulated in various cardiovascular diseases like hypertension, congestive heart failure, congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease and stroke. Some of these miRNAs also act as potential biomarker of these cardiovascular diseases. Inhibition of these miRNAs via different approaches like chemically modified antisense oligonucleotide, antagomirs, and locked nucleic acids serves as effective approaches for inactivating pathological miRNAs. Clinical trials are being conducted on therapeutic and diagnostic potentials of miRNAs. However, extensive researches are required to explore the therapeutic and diagnostic values of miRNAs as successful as classical approaches.

  12. Pathological microRNAs in acute cardiovascular diseases and microRNA therapeutics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Salman Ali; Chandra Kala; Mohd Abid; Nabeel Ahmad; Uma Shankar Sharma; Najam Ali Khan

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. In recent researches, it is demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are expressed exten-sively in cardiovascular system and regulate gene expression in various cardiovascular diseases. Here, we are giving overview on number of miRNAs involved in patho-physiology of various cardiovascular diseases, and diagnostic and therapeutic potentials of miRNAs in these diseases. MiRNAs are a group of small non-coding mRNAs with approximately 18–22 nucleotides in length that regulate gene expression post tran-scriptionally. MiRNAs are regulated in various cardiovascular diseases like hyperten-sion, congestive heart failure, congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease and stroke. Some of these miRNAs also act as potential biomarker of these cardiovascular diseases. Inhibition of these miRNAs via different approaches like chemically modified antisense oligonucleotide, antagomirs, and locked nucleic acids serves as effective approaches for inactivating pathological miRNAs. Clinical trials are being conducted on therapeutic and diagnostic potentials of miRNAs. However, extensive researches are required to explore the therapeutic and diagnostic values of miRNAs as successful as classical approaches.

  13. The Role of MicroRNAs in Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    pancreas) leads to hundreds of thousands of hospital admissions each year in the United States. We studied the role of a noncoding RNA gene in pancreas... hospital admissions each year in the United States. NF-κB is a master regulator of inflammation.1 MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-25 nucleotide) RNA...this report resulting from this project. Include those in the categories of lay press, peer-reviewed scientific journals, invited articles , and

  14. MicroRNAs to Pathways in Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    uncovered numerous miRNAs whose expression was altered with Pten loss. The Dgcr8 knockout model should provide a powerful means to dissect the role of...TR, Jacks T (2007) Impaired microRNA processing enhances cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. Nat Genet 39: 673 – 677 11. Kumar MS, Pester RE...241 53. Kumar MS, Erkeland SJ, Pester RE, Chen CY, Ebert MS, Sharp PA, Jacks T (2008) Suppression of non-small cell lung tumor development by the let

  15. Dysregulated microRNA Activity in Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    ordering individual cells  throughout  the  course   of  a  biological  process  such  as  hematopoietic  differentiation.  His  specialized skill set is...pathways. 6240101 (Novina) 08/01/2013-07/31/2016* 0.08 CM* American Society of Hematology , Bridge Grant Dysregulated microRNA function in

  16. microRNA in Prostate Cancer Racial Disparities and Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    related miRNAs and PCa aggressiveness, and 3) determine the associations between genetic polymorphisms in miRNA biogenesis pathway genes and plasma levels...final analyses. 15. SUBJECT TERMS prostate cancer, microRNA, racial disparities, African American, genetic polymorphisms, biochemical recurrence...is to identify novel genetic and epigenetic factors that might contribute significantly to racial/ethnic disparity in PCa risk and progression. We

  17. MicroRNA involved in inflammation: Control of eicosanoid pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike J. Ochs

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs have emerged as important regulators in human physiological and pathological processes. Recent investigations implicated the involvement of miRNAs in the immune system development and function and demonstrated an unexpected new regulatory level. We summarize the current knowledge about miRNA control in the development of the immune system and discuss their role in the immune and inflammatory responses with a special focus on eicosanoid signaling.

  18. microRNAs: Implications for air pollution research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardim, Melanie J., E-mail: melaniejardim@gmail.com [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality attributable to air pollution continues to be a growing public health concern worldwide. Despite several studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain elusive. In the last several years, special attention has been given to the role of epigenetics in mediating, not only genetic and physiological responses to certain environmental insults, but also in regulating underlying susceptibility to environmental stressors. Epigenetic mechanisms control the expression of gene products, both basally and as a response to a perturbation, without affecting the sequence of DNA itself. These mechanisms include structural regulation of the chromatin structure, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, and post-transcriptional gene regulation, such as microRNA mediated repression of gene expression. microRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that have been quickly established as key regulators of gene expression. As such, miRNAs have been found to control several cellular processes including apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. More recently, research has emerged suggesting that changes in the expression of some miRNAs may be critical for mediating biological, and ultimately physiological, responses to air pollutants. Although the study of microRNAs, and epigenetics as a whole, has come quite far in the field of cancer, the understanding of how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions to environmental exposures in everyday life is unclear. This article does not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the US EPA.

  19. MicroRNA Functions in Osteogenesis and Dysfunctions in Osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    van Wijnen, Andre J.; van de Peppel, Jeroen; van Leeuwen, Johannes P.; Lian, Jane B.; Stein, Gary S.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Oursler, Merry-Jo; Sampen, Hee-Jeong Im; Taipaleenmaki, Hanna; Hesse, Eric; Riester, Scott; Kakar, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that control osteoblast mediated bone formation and osteoclast-related bone remodelling. Deregulation of miRNA mediated mechanisms is emerging as an important pathological factor in bone degeneration (e.g., osteoporosis) and other bone-related diseases. MiRNAs are intriguing regulatory molecules that are networked with cell signaling pathways and intricate transcriptional programs through ingenuous circuits wit...

  20. Mechanisms of control of microRNA biogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Davis-Dusenbery, Brandi N.; Hata, Akiko

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of ∼22 nt non-coding RNAs that control diverse biological functions in animals, plants and unicellular eukaryotes by promoting degradation or inhibition of translation of target mRNAs. miRNA expression is often tissue specific and developmentally regulated. Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been linked to developmental abnormalities and human diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disorders. The recent identification of mechanisms of miRNA biogenesis regu...

  1. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Oryza sativa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-FuWANG; HuiZHOU; Dai-RongXU; Liang-HuQU

    2004-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a large family of noncoding RNA of 20-25 nt whose function is to regulate gene expression in post-transcription.These RNA molecules of 20-25 nt are complementary to the 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNA and direct negative post-transcriptional regulation through RNA duplex formation. The first endogenous about 22 nt RNA was lin-4 and let-7, both of which were key

  2. Altered spinal microRNA-146a and the microRNA-183 cluster contribute to osteoarthritic pain in knee joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Kroin, Jeffrey S; Kc, Ranjan; Gibson, Gary; Chen, Di; Corbett, Grant T; Pahan, Kalipada; Fayyaz, Sana; Kim, Jae-Sung; van Wijnen, Andre J; Suh, Joon; Kim, Su-Gwan; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether altered expression of microRNAs in central nervous system components is pathologically linked to chronic knee joint pain in osteoarthritis. A surgical animal model for knee joint OA was generated by medial meniscus transection in rats followed by behavioral pain tests. Relationships between pathological changes in knee joint and development of chronic joint pain were examined by histology and imaging analyses. Alterations in microRNAs associated with OA-evoked pain sensation were determined in bilateral lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and the spinal dorsal horn by microRNA array followed by individual microRNA analyses. Gain- and loss-of-function studies of selected microRNAs (miR-146a and miR-183 cluster) were conducted to identify target pain mediators regulated by these selective microRNAs in glial cells. The ipsilateral hind leg displayed significantly increased hyperalgesia after 4 weeks of surgery, and sensitivity was sustained for the remainder of the 8-week experimental period (F = 341, p MicroRNA analyses showed that miR-146a and the miR-183 cluster were markedly reduced in the sensory neurons in DRG (L4/L5) and spinal cord from animals experiencing knee joint OA pain. The downregulation of miR-146a and/or the miR-183 cluster in the central compartments (DRG and spinal cord) are closely associated with the upregulation of inflammatory pain mediators. The corroboration between decreases in these signature microRNAs and their specific target pain mediators were further confirmed by gain- and loss-of-function analyses in glia, the major cellular component of the central nervous system (CNS). MicroRNA therapy using miR-146a and the miR-183 cluster could be powerful therapeutic intervention for OA in alleviating joint pain and concomitantly regenerating peripheral knee joint cartilage.

  3. Identification of microprocessor-dependent cancer cells allows screening for growth-sustaining micro-RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peric, D; Chvalova, K; Rousselet, G

    2012-04-19

    Micro-RNAs are deregulated in cancer cells, and some are either tumor suppressive or oncogenic. In addition, a link has been established between decreased expression of micro-RNAs and transformation, and several proteins of the RNA interference pathway have been shown to be haploinsufficient tumor suppressors. Oncogenic micro-RNAs (oncomiRs) could represent new therapeutic targets, and their identification is therefore crucial. However, structural and functional redundancy between micro-RNAs hampers approaches relying on individual micro-RNA inhibition. We reasoned that in cancer cells that depend on oncomiRs, impairing the micro-RNA pathway could lead to growth perturbation rather than increased tumorigenesis. Identifying such cells could allow functional analyses of individual micro-RNAs by complementation of the phenotypes observed upon global micro-RNA inhibition. Therefore, we developed episomal vectors coding for small hairpin RNAs targeting either Drosha or DGCR8, the two components of the microprocessor, the nuclear micro-RNA maturation complex. We identified cancer cell lines in which both vectors induced colony growth arrest. We then screened for individual micro-RNAs complementing this growth arrest, and identified miR-19a, miR-19b, miR-20a and miR-27b as major growth-sustaining micro-RNAs. However, the effect of miR-19a and miR-19b was only transient. In addition, embryonic stem cell-derived micro-RNAs with miR-20a seeds were much less efficient than miR-20a in sustaining cancer cell growth, a finding that contrasted with results obtained in stem cells. Finally, we showed that the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10, a shared target of miR-19 and miR-20, was functionally involved in the growth arrest induced by microprocessor inhibition. We conclude that our approach allowed to identify microprocessor-dependent cancer cells, which could be used to screen for growth-sustaining micro-RNAs. This complementation screen

  4. A microRNA network dysregulated in asthma controls IL-6 production in bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Nunez, Rocio T; Bondanese, Victor P; Louafi, Fethi; Francisco-Garcia, Ana S; Rupani, Hitasha; Bedke, Nicole; Holgate, Stephen; Howarth, Peter H; Davies, Donna E; Sanchez-Elsner, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are short non-coding single stranded RNAs that regulate gene expression. While much is known about the effects of individual microRNAs, there is now growing evidence that they can work in co-operative networks. MicroRNAs are known to be dysregulated in many diseases and affect pathways involved in the pathology. We investigated dysregulation of microRNA networks using asthma as the disease model. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway remodelling. The airway epithelium is a major contributor to asthma pathology and has been shown to produce an excess of inflammatory and pro-remodelling cytokines such as TGF-β, IL-6 and IL-8 as well as deficient amounts of anti-viral interferons. After performing microRNA arrays, we found that microRNAs -18a, -27a, -128 and -155 are down-regulated in asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells, compared to cells from healthy donors. Interestingly, these microRNAs are predicted in silico to target several components of the TGF-β, IL-6, IL-8 and interferons pathways. Manipulation of the levels of individual microRNAs in bronchial epithelial cells did not have an effect on any of these pathways. Importantly, knock-down of the network of microRNAs miR-18a, -27a, -128 and -155 led to a significant increase of IL-8 and IL-6 expression. Interestingly, despite strong in silico predictions, down-regulation of the pool of microRNAs did not have an effect on the TGF-β and Interferon pathways. In conclusion, using both bioinformatics and experimental tools we found a highly relevant potential role for microRNA dysregulation in the control of IL-6 and IL-8 expression in asthma. Our results suggest that microRNAs may have different roles depending on the presence of other microRNAs. Thus, interpretation of in silico analysis of microRNA function should be confirmed experimentally in the relevant cellular context taking into account interactions with other microRNAs

  5. A microRNA network dysregulated in asthma controls IL-6 production in bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio T Martinez-Nunez

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are short non-coding single stranded RNAs that regulate gene expression. While much is known about the effects of individual microRNAs, there is now growing evidence that they can work in co-operative networks. MicroRNAs are known to be dysregulated in many diseases and affect pathways involved in the pathology. We investigated dysregulation of microRNA networks using asthma as the disease model. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway remodelling. The airway epithelium is a major contributor to asthma pathology and has been shown to produce an excess of inflammatory and pro-remodelling cytokines such as TGF-β, IL-6 and IL-8 as well as deficient amounts of anti-viral interferons. After performing microRNA arrays, we found that microRNAs -18a, -27a, -128 and -155 are down-regulated in asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells, compared to cells from healthy donors. Interestingly, these microRNAs are predicted in silico to target several components of the TGF-β, IL-6, IL-8 and interferons pathways. Manipulation of the levels of individual microRNAs in bronchial epithelial cells did not have an effect on any of these pathways. Importantly, knock-down of the network of microRNAs miR-18a, -27a, -128 and -155 led to a significant increase of IL-8 and IL-6 expression. Interestingly, despite strong in silico predictions, down-regulation of the pool of microRNAs did not have an effect on the TGF-β and Interferon pathways. In conclusion, using both bioinformatics and experimental tools we found a highly relevant potential role for microRNA dysregulation in the control of IL-6 and IL-8 expression in asthma. Our results suggest that microRNAs may have different roles depending on the presence of other microRNAs. Thus, interpretation of in silico analysis of microRNA function should be confirmed experimentally in the relevant cellular context taking into account interactions

  6. MicroRNA-9 inhibits vasculogenic mimicry of glioma cell lines by suppressing Stathmin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuwen; Mu, Luyan; Han, Xuezhe; Li, Qingla; Dong, Baijing; Li, Hulun; Liu, Xiaoqian

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the functions of microRNA-9, which is a tissue-specific microRNA in central nervous system, in the vasculogenic mimicry (VM) of glioma cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Glioma cell lines U87MG, U251 and SHG44 were transfected with microRNA-9 mimic, microRNA-9 inhibitor or scramble sequences. The amount of microRNA-9 and Stathmin (STMN1) mRNA was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, and the protein expression of STMN1 was determined by western blot. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed. The interactions between the 3'UTR of STMN1 and miR-9 was determined by luciferase reporter assay. The VM capacity in vitro was evaluated using VM formation assay, and the rescue experiment of STMN1 was carried out in U251 cells. The in vivo experiment was applied with animal models implanted with U87MG cells.MicroRNA-9 mimic transfection reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis in glioma cell lines (p < 0.05). MicroRNA-9 mimic up-regulated STMN1 mRNA levels but reduced its protein levels (p < 0.05), and luciferase activity of STMN1 was suppressed by microRNA-9 mimic transfection (p < 0.05). Furthermore, microRNA-9 mimic transfection suppressed tumor volume growth, as well as VM both in vitro and in vivo. The cell viability and microtube density were upregulated in U251 cells after STMN1 up-regulation (p < 0.05). STMN1 is a target of microRNA-9, and microRNA-9 could modulate cell proliferation, VM and tumor volume growth through controlling STMN1 expression. MicroRNA-9 and its targets may represent a novel panel of molecules for the development of glioma treatment.

  7. MicroRNA dysregulation in Spinal Cord Injury: causes, consequences and therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eNieto-Díaz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Trauma to the spinal cord causes permanent disability to more than 180,000 people every year worldwide. The initial mechanical damage triggers a complex set of secondary events involving the neural, vascular, and immune systems that largely determine the functional outcome of the spinal cord injury (SCI. Cellular and biochemical mechanisms responsible for this secondary injury largely depend on activation and inactivation of specific gene programs. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs function as gene expression switches in key processes of the SCI. Microarray data from rodent contusion models reveal that SCI induces changes in the global microRNA expression patterns. Variations in microRNA abundance largely result from alterations in the expression of the cells at the damaged spinal cord. However, microRNA expression levels after SCI are also influenced by the infiltration of immune cells to the injury site and the death and migration of specific neural cells after injury. Evidences on the role of microRNAs in the SCI pathophysiology have come from different sources. Bioinformatic analysis of microarray data has been used to identify specific variations in microRNA expression underlying transcriptional changes in target genes, which are involved in key processes in the SCI. Direct evidences on the role of microRNAs in SCI are scarcer, although recent studies have identified several microRNAs (miR-21, miR/486, miR-20 involved in key mechanisms of the SCI such as cell death or astrogliosis, among others. From a clinical perspective, different evidences make clear that microRNAs can be potent therapeutic tools to manipulate cell state and molecular processes in order to enhance functional recovery. The present article reviews the actual knowledge on how injury affects microRNA expression and the meaning of these changes in the SCI pathophysiology, to finally explore the clinical potential of microRNAs in the SCI.

  8. MicroRNA dysregulation in the spinal cord following traumatic injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Yunta

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI triggers a multitude of pathophysiological events that are tightly regulated by the expression levels of specific genes. Recent studies suggest that changes in gene expression following neural injury can result from the dysregulation of microRNAs, short non-coding RNA molecules that repress the translation of target mRNA. To understand the mechanisms underlying gene alterations following SCI, we analyzed the microRNA expression patterns at different time points following rat spinal cord injury.The microarray data reveal the induction of a specific microRNA expression pattern following moderate contusive SCI that is characterized by a marked increase in the number of down-regulated microRNAs, especially at 7 days after injury. MicroRNA downregulation is paralleled by mRNA upregulation, strongly suggesting that microRNAs regulate transcriptional changes following injury. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that changes in microRNA expression affect key processes in SCI physiopathology, including inflammation and apoptosis. MicroRNA expression changes appear to be influenced by an invasion of immune cells at the injury area and, more importantly, by changes in microRNA expression specific to spinal cord cells. Comparisons with previous data suggest that although microRNA expression patterns in the spinal cord are broadly similar among vertebrates, the results of studies assessing SCI are much less congruent and may depend on injury severity. The results of the present study demonstrate that moderate spinal cord injury induces an extended microRNA downregulation paralleled by an increase in mRNA expression that affects key processes in the pathophysiology of this injury.

  9. Helicobacter pylori and microRNAs: Relation with innate immunity and progression of preneoplastic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libânio, Diogo; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Pimentel-Nunes, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The accepted paradigm for intestinal-type gastric cancer pathogenesis is a multistep progression from chronic gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) to gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and ultimately gastric cancer. The genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying disease progression are still not completely understood as only a fraction of colonized individuals ever develop neoplasia suggesting that bacterial, host and environmental factors are involved. MicroRNAs are noncoding RNAs that may influence H. pylori-related pathology through the regulation of the transcription and expression of various genes, playing an important role in inflammation, cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. Indeed, H. pylori have been shown to modify microRNA expression in the gastric mucosa and microRNAs are involved in the immune host response to the bacteria and in the regulation of the inflammatory response. MicroRNAs have a key role in the regulation of inflammatory pathways and H. pylori may influence inflammation-mediated gastric carcinogenesis possibly through DNA methylation and epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor microRNAs. Furthermore, microRNAs influenced by H. pylori also have been found to be involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Altogether, microRNAs seem to have an important role in the progression from gastritis to preneoplastic conditions and neoplastic lesions and since each microRNA can control the expression of hundreds to thousands of genes, knowledge of microRNAs target genes and their functions are of paramount importance. In this article we present a comprehensive review about the role of microRNAs in H. pylori gastric carcinogenesis, identifying the microRNAs downregulated and upregulated in the infection and clarifying their biological role in the link between immune host response, inflammation, DNA methylation and gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26468448

  10. MicroRNA Expression Analyses in Preoperative Pancreatic Juice Samples of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Sadakari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Context Cytological assessment of pancreatic juice is commonly used to diagnose pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; however, the sensitivity of cytological assessment has been reported to be low. MicroRNAs are small RNAs regulating various cellular processes and have recently been identified as possible markers of malignant diseases including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Objective The purposes of this study were to prove the existence of microRNAs in pancreatic juice and to determine whether specific microRNAs in pancreatic juice could be used for detecting pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Methods Relative expression levels of microRNA-21 and microRNA-155 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of resected specimens (no. 13 and pancreatic juice samples collected using preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (no. 21 were quantified and their expression levels were then compared to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and chronic pancreatitis. Results Relative expression levels of microRNA-21 in tissue and pancreatic juice samples were significantly higher in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma than those in chronic pancreatitis (P=0.009 and P=0.021, respectively. The same results were obtained in the expression levels of microRNA-155 in tissue and pancreatic juice between pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and chronic pancreatitis (P=0.014 and P=0.021, respectively. Expression levels of microRNA-21 and microRNA-155 did not correlate with the preoperative cytological results of pancreatic juice. Conclusion MicroRNA-21 and microRNA-155 in pancreatic juice have the potential of becoming biomarkers for diagnosing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

  11. MicroRNAs as modulators and biomarkers of inflammatory and neuropathic pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Hjalte H; Duroux, Meg; Gazerani, Parisa

    2014-11-01

    The post-transcriptional regulator molecules, microRNAs, have emerged as important biomarkers and modulators of numerous pathophysiological processes including oncogenesis and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a significant number of dysregulations in microRNAs have been reported in patients suffering from painful disorders such as complex regional pain syndrome, cystitis-induced chronic pain and irritable bowel disorder, in both affected tissues and the circulation. Moreover, microRNAs are known to be involved in pain processing based on several recent findings in animal models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. The basis of this review was to cover and summarize available articles in English encompassing "microRNA and pain". In animal pain models widespread microRNA modulation is present and manifests on multiple levels i.e.: the dorsal root ganglia, the spinal dorsal horn and the brain. Numerous functional in vivo studies have found that dysregulated microRNAs are involved in the post-transcriptional modulation of genes implicated in pain generation and maintenance. Lastly, a few animal studies have delivered promising results as to the possibility of applying microRNAs as therapeutics to alleviate established pain and several clinical studies have highlighted the potential in applying microRNAs as biomarkers in painful conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome and fibromyalgia. This review briefly introduces the basics of microRNAs, their biogenesis and function, and mainly focuses on the recent advances made in understanding the role of microRNAs in relation to pain processing and painful conditions. It also provides an overview of widely diverse methodological approaches and results with a potential for future implications of microRNAs in the diagnosis and treatment of pain.

  12. MicroRNA Expression Signatures During Malignant Progression From Barrett's Esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ajay; Gupta, Vijayalaxmi; Wang, Kenneth

    2016-06-01

    The rapid increase and poor survival of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) have led to significant efforts to promote early detection. Given that the premalignant lesion of Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the major known risk factor for EAC, multiple investigators have studied biomarker signatures that can predict malignant progression of BE to EAC. MicroRNAs, a novel class of gene regulators, are small non-coding RNAs and have been associated with carcinogenesis. MicroRNAs are ideal biomarkers because of their remarkable stability in fixed tissues, a common method for collection of clinical specimens, and in blood either within exosomes or as microRNA-protein complexes. Multiple studies show potential of microRNAs as tissue and blood biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of EAC but the results need confirmation in prospective studies. Although head-to-head comparisons are lacking, microRNA panels require less genes than messenger RNA panels for diagnosis of EAC in BE. MicroRNA diagnostic panels will need to be compared for accuracy against global measures of genome instability that were recently shown to be good predictors of progression but require sophisticated analytic techniques. Early studies on blood microRNA panels are promising but have found microRNA markers to be inconsistent among studies. MicroRNA expression in blood is different between various microRNA sub-compartments such as exosomes and microRNA-protein complexes and could affect blood microRNA measurements. Further standardization is needed to yield consistent results. We have summarized the current understanding of the tissue and blood microRNA signatures that may predict the development and progression of EAC.

  13. Accurate microRNA target prediction correlates with protein repression levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simossis Victor A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are small endogenously expressed non-coding RNA molecules that regulate target gene expression through translation repression or messenger RNA degradation. MicroRNA regulation is performed through pairing of the microRNA to sites in the messenger RNA of protein coding genes. Since experimental identification of miRNA target genes poses difficulties, computational microRNA target prediction is one of the key means in deciphering the role of microRNAs in development and disease. Results DIANA-microT 3.0 is an algorithm for microRNA target prediction which is based on several parameters calculated individually for each microRNA and combines conserved and non-conserved microRNA recognition elements into a final prediction score, which correlates with protein production fold change. Specifically, for each predicted interaction the program reports a signal to noise ratio and a precision score which can be used as an indication of the false positive rate of the prediction. Conclusion Recently, several computational target prediction programs were benchmarked based on a set of microRNA target genes identified by the pSILAC method. In this assessment DIANA-microT 3.0 was found to achieve the highest precision among the most widely used microRNA target prediction programs reaching approximately 66%. The DIANA-microT 3.0 prediction results are available online in a user friendly web server at http://www.microrna.gr/microT

  14. MicroRNAs in Breast Cancer -Our Initial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovska-Jankovic, K; Noveski, P; Chakalova, L; Petrusevska, G; Kubelka, K; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D

    2012-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small [∼21 nucleotide (nt)] non coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally. About 3.0% of human genes encode for miRNAs, and up to 30.0% of human protein coding genes may be regulated by miRNAs. Currently, more than 2000 unique human mature microRNAs are known. MicroRNAs play a key role in diverse biological processes including development, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. These processes are commonly dysregulated in cancer, implicating miRNAs in carcinogenesis, where they act as tumor supressors or oncogenes. Several miRNAs are associated with breast cancer. Here we present our initial results of miRNA analyses of breast cancer tissues using quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (ReTi-PCR) (qPCR) involving stem-loop reverse transcriptase (RT) primers combined with TaqMan® PCR and miRNA microarray analysis.

  15. MIRE:A GRAPHICAL R PACKAGE FOR MICRORNA RELATED ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-qi Yan; Kang Tu; Lu Xie; Yi-xue Li; Bin Yin; Yan-hua Gong; Jian-gang Yuan; Bo-qin Qiang; Xiao-zhong Peng

    2008-01-01

    Objective To provide a set of useful analysis tools for the researchers to explore the microRNA data.Methods The R language was used for generating the Graphical Users Interface and implementing most functions.Some Practical Extraction and Report Language (Perl) scripts were used for parsing source fries.Results We developed a graphical R package named miRE,which was designated for the analysis of microRNA functions,genomic organization,etc.This package provided effective and convenient tools for molecular biologists to deal with routine analyses in microRNA-related research.With its help,the users would be able to build a desktopcentered microRNA research environment quite easily and effectively,miRE is freely available at http://www.biosino.org/~kanghu/WorkPresentation/miRE/miRE.html.A detailed user manual and tutorials with example code and image are also available.Conclusion miRE is a tool providing an open-source,user-friendly,integrated interface for microRNA-related analysis.With its help,researchers can perform microRNA-related analysis more efficiently.

  16. MicroRNA-429 Modulates Hepatocellular Carcinoma Prognosis and Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA-429 (miR-429 may modify the development and progression of cancers; however, the role of this microRNA in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has not been well elaborated. Here, we tested miR-429 expression in 138 pathology-diagnosed HCC cases and SMMC-7721 cells. We found that miR-429 was upregulated in HCC tumor tissues and that the high expression of miR-429 was significantly correlated with larger tumor size (odd ratio (OR, 2.70; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.28–5.56 and higher aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts (OR = 3.13, 95% CI = 1.47–6.67. Furthermore, this microRNA overexpression modified the recurrence-free survival and overall survival of HCC patients. Functionally, miR-429 overexpression progressed tumor cells proliferation and inhibited cell apoptosis. These results indicate for the first time that miR-429 may modify HCC prognosis and tumorigenesis and may be a potential tumor therapeutic target.

  17. MicroRNA-206: a promising theranostic marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Jan; Kružliak, Peter; Bienertová-Vašků, Julie; Slabý, Ondřej; Novák, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by binding to the 3` untranslated regions (3`UTR) of their target mRNAs. MiRs were shown to play pivotal roles in tissue development and function and are also involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases including cancer. MicroRNA-206, which belongs to the group of so-called "myomiRs", is one of the most studied miRs thus far. In addition to being involved in skeletal muscle development and pathology, it has also been established that it is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases including heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Alzheimer's disease and various types of cancers. The aim of this review is to provide a complex overview of microRNA-206, including regulating its expression, a brief description of its known functions in skeletal muscle and a complex overview of its roles in the biology and pathology of other tissues, emphasizing its significant diagnostic and therapeutic potential.

  18. MicroRNA-210: A unique and pleiotropic hypoxamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephen Y.; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Inadequate oxygen availability or hypoxia induces a complex and still incompletely understood set of adaptations that influence cellular survival and function. Many of these adaptations are directly controlled by a master transcription factor, hypoxia inducible factor-alpha (HIF-α). In response to hypoxia, HIF-α levels increase and directly induce the transcription of >100 genes, influencing functions ranging from metabolism, survival, proliferation, migration, to angiogenesis, among others. Recently, it has been demonstrated that a specific set of microRNA molecules are upregulated by hypoxia, which we denote here as “hypoxamirs.” In particular, the HIF-responsive hypoxamir microRNA-210 (miR-210) is a unique microRNA that is evolutionarily conserved and ubiquitously expressed in hypoxic cell and tissue types. A number of direct targets of miR-210 have been identified by in silico, transcriptional and biochemical methods, a subset of which have been extensively validated. As a result, miR-210 has been mechanistically linked to the control of a wide range of cellular responses known to influence normal developmental physiology as well as a number of hypoxia-dependent disease states, including tissue ischemia, inflammation and tumorigenesis. Thus, reflecting the pleiotropic actions of HIF-α, miR-210 appears to function as a “master microRNA” relevant for the control of diverse functions in the hypoxic state. PMID:20237418

  19. MicroRNA Regulation of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed L. Abba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT is a central regulatory program that is similar in many aspects to several steps of embryonic morphogenesis. In addition to its physiological role in tissue repair and wound healing, EMT contributes to chemo resistance, metastatic dissemination and fibrosis, amongst others. Classically, the morphological change from epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype is characterized by the appearance or loss of a group of proteins which have come to be recognized as markers of the EMT process. As with all proteins, these molecules are controlled at the transcriptional and translational level by transcription factors and microRNAs, respectively. A group of developmental transcription factors form the backbone of the EMT cascade and a large body of evidence shows that microRNAs are heavily involved in the successful coordination of mesenchymal transformation and vice versa, either by suppressing the expression of different groups of transcription factors, or otherwise acting as their functional mediators in orchestrating EMT. This article dissects the contribution of microRNAs to EMT and analyzes the molecular basis for their roles in this cellular process. Here, we emphasize their interaction with core transcription factors like the zinc finger enhancer (E-box binding homeobox (ZEB, Snail and Twist families as well as some pluripotency transcription factors.

  20. Cross-kingdom sequence similarities between human micro-RNAs and plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo-Mendez, Jovan D; Vaishnav, Radhika A; Cooper, Nigel G; Friedland, Robert P

    2013-09-01

    Micro-RNAs regulate the expression of cellular and tissue phenotypes at a post-transcriptional level through a complex process involving complementary interactions between micro-RNAs and messenger-RNAs. Similar nucleotide interactions have been shown to occur as cross-kingdom events; for example, between plant viruses and plant micro-RNAs and also between animal viruses and animal micro-RNAs. In this study, this view is expanded to look for cross-kingdom similarities between plant virus and human micro-RNA sequences. A method to identify significant nucleotoide sequence similarities between plant viruses and hsa micro-RNAs was created. Initial analyses demonstrate that plant viruses contain nucleotide sequences which exactly match the seed sequences of human micro-RNAs in both parallel and anti-parallel directions. For example, the bean common mosaic virus strain NL4 from Colombia contains sequences that match exactly the seed sequence for micro-RNA of the hsa-mir-1226 in the parallel direction, which suggests a cross-kingdom conservation. Similarly, the rice yellow stunt viral cRNA contains a sequence that is an exact match in the anti-parallel direction to the seed sequence of hsa-micro-RNA let-7b. The functional implications of these results need to be explored. The finding of these cross-kingdom sequence similarities is a useful starting point in support of bench level investigations.

  1. Guidelines for the functional annotation of microRNAs using the Gene Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, Rachael P; Sitnikov, Dmitry; Orlic-Milacic, Marija; Balakrishnan, Rama; D'Eustachio, Peter; Gillespie, Marc E; Howe, Doug; Kalea, Anastasia Z; Maegdefessel, Lars; Osumi-Sutherland, David; Petri, Victoria; Smith, Jennifer R; Van Auken, Kimberly; Wood, Valerie; Zampetaki, Anna; Mayr, Manuel; Lovering, Ruth C

    2016-05-01

    MicroRNA regulation of developmental and cellular processes is a relatively new field of study, and the available research data have not been organized to enable its inclusion in pathway and network analysis tools. The association of gene products with terms from the Gene Ontology is an effective method to analyze functional data, but until recently there has been no substantial effort dedicated to applying Gene Ontology terms to microRNAs. Consequently, when performing functional analysis of microRNA data sets, researchers have had to rely instead on the functional annotations associated with the genes encoding microRNA targets. In consultation with experts in the field of microRNA research, we have created comprehensive recommendations for the Gene Ontology curation of microRNAs. This curation manual will enable provision of a high-quality, reliable set of functional annotations for the advancement of microRNA research. Here we describe the key aspects of the work, including development of the Gene Ontology to represent this data, standards for describing the data, and guidelines to support curators making these annotations. The full microRNA curation guidelines are available on the GO Consortium wiki (http://wiki.geneontology.org/index.php/MicroRNA_GO_annotation_manual). © 2016 Huntley et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  2. The silent defense: Micro-RNA directed defense against HIV-1 replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ajit

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MicroRNAs play critical role in regulating gene expression. MicroRNA profile of particular cell type bears the signature of cell type specific gene expression. Given that viral pathogens replicate by evading host defenses, research is now focused on the miRNA-regulated genes that critically regulate HIV-1 propagation in human host cells.

  3. Expression patterns of micro-RNAs 146a, 181a, and 155 in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiş, Uluç; Tüfekçi, Uğur Kemal; Genç, Şermin; Çarman, Kürşat Bora; Bayram, Erhan; Topçu, Yasemin; Kurul, Semra Hız

    2015-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is caused by persistent brain infection of mutated virus, showing inflammation, neurodegeneration, and demyelination. Although many factors are emphasized in the pathogenesis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, the exact mechanism of neurodegeneration remains unknown. Micro-RNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional levels. Micro-RNAs are essential for normal immune system development; besides they are also implicated in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression patterns of micro-RNAs 146a, 181a, and 155 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. We enrolled 39 patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and 41 healthy controls. Quantitative analysis of micro-RNAs 146a, 181a, and 155 were performed using specific stem-loop primers followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. All of 3 micro-RNAs were upregulated in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients. In addition, the level of micro-RNA 155 expression was higher in stage 3 patients. But, micro-RNA 146a and 181a expression levels showed no association or correlation with clinically relevant data. Alteration of peripheral blood mononuclear cell micro-RNAs in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis may shed new light on the pathogenesis of disease and may contribute to the aberrant systemic rise in mRNA levels in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. MicroRNAs and their targets from Arabidopsis to rice:half conserved and half diverged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ligeng Ma

    2010-01-01

    @@ MicroRNAs are 21-to 24-nucleotide long, endogenous non-coding RNAs in eukaryotes (Hannon, 2002). Mature microRNAs generated by Dicer are incorporated into an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), resulting in gene silencing via the cleavage of a target mRNA or the repression of target mRNA translation (Qi et al, 2005).

  5. MicroRNA characterize genetic diversity and drug resistance in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Schotte (Diana); R.X. de Menezes (Renee); F. Akbari Moqadam (Farhad); L.M. Khankahdani (Leila Mohammadi); E.A.M. Lange-Turenhout (Ellen); C. Chen (Caifu); R. Pieters (Rob); M.L. den Boer (Monique)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground MicroRNA regulate the activity of protein-coding genes including those involved in hematopoietic cancers. The aim of the current study was to explore which microRNA are unique for seven different subtypes of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Design and Methods Expression

  6. The expression and function of microRNAs in vertebrate embryonic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    MicroRNAs regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level by binding to the 3'UTR of mRNAs. These small RNA molecules (~22 bases in length) are processed from long primary transcripts (pri-miRNA). In animals, microRNAs bind with imperfect complementarity to their target mRNA. This leads to

  7. Circulating microRNA expression profiles associated with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Anting Liu; Schetter, Aaron J; Nielsen, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the specificity of expression patterns of cell-free, circulating microRNAs in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Total RNA was purified from plasma and 45 different specific mature microRNAs were determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain...

  8. ULTRASOUND AND MICROBUBBLE-INDUCED LOCAL DELIVERY OF MICRORNA-BASED THERAPEUTICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwekkeboom, Rick F. J.; Lei, Zhiyong; Bogaards, Sylvia J. P.; Aiazian, Eric; Kamp, Otto; Paulus, Walter J.; Sluijter, Joost P. G.; Musters, Rene J. P.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are involved in many pathologic processes and are a promising target for therapeutic intervention. However, successful, localized delivery of microRNA-based therapeutics is lacking. In this study, cationic ultrasound-responsive microbubbles (MBs) were used to deliver microRNA blockers and

  9. MicroRNA expression profiling in relation to the genetic heterogeneity of acute myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Jongen-Lavrencic (Mojca); S.M. Sun; M.K. Dijkstra; P.J.M. Valk (Peter); B. Löwenberg (Bob)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAcute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a highly diverse disease characterized by various cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that show variable expression during myeloid differentiation. MicroRNA expression in marrow blasts in 215 cases of newly diagnosed

  10. Modulation of microRNA activity by semi-microRNAs (smiRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle ePlante

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ribonuclease Dicer plays a central role in the microRNA pathway by catalyzing the formation of 19 to 24-nucleotide (nt long microRNAs. Subsequently incorporated into Ago2 effector complexes, microRNAs are known to regulate messenger RNA (mRNA translation. Whether shorter RNA species derived from microRNAs exist and play a role in mRNA regulation remains unknown. Here, we report the serendipitous discovery of a 12-nt long RNA species corresponding to the 5’ region of the microRNA let-7, and tentatively termed semi-microRNA, or smiRNA. Using a smiRNA derived from the precursor of miR-223 as a model, we show that 12-nt long smiRNA species are devoid of any direct mRNA regulatory activity, as assessed in a reporter gene activity assay in transfected cultured human cells. However, smiR-223 was found to modulate the ability of the microRNA from which it derives to mediate translational repression or cleavage of reporter mRNAs. Our findings suggest that smiRNAs may be generated along the microRNA pathway and participate to the control of gene expression by regulating the activity of the related full-length mature microRNA in vivo.

  11. MicroRNAs in the Stressed Heart: Sorting the Signal from the Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scot J. Matkovich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The short noncoding RNAs, known as microRNAs, are of undisputed importance in cellular signaling during differentiation and development, and during adaptive and maladaptive responses of adult tissues, including those that comprise the heart. Cardiac microRNAs are regulated by hemodynamic overload resulting from exercise or hypertension, in the response of surviving myocardium to myocardial infarction, and in response to environmental or systemic disruptions to homeostasis, such as those arising from diabetes. A large body of work has explored microRNA responses in both physiological and pathological contexts but there is still much to learn about their integrated actions on individual mRNAs and signaling pathways. This review will highlight key studies of microRNA regulation in cardiac stress and suggest possible approaches for more precise identification of microRNA targets, with a view to exploiting the resulting data for therapeutic purposes.

  12. microRNAs and EMT in mammary cells and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Josephine A; Richer, Jennifer K; Goodall, Gregory J

    2010-06-01

    MicroRNAs are master regulators of gene expression in many biological and pathological processes, including mammary gland development and breast cancer. The differentiation program termed the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) involves changes in a number of microRNAs. Some of these microRNAs have been shown to control cellular plasticity through the suppression of EMT-inducers or to influence cellular phenotype through the suppression of genes involved in defining the epithelial and mesenchymal cell states. This has led to the suggestion that microRNAs maybe a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer. In this review, we will discuss microRNAs that are involved in EMT in mammary cells and breast cancer.

  13. MicroRNA as a Novel Modulator in Head and Neck Squamous Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hsin Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have emerged as important regulators of cell proliferation, development, cancer formation, stress responses, cell death, and other physiological conditions in the past decade. On the other hand, head and neck cancer is one of the top ten most common cancers worldwide. Recent advances in microRNAs have revealed their prominent role in regulating gene expression and provided new aspects of applications in diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic strategies in head and neck squamous carcinoma. In the present paper, we focus on microRNAs showing significant differences between normal and tumor cells or between cells with differential ability of metastasis. We also emphasize specific microRNAs that could modulate tumor cell properties, such as apoptosis, metastasis, and proliferation. These microRNAs possess the potential to be applied on clinical therapy in the future.

  14. Rapid reversal of translational silencing: Emerging role of microRNA degradation pathways in neuronal plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiuping; Shah, Aparna; Baraban, Jay M

    2016-09-01

    As microRNAs silence translation, rapid reversal of this process has emerged as an attractive mechanism for driving de novo protein synthesis mediating neuronal plasticity. Herein, we summarize recent studies identifying neuronal stimuli that trigger rapid decreases in microRNA levels and reverse translational silencing of plasticity transcripts. Although these findings indicate that neuronal stimulation elicits rapid degradation of selected microRNAs, we are only beginning to decipher the molecular pathways involved. Accordingly, we present an overview of several molecular pathways implicated in mediating microRNA degradation: Lin-28, translin/trax, and MCPIP1. As these degradation pathways target distinct subsets of microRNAs, they enable neurons to reverse silencing rapidly, yet selectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of microRNAs and their role in liver development, regeneration and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Megan L; Marquardt, Jens U; Yeoh, George C; Callus, Bernard A

    2014-09-01

    Since their discovery more than a decade ago microRNAs have been demonstrated to have profound effects on almost every aspect of biology. Numerous studies in recent years have shown that microRNAs have important roles in development and in the etiology and progression of disease. This review is focused on microRNAs and the roles they play in liver development, regeneration and liver disease; particularly chronic liver diseases such as alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, viral hepatitis and primary liver cancer. The key microRNAs identified in liver development and chronic liver disease will be discussed together with, where possible, the target messenger RNAs that these microRNAs regulate to profoundly alter these processes. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: The Non-coding RNA Revolution.

  16. [Potential relevance of microRNAs in the diagnostics of inflammatory bowel diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igaz, Iván; Szőnyi, Mihály; Varga, Patrícia; Topa, Lajos

    2014-03-30

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic inflammatory disorders characterized by relapses and remissions. Several factors have been suggested to participate in their development, although their detailed pathogenesis still remains largely unknown. MicroRNAs are single strained, non-coding RNAs, consisting of 18-25 nucleotides that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Aberrant expression of microRNAs has been found in several malignant tumors. Recently the role of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of inflammatory-autoimmune disorders (such as inflammatory bowel disease) is being intensively investigated. Beside their pathogenic roles, microRNAs can also be exploited as diagnostic markers, especially in cases where the interpretation of histological data is difficult. In this review the authors discuss recent findings in the field of microRNAs in the diagnosis and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  17. Ultrasensitive detection of microRNA through rolling circle amplification on a DNA tetrahedron decorated electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Peng; Wang, Bidou; Meng, Fanyu; Yin, Jian; Tang, Yuguo

    2015-03-18

    MicroRNAs are a class of evolutionally conserved, small noncoding RNAs involved in the regulation of gene expression and affect a variety of biological processes including cellular differentiation, immunological response, tumor development, and so on. Recently, microRNAs have been identified as promising disease biomarkers. In this work, we have fabricated a novel electrochemical method for ultrasensitive detection of microRNA. Generally, a DNA tetrahedron decorated gold electrode is employed as the recognition interface. Then, hybridizations between DNA tetrahedron, microRNA, and primer probe initiate rolling circle amplification (RCA) on the electrode surface. Silver nanoparticles attached to the RCA products provide significant electrochemical signals and a limit of detection as low as 50 aM is achieved. Moreover, homology microRNA family members with only one or two mismatc