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Sample records for adeno-associated virus-mediated microrna

  1. Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated microRNA Delivery into the Postnatal Mouse Brain Reveals a Role for miR-134 in Dendritogenesis in Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Larsen, Lars A; Kauppinen, Sakari

    2010-01-01

    delivery of microRNAs in vivo by use of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV). rAAV-mediated overexpression of miR-134 in neurons of the postnatal mouse brain provided evidence for a negative role of miR-134 in dendritic arborization of cortical layer V pyramidal neurons in vivo, thereby confirming...

  2. Adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Arun

    2008-01-01

    Although the remarkable versatility and efficacy of recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vectors in transducing a wide variety of cells and tissues in vitro, and in numerous pre-clinical animal models of human diseases in vivo, have been well established, the published literature is replete with controversies with regard to the efficacy of AAV2 vectors in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transduction. A number of factors have contributed to these controversies, the molecular bases of whic...

  3. Adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Arun

    2008-09-01

    Although the remarkable versatility and efficacy of recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vectors in transducing a wide variety of cells and tissues in vitro, and in numerous pre-clinical animal models of human diseases in vivo, have been well established, the published literature is replete with controversies with regard to the efficacy of AAV2 vectors in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transduction. A number of factors have contributed to these controversies, the molecular bases of which have begun to come to light in recent years. With the availability of several novel serotypes (AAV1 through AAV12), rational design of AAV capsid mutants, and strategies (self-complementary vector genomes, hematopoietic cell-specific promoters), it is indeed becoming feasible to achieve efficient transduction of HSC by AAV vectors. Using a murine serial bone marrow transplantation model in vivo, we have recently documented stable integration of the proviral AAV genome into mouse chromosomes, which does not lead to any overt hematological abnormalities. Thus, a better understanding of the AAV-HSC interactions, and the availability of a vast repertoire of novel serotype and capsid mutant vectors, are likely to have significant implications in the use of AAV vectors in high-efficiency transduction of HSCs as well as in gene therapy applications involving the hematopoietic system. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Adeno-associated virus-mediated gene delivery into the scala media of the normal and deafened adult mouse ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, L A; Li, Q; Yang, J; Goddard, J C; Fekete, D M; Lang, H

    2011-06-01

    Murine models are ideal for studying cochlear gene transfer, as many hearing loss-related mutations have been discovered and mapped within the mouse genome. However, because of the small size and delicate nature, the membranous labyrinth of the mouse is a challenging target for the delivery of viral vectors. To minimize injection trauma, we developed a procedure for the controlled release of adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) into the scala media of adult mice. This procedure poses minimal risk of injury to structures of the cochlea and middle ear, and allows for near-complete preservation of low and middle frequency hearing. In this study, transduction efficiency and cellular specificity of AAV vectors (serotypes 1, 2, 5, 6 and 8) were investigated in normal and drug-deafened ears. Using the cytomegalovirus promoter to drive gene expression, a variety of cell types were transduced successfully, including sensory hair cells and supporting cells, as well as cells in the auditory nerve and spiral ligament. Among all five serotypes, inner hair cells were the most effectively transduced cochlear cell type. All five serotypes of AAV vectors transduced cells of the auditory nerve, though serotype 8 was the most efficient vector for transduction. Our findings indicate that efficient AAV inoculation (via the scala media) can be performed in adult mouse ears, with hearing preservation a realistic goal. The procedure we describe may also have applications for intra-endolymphatic drug delivery in many mouse models of human deafness.

  5. Intramuscular Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Expression of Monoclonal Antibodies Provides 100% Protection Against Ebola Virus Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Laura P; Soule, Geoff; Sorensen, Debra; Frost, Kathy L; He, Shihua; Tierney, Kevin; Safronetz, David; Booth, Stephanie A; Kobinger, Gary P; Qiu, Xiangguo; Wootton, Sarah K

    2018-03-05

    The 2013-2016 West Africa outbreak demonstrated the epidemic potential of Ebola virus and highlighted the need for counter strategies. Monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapies hold promise as treatment options for Ebola virus infections. However, production of clinical-grade mAbs is labor intensive, and immunity is short lived. Conversely, adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated mAb gene transfer provides the host with a genetic blueprint to manufacture mAbs in vivo, leading to steady release of antibody over many months. Here we demonstrate that AAV-mediated expression of nonneutralizing mAb 5D2 or 7C9 confers 100% protection against mouse-adapted Ebola virus infection, while neutralizing mAb 2G4 was 83% protective. A 2-component cocktail, AAV-2G4/AAV-5D2, provided complete protection when administered 7 days prior to challenge and was partially protective with a 3-day lead time. Finally, AAV-mAb therapies provided sustained protection from challenge 5 months following AAV administration. AAV-mAb may be a viable alternative strategy for vaccination against emerging infectious diseases.

  6. Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Correction of a Canine Model of Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, David A.; Correia, Catherine E.; Conlon, Thomas; Specht, Andrew; Verstegen, John; Onclin-Verstegen, Karine; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Dhaliwal, Gurmeet; Mirian, Layla; Cossette, Holly; Falk, Darin J.; Germain, Sean; Clement, Nathalie; Porvasnik, Stacy; Fiske, Laurie; Struck, Maggie; Ramirez, Harvey E.; Jordan, Juan; Andrutis, Karl; Chou, Janice Y.; Byrne, Barry J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa; von Gierke disease; MIM 232200) is caused by a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-α. Patients with GSDIa are unable to maintain glucose homeostasis and suffer from severe hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, and lactic acidosis. The canine model of GSDIa is naturally occurring and recapitulates almost all aspects of the human form of disease. We investigated the potential of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector-based therapy to treat the canine model of GSDIa. After delivery of a therapeutic rAAV2/8 vector to a 1-day-old GSDIa dog, improvement was noted as early as 2 weeks posttreatment. Correction was transient, however, and by 2 months posttreatment the rAAV2/8-treated dog could no longer sustain normal blood glucose levels after 1 hr of fasting. The same animal was then dosed with a therapeutic rAAV2/1 vector delivered via the portal vein. Two months after rAAV2/1 dosing, both blood glucose and lactate levels were normal at 4 hr postfasting. With more prolonged fasting, the dog still maintained near-normal glucose concentrations, but lactate levels were elevated by 9 hr, indicating that partial correction was achieved. Dietary glucose supplementation was discontinued starting 1 month after rAAV2/1 delivery and the dog continues to thrive with minimal laboratory abnormalities at 23 months of age (18 months after rAAV2/1 treatment). These results demonstrate that delivery of rAAV vectors can mediate significant correction of the GSDIa phenotype and that gene transfer may be a promising alternative therapy for this disease and other genetic diseases of the liver. PMID:20163245

  7. Adeno-associated virus-mediated doxycycline-regulatable TRAIL expression suppresses growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Liu; Weilun, Zhang; Minghong, Jiang; Yaxi, Zhang; Shilian, Liu; Yanxin, Liu; Dexian, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) functions as a cytokine to selectively kill various cancer cells without toxicity to most normal cells. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential use of recombinant soluble TRAIL as a cancer therapeutic agent. We have showed previous administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expressing soluble TRAIL results in an efficient suppression of human tumor growth in nude mice. In the present study, we introduced Tet-On gene expression system into the rAAV vector to control the soluble TRAIL expression and evaluate the efficiency of the system in cancer gene therapy. Controllability of the Tet-On system was determined by luciferase activity assay, and Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The breast cancer xenograft animal model was established and recombinant virus was administrated through tail vein injection to evaluate the tumoricidal activity. The expression of soluble TRAIL could be strictly controlled by the Tet-On system in both normal and cancer cells. Transduction of human cancer cell lines with rAAV-TRE-TRAIL&rAAV-Tet-On under the presence of inducer doxycycline resulted in a considerable cell death by apoptosis. Intravenous injection of the recombinant virus efficiently suppressed the growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice when activated by doxycycline. These data suggest that rAAV-mediated soluble TRAIL expression under the control of the Tet-On system is a promising strategy for breast cancer therapy

  8. Adeno-associated virus-mediated doxycycline-regulatable TRAIL expression suppresses growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL functions as a cytokine to selectively kill various cancer cells without toxicity to most normal cells. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential use of recombinant soluble TRAIL as a cancer therapeutic agent. We have showed previous administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV vector expressing soluble TRAIL results in an efficient suppression of human tumor growth in nude mice. In the present study, we introduced Tet-On gene expression system into the rAAV vector to control the soluble TRAIL expression and evaluate the efficiency of the system in cancer gene therapy. Methods Controllability of the Tet-On system was determined by luciferase activity assay, and Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The breast cancer xenograft animal model was established and recombinant virus was administrated through tail vein injection to evaluate the tumoricidal activity. Results The expression of soluble TRAIL could be strictly controlled by the Tet-On system in both normal and cancer cells. Transduction of human cancer cell lines with rAAV-TRE-TRAIL&rAAV-Tet-On under the presence of inducer doxycycline resulted in a considerable cell death by apoptosis. Intravenous injection of the recombinant virus efficiently suppressed the growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice when activated by doxycycline. Conclusion These data suggest that rAAV-mediated soluble TRAIL expression under the control of the Tet-On system is a promising strategy for breast cancer therapy.

  9. Adeno-associated virus-mediated rescue of the cognitive defects in a mouse model for Angelman syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Daily

    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome (AS, a genetic disorder occurring in approximately one in every 15,000 births, is characterized by severe mental retardation, seizures, difficulty speaking and ataxia. The gene responsible for AS was discovered to be UBE3A and encodes for E6-AP, an ubiquitin ligase. A unique feature of this gene is that it undergoes maternal imprinting in a neuron-specific manner. In the majority of AS cases, there is a mutation or deletion in the maternally inherited UBE3A gene, although other cases are the result of uniparental disomy or mismethylation of the maternal gene. While most human disorders characterized by severe mental retardation involve abnormalities in brain structure, no gross anatomical changes are associated with AS. However, we have determined that abnormal calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII regulation is seen in the maternal UBE3A deletion AS mouse model and is responsible for the major phenotypes. Specifically, there is an increased αCaMKII phosphorylation at the autophosphorylation sites Thr(286 and Thr(305/306, resulting in an overall decrease in CaMKII activity. CaMKII is not produced until after birth, indicating that the deficits associated with AS are not the result of developmental abnormalities. The present studies are focused on exploring the potential to rescue the learning and memory deficits in the adult AS mouse model through the use of an adeno-associated virus (AAV vector to increase neuronal UBE3A expression. These studies show that increasing the levels of E6-AP in the brain using an exogenous vector can improve the cognitive deficits associated with AS. Specifically, the associative learning deficit was ameliorated in the treated AS mice compared to the control AS mice, indicating that therapeutic intervention may be possible in older AS patients.

  10. Induction of sustained hypercholesterolemia by single adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer of mutant hPCSK9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche-Molina, Marta; Sanz-Rosa, David; Cruz, Francisco M; García-Prieto, Jaime; López, Sergio; Abia, Rocío; Muriana, Francisco J G; Fuster, Valentín; Ibáñez, Borja; Bernal, Juan A

    2015-01-01

    Patients with mutations in the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) gene have hypercholesterolemia and are at high risk of adverse cardiovascular events. We aimed to stably express the pathological human D374Y gain-of-function mutant form of PCSK9 (PCSK9(DY)) in adult wild-type mice to generate a hyperlipidemic and proatherogenic animal model, achieved with a single systemic injection with adeno-associated virus (AAV). We constructed an AAV-based vector to support targeted transfer of the PCSK9(DY) gene to liver. After injection with 3.5×10(10) viral particles, mice in the C57BL/6J, 129/SvPasCrlf, or FVB/NCrl backgrounds developed long-term hyperlipidemia with a strong increase in serum low-density lipoprotein. Macroscopic and histological analysis showed atherosclerotic lesions in the aortas of AAV-PCSK9(DY) mice fed a high-fat-diet. Advanced lesions in these high-fat-diet-fed mice also showed evidence of macrophage infiltration and fibrous cap formation. Hepatic AAV-PCSK9(DY) infection did not result in liver damage or signs of immunologic response. We further tested the use of AAV-PCSK9(DY) to study potential genetic interaction with the ApoE gene. Histological analysis of ApoE(-/-) AAV-PCSK9(DY) mice showed a synergistic response to ApoE deficiency, with aortic lesions twice as extensive in ApoE(-/-) AAV-PCSK9(DY)-transexpressing mice as in ApoE(-/-) AAV-Luc controls without altering serum cholesterol levels. Single intravenous AAV-PCSK9(DY) injection is a fast, easy, and cost-effective approach, resulting in rapid and long-term sustained hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. We demonstrate as a proof of concept the synergy between PCSK9(DY) gain-of-function and ApoE deficiency. This methodology could allow testing of the genetic interaction of several mutations without the need for complex and time-consuming backcrosses. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Adeno-associated virus-mediated expression of myostatin propeptide improves the growth of skeletal muscle and attenuates hyperglycemia in db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J G; Shen, G F; Li, J; Qiao, C; Xiao, B; Yan, H; Wang, D W; Xiao, X

    2017-03-01

    Inhibition of myostatin, a negative growth modulator for muscle, can functionally enhance muscle mass and improve glucose and fat metabolism in myostatin propeptide (MPRO) transgenic mice. This study was to investigate whether myostatin inhibition by adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery of MPRO could improve muscle mass and achieve therapeutic effects on glucose regulation and lipid metabolism in the db/db mice and the mechanisms involved in that process. Eight-week-old male db/db mice were administered saline, AAV-GFP and AAV-MPRO/Fc vectors and monitored random blood glucose levels and body weight for 36 weeks. Body weight gain was not different during follow-up among the groups, but AAV-MPRO/Fc vectors resulted high level of MPRO in the blood companied by an increase in skeletal muscle mass and muscle hypertrophy. In addition, AAV-MPRO/Fc-treated db/db mice showed significantly lower blood glucose and insulin levels and significantly increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity compared with the control groups (P<0.05). Moreover, these mice exhibited lower triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) content in the skeletal muscle, although no difference was observed in fat pad weights and serum TG and FFA levels. Finally, AAV-MPRO/Fc-treated mice had enhanced insulin signaling in the skeletal muscle. These data suggest that AAV-mediated MPRO therapy may provide an important clue for potential clinical applications to prevent type II diabetes, and these studies confirm that MPRO is a therapeutic target for type II diabetes.

  12. Effective relief of neuropathic pain by adeno-associated virus-mediated expression of a small hairpin RNA against GTP cyclohydrolase 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies show that transcriptional activation of GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH1 in dorsal root ganglia (DRG is significantly involved in the development and persistency of pain symptoms. We thus hypothesize that neuropathic pain may be attenuated by down-regulation of GCH1 expression, and propose a gene silencing system for this purpose. Results To interrupt GCH1 synthesis, we designed a bidirectional recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding both a small hairpin RNA against GCH1 and a GFP reporter gene (rAAV-shGCH1. After rAAV-shGCH1 was introduced into the sciatic nerve prior to or following pain-inducing surgery, therapeutic efficacy and the underlying mechanisms were subsequently validated in animal models. The GFP expression data indicates that rAAV effectively delivered transgenes to DRG. Subsequently reduced GCH1 expression was evident from immunohistochemistry and western-blotting analysis. Along with the down-regulation of GCH1, the von Frey test correspondingly indicated a sharp decline in pain symptoms upon both pre- and post-treatment with rAAV-shGCH1. Interestingly, GCH1 down-regulation additionally led to decreased microglial activation in the dorsal horn, implying an association between pain attenuation and reduced inflammation. Conclusion Therefore, the data suggests that GCH1 levels can be reduced by introducing rAAV-shGCH1, leading to pain relief. Based on the results, we propose that GCH1 modulation may be developed as a clinically applicable gene therapy strategy to treat neuropathic pain.

  13. Gene therapy strategy for long-term myocardial protection using adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of heme oxygenase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Luis G; Agrawal, Reitu; Zhang, Lunan; Rezvani, Mojgan; Mangi, Abeel A; Ehsan, Afshin; Griese, Daniel P; Dell'Acqua, Giorgio; Mann, Michael J; Oyama, Junichi; Yet, Shaw-Fang; Layne, Matthew D; Perrella, Mark A; Dzau, Victor J

    2002-02-05

    Ischemia and oxidative stress are the leading mechanisms for tissue injury. An ideal strategy for preventive/protective therapy would be to develop an approach that could confer long-term transgene expression and, consequently, tissue protection from repeated ischemia/reperfusion injury with a single administration of a therapeutic gene. In the present study, we used recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) as a vector for direct delivery of the cytoprotective gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) into the rat myocardium, with the purpose of evaluating this strategy as a therapeutic approach for long-term protection from ischemia-induced myocardial injury. Human HO-1 gene (hHO-1) was delivered to normal rat hearts by intramyocardial injection. AAV-mediated transfer of the hHO-1 gene 8 weeks before acute coronary artery ligation and release led to a dramatic reduction (>75%) in left ventricular myocardial infarction. The reduction in infarct size was accompanied by decreases in myocardial lipid peroxidation and in proapoptotic Bax and proinflammatory interleukin-1beta protein abundance, concomitant with an increase in antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein level. This suggested that the transgene exerts its cardioprotective effects in part by reducing oxidative stress and associated inflammation and apoptotic cell death. This study documents the beneficial therapeutic effect of rAAV-mediated transfer, before myocardial injury, of a cytoprotective gene that confers long-term myocardial protection from ischemia/reperfusion injury. Our data suggest that this novel "pre-event" gene transfer approach may provide sustained tissue protection from future repeated episodes of injury and may be beneficial as preventive therapy for patients with or at risk of developing coronary ischemic events.

  14. Recombinant adeno-associated virus mediates a high level of gene transfer but less efficient integration in the K562 human hematopoietic cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, P; McQuiston, S A; Yu, X J; Pepper, K A; Krall, W J; Podsakoff, G M; Kurtzman, G J; Kohn, D B

    1997-03-01

    We tested the ability of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector to express and integrate exogenous DNA into human hematopoietic cells in the absence of selection. We developed an rAAV vector, AAV-tNGFR, carrying a truncated rat nerve growth factor receptor (tNGFR) cDNA as a cell surface reporter under the control of the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV) long terminal repeat. An analogous MoMuLV-based retroviral vector (L-tNGFR) was used in parallel, and gene transfer and expression in human hematopoietic cells were assessed by flow cytometry and DNA analyses. Following gene transfer into K562 cells with AAV-tNGFR at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 13 infectious units (IU), 26 to 38% of cells expressed tNGFR on the surface early after transduction, but the proportion of tNGFR expressing cells steadily declined to 3.0 to 3.5% over 1 month of culture. At an MOI of 130 IU, nearly all cells expressed tNGFR immediately posttransduction, but the proportion of cells expressing tNGFR declined to 62% over 2 months of culture. The decline in the proportion of AAV-tNGFR-expressing cells was associated with ongoing losses of vector genomes. In contrast, K562 cells transduced with the retroviral vector L-tNGFR expressed tNGFR in a constant fraction. Integration analyses on clones showed that integration occurred at different sites. Integration frequencies were estimated at about 49% at an MOI of 130 and 2% at an MOI of 1.3. Transduction of primary human CD34+ progenitor cells by AAV-tNGFR was less efficient than with K562 cells and showed a declining percentage of cells expressing tNGFR over 2 weeks of culture. Thus, purified rAAV caused very high gene transfer and expression in human hematopoietic cells early after transduction, which steadily declined during cell passage in the absence of selection. Although the efficiency of integration was low, overall integration was markedly improved at a high MOI. While prolonged episomal persistence may be adequate

  15. Adeno-associated virus for cystic fibrosis gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Martini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is an alternative treatment for genetic lung disease, especially monogenic disorders such as cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis is a severe autosomal recessive disease affecting one in 2500 live births in the white population, caused by mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. The disease is classically characterized by pancreatic enzyme insufficiency, an increased concentration of chloride in sweat, and varying severity of chronic obstructive lung disease. Currently, the greatest challenge for gene therapy is finding an ideal vector to deliver the transgene (CFTR to the affected organ (lung. Adeno-associated virus is the most promising viral vector system for the treatment of respiratory disease because it has natural tropism for airway epithelial cells and does not cause any human disease. This review focuses on the basic properties of adeno-associated virus and its use as a vector for cystic fibrosis gene therapy.

  16. Engineering adeno-associated viruses for clinical gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotterman, Melissa A; Schaffer, David V

    2014-07-01

    Clinical gene therapy has been increasingly successful owing both to an enhanced molecular understanding of human disease and to progressively improving gene delivery technologies. Among these technologies, delivery vectors based on adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) have emerged as safe and effective and, in one recent case, have led to regulatory approval. Although shortcomings in viral vector properties will render extension of such successes to many other human diseases challenging, new approaches to engineer and improve AAV vectors and their genetic cargo are increasingly helping to overcome these barriers.

  17. Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Correction of a Canine Model of Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, David A.; Correia, Catherine E.; Conlon, Thomas; Specht, Andrew; Verstegen, John; Onclin-Verstegen, Karine; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Dhaliwal, Gurmeet; Mirian, Layla; Cossette, Holly; Falk, Darin J.; Germain, Sean; Clement, Nathalie; Porvasnik, Stacy; Fiske, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    This study by the groups of Drs. Barry Byrne and Cathryn Mah at the University of Florida examines the safety and efficacy of AAV-mediated gene delivery in a canine model of glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa). The authors find that intraportal delivery of AAV8 encoding glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase) followed 20 weeks later by intraportal administration of AAV1 encoding G6Pase led to significant correction of the GSDIa phenotype.

  18. Perinatal systemic gene delivery using adeno-associated viral vectors

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    Rajvinder eKarda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative monogenic diseases can also affect a broad range of tissues and organs throughout the body. An effective treatment would require a systemic approach. The intravenous administration of novel therapies is ideal but is hampered by the inability of such drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier and precludes efficacy in the central nervous system. A number of these early lethal intractable diseases also present devastating irreversible pathology at birth or soon after. Therefore, any therapy would ideally be administered during the perinatal period to prevent, stop or ameliorate disease progression. The concept of perinatal gene therapy has moved a step further towards being a feasible approach to treating such disorders. This has primarily been driven by the recent discoveries that particular serotypes of adeno-associated virus (AAV gene delivery vectors have the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier following intravenous administration. Furthermore, this has been safely demonstrated in perinatal mice and non-human primates. This review focuses on the progress made in using AAV to achieve systemic transduction and what this means for developing perinatal gene therapy for early lethal neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Pharmacology of Recombinant Adeno-associated Virus Production

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    Magalie Penaud-Budloo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV vectors have been used in more than 150 clinical trials with a good safety profile and significant clinical benefit in many genetic diseases. In addition, due to their ability to infect non-dividing and dividing cells and to serve as efficient substrate for homologous recombination, rAAVs are being used as a tool for gene-editing approaches. However, manufacturing of these vectors at high quantities and fulfilling current good manufacturing practices (GMP is still a challenge, and several technological platforms are competing for this niche. Herein, we will describe the most commonly used upstream methods to produce rAAVs, paying particular attention to the starting materials (input used in each platform and which related impurities can be expected in final products (output. The most commonly found impurities in rAAV stocks include defective particles (i.e., AAV capsids that do contain the therapeutic gene or are not infectious, residual proteins from host cells and helper viruses (adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, or baculoviruses, and illegitimate DNA from plasmids, cells, or helper viruses that may be encapsidated into rAAV particles. Given the role that impurities may play in immunotoxicity, this article reviews the impurities inherently associated with each manufacturing platform.

  20. Adeno-associated virus rep protein synthesis during productive infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redemann, B.E.; Mendelson, E.; Carter, B.J.

    1989-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) Rep proteins mediate viral DNA replication and can regulate expression from AAV genes. The authors studied the kinetics of synthesis of the four Rep proteins, Rep78, Rep68, Rep52, and Rep40, during infection of human 293 or KB cells with AAV and helper adenovirus by in vivo labeling with [ 35 S]methionine, immunoprecipitation, and immunoblotting analyses. Rep78 and Rep52 were readily detected concomitantly with detection of viral monomer duplex DNA replicating about 10 to 12 h after infection, and Rep68 and Rep40 were detected 2 h later. Rep78 and Rep52 were more abundant than Rep68 and Rep40 owing to a higher synthesis rate throughout the infectious cycle. In some experiments, very low levels of Rep78 could be detected as early as 4 h after infection. The synthesis rates of Rep proteins were maximal between 14 and 24 h and then decreased later after infection. Isotopic pulse-chase experiments showed that each of the Rep proteins was synthesized independently and was stable for at least 15 h. A slower-migrating, modified form of Rep78 was identified late after infection. AAV capsid protein synthesis was detected at 10 to 12 h after infection and also exhibited synthesis kinetics similar to those of the Rep proteins. AAV DNA replication showed at least two clearly defined stages. Bulk duplex replicating DNA accumulation began around 10 to 12 h and reached a maximum level at about 20 h when Rep and capsid protein synthesis was maximal. Progeny single-stranded DNA accumulation began about 12 to 13 h, but most of this DNA accumulated after 24 h when Rep and capsid protein synthesis had decreased

  1. Factors influencing recombinant adeno-associated virus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, A; Orève, S; Chadeuf, G; Favre, D; Cherel, Y; Champion-Arnaud, P; David-Ameline, J; Moullier, P

    1998-03-20

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) is produced by transfecting cells with two constructs: the rAAV vector plasmid and the rep-cap plasmid. After subsequent adenoviral infection, needed for rAAV replication and assembly, the virus is purified from total cell lysates through CsCl gradients. Because this is a long and complex procedure, the precise titration of rAAV stocks, as well as the measure of the level of contamination with adenovirus and rep-positive AAV, are essential to evaluate the transduction efficiency of these vectors in vitro and in vivo. Our vector core is in charge of producing rAAV for outside investigators as part of a national network promoted by the Association Française contre les Myopathies/Généthon. We report here the characterization of 18 large-scale rAAV stocks produced during the past year. Three major improvements were introduced and combined in the rAAV production procedure: (i) the titration and characterization of rAAV stocks using a stable rep-cap HeLa cell line in a modified Replication Center Assay (RCA); (ii) the use of different rep-cap constructs to provide AAV regulatory and structural proteins; (iii) the use of an adenoviral plasmid to provide helper functions needed for rAAV replication and assembly. Our results indicate that: (i) rAAV yields ranged between 10(11) to 5 x 10(12) total particles; (ii) the physical particle to infectious particle (measured by RCA) ratios were consistently below 50 when using a rep-cap plasmid harboring an ITR-deleted AAV genome; the physical particle to transducing particle ratios ranged between 400 and 600; (iii) the use of an adenoviral plasmid instead of an infectious virion did not affect the particles or the infectious particles yields nor the above ratio. Most of large-scale rAAV stocks (7/9) produced using this plasmid were free of detectable infectious adenovirus as determined by RCA; (iv) all the rAAV stocks were contaminated with rep-positive AAV as detected by RCA. In summary

  2. Formation of newly synthesized adeno-associated virus capsids in the cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Wilson, James M

    2014-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) particles inside the nucleus of a HEK 293 cell are shown by electron microscopy. Cells have been triple-transfected for vector production and were analyzed for capsid formation three days later. Newly assembled particle are visible as seemingly unstructured conglomerates or crystal-like arrays.

  3. Adeno-associated viral vector transduction of human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Murphy, Mary; O'Brien, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have received considerable attention in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. One aspect of MSC research focuses on genetically modifying the cells with the aim of enhancing their regenerative potential. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) holds promise as a vector...

  4. Twinned crystals of adeno-associated virus serotype 3b prove suitable for structural studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, Thomas F.; Xie, Qing; Ongley, Heather M.; Hare, Joan; Chapman, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Crystals of adeno-associated virus serotype 3b, a human DNA virus with promise as a vector for gene therapy, have been grown, diffract X-rays to ∼2.6 Å resolution and are suitable for structure determination in spite of twinning. Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are leading candidate vectors for gene-therapy applications. The AAV-3b capsid is closely related to the well characterized AAV-2 capsid (87% identity), but sequence and presumably structural differences lead to distinct cell-entry and immune-recognition properties. In an effort to understand these differences and to perhaps harness them, diffraction-quality crystals of purified infectious AAV-3b particles have been grown and several partial diffraction data sets have been recorded. The crystals displayed varying levels of merohedral twinning that in earlier times would have rendered them unsuitable for structure determination, but here is shown to be a tractable complication

  5. Stable producer cell lines for adeno-associated virus (AAV) assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadeuf, Gilliane; Salvetti, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Stable producer cell lines containing both the rep and cap genes and recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors can be infected with a helper virus to provide reliable and efficient production of rAAV stocks. However, the development of these cell lines is time-consuming. The procedure described here is therefore recommended only for studies requiring the production of high amounts of rAAV, such as preclinical studies performed in large animals.

  6. Efficient gene transfer into nondividing cells by adeno-associated virus-based vectors.

    OpenAIRE

    Podsakoff, G; Wong, K K; Chatterjee, S

    1994-01-01

    Gene transfer vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) are emerging as highly promising for use in human gene therapy by virtue of their characteristics of wide host range, high transduction efficiencies, and lack of cytopathogenicity. To better define the biology of AAV-mediated gene transfer, we tested the ability of an AAV vector to efficiently introduce transgenes into nonproliferating cell populations. Cells were induced into a nonproliferative state by treatment with the DNA synthe...

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray structural studies of adeno-associated virus serotype 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Qing; Ongley, Heather M.; Hare, Joan; Chapman, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus type 6, a human DNA virus that is being developed as a vector for gene therapy, has been crystallized in a form suitable for structure determination at about 3.2 Å resolution. Adeno-associated viruses are being developed as vectors for gene therapy and have been used in a number of clinical trials. Vectors to date have been based on the type species AAV-2, the structure of which was published in 2002. There is growing interest in modulating the cellular tropism and immune neutralization of AAV-2 with variants inspired by the properties of other serotypes. Towards the determination of a structure for AAV type 6, this paper reports the high-yield production, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of infectious AAV-6 virions. The crystals diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The most promising crystal form belonged to space group R3 and appeared to be suitable for initial structure determination

  8. Differential effects of recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated neuropeptide Y overexpression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and lateral hypothalamus on feeding behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiesjema, Birgitte; Adan, Roger A. H.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Kalsbeek, Andries; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that neuropeptide Y (NPY) increases food intake. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the lateral hypothalamus (LH) are both involved in the acute, hyperphagic effects of NPY. Although it is obvious that increased energy intake may lead to obesity, it is less

  9. Gene Delivery of Activated Factor VII Using Alternative Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype Improves Hemostasis in Hemophiliac Mice with FVIII Inhibitors and Adeno-Associated Virus Neutralizing Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junjiang; Hua, Baolai; Chen, Xiaojing; Samulski, Richard J; Li, Chengwen

    2017-08-01

    While therapeutic expression of coagulation factors from adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors has been successfully achieved in patients with hemophilia, neutralizing antibodies to the vector and inhibitory antibodies to the transgene severely limit efficacy. Indeed, approximately 40% of mice transduced with human factor VIII using the AAV8 serotype developed inhibitory antibodies to factor VIII (FVIII inhibitor), as well as extremely high titers (≥1:500) of neutralizing antibodies to AAV8. To correct hemophilia in these mice, AAV9, a serotype with low in vitro cross-reactivity (≤1:5) to anti-AAV8, was used to deliver mouse-activated factor VII (mFVIIa). It was found that within 6 weeks of systemic administration of 2 × 10 13 particles/kg of AAV9/mFVIIa, hemophiliac mice with FVIII inhibitors and neutralizing antibodies (NAb) to AAV8 achieved hemostasis comparable to that in wild-type mice, as measured by rotational thromboelastometry. A level of 737 ng/mL mFVIIa was achieved after AAV9/mFVIIa adminstration compared to around 150 ng/mL without vector treatment, and concomitantly prothrombin time was shortened. Tissues collected after intra-articular hemorrhage from FVIII-deficient mice and mice with FVIII inhibitors were scored 4.7 and 5.5, respectively, on a scale of 0-10, indicating significant pathological damage. However, transduction with AAV9/mFVIIa decreased pathology scores to 3.6 and eliminated hemosiderin iron deposition in the synovium in most mice. Collectively, these results suggest that application of alternative serotypes of AAV vector to deliver bypassing reagents has the potential to correct hemophilia and prevent hemoarthrosis, even in the presence of FVIII inhibitor and neutralizing antibodies to AAV.

  10. Toward exascale production of recombinant adeno-associated virus for gene transfer applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, S; Negrete, A; Kotin, R M

    2008-06-01

    To gain acceptance as a medical treatment, adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors require a scalable and economical production method. Recent developments indicate that recombinant AAV (rAAV) production in insect cells is compatible with current good manufacturing practice production on an industrial scale. This platform can fully support development of rAAV therapeutics from tissue culture to small animal models, to large animal models, to toxicology studies, to Phase I clinical trials and beyond. Efforts to characterize, optimize and develop insect cell-based rAAV production have culminated in successful bioreactor-scale production of rAAV, with total yields potentially capable of approaching the exa-(10(18)) scale. These advances in large-scale AAV production will allow us to address specific catastrophic, intractable human diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, for which large amounts of recombinant vector are essential for successful outcome.

  11. Adeno-associated virus type 2 enhances goose parvovirus replication in embryonated goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkinson, Mertyn; Winocour, Ernest

    2005-01-01

    The autonomous goose parvovirus (GPV) and the human helper-dependent adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) share a high degree of homology. To determine if this evolutionary relationship has a biological impact, we studied viral replication in human 293 cells and in embryonated goose eggs coinfected with both viruses. Similar experiments were performed with the minute virus of mice (MVM), an autonomous murine parvovirus with less homology to AAV2. In human 293 cells, both GPV and MVM augmented AAV2 replication. In contrast, AAV2 markedly enhanced GPV replication in embryonated goose eggs under conditions where a similar effect was not observed with MVM. AAV2 did not replicate in embryonated goose eggs and AAV2 inactivated by UV-irradiation also enhanced GPV replication. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a human helper-dependent member of the Parvoviridae can provide helper activity for an autonomous parvovirus in a natural host

  12. High-accuracy biodistribution analysis of adeno-associated virus variants by double barcode sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsic, Damien; Méndez-Gómez, Héctor R; Zolotukhin, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Biodistribution analysis is a key step in the evaluation of adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid variants, whether natural isolates or produced by rational design or directed evolution. Indeed, when screening candidate vectors, accurate knowledge about which tissues are infected and how efficiently is essential. We describe the design, validation, and application of a new vector, pTR-UF50-BC, encoding a bioluminescent protein, a fluorescent protein and a DNA barcode, which can be used to visualize localization of transduction at the organism, organ, tissue, or cellular levels. In addition, by linking capsid variants to different barcoded versions of the vector and amplifying the barcode region from various tissue samples using barcoded primers, biodistribution of viral genomes can be analyzed with high accuracy and efficiency.

  13. Convection Enhanced Delivery of Recombinant Adeno-associated Virus into the Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Kevin R; Gordon, Marcia N

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has become an extremely useful tool for the study of gene over expression or knockdown in the central nervous system of experimental animals. One disadvantage of intracranial injections of rAAV vectors into the brain parenchyma has been restricted distribution to relatively small volumes of the brain. Convection enhanced delivery (CED) is a method for delivery of clinically relevant amounts of therapeutic agents to large areas of the brain in a direct intracranial injection procedure. CED uses bulk flow to increase the hydrostatic pressure and thus improve volume distribution. The CED method has shown robust gene transfer and increased distribution within the CNS and can be successfully used for different serotypes of rAAV for increased transduction of the mouse CNS. This chapter details the surgical injection of rAAV by CED into a mouse brain.

  14. Adeno-associated viral vector transduction of human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Murphy, Mary; O'Brien, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have received considerable attention in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. One aspect of MSC research focuses on genetically modifying the cells with the aim of enhancing their regenerative potential. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) holds promise as a vector...... in human MSCs and to assess whether AAV transduction affects MSC multipotentiality. The results indicated that human MSCs could indeed be transiently transduced in vitro by the AAV2 vector with efficiencies of up to 65%. The percentage of GFP-positive cells peaked at 4 days post-transduction and declined...... rapidly towards 0% after day 8. The level of transgene expression in the GFP-positive population increased 4-fold over a 10,000 fold viral dose increase. This dose-response contrasted with the 200-fold increase observed in similarly transduced 293-cells, indicating a relatively restricted transgene...

  15. Treatment of lysosomal storage disease in MPS VII mice using a recombinant adeno-associated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, G L; Sayles, J N; Chen, C; Elliger, S S; Elliger, C A; Raju, N R; Kurtzman, G J; Podsakoff, G M

    1998-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a genetic deficiency of beta-glucuronidase (GUS). We used a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (AAV-GUS) to deliver GUS cDNA to MPS VII mice. The route of vector administration had a dramatic effect on the extent and distribution of GUS activity. Intramuscular injection of AAV-GUS resulted in high, localized production of GUS, while intravenous administration produced low GUS activity in several tissues. This latter treatment of MPS VII mice reduced glycosaminoglycan levels in the liver to normal and reduced storage granules dramatically. We show that a single administration of AAV-GUS can provide sustained expression of GUS in a variety of cell types and is sufficient to reverse the disease phenotype at least in the liver.

  16. Systemic gene delivery to the central nervous system using Adeno-associated virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eBOURDENX

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV-mediated gene delivery has emerged as an effective and safe tool for both preclinical and clinical studies of neurological disorders. The recent discovery that several serotypes are able to cross the blood-brain-barrier when administered systemically has been a real breakthrough in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. Widespread transgene expression after systemic injection could spark interest as a therapeutic approach. Such strategy will avoid invasive brain surgery and allow non-focal gene therapy promising for CNS diseases affecting large portion of the brain. Here, we will review the recent results achieved through different systemic routes of injection generated in the last decade using systemic AAV-mediated delivery and propose a brief assessment of their values. In particular, we emphasize how the methods used for virus engineering could improve brain transduction after peripheral delivery.

  17. A novel and highly efficient production system for recombinant adeno-associated virus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhijian; Wu, Xiaobing; Cao, Hui; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Hong; Hou, Yunde

    2002-02-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has proven to be a promising gene delivery vector for human gene therapy. However, its application has been limited by difficulty in obtaining enough quantities of high-titer vector stocks. In this paper, a novel and highly efficient production system for rAAV is described. A recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 (rHSV-1) designated HSV1-rc/DeltaUL2, which expressed adeno-associated virus type2 (AAV-2) Rep and Cap proteins, was constructed previously. The data confirmed that its functions were to support rAAV replication and packaging, and the generated rAAV was infectious. Meanwhile, an rAAV proviral cell line designated BHK/SG2, which carried the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene expression cassette, was established by transfecting BHK-21 cells with rAAV vector plasmid pSNAV-2-GFP. Infecting BHK/SG2 with HSV1-rc/DeltaUL2 at an MOI of 0.1 resulted in the optimal yields of rAAV, reaching 250 transducing unit (TU) or 4.28x10(4) particles per cell. Therefore, compared with the conventional transfection method, the yield of rAAV using this "one proviral cell line, one helper virus" strategy was increased by two orders of magnitude. Large-scale production of rAAV can be easily achieved using this strategy and might meet the demands for clinical trials of rAAV-mediated gene therapy.

  18. Adeno-Associated Viral Vector-Induced Overexpression of Neuropeptide Y Y2 Receptors in the Hippocampus Suppresses Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldbye, David P. D.; Angehagen, Mikael; Gotzsche, Casper R.; Elbrond-Bek, Heidi; Sorensen, Andreas T.; Christiansen, Soren H.; Olesen, Mikkel V.; Nikitidou, Litsa; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Kanter-Schlifke, Irene; Kokaia, Merab

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors overexpressing neuropeptide Y in the hippocampus exerts seizure-suppressant effects in rodent epilepsy models and is currently considered for clinical application in patients with intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Seizure suppression by neuropeptide Y in the hippocampus is…

  19. Adeno-associated viral vectors as agents for gene delivery : application in disorders and trauma of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenberg, Marc J; Eggers, Ruben; Boer, Gerard J; Verhaagen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of viral vectors as agents for gene delivery provides a direct approach to manipulate gene expression in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The present article describes in detail the methodology for the injection of viral vectors, in particular adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors,

  20. Gene therapy with adeno-associated virus vector 5-human factor IX in adults with hemophilia B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miesbach, Wolfgang; Meijer, Karina; Coppens, Michiel

    2018-01-01

    Hemophilia B gene therapy aims to ameliorate bleeding risk and provide endogenous factor IX (FIX) activity/synthesis through a single treatment, eliminating the requirement for FIX concentrate. AMT-060 combines an adeno-associated virus-5 (AAV5) vector with a liver-specific promoter driving expre...

  1. A compact dual promoter adeno-associated viral vector for efficient delivery of two genes to dorsal root ganglion neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagoe, N D; Eggers, R; Verhaagen, J; Mason, M R J

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors based on serotype 5 are an efficient means to target dorsal root ganglia (DRG) to study gene function in the primary sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system. In this study, we have developed a compact AAV dual promoter vector composed of the

  2. Ultrasound Targeted Microbubble Destruction Stimulates Cellular Endocytosis in Facilitation of Adeno-Associated Virus Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Fang Du

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The generally accepted mechanism for ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD to enhance drug and gene delivery is through sonoporation. However, passive uptake of adeno-associated virus (AAV into cells following sonoporation does not adequately explain observations of enhanced transduction by UTMD. This study investigated alternative mechanisms of UTMD enhancement in AAV delivery. UTMD significantly enhanced transduction efficiency of AAV in a dose-dependent manner. UTMD stimulated a persistent uptake of AAV into the cytoplasm and nucleus. This phenomenon occurred over several hours, suggesting that some viral particles are endocytosed by cells rather than exclusively passing through pores created by sonoporation. Additionally, UTMD enhanced clathrin expression and accumulation at the plasma membrane suggesting greater clathrin-mediated endocytosis following UTMD. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed that UTMD stimulated formation of clathrin-coated pits (CPs and uncoated pits (nCPs. Furthermore, inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis partially blocked the enhancement of AAV uptake following UTMD. The results of this study implicate endocytosis as a mechanism that contributes to UTMD-enhanced AAV delivery.

  3. Regulation of adeno-associated virus DNA replication by the cellular TAF-I/set complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegoraro, Gianluca; Marcello, Alessandro; Myers, Michael P; Giacca, Mauro

    2006-07-01

    The Rep proteins of the adeno-associated virus (AAV) are required for viral replication in the presence of adenovirus helper functions and as yet poorly characterized cellular factors. In an attempt to identify such factors, we purified Flag-Rep68-interacting proteins from human cell lysates. Several polypeptides were identified by mass spectrometry, among which was ANP32B, a member of the acidic nuclear protein 32 family which takes part in the formation of the template-activating factor I/Set oncoprotein (TAF-I/Set) complex. The N terminus of Rep was found to specifically bind the acidic domain of ANP32B; through this interaction, Rep was also able to recruit other members of the TAF-I/Set complex, including the ANP32A protein and the histone chaperone TAF-I/Set. Further experiments revealed that silencing of ANP32A and ANP32B inhibited AAV replication, while overexpression of all of the components of the TAF-I/Set complex increased de novo AAV DNA synthesis in permissive cells. Besides being the first indication that the TAF-I/Set complex participates in wild-type AAV replication, these findings have important implications for the generation of recombinant AAV vectors since overexpression of the TAF-I/Set components was found to markedly increase viral vector production.

  4. Creation of a cardiotropic adeno-associated virus: the story of viral directed evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adeno-associated virus (AAV is an important vector system for human gene therapy. Although use of AAV serotypes can result in efficient myocardial gene transfer, improvements in the transduction efficiency and specificity are still required. As a method for artificial modification and selection of gene function, directed evolution has been used for diverse applications in genetic engineering of enzymes and proteins. Since 2000, pioneering work has been performed on directed evolution of viral vectors. We further attempted to evolve the AAV using DNA shuffling and in vivo biopanning in a mouse model. An AAVM41 mutant was characterized, which was found to have improved transduction efficiency and specificity in myocardium, an attribute unknown for any natural AAV serotypes. This review focuses on the development of AAV vector for cardiac gene transfer, the history of directed evolution of viral vectors, and our creation of a cardiotropic AAV, which might have implications for the future design and application of viral vectors.

  5. Structure-guided evolution of antigenically distinct adeno-associated virus variants for immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Longping Victor; Klinc, Kelli A; Madigan, Victoria J; Castellanos Rivera, Ruth M; Wells, Lindsey F; Havlik, L Patrick; Smith, J Kennon; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Asokan, Aravind

    2017-06-13

    Preexisting neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) pose a major, unresolved challenge that restricts patient enrollment in gene therapy clinical trials using recombinant AAV vectors. Structural studies suggest that despite a high degree of sequence variability, antibody recognition sites or antigenic hotspots on AAVs and other related parvoviruses might be evolutionarily conserved. To test this hypothesis, we developed a structure-guided evolution approach that does not require selective pressure exerted by NAbs. This strategy yielded highly divergent antigenic footprints that do not exist in natural AAV isolates. Specifically, synthetic variants obtained by evolving murine antigenic epitopes on an AAV serotype 1 capsid template can evade NAbs without compromising titer, transduction efficiency, or tissue tropism. One lead AAV variant generated by combining multiple evolved antigenic sites effectively evades polyclonal anti-AAV1 neutralizing sera from immunized mice and rhesus macaques. Furthermore, this variant displays robust immune evasion in nonhuman primate and human serum samples at dilution factors as high as 1:5, currently mandated by several clinical trials. Our results provide evidence that antibody recognition of AAV capsids is conserved across species. This approach can be applied to any AAV strain to evade NAbs in prospective patients for human gene therapy.

  6. Novel recombinant adeno-associated viruses for Cre activated and inactivated transgene expression in neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Arpiar; Johnson, Caroline A.; Sabatini, Bernardo L.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the organization of the nervous system requires methods for dissecting the contributions of each component cell type to circuit function. One widely used approach combines genetic targeting of Cre recombinase to specific cell populations with infection of recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) whose transgene expression is activated by Cre (“Cre-On”). Distinguishing how the Cre-expressing neurons differ functionally from neighboring Cre-negative neurons requires rAAVs that are inactivated by Cre (“Cre-Off”) and can be used in tandem with Cre-On viruses. Here we introduce two rAAV vectors that are inactivated by Cre and carry different fluorophore and optogenetic constructs. We demonstrate single and dual rAAV systems to achieve Cre-On and Cre-Off expression in spatially-intermingled cell populations of the striatum. Using these systems, we uncovered cryptic genomic interactions that occur between multiple Cre-sensitive rAAVs or between Cre-sensitive rAAVs and somatic Cre-conditional alleles and devised methods to avoid these interactions. Our data highlight both important experimental caveats associated with Cre-dependent rAAV use as well as opportunities for the development of improved rAAVs for gene delivery. PMID:22866029

  7. DNA Minicircle Technology Improves Purity of Adeno-associated Viral Vector Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Schnödt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors are considered as one of the most promising delivery systems in human gene therapy. In addition, AAV vectors are frequently applied tools in preclinical and basic research. Despite this success, manufacturing pure AAV vector preparations remains a difficult task. While empty capsids can be removed from vector preparations owing to their lower density, state-of-the-art purification strategies as of yet failed to remove antibiotic resistance genes or other plasmid backbone sequences. Here, we report the development of minicircle (MC constructs to replace AAV vector and helper plasmids for production of both, single-stranded (ss and self-complementary (sc AAV vectors. As bacterial backbone sequences are removed during MC production, encapsidation of prokaryotic plasmid backbone sequences is avoided. This is of particular importance for scAAV vector preparations, which contained an unproportionally high amount of plasmid backbone sequences (up to 26.1% versus up to 2.9% (ssAAV. Replacing standard packaging plasmids by MC constructs not only allowed to reduce these contaminations below quantification limit, but in addition improved transduction efficiencies of scAAV preparations up to 30-fold. Thus, MC technology offers an easy to implement modification of standard AAV packaging protocols that significantly improves the quality of AAV vector preparations.

  8. Molecular design for recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte-Ubillus, Juan Jose; Barajas, Daniel; Peltier, Joseph; Bardliving, Cameron; Shamlou, Parviz; Gold, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are increasingly popular tools for gene therapy applications. Their non-pathogenic status, low inflammatory potential, availability of viral serotypes with different tissue tropisms, and prospective long-lasting gene expression are important attributes that make rAAVs safe and efficient therapeutic options. Over the last three decades, several groups have engineered recombinant AAV-producing platforms, yielding high titers of transducing vector particles. Current specific productivity yields from different platforms range from 10 3 to 10 5 vector genomes (vg) per cell, and there is an ongoing effort to improve vector yields in order to satisfy high product demands required for clinical trials and future commercialization.Crucial aspects of vector production include the molecular design of the rAAV-producing host cell line along with the design of AAV genes, promoters, and regulatory elements. Appropriately, configuring and balancing the expression of these elements not only contributes toward high productivity, it also improves process robustness and product quality. In this mini-review, the rational design of rAAV-producing expression systems is discussed, with special attention to molecular strategies that contribute to high-yielding, biomanufacturing-amenable rAAV production processes. Details on molecular optimization from four rAAV expression systems are covered: adenovirus, herpesvirus, and baculovirus complementation systems, as well as a recently explored yeast expression system.

  9. Identification of an adeno-associated virus binding epitope for AVB sepharose affinity resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    Full Text Available Recent successes of adeno-associated virus (AAV–based gene therapy have created a demand for large-scale AAV vector manufacturing and purification techniques for use in clinical trials and beyond. During the development of purification protocols for rh.10, hu.37, AAV8, rh.64R1, AAV3B, and AAV9 vectors, based on a widely used affinity resin, AVB sepharose (GE, we found that, under the same conditions, different serotypes have different affinities to the resin, with AAV3B binding the best and AAV9 the poorest. Further analysis revealed a surface-exposed residue (amino acid number 665 in AAV8 VP1 numbering differs between the high-affinity AAV serotypes (serine in AAV3B, rh.10, and hu.37 and the low-affinity ones (asparagine in AAV8, rh.64R1, and AAV9. The residue locates within a surface-exposed, variable epitope flanked by highly conserved residues. The substitution of the epitope in AAV8, rh.64R1, and AAV9 with the corresponding epitope of AAV3B (SPAKFA resulted in greatly increased affinity to AVB sepharose with no reduction in the vectors’ in vitro potency. The presence of the newly identified AVB-binding epitope will be useful for affinity resin selection for the purification of novel AAV serotypes. It also suggests the possibility of vector engineering to yield a universal affinity chromatography purification method for multiple AAV serotypes.

  10. Adeno-associated virus vector-mediated transduction in the cat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vite, Charles H; Passini, Marco A; Haskins, Mark E; Wolfe, John H

    2003-10-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are capable of delivering a therapeutic gene to the mouse brain that can result in long-term and widespread protein production. However, the human infant brain is more than 1000 times larger than the mouse brain, which will make the treatment of global neurometabolic disorders in children more difficult. In this study, we evaluated the ability of three AAV serotypes (1,2, and 5) to transduce cells in the cat brain as a model of a large mammalian brain. The human lysosomal enzyme beta-glucuronidase (GUSB) was used as a reporter gene, because it can be distinguished from feline GUSB by heat stability. The vectors were injected into the cerebral cortex, caudate nucleus, thalamus, corona radiata, internal capsule, and centrum semiovale of 8-week-old cats. The brains were evaluated for gene expression using in situ hybridization and enzyme histochemistry 10 weeks after surgery. The AAV2 vector was capable of transducing cells in the gray matter, while the AAV1 vector resulted in greater transduction of the gray matter than AAV2 as well as transduction of the white matter. AAV5 did not result in detectable transduction in the cat brain.

  11. Myocardial gene delivery using molecular cardiac surgery with recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, JD; Thesier, DM; Swain, JBD; Katz, MG; Tomasulo, C; Henderson, A; Wang, L; Yarnall, C; Fargnoli, A; Sumaroka, M; Isidro, A; Petrov, M; Holt, D; Nolen-Walston, R; Koch, WJ; Stedman, HH; Rabinowitz, J; Bridges, CR

    2013-01-01

    We use a novel technique that allows for closed recirculation of vector genomes in the cardiac circulation using cardiopulmonary bypass, referred to here as molecular cardiac surgery with recirculating delivery (MCARD). We demonstrate that this platform technology is highly efficient in isolating the heart from the systemic circulation in vivo. Using MCARD, we compare the relative efficacy of single-stranded (ss) adeno-associated virus (AAV)6, ssAAV9 and self-complimentary (sc)AAV6-encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein, driven by the constitutive cytomegalovirus promoter to transduce the ovine myocardium in situ. MCARD allows for the unprecedented delivery of up to 48 green fluorescent protein genome copies per cell globally in the sheep left ventricular (LV) myocardium. We demonstrate that scAAV6-mediated MCARD delivery results in global, cardiac-specific LV gene expression in the ovine heart and provides for considerably more robust and cardiac-specific gene delivery than other available delivery techniques such as intramuscular injection or intracoronary injection; thus, representing a potential, clinically translatable platform for heart failure gene therapy. PMID:21228882

  12. Disruption of Microtubules Post-Virus Entry Enhances Adeno-Associated Virus Vector Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ping-Jie; Mitchell, Angela M.; Huang, Lu; Li, Chengwen; Samulski, R. Jude

    2016-01-01

    Perinuclear retention of viral particles is a poorly understood phenomenon observed during many virus infections. In this study, we investigated whether perinuclear accumulation acts as a barrier to limit recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) transduction. After nocodazole treatment to disrupt microtubules at microtubule-organization center (MT-MTOC) after virus entry, we observed higher rAAV transduction. To elucidate the role of MT-MTOC in rAAV infection and study its underlying mechanisms, we demonstrated that rAAV's perinuclear localization was retained by MT-MTOC with fluorescent analysis, and enhanced rAAV transduction from MT-MTOC disruption was dependent on the rAAV capsid's nuclear import signals. Interestingly, after knocking down RhoA or inhibiting its downstream effectors (ROCK and Actin), MT-MTOC disruption failed to increase rAAV transduction or nuclear entry. These data suggest that enhancement of rAAV transduction is the result of increased trafficking to the nucleus via the RhoA-ROCK-Actin pathway. Ten-fold higher rAAV transduction was also observed by disrupting MT-MTOC in brain, liver, and tumor in vivo. In summary, this study indicates that virus perinuclear accumulation at MT-MTOC is a barrier-limiting parameter for effective rAAV transduction and defines a novel defense mechanism by which host cells restrain viral invasion. PMID:26942476

  13. Adeno-Associated Virus Gene Therapy in a Sheep Model of Tay-Sachs Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Edwards, Heather L; Randle, Ashley N; Maitland, Stacy A; Benatti, Hector R; Hubbard, Spencer M; Canning, Peter F; Vogel, Matthew B; Brunson, Brandon L; Hwang, Misako; Ellis, Lauren E; Bradbury, Allison M; Gentry, Atoska S; Taylor, Amanda R; Wooldridge, Anne A; Wilhite, Dewey R; Winter, Randolph L; Whitlock, Brian K; Johnson, Jacob A; Holland, Merilee; Salibi, Nouha; Beyers, Ronald J; Sartin, James L; Denney, Thomas S; Cox, Nancy R; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Martin, Douglas R

    2018-03-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hexosaminidase A (HexA). TSD also occurs in sheep, the only experimental model of TSD that has clinical signs of disease. The natural history of sheep TSD was characterized using serial neurological evaluations, 7 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiograms, electrodiagnostics, and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. Intracranial gene therapy was also tested using AAVrh8 monocistronic vectors encoding the α-subunit of Hex (TSD α) or a mixture of two vectors encoding both the α and β subunits separately (TSD α + β) injected at high (1.3 × 10 13 vector genomes) or low (4.2 × 10 12 vector genomes) dose. Delay of symptom onset and/or reduction of acquired symptoms were noted in all adeno-associated virus-treated sheep. Postmortem evaluation showed superior HexA and vector genome distribution in the brain of TSD α + β sheep compared to TSD α sheep, but spinal cord distribution was low in all groups. Isozyme analysis showed superior HexA formation after treatment with both vectors (TSD α + β), and ganglioside clearance was most widespread in the TSD α + β high-dose sheep. Microglial activation and proliferation in TSD sheep-most prominent in the cerebrum-were attenuated after gene therapy. This report demonstrates therapeutic efficacy for TSD in the sheep brain, which is on the same order of magnitude as a child's brain.

  14. Perspective on Adeno-Associated Virus Capsid Modification for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Michael E; Duan, Dongsheng

    2015-12-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a X-linked, progressive childhood myopathy caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, one of the largest genes in the genome. It is characterized by skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration and dysfunction leading to cardiac and/or respiratory failure. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a highly promising gene therapy vector. AAV gene therapy has resulted in unprecedented clinical success for treating several inherited diseases. However, AAV gene therapy for DMD remains a significant challenge. Hurdles for AAV-mediated DMD gene therapy include the difficulty to package the full-length dystrophin coding sequence in an AAV vector, the necessity for whole-body gene delivery, the immune response to dystrophin and AAV capsid, and the species-specific barriers to translate from animal models to human patients. Capsid engineering aims at improving viral vector properties by rational design and/or forced evolution. In this review, we discuss how to use the state-of-the-art AAV capsid engineering technologies to overcome hurdles in AAV-based DMD gene therapy.

  15. Enhancing gene delivery of adeno-associated viruses by cell-permeable peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2 is considered a promising gene delivery vector and has been extensively applied in several disease models; however, inefficient transduction in various cells and tissues has limited its widespread application in many areas of gene therapy. In this study, we have developed a general, but efficient, strategy to enhance viral transduction, both in vitro and in vivo, by incubating viral particles with cell-permeable peptides (CPPs. We show that CPPs increase internalization of viral particles into cells by facilitating both energy-independent and energy-dependent endocytosis. Moreover, CPPs can significantly enhance the endosomal escape process of viral particles, thus enhancing viral transduction to those cells that have exhibited very low permissiveness to AAV2 infection as a result of impaired intracellular viral processing. We also demonstrated that this approach could be applicable to other AAV serotypes. Thus, the membrane-penetrating ability of CPPs enables us to generate an efficient method for enhanced gene delivery of AAV vectors, potentially facilitating its applicability to human gene therapy.

  16. Integration of adeno-associated virus vectors in CD34+ human hematopoietic progenitor cells after transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Adams, G; Wong, K K; Podsakoff, G; Forman, S J; Chatterjee, S

    1996-07-15

    Gene transfer vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) appear promising because of their high transduction frequencies regardless of cell cycle status and ability to integrate into chromosomal DNA. We tested AAV-mediated gene transfer into a panel of human bone marrow or umbilical cord-derived CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells, using vectors encoding several transgenes under the control of viral and cellular promoters. Gene transfer was evaluated by (1) chromosomal integration of vector sequences and (2) analysis of transgene expression. Southern hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of transduced CD34 genomic DNA showed the presence of integrated vector sequences in chromosomal DNA in a portion of transduced cells and showed that integrated vector sequences were replicated along with cellular DNA during mitosis. Transgene expression in transduced CD34 cells in suspension cultures and in myeloid colonies differentiating in vitro from transduced CD34 cells approximated that predicted by the multiplicity of transduction. This was true in CD34 cells from different donors, regardless of the transgene or selective pressure. Comparisons of CD34 cell transduction either before or after cytokine stimulation showed similar gene transfer frequencies. Our findings suggest that AAV transduction of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells is efficient, can lead to stable integration in a population of transduced cells, and may therefore provide the basis for safe and efficient ex vivo gene therapy of the hematopoietic system.

  17. Adeno-associated virus vectors can be efficiently produced without helper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, T; Elliger, S; Elliger, C; Podsakoff, G; Villarreal, L; Kurtzman, G J; Iwaki, Y; Colosi, P

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop an efficient method for the production of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors in the absence of helper virus. The adenovirus regions that mediate AAV vector replication were identified and assembled into a helper plasmid. These included the VA, E2A and E4 regions. When this helper plasmid was cotransfected into 293 cells, along with plasmids encoding the AAV vector, and rep and cap genes, AAV vector was produced as efficiently as when using adenovirus infection as a source of help. CMV-driven constructs expressing the E4orf6 and the 72-M(r), E2A proteins were able to functionally replace the E4 and E2A regions, respectively. Therefore the minimum set of genes required to produce AAV helper activity equivalent to that provided by adenovirus infection consists of, or is a subset of, the following genes: the E4orf6 gene, the 72-M(r), E2A protein gene, the VA RNA genes and the E1 region. AAV vector preparations made with adenovirus and by the helper virus-free method were essentially indistinguishable with respect to particle density, particle to infectivity ratio, capsimer ratio and efficiency of muscle transduction in vivo. Only AAV vector preparations made by the helper virus-free method were not reactive with anti-adenovirus sera.

  18. Efficient gene transfer into nondividing cells by adeno-associated virus-based vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, G; Wong, K K; Chatterjee, S

    1994-09-01

    Gene transfer vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) are emerging as highly promising for use in human gene therapy by virtue of their characteristics of wide host range, high transduction efficiencies, and lack of cytopathogenicity. To better define the biology of AAV-mediated gene transfer, we tested the ability of an AAV vector to efficiently introduce transgenes into nonproliferating cell populations. Cells were induced into a nonproliferative state by treatment with the DNA synthesis inhibitors fluorodeoxyuridine and aphidicolin or by contact inhibition induced by confluence and serum starvation. Cells in logarithmic growth or DNA synthesis arrest were transduced with vCWR:beta gal, an AAV-based vector encoding beta-galactosidase under Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat promoter control. Under each condition tested, vCWR:beta Gal expression in nondividing cells was at least equivalent to that in actively proliferating cells, suggesting that mechanisms for virus attachment, nuclear transport, virion uncoating, and perhaps some limited second-strand synthesis of AAV vectors were present in nondividing cells. Southern hybridization analysis of vector sequences from cells transduced while in DNA synthetic arrest and expanded after release of the block confirmed ultimate integration of the vector genome into cellular chromosomal DNA. These findings may provide the basis for the use of AAV-based vectors for gene transfer into quiescent cell populations such as totipotent hematopoietic stem cells.

  19. Effects of immunosuppression on circulating adeno-associated virus capsid-specific T cells in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzych, Elizabeth M; Li, Hua; Yin, Xiangfan; Liu, Qin; Wu, Te-Lang; Podsakoff, Gregory M; High, Katherine A; Levine, Matthew H; Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2013-04-01

    In humans adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene transfer is followed by expansion of AAV capsid-specific T cells, evidence of cell damage, and loss of transgene product expression, implicating immunological rejection of vector-transduced cells, which may be prevented by immunosuppressive drugs. We undertook this study to assess the effect of immunosuppression (IS) used for organ transplantation on immune responses to AAV capsid antigens. Recipients of liver or kidney transplants were tested before and 4 weeks after induction of IS in comparison with matched samples from healthy human adults and an additional cohort with comorbid conditions similar to those of the transplant patients. Our data show that transplant patients and comorbid control subjects have markedly higher frequencies of circulating AAV capsid-specific T cells compared with healthy adults. On average, IS resulted in a reduction of AAV-specific CD4⁺ T cells, whereas numbers of circulating CD8⁺ effector and central memory T cells tended to increase. Independent of the type of transplant or the IS regimens, the trend of AAV capsid-specific T cell responses after drug treatment varied; in some patients responses were unaffected whereas others showed decreases or even pronounced increases, casting doubt on the usefulness of prophylactic IS for AAV vector recipients.

  20. Efficient photoreceptor-targeted gene expression in vivo by recombinant adeno-associated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, J G; Zolotukhin, S; Vaquero, M I; LaVail, M M; Muzyczka, N; Hauswirth, W W

    1997-06-24

    We describe a general approach for achieving efficient and cell type-specific expression of exogenous genes in photoreceptor cells of the mammalian retina. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors were used to transfer the bacterial lacZ gene or a synthetic green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) to mouse or rat retinas after injection into the subretinal space. Using a proximal murine rod opsin promoter (+86 to -385) to drive expression, reporter gene product was found exclusively in photoreceptors, not in any other retinal cell type or in the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium. GFP-expressing photoreceptors typically encompassed 10-20% of the total retinal area after a single 2-microl injection. Photoreceptors were transduced with nearly 100% efficiency in the region directly surrounding the injection site. We estimate approximately 2.5 million photoreceptors were transduced as a result of the single subretinal inoculation. This level of gene transfer and expression suggests the feasibility of genetic therapy for retinal disease. The gfp-containing rAAV stock was substantially free of both adenovirus and wild-type AAV, as judged by plaque assay and infectious center assay, respectively. Thus, highly purified, helper virus-free rAAV vectors can achieve high-frequency tissue-specific transduction of terminally differentiated, postmitotic photoreceptor cells.

  1. Adeno-associated viral vector-induced overexpression of neuropeptide Y Y2 receptors in the hippocampus suppresses seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldbye, David Paul Drucker; Ängehagen, Mikael; Gøtzsche, Casper René

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors overexpressing neuropeptide Y in the hippocampus exerts seizure-suppressant effects in rodent epilepsy models and is currently considered for clinical application in patients with intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Seizure...... recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors. In two temporal lobe epilepsy models, electrical kindling and kainate-induced seizures, vector-based transduction of Y2 receptor complementary DNA in the hippocampus of adult rats exerted seizure-suppressant effects. Simultaneous overexpression of Y2...... and neuropeptide Y had a more pronounced seizure-suppressant effect. These results demonstrate that overexpression of Y2 receptors (alone or in combination with neuropeptide Y) could be an alternative strategy for epilepsy treatment....

  2. Protection from the toxicity of diisopropylfluorophosphate by adeno-associated virus expressing acetylcholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bin; Duysen, Ellen G.; Poluektova, Larisa Y.; Murrin, L. Charles; Lockridge, Oksana

    2006-01-01

    Organophosphorus esters (OP) are highly toxic chemicals used as pesticides and nerve agents. Their acute toxicity is attributed to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) in nerve synapses. Our goal was to find a new therapeutic for protection against OP toxicity. We used a gene therapy vector, adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV-2), to deliver murine AChE to AChE-/- mice that have no endogenous AChE activity. The vector encoded the most abundant form of AChE: exons 2, 3, 4, and 6. Two-day old animals, with an immature immune system, were injected. AChE delivered intravenously was expressed up to 5 months in plasma, liver, heart, and lung, at 5-15% of the level in untreated wild-type mice. A few mice formed antibodies, but antibodies did not block AChE activity. The plasma AChE was a mixture of dimers and tetramers. AChE delivered intramuscularly had 40-fold higher activity levels than in wild-type muscle. None of the AChE was collagen-tailed. No retrograde transport through the motor neurons to the central nervous system was detected. AChE delivered intrastriatally assembled into tetramers. In brain, the AAV-2 vector transduced neurons, but not astrocytes and microglia. Vector-treated AChE-/- mice lived longer than saline-treated controls. AChE-/- mice were protected from diisopropylfluorophosphate-induced respiratory failure when the vector was delivered intravenously, but not intrastriatally. Since vector-treated animals had no AChE activity in diaphragm muscle, protection from respiratory failure came from AChE in other tissues. We conclude that AChE scavenged OP and in this way protected the activity of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3.1.1.8) in motor endplates

  3. A comparative analysis of constitutive promoters located in adeno-associated viral vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lkhagvasuren Damdindorj

    Full Text Available The properties of constitutive promoters within adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors have not yet been fully characterized. In this study, AAV vectors, in which enhanced GFP expression was directed by one of the six constitutive promoters (human β-actin, human elongation factor-1α, chicken β-actin combined with cytomegalovirus early enhancer, cytomegalovirus (CMV, simian virus 40, and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase, were constructed and introduced into the HCT116, DLD-1, HT-1080, and MCF-10A cell lines. Quantification of GFP signals in infected cells demonstrated that the CMV promoter produced the highest GFP expression in the six promoters and maintained relatively high GFP expression for up to eight weeks after infection of HCT116, DLD-1, and HT-1080. Exogenous human CDKN2A gene expression was also introduced into DLD-1 and MCF-10A in a similar pattern by using AAV vectors bearing the human β-actin and the CMV promoters. The six constitutive promoters were subsequently placed upstream of the neomycin resistance gene within AAV vectors, and HCT116, DLD-1, and HT-1080 were infected with the resulting vectors. Of the six promoters, the CMV promoter produced the largest number of G418-resistant colonies in all three cell lines. Because AAV vectors have been frequently used as a platform to construct targeting vectors that permit gene editing in human cell lines, we lastly infected the three cell lines with AAV-based targeting vectors against the human PIGA gene in which one of the six promoters regulate the neomycin resistance gene. This assay revealed that the CMV promoter led to the lowest PIGA gene targeting efficiency in the investigated promoters. These results provide a clue to the identification of constitutive promoters suitable to express exogenous genes with AAV vectors, as well as those helpful to conduct efficient gene targeting using AAV-based targeting vectors in human cell lines.

  4. Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors and Stem Cells: Friends or Foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nolan; Song, Liujiang; Kollu, Nageswara R; Hirsch, Matthew L

    2017-06-01

    The infusion of healthy stem cells into a patient-termed "stem-cell therapy"-has shown great promise for the treatment of genetic and non-genetic diseases, including mucopolysaccharidosis type 1, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, numerous immunodeficiency disorders, and aplastic anemia. Stem cells for cell therapy can be collected from the patient (autologous) or collected from another "healthy" individual (allogeneic). The use of allogenic stem cells is accompanied with the potentially fatal risk that the transplanted donor T cells will reject the patient's cells-a process termed "graft-versus-host disease." Therefore, the use of autologous stem cells is preferred, at least from the immunological perspective. However, an obvious drawback is that inherently as "self," they contain the disease mutation. As such, autologous cells for use in cell therapies often require genetic "correction" (i.e., gene addition or editing) prior to cell infusion and therefore the requirement for some form of nucleic acid delivery, which sets the stage for the AAV controversy discussed herein. Despite being the most clinically applied gene delivery context to date, unlike other more concerning integrating and non-integrating vectors such as retroviruses and adenovirus, those based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) have not been employed in the clinic. Furthermore, published data regarding AAV vector transduction of stem cells are inconsistent in regards to vector transduction efficiency, while the pendulum swings far in the other direction with demonstrations of AAV vector-induced toxicity in undifferentiated cells. The variation present in the literature examining the transduction efficiency of AAV vectors in stem cells may be due to numerous factors, including inconsistencies in stem-cell collection, cell culture, vector preparation, and/or transduction conditions. This review summarizes the controversy surrounding AAV vector transduction of stem cells, hopefully setting the

  5. Defective-interfering particles of the human parvovirus adeno-associated virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, C.A.; Myers, M.W.; Risin, D.L.; Carter, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    We have previously shown that adeno-associated virus (AAV) grown in KB cells with a helper adenovirus, produced several classes of particles defined by their buoyant density in CsCl. The predominant density classes were referred to as AAV(1.45), AAV(1.41), AAV (1.35), and AAV(1.32), respectively, where the density of the particle was written in the parentheses. The AAV(1.45) and AAV(1.41) particles which contained standard genomes were the only infectious AAV these infectious AAV particles exhibited autointerference. The ligh-density AAV(1.35) and (1.32) particles contained aberrant (deleted and/or snap-back) genomes. We report here experiments which show that the light-density AAV particles were noninfectious but interfered with the replication of AAV(1.41). The interference was intracellular and resulted in inhibition of synthesis of standard (14.5S) AAV genomes. In some cases there was also a concomitant increase in synthesis of aberrant, shorter AAV DNA. The inhibitory activity of the light-density particles was abolished by uv irradiation. These results show that the population of light AAV particles contained DI particles. The observed autointerference of AAV(1.45) or AAV(1.41) virus is postulated to be due to AAV DI particles. Replication of AAV DI genomes appeared to require the presence of replicating, standard AAV genomes. This is interpreted to mean that progeny strand replication of AAV requires an AAV-specified product, presumably the AAV capsid protein. In contrast to standard, infectious AAV, the AAV DI particles alone do not inhibit replication of the helper adenovirus

  6. Unrestricted Hepatocyte Transduction with Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 8 Vectors in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Hiroyuki; Fuess, Sally; Storm, Theresa A.; Muramatsu, Shin-ichi; Nara, Yuko; Kay, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors can mediate long-term stable transduction in various target tissues. However, with rAAV serotype 2 (rAAV2) vectors, liver transduction is confined to only a small portion of hepatocytes even after administration of extremely high vector doses. In order to investigate whether rAAV vectors of other serotypes exhibit similar restricted liver transduction, we performed a dose-response study by injecting mice with β-galactosidase-expressing rAAV1 and rAAV8 vectors via the portal vein. The rAAV1 vector showed a blunted dose-response similar to that of rAAV2 at high doses, while the rAAV8 vector dose-response remained unchanged at any dose and ultimately could transduce all the hepatocytes at a dose of 7.2 × 1012 vector genomes/mouse without toxicity. This indicates that all hepatocytes have the ability to process incoming single-stranded vector genomes into duplex DNA. A single tail vein injection of the rAAV8 vector was as efficient as portal vein injection at any dose. In addition, intravascular administration of the rAAV8 vector at a high dose transduced all the skeletal muscles throughout the body, including the diaphragm, the entire cardiac muscle, and substantial numbers of cells in the pancreas, smooth muscles, and brain. Thus, rAAV8 is a robust vector for gene transfer to the liver and provides a promising research tool for delivering genes to various target organs. In addition, the rAAV8 vector may offer a potential therapeutic agent for various diseases affecting nonhepatic tissues, but great caution is required for vector spillover and tight control of tissue-specific gene expression. PMID:15596817

  7. Novel strategy for generation and titration of recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Ai-Li; Liu, Pu-Ste; Wu, Chao-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have many advantages for gene therapeutic applications compared with other vector systems. Several methods that use plasmids or helper viruses have been reported for the generation of rAAV vectors. Unfortunately, the preparation of large-scale rAAV stocks is labor-intensive. Moreover, the biological titration of rAAV is still difficult, which may limit its preclinical and clinical applications. For this study, we developed a novel strategy to generate and biologically titrate rAAV vectors. A recombinant pseudorabies virus (PrV) with defects in its gD, gE, and thymidine kinase genes was engineered to express the AAV rep and cap genes, yielding PS virus, which served as a packaging and helper virus for the generation of rAAV vectors. PS virus was useful not only for generating high-titer rAAV vectors by cotransfection with an rAAV vector plasmid, but also for amplifying rAAV stocks. Notably, the biological titration of rAAV vectors was also feasible when cells were coinfected with rAAV and PS virus. Based on this strategy, we produced an rAAV that expresses prothymosin alpha (ProT). Expression of the ProT protein in vitro and in vivo mediated by rAAV/ProT gene transfer was detected by immunohistochemistry and a bioassay. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the PrV vector-based system is useful for generating rAAV vectors carrying various transgenes.

  8. Efficient Capsid Antigen Presentation From Adeno-Associated Virus Empty Virions In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xiaolei; Earley, Lauriel Freya; He, Yi; Chen, Xiaojing; Hall, Nikita Elexa; Samulski, Richard Jude; Li, Chengwen

    2018-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been successfully applied in clinical trials for hemophilic patients. Although promising, the clinical results suggest that the capsid-specific CD8+T cell response has a negative effect on therapeutic success. In an in vitro analysis using an engineered AAV virus carrying immune-dominant SIINFEKL peptide in the capsid backbone, we have previously demonstrated that capsid antigen presentation from full (genome containing) AAV capsids requires endosome escape and is proteasome dependent and that no capsid antigen presentation is induced from empty virions. In the present study, we examined capsid antigen presentation from administration of empty virions in animal models. In wild-type mice, similar to AAV full particles, capsid antigen presentation from AAV empty virion infection was dose dependent, and the kinetics studies showed that antigen presentation was detected from 2 to 40 days after AAV empty virion administration. In the transporter associated with antigen processing 1 deficient (TAP-/-) mice, capsid antigen presentation was inhibited from both AAV full and empty virions, but higher inhibition was achieved from AAV full particle administration than that from empty virions. This indicates that the pathway of capsid antigen presentation from AAV transduction is dependent on proteasome-mediated degradation of AAV capsids (mainly for full particles) and that the endosomal pathway may also play a role in antigen presentation from empty particles but not full virions. The capsid antigen presentation efficiency from AAV preparations was positively correlated with the amount of empty virions contaminated with full particles. Collectively, the results indicate that contamination of AAV empty virions induces efficient antigen presentation in vivo and the mechanism of capsid antigen presentation from empty virions involves both endosomal and proteasomal pathways. The elucidation of capsid antigen presentation from AAV empty

  9. Single Amino Acid Modification of Adeno-Associated Virus Capsid Changes Transduction and Humoral Immune Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diprimio, Nina; Bowles, Dawn E.; Hirsch, Matthew L.; Monahan, Paul E.; Asokan, Aravind; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2012-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have the potential to promote long-term gene expression. Unfortunately, humoral immunity restricts patient treatment and in addition provides an obstacle to the potential option of vector readministration. In this study, we describe a comprehensive characterization of the neutralizing antibody (NAb) response to AAV type 1 (AAV1) through AAV5 both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrated that NAbs generated from one AAV type are unable to neutralize the transduction of other types. We extended this observation by demonstrating that a rationally engineered, muscle-tropic AAV2 mutant containing 5 amino acid substitutions from AAV1 displayed a NAb profile different from those of parental AAV2 and AAV1. Here we found that a single insertion of Thr from AAV1 into AAV2 capsid at residue 265 preserved high muscle transduction, while also changing the immune profile. To better understand the role of Thr insertion at position 265, we replaced all 20 amino acids and evaluated both muscle transduction and the NAb response. Of these variants, 8 mutants induced higher muscle transduction than AAV2. Additionally, three classes of capsid NAb immune profile were defined based on the ability to inhibit transduction from AAV2 or mutants. While no relationship was found between transduction, amino acid properties, and NAb titer or its cross-reactivity, these studies map a critical capsid motif involved in all steps of AAV infectivity. Our results suggest that AAV types can be utilized not only as templates to generate mutants with enhanced transduction efficiency but also as substrates for repeat administration. PMID:22593151

  10. Process optimization of large-scale production of recombinant adeno-associated vectors using dielectric spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete, Alejandro; Esteban, Geoffrey; Kotin, Robert M

    2007-09-01

    A well-characterized manufacturing process for the large-scale production of recombinant adeno-associated vectors (rAAV) for gene therapy applications is required to meet current and future demands for pre-clinical and clinical studies and potential commercialization. Economic considerations argue in favor of suspension culture-based production. Currently, the only feasible method for large-scale rAAV production utilizes baculovirus expression vectors and insect cells in suspension cultures. To maximize yields and achieve reproducibility between batches, online monitoring of various metabolic and physical parameters is useful for characterizing early stages of baculovirus-infected insect cells. In this study, rAAVs were produced at 40-l scale yielding ~1 x 10(15) particles. During the process, dielectric spectroscopy was performed by real time scanning in radio frequencies between 300 kHz and 10 MHz. The corresponding permittivity values were correlated with the rAAV production. Both infected and uninfected reached a maximum value; however, only infected cell cultures permittivity profile reached a second maximum value. This effect was correlated with the optimal harvest time for rAAV production. Analysis of rAAV indicated the harvesting time around 48 h post-infection (hpi), and 72 hpi produced similar quantities of biologically active rAAV. Thus, if operated continuously, the 24-h reduction in the production process of rAAV gives sufficient time for additional 18 runs a year corresponding to an extra production of ~2 x 10(16) particles. As part of large-scale optimization studies, this new finding will facilitate the bioprocessing scale-up of rAAV and other bioproducts.

  11. Structural Studies of Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 8 Capsid Transitions Associated with Endosomal Trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Hyun-Joo; Gurda, Brittney L.; McKenna, Robert; Potter, Mark; Byrne, Barry; Salganik, Maxim; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis (Florida)

    2012-09-17

    The single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) parvoviruses enter host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, and infection depends on processing in the early to late endosome as well as in the lysosome prior to nuclear entry for replication. However, the mechanisms of capsid endosomal processing, including the effects of low pH, are poorly understood. To gain insight into the structural transitions required for this essential step in infection, the crystal structures of empty and green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene-packaged adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) have been determined at pH values of 6.0, 5.5, and 4.0 and then at pH 7.5 after incubation at pH 4.0, mimicking the conditions encountered during endocytic trafficking. While the capsid viral protein (VP) topologies of all the structures were similar, significant amino acid side chain conformational rearrangements were observed on (i) the interior surface of the capsid under the icosahedral 3-fold axis near ordered nucleic acid density that was lost concomitant with the conformational change as pH was reduced and (ii) the exterior capsid surface close to the icosahedral 2-fold depression. The 3-fold change is consistent with DNA release from an ordering interaction on the inside surface of the capsid at low pH values and suggests transitions that likely trigger the capsid for genome uncoating. The surface change results in disruption of VP-VP interface interactions and a decrease in buried surface area between VP monomers. This disruption points to capsid destabilization which may (i) release VP1 amino acids for its phospholipase A2 function for endosomal escape and nuclear localization signals for nuclear targeting and (ii) trigger genome uncoating.

  12. Recombination and population mosaic of a multifunctional viral gene, adeno-associated virus cap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination is a dominant force in evolution and results in genetic mosaics. To detect evidence of recombination events and assess the biological significance of genetic mosaics, genome sequences for various viral populations of reasonably large size are now available in the GenBank. We studied a multi-functional viral gene, the adeno-associated virus (AAV cap gene, which codes for three capsid proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3. VP1-3 share a common C-terminal domain corresponding to VP3, which forms the viral core structure, while the VP1 unique N-terminal part contains an enzymatic domain with phospholipase A2 activity. Our recombinant detection program (RecI revealed five novel recombination events, four of which have their cross-over points in the N-terminal, VP1 and VP2 unique region. Comparison of phylogenetic trees for different cap gene regions confirmed discordant phylogenies for the recombinant sequences. Furthermore, differences in the phylogenetic tree structures for the VP1 unique (VP1u region and the rest of cap highlighted the mosaic nature of cap gene in the AAV population: two dominant forms of VP1u sequences were identified and these forms are linked to diverse sequences in the rest of cap gene. This observation together with the finding of frequent recombination in the VP1 and 2 unique regions suggests that this region is a recombination hot spot. Recombination events in this region preserve protein blocks of distinctive functions and contribute to convergence in VP1u and divergence of the rest of cap. Additionally the possible biological significance of two dominant VP1u forms is inferred.

  13. The next step in gene delivery: molecular engineering of adeno-associated virus serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhui; Faust, Susan M; Rabinowitz, Joseph E

    2011-05-01

    Delivery is at the heart of gene therapy. Viral DNA delivery systems are asked to avoid the immune system, transduce specific target cell types while avoiding other cell types, infect dividing and non-dividing cells, insert their cargo within the host genome without mutagenesis or to remain episomal, and efficiently express transgenes for a substantial portion of a lifespan. These sought-after features cannot be associated with a single delivery system, or can they? The Adeno-associated virus family of gene delivery vehicles has proven to be highly malleable. Pseudotyping, using AAV serotype 2 terminal repeats to generate designer shells capable of transducing selected cell types, enables the packaging of common genomes into multiple serotypes virions to directly compare gene expression and tropism. In this review the ability to manipulate this virus will be examined from the inside out. The influence of host cell factors and organism biology including the immune response on the molecular fate of the viral genome will be discussed as well as differences in cellular trafficking patterns and uncoating properties that influence serotype transduction. Re-engineering the prototype vector AAV2 using epitope insertion, chemical modification, and molecular evolution not only demonstrated the flexibility of the best-studied serotype, but now also expanded the tool kit for molecular modification of all AAV serotypes. Current AAV research has changed its focus from examination of wild-type AAV biology to the feedback of host cell/organism on the design and development of a new generation of recombinant AAV delivery vehicles. This article is part of a Special Section entitled "Special Section: Cardiovascular Gene Therapy". Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recombinant adeno-associated virus: efficient transduction of the rat VMH and clearance from blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margriet A van Gestel

    Full Text Available To promote the efficient and safe application of adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors as a gene transfer tool in the central nervous system (CNS, transduction efficiency and clearance were studied for serotypes commonly used to transfect distinct areas of the brain. As AAV2 was shown to transduce only small volumes in several brain regions, this study compares the transduction efficiency of three AAV pseudotyped vectors, namely AAV2/1, AAV2/5 and AAV2/8, in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH. No difference was found between AAV2/1 and AAV2/5 in transduction efficiency. Both AAV2/1 and AAV2/5 achieved a higher transduction rate than AAV2/8. One hour after virus administration to the brain, no viral particles could be traced in blood, indicating that no or negligible numbers of virions crossed the blood-brain barrier. In order to investigate survival of AAV in blood, clearance was determined following systemic AAV administration. The half-life of AAV2/1, AAV2/2, AAV2/5 and AAV2/8 was calculated by determining virus clearance rates from blood after systemic injection. The half-life of AAV2/2 was 4.2 minutes, which was significantly lower than the half-lives of AAV2/1, AAV2/5 and AAV2/8. With a half-life of more than 11 hours, AAV2/8 particles remained detectable in blood significantly longer than AAV2/5. We conclude that application of AAV in the CNS is relatively safe as no AAV particles are detectable in blood after injection into the brain. With a half-life of 1.67 hours of AAV2/5, a systemic injection with 1×109 genomic copies of AAV would be fully cleared from blood after 2 days.

  15. Targeted decorin gene therapy delivered with adeno-associated virus effectively retards corneal neovascularization in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv R Mohan

    Full Text Available Decorin, small leucine-rich proteoglycan, has been shown to modulate angiogenesis in nonocular tissues. This study tested a hypothesis that tissue-selective targeted decorin gene therapy delivered to the rabbit stroma with adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5 impedes corneal neovascularization (CNV in vivo without significant side effects. An established rabbit CNV model was used. Targeted decorin gene therapy in the rabbit stroma was delivered with a single topical AAV5 titer (100 µl; 5×10(12 vg/ml application onto the stroma for two minutes after removing corneal epithelium. The levels of CNV were examined with stereomicroscopy, H&E staining, lectin, collagen type IV, CD31 immunocytochemistry and CD31 immunoblotting. Real-time PCR quantified mRNA expression of pro- and anti-angiogenic genes. Corneal health in live animals was monitored with clinical, slit-lamp and optical coherence tomography biomicroscopic examinations. Selective decorin delivery into stroma showed significant 52% (p<0.05, 66% (p<0.001, and 63% (p<0.01 reduction at early (day 5, mid (day 10, and late (day 14 stages of CNV in decorin-delivered rabbit corneas compared to control (no decorin delivered corneas in morphometric analysis. The H&E staining, lectin, collagen type IV, CD31 immunostaining (57-65, p<0.5, and CD31 immunoblotting (62-67%, p<0.05 supported morphometric findings. Quantitative PCR studies demonstrated decorin gene therapy down-regulated expression of VEGF, MCP1 and angiopoietin (pro-angiogenic and up-regulated PEDF (anti-angiogenic genes. The clinical, biomicroscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that AAV5-mediated decorin gene therapy is safe for the cornea. Tissue-targeted AAV5-mediated decorin gene therapy decreases CNV with no major side effects, and could potentially be used for treating patients.

  16. Intra- and inter-subunit disulfide bond formation is nonessential in adeno-associated viral capsids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh Pulicherla

    Full Text Available The capsid proteins of adeno-associated viruses (AAV have five conserved cysteine residues. Structural analysis of AAV serotype 2 reveals that Cys289 and Cys361 are located adjacent to each other within each monomer, while Cys230 and Cys394 are located on opposite edges of each subunit and juxtaposed at the pentamer interface. The Cys482 residue is located at the base of a surface loop within the trimer region. Although plausible based on molecular dynamics simulations, intra- or inter-subunit disulfides have not been observed in structural studies. In the current study, we generated a panel of Cys-to-Ser mutants to interrogate the potential for disulfide bond formation in AAV capsids. The C289S, C361S and C482S mutants were similar to wild type AAV with regard to titer and transduction efficiency. However, AAV capsid protein subunits with C230S or C394S mutations were prone to proteasomal degradation within the host cells. Proteasomal inhibition partially blocked degradation of mutant capsid proteins, but failed to rescue infectious virions. While these results suggest that the Cys230/394 pair is critical, a C394V mutant was found viable, but not the corresponding C230V mutant. Although the exact nature of the structural contribution(s of Cys230 and Cys394 residues to AAV capsid formation remains to be determined, these results support the notion that disulfide bond formation within the Cys289/361 or Cys230/394 pair appears to be nonessential. These studies represent an important step towards understanding the role of inter-subunit interactions that drive AAV capsid assembly.

  17. Synthetic scaffold coating with adeno-associated virus encoding BMP2 to promote endogenous bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Kenneth M; Boerckel, Joel D; Stevens, Hazel Y; Diab, Tamim; Kolambkar, Yash M; Takahata, Masahiko; Schwarz, Edward M; Guldberg, Robert E

    2012-03-01

    Biomaterial scaffolds functionalized to stimulate endogenous repair mechanisms via the incorporation of osteogenic cues offer a potential alternative to bone grafting for the treatment of large bone defects. We first quantified the ability of a self-complementary adeno-associated viral vector encoding bone morphogenetic protein 2 (scAAV2.5-BMP2) to enhance human stem cell osteogenic differentiation in vitro. In two-dimensional culture, scAAV2.5-BMP2-transduced human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) displayed significant increases in BMP2 production and alkaline phosphatase activity compared with controls. hMSCs and human amniotic-fluid-derived stem cells (hAFS cells) seeded on scAAV2.5-BMP2-coated three-dimensional porous polymer Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds also displayed significant increases in BMP2 production compared with controls during 12 weeks of culture, although only hMSC-seeded scaffolds displayed significantly increased mineral formation. PCL scaffolds coated with scAAV2.5-BMP2 were implanted into critically sized immunocompromised rat femoral defects, both with or without pre-seeding of hMSCs, representing ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy treatments, respectively. After 12 weeks, defects treated with acellular scAAV2.5-BMP2-coated scaffolds displayed increased bony bridging and had significantly higher bone ingrowth and mechanical properties compared with controls, whereas defects treated with scAAV2.5-BMP2 scaffolds pre-seeded with hMSCs failed to display significant differences relative to controls. When pooled, defect treatment with scAAV2.5-BMP2-coated scaffolds, both with or without inclusion of pre-seeded hMSCs, led to significant increases in defect mineral formation at all time points and increased mechanical properties compared with controls. This study thus presents a novel acellular bone-graft-free endogenous repair therapy for orthotopic tissue-engineered bone regeneration.

  18. Targeted CNS delivery using human MiniPromoters and demonstrated compatibility with adeno-associated viral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles N de Leeuw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical for human gene therapy is the availability of small promoters tools to drive gene expression in a highly specific and reproducible manner. We tackled this challenge by developing human DNA MiniPromoters (MiniPs using computational biology and phylogenetic conservation. MiniPs were tested in mouse as single-copy knock-ins at the Hprt locus on the X chromosome and evaluated for lacZ reporter expression in central nervous system (CNS and non–CNS tissue. Eighteen novel MiniPs driving expression in mouse brain were identified, 2 MiniPs for driving pan-neuronal expression and 17 MiniPs for the mouse eye. Key areas of therapeutic interest were represented in this set: the cerebral cortex, embryonic hypothalamus, spinal cord, bipolar and ganglion cells of the retina, and skeletal muscle. We also demonstrated that three retinal ganglion cell MiniPs exhibit similar cell type specificity when delivered via adeno-associated virus vectors intravitreally. We conclude that our methodology and characterization has resulted in desirable expression characteristics that are intrinsic to the MiniPromoter, not dictated by copy-number effects or genomic location, and results in constructs predisposed to success in adeno-associated virus. These MiniPs are immediately applicable for preclinical studies toward gene therapy in humans and are publicly available to facilitate basic and clinical research, and human gene therapy.

  19. Adeno-associated virus Rep-mediated targeting of integrase-defective retroviral vector DNA circles into human chromosome 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shuohao; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Ito, Akira; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is capable of targeted integration in human cells. ► Integrase-defective retroviral vector (IDRV) enables a circular DNA delivery. ► A targeted integration system of IDRV DNA using the AAV integration mechanism. ► Targeted IDRV integration ameliorates the safety concerns for retroviral vectors. -- Abstract: Retroviral vectors have been employed in clinical trials for gene therapy owing to their relative large packaging capacity, alterable cell tropism, and chromosomal integration for stable transgene expression. However, uncontrollable integrations of transgenes are likely to cause safety issues, such as insertional mutagenesis. A targeted transgene integration system for retroviral vectors, therefore, is a straightforward way to address the insertional mutagenesis issue. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is the only known virus capable of targeted integration in human cells. In the presence of AAV Rep proteins, plasmids possessing the p5 integration efficiency element (p5IEE) can be integrated into the AAV integration site (AAVS1) in the human genome. In this report, we describe a system that can target the circular DNA derived from non-integrating retroviral vectors to the AAVS1 site by utilizing the Rep/p5IEE integration mechanism. Our results showed that after G418 selection 30% of collected clones had retroviral DNA targeted at the AAVS1 site.

  20. Construction of adeno-associated virus packaging plasmids and cells that directly select for AAV helper functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteway, Alistair; Deru, Wale; Prentice, H Grant; Anderson, Robert

    2003-12-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 (rAAV) has promise for use as a gene therapy vector. Potential problems in the production of rAAV stocks are both the limited amount of recombinant virus that is produced by traditional methods and the possibility of wild-type replication competent adeno-associated virus (wtAAV) contamination. The presence of these contaminants is largely dependent upon the helper plasmid used. Whilst wtAAV is not a pathogen, the presence of these contaminants is undesirable as they may affect experiments concerning the biology of rAAV. Additionally as protocols using rAAV with altered tropism are becoming more prevalent, it is important that no recombination be permitted that may cause the creation of a replication competent AAV with modified (targeting) capsids. Many experimental protocols require the generation of large amounts of high titre rAAV stocks. We describe the production of several AAV helper plasmids and cell lines designed to achieve this goal. These plasmids possess split AAV rep and cap genes to eliminate the production of wtAAV and they possess a selection mechanism which is operatively linked to expression from the AAV cap gene. This allows positive selection of those cells expressing the highest level of the structural capsid proteins and therefore those cells which yield the highest amount of rAAV.

  1. Lipofection of purified adeno-associated virus Rep68 protein: toward a chromosome-targeting nonviral particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamartina, S; Roscilli, G; Rinaudo, D; Delmastro, P; Toniatti, C

    1998-09-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) integrates very efficiently into a specific site (AAVS1) of human chromosome 19. Two elements of the AAV genome are sufficient: the inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) and the Rep78 or Rep68 protein. The incorporation of the AAV integration machinery in nonviral delivery systems is of great interest for gene therapy. We demonstrate that purified recombinant Rep68 protein is functionally active when directly delivered into human cells by using the polycationic liposome Lipofectamine, promoting the rescue-replication of a codelivered ITR-flanked cassette in adenovirus-infected cells and its site-specific integration in noninfected cells. The sequencing of cloned virus-host DNA junctions confirmed that lipofected Rep68 protein triggers site-specific integration at the same sites in chromosome 19 already characterized in cells latently infected with AAV.

  2. Cre Activated and Inactivated Recombinant Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors for Neuronal Anatomical Tracing or Activity Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Arpiar; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2015-07-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) transcriptionally activated by Cre recombinase (Cre-On) are powerful tools for determining the anatomy and function of genetically defined neuronal types in transgenic Cre driver mice. Here we describe how rAAVs transcriptionally inactivated by Cre (Cre-Off) can be used in conjunction with Cre-On rAAVs or genomic Cre-reporter alleles to study brain circuits. Intracranial injection of Cre-On/Cre-Off rAAVs into spatially intermingled Cre(+) and Cre(-) neurons allows these populations to be differentially labeled or manipulated within individual animals. This comparison helps define the unique properties of Cre(+) neurons, highlighting the specialized role they play in their constituent brain circuits. This protocol touches on the conceptual and experimental background of Cre-Off rAAV systems, including caveats and methods of validation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Adeno-associated viral vector-mediated neurotrophin gene transfer in the injured adult rat spinal cord improves hind-limb function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blits, B; Oudega, M.; Boer, G J; Bartlett Bunge, M; Verhaagen, J

    2003-01-01

    To foster axonal growth from a Schwann cell bridge into the caudal spinal cord, spinal cells caudal to the implant were transduced with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors encoding for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (AAV-NT-3). Control rats received AAV vectors encoding

  4. Adeno-associated viral vector serotypes 1 and 5 targeted to the neonatal rat and pig striatum induce widespread transgene expression in the forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Stott, Simon R W; Mattsson, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    Viral vector-mediated gene transfer has emerged as a powerful means to target transgene expression in the central nervous system. Here we characterized the efficacy of serotypes 1 and 5 recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) after stereotaxic...

  5. Safe and bodywide muscle transduction in young adult Duchenne muscular dystrophy dogs with adeno-associated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yongping; Pan, Xiufang; Hakim, Chady H; Kodippili, Kasun; Zhang, Keqing; Shin, Jin-Hong; Yang, Hsiao T; McDonald, Thomas; Duan, Dongsheng

    2015-10-15

    The ultimate goal of muscular dystrophy gene therapy is to treat all muscles in the body. Global gene delivery was demonstrated in dystrophic mice more than a decade ago using adeno-associated virus (AAV). However, translation to affected large mammals has been challenging. The only reported attempt was performed in newborn Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) dogs. Unfortunately, AAV injection resulted in growth delay, muscle atrophy and contracture. Here we report safe and bodywide AAV delivery in juvenile DMD dogs. Three ∼2-m-old affected dogs received intravenous injection of a tyrosine-engineered AAV-9 reporter or micro-dystrophin (μDys) vector at the doses of 1.92-6.24 × 10(14) viral genome particles/kg under transient or sustained immune suppression. DMD dogs tolerated injection well and their growth was not altered. Hematology and blood biochemistry were unremarkable. No adverse reactions were observed. Widespread muscle transduction was seen in skeletal muscle, the diaphragm and heart for at least 4 months (the end of the study). Nominal expression was detected in internal organs. Improvement in muscle histology was observed in μDys-treated dogs. In summary, systemic AAV gene transfer is safe and efficient in young adult dystrophic large mammals. This may translate to bodywide gene therapy in pediatric patients in the future. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Sendai virosomal infusion of an adeno-associated virus-derived construct containing neuropeptide Y into primary rat brain cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P; de Fiebre, C M; Millard, W J; Elmstrom, K; Gao, Y; Meyer, E M

    1995-05-05

    A novel neuronal gene-delivery system was investigated in primary neuron-enriched cultures with respect to driving the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY). This delivery system consists of an adeno-associated virus-derived (AAV) plasmid, pJDT95npy, encapsulated in reconstituted Sendai virosomes. pJDT95npy contains full length rat NPY cDNA inserted downstream from the P40 promoter in a cap-gene deleted AAV-derived construct. The rep-sequences under control of the P5 and P19 promoters are intact. Virosomally encapsulated pJDT95npy drove the expression of NPY mRNAs, predominantly by P40. Total cellular NPY immunoreactivity and release in the presence of depolarization increased following pJDT95npy-transfection. Neither empty virosomes nor virosomes containing pJDT95 affected NPY mRNA expression or immunoreactivity. This study demonstrates that an AAV-derived plasmid can drive exogenous gene expression in intact neurons after infusion by Sendai virosomes.

  7. An adeno-associated viral vector transduces the rat hypothalamus and amygdala more efficient than a lentiviral vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vreugdenhil Erno

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study compared the transduction efficiencies of an adeno-associated viral (AAV vector, which was pseudotyped with an AAV1 capsid and encoded the green fluorescent protein (GFP, with a lentiviral (LV vector, which was pseudotyped with a VSV-G envelop and encoded the discosoma red fluorescent protein (dsRed, to investigate which viral vector transduced the lateral hypothalamus or the amygdala more efficiently. The LV-dsRed and AAV1-GFP vector were mixed and injected into the lateral hypothalamus or into the amygdala of adult rats. The titers that were injected were 1 × 108 or 1 × 109 genomic copies of AAV1-GFP and 1 × 105 transducing units of LV-dsRed. Results Immunostaining for GFP and dsRed showed that AAV1-GFP transduced significantly more cells than LV-dsRed in both the lateral hypothalamus and the amygdala. In addition, the number of LV particles that were injected can not easily be increased, while the number of AAV1 particles can be increased easily with a factor 100 to 1000. Both viral vectors appear to predominantly transduce neurons. Conclusions This study showed that AAV1 vectors are better tools to overexpress or knockdown genes in the lateral hypothalamus and amygdala of adult rats, since more cells can be transduced with AAV1 than with LV vectors and the titer of AAV1 vectors can easily be increased to transduce the area of interest.

  8. Stable integration of recombinant adeno-associated virus vector genomes after transduction of murine hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zongchao; Zhong, Li; Maina, Njeri; Hu, Zhongbo; Li, Xiaomiao; Chouthai, Nitin S; Bischof, Daniela; Weigel-Van Aken, Kirsten A; Slayton, William B; Yoder, Mervin C; Srivastava, Arun

    2008-03-01

    We previously reported that among single-stranded adeno-associated virus (ssAAV) vectors, serotypes 1 through 5, ssAAV1 is the most efficient in transducing murine hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), but viral second-strand DNA synthesis remains a rate-limiting step. Subsequently, using double-stranded, self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vectors, serotypes 7 through 10, we observed that scAAV7 vectors also transduce murine HSCs efficiently. In the present study, we used scAAV1 and scAAV7 shuttle vectors to transduce HSCs in a murine bone marrow serial transplant model in vivo, which allowed examination of the AAV proviral integration pattern in the mouse genome, as well as recovery and nucleotide sequence analyses of AAV-HSC DNA junction fragments. The proviral genomes were stably integrated, and integration sites were localized to different mouse chromosomes. None of the integration sites was found to be in a transcribed gene, or near a cellular oncogene. None of the animals, monitored for up to 1 year, exhibited pathological abnormalities. Thus, AAV proviral integration-induced risk of oncogenesis was not found in our study, which provides functional confirmation of stable transduction of self-renewing multipotential HSCs by scAAV vectors as well as promise for the use of these vectors in the potential treatment of disorders of the hematopoietic system.

  9. Robust Lentiviral Gene Delivery But Limited Transduction Capacity of Commonly Used Adeno-Associated Viral Serotypes in Xenotransplanted Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Maria; Askou, Anne Louise; Stenderup, Karin; Rosada, Cecilia; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Jensen, Thomas G; Corydon, Thomas J; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm; Aagaard, Lars

    2015-08-01

    Skin is an easily accessible organ, and therapeutic gene transfer to skin remains an attractive alternative for the treatment of skin diseases. Although we have previously documented potent lentiviral gene delivery to human skin, vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) rank among the most promising gene delivery tools for in vivo purposes. Thus, we compared the potential usefulness of various serotypes of recombinant AAV vectors and lentiviral vectors for gene transfer to human skin in a xenotransplanted mouse model. Vector constructs encoding firefly luciferase were packaged in AAV capsids of serotype 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, and 9 and separately administered by intradermal injection in human skin transplants. For all serotypes, live bioimaging demonstrated low levels of transgene expression in the human skin graft, and firefly luciferase expression was observed primarily in neighboring tissue outside of the graft. In contrast, gene delivery by intradermally injected lentiviral vectors was efficient and led to extensive and persistent firefly luciferase expression within the human skin graft only. The study demonstrates the limited capacity of single-stranded AAV vectors of six commonly used serotypes for gene delivery to human skin in vivo.

  10. Effect and Mechanism of Mitomycin C Combined with Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Type II against Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemotherapy drug Mitomycin C (MMC in combination with recombinant adeno-associated virus II (rAAV2 in cancer therapy was investigated, and the mechanism of MMC affecting rAAV2’s bioactivity was also studied. The combination effect was evaluated by the level of GFP and TNF expression in a human glioma cell line, and the mechanism of MMC effects on rAAV mediated gene expression was investigated by AAV transduction related signal molecules. C57 and BALB/c nude mice were injected with rAAV-EGFP or rAAV-TNF alone, or mixed with MMC, to evaluate the effect of MMC on AAV-mediated gene expression and tumor suppression. MMC was shown to improve the infection activity of rAAV2 both in vitro and in vivo. Enhancement was found to be independent of initial rAAV2 receptor binding stage or subsequent second-strand synthesis of target DNA, but was related to cell cycle retardation followed by blocked genome degradation. In vivo injection of MMC combined with rAAV2 into the tumors of the animals resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth. It was thus demonstrated for the first time that MMC could enhance the expression level of the target gene mediated by rAAV2. The combination of rAAV2 and MMC may be a promising strategy in cancer therapy.

  11. Novel adeno-associated viral vector delivering the utrophin gene regulator jazz counteracts dystrophic pathology in mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strimpakos, Georgios; Corbi, Nicoletta; Pisani, Cinzia; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Onori, Annalisa; Luvisetto, Siro; Severini, Cinzia; Gabanella, Francesca; Monaco, Lucia; Mattei, Elisabetta; Passananti, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    Over-expression of the dystrophin-related gene utrophin represents a promising therapeutic strategy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The strategy is based on the ability of utrophin to functionally replace defective dystrophin. We developed the artificial zinc finger transcription factor "Jazz" that up-regulates both the human and mouse utrophin promoter. We observed a significant recovery of muscle strength in dystrophic Jazz-transgenic mdx mice. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of an experimental gene therapy based on the systemic delivery of Jazz gene in mdx mice by adeno-associated virus (AAV). AAV serotype 8 was chosen on the basis of its high affinity for skeletal muscle. Muscle-specific expression of the therapeutic Jazz gene was enhanced by adding the muscle α-actin promoter to the AAV vector (mAAV). Injection of mAAV8-Jazz viral preparations into mdx mice resulted in muscle-specific Jazz expression coupled with up-regulation of the utrophin gene. We show a significant recovery from the dystrophic phenotype in mAAV8-Jazz-treated mdx mice. Histological and physiological analysis revealed a reduction of fiber necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration associated with functional recovery in muscle contractile force. The combination of ZF-ATF technology with the AAV delivery can open a new avenue to obtain a therapeutic strategy for treatment of DMD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Correction of mutant Fanconi anemia gene by homologous recombination in human hematopoietic cells using adeno-associated virus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiboonsukwong, Kittiphong; Ohbayashi, Fumi; Shiiba, Haruka; Aizawa, Emi; Yamashita, Takayuki; Mitani, Kohnosuke

    2009-11-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been shown to correct a variety of mutations in human cells by homologous recombination (HR) at high rates, which can overcome insertional mutagenesis and transgene silencing, two of the major hurdles in conventional gene addition therapy of inherited diseases. We examined an ability of AAV vectors to repair a mutation in human hematopoietic cells by HR. We infected a human B-lymphoblastoid cell line (BCL) derived from a normal subject with an AAV, which disrupts the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase1 (HPRT1) locus, to measure the frequency of AAV-mediated HR in BCL cells. We subsequently constructed an AAV vector encoding the normal sequences from the Fanconi anemia group A (FANCA) locus to correct a mutation in the gene in BCL derived from a FANCA patient. Under optimal conditions, approximately 50% of BCL cells were transduced with an AAV serotype 2 (AAV-2) vector. In FANCA BCL cells, up to 0.016% of infected cells were gene-corrected by HR. AAV-mediated restoration of normal genotypic and phenotypic characteristics in FANCA-mutant cells was confirmed at the DNA, protein and functional levels. The results obtained in the present study indicate that AAV vectors may be applicable for gene correction therapy of inherited hematopoietic disorders.

  13. Intracellular route and biological activity of exogenously delivered Rep proteins from the adeno-associated virus type 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awedikian, Rafi; Francois, Achille; Guilbaud, Mickael; Moullier, Philippe; Salvetti, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The two large Rep proteins, Rep78 and Rep68, from the adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) are required for AAV-2 DNA replication, site-specific integration, and for the regulation of viral gene expression. The study of their activities is dependent on the ability to deliver these proteins to the cells in a time and dose-dependent manner. We evaluated the ability of a protein transduction domain (PTD) derived from the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) TAT protein to drive the cellular internalization of exogenously delivered PTD-fused Rep68 proteins. This analysis unexpectedly revealed that recombinant Rep68 alone, in the absence of any PTD, could be endocytosed by the cells. Rep68 as the chimeric TAT-Rep68 proteins were internalized through endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles and retained in late endosomes/lysosomes with no detectable nuclear localization. In the presence of adenovirus, the Rep proteins could translocate into the nucleus where they displayed a biological activity. These findings support recent reports on the mechanism of entry of TAT-fused proteins and also revealed a new property of Rep68

  14. Next generation of adeno-associated virus 2 vectors: Point mutations in tyrosines lead to high-efficiency transduction at lower doses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Li; Li, Baozheng; Mah, Cathryn S.; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Cooper, Mario; Herzog, Roland W.; Zolotukhin, Irene; Warrington, Kenneth H.; Weigel-Van Aken, Kirsten A.; Hobbs, Jacqueline A.; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Srivastava, Arun

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vectors are in use in several Phase I/II clinical trials, but relatively large vector doses are needed to achieve therapeutic benefits. Large vector doses also trigger an immune response as a significant fraction of the vectors fails to traffic efficiently to the nucleus and is targeted for degradation by the host cell proteasome machinery. We have reported that epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase (EGFR-PTK) signaling negatively...

  15. Hepatorenal correction in murine glycogen storage disease type I with a double-stranded adeno-associated virus vector.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Luo, Xiaoyan

    2011-11-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) is caused by the deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). Long-term complications of GSD-Ia include life-threatening hypoglycemia and proteinuria progressing to renal failure. A double-stranded (ds) adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) vector encoding human G6Pase was pseudotyped with four serotypes, AAV2, AAV7, AAV8, and AAV9, and we evaluated efficacy in 12-day-old G6pase (-\\/-) mice. Hypoglycemia during fasting (plasma glucose <100 mg\\/dl) was prevented for >6 months by the dsAAV2\\/7, dsAAV2\\/8, and dsAAV2\\/9 vectors. Prolonged fasting for 8 hours revealed normalization of blood glucose following dsAAV2\\/9 vector administration at the higher dose. The glycogen content of kidney was reduced by >65% with both the dsAAV2\\/7 and dsAAV2\\/9 vectors, and renal glycogen content was stably reduced between 7 and 12 months of age for the dsAAV2\\/9 vector-treated mice. Every vector-treated group had significantly reduced glycogen content in the liver, in comparison with untreated G6pase (-\\/-) mice. G6Pase was expressed in many renal epithelial cells of with the dsAAV2\\/9 vector for up to 12 months. Albuminuria and renal fibrosis were reduced by the dsAAV2\\/9 vector. Hepatorenal correction in G6pase (-\\/-) mice demonstrates the potential of AAV vectors for the correction of inherited diseases of metabolism.

  16. The adeno-associated virus major regulatory protein Rep78-c-Jun-DNA motif complex modulates AP-1 activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, C. Krishna; Meyers, Craig; Zhan Dejin; You Hong; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Mehta, Jawahar L.; Liu Yong; Hermonat, Paul L.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple epidemiologic studies show that adeno-associated virus (AAV) is negatively associated with cervical cancer (CX CA), a cancer which is positively associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Mechanisms for this correlation may be by Rep78's (AAV's major regulatory protein) ability to bind the HPV-16 p97 promoter DNA and inhibit transcription, to bind and interfere with the functions of the E7 oncoprotein of HPV-16, and to bind a variety of HPV-important cellular transcription factors such as Sp1 and TBP. c-Jun is another important cellular factor intimately linked to the HPV life cycle, as well as keratinocyte differentiation and skin development. Skin is the natural host tissue for both HPV and AAV. In this article it is demonstrated that Rep78 directly interacts with c-Jun, both in vitro and in vivo, as analyzed by Western blot, yeast two-hybrid cDNA, and electrophoretic mobility shift-supershift assay (EMSA supershift). Addition of anti-Rep78 antibodies inhibited the EMSA supershift. Investigating the biological implications of this interaction, Rep78 inhibited the c-Jun-dependent c-jun promoter in transient and stable chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase (CAT) assays. Rep78 also inhibited c-Jun-augmented c-jun promoter as well as the HPV-16 p97 promoter activity (also c-Jun regulated) in in vitro transcription assays in T47D nuclear extracts. Finally, the Rep78-c-Jun interaction mapped to the amino-half of Rep78. The ability of Rep78 to interact with c-Jun and down-regulate AP-1-dependent transcription suggests one more mechanism by which AAV may modulate the HPV life cycle and the carcinogenesis process

  17. Cellular toxicity following application of adeno-associated viral vector-mediated RNA interference in the nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhaagen Joost

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a spinal cord lesion, axon regeneration is inhibited by the presence of a diversity of inhibitory molecules in the lesion environment. At and around the lesion site myelin-associated inhibitors, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs and several axon guidance molecules, including all members of the secreted (class 3 Semaphorins, are expressed. Interfering with multiple inhibitory signals could potentially enhance the previously reported beneficial effects of blocking single molecules. RNA interference (RNAi is a tool that can be used to simultaneously silence expression of multiple genes. In this study we aimed to employ adeno-associated virus (AAV mediated expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs to target all Semaphorin class 3 signaling by knocking down its receptors, Neuropilin 1 (Npn-1 and Neuropilin 2 (Npn-2. Results We have successfully generated shRNAs that knock down Npn-1 and Npn-2 in a neuronal cell line. We detected substantial knockdown of Npn-2 mRNA when AAV5 viral vector particles expressing Npn-2 specific shRNAs were injected in dorsal root ganglia (DRG of the rat. Unexpectedly however, AAV1-mediated expression of Npn-2 shRNAs and a control shRNA in the red nucleus resulted in an adverse tissue response and neuronal degeneration. The observed toxicity was dose dependent and was not seen with control GFP expressing AAV vectors, implicating the shRNAs as the causative toxic agents. Conclusions RNAi is a powerful tool to knock down Semaphorin receptor expression in neuronal cells in vitro and in vivo. However, when shRNAs are expressed at high levels in CNS neurons, they trigger an adverse tissue response leading to neuronal degradation.

  18. Role of cellular FKBP52 protein in intracellular trafficking of recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Weihong; Zhong Li; Wu Jianqing; Chen Linyuan; Qing Keyun; Weigel-Kelley, Kirsten A.; Larsen, Steven H.; Shou Weinian; Warrington, Kenneth H.; Srivastava, Arun

    2006-01-01

    We have reported that tyrosine-phosphorylated forms of a cellular protein, FKBP52, inhibit the second-strand DNA synthesis of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV), leading to inefficient transgene expression from recombinant AAV vectors. To further explore the role of FKBP52 in AAV-mediated transduction, we established murine embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) cultures from FKBP52 wild-type (WT), heterozygous (HE), and knockout (KO) mice. Conventional AAV vectors failed to transduce WT MEFs efficiently, and the transduction efficiency was not significantly increased in HE or KO MEFs. AAV vectors failed to traffic efficiently to the nucleus in these cells. Treatment with hydroxyurea (HU) increased the transduction efficiency of conventional AAV vectors by ∼25-fold in WT MEFs, but only by ∼4-fold in KO MEFs. The use of self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vectors, which bypass the requirement of viral second-strand DNA synthesis, revealed that HU treatment increased the transduction efficiency ∼23-fold in WT MEFs, but only ∼4-fold in KO MEFs, indicating that the lack of HU treatment-mediated increase in KO MEFs was not due to failure of AAV to undergo viral second-strand DNA synthesis. Following HU treatment, ∼59% of AAV genomes were present in the nuclear fraction from WT MEFs, but only ∼28% in KO MEFs, indicating that the pathway by which HU treatment mediates nuclear transport of AAV was impaired in KO MEFs. When KO MEFs were stably transfected with an FKBP52 expression plasmid, HU treatment-mediated increase in the transduction efficiency was restored in these cells, which correlated directly with improved intracellular trafficking. Intact AAV particles were also shown to interact with FKBP52 as well as with dynein, a known cellular protein involved in AAV trafficking. These studies suggest that FKBP52, being a cellular chaperone protein, facilitates intracellular trafficking of AAV, which has implications in the optimal use of recombinant AAV vectors in human gene

  19. Phase 2 clinical trial of a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector expressing α1-antitrypsin: interim results.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flotte, Terence R

    2011-10-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors offer promise for the gene therapy of α(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. In our prior trial, an rAAV vector expressing human AAT (rAAV1-CB-hAAT) provided sustained, vector-derived AAT expression for >1 year. In the current phase 2 clinical trial, this same vector, produced by a herpes simplex virus complementation method, was administered to nine AAT-deficient individuals by intramuscular injection at doses of 6.0×10(11), 1.9×10(12), and 6.0×10(12) vector genomes\\/kg (n=3 subjects\\/dose). Vector-derived expression of normal (M-type) AAT in serum was dose dependent, peaked on day 30, and persisted for at least 90 days. Vector administration was well tolerated, with only mild injection site reactions and no serious adverse events. Serum creatine kinase was transiently elevated on day 30 in five of six subjects in the two higher dose groups and normalized by day 45. As expected, all subjects developed anti-AAV antibodies and interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot responses to AAV peptides, and no subjects developed antibodies to AAT. One subject in the mid-dose group developed T cell responses to a single AAT peptide unassociated with any clinical effects. Muscle biopsies obtained on day 90 showed strong immunostaining for AAT and moderate to marked inflammatory cell infiltrates composed primarily of CD3-reactive T lymphocytes that were primarily of the CD8(+) subtype. These results support the feasibility and safety of AAV gene therapy for AAT deficiency, and indicate that serum levels of vector-derived normal human AAT >20 μg\\/ml can be achieved. However, further improvements in the design or delivery of rAAV-AAT vectors will be required to achieve therapeutic target serum AAT concentrations.

  20. Definition of herpes simplex virus type 1 helper activities for adeno-associated virus early replication events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Alazard-Dany

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The human parvovirus Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV type 2 can only replicate in cells co-infected with a helper virus, such as Adenovirus or Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1; whereas, in the absence of a helper virus, it establishes a latent infection. Previous studies demonstrated that the ternary HSV-1 helicase/primase (HP complex (UL5/8/52 and the single-stranded DNA-Binding Protein (ICP8 were sufficient to induce AAV-2 replication in transfected cells. We independently showed that, in the context of a latent AAV-2 infection, the HSV-1 ICP0 protein was able to activate rep gene expression. The present study was conducted to integrate these observations and to further explore the requirement of other HSV-1 proteins during early AAV replication steps, i.e. rep gene expression and AAV DNA replication. Using a cellular model that mimics AAV latency and composite constructs coding for various sets of HSV-1 genes, we first confirmed the role of ICP0 for rep gene expression and demonstrated a synergistic effect of ICP4 and, to a lesser extent, ICP22. Conversely, ICP27 displayed an inhibitory effect. Second, our analyses showed that the effect of ICP0, ICP4, and ICP22 on rep gene expression was essential for the onset of AAV DNA replication in conjunction with the HP complex and ICP8. Third, and most importantly, we demonstrated that the HSV-1 DNA polymerase complex (UL30/UL42 was critical to enhance AAV DNA replication to a significant level in transfected cells and that its catalytic activity was involved in this process. Altogether, this work represents the first comprehensive study recapitulating the series of early events taking place during HSV-1-induced AAV replication.

  1. The effect of surface demineralization of cortical bone allograft on the properties of recombinant adeno-associated virus coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Cemal; Yanoso, Laura; Xie, Chao; Reynolds, David G; Samulski, R Jude; Samulski, Jade; Yannariello-Brown, Judith; Gertzman, Arthur A; Zhang, Xinping; Awad, Hani A; Schwarz, Edward M

    2008-10-01

    Freeze-dried recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) coated structural allografts have emerged as an approach to engender necrotic cortical bone with host factors that will persist for weeks following surgery to facilitate revascularization, osteointegration, and remodeling. However, one major limitation is the nonporous cortical surface that prohibits uniform distribution of the rAAV coating prior to freeze-drying. To overcome this we have developed a demineralization method to increase surface absorbance while retaining the structural integrity of the allograft. Demineralized bone wafers (DBW) made from human femoral allograft rings demonstrated a significant 21.1% (73.6+/-3.9% versus 52.5+/-2.6%; pcoating versus mineralized controls. Co-incubation of rAAV-luciferase (rAAV-Luc) coated DBW with a monolayer of C3H10T1/2 cells in culture led to peak luciferase levels that were not significantly different from soluble rAAV-Luc controls (p>0.05), although the peaks occurred at 60h and 12h, respectively. To assess the transduction efficiency of rAAV-Luc coated DBW in vivo, we first performed a dose response with allografts containing 10(7), 10(9) or 10(10) particles that were surgically implanted into the quadriceps of mice, and assayed by in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21. The results demonstrated a dose response in which the DBW coated with 10(10) rAAV-Luc particles achieved peak gene expression levels on day 3, which persisted until day 21, and was significantly greater than the 10(7) dose throughout this time period (pcoated with 10(10) rAAV-Luc particles failed to demonstrate any significant differences in transduction kinetics or efficiency in vivo. Thus, surface demineralization of human cortical bone allograft increases its absorbance for uniform rAAV coating, without affecting vector transduction efficiency.

  2. Induction of immunity to antigens expressed by recombinant adeno-associated virus depends on the route of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockstedt, D G; Podsakoff, G M; Fong, L; Kurtzman, G; Mueller-Ruchholtz, W; Engleman, E G

    1999-07-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) is a replication-defective parvovirus which is being explored as a vector for gene therapy because of its broad host range, excellent safety profile, and durable transgene expression in infected hosts. rAAV has also been reported by several groups to induce little or no immune response to its encoded transgene products. In this study we examined the immunogenicity of rAAV by studying the immune response of C57BL/6 mice to a single dose of rAAV-encoding ovalbumin (AAV-Ova) administered by a variety of routes. Mice injected with AAV-Ova intraperitoneally (ip), intravenously, or subcutaneously developed potent ovalbumin-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) as well as anti-ovalbumin antibodies and antibodies to AAV. In contrast, mice injected with AAV-Ova intramuscularly developed a humoral response to the virus and the transgene but minimal ovalbumin-specific CTLs. The induced CTL response after ip administration of AAV-Ova protected mice against a subsequent tumor challenge with an ovalbumin-transfected B16 melanoma cell line. Studies of the mechanism by which AAV-Ova induces CTL confirmed that the virus delivers the transgene product into the classical MHC class I pathway of antigen processing. Mice that previously had been exposed to rAAV vectors failed to develop ovalbumin-specific CTL following administration of AAV-Ova. Analysis of these mice revealed the presence of circulating anti-AAV antibodies that blocked rAAV transduction in vitro and inhibited CTL induction in vivo. These results suggest a possible role for rAAV in the immunotherapy of malignancies and viral infections, although induced antibody responses to AAV may limit its ability to be administered for repeated vaccinations. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Delivery and evaluation of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors in the equine distal extremity for the treatment of laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J B; Gurda, B L; Van Wettere, A; Engiles, J B; Wilson, J M; Richardson, D W

    2017-01-01

    Our long-term aim is to develop a gene therapy approach for the prevention of laminitis in the contralateral foot of horses with major musculoskeletal injuries and non-weightbearing lameness. The goal of this study was to develop a practical method to efficiently deliver therapeutic proteins deep within the equine foot. Randomised in vivo experiment. We used recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAVs) to deliver marker genes using regional limb perfusion through the palmar digital artery of the horse. Vector serotypes rAAV2/1, 2/8 and 2/9 all successfully transduced equine foot tissues and displayed similar levels and patterns of transduction. The regional distribution of transduction within the foot decreased with decreasing vector dose. The highest transduction values were seen in the sole and coronary regions and the lowest transduction values were detected in the dorsal hoof-wall region. The use of a surfactant-enriched vector diluent increased regional distribution of the vector and improved the transduction in the hoof-wall region. The hoof-wall region of the foot, which exhibited the lowest levels of transduction using saline as the vector diluent, displayed a dramatic increase in transduction when surfactant was included in the vector diluent (9- to 81-fold increase). In transduced tissues, no significant difference was observed between promoters (chicken β-actin vs. cytomegalovirus) for gene expression. All horses tested for vector-neutralising antibodies were positive for serotype-specific neutralising antibodies to rAAV2/5. The current experiments demonstrate that transgenes can be successfully delivered to the equine distal extremity using rAAV vectors and that serotypes 2/8, 2/9 and 2/1 can successfully transduce tissues of the equine foot. When the vector was diluted with surfactant-containing saline, the level of transduction increased dramatically. The increased level of transduction due to the addition of surfactant also improved the

  4. Adeno-Associated Viral Vector (Serotype 2)-Nerve Growth Factor for Patients With Alzheimer Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Michael S; Tuszynski, Mark H; Thomas, Ronald G; Barba, David; Brewer, James B; Rissman, Robert A; Siffert, Joao; Aisen, Paul S

    2018-03-26

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an endogenous neurotrophic factor that prevents the death and augments the functional state of cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain, a cell population that undergoes extensive degeneration in Alzheimer disease (AD). To determine whether stereotactically guided intracerebral injections of adeno-associated viral vector (serotype 2)-nerve growth factor (AAV2-NGF) are well tolerated and exhibit preliminary evidence of impact on cognitive decline in mild to moderate AD-associated dementia. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, 49 participants with mild to moderate AD were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive stereotactically guided intracerebral injections of AAV2-NGF or sham surgery. Participants were enrolled between November 2009 and December 2012. Analyses began in February 2015. The study was conducted at 10 US academic medical centers. Eligibility required a diagnosis of mild to moderate dementia due to AD and individuals aged 55 to 80 years. A total of 39 participants did not pass screening; the most common reason was Mini-Mental State Examination scores below cutoff. Analyses were intention-to-treat. Stereotactically guided intracerebral injections of AAV2-NGF into the nucleus basalis of Meynert of each hemisphere or sham surgery. Change from baseline on the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale at month 24. Among 49 participants, 21 (43%) were women, 42 (86%) self-identified as white, and the mean (SD) age was 68 (6.4) years. AAV2-NGF was safe and well-tolerated through 24 months. No significant difference was noted between the treatment group and placebo on the primary outcome measure, the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (mean [SD] score, 14.52 [4.66] vs 9.11 [4.65], P = .17). This multicenter randomized clinical trial demonstrated the feasibility of sham-surgery-controlled stereotactic gene delivery studies in patients with AD. AAV2-NGF delivery was well-tolerated but did not

  5. Adeno-Associated Viral Vector-Mediated mTOR Inhibition by Short Hairpin RNA Suppresses Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kwann Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal neovascularization (CNV is the defining characteristic feature of the wet subtype of age-related macular degeneration (AMD and may result in irreversible blindness. Based on anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF, the current therapeutic approaches to CNV are fraught with difficulties, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR has recently been proposed as a possible therapeutic target, although few studies have been conducted. Here, we show that a recombinant adeno-associated virus-delivered mTOR-inhibiting short hairpin RNA (rAAV-mTOR shRNA, which blocks the activity of both mTOR complex 1 and 2, represents a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of CNV. Eight-week-old male C57/B6 mice were treated with the short hairpin RNA (shRNA after generating CNV lesions in the eyes via laser photocoagulation. The recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV delivery vehicle was able to effectively transduce cells in the inner retina, and significantly fewer inflammatory cells and less extensive CNV were observed in the animals treated with rAAV-mTOR shRNA when compared with control- and rAAV-scrambled shRNA-treated groups. Presumably related to the reduction of CNV, increased autophagy was detected in CNV lesions treated with rAAV-mTOR shRNA, whereas significantly fewer apoptotic cells detected in the outer nuclear layer around the CNV indicate that mTOR inhibition may also have neuroprotective effects. Taken together, these results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of mTOR inhibition, resulting from rAAV-mTOR shRNA activity, in the treatment of AMD-related CNV. Keywords: retinal neovascularization, choroidal neovascularization, adeno-associated virus, mTOR, RNA interference, mTOR shRNA, autophagy

  6. Long-term correction of obesity and diabetes in genetically obese mice by a single intramuscular injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding mouse leptin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John E.; Zhou, Shangzhen; Giese, Klaus; Williams, Lewis T.; Escobedo, Jaime A.; Dwarki, Varavani J.

    1997-01-01

    The ob/ob mouse is genetically deficient in leptin and exhibits a phenotype that includes obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes melitus. This phenotype closely resembles the morbid obesity seen in humans. In this study, we demonstrate that a single intramuscular injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector encoding mouse leptin (rAAV-leptin) in ob/ob mice leads to prevention of obesity and diabetes. The treated animals show normalization of metabolic abnormalities including hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and lethargy. The effects of a single injection have lasted through the 6-month course of the study. At all time points measured the circulating levels of leptin in the serum were similar to age-matched control C57 mice. These results demonstrate that maintenance of normal levels of leptin (2–5 ng/ml) in the circulation can prevent both the onset of obesity and associated non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Thus a single injection of a rAAV vector expressing a therapeutic gene can lead to complete and long-term correction of a genetic disorder. Our study demonstrates the long-term correction of a disease caused by a genetic defect and proves the feasibility of using rAAV-based vectors for the treatment of chronic disorders like obesity. PMID:9391128

  7. Delivery of Human EV71 Receptors by Adeno-Associated Virus Increases EV71 Infection-Induced Local Inflammation in Adult Mice

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    Hung-Bo Hsiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus71 (EV71 is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and one major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD. However potential animal models for vaccine development are limited to young mice. In this study, we used an adeno-associated virus (AAV vector to introduce the human EV71 receptors P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (hPSGL1 or a scavenger receptor class-B member-2 (hSCARB2 into adult ICR mice to change their susceptibility to EV71 infection. Mice were administered AAV-hSCARB2 or AAV-hPSGL1 through intravenous and oral routes. After three weeks, expression of human SCARB2 and PSGL1 was detected in various organs. After infection with EV71, we found that the EV71 viral load in AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice was higher than that of the control mice in both the brain and intestines. The presence of EV71 viral particles in tissues was confirmed using immunohistochemistry analysis. Moreover, inflammatory cytokines were induced in the brain and intestines of AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice after EV71 infection but not in wild-type mice. However, neurological disease was not observed in these animals. Taken together, we successfully infected adult mice with live EV71 and induced local inflammation using an AAV delivery system.

  8. Suppression of cancer growth in mice by adeno-associated virus vector-mediated IFN-beta expression driven by hTERT promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling Feng; Wang, Yi Gang; Xiao, Tian; Zhang, Kang Jiang; Li, Gong Chu; Gu, Jin Fa; Chu, Liang; Tang, Wen Hao; Tan, Wen-Song; Liu, Xin Yuan

    2009-12-28

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has rapidly become a promising gene delivery vehicle for its excellent advantages of non-immunogenic, low pathogenicity and long-term gene expression in vivo. However, a major obstacle in development of effective AAV vector is the lack of tissue specificity, which caused low efficiency of AAV transfer to target cells. The application of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter is a prior targeting strategy for AAV in cancer gene therapy as hTERT activity is transcriptionally upregulated in most cancer cells. In the present work, we investigated whether AAV-mediated human interferon beta (IFN-beta) gene driven by hTERT promoter could specifically express in tumor cells and suppress tumor cell growth. Our data demonstrated that hTERT promoter-driven IFN-beta expression was the tumor-specific, decreased the cell viability of tumor cells but not normal cells, and induced tumor cell apoptosis via activation of caspase pathway and release of cytochrome c. AAV-mediated IFN-beta expression driven by hTERT promoter significantly suppressed the growth of colorectal cancer and lung cancer xenograft in mice and resulted in tumor cells death in vivo. These data suggested that AAVs in combination with hTERT-mediated IFN-beta expression could exert potential antitumor activity and provide a novel targeting approach to clinical gene therapy of varieties of cancers.

  9. HoxD10 gene delivery using adenovirus/adeno-associate hybrid virus inhibits the proliferation and tumorigenicity of GH4 pituitary lactotrope tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Mi Ae; Yashar, Parham; Kim, Suk Kyoung; Noh, Taewoong; Gillam, Mary P.; Lee, Eun Jig; Jameson, J. Larry

    2008-01-01

    Prolactinoma is one of the most common types of pituitary adenoma. It has been reported that a variety of growth factors and cytokines regulating cell growth and angiogenesis play an important role in the growth of prolactinoma. HoxD10 has been shown to impair endothelial cell migration, block angiogenesis, and maintain a differentiated phenotype of cells. We investigated whether HoxD10 gene delivery could inhibit the growth of prolactinoma. Rat GH4 lactotrope tumor cells were infected with adenovirus/adeno-associated virus (Ad/AAV) hybrid vectors carrying the mouse HoxD10 gene (Hyb-HoxD10) or the β-galactosidase gene (Hyb-Gal). Hyb-HoxD10 expression inhibited GH4 cell proliferation in vitro. The expression of FGF-2 and cyclin D2 was inhibited in GH4 cells infected with Hyb-HoxD10. GH4 cells transduced with Hyb-HoxD10 did not form tumors in nude mice. These results indicate that the delivery of HoxD10 could potentially inhibit the growth of PRL-secreting tumors. This approach may be a useful tool for targeted therapy of prolactinoma and other neoplasms

  10. Inflammation and Immune Response of Intra-Articular Serotype 2 Adeno-Associated Virus or Adenovirus Vectors in a Large Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akikazu Ishihara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra-articular gene therapy has potential for the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. To quantify in vitro relative gene transduction, equine chondrocytes and synovial cells were treated with adenovirus vectors (Ad, serotype 2 adeno-associated virus vectors (rAAV2, or self-complementary (sc AAV2 vectors carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP. Using 6 horses, bilateral metacarpophalangeal joints were injected with Ad, rAAV2, or scAAV2 vectors carrying GFP genes to assess the in vivo joint inflammation and neutralizing antibody (NAb titer in serum and joint fluid. In vitro, the greater transduction efficiency and sustained gene expression were achieved by scAAV2 compared to rAAV2 in equine chondrocytes and synovial cells. In vivo, AAV2 demonstrated less joint inflammation than Ad, but similar NAb titer. The scAAV2 vectors can induce superior gene transduction than rAAV2 in articular cells, and both rAAV2 and scAAV2 vectors were showed to be safer for intra-articular use than Ad vectors.

  11. Adeno-associated virus (AAV-mediated suppression of Ca2+/calmodulin kinase IV activity in the nucleus accumbens modulates emotional behaviour in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bading Hilmar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV controls activity-dependent gene transcription by regulating the activity of the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB. This signaling pathway is involved in gating emotional responses in the CNS but previous studies did not address the potential roles of CaMKIV in discrete brain regions. In the present study, we aimed at specifically dissecting the role of CaMKIV in the nucleus accumbens of adult mice. Results We used recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV-mediated gene transfer of a dominant-negative CaMKIV variant (rAAV-dnCaMKIV to inhibit endogenous CaMKIV in the nucleus accumbens. rAAV-dnCaMKIV treated animals were subjected to a battery of tests including, prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response, open field, social interaction and anxiety-related behaviour. We found that basal locomotor activity in the open field, and prepulse inhibition or startle performance were unaltered in mice infected with rAAV-dnCaMKIV in the nucleus accumbens. However, anxiogenic effects were revealed in social interaction testing and the light/dark emergence test. Conclusion Our findings suggest a modulatory role of CaMKIV in the nucleus accumbens in anxiety-like behaviour but not sensorimotor gating.

  12. Random Insertion of mCherry Into VP3 Domain of Adeno-associated Virus Yields Fluorescent Capsids With no Loss of Infectivity

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    Justin Judd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV-derived vectors are promising gene delivery systems, and a number of design strategies have been pursued to improve their performance. For example, genetic insertion of proteins into the capsid may be used to achieve vector retargeting, reduced immunogenicity, or to track vector transport. Unfortunately, rational approaches to genetic insertion have experienced limited success due to the unpredictable context-dependent nature of protein folding and the complexity of the capsid's macroassembly. We report the construction and use of a frame-enriched DNase-based random insertion library based on AAV2 cap, called pAAV2_RaPID (Random Peptide Insertion by DNase. The fluorescent mCherry protein was inserted randomly throughout the AAV2 capsid and the library was selected for fluorescent and infectious variants. A capsid site was identified in VP3 that can tolerate the large protein insertion. In contrast to previous efforts to incorporate fluorescent proteins into the AAV2 capsid, the isolated mCherry mutant maintains native infectivity while displaying robust fluorescence. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the pAAV2_RaPID platform library can be used to create fully infectious AAV vectors carrying large functional protein domains on the capsid.

  13. Long-term correction of canine hemophilia B by gene transfer of blood coagulation factor IX mediated by adeno-associated viral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, R W; Yang, E Y; Couto, L B; Hagstrom, J N; Elwell, D; Fields, P A; Burton, M; Bellinger, D A; Read, M S; Brinkhous, K M; Podsakoff, G M; Nichols, T C; Kurtzman, G J; High, K A

    1999-01-01

    Hemophilia B is a severe X-linked bleeding diathesis caused by the absence of functional blood coagulation factor IX, and is an excellent candidate for treatment of a genetic disease by gene therapy. Using an adeno-associated viral vector, we demonstrate sustained expression (>17 months) of factor IX in a large-animal model at levels that would have a therapeutic effect in humans (up to 70 ng/ml, adequate to achieve phenotypic correction, in an animal injected with 8.5x10(12) vector particles/kg). The five hemophilia B dogs treated showed stable, vector dose-dependent partial correction of the whole blood clotting time and, at higher doses, of the activated partial thromboplastin time. In contrast to other viral gene delivery systems, this minimally invasive procedure, consisting of a series of percutaneous intramuscular injections at a single timepoint, was not associated with local or systemic toxicity. Efficient gene transfer to muscle was shown by immunofluorescence staining and DNA analysis of biopsied tissue. Immune responses against factor IX were either absent or transient. These data provide strong support for the feasibility of the approach for therapy of human subjects.

  14. Relevance of Assembly-Activating Protein for Adeno-associated Virus Vector Production and Capsid Protein Stability in Mammalian and Insect Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Stefanie; Penaud-Budloo, Magalie; Herrmann, Anne-Kathrin; Börner, Kathleen; Fakhiri, Julia; Laketa, Vibor; Krämer, Chiara; Wiedtke, Ellen; Gunkel, Manuel; Ménard, Lucie; Ayuso, Eduard; Grimm, Dirk

    2017-10-15

    The discovery that adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) encodes an eighth protein, called assembly-activating protein (AAP), transformed our understanding of wild-type AAV biology. Concurrently, it raised questions about the role of AAP during production of recombinant vectors based on natural or molecularly engineered AAV capsids. Here, we show that AAP is indeed essential for generation of functional recombinant AAV2 vectors in both mammalian and insect cell-based vector production systems. Surprisingly, we observed that AAV2 capsid proteins VP1 to -3 are unstable in the absence of AAP2, likely due to rapid proteasomal degradation. Inhibition of the proteasome led to an increase of intracellular VP1 to -3 but neither triggered assembly of functional capsids nor promoted nuclear localization of the capsid proteins. Together, this underscores the crucial and unique role of AAP in the AAV life cycle, where it rapidly chaperones capsid assembly, thus preventing degradation of free capsid proteins. An expanded analysis comprising nine alternative AAV serotypes (1, 3 to 9, and rh10) showed that vector production always depends on the presence of AAP, with the exceptions of AAV4 and AAV5, which exhibited AAP-independent, albeit low-level, particle assembly. Interestingly, AAPs from all 10 serotypes could cross-complement AAP-depleted helper plasmids during vector production, despite there being distinct intracellular AAP localization patterns. These were most pronounced for AAP4 and AAP5, congruent with their inability to rescue an AAV2/AAP2 knockout. We conclude that AAP is key for assembly of genuine capsids from at least 10 different AAV serotypes, which has implications for vectors derived from wild-type or synthetic AAV capsids. IMPORTANCE Assembly of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is regulated by the assembly-activating protein (AAP), whose open reading frame overlaps with that of the viral capsid proteins. As the majority of evidence was obtained using virus

  15. Characterization of cognitive deficits in rats overexpressing human alpha-synuclein in the ventral tegmental area and medial septum using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors.

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    Hall, Hélène; Jewett, Michael; Landeck, Natalie; Nilsson, Nathalie; Schagerlöf, Ulrika; Leanza, Giampiero; Kirik, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Intraneuronal inclusions containing alpha-synuclein (a-syn) constitute one of the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) and are accompanied by severe neurodegeneration of A9 dopaminergic neurons located in the substantia nigra. Although to a lesser extent, A10 dopaminergic neurons are also affected. Neurodegeneration of other neuronal populations, such as the cholinergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic cell groups, has also been documented in PD patients. Studies in human post-mortem PD brains and in rodent models suggest that deficits in cholinergic and dopaminergic systems may be associated with the cognitive impairment seen in this disease. Here, we investigated the consequences of targeted overexpression of a-syn in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic and septohippocampal cholinergic pathways. Rats were injected with recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors encoding for either human wild-type a-syn or green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the ventral tegmental area and the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca, two regions rich in dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons, respectively. Histopathological analysis showed widespread insoluble a-syn positive inclusions in all major projections areas of the targeted nuclei, including the hippocampus, neocortex, nucleus accumbens and anteromedial striatum. In addition, the rats overexpressing human a-syn displayed an abnormal locomotor response to apomorphine injection and exhibited spatial learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze task, in the absence of obvious spontaneous locomotor impairment. As losses in dopaminergic and cholinergic immunoreactivity in both the GFP and a-syn expressing animals were mild-to-moderate and did not differ from each other, the behavioral impairments seen in the a-syn overexpressing animals appear to be determined by the long term persisting neuropathology in the surviving neurons rather than by neurodegeneration.

  16. Identification of rep-associated factors in herpes simplex virus type 1-induced adeno-associated virus type 2 replication compartments.

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    Nicolas, Armel; Alazard-Dany, Nathalie; Biollay, Coline; Arata, Loredana; Jolinon, Nelly; Kuhn, Lauriane; Ferro, Myriam; Weller, Sandra K; Epstein, Alberto L; Salvetti, Anna; Greco, Anna

    2010-09-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a human parvovirus that replicates only in cells coinfected with a helper virus, such as adenovirus or herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). We previously showed that nine HSV-1 factors are able to support AAV rep gene expression and genome replication. To elucidate the strategy of AAV replication in the presence of HSV-1, we undertook a proteomic analysis of cellular and HSV-1 factors associated with Rep proteins and thus potentially recruited within AAV replication compartments (AAV RCs). This study resulted in the identification of approximately 60 cellular proteins, among which factors involved in DNA and RNA metabolism represented the largest functional categories. Validation analyses indicated that the cellular DNA replication enzymes RPA, RFC, and PCNA were recruited within HSV-1-induced AAV RCs. Polymerase delta was not identified but subsequently was shown to colocalize with Rep within AAV RCs even in the presence of the HSV-1 polymerase complex. In addition, we found that AAV replication is associated with the recruitment of components of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex, Ku70 and -86, and the mismatch repair proteins MSH2, -3, and -6. Finally, several HSV-1 factors were also found to be associated with Rep, including UL12. We demonstrated for the first time that this protein plays a role during AAV replication by enhancing the resolution of AAV replicative forms and AAV particle production. Altogether, these analyses provide the basis to understand how AAV adapts its replication strategy to the nuclear environment induced by the helper virus.

  17. Intravenous administration of the adeno-associated virus-PHP.B capsid fails to upregulate transduction efficiency in the marmoset brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Yasunori; Konno, Ayumu; Mochizuki, Ryuta; Shinohara, Yoichiro; Nitta, Keisuke; Okada, Yukihiro; Hirai, Hirokazu

    2018-02-05

    Intravenous administration of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-PHP.B, a capsid variant of AAV9 containing seven amino acid insertions, results in a greater permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB) than standard AAV9 in mice, leading to highly efficient and global transduction of the central nervous system (CNS). The present study aimed to examine whether the enhanced BBB penetrance of AAV-PHP.B observed in mice also occurs in non-human primates. Thus, a young adult (age, 1.6 years) and an old adult (age, 7.2 years) marmoset received an intravenous injection of AAV-PHP.B expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the constitutive CBh promoter (a hybrid of cytomegalovirus early enhancer and chicken β-actin promoter). Age-matched control marmosets were treated with standard AAV9-capsid vectors. The animals were sacrificed 6 weeks after the viral injection. Based on the results, only limited transduction of neurons (0-2%) and astrocytes (0.1-2.5%) was observed in both AAV-PHP.B- and AAV9-treated marmosets. One noticeable difference between AAV-PHP.B and AAV9 was the marked transduction of the peripheral dorsal root ganglia neurons. Indeed, the soma and axons in the projection from the spinal cord to the nucleus cuneatus in the medulla oblongata were strongly labeled with EGFP by AAV-PHP.B. Thus, except for the peripheral dorsal root ganglia neurons, the AAV-PHP.B transduction efficiency in the CNS of marmosets was comparable to that of AAV9 vectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High-titer recombinant adeno-associated virus production utilizing a recombinant herpes simplex virus type I vector expressing AAV-2 Rep and Cap.

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    Conway, J E; Rhys, C M; Zolotukhin, I; Zolotukhin, S; Muzyczka, N; Hayward, G S; Byrne, B J

    1999-06-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 (rAAV) vectors have recently been used to achieve long-term, high level transduction in vivo. Further development of rAAV vectors for clinical use requires significant technological improvements in large-scale vector production. In order to facilitate the production of rAAV vectors, a recombinant herpes simplex virus type I vector (rHSV-1) which does not produce ICP27, has been engineered to express the AAV-2 rep and cap genes. The optimal dose of this vector, d27.1-rc, for AAV production has been determined and results in a yield of 380 expression units (EU) of AAV-GFP produced from 293 cells following transfection with AAV-GFP plasmid DNA. In addition, d27.1-rc was also efficient at producing rAAV from cell lines that have an integrated AAV-GFP provirus. Up to 480 EU/cell of AAV-GFP could be produced from the cell line GFP-92, a proviral, 293 derived cell line. Effective amplification of rAAV vectors introduced into 293 cells by infection was also demonstrated. Passage of rAAV with d27. 1-rc results in up to 200-fold amplification of AAV-GFP with each passage after coinfection of the vectors. Efficient, large-scale production (>109 cells) of AAV-GFP from a proviral cell line was also achieved and these stocks were free of replication-competent AAV. The described rHSV-1 vector provides a novel, simple and flexible way to introduce the AAV-2 rep and cap genes and helper virus functions required to produce high-titer rAAV preparations from any rAAV proviral construct. The efficiency and potential for scalable delivery of d27.1-rc to producer cell cultures should facilitate the production of sufficient quantities of rAAV vectors for clinical application.

  19. Use of self-complementary adeno-associated virus serotype 2 as a tracer for labeling axons: implications for axon regeneration.

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    Yingpeng Liu

    Full Text Available Various types of tracers are available for use in axon regeneration, but they require an extra operational tracer injection, time-consuming immunohistochemical analysis and cause non-specific labeling. Considerable efforts over the past years have explored other methodologies, especially the use of viral vectors, to investigate axon regeneration after injury. Recent studies have demonstrated that self-complementary Adeno-Associated Virus (scAAV induced a high transduction efficiency and faster expression of transgenes. Here, we describe for the first time the use of scAAV2-GFP to label long-projection axons in the corticospinal tract (CST, rubrospinal tract (RST and the central axons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG in the normal and lesioned animal models. We found that scAAV2-GFP could efficiently transduce neurons in the sensorimotor cortex, red nucleus and DRG. Strong GFP expression could be transported anterogradely along the axon to label the numerous axon fibers from CST, RST and central axons of DRG separately. Comparison of the scAAV2 vector with single-stranded (ss AAV2 vector in co-labeled sections showed that the scAAV2 vector induced a faster and stronger transgene expression than the ssAAV2 vector in DRG neurons and their axons. In both spinal cord lesion and dorsal root crush injury models, scAAV-GFP could efficiently label the lesioned and regenerated axons around the lesion cavity and the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ respectively. Further, scAAV2-GFP vector could be combined with traditional tracer to specifically label sensory and motor axons after spinal cord lesion. Thus, we show that using scAAV2-GFP as a tracer is a more effective and efficient way to study axon regeneration following injury.

  20. Next generation of adeno-associated virus 2 vectors: Point mutations in tyrosines lead to high-efficiency transduction at lower doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Li; Li, Baozheng; Mah, Cathryn S.; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Cooper, Mario; Herzog, Roland W.; Zolotukhin, Irene; Warrington, Kenneth H.; Weigel-Van Aken, Kirsten A.; Hobbs, Jacqueline A.; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Srivastava, Arun

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vectors are in use in several Phase I/II clinical trials, but relatively large vector doses are needed to achieve therapeutic benefits. Large vector doses also trigger an immune response as a significant fraction of the vectors fails to traffic efficiently to the nucleus and is targeted for degradation by the host cell proteasome machinery. We have reported that epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase (EGFR-PTK) signaling negatively affects transduction by AAV2 vectors by impairing nuclear transport of the vectors. We have also observed that EGFR-PTK can phosphorylate AAV2 capsids at tyrosine residues. Tyrosine-phosphorylated AAV2 vectors enter cells efficiently but fail to transduce effectively, in part because of ubiquitination of AAV capsids followed by proteasome-mediated degradation. We reasoned that mutations of the surface-exposed tyrosine residues might allow the vectors to evade phosphorylation and subsequent ubiquitination and, thus, prevent proteasome-mediated degradation. Here, we document that site-directed mutagenesis of surface-exposed tyrosine residues leads to production of vectors that transduce HeLa cells ≈10-fold more efficiently in vitro and murine hepatocytes nearly 30-fold more efficiently in vivo at a log lower vector dose. Therapeutic levels of human Factor IX (F.IX) are also produced at an ≈10-fold reduced vector dose. The increased transduction efficiency of tyrosine-mutant vectors is due to lack of capsid ubiquitination and improved intracellular trafficking to the nucleus. These studies have led to the development of AAV vectors that are capable of high-efficiency transduction at lower doses, which has important implications in their use in human gene therapy. PMID:18511559

  1. Genetic modification of adeno-associated viral vector type 2 capsid enhances gene transfer efficiency in polarized human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, April F; Mazur, Marina; Sorscher, Eric J; Zinn, Kurt R; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

    2008-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common genetic disease characterized by defects in the expression of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Gene therapy offers better hope for the treatment of CF. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are capable of stable expression with low immunogenicity. Despite their potential in CF gene therapy, gene transfer efficiency by AAV is limited because of pathophysiological barriers in these patients. Although a few AAV serotypes have shown better transduction compared with the AAV2-based vectors, gene transfer efficiency in human airway epithelium has still not reached therapeutic levels. To engineer better AAV vectors for enhanced gene delivery in human airway epithelium, we developed and characterized mutant AAV vectors by genetic capsid modification, modeling the well-characterized AAV2 serotype. We genetically incorporated putative high-affinity peptide ligands to human airway epithelium on the GH loop region of AAV2 capsid protein. Six independent mutant AAV were constructed, containing peptide ligands previously reported to bind with high affinity for known and unknown receptors on human airway epithelial cells. The vectors were tested on nonairway cells and nonpolarized and polarized human airway epithelial cells for enhanced infectivity. One of the mutant vectors, with the peptide sequence THALWHT, not only showed the highest transduction in undifferentiated human airway epithelial cells but also indicated significant transduction in polarized cells. Interestingly, this modified vector was also able to infect cells independently of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan receptor. Incorporation of this ligand on other AAV serotypes, which have shown improved gene transfer efficiency in the human airway epithelium, may enhance the application of AAV vectors in CF gene therapy.

  2. Mapping the Structural Determinants Responsible for Enhanced T Cell Activation to the Immunogenic Adeno-Associated Virus Capsid from Isolate Rhesus 32.33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Lauren E.; Wang, Lili; Tenney, Rebeca; Bell, Peter; Nam, Hyun-Joo; Lin, Jianping; Gurda, Brittney; Van Vliet, Kim; Mikals, Kyle; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2013-01-01

    Avoiding activation of immunity to vector-encoded proteins is critical to the safe and effective use of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors for gene therapy. While commonly used serotypes, such as AAV serotypes 1, 2, 7, 8, and 9, are often associated with minimal and/or dysfunctional CD8+ T cell responses in mice, the threshold for immune activation appears to be lower in higher-order species. We have modeled this discrepancy within the mouse by identifying two capsid variants with differential immune activation profiles: AAV serotype 8 (AAV8) and a hybrid between natural rhesus isolates AAVrh32 and AAVrh33 (AAVrh32.33). Here, we aimed to characterize the structural determinants of the AAVrh32.33 capsid that augment cellular immunity to vector-encoded proteins or those of AAV8 that may induce tolerance. We hypothesized that the structural domain responsible for differential immune activation could be mapped to surface-exposed regions of the capsid, such as hypervariable regions (HVRs) I to IX of VP3. To test this, a series of hybrid AAV capsids was constructed by swapping domains between AAV8 and AAVrh32.33. By comparing their ability to generate transgene-specific T cells in vivo versus the stability of transgene expression in the muscle, we confirmed that the functional domain lies within the VP3 portion of the capsid. Our studies were able to exclude the regions of VP3 which are not sufficient for augmenting the cellular immune response, notably, HVRs I, II, and V. We have also identified HVR IV as a region of interest in conferring the efficiency and stability of muscle transduction to AAVrh32.33. PMID:23720715

  3. Adeno-associated virus gene therapy vector scAAVIGF-I for transduction of equine articular chondrocytes and RNA-seq analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, D D; McIlwraith, C W; Slayden, R A; Samulski, R J; Goodrich, L R

    2016-05-01

    IGF-I is one of several anabolic factors being investigated for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Due to the short biological half-life, extended administration is required for more robust cartilage healing. Here we create a self-complimentary adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy vector utilizing the transgene for IGF-I. Various biochemical assays were performed to investigate the cellular response to scAAVIGF-I treatment vs an scAAVGFP positive transduction control and a negative for transduction control culture. RNA-sequencing analysis was also performed to establish a differential regulation profile of scAAVIGF-I transduced chondrocytes. Biochemical analyses indicated an average media IGF-I concentration of 608 ng/ml in the scAAVIGF-I transduced chondrocytes. This increase in IGF-I led to increased expression of collagen type II and aggrecan and increased protein concentrations of cellular collagen type II and media glycosaminoglycan vs both controls. RNA-seq revealed a global regulatory pattern consisting of 113 differentially regulated GO categories including those for chondrocyte and cartilage development and regulation of apoptosis. This research substantiates that scAAVIGF-I gene therapy vector increased production of IGF-I to clinically relevant levels with a biological response by chondrocytes conducive to increased cartilage healing. The RNA-seq further established a set of differentially expressed genes and gene ontologies induced by the scAAVIGF-I vector while controlling for AAV infection. This dataset provides a static representation of the cellular transcriptome that, while only consisting of one time point, will allow for further gene expression analyses to compare additional cartilage healing therapeutics or a transient cellular response. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. A human parvovirus, adeno-associated virus, as a eucaryotic vector: Transient expression and encapsidation of the procaryotic gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

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    Tratschin, J.D.; West, M.H.P.; Sandbank, T.; Carter, B.J.

    1984-10-01

    The authors have used the defective human parvovirus adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a novel eurocaryotic vector (parvector) for the expression of a foreign gene in human cells. The recombinant, pAV2, contains the AAV genome in a pBR322-derived bacterial plasmid. When pAV2 is transfected into human cells together with helper adenovirus particles, the AAV genome is rescued from the recombinant plasmid and replicated to produce infectious AAV particles at high efficiency. To create a vector, we inserted a procaryotic sequence coding for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) into derivatives of pAV2 following either of the AAV promoters p/sub 40/ (pAVHiCAT) and p/sub 19/ (pAVBcCAT). When transfected into human 293 cells or HeLa cells, pAVHiCAT expressed CAT activity in the absence of adenovirus. In the presence of adenovirus, this vector produced increased amounts of CAT activity and the recombinant AAV-CAT genome was replicated. In 293 cells, pAVBcCAT expressed a similar amount of CAT activity in the absence or presence of adenovirus and the recombinant AAV-CAT genome was not replicated. In HeLa cells, pAVBcCAT expressed low levels of CAT activity, but this level was elevated by coinfection with adenovirus particles or by cotransfection with a plasmid which expressed the adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) product. The E1A product is a transcriptional activator and is expressed in 293 cells. Thus, expression from two AAV promoters is differentially regulated: expression from p/sub 19/ is increased by E1A, whereas p/sub 40/ yields high levels of constitutive expression in the absence of E1A. Both AAV vectors were packaged into AAV particles by complementation with wild-type AAV and yielded CAT activity when subsequently infected into cells in the presence of adenovirus.

  5. Induction of Immune Tolerance to Foreign Protein via Adeno-Associated Viral Vector Gene Transfer in Mid-Gestation Fetal Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Marcus G.; Riley, John S.; Andrews, Abigail; Tyminski, Alec; Limberis, Maria; Pogoriler, Jennifer E.; Partridge, Emily; Olive, Aliza; Hedrick, Holly L.; Flake, Alan W.; Peranteau, William H.

    2017-01-01

    A major limitation to adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy is the generation of host immune responses to viral vector antigens and the transgene product. The ability to induce immune tolerance to foreign protein has the potential to overcome this host immunity. Acquisition and maintenance of tolerance to viral vector antigens and transgene products may also permit repeat administration thereby enhancing therapeutic efficacy. In utero gene transfer (IUGT) takes advantage of the immunologic immaturity of the fetus to induce immune tolerance to foreign antigens. In this large animal study, in utero administration of AAV6.2, AAV8 and AAV9 expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) to ~60 day fetal sheep (term: ~150 days) was performed. Transgene expression and postnatal immune tolerance to GFP and viral antigens were assessed. We demonstrate 1) hepatic expression of GFP 1 month following in utero administration of AAV6.2.GFP and AAV8.GFP, 2) in utero recipients of either AAV6.2.GFP or AAV8.GFP fail to mount an anti-GFP antibody response following postnatal GFP challenge and lack inflammatory cellular infiltrates at the intramuscular site of immunization, 3) a serotype specific anti-AAV neutralizing antibody response is elicited following postnatal challenge of in utero recipients of AAV6.2 or AAV8 with the corresponding AAV serotype, and 4) durable hepatic GFP expression was observed up to 6 months after birth in recipients of AAV8.GFP but expression was lost between 1 and 6 months of age in recipients of AAV6.2.GFP. The current study demonstrates, in a preclinical large animal model, the potential of IUGT to achieve host immune tolerance to the viral vector transgene product but also suggests that a single exposure to the vector capsid proteins at the time of IUGT is inadequate to induce tolerance to viral vector antigens. PMID:28141818

  6. Efficient delivery of Cre-recombinase to neurons in vivo and stable transduction of neurons using adeno-associated and lentiviral vectors

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    Sablitzky Fred

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactivating genes in vivo is an important technique for establishing their function in the adult nervous system. Unfortunately, conventional knockout mice may suffer from several limitations including embryonic or perinatal lethality and the compensatory regulation of other genes. One approach to producing conditional activation or inactivation of genes involves the use of Cre recombinase to remove loxP-flanked segments of DNA. We have studied the effects of delivering Cre to the hippocampus and neocortex of adult mice by injecting replication-deficient adeno-associated virus (AAV and lentiviral (LV vectors into discrete regions of the forebrain. Results Recombinant AAV-Cre, AAV-GFP (green fluorescent protein and LV-Cre-EGFP (enhanced GFP were made with the transgene controlled by the cytomegalovirus promoter. Infecting 293T cells in vitro with AAV-Cre and LV-Cre-EGFP resulted in transduction of most cells as shown by GFP fluorescence and Cre immunoreactivity. Injections of submicrolitre quantities of LV-Cre-EGFP and mixtures of AAV-Cre with AAV-GFP into the neocortex and hippocampus of adult Rosa26 reporter mice resulted in strong Cre and GFP expression in the dentate gyrus and moderate to strong labelling in specific regions of the hippocampus and in the neocortex, mainly in neurons. The pattern of expression of Cre and GFP obtained with AAV and LV vectors was very similar. X-gal staining showed that Cre-mediated recombination had occurred in neurons in the same regions of the brain, starting at 3 days post-injection. No obvious toxic effects of Cre expression were detected even after four weeks post-injection. Conclusion AAV and LV vectors are capable of delivering Cre to neurons in discrete regions of the adult mouse brain and producing recombination.

  7. An adeno-associated virus-based intracellular sensor of pathological nuclear factor-κB activation for disease-inducible gene transfer.

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    Abdelwahed Chtarto

    Full Text Available Stimulation of resident cells by NF-κB activating cytokines is a central element of inflammatory and degenerative disorders of the central nervous system (CNS. This disease-mediated NF-κB activation could be used to drive transgene expression selectively in affected cells, using adeno-associated virus (AAV-mediated gene transfer. We have constructed a series of AAV vectors expressing GFP under the control of different promoters including NF-κB -responsive elements. As an initial screen, the vectors were tested in vitro in HEK-293T cells treated with TNF-α. The best profile of GFP induction was obtained with a promoter containing two blocks of four NF-κB -responsive sequences from the human JCV neurotropic polyoma virus promoter, fused to a new tight minimal CMV promoter, optimally distant from each other. A therapeutical gene, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF cDNA under the control of serotype 1-encapsidated NF-κB -responsive AAV vector (AAV-NF was protective in senescent cultures of mouse cortical neurons. AAV-NF was then evaluated in vivo in the kainic acid (KA-induced status epilepticus rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy, a major neurological disorder with a central pathophysiological role for NF-κB activation. We demonstrate that AAV-NF, injected in the hippocampus, responded to disease induction by mediating GFP expression, preferentially in CA1 and CA3 neurons and astrocytes, specifically in regions where inflammatory markers were also induced. Altogether, these data demonstrate the feasibility to use disease-activated transcription factor-responsive elements in order to drive transgene expression specifically in affected cells in inflammatory CNS disorders using AAV-mediated gene transfer.

  8. Long-Term Efficacy Following Readministration of an Adeno-Associated Virus Vector in Dogs with Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaster, Amanda; Luo, Xiaoyan; Curtis, Sarah; Williams, Kyha D.; Landau, Dustin J.; Drake, Elizabeth J.; Kozink, Daniel M.; Bird, Andrew; Crane, Bayley; Sun, Francis; Pinto, Carlos R.; Brown, Talmage T.; Kemper, Alex R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) is the inherited deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), primarily found in liver and kidney, which causes life-threatening hypoglycemia. Dogs with GSD-Ia were treated with double-stranded adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors encoding human G6Pase. Administration of an AAV9 pseudotyped (AAV2/9) vector to seven consecutive GSD-Ia neonates prevented hypoglycemia during fasting for up to 8 hr; however, efficacy eventually waned between 2 and 30 months of age, and readministration of a new pseudotype was eventually required to maintain control of hypoglycemia. Three of these dogs succumbed to acute hypoglycemia between 7 and 9 weeks of age; however, this demise could have been prevented by earlier readministration an AAV vector, as demonstrated by successful prevention of mortality of three dogs treated earlier in life. Over the course of this study, six out of nine dogs survived after readministration of an AAV vector. Of these, each dog required readministration on average every 9 months. However, two were not retreated until >34 months of age, while one with preexisting antibodies was re-treated three times in 10 months. Glycogen content was normalized in the liver following vector administration, and G6Pase activity was increased in the liver of vector-treated dogs in comparison with GSD-Ia dogs that received only with dietary treatment. G6Pase activity reached approximately 40% of normal in two female dogs following AAV2/9 vector administration. Elevated aspartate transaminase in absence of inflammation indicated that hepatocellular turnover in the liver might drive the loss of vector genomes. Survival was prolonged for up to 60 months in dogs treated by readministration, and all dogs treated by readministration continue to thrive despite the demonstrated risk for recurrent hypoglycemia and mortality from waning efficacy of the AAV2/9 vector. These preclinical data support the further translation of AAV

  9. Recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 replication and packaging is entirely supported by a herpes simplex virus type 1 amplicon expressing Rep and Cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, J E; Zolotukhin, S; Muzyczka, N; Hayward, G S; Byrne, B J

    1997-11-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 2 (rAAV) vectors have recently been shown to have great utility as gene transfer agents both in vitro and in vivo. One of the problems associated with the use of rAAV vectors has been the difficulty of large-scale vector production. Low-efficiency plasmid transfection of the rAAV vector and complementing AAV type 2 (AAV-2) functions (rep and cap) followed by superinfection with adenovirus has been the standard approach to rAAV production. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the ability of a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) amplicon expressing AAV-2 Rep and Cap to support replication and packaging of rAAV vectors. HSV-1 amplicon vectors were constructed which contain the AAV-2 rep and cap genes under control of their native promoters (p5, p19, and p40). An HSV-1 amplicon vector, HSV-RC/KOS or HSV-RC/d27, was generated by supplying helper functions with either wild-type HSV-1 (KOS strain) or the ICP27-deleted mutant of HSV-1, d27-1, respectively. Replication of the amplicon stocks is not inhibited by the presence of AAV-2 Rep proteins, which highlights important differences between HSV-1 and adenovirus replication and the mechanism of providing helper function for productive AAV infection. Coinfection of rAAV and HSV-RC/KOS resulted in the replication and amplification of rAAV genomes. Similarly, rescue and replication of rAAV genomes occurred when rAAV vector plasmids were transfected into cells followed by HSV-RC/KOS infection and when two rAAV proviral cell lines were infected with HSV-RC/KOS or HSV-RC/d27. Production of infectious rAAV by rescue from two rAAV proviral cell lines has also been achieved with HSV-RC/KOS and HSV-RC/d27. The particle titer of rAAV produced with HSV-RC/d27 is equal to that achieved by supplying rep and cap by transfection followed by adenovirus superinfection. Importantly, no detectable wild-type AAV-2 is generated with this approach. These results demonstrate

  10. Intrathecal long-term gene expression by self-complementary adeno-associated virus type 1 suitable for chronic pain studies in rats

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    Janssen William GM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrathecal (IT gene transfer is an attractive approach for targeting spinal mechanisms of nociception but the duration of gene expression achieved by reported methods is short (up to two weeks impairing their utility in the chronic pain setting. The overall goal of this study was to develop IT gene transfer yielding true long-term transgene expression defined as ≥ 3 mo following a single vector administration. We defined "IT" administration as atraumatic injection into the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF modeling a lumbar puncture. Our studies focused on recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV, one of the most promising vector types for clinical use. Results Conventional single stranded rAAV2 vectors performed poorly after IT delivery in rats. Pseudotyping of rAAV with capsids of serotypes 1, 3, and 5 was tested alone or in combination with a modification of the inverted terminal repeat. The former alters vector tropism and the latter allows packaging of self-complementary rAAV (sc-rAAV vectors. Combining both types of modification led to the identification of sc-rAAV2/l as a vector that performed superiorly in the IT space. IT delivery of 3 × 10e9 sc-rAAV2/l particles per animal led to stable expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP for ≥ 3 mo detectable by Western blotting, quantitative PCR, and in a blinded study by confocal microscopy. Expression was strongest in the cauda equina and the lower sections of the spinal cord and only minimal in the forebrain. Microscopic examination of the SC fixed in situ with intact nerve roots and meninges revealed strong EGFP fluorescence in the nerve roots. Conclusion sc-rAAVl mediates stable IT transgene expression for ≥ 3 mo. Our findings support the underlying hypothesis that IT target cells for gene transfer lack the machinery for efficient conversion of the single-stranded rAAV genome into double-stranded DNA and favor uptake of serotype 1 vectors over 2

  11. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-delivered hypoxia-inducible stanniocalcin-1 expression effectively inhibits hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis in cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xin; Wang, Jianzhong; Qin, Yan

    2014-12-01

    Ischemia/hypoxia-induced oxidative stress is detrimental for the survival of cardiomyocytes and cardiac function. Stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1), a glycoprotein, has been found to play an inhibitory role in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we speculated that the overexpression of STC-1 might alleviate oxidative damage in cardiomyocytes under conditions of hypoxia. To control the expression of STC-1 in hypoxia, we constructed a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying the hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) to mediate hypoxia induction. Cardiomyocytes were infected with AAV-HRE-STC-1 and cultured in normoxic or hypoxic conditions, and STC-1 overexpression was only detected in hypoxic cultured cardiomyocytes by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Using the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, AAV-HRE-STC-1 infection was shown to significantly enhance cell survival under hypoxia. Hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis was inhibited by AAV-HRE-STC-1 infection by using the Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide apoptosis assay. Moreover, the proapoptotic protein Caspase-3 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, which were dysregulated by hypoxia, were reversed by AAV-HRE-STC-1 infection. AAV-HRE-STC-1-mediated STC-1 overexpression markedly inhibited ROS production in cardiomyocytes cultured under hypoxic conditions. AAV-HRE-STC-1 infection significantly upregulated uncoupled protein 3 (UCP3), whereas silencing of UCP3 blocked the inhibitory effect of AAV-HRE-STC-1 on ROS production. In contrast, AAV-HRE-STC-1 infection had no effect on UCP2, and knockdown of UCP2 did not block the inhibitory effect of AAV-HRE-STC-1 on ROS production in the cardiomyocytes cultured under hypoxic conditions. Taken together, STC1 activates antioxidant pathway in cardiomyocytes through the induction of UCP3, implying that AAV-HRE-STC-1 has potential in the treatment of ischemic

  12. Novel Vector Design and Hexosaminidase Variant Enabling Self-Complementary Adeno-Associated Virus for the Treatment of Tay-Sachs Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karumuthil-Melethil, Subha; Nagabhushan Kalburgi, Sahana; Thompson, Patrick; Tropak, Michael; Kaytor, Michael D; Keimel, John G; Mark, Brian L; Mahuran, Don; Walia, Jagdeep S; Gray, Steven J

    2016-07-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis is a family of three genetic neurodegenerative disorders caused by the accumulation of GM2 ganglioside (GM2) in neuronal tissue. Two of these are due to the deficiency of the heterodimeric (α-β), "A" isoenzyme of lysosomal β-hexosaminidase (HexA). Mutations in the α-subunit (encoded by HEXA) lead to Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), whereas mutations in the β-subunit (encoded by HEXB) lead to Sandhoff disease (SD). The third form results from a deficiency of the GM2 activator protein (GM2AP), a substrate-specific cofactor for HexA. In their infantile, acute forms, these diseases rapidly progress with mental and psychomotor deterioration resulting in death by approximately 4 years of age. After gene transfer that overexpresses one of the deficient subunits, the amount of HexA heterodimer formed would empirically be limited by the availability of the other endogenous Hex subunit. The present study used a new variant of the human HexA α-subunit, μ, incorporating critical sequences from the β-subunit that produce a stable homodimer (HexM) and promote functional interactions with the GM2AP- GM2 complex. We report the design of a compact adeno-associated viral (AAV) genome using a synthetic promoter-intron combination to allow self-complementary (sc) packaging of the HEXM gene. Also, a previously published capsid mutant, AAV9.47, was used to deliver the gene to brain and spinal cord while having restricted biodistribution to the liver. The novel capsid and cassette design combination was characterized in vivo in TSD mice for its ability to efficiently transduce cells in the central nervous system when delivered intravenously in both adult and neonatal mice. This study demonstrates that the modified HexM is capable of degrading long-standing GM2 storage in mice, and it further demonstrates the potential of this novel scAAV vector design to facilitate widespread distribution of the HEXM gene or potentially other similar-sized genes to the nervous system.

  13. Capsid Mutated Adeno-Associated Virus Delivered to the Anterior Chamber Results in Efficient Transduction of Trabecular Meshwork in Mouse and Rat.

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    Barbara Bogner

    Full Text Available Adeno associated virus (AAV is well known for its ability to deliver transgenes to retina and to mediate improvements in animal models and patients with inherited retinal disease. Although the field is less advanced, there is growing interest in AAV's ability to target cells of the anterior segment. The purpose of our study was to fully articulate a reliable and reproducible method for injecting the anterior chamber (AC of mice and rats and to investigate the transduction profiles of AAV2- and AAV8-based capsid mutants containing self-complementary (sc genomes in the anterior segment of the eye.AC injections were performed in C57BL/6 mice and Sprague Dawley rats. The cornea was punctured anterior of the iridocorneal angle. To seal the puncture site and to prevent reflux an air bubble was created in the AC. scAAVs expressing GFP were injected and transduction was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Both parent serotype and capsid modifications affected expression. scAAV2- based vectors mediated efficient GFP-signal in the corneal endothelium, ciliary non-pigmented epithelium (NPE, iris and chamber angle including trabecular meshwork, with scAAV2(Y444F and scAAV2(triple being the most efficient.This is the first study to semi quantitatively evaluate transduction of anterior segment tissues following injection of capsid-mutated AAV vectors. scAAV2- based vectors transduced corneal endothelium, ciliary NPE, iris and trabecular meshwork more effectively than scAAV8-based vectors. Mutagenesis of surface-exposed tyrosine residues greatly enhanced transduction efficiency of scAAV2 in these tissues. The number of Y-F mutations was not directly proportional to transduction efficiency, however, suggesting that proteosomal avoidance alone may not be sufficient. These results are applicable to the development of targeted, gene-based strategies to investigate pathological processes of the anterior segment and may be applied toward the development of gene

  14. Absolute determination of single-stranded and self-complementary adeno-associated viral vector genome titers by droplet digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Martin; Alvira, Mauricio R; Chen, Shu-Jen; Wilson, James M

    2014-04-01

    Accurate titration of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector genome copies is critical for ensuring correct and reproducible dosing in both preclinical and clinical settings. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is the current method of choice for titrating AAV genomes because of the simplicity, accuracy, and robustness of the assay. However, issues with qPCR-based determination of self-complementary AAV vector genome titers, due to primer-probe exclusion through genome self-annealing or through packaging of prematurely terminated defective interfering (DI) genomes, have been reported. Alternative qPCR, gel-based, or Southern blotting titering methods have been designed to overcome these issues but may represent a backward step from standard qPCR methods in terms of simplicity, robustness, and precision. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is a new PCR technique that directly quantifies DNA copies with an unparalleled degree of precision and without the need for a standard curve or for a high degree of amplification efficiency; all properties that lend themselves to the accurate quantification of both single-stranded and self-complementary AAV genomes. Here we compare a ddPCR-based AAV genome titer assay with a standard and an optimized qPCR assay for the titration of both single-stranded and self-complementary AAV genomes. We demonstrate absolute quantification of single-stranded AAV vector genomes by ddPCR with up to 4-fold increases in titer over a standard qPCR titration but with equivalent readout to an optimized qPCR assay. In the case of self-complementary vectors, ddPCR titers were on average 5-, 1.9-, and 2.3-fold higher than those determined by standard qPCR, optimized qPCR, and agarose gel assays, respectively. Droplet digital PCR-based genome titering was superior to qPCR in terms of both intra- and interassay precision and is more resistant to PCR inhibitors, a desirable feature for in-process monitoring of early-stage vector production and for vector genome biodistribution

  15. Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 9–Driven Expression of BAG3 Improves Left Ventricular Function in Murine Hearts With Left Ventricular Dysfunction Secondary to a Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Knezevic, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in Bcl-2–associated athanogene 3 (BAG3 were associated with skeletal muscle dysfunction and dilated cardiomyopathy. Retro-orbital injection of an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 expressing BAG3 (rAAV9-BAG3 significantly (p < 0.0001 improved left ventricular ejection fraction, fractional shortening, and stroke volume 9 days post-injection in mice with cardiac dysfunction secondary to a myocardial infarction. Furthermore, myocytes isolated from mice 3 weeks after injection showed improved cell shortening, enhanced systolic [Ca2+]i and increased [Ca2+]i transient amplitudes, and increased maximal L-type Ca2+ current amplitude. These results suggest that BAG3 gene therapy may provide a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of heart failure.

  16. Assessment of different virus-mediated approaches for retinal gene therapy of Usher 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vanda S; Diemer, Tanja; Williams, David S

    2014-01-01

    Usher syndrome type 1B, which is characterized by congenital deafness and progressive retinal degeneration, is caused by the loss of the function of MYO7A. Prevention of the retinal degeneration should be possible by delivering functional MYO7A to retinal cells. Although this approach has been used successfully in clinical trials for Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA2), it remains a challenge for Usher 1B because of the large size of the MYO7A cDNA. Different viral vectors have been tested for use in MYO7A gene therapy. Here, we review approaches with lentiviruses, which can accommodate larger genes, as well as attempts to use adeno-associated virus (AAV), which has a smaller packaging capacity. In conclusion, both types of viral vector appear to be effective. Despite concerns about the ability of lentiviruses to access the photoreceptor cells, a phenotype of the photoreceptors of Myo7a-mutant mice can be corrected. And although MYO7A cDNA is significantly larger than the nominal carrying capacity of AAV, AAV-MYO7A in single vectors also corrected Myo7a-mutant phenotypes in photoreceptor and RPE cells. Interestingly, however, a dual AAV vector approach was found to be much less effective.

  17. Antitumor activity and inhibitory effects on cancer stem cell-like properties of Adeno-associated virus (AAV) -mediated Bmi-1 interference driven by Bmi-1 promoter for gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Xinyang; Huang, Mingzhu; Gan, Lu; Cheng, Yufan; Li, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Bmi-1 is aberrantly activated in various cancers and plays a vital role in maintaining the self-renewal of stem cells. Our previous research revealed that Bmi-1 was overexpressed in gastric cancer (GC) and it's overexpression was an independent negative prognostic factor, suggesting it can be a therapeutic target. The main purpose of this investigation was to explore the antitumor activity of Bmi-1 interference driven by its own promoter (Ad-Bmi-1i) for GC. In this study, we used adenoviral vector to deliver Bmi-1 shRNA driven by its own promoter to treat GC. Our results revealed that Ad-Bmi-1i could selectively silence Bmi-1 in GC cells which overexpress Bmi-1 and suppress the malignant phenotypes and stem-like properties of GC cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, direct injection of Ad-Bmi-1i into xenografts suppressed tumor growth and destroyed cancer cells in vivo. Ad-Bmi-1i inhibited the proliferation of GC cells mainly via inducing senescence in vitro, but it suppressed tumor through inducing senescence and apoptosis, and inhibiting angiogenesis in vivo. Bmi-1 knockdown by Ad-Bmi-1i downregulated VEGF via inhibiting AKT activity. These results suggest that Ad-Bmi-1i not only inhibits tumor growth and stem cell-like phenotype by inducing cellular senescence directly, but also has an indirect anti-tumor activity by anti-angiogenesis effects via regulating PTEN/AKT/VEGF pathway. Transfer of gene interference guided by its own promoter by an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector might be a potent antitumor approach for cancer therapy. PMID:27009837

  18. Comparison of efficacy of the disease-specific LOX1- and constitutive cytomegalovirus-promoters in expressing interleukin 10 through adeno-associated virus 2/8 delivery in atherosclerotic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqing Zhu

    Full Text Available The development of gene therapy vectors for treating diseases of the cardiovascular system continues at a steady pace. Moreover, in the field of gene therapy the utility of "disease-specific promoters" has strong appeal. Many therapeutic genes, including transforming growth factor beta 1 or interleukin 10, are associated to adverse effects. The use of a disease-specific promoter might minimize toxicity. The lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 is a marker of cardiovascular disease and a potential therapeutic target. The lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 is known to be up-regulated early during disease onset in a number of cell types at the sites where the disease will be clinically evident. In this study an adeno-associated virus-2 DNA vector (AAV2 using the AAV8 capsid, and containing the full length The lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 promoter, was generated and assayed for its ability to express human interleukin 10 in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice on high cholesterol diet. The cytomegalovirus early promoter was used for comparison in a similarly structured vector. The two promoters were found to have equal efficacy in reducing atherogenesis as measured by aortic systolic blood velocity, aortic cross sectional area, and aortic wall thickness. This is the first head-to-head comparison of a constitutive with a disease-specific promoter in a therapeutic context. These data strongly suggest that the use of a disease-specific promoter is appropriate for therapeutic gene delivery.

  19. Restoration of central nervous system alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity and therapeutic benefits in mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB mice by a single intracisternal recombinant adeno-associated viral type 2 vector delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Haiyan; DiRosario, Julianne; Kang, Lu; Muenzer, Joseph; McCarty, Douglas M

    2010-07-01

    Finding efficient central nervous system (CNS) delivery approaches has been the major challenge facing therapeutic development for treating diseases with global neurological manifestation, such as mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IIIB, a lysosomal storage disease, caused by autosomal recessive defect of alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NaGlu). Previously, we developed an approach, intracisternal (i.c.) injection, to deliver recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector to the CNS of mice, leading to a widespread periventricular distribution of transduction. In the present study, we delivered rAAV2 vector expressing human NaGlu into the CNS of MPS IIIB mice by an i.c. injection approach, to test its therapeutic efficacy and feasibility for treating the neurological manifestation of the disease. We demonstrated significant functional neurological benefits of a single i.c. vector infusion in adult MPS IIIB mice. The treatment slowed the disease progression by mediating widespread recombinant NaGlu expression in the CNS, resulting in the reduction of brain lysosomal storage pathology, significantly improved cognitive function and prolonged survival. However, persisting motor function deficits suggested that pathology in areas outside the CNS contributes to the MPS IIIB behavioral phenotype. The therapeutic benefit of i.c. rAAV2 delivery was dose-dependent and could be attribute solely to the CNS transduction because the procedure did not lead to detectable transduction in somatic tissues. A single IC rAAV2 gene delivery is functionally beneficial for treating the CNS disease of MPS IIIB in mice. It is immediately clinically translatable, with the potential of improving the quality of life for patients with MPS IIIB.

  20. Cryo-electron Microscopy Reconstruction and Stability Studies of the Wild Type and the R432A Variant of Adeno-associated Virus Type 2 Reveal that Capsid Structural Stability Is a Major Factor in Genome Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Lauren M; Lins, Bridget; Janssen, Maria; Bennett, Antonette; Chipman, Paul; McKenna, Robert; Chen, Weijun; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Cardone, Giovanni; Baker, Timothy S; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2016-10-01

    The adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are promising therapeutic gene delivery vectors and better understanding of their capsid assembly and genome packaging mechanism is needed for improved vector production. Empty AAV capsids assemble in the nucleus prior to genome packaging by virally encoded Rep proteins. To elucidate the capsid determinants of this process, structural differences between wild-type (wt) AAV2 and a packaging deficient variant, AAV2-R432A, were examined using cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction both at an ∼5.0-Å resolution (medium) and also at 3.8- and 3.7-Å resolutions (high), respectively. The high resolution structures showed that removal of the arginine side chain in AAV2-R432A eliminated hydrogen bonding interactions, resulting in altered intramolecular and intermolecular interactions propagated from under the 3-fold axis toward the 5-fold channel. Consistent with these observations, differential scanning calorimetry showed an ∼10°C decrease in thermal stability for AAV2-R432A compared to wt-AAV2. In addition, the medium resolution structures revealed differences in the juxtaposition of the less ordered, N-terminal region of their capsid proteins, VP1/2/3. A structural rearrangement in AAV2-R432A repositioned the βA strand region under the icosahedral 2-fold axis rather than antiparallel to the βB strand, eliminating many intramolecular interactions. Thus, a single amino acid substitution can significantly alter the AAV capsid integrity to the extent of reducing its stability and possibly rendering it unable to tolerate the stress of genome packaging. Furthermore, the data show that the 2-, 3-, and 5-fold regions of the capsid contributed to producing the packaging defect and highlight a tight connection between the entire capsid in maintaining packaging efficiency. The mechanism of AAV genome packaging is still poorly understood, particularly with respect to the capsid determinants of the required capsid

  1. MicroRNAs and drug addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Kenny

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is considered a disorder of neuroplasticity in brain reward and cognition systems resulting from aberrant activation of gene expression programs in response to prolonged drug consumption. Noncoding RNAs are key regulators of almost all aspects of cellular physiology. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small (~21–23 nucleotides noncoding RNA transcripts that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recently, microRNAs were shown to play key roles in the drug-induced remodeling of brain reward systems that likely drives the emergence of addiction. Here, we review evidence suggesting that one particular miRNA, miR-212, plays a particularly prominent role in vulnerability to cocaine addiction. We review evidence showing that miR-212 expression is increased in the dorsal striatum of rats that show compulsive-like cocaine-taking behaviors. Increases in miR-212 expression appear to protect against cocaine addiction, as virus-mediated striatal miR-212 over-expression decreases cocaine consumption in rats. Conversely, disruption of striatal miR-212 signaling using an antisense oligonucleotide increases cocaine intake. We also review data that identify two mechanisms by which miR-212 may regulate cocaine intake. First, miR-212 has been shown to amplify striatal CREB signaling through a mechanism involving activation of Raf1 kinase. Second, miR-212 was also shown to regulate cocaine intake by repressing striatal expression of methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2, consequently decreasing protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. The concerted actions of miR-212 on striatal CREB and MeCP2/BDNF activity greatly attenuate the motivational effects of cocaine. These findings highlight the unique role for miRNAs in simultaneously controlling multiple signaling cascades implicated in addiction.

  2. Micro-RNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taipaleenmäki, H.; Hokland, L. B.; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    Osteoblast differentiation and bone formation (osteogenesis) are regulated by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Recently, a novel class of regulatory factors termed microRNAs has been identified as playing an important role in the regulation of many aspects of osteoblast biology...... including proliferation, differentiation, metabolism and apoptosis. Also, preliminary data from animal disease models suggest that targeting miRNAs in bone can be a novel approach to increase bone mass. This review highlights the current knowledge of microRNA biology and their role in bone formation...

  3. MicroRNA pharmacogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rukov, Jakob Lewin; Shomron, Noam

    2011-01-01

    polymorphisms, copy number variations or differences in gene expression levels of drug metabolizing or transporting genes and drug targets. In this review paper, we focus instead on microRNAs (miRNAs): small noncoding RNAs, prevalent in metazoans, that negatively regulate gene expression in many cellular...

  4. Virus-mediated swapping of zolpidem-insensitive with zolpidem-sensitive GABA(A) receptors in cortical pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumegi, Mate; Fukazawa, Yugo; Matsui, Ko; Lorincz, Andrea; Eyre, Mark D; Nusser, Zoltan; Shigemoto, Ryuichi

    2012-04-01

    Recently developed pharmacogenetic and optogenetic approaches, with their own advantages and disadvantages, have become indispensable tools in modern neuroscience. Here, we employed a previously described knock-in mouse line (GABA(A)Rγ2(77I)lox) in which the γ2 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) was mutated to become zolpidem insensitive (γ2(77I)) and used viral vectors to swap γ2(77I) with wild-type, zolpidem-sensitive γ2 subunits (γ2(77F)). The verification of unaltered density and subcellular distribution of the virally introduced γ2 subunits requires their selective labelling. For this we generated six N- and six C-terminal-tagged γ2 subunits, with which cortical cultures of GABA(A)Rγ2(−/−) mice were transduced using lentiviruses. We found that the N-terminal AU1 tag resulted in excellent immunodetection and unimpaired synaptic localization. Unaltered kinetic properties of the AU1-tagged γ2 ((AU1)γ2(77F)) channels were demonstrated with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of spontaneous IPSCs from cultured cells. Next, we carried out stereotaxic injections of lenti- and adeno-associated viruses containing Cre-recombinase and the (AU1)γ2(77F) subunit (Cre-2A-(AU1)γ2(77F)) into the neocortex of GABA(A)Rγ2(77I)lox mice. Light microscopic immunofluorescence and electron microscopic freeze-fracture replica immunogold labelling demonstrated the efficient immunodetection of the AU1 tag and the normal enrichment of the (AU1)γ2(77F) subunits in perisomatic GABAergic synapses. In line with this,miniature and action potential-evoked IPSCs whole-cell recorded from transduced cells had unaltered amplitudes, kinetics and restored zolpidem sensitivity. Our results obtained with a wide range of structural and functional verification methods reveal unaltered subcellular distributions and functional properties of γ2(77I) and (AU1)γ2(77F) GABA(A)Rs in cortical pyramidal cells. This transgenic–viral pharmacogenetic approach has the advantage that it

  5. MicroRNA-15b Modulates Molecular Mediators of Blood Induced Arthropathy in Hemophilia Mice

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    Dwaipayan Sen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of arthropathy is a major co-morbidity in patients with hemophilia. The present study was designed to study the role of a microRNA biomarker (miR-15b in the development of joint disease. To investigate the expression profile of miR-15b during the development of arthropathy, we first isolated and studied small RNA from the acute and chronic hemarthrosis model of hemophilia A mice. We observed that miR-15b was consistently repressed (~1- to 4-fold from the onset of joint bleeding (1, 3, 7 and 24 h until six bleeding episodes (up to 90 days. To test if reconstitution of miR-15b modulates biomarkers of joint damage in a chronic hemarthrosis model, we administered an adeno-associated virus (AAV 5-miR-15b vector intra-articularly alone or in combination with systemic administration of AAV2-factor VIII. miR-15b overexpression downregulated markers of angiogenesis and hypoxia (vascular epithelial growth factor α (VEGF-α and hypoxia inducing factor 2α (HIF-2α, ~70% and ~34%, respectively in the affected joints. In addition, the co-administration of miR-15b and factor VIII vectors reduced the levels of the chondrodegenerative matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs 1, 3, 9 and 14 (~14% to 60% in the injured joints. These data demonstrate for the first time the role of a miR-15b in the development of hemophilic arthropathy and has implications in development of miR based therapies for joint disease.

  6. Intronic microRNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, S.-Y.; Lin, S.-L.

    2005-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small single-stranded regulatory RNAs capable of interfering with intracellular mRNAs that contain partial complementarity, are useful for the design of new therapies against cancer polymorphism and viral mutation. MiRNA was originally discovered in the intergenic regions of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome as native RNA fragments that modulate a wide range of genetic regulatory pathways during animal development. However, neither RNA promoter nor polymerase responsible for miRNA biogenesis was determined. Recent findings of intron-derived miRNA in C. elegans, mouse, and human have inevitably led to an alternative pathway for miRNA biogenesis, which relies on the coupled interaction of Pol-II-mediated pre-mRNA transcription and intron excision, occurring in certain nuclear regions proximal to genomic perichromatin fibrils

  7. Isolation of microRNA targets using biotinylated synthetic microRNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørom, Ulf Andersson; Lund, Anders H

    2007-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small regulatory RNAs found in multicellular organisms where they post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. In animals, microRNAs bind mRNAs via incomplete base pairings making the identification of microRNA targets inherently difficult. Here, we present a detailed method...... for experimental identification of microRNA targets based on affinity purification of tagged microRNAs associated with their targets. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Oct...

  8. Combinatorial microRNA target predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krek, Azra; Grün, Dominic; Poy, Matthew N.

    2005-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that recognize and bind to partially complementary sites in the 3' untranslated regions of target genes in animals and, by unknown mechanisms, regulate protein production of the target transcript1, 2, 3. Different combinations of microRNAs are expressed...... in different cell types and may coordinately regulate cell-specific target genes. Here, we present PicTar, a computational method for identifying common targets of microRNAs. Statistical tests using genome-wide alignments of eight vertebrate genomes, PicTar's ability to specifically recover published micro......RNA targets, and experimental validation of seven predicted targets suggest that PicTar has an excellent success rate in predicting targets for single microRNAs and for combinations of microRNAs. We find that vertebrate microRNAs target, on average, roughly 200 transcripts each. Furthermore, our results...

  9. MicroRNA and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Martin D; Lund, Anders H

    2012-01-01

    biological phenomena and pathologies. The best characterized non-coding RNA family consists in humans of about 1400 microRNAs for which abundant evidence have demonstrated fundamental importance in normal development, differentiation, growth control and in human diseases such as cancer. In this review, we...... summarize the current knowledge and concepts concerning the involvement of microRNAs in cancer, which have emerged from the study of cell culture and animal model systems, including the regulation of key cancer-related pathways, such as cell cycle control and the DNA damage response. Importantly, micro...

  10. Virus-mediated shRNA knockdown of prodynorphin in the rat nucleus accumbens attenuates depression-like behavior and cocaine locomotor sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ami; Whitfield, Timothy W; Kreifeldt, Max; Koebel, Pascale; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Contet, Candice; George, Olivier; Koob, George F

    2014-01-01

    Dynorphins, endogenous opioid peptides that arise from the precursor protein prodynorphin (Pdyn), are hypothesized to be involved in the regulation of mood states and the neuroplasticity associated with addiction. The current study tested the hypothesis that dynorphin in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) mediates such effects. More specifically, we examined whether knockdown of Pdyn within the NAcc in rats would alter the expression of depressive-like and anxiety-like behavior, as well as cocaine locomotor sensitization. Wistar rats were injected with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors encoding either a Pdyn-specific short hairpin RNA (AAV-shPdyn) or a scrambled shRNA (AAV-shScr) as control. Four weeks later, rats were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze test and depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST). Finally, rats received one daily injection of saline or cocaine (20 mg/kg, i.p.), followed by assessment of locomotion for 4 consecutive days. Following 3 days of abstinence, the rats completed 2 additional daily cocaine/saline locomotor trials. Pdyn knockdown in the NAcc led to a significant reduction in depressive-like behavior in the FST, but had no effect on anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Pdyn knockdown did not alter baseline locomotor behavior, the locomotor response to acute cocaine, or the initial sensitization of the locomotor response to cocaine over the first 4 cocaine treatment days. However, following 3 days abstinence the locomotor response to the cocaine challenge returned to their original levels in the AAV-shPdyn rats while remaining heightened in the AAV-shScr rats. These results suggest that dynorphin in a very specific area of the nucleus accumbens contributes to depressive-like states and may be involved in neuroadaptations in the NAcc that contribute to the development of cocaine addiction as a persistent and lasting condition.

  11. Virus-mediated shRNA knockdown of prodynorphin in the rat nucleus accumbens attenuates depression-like behavior and cocaine locomotor sensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Cohen

    Full Text Available Dynorphins, endogenous opioid peptides that arise from the precursor protein prodynorphin (Pdyn, are hypothesized to be involved in the regulation of mood states and the neuroplasticity associated with addiction. The current study tested the hypothesis that dynorphin in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc mediates such effects. More specifically, we examined whether knockdown of Pdyn within the NAcc in rats would alter the expression of depressive-like and anxiety-like behavior, as well as cocaine locomotor sensitization. Wistar rats were injected with adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors encoding either a Pdyn-specific short hairpin RNA (AAV-shPdyn or a scrambled shRNA (AAV-shScr as control. Four weeks later, rats were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze test and depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST. Finally, rats received one daily injection of saline or cocaine (20 mg/kg, i.p., followed by assessment of locomotion for 4 consecutive days. Following 3 days of abstinence, the rats completed 2 additional daily cocaine/saline locomotor trials. Pdyn knockdown in the NAcc led to a significant reduction in depressive-like behavior in the FST, but had no effect on anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Pdyn knockdown did not alter baseline locomotor behavior, the locomotor response to acute cocaine, or the initial sensitization of the locomotor response to cocaine over the first 4 cocaine treatment days. However, following 3 days abstinence the locomotor response to the cocaine challenge returned to their original levels in the AAV-shPdyn rats while remaining heightened in the AAV-shScr rats. These results suggest that dynorphin in a very specific area of the nucleus accumbens contributes to depressive-like states and may be involved in neuroadaptations in the NAcc that contribute to the development of cocaine addiction as a persistent and lasting condition.

  12. Sustained Inhibition of HBV Replication In Vivo after Systemic Injection of AAVs Encoding Artificial Antiviral Primary MicroRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maepa, Mohube Betty; Ely, Abdullah; Grayson, Wayne; Arbuthnot, Patrick

    2017-06-16

    Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a problem of global significance and improving available treatment is important to prevent life-threatening complications arising in persistently infected individuals. HBV is susceptible to silencing by exogenous artificial intermediates of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. However, toxicity of Pol III cassettes and short duration of silencing by effectors of the RNAi pathway may limit anti-HBV therapeutic utility. To advance RNAi-based HBV gene silencing, mono- and trimeric artificial primary microRNAs (pri-miRs) derived from pri-miR-31 were placed under control of the liver-specific modified murine transthyretin promoter. The sequences, which target the X sequence of HBV, were incorporated into recombinant hepatotropic self-complementary adeno-associated viruses (scAAVs). Systemic intravenous injection of the vectors into HBV transgenic mice at a dose of 1 × 10 11 per animal effected significant suppression of markers of HBV replication for at least 32 weeks. The pri-miRs were processed according to the intended design, and intrahepatic antiviral guide sequences were detectable for 40 weeks after the injection. There was no evidence of toxicity, and innate immunostimulation was not detectable following the injections. This efficacy is an improvement on previously reported RNAi-based inhibition of HBV replication and is important to clinical translation of the technology. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. MicroRNA involvement in glioblastoma pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakova, Jana; Slaby, Ondrej; Vyzula, Rostislav; Michalek, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenously expressed regulatory noncoding RNAs. Altered expression levels of several microRNAs have been observed in glioblastomas. Functions and direct mRNA targets for these microRNAs have been relatively well studied over the last years. According to these data, it is now evident, that impairment of microRNA regulatory network is one of the key mechanisms in glioblastoma pathogenesis. MicroRNA deregulation is involved in processes such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, invasion, glioma stem cell behavior, and angiogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of miRNA functions in glioblastoma with an emphasis on its significance in glioblastoma oncogenic signaling and its potential to serve as a disease biomarker and a novel therapeutic target in oncology.

  14. MicroRNA function in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthew, Richard W; Agbu, Pamela; Giri, Ritika

    2017-05-01

    Over the last decade, microRNAs have emerged as critical regulators in the expression and function of animal genomes. This review article discusses the relationship between microRNA-mediated regulation and the biology of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We focus on the roles that microRNAs play in tissue growth, germ cell development, hormone action, and the development and activity of the central nervous system. We also discuss the ways in which microRNAs affect robustness. Many gene regulatory networks are robust; they are relatively insensitive to the precise values of reaction constants and concentrations of molecules acting within the networks. MicroRNAs involved in robustness appear to be nonessential under uniform conditions used in conventional laboratory experiments. However, the robust functions of microRNAs can be revealed when environmental or genetic variation otherwise has an impact on developmental outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. MicroRNAs in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    lymphoma. Genes Chromosom. Cancer 39:167–69 131. O’Connell RM, Taganov KD, Boldin MP, Cheng G, Baltimore D. 2007. MicroRNA-155 is induced during the...carcinoma. J. Virol. 81:1033–36 155. Xi Y, Nakajima G, Gavin E, Morris CG, Kudo K, et al. 2007. Systematic analysis of microRNA expression of RNA extracted ...diversity. miRNAs were extracted from the unique sequences by searching against miRNA database (miRbase release 10.0; http://microrna.sanger.ac.uk

  16. MicroRNAs in right ventricular remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batkai, Sandor; Bär, Christian; Thum, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Right ventricular (RV) remodelling is a lesser understood process of the chronic, progressive transformation of the RV structure leading to reduced functional capacity and subsequent failure. Besides conditions concerning whole hearts, some pathology selectively affects the RV, leading to a distinct RV-specific clinical phenotype. MicroRNAs have been identified as key regulators of biological processes that drive the progression of chronic diseases. The role of microRNAs in diseases affecting the left ventricle has been studied for many years, however there is still limited information on microRNAs specific to diseases in the right ventricle. Here, we review recently described details on the expression, regulation, and function of microRNAs in the pathological remodelling of the right heart. Recently identified strategies using microRNAs as pharmacological targets or biomarkers will be highlighted. Increasing knowledge of pathogenic microRNAs will finally help improve our understanding of underlying distinct mechanisms and help utilize novel targets or biomarkers to develop treatments for patients suffering from right heart diseases. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Epigenetic microRNA Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, Erik Digman

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to complementary sequences in the 3’UTR of target mRNAs in the cytoplasm. However, recent evidence suggests that certain miRNAs are enriched in the nucleus, and their t......MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to complementary sequences in the 3’UTR of target mRNAs in the cytoplasm. However, recent evidence suggests that certain miRNAs are enriched in the nucleus...

  18. MicroRNAs and Presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Wu, Junwu; Jiang, Wenjing; Tang, Jianguo

    2018-02-01

    Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) is the most universal sensory degenerative disease in elderly people caused by the degeneration of cochlear cells. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) play a fundamental role in gene regulation in almost every multicellular organism, and control the aging processes. It has been identified that various miRNAs are up- or down-regulated during mammalian aging processes in tissue-specific manners. Most miRNAs bind to specific sites on their target messenger-RNAs (mRNAs) and decrease their expression. Germline mutation may lead to dysregulation of potential miRNAs expression, causing progressive hair cell degeneration and age-related hearing loss. Therapeutic innovations could emerge from a better understanding of diverse function of miRNAs in presbycusis. This review summarizes the relationship between miRNAs and presbycusis, and presents novel miRNAs-targeted strategies against presbycusis.

  19. MicroRNAs as regulatory elements in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic, autoimmune, and complex genetic disorder that affects 23% of the European population. The symptoms of Psoriatic skin are inflammation, raised and scaly lesions. microRNA, which is short, nonprotein-coding, regulatory RNAs, plays critical roles in psoriasis. microRNA participates in nearly all biological processes, such as cell differentiation, development and metabolism. Recent researches reveal that multitudinous novel microRNAs have been identified in skin. Some of these substantial novel microRNAs play as a class of posttranscriptional gene regulator in skin disease, such as psoriasis. In order to insight into microRNAs biological functions and verify microRNAs biomarker, we review diverse references about characterization, profiling and subtype of microRNAs. Here we will share our opinions about how and which microRNAs are as regulatory in psoriasis.

  20. MicroRNAs: role and therapeutic targets in viral hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Meike H.; de Bruijne, Joep; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Jansen, Peter Lm; Reesink, Hendrik W.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs regulate gene expression by binding to the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). The importance of microRNAs has been shown for several liver diseases, for example, viral hepatitis. MicroRNA-122 is highly abundant in the liver and is involved in the regulation of

  1. Role of microRNAs in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, S Manoj Kumar; Bhat, B Vishnu

    2017-07-01

    MicroRNAs have been found to be of high significance in the regulation of various genes and processes in the body. Sepsis is a serious clinical problem which arises due to the excessive host inflammatory response to infection. The non-specific clinical features and delayed diagnosis of sepsis has been a matter of concern for long time. MicroRNAs could enable better diagnosis of sepsis and help in the identification of the various stages of sepsis. Improved diagnosis may enable quicker and more effective treatment measures. The initial acute and transient phase of sepsis involves excessive secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines which causes severe damage. MicroRNAs negatively regulate the toll-like receptor signaling pathway and regulate the production of inflammatory cytokines during sepsis. Likewise, microRNAs have shown to regulate the vascular barrier and endothelial function in sepsis. They are also involved in the regulation of the apoptosis, immunosuppression, and organ dysfunction in later stages of sepsis. Their importance at various levels of the pathophysiology of sepsis has been discussed along with the challenges and future perspectives. MicroRNAs could be key players in the diagnosis and staging of sepsis. Their regulation at various stages of sepsis suggests that they may have an important role in altering the outcome associated with sepsis.

  2. MicroRNAs, epigenetics and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silahtaroglu, Asli; Stenvang, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetics is defined as the heritable chances that affect gene expression without changing the DNA sequence. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression can be through different mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and nucleosome positioning. MicroRNAs are short RNA molecules...... which do not code for a protein but have a role in post-transcriptional silencing of multiple target genes by binding to their 3' UTRs (untranslated regions). Both epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, and the microRNAs are crucial for normal differentiation...... diseases. In the present chapter we will mainly focus on microRNAs and methylation and their implications in human disease, mainly in cancer....

  3. microRNAs in mycobacterial disease: friend or foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manali D Mehta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As the role of microRNA in all aspects of biology continues to be unraveled, the interplay between microRNAs and human disease is becoming clearer. It should come of no surprise that microRNAs play a major part in the outcome of infectious diseases, since early work has implicated microRNAs as regulators of the immune response. Here, we provide a review on how microRNAs influence the course of mycobacterial infections, which cause two of humanity’s most ancient infectious diseases: tuberculosis and leprosy. Evidence derived from profiling and functional experiments suggests that regulation of specific microRNAs during infection can either enhance the immune response or facilitate pathogen immune evasion. Now, it remains to be seen if the manipulation of host cell microRNA profiles can be an opportunity for therapeutic intervention for these difficult-to-treat diseases.

  4. C. elegans microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Monica C; Slack, Frank J

    2005-09-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding regulatory RNAs found in many phyla that control such diverse events as development, metabolism, cell fate and cell death. They have also been implicated in human cancers. The C. elegans genome encodes hundreds of miRNAs, including the founding members of the miRNA family lin-4 and let-7. Despite the abundance of C. elegans miRNAs, few miRNA targets are known and little is known about the mechanism by which they function. However, C. elegans research continues to push the boundaries of discovery in this area. lin-4 and let-7 are the best understood miRNAs. They control the timing of adult cell fate determination in hypodermal cells by binding to partially complementary sites in the mRNA of key developmental regulators to repress protein expression. For example, lin-4 is predicted to bind to seven sites in the lin-14 3' untranslated region (UTR) to repress LIN-14, while let-7 is predicted to bind two let-7 complementary sites in the lin-41 3' UTR to down-regulate LIN-41. Two other miRNAs, lsy-6 and mir-273, control left-right asymmetry in neural development, and also target key developmental regulators for repression. Approximately one third of the C. elegans miRNAs are differentially expressed during development indicating a major role for miRNAs in C. elegans development. Given the remarkable conservation of developmental mechanism across phylogeny, many of the principles of miRNAs discovered in C. elegans are likely to be applicable to higher animals.

  5. MicroRNA mimicry blocks pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montgomery, Rusty L; Yu, Guoying; Latimer, Paul A; Stack, Christianna; Robinson, Kathryn; Dalby, Christina M; Kaminski, Naftali; van Rooij, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, great enthusiasm has evolved for microRNA (miRNA) therapeutics. Part of the excitement stems from the fact that a miRNA often regulates numerous related mRNAs. As such, modulation of a single miRNA allows for parallel regulation of multiple genes involved in a particular

  6. MicroRNAs in skin tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kyle J; Brown, David A; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Ramchal, Talisha D; Levinson, Howard

    2015-07-01

    35.2 million annual cases in the U.S. require clinical intervention for major skin loss. To meet this demand, the field of skin tissue engineering has grown rapidly over the past 40 years. Traditionally, skin tissue engineering relies on the "cell-scaffold-signal" approach, whereby isolated cells are formulated into a three-dimensional substrate matrix, or scaffold, and exposed to the proper molecular, physical, and/or electrical signals to encourage growth and differentiation. However, clinically available bioengineered skin equivalents (BSEs) suffer from a number of drawbacks, including time required to generate autologous BSEs, poor allogeneic BSE survival, and physical limitations such as mass transfer issues. Additionally, different types of skin wounds require different BSE designs. MicroRNA has recently emerged as a new and exciting field of RNA interference that can overcome the barriers of BSE design. MicroRNA can regulate cellular behavior, change the bioactive milieu of the skin, and be delivered to skin tissue in a number of ways. While it is still in its infancy, the use of microRNAs in skin tissue engineering offers the opportunity to both enhance and expand a field for which there is still a vast unmet clinical need. Here we give a review of skin tissue engineering, focusing on the important cellular processes, bioactive mediators, and scaffolds. We further discuss potential microRNA targets for each individual component, and we conclude with possible future applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Targeting of microRNAs for therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenvang, Jan; Lindow, Morten; Kauppinen, Sakari

    2008-01-01

    miRNAs (microRNAs) comprise a class of small endogenous non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally repress gene expression by base-pairing with their target mRNAs. Recent evidence has shown that miRNAs play important roles in a wide variety of human diseases, such as viral infections, cancer...

  8. MicroRNAs, Regulatory Networks, and Comorbidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, Francesco; Belling, Kirstine; Jensen, Anders Boeck

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Each miRNA targets a specific set of mRNAs. Upon binding the miRNA inhibits mRNA translation or facilitate mRNA degradation. miRNAs are frequently deregulated in several pathologies...

  9. MicroRNA signature of the human developing pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa-Medina Mayrin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression including differentiation and development by either inhibiting translation or inducing target degradation. The aim of this study is to determine the microRNA expression signature during human pancreatic development and to identify potential microRNA gene targets calculating correlations between the signature microRNAs and their corresponding mRNA targets, predicted by bioinformatics, in genome-wide RNA microarray study. Results The microRNA signature of human fetal pancreatic samples 10-22 weeks of gestational age (wga, was obtained by PCR-based high throughput screening with Taqman Low Density Arrays. This method led to identification of 212 microRNAs. The microRNAs were classified in 3 groups: Group number I contains 4 microRNAs with the increasing profile; II, 35 microRNAs with decreasing profile and III with 173 microRNAs, which remain unchanged. We calculated Pearson correlations between the expression profile of microRNAs and target mRNAs, predicted by TargetScan 5.1 and miRBase altgorithms, using genome-wide mRNA expression data. Group I correlated with the decreasing expression of 142 target mRNAs and Group II with the increasing expression of 876 target mRNAs. Most microRNAs correlate with multiple targets, just as mRNAs are targeted by multiple microRNAs. Among the identified targets are the genes and transcription factors known to play an essential role in pancreatic development. Conclusions We have determined specific groups of microRNAs in human fetal pancreas that change the degree of their expression throughout the development. A negative correlative analysis suggests an intertwined network of microRNAs and mRNAs collaborating with each other. This study provides information leading to potential two-way level of combinatorial control regulating gene expression through microRNAs targeting multiple mRNAs and, conversely, target mRNAs regulated in

  10. MicroRNA from tuberculosis RNA: A bioinformatics study

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwanitkit, Somsri; Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2012-01-01

    The role of microRNA in the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis is the interesting topic in chest medicine at present. Recently, it was proposed that the microRNA can be a useful biomarker for monitoring of pulmonary tuberculosis and might be the important part in pathogenesis of disease. Here, the authors perform a bioinformatics study to assess the microRNA within known tuberculosis RNA. The microRNA part can be detected and this can be important key information in further study of the p...

  11. MicroRNA expression profiling of the porcine developing brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolska, Agnieszka; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Busk, Peter Kamp

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play an important role in the control of developmental and physiological processes. In particular, the developing brain contains an impressive diversity of microRNAs. Most micro...... and the growth curve when compared to humans. Considering these similarities, studies examining microRNA expression during porcine brain development could potentially be used to predict the expression profile and role of microRNAs in the human brain....

  12. MicroRNA and gene signature of severe cutaneous drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To build a microRNA and gene signature of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCAR), including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Methods: MicroRNA expression profiles were downloaded from miRNA expression profile of patients' skin suffering from TEN using an ...

  13. Diet-responsive microRNAs are likely exogenous

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a recent report Title "et al". fostered miRNA-375 and miR-200c knock-out pups to wild-type dams and arrived at the conclusion that milk microRNAs are bioavailable in trace amounts at best and that postprandial concentrations of microRNAs are too low to elicit biological effects. Their take home m...

  14. MicroRNA and gene signature of severe cutaneous drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    greater than 30 % of the same patients [5]. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of SJS and TEN are not fully elucidated. MicroRNAs or miRs are single stranded RNAs that are capable of posttranscriptional gene regulation via targeting their Mrna [6]. MicroRNAs are very important regulators in many human diseases, for instance,.

  15. Rapid Generation of MicroRNA Sponges for MicroRNA Inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluiver, Joost; Gibcus, Johan H.; Hettinga, Chris; Adema, Annelies; Richter, Mareike K. S.; Halsema, Nancy; Slezak-Prochazka, Izabella; Ding, Ye; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; van den Berg, Anke

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) sponges are transcripts with repeated miRNA antisense sequences that can sequester miRNAs from endogenous targets. MiRNA sponges are valuable tools for miRNA loss-of-function studies both in vitro and in vivo. We developed a fast and flexible method to generate miRNA sponges and

  16. Regulation of cardiac microRNAs by serum response factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jeanne Y

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Serum response factor (SRF regulates certain microRNAs that play a role in cardiac and skeletal muscle development. However, the role of SRF in the regulation of microRNA expression and microRNA biogenesis in cardiac hypertrophy has not been well established. In this report, we employed two distinct transgenic mouse models to study the impact of SRF on cardiac microRNA expression and microRNA biogenesis. Cardiac-specific overexpression of SRF (SRF-Tg led to altered expression of a number of microRNAs. Interestingly, downregulation of miR-1, miR-133a and upregulation of miR-21 occurred by 7 days of age in these mice, long before the onset of cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that SRF overexpression impacted the expression of microRNAs which contribute to cardiac hypertrophy. Reducing cardiac SRF level using the antisense-SRF transgenic approach (Anti-SRF-Tg resulted in the expression of miR-1, miR-133a and miR-21 in the opposite direction. Furthermore, we observed that SRF regulates microRNA biogenesis, specifically the transcription of pri-microRNA, thereby affecting the mature microRNA level. The mir-21 promoter sequence is conserved among mouse, rat and human; one SRF binding site was found to be in the mir-21 proximal promoter region of all three species. The mir-21 gene is regulated by SRF and its cofactors, including myocardin and p49/Strap. Our study demonstrates that the downregulation of miR-1, miR-133a, and upregulation of miR-21 can be reversed by one single upstream regulator, SRF. These results may help to develop novel therapeutic interventions targeting microRNA biogenesis.

  17. Adeno-associated virus LPL(S447X) gene therapy in LDL receptor knockout mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rip, Jaap; Sierts, Jeroen A.; Vaessen, Stefan F. C.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Twisk, Jaap; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overexpression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) protects against atherosclerosis in genetically engineered mice. We tested whether a gene therapy vector that delivers human (h) LPL(S447X) cDNA to skeletal muscle could induce similar effects. METHODS: LDL receptor knockout (LDLr-/-) mice were

  18. Generation of insulin-producing human mesenchymal stem cells using recombinant adeno-associated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Hwan; Park, Si-Nae; Suh, Hwal

    2007-02-28

    The purpose of current experiment is the generation of insulin-producing human mesenchymal stem cells as therapeutic source for the cure of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is generally caused by insulin deficiency accompanied by the destruction of islet beta-cells. In various trials for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, cell-based gene therapy using stem cells is considered as one of the most useful candidate for the treatment. In this experiment, human mesenchymal stem cells were transduced with AAV which is containing furin-cleavable human preproinsulin gene to generate insulin-producing cells as surrogate beta-cells for the type 1 diabetes therapy. In the rAAV production procedure, rAAV was generated by transfection of AD293 cells. Human mesenchymal stems cells were transduced using rAAV with a various multiplicity of infection. Transduction of recombinant AAV was also tested using beta-galactosidse expression. Cell viability was determined by using MTT assay to evaluate the toxicity of the transduction procedure. Expression and production of Insulin were tested using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. Secretion of human insulin and C-peptide from the cells was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Production of insulin and C-peptide from the test group represented a higher increase compared to the control group. In this study, we examined generation of insulin-producing cells from mesenchymal stem cells by genetic engineering for diabetes therapy. This work might be valuable to the field of tissue engineering for diabetes treatment.

  19. Adeno-associated viral vector serotype 5 poorly transduces liver in rat models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula S Montenegro-Miranda

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies in mice and non-human primates showed that AAV serotype 5 provides efficient liver transduction and as such seems a promising vector for liver directed gene therapy. An advantage of AAV5 compared to serotype 8 already shown to provide efficient correction in a phase 1 trial in patients suffering from hemophilia B, is its lower seroprevalence in the general population. Our goal is liver directed gene therapy for Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I, inherited severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia caused by UGT1A1 deficiency. In a relevant animal model, the Gunn rat, we compared the efficacy of AAV 5 and 8 to that of AAV1 previously shown to be effective. Ferrying a construct driving hepatocyte specific expression of UGT1A1, both AAV8 and AAV1 provided an efficient correction of hyperbilirubinemia. In contrast to these two and to other animal models AAV5 failed to provide any correction. To clarify whether this unexpected finding was due to the rat model used or due to a problem with AAV5, the efficacy of this serotype was compared in a mouse and two additional rat strains. Administration of an AAV5 vector expressing luciferase under the control of a liver specific promoter confirmed that this serotype poorly performed in rat liver, rendering it not suitable for proof of concept studies in this species.

  20. Activation of the cellular unfolded protein response by recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Balakrishnan

    Full Text Available The unfolded protein response (UPR is a stress-induced cyto-protective mechanism elicited towards an influx of large amount of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. In the present study, we evaluated if AAV manipulates the UPR pathways during its infection. We first examined the role of the three major UPR axes, namely, endoribonuclease inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1α, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6 and PKR-like ER kinase (PERK in AAV infected cells. Total RNA from mock or AAV infected HeLa cells were used to determine the levels of 8 different ER-stress responsive transcripts from these pathways. We observed a significant up-regulation of IRE1α (up to 11 fold and PERK (up to 8 fold genes 12-48 hours after infection with self-complementary (scAAV2 but less prominent with single-stranded (ssAAV2 vectors. Further studies demonstrated that scAAV1 and scAAV6 also induce cellular UPR in vitro, with AAV1 vectors activating the PERK pathway (3 fold while AAV6 vectors induced a significant increase on all the three major UPR pathways [6-16 fold]. These data suggest that the type and strength of UPR activation is dependent on the viral capsid. We then examined if transient inhibition of UPR pathways by RNA interference has an effect on AAV transduction. siRNA mediated silencing of PERK and IRE1α had a modest effect on AAV2 and AAV6 mediated gene expression (∼1.5-2 fold in vitro. Furthermore, hepatic gene transfer of scAAV2 vectors in vivo, strongly elevated IRE1α and PERK pathways (2 and 3.5 fold, respectively. However, when animals were pre-treated with a pharmacological UPR inhibitor (metformin during scAAV2 gene transfer, the UPR signalling and its subsequent inflammatory response was attenuated concomitant to a modest 2.8 fold increase in transgene expression. Collectively, these data suggest that AAV vectors activate the cellular UPR pathways and their selective inhibition may be beneficial during AAV mediated gene transfer.

  1. Subpial Adeno-associated Virus 9 (AAV9) Vector Delivery in Adult Mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tadokoro, T.; Miyanohara, A.; Navarro, M.; Kamizato, K.; Juhás, Štefan; Juhásová, Jana; Maršala, S.; Platoshyn, O.; Curtis, E.; Gabel, B.; Ciacci, J. D.; Lukáčová, N.; Bimbová, K.; Maršala, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 125, č. 13 (2017), č. článku e55770. ISSN 1940-087X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1609 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : AAV9 * adult mouse Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics OBOR OECD: Technologies involving the manipulation of cells, tissues, organs or the whole organism (assisted reproduction) Impact factor: 1.232, year: 2016

  2. MicroRNAs in mantle cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, Simon; Geisler, Christian; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare and aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. New treatment modalities, including intensive induction regimens with immunochemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant, have improved survival. However, many patients still relapse, and there is a need...... for novel therapeutic strategies. Recent progress has been made in the understanding of the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in MCL. Comparisons of tumor samples from patients with MCL with their normal counterparts (naive B-cells) have identified differentially expressed miRNAs with roles in cellular growth...

  3. MicroRNA regulation of Autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Lisa B; Lund, Anders H

    2012-01-01

    recently contributed to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the autophagy machinery, yet several gaps remain in our knowledge of this process. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) established a new paradigm of post-transcriptional gene regulation and during the past decade these small non......RNAs to regulation of the autophagy pathway. This regulation occurs both through specific core pathway components as well as through less well-defined mechanisms. Although this field is still in its infancy, we are beginning to understand the potential implications of these initial findings, both from a pathological...

  4. MicroRNA Delivery for Regenerative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Bo; Chen, Yongming; Leong, Kam W.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) directs post-transcriptional regulation of a network of genes by targeting mRNA. Although relatively recent in development, many miRNAs direct differentiation of various stem cells including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), a major player in regenerative medicine. An effective and safe delivery of miRNA holds the key to translating miRNA technologies. Both viral and nonviral delivery systems have seen success in miRNA delivery, and each approach possesses advantages an...

  5. MicroRNAs in sensorineural diseases of the ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy eUshakov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding microRNAs have a fundamental role in gene regulation and expression in almost every multicellular organism. Only discovered in the last decade, microRNAs are already known to play a leading role in many aspects of disease. In the vertebrate inner ear, microRNAs are essential for controlling development and survival of hair cells. Moreover, dysregulation of microRNAs has been implicated in sensorineural hearing impairment, as well as in other ear diseases such as cholesteatomas, vestibular schwannomas and otitis media. Due to the inaccessibility of the ear in humans, animal models have provided the optimal tools to study microRNA expression and function, in particular mice and zebrafish. A major focus of current research has been to discover the targets of the microRNAs expressed in the inner ear, in order to determine the regulatory pathways of the auditory and vestibular systems. The potential for microRNA manipulation in development of therapeutic tools for hearing impairment is as yet unexplored, paving the way for future work in the field.

  6. New research progress of microRNAs in retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zeng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma(RBis the most common intraocular malignancy of children with extremely poor prognosis. MicroRNAs are small non-coding single-stranded RNAs in eukaryotic cells, which regulate the expression of gene by mRNA degradation or translation inhibition. MicroRNAs, acting as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, are associated with the occurrence and development of RB directly, which is vital for the early diagnosis and clinical targeted therapy of RB. This review summarized the expression of microRNAs in RB and the related mechanism.

  7. Evaluation of microRNA alignment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Antony; El-Osta, Assam

    2016-01-01

    Genomic alignment of small RNA (smRNA) sequences such as microRNAs poses considerable challenges due to their short length (∼21 nucleotides [nt]) as well as the large size and complexity of plant and animal genomes. While several tools have been developed for high-throughput mapping of longer mRNA-seq reads (>30 nt), there are few that are specifically designed for mapping of smRNA reads including microRNAs. The accuracy of these mappers has not been systematically determined in the case of smRNA-seq. In addition, it is unknown whether these aligners accurately map smRNA reads containing sequence errors and polymorphisms. By using simulated read sets, we determine the alignment sensitivity and accuracy of 16 short-read mappers and quantify their robustness to mismatches, indels, and nontemplated nucleotide additions. These were explored in the context of a plant genome (Oryza sativa, ∼500 Mbp) and a mammalian genome (Homo sapiens, ∼3.1 Gbp). Analysis of simulated and real smRNA-seq data demonstrates that mapper selection impacts differential expression results and interpretation. These results will inform on best practice for smRNA mapping and enable more accurate smRNA detection and quantification of expression and RNA editing. PMID:27284164

  8. Immunomodulating microRNAs of mycobacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Paulo; Pires, David; Anes, Elsa

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have emerged as key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by sequence-specific binding to target mRNAs. Some microRNAs block translation, while others promote mRNA degradation, leading to a reduction in protein availability. A single miRNA can potentially regulate the expression of multiple genes and their encoded proteins. Therefore, miRNAs can influence molecular signalling pathways and regulate many biological processes in health and disease. Upon infection, host cells rapidly change their transcriptional programs, including miRNA expression, as a response against the invading microorganism. Not surprisingly, pathogens can also alter the host miRNA profile to their own benefit, which is of major importance to scientists addressing high morbidity and mortality infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. In this review, we present recent findings on the miRNAs regulation of the host response against mycobacterial infections, providing new insights into host-pathogen interactions. Understanding these findings and its implications could reveal new opportunities for designing better diagnostic tools, therapies and more effective vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Customization of Artificial MicroRNA Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vu, Tien; Do, Vinh Nang

    2017-01-01

    RNAi approaches, including microRNA (miRNA) regulatory pathway, offer great tools for functional characterization of unknown genes. Moreover, the applications of artificial microRNA (amiRNA) in the field of plant transgenesis have also been advanced to engineer pathogen-resistant or trait-improved transgenic plants. Until now, despite the high potency of amiRNA approach, no commercial plant cultivar expressing amiRNAs with improved traits has been released yet. Beside the issues of biosafety policies, the specificity and efficacy of amiRNAs are of major concerns. Sufficient cares should be taken for the specificity and efficacy of amiRNAs due to their potential off-target effects and other issues relating to in vivo expression of pre-amiRNAs. For these reasons, the proper design of amiRNAs with the lowest off-target possibility is very important for successful applications of the approach in plant. Therefore, there are many studies with the aim to improve the amiRNA design and amiRNA expressing backbones for obtaining better specificity and efficacy. However, the requirement for an efficient reference for the design is still needed. In the present chapter, we attempt to summarize and discuss all the major concerns relating to amiRNA design with the hope to provide a significant guideline for this approach.

  10. Roles of microRNA-15 family in normal and pathological late lung development

    OpenAIRE

    Sakkas, Elpidoforos

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are key regulators of organogenesis and during the last years many studies focused on microRNA expression during embryonic development. To date, there is no study to report possible roles of microRNAs in late lung development and especially during the alveolarization process. The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs that are deregulated under hyperoxic conditions and to assess whether microRNA expression can be modulated in vivo. Lung microRNA expression screening wa...

  11. Identification and validation of human papillomavirus encoded microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Qian

    Full Text Available We report here identification and validation of the first papillomavirus encoded microRNAs expressed in human cervical lesions and cell lines. We established small RNA libraries from ten human papillomavirus associated cervical lesions including cancer and two human papillomavirus harboring cell lines. These libraries were sequenced using SOLiD 4 technology. We used the sequencing data to predict putative viral microRNAs and discovered nine putative papillomavirus encoded microRNAs. Validation was performed for five candidates, four of which were successfully validated by qPCR from cervical tissue samples and cell lines: two were encoded by HPV 16, one by HPV 38 and one by HPV 68. The expression of HPV 16 microRNAs was further confirmed by in situ hybridization, and colocalization with p16INK4A was established. Prediction of cellular target genes of HPV 16 encoded microRNAs suggests that they may play a role in cell cycle, immune functions, cell adhesion and migration, development, and cancer. Two putative viral target sites for the two validated HPV 16 miRNAs were mapped to the E5 gene, one in the E1 gene, two in the L1 gene and one in the LCR region. This is the first report to show that papillomaviruses encode their own microRNA species. Importantly, microRNAs were found in libraries established from human cervical disease and carcinoma cell lines, and their expression was confirmed in additional tissue samples. To our knowledge, this is also the first paper to use in situ hybridization to show the expression of a viral microRNA in human tissue.

  12. The Role of MicroRNAs in Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0469 TITLE: The Role of microRNAs in Pancreatitis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Li, Yong RECIPIENT...The Role of MicroRNAs in Pancreatitis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0469 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Li, Yong 5e...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Pancreatitis (inflammation of the

  13. The miR-10 microRNA precursor family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tehler, Disa; Høyland-Kroghsbo, Nina Molin; Lund, Anders H

    2011-01-01

    The miR-10 microRNA precursor family encodes a group of short non-coding RNAs involved in gene regulation. The miR-10 family is highly conserved and has sparked the interest of many research groups because of the genomic localization in the vicinity of, coexpression with and regulation of the Hox...... gene developmental regulators. Here, we review the current knowledge of the evolution, physiological function and involvement in cancer of this family of microRNAs....

  14. Common features of microRNA target prediction tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Peterson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The human genome encodes for over 1800 microRNAs, which are short noncoding RNA molecules that function to regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Due to the potential for one microRNA to target multiple gene transcripts, microRNAs are recognized as a major mechanism to regulate gene expression and mRNA translation. Computational prediction of microRNA targets is a critical initial step in identifying microRNA:mRNA target interactions for experimental validation. The available tools for microRNA target prediction encompass a range of different computational approaches, from the modeling of physical interactions to the incorporation of machine learning. This review provides an overview of the major computational approaches to microRNA target prediction. Our discussion highlights three tools for their ease of use, reliance on relatively updated versions of miRBase, and range of capabilities, and these are DIANA-microT-CDS, miRanda-mirSVR, and TargetScan. In comparison across all microRNA target prediction tools, four main aspects of the microRNA:mRNA target interaction emerge as common features on which most target prediction is based: seed match, conservation, free energy, and site accessibility. This review explains these features and identifies how they are incorporated into currently available target prediction tools. MicroRNA target prediction is a dynamic field with increasing attention on development of new analysis tools. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive assessment of these tools in a manner that is accessible across disciplines. Understanding the basis of these prediction methodologies will aid in user selection of the appropriate tools and interpretation of the tool output.

  15. Regulation of Corticosteroidogenic Genes by MicroRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Robertson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of normal regulation of corticosteroid secretion is important in the development of cardiovascular disease. We previously showed that microRNAs regulate the terminal stages of corticosteroid biosynthesis. Here, we assess microRNA regulation across the whole corticosteroid pathway. Knockdown of microRNA using Dicer1 siRNA in H295R adrenocortical cells increased levels of CYP11A1, CYP21A1, and CYP17A1 mRNA and the secretion of cortisol, corticosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, 18-hydroxycorticosterone, and aldosterone. Bioinformatic analysis of genes involved in corticosteroid biosynthesis or metabolism identified many putative microRNA-binding sites, and some were selected for further study. Manipulation of individual microRNA levels demonstrated a direct effect of miR-125a-5p and miR-125b-5p on CYP11B2 and of miR-320a-3p levels on CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 mRNA. Finally, comparison of microRNA expression profiles from human aldosterone-producing adenoma and normal adrenal tissue showed levels of various microRNAs, including miR-125a-5p to be significantly different. This study demonstrates that corticosteroidogenesis is regulated at multiple points by several microRNAs and that certain of these microRNAs are differentially expressed in tumorous adrenal tissue, which may contribute to dysregulation of corticosteroid secretion. These findings provide new insights into the regulation of corticosteroid production and have implications for understanding the pathology of disease states where abnormal hormone secretion is a feature.

  16. MicroRNA expression characterizes oligometastasis(es).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Yves A; Xing, H Rosie; Salama, Joseph K; Khodarev, Nikolai N; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Qingbei; Khan, Sajid A; Yang, Xinan; Hasselle, Michael D; Darga, Thomas E; Malik, Renuka; Fan, Hanli; Perakis, Samantha; Filippo, Matthew; Corbin, Kimberly; Lee, Younghee; Posner, Mitchell C; Chmura, Steven J; Hellman, Samuel; Weichselbaum, Ralph R

    2011-01-01

    Cancer staging and treatment presumes a division into localized or metastatic disease. We proposed an intermediate state defined by ≤ 5 cumulative metastasis(es), termed oligometastases. In contrast to widespread polymetastases, oligometastatic patients may benefit from metastasis-directed local treatments. However, many patients who initially present with oligometastases progress to polymetastases. Predictors of progression could improve patient selection for metastasis-directed therapy. Here, we identified patterns of microRNA expression of tumor samples from oligometastatic patients treated with high-dose radiotherapy. Patients who failed to develop polymetastases are characterized by unique prioritized features of a microRNA classifier that includes the microRNA-200 family. We created an oligometastatic-polymetastatic xenograft model in which the patient-derived microRNAs discriminated between the two metastatic outcomes. MicroRNA-200c enhancement in an oligometastatic cell line resulted in polymetastatic progression. These results demonstrate a biological basis for oligometastases and a potential for using microRNA expression to identify patients most likely to remain oligometastatic after metastasis-directed treatment.

  17. MicroRNA expression characterizes oligometastasis(es.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves A Lussier

    Full Text Available Cancer staging and treatment presumes a division into localized or metastatic disease. We proposed an intermediate state defined by ≤ 5 cumulative metastasis(es, termed oligometastases. In contrast to widespread polymetastases, oligometastatic patients may benefit from metastasis-directed local treatments. However, many patients who initially present with oligometastases progress to polymetastases. Predictors of progression could improve patient selection for metastasis-directed therapy.Here, we identified patterns of microRNA expression of tumor samples from oligometastatic patients treated with high-dose radiotherapy.Patients who failed to develop polymetastases are characterized by unique prioritized features of a microRNA classifier that includes the microRNA-200 family. We created an oligometastatic-polymetastatic xenograft model in which the patient-derived microRNAs discriminated between the two metastatic outcomes. MicroRNA-200c enhancement in an oligometastatic cell line resulted in polymetastatic progression.These results demonstrate a biological basis for oligometastases and a potential for using microRNA expression to identify patients most likely to remain oligometastatic after metastasis-directed treatment.

  18. Virus-mediated chemical changes in rice plants impact the relationship between non-vector planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål and its egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaochan; Xu, Hongxing; Gao, Guanchun; Zhou, Xiaojun; Zheng, Xusong; Sun, Yujian; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the impacts of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) infection on rice plants, rice planthoppers and natural enemies, differences in nutrients and volatile secondary metabolites between infected and healthy rice plants were examined. Furthermore, the impacts of virus-mediated changes in plants on the population growth of non-vector brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, and the selectivity and parasitic capability of planthopper egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae were studied. The results showed that rice plants had no significant changes in amino acid and soluble sugar contents after SRBSDV infection, and SRBSDV-infected plants had no significant effect on population growth of non-vector BPH. A. nilaparvatae preferred BPH eggs both in infected and healthy rice plants, and tended to parasitize eggs on infected plants, but it had no significant preference for infected plants or healthy plants. GC-MS analysis showed that tridecylic aldehyde occurred only in rice plants infected with SRBSDV, whereas octanal, undecane, methyl salicylate and hexadecane occurred only in healthy rice plants. However, in tests of behavioral responses to these five volatile substances using a Y-tube olfactometer, A. nilaparvatae did not show obvious selectivity between single volatile substances at different concentrations and liquid paraffin in the control group. The parasitic capability of A. nilaparvatae did not differ between SRBSDV-infected plants and healthy plant seedlings. The results suggested that SRBSDV-infected plants have no significant impacts on the non-vector planthopper and its egg parasitoid, A. nilaparvatae.

  19. MicroRNAs in the Hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meister, Björn; Herzer, Silke; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (∼22 nucleotides) non-coding ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules that negatively regulate the expression of protein-coding genes. Posttranscriptional silencing of target genes by miRNA is initiated by binding to the 3'-untranslated regions of target mRNAs, resulting...... of the hypothalamus and miRNAs have recently been shown to be important regulators of hypothalamic control functions. The aim of this review is to summarize some of the current knowledge regarding the expression and role of miRNAs in the hypothalamus.......RNA molecules are abundantly expressed in tissue-specific and regional patterns and have been suggested as potential biomarkers, disease modulators and drug targets. The central nervous system is a prominent site of miRNA expression. Within the brain, several miRNAs are expressed and/or enriched in the region...

  20. MicroRNA in Human Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mengfeng, E-mail: limf@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Department of Microbiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Li, Jun [Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Department of Biochemistry, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Liu, Lei; Li, Wei [Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Department of Microbiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Yang, Yi [Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Department of Pharmacology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Yuan, Jie [Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Key Laboratory of Functional Molecules from Oceanic Microorganisms (Sun Yat-sen University), Department of Education of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2013-10-23

    Glioma represents a serious health problem worldwide. Despite advances in surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeting therapy, the disease remains one of the most lethal malignancies in humans, and new approaches to improvement of the efficacy of anti-glioma treatments are urgently needed. Thus, new therapeutic targets and tools should be developed based on a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of glioma. In this context, microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small, non-coding RNAs, play a pivotal role in the development of the malignant phenotype of glioma cells, including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, tumor angiogenesis, and stem cell generation. This review will discuss the biological functions of miRNAs in human glioma and their implications in improving clinical diagnosis, prediction of prognosis, and anti-glioma therapy.

  1. MicroRNA in Human Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mengfeng; Li, Jun; Liu, Lei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yi; Yuan, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Glioma represents a serious health problem worldwide. Despite advances in surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeting therapy, the disease remains one of the most lethal malignancies in humans, and new approaches to improvement of the efficacy of anti-glioma treatments are urgently needed. Thus, new therapeutic targets and tools should be developed based on a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of glioma. In this context, microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small, non-coding RNAs, play a pivotal role in the development of the malignant phenotype of glioma cells, including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, tumor angiogenesis, and stem cell generation. This review will discuss the biological functions of miRNAs in human glioma and their implications in improving clinical diagnosis, prediction of prognosis, and anti-glioma therapy

  2. MicroRNA Implication in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker BADIOLA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNA are a new class of posttranscriptional regulators. These small non-coding RNAs regulate the expression of target mRNA transcripts and are linked to several human disease such as Alzheimer, cancer or heart disease. But it has been the cancer disease which has experimented the major number of studies of miRNA linked to the disease progression. In the last years it has been reported the deregulation pattern of the miRNAs in malignant cells which have disrupted the control of the proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis. The evidence of the presence of specific miRNA deregulated in concrete cancer types has become the miRNAs like possible biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The specific miRNA patterns deregulated in concrete cancer cell types open new opportunities to the diagnosis and therapy.

  3. microRNAs and lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Binod; Singh, Abhishek K.; Rotllan, Noemi; Price, Nathan; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Work over the last decade has identified the important role of microRNAs (miRNAS) in regulating lipoprotein metabolism and associated disorders including metabolic syndrome, obesity and atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the most recent findings in the field, highlighting the contribution of miRNAs in controlling low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. Recent findings A number of miRNAs have emerged as important regulators of lipid metabolism, including miR-122 and miR-33. Work over the last two years has identified additional functions of miR-33 including the regulation of macrophage activation and mitochondrial metabolism. Moreover, it has recently been shown that miR-33 regulates vascular homeostasis and cardiac adaptation in response to pressure overload. In addition to miR-33 and miR-122, recent GWAS have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the proximity of miRNAs genes associated with abnormal levels of circulating lipids in humans. Several of these miRNA, such as miR-148a and miR-128-1, target important proteins that regulate cellular cholesterol metabolism, including the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and the ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1). Summary microRNAs have emerged as critical regulators of cholesterol metabolism and promising therapeutic targets for treating cardiometabolic disorders including atherosclerosis. Here, we discuss the recent findings in the field highlighting the novel mechanisms by which miR-33 controls lipid metabolism and atherogenesis and the identification of novel miRNAs that regulate LDL metabolism. Finally, we summarize the recent findings that identified miR-33 as an important non-coding RNA that controls cardiovascular homeostasis independent of its role in regulating lipid metabolism. PMID:28333713

  4. Regulation of neutrophil senescence by microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon R Ward

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are rapidly recruited to sites of tissue injury or infection, where they protect against invading pathogens. Neutrophil functions are limited by a process of neutrophil senescence, which renders the cells unable to respond to chemoattractants, carry out respiratory burst, or degranulate. In parallel, aged neutrophils also undergo spontaneous apoptosis, which can be delayed by factors such as GMCSF. This is then followed by their subsequent removal by phagocytic cells such as macrophages, thereby preventing unwanted inflammation and tissue damage. Neutrophils translate mRNA to make new proteins that are important in maintaining functional longevity. We therefore hypothesised that neutrophil functions and lifespan might be regulated by microRNAs expressed within human neutrophils. Total RNA from highly purified neutrophils was prepared and subjected to microarray analysis using the Agilent human miRNA microarray V3. We found human neutrophils expressed a selected repertoire of 148 microRNAs and that 6 of these were significantly upregulated after a period of 4 hours in culture, at a time when the contribution of apoptosis is negligible. A list of predicted targets for these 6 microRNAs was generated from http://mirecords.biolead.org and compared to mRNA species downregulated over time, revealing 83 genes targeted by at least 2 out of the 6 regulated microRNAs. Pathway analysis of genes containing binding sites for these microRNAs identified the following pathways: chemokine and cytokine signalling, Ras pathway, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Our data suggest that microRNAs may play a role in the regulation of neutrophil senescence and further suggest that manipulation of microRNAs might represent an area of future therapeutic interest for the treatment of inflammatory disease.

  5. MicroRNAs expression profile in solid and unicystic ameloblastomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setién-Olarra, A.; Bediaga, N. G.; Aguirre-Echebarria, P.; Aguirre-Urizar, J. M.; Mosqueda-Taylor, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Odontogenic tumors (OT) represent a specific pathological category that includes some lesions with unpredictable biological behavior. Although most of these lesions are benign, some, such as the ameloblastoma, exhibit local aggressiveness and high recurrence rates. The most common types of ameloblastoma are the solid/multicystic (SA) and the unicystic ameloblastoma (UA); the latter considered a much less aggressive entity as compared to the SA. The microRNA system regulates the expression of many human genes while its deregulation has been associated with neoplastic development. The aim of the current study was to determine the expression profiles of microRNAs present in the two most common types of ameloblastomas. Material & methods MicroRNA expression profiles were assessed using TaqMan® Low Density Arrays (TLDAs) in 24 samples (8 SA, 8 UA and 8 control samples). The findings were validated using quantitative RTqPCR in an independent cohort of 19 SA, 8 UA and 19 dentigerous cysts as controls. Results We identified 40 microRNAs differentially regulated in ameloblastomas, which are related to neoplastic development and differentiation, and with the osteogenic process. Further validation of the top ranked microRNAs revealed significant differences in the expression of 6 of them in relation to UA, 7 in relation to SA and 1 (miR-489) that was related to both types. Conclusion We identified a new microRNA signature for the ameloblastoma and for its main types, which may be useful to better understand the etiopathogenesis of this neoplasm. In addition, we identified a microRNA (miR-489) that is suggestive of differentiating among solid from unicystic ameloblastoma. PMID:29053755

  6. Quantification of microRNA-21 and microRNA-125b in melanoma tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandler, Anne; Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Hager, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Although microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as potent mediators of melanoma development and progression, a precise understanding of their oncogenic role remains unclear. In this study, we analysed formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues from two separate melanoma cohorts and from a series...... the important involvement of different miRNAs in melanoma biology and may serve as solid basics for further miRNA investigations in melanoma formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. In particular, there is increased expression of miR-21 in melanomas compared with benign nevi....

  7. Profile of cerebrospinal microRNAs in fibromyalgia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan L Bjersing

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM is characterized by chronic pain and reduced pain threshold. The pathophysiology involves disturbed neuroendocrine function, including impaired function of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis. Recently, microRNAs have been shown to be important regulatory factors in a number of diseases. The aim of this study was to try to identify cerebrospinal microRNAs with expression specific for FM and to determine their correlation to pain and fatigue.The genome-wide profile of microRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid was assessed in ten women with FM and eight healthy controls using real-time quantitative PCR. Pain thresholds were examined by algometry. Levels of pain (FIQ pain were rated on a 0-100 mm scale (fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, FIQ. Levels of fatigue (FIQ fatigue were rated on a 0-100 mm scale using FIQ and by multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20 general fatigue (MFIGF.Expression levels of nine microRNAs were significantly lower in patients with FM patients compared to healthy controls. The microRNAs identified were miR-21-5p, miR-145-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-99b-5p, miR-125b-5p, miR-23a-3p, 23b-3p, miR-195-5p, miR-223-3p. The identified microRNAs with significantly lower expression in FM were assessed with regard to pain and fatigue. miR-145-5p correlated positively with FIQ pain (r=0.709, p=0.022, n=10 and with FIQ fatigue (r=0.687, p=0.028, n=10.To our knowledge, this is the first study to show a disease-specific pattern of cerebrospinal microRNAs in FM. We have identified nine microRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid that differed between FM patients and healthy controls. One of the identified microRNAs, miR-145 was associated with the cardinal symptoms of FM, pain and fatigue.

  8. Profile of cerebrospinal microRNAs in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjersing, Jan L; Lundborg, Christopher; Bokarewa, Maria I; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2013-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic pain and reduced pain threshold. The pathophysiology involves disturbed neuroendocrine function, including impaired function of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis. Recently, microRNAs have been shown to be important regulatory factors in a number of diseases. The aim of this study was to try to identify cerebrospinal microRNAs with expression specific for FM and to determine their correlation to pain and fatigue. The genome-wide profile of microRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid was assessed in ten women with FM and eight healthy controls using real-time quantitative PCR. Pain thresholds were examined by algometry. Levels of pain (FIQ pain) were rated on a 0-100 mm scale (fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, FIQ). Levels of fatigue (FIQ fatigue) were rated on a 0-100 mm scale using FIQ and by multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) general fatigue (MFIGF). Expression levels of nine microRNAs were significantly lower in patients with FM patients compared to healthy controls. The microRNAs identified were miR-21-5p, miR-145-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-99b-5p, miR-125b-5p, miR-23a-3p, 23b-3p, miR-195-5p, miR-223-3p. The identified microRNAs with significantly lower expression in FM were assessed with regard to pain and fatigue. miR-145-5p correlated positively with FIQ pain (r=0.709, p=0.022, n=10) and with FIQ fatigue (r=0.687, p=0.028, n=10). To our knowledge, this is the first study to show a disease-specific pattern of cerebrospinal microRNAs in FM. We have identified nine microRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid that differed between FM patients and healthy controls. One of the identified microRNAs, miR-145 was associated with the cardinal symptoms of FM, pain and fatigue.

  9. MicroRNAs in Cardiometabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are ~22-nucleotide noncoding RNAs with critical functions in multiple physiological and pathological processes. An explosion of reports on the discovery and characterization of different miRNA species and their involvement in almost every aspect of cardiac biology and diseases has established an exciting new dimension in gene regulation networks for cardiac development and pathogenesis. CONTENT: Alterations in the metabolic control of lipid and glucose homeostasis predispose an individual to develop cardiometabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Work over the last years has suggested that miRNAs play an important role in regulating these physiological processes. Besides a cell-specific transcription factor profile, cell-specific miRNA-regulated gene expression is integral to cell fate and activation decisions. Thus, the cell types involved in atherosclerosis, vascular disease, and its myocardial sequelae may be differentially regulated by distinct miRNAs, thereby controlling highly complex processes, for example, smooth muscle cell phenotype and inflammatory responses of endothelial cells or macrophages. The recent advancements in using miRNAs as circulating biomarkers or therapeutic modalities, will hopefully be able to provide a strong basis for future research to further expand our insights into miRNA function in cardiovascular biology. SUMMARY: MiRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. They are potent modulators of diverse biological processes and pathologies. Recent findings demonstrated the importance of miRNAs in the vasculature and the orchestration of lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis. MiRNA networks represent an additional layer of regulation for gene expression that absorbs perturbations and ensures the robustness of biological systems. A detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of mi

  10. Intra-tumor heterogeneity of microRNA-92a, microRNA-375 and microRNA-424 in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Rikke Karlin; Novotny, Guy Wayne; Klarskov, Louise Laurberg

    2016-01-01

    Various microRNAs (miRNAs) have been investigated in order to improve diagnostics and risk assessment in colorectal cancer (CRC). To clarify the potential of miRNA profiling in CRC, knowledge of intra-tumor heterogeneity in expression levels is crucial. The study aim was to estimate the intra...

  11. Virus-mediated chemical changes in rice plants impact the relationship between non-vector planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål and its egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochan He

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the impacts of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV infection on rice plants, rice planthoppers and natural enemies, differences in nutrients and volatile secondary metabolites between infected and healthy rice plants were examined. Furthermore, the impacts of virus-mediated changes in plants on the population growth of non-vector brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens, and the selectivity and parasitic capability of planthopper egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae were studied. The results showed that rice plants had no significant changes in amino acid and soluble sugar contents after SRBSDV infection, and SRBSDV-infected plants had no significant effect on population growth of non-vector BPH. A. nilaparvatae preferred BPH eggs both in infected and healthy rice plants, and tended to parasitize eggs on infected plants, but it had no significant preference for infected plants or healthy plants. GC-MS analysis showed that tridecylic aldehyde occurred only in rice plants infected with SRBSDV, whereas octanal, undecane, methyl salicylate and hexadecane occurred only in healthy rice plants. However, in tests of behavioral responses to these five volatile substances using a Y-tube olfactometer, A. nilaparvatae did not show obvious selectivity between single volatile substances at different concentrations and liquid paraffin in the control group. The parasitic capability of A. nilaparvatae did not differ between SRBSDV-infected plants and healthy plant seedlings. The results suggested that SRBSDV-infected plants have no significant impacts on the non-vector planthopper and its egg parasitoid, A. nilaparvatae.

  12. Tissue-specific regulation of mouse MicroRNA genes in endoderm-derived tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yan; Schug, Jonathan; McKenna, Lindsay B.; Le Lay, John; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Greenbaum, Linda E.

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs fine-tune the activity of hundreds of protein-coding genes. The identification of tissue-specific microRNAs and their promoters has been constrained by the limited sensitivity of prior microRNA quantification methods. Here, we determine the entire microRNAome of three endoderm-derived tissues, liver, jejunum and pancreas, using ultra-high throughput sequencing. Although many microRNA genes are expressed at comparable levels, 162 microRNAs exhibited striking tissue-specificity. After...

  13. MicroRNA mimicry blocks pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Rusty L; Yu, Guoying; Latimer, Paul A; Stack, Christianna; Robinson, Kathryn; Dalby, Christina M; Kaminski, Naftali; van Rooij, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, great enthusiasm has evolved for microRNA (miRNA) therapeutics. Part of the excitement stems from the fact that a miRNA often regulates numerous related mRNAs. As such, modulation of a single miRNA allows for parallel regulation of multiple genes involved in a particular disease. While many studies have shown therapeutic efficacy using miRNA inhibitors, efforts to restore or increase the function of a miRNA have been lagging behind. The miR-29 family has gained a lot of attention for its clear function in tissue fibrosis. This fibroblast-enriched miRNA family is downregulated in fibrotic diseases which induces a coordinate increase of many extracellular matrix genes. Here, we show that intravenous injection of synthetic RNA duplexes can increase miR-29 levels in vivo for several days. Moreover, therapeutic delivery of these miR-29 mimics during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis restores endogenous miR-29 function whereby decreasing collagen expression and blocking and reversing pulmonary fibrosis. Our data support the feasibility of using miRNA mimics to therapeutically increase miRNAs and indicate miR-29 to be a potent therapeutic miRNA for treating pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25239947

  14. MicroRNAs regulate osteogenesis and chondrogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Shiwu; Yang, Bo; Guo, Hongfeng; Kang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► To focus on the role of miRNAs in chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. ► Involved in the regulation of miRNAs in osteoarthritis. ► To speculate some therapeutic targets for bone diseases. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small molecules and non-coding single strand RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by binding to specific sequences within target genes. miRNAs have been recognized as important regulatory factors in organism development and disease expression. Some miRNAs regulate the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and chondrocytes, eventually influencing metabolism and bone formation. miRNAs are expected to provide potential gene therapy targets for the clinical treatment of metabolic bone diseases and bone injuries. Here, we review the recent research progress on the regulation of miRNAs in bone biology, with a particular focus on the miRNA-mediated control mechanisms of bone and cartilage formation.

  15. MicroRNAs horizon in retinoblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Mirakholi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the retinoblastoma research, it is of great interest to identify molecular markers associated with the genetics of tumorigenesis. microRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that play a regulatory role in many crucial cellular pathways such as differentiation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. A body of evidences showed dysregulation of miRNAs in tumor biology and many diseases. They potentially play a significant role in tumorigenesis processes and have been the subject of research in many types of cancers including retinal tumorigenesis. miRNA expression profiling was found to be associated with tumor development, progression and treatment. These associations demonstrate the putative applications of miRNAs in monitoring of different aspect of tumors consisting diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic. Herein, we review the current literature concerning to the study of miRNA target recognition, function to tumorigenesis and treatment in retinoblastoma. Identification the specific miRNA biomarkers associated with retinoblastoma cancer may help to establish new therapeutic approaches for salvage affected eyes in patients.

  16. Genomic Organization of Zebrafish microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paydar Ima

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs are small (~22 nt non-coding RNAs that regulate cell movement, specification, and development. Expression of miRNAs is highly regulated, both spatially and temporally. Based on direct cloning, sequence conservation, and predicted secondary structures, a large number of miRNAs have been identified in higher eukaryotic genomes but whether these RNAs are simply a subset of a much larger number of noncoding RNA families is unknown. This is especially true in zebrafish where genome sequencing and annotation is not yet complete. Results We analyzed the zebrafish genome to identify the number and location of proven and predicted miRNAs resulting in the identification of 35 new miRNAs. We then grouped all 415 zebrafish miRNAs into families based on seed sequence identity as a means to identify possible functional redundancy. Based on genomic location and expression analysis, we also identified those miRNAs that are likely to be encoded as part of polycistronic transcripts. Lastly, as a resource, we compiled existing zebrafish miRNA expression data and, where possible, listed all experimentally proven mRNA targets. Conclusion Current analysis indicates the zebrafish genome encodes 415 miRNAs which can be grouped into 44 families. The largest of these families (the miR-430 family contains 72 members largely clustered in two main locations along chromosome 4. Thus far, most zebrafish miRNAs exhibit tissue specific patterns of expression.

  17. MicroRNAs in addiction: adaptation's middlemen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M D; van der Vaart, A D

    2011-12-01

    A central question in addiction is how drug-induced changes in synaptic signaling are converted into long-term neuroadaptations. Emerging evidence reveals that microRNAs (miRNAs) have a distinct role in this process through rapid response to cellular signals and dynamic regulation of local mRNA transcripts. Because each miRNA can target hundreds of mRNAs, relative changes in the expression of miRNAs can greatly impact cellular responsiveness, synaptic plasticity and transcriptional events. These diverse consequences of miRNA action occur through coordination with genes implicated in addictions, the most compelling of these being the neurotrophin BDNF, the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and the DNA-binding methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). In this study, we review the recent progress in the understanding of miRNAs in general mechanisms of plasticity and neuroadaptation and then focus on specific examples of miRNA regulation in the context of addiction. We conclude that miRNA-mediated gene regulation is a conserved means of converting environmental signals into neuronal response, which holds significant implications for addiction and other psychiatric illnesses.

  18. MicroRNA delivery for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Chen, Yongming; Leong, Kam W

    2015-07-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) directs post-transcriptional regulation of a network of genes by targeting mRNA. Although relatively recent in development, many miRNAs direct differentiation of various stem cells including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), a major player in regenerative medicine. An effective and safe delivery of miRNA holds the key to translating miRNA technologies. Both viral and nonviral delivery systems have seen success in miRNA delivery, and each approach possesses advantages and disadvantages. A number of studies have demonstrated success in augmenting osteogenesis, improving cardiogenesis, and reducing fibrosis among many other tissue engineering applications. A scaffold-based approach with the possibility of local and sustained delivery of miRNA is particularly attractive since the physical cues provided by the scaffold may synergize with the biochemical cues induced by miRNA therapy. Herein, we first briefly cover the application of miRNA to direct stem cell fate via replacement and inhibition therapies, followed by the discussion of the promising viral and nonviral delivery systems. Next we present the unique advantages of a scaffold-based delivery in achieving lineage-specific differentiation and tissue development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. MicroRNAs regulate osteogenesis and chondrogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shiwu, E-mail: shiwudong@gmail.com [Laboratory of Biomechanics, Department of Anatomy, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Yang, Bo; Guo, Hongfeng; Kang, Fei [Laboratory of Biomechanics, Department of Anatomy, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To focus on the role of miRNAs in chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Involved in the regulation of miRNAs in osteoarthritis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To speculate some therapeutic targets for bone diseases. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small molecules and non-coding single strand RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by binding to specific sequences within target genes. miRNAs have been recognized as important regulatory factors in organism development and disease expression. Some miRNAs regulate the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and chondrocytes, eventually influencing metabolism and bone formation. miRNAs are expected to provide potential gene therapy targets for the clinical treatment of metabolic bone diseases and bone injuries. Here, we review the recent research progress on the regulation of miRNAs in bone biology, with a particular focus on the miRNA-mediated control mechanisms of bone and cartilage formation.

  20. Transcriptome dynamics of the microRNA inhibition response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Jiayu; Leucci, Elenora; Vendramin, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We report a high-resolution time series study of transcriptome dynamics following antimiR-mediated inhibition of miR-9 in a Hodgkin lymphoma cell-line-the first such dynamic study of the microRNA inhibition response-revealing both general and specific aspects of the physiological response. We show...... validate the key observations with independent time series qPCR and we experimentally validate key predicted miR-9 targets. Methodologically, we developed sensitive functional data analytic predictive methods to analyse the weak response inherent in microRNA inhibition experiments. The methods...... of this study will be applicable to similar high-resolution time series transcriptome analyses and provides the context for more accurate experimental design and interpretation of future microRNA inhibition studies....

  1. Detection of plant microRNAs in honey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Gismondi

    Full Text Available For the first time in the literature, our group has managed to demonstrate the existence of plant RNAs in honey samples. In particular, in our work, different RNA extraction procedures were performed in order to identify a purification method for nucleic acids from honey. Purity, stability and integrity of the RNA samples were evaluated by spectrophotometric, PCR and electrophoretic analyses. Among all honey RNAs, we specifically revealed the presence of both plastidial and nuclear plant transcripts: RuBisCO large subunit mRNA, maturase K messenger and 18S ribosomal RNA. Surprisingly, nine plant microRNAs (miR482b, miR156a, miR396c, miR171a, miR858, miR162a, miR159c, miR395a and miR2118a were also detected and quantified by qPCR. In this context, a comparison between microRNA content in plant samples (i.e. flowers, nectars and their derivative honeys was carried out. In addition, peculiar microRNA profiles were also identified in six different monofloral honeys. Finally, the same plant microRNAs were investigated in other plant food products: tea, cocoa and coffee. Since plant microRNAs introduced by diet have been recently recognized as being able to modulate the consumer's gene expression, our research suggests that honey's benefits for human health may be strongly correlated to the bioactivity of plant microRNAs contained in this matrix.

  2. Small Molecule, Big Prospects: MicroRNA in Pregnancy and Its Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate target gene expression in the posttranscriptional level. Unlike siRNA, microRNAs are “fine-tuners” rather than “switches” in the regulation of gene expression; thus they play key roles in maintaining tissue homeostasis. The aberrant microRNA expression is implicated in the disease process. To date, numerous studies have demonstrated the regulatory roles of microRNAs in various pathophysiological conditions. In contrast, the study of microRNA in pregnancy and its associated complications, such as preeclampsia (PE, fetal growth restriction (FGR, and preterm labor, is a young field. Over the last decade, the knowledge of pregnancy-related microRNAs has increased and the molecular mechanisms by which microRNAs regulate pregnancy or its associated complications are emerging. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the research of pregnancy-related microRNAs, especially their function in pregnancy-associated complications and the potential clinical applications. Here microRNAs that associate with pregnancy are classified as placenta-specific, placenta-associated, placenta-derived circulating, and uterine microRNA according to their localization and origin. MicroRNAs offer a great potential for developing diagnostic and therapeutic targets in pregnancy-related disorders.

  3. Expression of MicroRNA-146a and MicroRNA-155 in Placental Villi in Early- and Late-Onset Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizyaeva, N V; Kulikova, G V; Nagovitsyna, M N; Kan, N E; Prozorovskaya, K N; Shchegolev, A I; Sukhikh, G T

    2017-07-01

    We studied the expression of microRNA-146a and microRNA-155 in placental villi from 18 women (26-39 weeks of gestation) of reproductive age with early- or late-onset preeclampsia. The reference group consisted of women with physiological pregnancy and full-term gestation and with preterm birth after caesarian section on gestation week 26-31. MicroRNA-146a and microRNA-155 were detected by in situ hybridization with digoxigenin on paraffin sections. It was found that the expression of microRNA-146a in both syncytiotrophoblast of the intermediate villi and syncytial knots was lower at late-onset preeclampsia than at physiologic pregnancy of full-term period (p=0.037 and p=0.001 respectively). The expression of microRNA-155 in syncytiotrophoblast of intermediate placental villi in early-onset preeclampsia was higher than in group with preterm delivery (p=0.003). However, in syncytiotrophoblast of intermediate villi and in syncytial knots, the expression of microRNA-155 was lower at late-onset preeclampsia in comparison with full-term physiological pregnancy (p=0.005). In addition, the expression of microRNA-146a and microRNA-155 did not increase in the later terms in preeclampsia, while in the reference groups demonstrating gradual increase in the expression of these markers with increasing gestational age. Expression microRNA-146a and microRNA-155 little differed in early- and late-onset preeclampsia. These findings suggest that different variants of preeclampsia are probably characterized by common pathogenetic pathways. Damaged trophoblast cannot maintain of microRNAs synthesis at the required level, which determines the formation of a vicious circle in preeclampsia and further progression of the disease.

  4. Systematic Prediction of the Impacts of Mutations in MicroRNA Seed Sequences

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    Bhattacharya Anindya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that are involved in many important biological processes and the dysfunction of microRNA has been associated with many diseases. The seed region of a microRNA is of crucial importance to its target recognition. Mutations in microRNA seed regions may disrupt the binding of microRNAs to their original target genes and make them bind to new target genes. Here we use a knowledge-based computational method to systematically predict the functional effects of all the possible single nucleotide mutations in human microRNA seed regions. The result provides a comprehensive reference for the functional assessment of the impacts of possible natural and artificial single nucleotide mutations in microRNA seed regions.

  5. MicroRNAs and potential target interactions in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibert, John Robert; Løvendorf, Marianne B.; Litman, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease often seen in patients with a genetic susceptibility. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are endogenous, short RNA molecules that can bind to parts of mRNA target genes, thus inhibiting their translation and causing accelerated turnover or transcript...... degradation. MicroRNAs are important in the pathogenesis of human diseases such as immunological disorders, as they regulate a broad range of biological processes. OBJECTIVE: We investigated miRNA-mRNA interactions in involved (PP) and non-involved (PN) psoriatic skin compared with healthy skin (NN). METHODS...

  6. MicroRNA in oral cancer research: future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarode, Sachin C; Sarode, Gargi S; Patil, Shankargouda

    2014-09-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) and related therapeutic approaches hold great promise in the field of cancer managements. Various studies on epithelial malignancies have shown encouraging results on various fronts. Its association with invasion, tumor growth, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), angiogenesis, cancer stem cells (CSCs), metastasis and refects the diversified role of miRNA. Moreover, miRNA plays an important role in determining the prognosis of the patients. MicroRNAs interactions with each other and with external factors [human papilloma virus (HPV) (like oncoproteins)] intrigue us to explore more deep into this fascinating world.(1.)

  7. MicroRNAs as potential therapeutic targets in kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ivan G; Grafals, Monica; Portilla, Didier; Duffield, Jeremy S

    2014-01-01

    One cornerstone of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is fibrosis, as kidneys are susceptible due to their high vascularity and predisposition to ischemia. Presently, only therapies targeting the angiotensin receptor are used in clinical practice to retard the progression of CKD. Thus, there is a pressing need for new therapies designed to treat the damaged kidney. Several independent laboratories have identified a number of microRNAs that are dysregulated in human and animal models of CKD. We will explore the evidence suggesting that by blocking the activity of such dysregulated microRNAs, new therapeutics could be developed to treat the progression of CKD. PMID:23660218

  8. MicroRNA-21 Increases Proliferation and Cisplatin Sensitivity of Osteosarcoma-Derived Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Vanas

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor and poor prognosis for osteosarcoma patients is mainly due to chemotherapy resistance. MicroRNAs are important to maintain pathophysiological mechanisms of cancer and influence cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. In this study, we tested the functions of microRNA-21 for malignant features as well as for drug resistance of osteosarcoma. We used Northern blot to measure microRNA-21 levels in osteosarcoma-derived cell lines. MicroRNA-21 activity was modulated by either expressing a sponge to decrease its activity in an osteosarcoma-derived cell line expressing high levels of microRNA-21 or by introducing pri-microRNA-21 in a cell line with low endogenous levels. Cell migration was determined in a scratch assay and cell proliferation was measured by performing growth curve analysis. Sensitivity of the cells towards chemotherapeutics was investigated by performing cell viability assays and calculating the IC50 values. While cell migration was unaffected by modulated microRNA-21 levels, microRNA-21 inhibition slowed proliferation and exogenously expressed microRNA-21 promoted this process. Modulated microRNA-21 activity failed to effect sensitivity of osteosarcoma-derived cell lines to doxorubicin or methotrexate. Contrarily, reduction of microRNA-21 activity resulted in enhanced resistance towards cisplatin while ectopic expression of microRNA-21 showed the opposite effect. Increased microRNA-21 levels repressed the expression of Sprouty2 and ectopic expression of Sprouty2 was able to largely rescue the observed effects of microRNA-21 in osteosarcoma. In summary, our data indicate that in osteosarcoma microRNA-21 expression is an important component for regulation of cell proliferation and for determining sensitivity to cisplatin.

  9. MicroRNAs associated with exercise and diet: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Elena; Won, Gloria Y; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. MicroRNAs reflect individual biologic adaptation to exposures in the environment. As such, measurement of circulating microRNAs presents an opportunity to evaluate biologic changes associated with behavioral interventions (i.e., exercise, diet) for weight loss. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature to summarize what is known about circulating microRNAs associated with exercise, diet, and weight loss. We performed a systematic review of three scientific databases. We included studies reporting on circulating microRNAs associated with exercise, diet, and weight loss in humans. Of 1,219 studies identified in our comprehensive database search, 14 were selected for inclusion. Twelve reported on microRNAs associated with exercise, and two reported on microRNAs associated with diet and weight loss. The majority of studies used a quasiexperimental, cross-sectional design. There were numerous differences in the type and intensity of exercise and dietary interventions, the biologic source of microRNAs, and the methodological approaches used quantitate microRNAs. Data from several studies support an association between circulating microRNAs and exercise. The evidence for an association between circulating microRNAs and diet is weaker because of a small number of studies. Additional research is needed to validate previous observations using methodologically rigorous approaches to microRNA quantitation to determine the specific circulating microRNA signatures associated with behavioral approaches to weight loss. Future directions include longitudinal studies to determine if circulating microRNAs are predictive of response to behavioral interventions. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. MicroRNAs and Periodontal Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, X; Zhou, X; Trombetta-eSilva, J; Francis, M; Gaharwar, A K; Atsawasuwan, P; Diekwisch, T G H

    2017-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small RNAs that control gene expression in all aspects of eukaryotic life, primarily through RNA silencing mechanisms. The purpose of the present review is to introduce key miRNAs involved in periodontal homeostasis, summarize the mechanisms by which they affect downstream genes and tissues, and provide an introduction into the therapeutic potential of periodontal miRNAs. In general, miRNAs function synergistically to fine-tune the regulation of biological processes and to remove expression noise rather than by causing drastic changes in expression levels. In the periodontium, miRNAs play key roles in development and periodontal homeostasis and during the loss of periodontal tissue integrity as a result of periodontal disease. As part of the anabolic phase of periodontal homeostasis and periodontal development, miRNAs direct periodontal fibroblasts toward alveolar bone lineage differentiation and new bone formation through WNT, bone morphogenetic protein, and Notch signaling pathways. miRNAs contribute equally to the catabolic aspect of periodontal homeostasis as they affect osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function, either by directly promoting osteoclast activity or by inhibiting osteoclast signaling intermediaries or through negative feedback loops. Their small size and ability to target multiple regulatory networks of related sets of genes have predisposed miRNAs to become ideal candidates for drug delivery and tissue regeneration. To address the immense therapeutic potential of miRNAs and their antagomirs, an ever growing number of delivery approaches toward clinical applications have been developed, including nanoparticle carriers and secondary structure interference inhibitor systems. However, only a fraction of the miRNAs involved in periodontal health and disease are known today. It is anticipated that continued research will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the periodontal miRNA world, and a systematic

  11. Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola ePiscopo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD includes a spectrum of disorders characterized by changes of personality and social behaviour and, often, a gradual and progressive language dysfunction. In the last years, several efforts have been fulfilled in identifying both genetic mutations and pathological proteins associated with FTLD. The molecular bases undergoing the onset and progression of the disease remain still unknown. Recent literature prompts an involvement of RNA metabolism in FTLD, particularly miRNAs. Dysregulation of miRNAs in several disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, and increasing importance of circulating miRNAs in different pathologies has suggested to implement the study of their possible application as biological markers and new therapeutic targets; moreover, miRNA-based therapy is becoming a powerful tool to deepen the function of a gene, the mechanism of a disease, and validate therapeutic targets. Regarding FTLD, different studies showed that miRNAs are playing an important role. For example, several reports have evaluated miRNA regulation of the progranulin gene suggesting that it is under their control, as described for miR-29b, miR-107 and miR-659. More recently, it has been demonstrated that TMEM106B gene, which protein is elevated in FTLD-TDP brains, is repressed by miR-132/212 cluster; this post-transcriptional mechanism increases intracellular levels of progranulin, affecting its pathways. These findings if confirmed could suggest that these microRNAs have a role as potential targets for some related-FTLD genes. In this review, we focus on the emerging roles of the miRNAs in the pathogenesis of FTLD.

  12. microRNA expression during trophectoderm specification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas R Viswanathan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Segregation of the trophectoderm from the inner cell mass of the embryo represents the first cell-fate decision of mammalian development. Transcription factors essential for specifying trophectoderm have been identified, but the role of microRNAs (miRNAs in modulating this fate-choice has been largely unexplored. We have compared miRNA expression in embryonic stem cell (ESC-derived trophectoderm and in staged murine embryos to identify a set of candidate miRNAs likely to be involved in trophectoderm specification.We profiled embryonic stem cells (ESCs as they were induced to differentiate into trophectodermal cells by ectopic expression of HRas/Q61L. We also profiled murine embryos at progressive stages of preimplantation development (zygote, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, morula, and blastocyst, which includes the time window in which the trophectoderm is specified in vivo Q61L/H.We describe miRNA expression changes that occur during trophectoderm specification and validate that our in vitro system faithfully recapitulates trophectoderm specification in vivo. By comparing our in vitro and in vivo datasets, we have identified a minimal set of candidate miRNAs likely to play a role in trophectoderm specification. These miRNAs are predicted to regulate a host of development-associated target genes, and many of these miRNAs have previously reported roles in development and differentiation. Additionally, we highlight a number of miRNAs whose tight developmental regulation may reflect a functional role in other stages of embryogenesis. Our embryo profiling data may be useful to investigators studying trophectoderm specification and other stages of preimplantation development.

  13. NPK macronutrients and microRNA homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcheski, Franceli R; Côrrea, Régis; Gomes, Igor A; de Lima, Júlio C; Margis, Rogerio

    2015-01-01

    Macronutrients are essential elements for plant growth and development. In natural, non-cultivated systems, the availability of macronutrients is not a limiting factor of growth, due to fast recycling mechanisms. However, their availability might be an issue in modern agricultural practices, since soil has been frequently over exploited. From a crop management perspective, the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are three important limiting factors and therefore frequently added as fertilizers. NPK are among the nutrients that have been reported to alter post-embryonic root developmental processes and consequently, impairs crop yield. To cope with nutrients scarcity, plants have evolved several mechanisms involved in metabolic, physiological, and developmental adaptations. In this scenario, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as additional key regulators of nutrients uptake and assimilation. Some studies have demonstrated the intrinsic relation between miRNAs and their targets, and how they can modulate plants to deal with the NPK availability. In this review, we focus on miRNAs and their regulation of targets involved in NPK metabolism. In general, NPK starvation is related with miRNAs that are involved in root-architectural changes and uptake activity modulation. We further show that several miRNAs were discovered to be involved in plant-microbe symbiosis during N and P uptake, and in this way we present a global view of some studies that were conducted in the last years. The integration of current knowledge about miRNA-NPK signaling may help future studies to focus in good candidates genes for the development of important tools for plant nutritional breeding.

  14. NAViGaTing the micronome--using multiple microRNA prediction databases to identify signalling pathway-associated microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elize A Shirdel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are a class of small RNAs known to regulate gene expression at the transcript level, the protein level, or both. Since microRNA binding is sequence-based but possibly structure-specific, work in this area has resulted in multiple databases storing predicted microRNA:target relationships computed using diverse algorithms. We integrate prediction databases, compare predictions to in vitro data, and use cross-database predictions to model the microRNA:transcript interactome--referred to as the micronome--to study microRNA involvement in well-known signalling pathways as well as associations with disease. We make this data freely available with a flexible user interface as our microRNA Data Integration Portal--mirDIP (http://ophid.utoronto.ca/mirDIP.mirDIP integrates prediction databases to elucidate accurate microRNA:target relationships. Using NAViGaTOR to produce interaction networks implicating microRNAs in literature-based, KEGG-based and Reactome-based pathways, we find these signalling pathway networks have significantly more microRNA involvement compared to chance (p<0.05, suggesting microRNAs co-target many genes in a given pathway. Further examination of the micronome shows two distinct classes of microRNAs; universe microRNAs, which are involved in many signalling pathways; and intra-pathway microRNAs, which target multiple genes within one signalling pathway. We find universe microRNAs to have more targets (p<0.0001, to be more studied (p<0.0002, and to have higher degree in the KEGG cancer pathway (p<0.0001, compared to intra-pathway microRNAs.Our pathway-based analysis of mirDIP data suggests microRNAs are involved in intra-pathway signalling. We identify two distinct classes of microRNAs, suggesting a hierarchical organization of microRNAs co-targeting genes both within and between pathways, and implying differential involvement of universe and intra-pathway microRNAs at the disease level.

  15. Subgenomic analysis of microRNAs in polyploid wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kantar, M.; Akpinar, B. A.; Valárik, Miroslav; Lucas, S. J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Hernandez, P.; Budak, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2012), s. 465-479 ISSN 1438-793X Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Triticum aestivum * microRNA * miRNA prediction Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.292, year: 2012

  16. Bioavailability of transgenic microRNAs in genetically modified plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic expression of small RNAs is a prevalent approach in agrobiotechnology for the global enhancement of plant foods. Meanwhile, emerging studies have, on the one hand, emphasized the potential of transgenic microRNAs (miRNAs) as novel dietary therapeutics and, on the other, suggested potentia...

  17. MicroRNA-449a deficiency promotes colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Masanori; Nakajima, Kohei; Ishikawa, Daichi; Nishida, Jun; Ishifune, Chieko; Tsukumo, Shin-Ichi; Shimada, Mitsuo; Nagahiro, Shinji; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Yasutomo, Koji

    2017-09-06

    MicroRNAs have broad roles in tumorigenesis and cell differentiation through regulation of target genes. Notch signaling also controls cell differentiation and tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms through which Notch mediates microRNA expression are still unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify microRNAs regulated by Notch signaling. Our analysis found that microRNA-449a (miR-449a) was indirectly regulated by Notch signaling. Although miR-449a-deficient mice did not show any Notch-dependent defects in immune cell development, treatment of miR-449a-deficient mice with azoxymethane (AOM) or dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) increased the numbers and sizes of colon tumors. These effects were associated with an increase in intestinal epithelial cell proliferation following AOM/DSS treatment. In patients with colon cancer, miR-449a expression was inversely correlated with disease-free survival and histological scores and was positively correlated with the expression of MLH1 for which loss-of function mutations have been shown to be involved in colon cancer. Colon tissues of miR-449a-deficient mice showed reduced Mlh1 expression compared with those of wild-type mice. Thus, these data suggested that miR-449a acted as a key regulator of colon tumorigenesis by controlling the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells. Additionally, activation of miR-449a may represent an effective therapeutic strategy and prognostic marker in colon cancer.

  18. Circulating microRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsen, Anke J.; Pinto, Yigal M.; Creemers, Esther E.

    2012-01-01

    Tijsen AJ, Pinto YM, Creemers EE. Circulating microRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 303: H1085-H1095, 2012. First published August 31, 2012; doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00191.2012.-One of the major challenges in cardiovascular disease is the

  19. Aberrant microRNA expression in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Gimsing, Peter; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a devastating disease with a complex biology, and in spite of improved survivability by novel treatment strategies over the last decade, MM is still incurable by current therapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at a post...

  20. microRNA-101 is a potent inhibitor of autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Lisa B; Wen, Jiayu; Lees, Michael

    2011-01-01

    performed a functional screen in search of microRNAs (miRNAs), which regulate the autophagic flux in breast cancer cells. In this study, we identified the tumour suppressive miRNA, miR-101, as a potent inhibitor of basal, etoposide- and rapamycin-induced autophagy. Through transcriptome profiling, we...

  1. The therapeutic potential of MicroRNAs in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Stine Buch; Obad, Susanna; Jensen, Niels Frank

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been uncovered as important posttranscriptional regulators of nearly every biological process in the cell. Furthermore, mounting evidence implies that miRNAs play key roles in the pathogenesis of cancer and that many miRNAs can function either as oncogenes or tumor...

  2. Pharmacogenomics genes show varying perceptibility to microRNA regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rukov, Jakob Lewin; Vinther, Jeppe; Shomron, Noam

    2011-01-01

    The aim of pharmacogenomics is to identify individual differences in genome and transcriptome composition and their effect on drug efficacy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate expression of the majority of animal genes, including many genes involved in drug...

  3. Brain expressed microRNAs implicated in schizophrenia etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas; Olsen, Line; Lindow, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Protein encoding genes have long been the major targets for research in schizophrenia genetics. However, with the identification of regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) as important in brain development and function, miRNAs genes have emerged as candidates for schizophrenia-associated genetic factors...

  4. Strategies to identify microRNA targets: New advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNA molecules functioning to modulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, and playing an important role in many developmental and physiological processes. Ten thousand miRNAs have been discovered in various organisms. Although considerable progr...

  5. MicroRNAs, the DNA damage response and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, Maikel D.; Gent, Dik C. van; Hoeijmakers, Jan H.J.; Pothof, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Many carcinogenic agents such as ultra-violet light from the sun and various natural and man-made chemicals act by damaging the DNA. To deal with these potentially detrimental effects of DNA damage, cells induce a complex DNA damage response (DDR) that includes DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoints, damage tolerance systems and apoptosis. This DDR is a potent barrier against carcinogenesis and defects within this response are observed in many, if not all, human tumors. DDR defects fuel the evolution of precancerous cells to malignant tumors, but can also induce sensitivity to DNA damaging agents in cancer cells, which can be therapeutically exploited by the use of DNA damaging treatment modalities. Regulation of and coordination between sub-pathways within the DDR is important for maintaining genome stability. Although regulation of the DDR has been extensively studied at the transcriptional and post-translational level, less is known about post-transcriptional gene regulation by microRNAs, the topic of this review. More specifically, we highlight current knowledge about DNA damage responsive microRNAs and microRNAs that regulate DNA damage response genes. We end by discussing the role of DNA damage response microRNAs in cancer etiology and sensitivity to ionizing radiation and other DNA damaging therapeutic agents.

  6. The Potential of MicroRNAs as Prostate Cancer Biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Fabris (Linda); Y. Ceder (Yvonne); A.M. Chinnaiyan (Arul); G.W. Jenster (Guido); K.D. Sorensen (Karina D.); S.A. Tomlins (Scott A); T. Visakorpi (Tapio); G.A. Calin (George)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractContext: Short noncoding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs) control protein expression through the degradation of RNA or the inhibition of protein translation. The miRNAs influence a wide range of biologic processes and are often deregulated in cancer. This family of small RNAs constitutes

  7. MicroRNA related polymorphisms and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Khan (Sofia); D. Greco (Dario); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); R.L. Milne (Roger); T.A. Muranen (Taru); T. Heikkinen (Tuomas); K. Aaltonen (Kirsimari); J. Dennis (Joe); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); J. Liu (Jianjun); P. Hall (Per); A. Irwanto (Astrid); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); J. Li (Jingmei); K. Czene (Kamila); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); R. Hein (Rebecca); A. Rudolph (Anja); P. Seibold (Petra); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); O. Fletcher (Olivia); J. Peto (Julian); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); N. Johnson (Nichola); L.J. Gibson (Lorna); A. Aitken; J.L. Hopper (John); H. Tsimiklis (Helen); M. Bui (Minh); E. Makalic (Enes); D.F. Schmidt (Daniel); M.C. Southey (Melissa); C. Apicella (Carmel); J. Stone (Jennifer); Q. Waisfisz (Quinten); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); M.A. Adank (Muriel); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); A. Meindl (Alfons); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); P. Lichtner (Peter); C. Turnbull (Clare); N. Rahman (Nazneen); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); D. Hunter (David); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); L.J. van 't Veer (Laura); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); P.A. Fasching (Peter); A. Schrauder (André); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); S.F. Nielsen (Sune); H. Flyger (Henrik); J. Benítez (Javier); P.M. Zamora (Pilar M.); J.I.A. Perez (Jose Ignacio Arias); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); B.E. Henderson (Brian); F.R. Schumacher (Fredrick); L.L. March (Loic Le); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); A.M. Dunning (Alison); M. Shah (Mitul); R.N. Luben (Robert); J. Brown (Judith); F.J. Couch (Fergus); X. Wang (X.); C. Vachon (Celine); J.E. Olson (Janet); D. Lambrechts (Diether); M. Moisse (Matthieu); R. Paridaens (Robert); M.R. Christiaens (Marie Rose); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); P. Laurent-Puig (Pierre); C. Mulot (Claire); F. Marme (Frederick); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); A. Schneeweiss (Andreas); C. Sohn (Christof); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); S. Tchatchou (Srine); A.-M. Mulligan (Anna-Marie); T. Dörk (Thilo); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); N.N. Antonenkova (Natalia); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); H. Darabi (Hatef); M. Eriksson (Mats); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); L.A. Brinton (Louise); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); V. Kristensen (Vessela); S. Slager (Susan); A.E. Tol (Ama E.); C.B. Ambrosone (Christine); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); A. Lindblom (Annika); S. Margolin (Sara); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); M. Barile (Monica); P. Mariani (Paolo); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); J.W.M. Martens (John); J.M. Collée (Margriet); A. Jager (Agnes); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); G.G. Giles (Graham); C.A. McLean (Catriona Ann); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); T. Brüning (Thomas); Y.-D. Ko (Yon-Dschun); H. Brenner (Hermann); A.K. Dieffenbach (Aida Karina); V. Arndt (Volker); C. Stegmaier (Christa); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); A. Ashworth (Alan); N. Orr (Nick); M. Jones (Michael); J. Simard (Jacques); M.S. Goldberg (Mark); F. Labrèche (France); M. Dumont (Martine); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); M. Grip (Mervi); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); A. Mannermaa (Arto); U. Hamann (Ute); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); C. Blomqvist (Carl); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); D.F. Easton (Douglas); H. Nevanlinna (Heli)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractGenetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility

  8. Evolution of microRNA diversity and regulation in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berezikov, E.

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been uncovered as key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The ancient origin of miRNAs, their dramatic expansion in bilaterian animals and their function in providing robustness to transcriptional programmes suggest that miRNAs

  9. MicroRNA Changes in Cerebrospinal Fluid After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Søren; Rasmussen, Rune; Rossing, Maria

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) accounts for a major part of the morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are pathophysiologically involved in acute cerebral ischemia. This study compared miRNA profiles in cerebrospinal fluid...

  10. Characterization and identification of microRNA core promoters in four model species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Zhou

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are short, noncoding RNAs that play important roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Although many functions of microRNAs in plants and animals have been revealed in recent years, the transcriptional mechanism of microRNA genes is not well-understood. To elucidate the transcriptional regulation of microRNA genes, we study and characterize, in a genome scale, the promoters of intergenic microRNA genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, Homo sapiens, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Oryza sativa. We show that most known microRNA genes in these four species have the same type of promoters as protein-coding genes have. To further characterize the promoters of microRNA genes, we developed a novel promoter prediction method, called common query voting (CoVote, which is more effective than available promoter prediction methods. Using this new method, we identify putative core promoters of most known microRNA genes in the four model species. Moreover, we characterize the promoters of microRNA genes in these four species. We discover many significant, characteristic sequence motifs in these core promoters, several of which match or resemble the known cis-acting elements for transcription initiation. Among these motifs, some are conserved across different species while some are specific to microRNA genes of individual species.

  11. miRBase: integrating microRNA annotation and deep-sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozomara, Ana; Griffiths-Jones, Sam

    2011-01-01

    miRBase is the primary online repository for all microRNA sequences and annotation. The current release (miRBase 16) contains over 15,000 microRNA gene loci in over 140 species, and over 17,000 distinct mature microRNA sequences. Deep-sequencing technologies have delivered a sharp rise in the rate of novel microRNA discovery. We have mapped reads from short RNA deep-sequencing experiments to microRNAs in miRBase and developed web interfaces to view these mappings. The user can view all read data associated with a given microRNA annotation, filter reads by experiment and count, and search for microRNAs by tissue- and stage-specific expression. These data can be used as a proxy for relative expression levels of microRNA sequences, provide detailed evidence for microRNA annotations and alternative isoforms of mature microRNAs, and allow us to revisit previous annotations. miRBase is available online at: http://www.mirbase.org/.

  12. Computational Characterization of Exogenous MicroRNAs that Can Be Transferred into Human Circulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Shu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been long considered synthesized endogenously until very recent discoveries showing that human can absorb dietary microRNAs from animal and plant origins while the mechanism remains unknown. Compelling evidences of microRNAs from rice, milk, and honeysuckle transported to human blood and tissues have created a high volume of interests in the fundamental questions that which and how exogenous microRNAs can be transferred into human circulation and possibly exert functions in humans. Here we present an integrated genomics and computational analysis to study the potential deciding features of transportable microRNAs. Specifically, we analyzed all publicly available microRNAs, a total of 34,612 from 194 species, with 1,102 features derived from the microRNA sequence and structure. Through in-depth bioinformatics analysis, 8 groups of discriminative features have been used to characterize human circulating microRNAs and infer the likelihood that a microRNA will get transferred into human circulation. For example, 345 dietary microRNAs have been predicted as highly transportable candidates where 117 of them have identical sequences with their homologs in human and 73 are known to be associated with exosomes. Through a milk feeding experiment, we have validated 9 cow-milk microRNAs in human plasma using microRNA-sequencing analysis, including the top ranked microRNAs such as bta-miR-487b, miR-181b, and miR-421. The implications in health-related processes have been illustrated in the functional analysis. This work demonstrates the data-driven computational analysis is highly promising to study novel molecular characteristics of transportable microRNAs while bypassing the complex mechanistic details.

  13. Computational Characterization of Exogenous MicroRNAs that Can Be Transferred into Human Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jiang; Chiang, Kevin; Zempleni, Janos; Cui, Juan

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs have been long considered synthesized endogenously until very recent discoveries showing that human can absorb dietary microRNAs from animal and plant origins while the mechanism remains unknown. Compelling evidences of microRNAs from rice, milk, and honeysuckle transported to human blood and tissues have created a high volume of interests in the fundamental questions that which and how exogenous microRNAs can be transferred into human circulation and possibly exert functions in humans. Here we present an integrated genomics and computational analysis to study the potential deciding features of transportable microRNAs. Specifically, we analyzed all publicly available microRNAs, a total of 34,612 from 194 species, with 1,102 features derived from the microRNA sequence and structure. Through in-depth bioinformatics analysis, 8 groups of discriminative features have been used to characterize human circulating microRNAs and infer the likelihood that a microRNA will get transferred into human circulation. For example, 345 dietary microRNAs have been predicted as highly transportable candidates where 117 of them have identical sequences with their homologs in human and 73 are known to be associated with exosomes. Through a milk feeding experiment, we have validated 9 cow-milk microRNAs in human plasma using microRNA-sequencing analysis, including the top ranked microRNAs such as bta-miR-487b, miR-181b, and miR-421. The implications in health-related processes have been illustrated in the functional analysis. This work demonstrates the data-driven computational analysis is highly promising to study novel molecular characteristics of transportable microRNAs while bypassing the complex mechanistic details. PMID:26528912

  14. Serum microRNA-1 and microRNA-133a levels reflect myocardial steatosis in uncomplicated type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalo-Calvo, D. de; Meer, R.W. van der; Rijzewijk, L.J.; Smit, J.W.A.; Revuelta-Lopez, E.; Nasarre, L.; Escola-Gil, J.C.; Lamb, H.J.; Llorente-Cortes, V.

    2017-01-01

    Using in vitro, in vivo and patient-based approaches, we investigated the potential of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) as surrogate biomarkers of myocardial steatosis, a hallmark of diabetic cardiomyopathy. We analysed the cardiomyocyte-enriched miRNA signature in serum from patients with

  15. Annotation of mammalian primary microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enright Anton J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important regulators of gene expression and have been implicated in development, differentiation and pathogenesis. Hundreds of miRNAs have been discovered in mammalian genomes. Approximately 50% of mammalian miRNAs are expressed from introns of protein-coding genes; the primary transcript (pri-miRNA is therefore assumed to be the host transcript. However, very little is known about the structure of pri-miRNAs expressed from intergenic regions. Here we annotate transcript boundaries of miRNAs in human, mouse and rat genomes using various transcription features. The 5' end of the pri-miRNA is predicted from transcription start sites, CpG islands and 5' CAGE tags mapped in the upstream flanking region surrounding the precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA. The 3' end of the pri-miRNA is predicted based on the mapping of polyA signals, and supported by cDNA/EST and ditags data. The predicted pri-miRNAs are also analyzed for promoter and insulator-associated regulatory regions. Results We define sets of conserved and non-conserved human, mouse and rat pre-miRNAs using bidirectional BLAST and synteny analysis. Transcription features in their flanking regions are used to demarcate the 5' and 3' boundaries of the pri-miRNAs. The lengths and boundaries of primary transcripts are highly conserved between orthologous miRNAs. A significant fraction of pri-miRNAs have lengths between 1 and 10 kb, with very few introns. We annotate a total of 59 pri-miRNA structures, which include 82 pre-miRNAs. 36 pri-miRNAs are conserved in all 3 species. In total, 18 of the confidently annotated transcripts express more than one pre-miRNA. The upstream regions of 54% of the predicted pri-miRNAs are found to be associated with promoter and insulator regulatory sequences. Conclusion Little is known about the primary transcripts of intergenic miRNAs. Using comparative data, we are able to identify the boundaries of a significant proportion of

  16. MicroRNA profiling in intraocular medulloepitheliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak P Edward

    Full Text Available To study the differential expression of microRNA (miRNA profiles between intraocular medulloepithelioma (ME and normal control tissue (CT.Total RNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE intraocular ME (n=7 and from age matched ciliary body controls (n=8. The clinical history and phenotype was recorded. MiRNA profiles were determined using the Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA Arrays analyzed using expression console 1.3 software. Validation of significantly dysregulated miRNA was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. The web-based DNA Intelligent Analysis (DIANA-miRPath v2.0 was used to perform enrichment analysis of differentially expressed (DE miRNA gene targets in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway.The pathologic evaluation revealed one benign (benign non-teratoid, n=1 and six malignant tumors (malignant teratoid, n=2; malignant non-teratoid, n = 4. A total of 88 miRNAs were upregulated and 43 miRNAs were downregulated significantly (P<0.05 in the tumor specimens. Many of these significantly dysregulated miRNAs were known to play various roles in carcinogenesis and tumor behavior. RT-PCR validated three significantly upregulated miRNAs and three significantly downregulated miRNAs namely miR-217, miR-216a, miR-216b, miR-146a, miR-509-3p and miR-211. Many DE miRNAs that were significant in ME tumors showed dysregulation in retinoblastoma, glioblastoma, and precursor, normal and reactive human cartilage. Enriched pathway analysis suggested a significant association of upregulated miRNAs with 15 pathways involved in prion disease and several types of cancer. The pathways involving significantly downregulated miRNAs included the toll-like receptor (TLR (p<4.36E-16 and Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathways (p<9.00E-06.We report significantly dysregulated miRNAs in intraocular ME tumors, which exhibited abnormal profiles in other cancers as well such as retinoblastoma and glioblastoma. Pathway analysis

  17. Friend or Foe: MicroRNAs in the p53 network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhenghua; Cui, Ri; Tili, Esmerina; Croce, Carlo

    2018-04-10

    The critical tumor suppressor gene TP53 is either lost or mutated in more than half of human cancers. As an important transcriptional regulator, p53 modulates the expression of many microRNAs. While wild-type p53 uses microRNAs to suppress cancer development, microRNAs that are activated by gain-of-function mutant p53 confer oncogenic properties. On the other hand, the expression of p53 is tightly controlled by a fine-tune machinery including microRNAs. MicroRNAs can target the TP53 gene directly or other factors in the p53 network so that expression and function of either the wild-type or the mutant forms of p53 is downregulated. Therefore, depending on the wild-type or mutant p53 context, microRNAs contribute substantially to suppress or exacerbate tumor development. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. MicroRNA-33 promotes the replicative senescence of mouse embryonic fibroblasts by suppressing CDK6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Shun; Huang, Haijiao; Li, Nanhong; Zhang, Bing; Jia, Yubin; Yang, Yukun; Yuan, Yuan; Xiong, Xing-dong; Wang, Dengchuan; Zheng, Hui-ling [Institute of Aging Research, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Diagnostics, Dongguan (China); Institute of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang (China); Liu, Xinguang, E-mail: xgliu64@126.com [Institute of Aging Research, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Diagnostics, Dongguan (China); Institute of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang (China)

    2016-05-13

    MicroRNAs are a large class of tiny noncoding RNAs, which have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression, and thus are involved in multiple cellular processes, including cellular senescence. MicroRNA-33 has previously been established to exert crucial effect on cell proliferation, lipid metabolism and cholesterol metabolism. Nonetheless, the association between microRNA-33 and cellular senescence and its underlying molecular mechanism are far to be elucidated. The present study has attempted to probe into the effect of microRNA-33 on MEFs senescence. Our data unveiled that microRNA-33 was dramatically down-regulated in senescent MEFs compared to the young MEFs, and ectopic expression of microRNA-33 promoted MEFs senescence, while knock-down of microRNA-33 exhibited a protective effect against senescence phenotype. Moreover, we verified CDK6 as a direct target of microRNA-33 in mouse. Silencing of CDK6 induced the premature senescence phenotype of MEFs similarly as microRNA-33, while enforced expression of CDK6 significantly reverse the senescence-induction effect of microRNA-33. Taken together, our results suggested that microRNA-33 enhanced the replicative senescence of MEFs potentially by suppressing CDK6 expression. -- Highlights: •MicroRNA-33 was dramatically down-regulated in senescent MEF cells. •Altered expression of microRNA-33 exerted a critical role in MEFs senescence. •MicroRNA-33 promoted the replicative senescence of MEFs via targeting of CDK6.

  19. MicroRNA-33 promotes the replicative senescence of mouse embryonic fibroblasts by suppressing CDK6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shun; Huang, Haijiao; Li, Nanhong; Zhang, Bing; Jia, Yubin; Yang, Yukun; Yuan, Yuan; Xiong, Xing-dong; Wang, Dengchuan; Zheng, Hui-ling; Liu, Xinguang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a large class of tiny noncoding RNAs, which have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression, and thus are involved in multiple cellular processes, including cellular senescence. MicroRNA-33 has previously been established to exert crucial effect on cell proliferation, lipid metabolism and cholesterol metabolism. Nonetheless, the association between microRNA-33 and cellular senescence and its underlying molecular mechanism are far to be elucidated. The present study has attempted to probe into the effect of microRNA-33 on MEFs senescence. Our data unveiled that microRNA-33 was dramatically down-regulated in senescent MEFs compared to the young MEFs, and ectopic expression of microRNA-33 promoted MEFs senescence, while knock-down of microRNA-33 exhibited a protective effect against senescence phenotype. Moreover, we verified CDK6 as a direct target of microRNA-33 in mouse. Silencing of CDK6 induced the premature senescence phenotype of MEFs similarly as microRNA-33, while enforced expression of CDK6 significantly reverse the senescence-induction effect of microRNA-33. Taken together, our results suggested that microRNA-33 enhanced the replicative senescence of MEFs potentially by suppressing CDK6 expression. -- Highlights: •MicroRNA-33 was dramatically down-regulated in senescent MEF cells. •Altered expression of microRNA-33 exerted a critical role in MEFs senescence. •MicroRNA-33 promoted the replicative senescence of MEFs via targeting of CDK6.

  20. MicroRNA expression profiles of cancer stem cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    YATA, KAZUYA; BEDER, LEVENT BEKIR; TAMAGAWA, SHUNJI; HOTOMI, MUNEKI; HIROHASHI, YOSHIHIKO; GRENMAN, REIDAR; YAMANAKA, NOBORU

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that cancer stem cells have essential roles in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis and resistance to chemo-radiation. Recent research has pointed out biological importance of microRNAs in cancer stem cell dysregulation. Total number of mature microRNAs in human genome increased to more than 2,500 with the recent up-date of the database. However, currently no information is available regarding microRNA expression profiles of cancer stem cells in head and nec...

  1. Tamarix microRNA Profiling Reveals New Insight into Salt Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The halophyte tamarisk (Tamarix is extremely salt tolerant, making it an ideal material for salt tolerance-related studies. Although many salt-responsive genes of Tamarix were identified in previous studies, there are no reports on the role of post-transcriptional regulation in its salt tolerance. We constructed six small RNA libraries of Tamarix chinensis roots with NaCl treatments. High-throughput sequencing of the six libraries was performed and microRNA expression profiles were constructed. We investigated salt-responsive microRNAs to uncover the microRNA-mediated genes regulation. From these analyses, 251 conserved and 18 novel microRNA were identified from all small RNAs. From 191 differentially expressed microRNAs, 74 co-expressed microRNAs were identified as salt-responsive candidate microRNAs. The most enriched GO (gene ontology terms for the 157 genes targeted by differentially expressed microRNAs suggested that transcriptions factors were highly active. Two hub microRNAs (miR414, miR5658, which connected by several target genes into an organic microRNA regulatory network, appeared to be the key regulators of post-transcriptional salt-stress responses. As the first survey on the tamarisk small RNAome, this study improves the understanding of tamarisk salt-tolerance mechanisms and will contribute to the molecular-assisted resistance breeding.

  2. miRBase: annotating high confidence microRNAs using deep sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozomara, Ana; Griffiths-Jones, Sam

    2014-01-01

    We describe an update of the miRBase database (http://www.mirbase.org/), the primary microRNA sequence repository. The latest miRBase release (v20, June 2013) contains 24 521 microRNA loci from 206 species, processed to produce 30 424 mature microRNA products. The rate of deposition of novel microRNAs and the number of researchers involved in their discovery continue to increase, driven largely by small RNA deep sequencing experiments. In the face of these increases, and a range of microRNA annotation methods and criteria, maintaining the quality of the microRNA sequence data set is a significant challenge. Here, we describe recent developments of the miRBase database to address this issue. In particular, we describe the collation and use of deep sequencing data sets to assign levels of confidence to miRBase entries. We now provide a high confidence subset of miRBase entries, based on the pattern of mapped reads. The high confidence microRNA data set is available alongside the complete microRNA collection at http://www.mirbase.org/. We also describe embedding microRNA-specific Wikipedia pages on the miRBase website to encourage the microRNA community to contribute and share textual and functional information.

  3. The Emerging Role of MicroRNA-155 in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Y. Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to be involved in human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Growing evidences suggest that microRNA-155, a typical multifunctional microRNA, plays a crucial role in hematopoietic lineage differentiation, immunity, inflammation, viral infections, and vascular remodeling, which is linked to cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, heart failure, and diabetic heart disease. The effects of microRNA-155 in different cell types through different target genes result in different mechanisms in diseases. MicroRNA-155 has been intensively studied in atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. Contradictory results of microRNA-155 either promoting or preventing the pathophysiological process of atherosclerosis illustrate the complexity of this pleiotropic molecule. Therefore, more comprehensive studies of the underlying mechanisms of microRNA-155 involvement in cardiovascular diseases are required. Furthermore, a recent clinical trial of Miravirsen targeting microRNA-122 sheds light on exploiting microRNA-155 as a novel target to develop effective therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular diseases in the near future.

  4. MicroRNA expression profile in head and neck cancer: HOX-cluster embedded microRNA-196a and microRNA-10b dysregulation implicated in cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severino, Patricia; Mathor, Monica Beatriz; Nunes, Fabio Daumas; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Brüggemann, Holger; Andreghetto, Flavia Maziero; Camps, Carme; Klingbeil, Maria de Fatima Garrido; Pereira, Welbert Oliveira de; Soares, Renata Machado; Moyses, Raquel; Wünsch-Filho, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence implicates aberrant microRNA expression patterns in human malignancies; measurement of microRNA expression may have diagnostic and prognostic applications. Roles for microRNAs in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are largely unknown. HNSCC, a smoking-related cancer, is one of the most common malignancies worldwide but reliable diagnostic and prognostic markers have not been discovered so far. Some studies have evaluated the potential use of microRNA as biomarkers with clinical application in HNSCC. MicroRNA expression profile of oral squamous cell carcinoma samples was determined by means of DNA microarrays. We also performed gain-of-function assays for two differentially expressed microRNA using two squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and normal oral keratinocytes. The effect of the over-expression of these molecules was evaluated by means of global gene expression profiling and cell proliferation assessment. Altered microRNA expression was detected for a total of 72 microRNAs. Among these we found well studied molecules, such as the miR-17-92 cluster, comprising potent oncogenic microRNA, and miR-34, recently found to interact with p53. HOX-cluster embedded miR-196a/b and miR-10b were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in tumor samples. Since validated HOX gene targets for these microRNAs are not consistently deregulated in HNSCC, we performed gain-of-function experiments, in an attempt to outline their possible role. Our results suggest that both molecules interfere in cell proliferation through distinct processes, possibly targeting a small set of genes involved in cell cycle progression. Functional data on miRNAs in HNSCC is still scarce. Our data corroborate current literature and brings new insights into the role of microRNAs in HNSCC. We also show that miR-196a and miR-10b, not previously associated with HNSCC, may play an oncogenic role in this disease through the deregulation of cell proliferation. The study of microRNA

  5. A microRNA feedback loop regulates global microRNA abundance during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inukai, Sachi; Pincus, Zachary; de Lencastre, Alexandre; Slack, Frank J

    2018-02-01

    Expression levels of many microRNAs (miRNAs) change during aging, notably declining globally in a number of organisms and tissues across taxa. However, little is known about the mechanisms or the biological relevance for this change. We investigated the network of genes that controls miRNA transcription and processing during C. elegans aging. We found that miRNA biogenesis genes are highly networked with transcription factors and aging-associated miRNAs. In particular, miR-71, known to influence life span and itself up-regulated during aging, represses alg-1 /Argonaute expression post-transcriptionally during aging. Increased ALG-1 abundance in mir-71 loss-of-function mutants led to globally increased miRNA expression. Interestingly, these mutants demonstrated widespread mRNA expression dysregulation and diminished levels of variability both in gene expression and in overall life span. Thus, the progressive molecular decline often thought to be the result of accumulated damage over an organism's life may be partially explained by a miRNA-directed mechanism of age-associated decline. © 2018 Inukai et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  6. MicroRNA target finding by comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robin C; Burge, Christopher B

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in virtually every metazoan biological process, exerting a widespread impact on gene expression. MicroRNA repression is conferred by relatively short "seed match" sequences, although the degree of repression varies widely for individual target sites. The factors controlling whether, and to what extent, a target site is repressed are not fully understood. As an alternative to target prediction based on sequence alone, comparative genomics has emerged as an invaluable tool for identifying miRNA targets that are conserved by natural selection, and hence likely effective and important. Here we present a general method for quantifying conservation of miRNA seed match sites, separating it from background conservation, controlling for various biases, and predicting miRNA targets. This method is useful not only for generating predictions but also as a tool for empirically evaluating the importance of various target prediction criteria.

  7. Computational methods for ab initio detection of microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik eYousef

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small RNA sequences of 18-24 nucleotides in length, which serve as templates to drive post transcriptional gene silencing. The canonical microRNA pathway starts with transcription from DNA and is followed by processing via the Microprocessor complex, yielding a hairpin structure. Which is then exported into the cytosol where it is processed by Dicer and then incorporated into the RNA induced silencing complex. All of these biogenesis steps add to the overall specificity of miRNA production and effect. Unfortunately, their modes of action are just beginning to be elucidated and therefore computational prediction algorithms cannot model the process but are usually forced to employ machine learning approaches. This work focuses on ab initio prediction methods throughout; and therefore homology-based miRNA detection methods are not discussed. Current ab initio prediction algorithms, their ties to data mining, and their prediction accuracy are detailed.

  8. MicroRNA's are novel biomarkers in sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Edith Smed; Alamili, Mahdi; Coskun, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). The discovery of small non-coding microRNAs (miRs) and their correlation to sepsis has gained increasing interest. Our aim was to systematically review the literature examining the association ...... searching the computational target prediction databases. Conclusion: Various miRs are associated with sepsis, but no corresponding predictor genes were found....

  9. microRNAs: Implications for air pollution research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardim, Melanie J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality attributable to air pollution continues to be a growing public health concern worldwide. Despite several studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain elusive. In the last several years, special attention has been given to the role of epigenetics in mediating, not only genetic and physiological responses to certain environmental insults, but also in regulating underlying susceptibility to environmental stressors. Epigenetic mechanisms control the expression of gene products, both basally and as a response to a perturbation, without affecting the sequence of DNA itself. These mechanisms include structural regulation of the chromatin structure, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, and post-transcriptional gene regulation, such as microRNA mediated repression of gene expression. microRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that have been quickly established as key regulators of gene expression. As such, miRNAs have been found to control several cellular processes including apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. More recently, research has emerged suggesting that changes in the expression of some miRNAs may be critical for mediating biological, and ultimately physiological, responses to air pollutants. Although the study of microRNAs, and epigenetics as a whole, has come quite far in the field of cancer, the understanding of how these mechanisms regulate gene–environment interactions to environmental exposures in everyday life is unclear. This article does not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the US EPA.

  10. microRNAs: Implications for air pollution research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardim, Melanie J., E-mail: melaniejardim@gmail.com [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality attributable to air pollution continues to be a growing public health concern worldwide. Despite several studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain elusive. In the last several years, special attention has been given to the role of epigenetics in mediating, not only genetic and physiological responses to certain environmental insults, but also in regulating underlying susceptibility to environmental stressors. Epigenetic mechanisms control the expression of gene products, both basally and as a response to a perturbation, without affecting the sequence of DNA itself. These mechanisms include structural regulation of the chromatin structure, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, and post-transcriptional gene regulation, such as microRNA mediated repression of gene expression. microRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that have been quickly established as key regulators of gene expression. As such, miRNAs have been found to control several cellular processes including apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. More recently, research has emerged suggesting that changes in the expression of some miRNAs may be critical for mediating biological, and ultimately physiological, responses to air pollutants. Although the study of microRNAs, and epigenetics as a whole, has come quite far in the field of cancer, the understanding of how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions to environmental exposures in everyday life is unclear. This article does not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the US EPA.

  11. A host MicroRNA brokers truce with HSV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Justin M; Sullivan, Christopher S

    2014-04-09

    Establishing lifelong infection and periodically shedding infectious progeny is a successful strategy employed by several persistent pathogens. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Pan et al. (2014) demonstrate that a cell-type-specific host microRNA can restrict gene expression and pathogenicity of herpes simplex virus 1, thereby promoting long-term infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential expression analysis of balding and nonbalding dermal papilla microRNAs in male pattern baldness with a microRNA amplification profiling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, H R; Abbasi, A; Saffari, M; Fazelzadeh Haghighi, M; Tabei, M B; Noori Daloii, M R

    2012-05-01

      Male pattern baldness or androgenetic alopecia is a common disorder affecting almost 50% of men throughout their lifetime, with androgens and genetics having significant contributing aetiologies. In contrast to the positive regulatory effect of androgens on body hair growth, they are thought to alter scalp hair follicle behaviour pathophysiologically, leading to male pattern baldness. However, the exact mechanisms of this paradoxical action have not yet been elucidated. The role of microRNAs, a novel group of noncoding RNAs impacting almost every aspect of biology, health and human diseases, has been documented in hair follicle formation. In addition, their deregulation in cancer of the prostate, a target organ of androgens, has also been well established. To investigate the possible contribution of microRNAs in the pathophysiology of male pattern baldness. We initially screened microRNA expression profiles of balding and nonbalding hair follicle papillae with a sensitive microRNA cloning method, microRNA amplification profiling, and statistically analysed significant differentially expressed microRNAs in balding relative to nonbalding dermal papillae, with real-time polymerase chain reaction as a confirmatory method to quantify expression in eight individuals affected with the disorder.   We detected the significant upregulation of miR-221, miR-125b, miR-106a and miR-410 in balding papilla cells.   We found four microRNAs that could participate in the pathogenesis of male pattern baldness. Regarding the strong therapeutic potential of microRNAs and the easy accessibility of hair follicles for gene therapy, microRNAs are possible candidates for a new generation of revolutionary treatments. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. The effects of environmental chemical carcinogens on the microRNA machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzotti, A; Pulliero, A

    2014-07-01

    The first evidence that microRNA expression is early altered by exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens in still healthy organisms was obtained for cigarette smoke. To date, the cumulative experimental data indicate that similar effects are caused by a variety of environmental carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitropyrenes, endocrine disruptors, airborne mixtures, carcinogens in food and water, and carcinogenic drugs. Accordingly, the alteration of miRNA expression is a general mechanism that plays an important pathogenic role in linking exposure to environmental toxic agents with their pathological consequences, mainly including cancer development. This review summarizes the existing experimental evidence concerning the effects of chemical carcinogens on the microRNA machinery. For each carcinogen, the specific microRNA alteration signature, as detected in experimental studies, is reported. These data are useful for applying microRNA alterations as early biomarkers of biological effects in healthy organisms exposed to environmental carcinogens. However, microRNA alteration results in carcinogenesis only if accompanied by other molecular damages. As an example, microRNAs altered by chemical carcinogens often inhibits the expression of mutated oncogenes. The long-term exposure to chemical carcinogens causes irreversible suppression of microRNA expression thus allowing the transduction into proteins of mutated oncogenes. This review also analyzes the existing knowledge regarding the mechanisms by which environmental carcinogens alter microRNA expression. The underlying molecular mechanism involves p53-microRNA interconnection, microRNA adduct formation, and alterations of Dicer function. On the whole, reported findings provide evidence that microRNA analysis is a molecular toxicology tool that can elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms activated by environmental carcinogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. MicroRNA expression profiles in human cancer cells after ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemoeller, Olivier M; Niyazi, Maximilian; Corradini, Stefanie; Zehentmayr, Franz; Li, Minglun; Lauber, Kirsten; Belka, Claus

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs are regulators of central cellular processes and are implicated in the pathogenesis and prognosis of human cancers. MicroRNAs also modulate responses to anti-cancer therapy. In the context of radiation oncology microRNAs were found to modulate cell death and proliferation after irradiation. However, changes in microRNA expression profiles in response to irradiation have not been comprehensively analyzed so far. The present study's intend is to present a broad screen of changes in microRNA expression following irradiation of different malignant cell lines. 1100 microRNAs (Sanger miRBase release version 14.0) were analyzed in six malignant cell lines following irradiation with clinically relevant doses of 2.0 Gy. MicroRNA levels 6 hours after irradiation were compared to microRNA levels in non-irradiated cells using the 'Geniom Biochip MPEA homo sapiens'. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed a pattern, which significantly (p = 0.014) discerned irradiated from non-irradiated cells. The expression levels of a number of microRNAs known to be involved in the regulation of cellular processes like apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, local immune response and radioresistance (e. g. miR-1285, miR-24-1, miR-151-5p, let-7i) displayed 2 - 3-fold changes after irradiation. Moreover, several microRNAs previously not known to be radiation-responsive were discovered. Ionizing radiation induced significant changes in microRNA expression profiles in 3 glioma and 3 squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. The functional relevance of these changes is not addressed but should by analyzed by future work especially focusing on clinically relevant endpoints like radiation induced cell death, proliferation, migration and metastasis

  15. Dehydration triggers differential microRNA expression in Xenopus laevis brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Bryan E; Storey, Kenneth B

    2015-11-15

    African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis, although primarily aquatic, have a high tolerance for dehydration, being capable of withstanding the loss of up to 32-35% of total water body water. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs play a role in the response to dehydration by the liver, kidney and ventral skin of X. laevis. MicroRNAs act by modulating the expression of mRNA transcripts, thereby affecting diverse biochemical pathways. In this study, 43 microRNAs were assessed in frog brains comparing control and dehydrated (31.2±0.83% of total body water lost) conditions. MicroRNAs of interest were measured using a modified protocol which employs polyadenylation of microRNAs prior to reverse transcription and qPCR. Twelve microRNAs that showed a significant decrease in expression (to 41-77% of control levels) in brains from dehydrated frogs (xla-miR-15a, -150, -181a, -191, -211, -218, -219b, -30c, -30e, -31, -34a, and -34b) were identified. Genomic analysis showed that the sequences of these dehydration-responsive microRNAs were highly conserved as compared with the comparable microRNAs of mice (91-100%). Suppression of these microRNAs implies that translation of the mRNA transcripts under their control could be enhanced in response to dehydration. Bioinformatic analysis using the DIANA miRPath program (v.2.0) predicted the top two KEGG pathways that these microRNAs collectively regulate: 1. Axon guidance, and 2. Long-term potentiation. Previous studies indicated that suppression of these microRNAs promotes neuroprotective pathways by increasing the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and activating anti-apoptotic pathways. This suggests that similar actions may be triggered in X. laevis brains as a protective response to dehydration. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Accurate microRNA target prediction correlates with protein repression levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simossis Victor A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are small endogenously expressed non-coding RNA molecules that regulate target gene expression through translation repression or messenger RNA degradation. MicroRNA regulation is performed through pairing of the microRNA to sites in the messenger RNA of protein coding genes. Since experimental identification of miRNA target genes poses difficulties, computational microRNA target prediction is one of the key means in deciphering the role of microRNAs in development and disease. Results DIANA-microT 3.0 is an algorithm for microRNA target prediction which is based on several parameters calculated individually for each microRNA and combines conserved and non-conserved microRNA recognition elements into a final prediction score, which correlates with protein production fold change. Specifically, for each predicted interaction the program reports a signal to noise ratio and a precision score which can be used as an indication of the false positive rate of the prediction. Conclusion Recently, several computational target prediction programs were benchmarked based on a set of microRNA target genes identified by the pSILAC method. In this assessment DIANA-microT 3.0 was found to achieve the highest precision among the most widely used microRNA target prediction programs reaching approximately 66%. The DIANA-microT 3.0 prediction results are available online in a user friendly web server at http://www.microrna.gr/microT

  17. The role of microRNA-200 in progression of human colorectal and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bojmar

    Full Text Available The role of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in cancer has been studied extensively in vitro, but involvement of the EMT in tumorigenesis in vivo is largely unknown. We investigated the potential of microRNAs as clinical markers and analyzed participation of the EMT-associated microRNA-200-ZEB-E-cadherin pathway in cancer progression. Expression of the microRNA-200 family was quantified by real-time RT-PCR analysis of fresh-frozen and microdissected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary colorectal tumors, normal colon mucosa, and matched liver metastases. MicroRNA expression was validated by in situ hybridization and after in vitro culture of the malignant cells. To assess EMT as a predictive marker, factors considered relevant in colorectal cancer were investigated in 98 primary breast tumors from a treatment-randomized study. Associations between the studied EMT-markers were found in primary breast tumors and in colorectal liver metastases. MicroRNA-200 expression in epithelial cells was lower in malignant mucosa than in normal mucosa, and was also decreased in metastatic compared to non-metastatic colorectal cancer. Low microRNA-200 expression in colorectal liver metastases was associated with bad prognosis. In breast cancer, low levels of microRNA-200 were related to reduced survival and high expression of microRNA-200 was predictive of benefit from radiotheraphy. MicroRNA-200 was associated with ER positive status, and inversely correlated to HER2 and overactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, that was associated with high ZEB1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that the stability of microRNAs makes them suitable as clinical markers and that the EMT-related microRNA-200-ZEB-E-cadherin signaling pathway is connected to established clinical characteristics and can give useful prognostic and treatment-predictive information in progressive breast and colorectal cancers.

  18. Adeno-associated virus transformation into the normal miniature pig and the normal guinea pigs cochlea via scala tympani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xunbei; Wu, Nan; Zhang, Yue; Guo, Weiwei; Lin, Chang; Yang, Shiming

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the expression of the miniature pig cochlea after AAV1 transfect into the cochlea via round window membrane (RWM). Twenty miniature pigs are equally divided into four experimental groups. Twelve miniature pigs are equally divided into four control groups. Each pig was transfected with the AAV1 in the experimental group via RWM and each pig was transduced with the artificial perilymph in the control group. The expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) was observed at 2 weeks, 3 weeks and 4 weeks, respectively. Likewise, AAV1 was delivered into the guinea pigs cochleas using the same method, and the results were compared with that of the miniature pigs. The expression was mainly in the inner hair cells of the miniature pig. The expression of GFP began to appear at 2 weeks, reached the peak at 3 weeks. It also expressed in Hensen's cells, inner pillar cells, outer pillar cells, spiral limbus, and spiral ligament. In the meanwhile, AAV1 was delivered into guinea pig cochlea via the same method, and AAV1 was also expressed in the inner hair cells. But the expression peaked at 2 weeks, and the efficiency of the inner hair cell transfection was higher than that of the pig. AAV1 can be transformed into miniature pig cochlea via scala tympani by the RWM method efficiently.

  19. Circulating microRNAs in serum from cattle challenged with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an RNA virus that is often associated with respiratory disease in cattle. MicroRNAs have been proposed as indicators of exposure to respiratory pathogens. The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs in cattle that had been challenged with a non-cytopat...

  20. Stress-dependent cardiac remodeling occurs in the absence of microRNA-21 in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick, David M; Montgomery, Rusty L; Qi, Xiaoxia

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs inhibit mRNA translation or promote mRNA degradation by binding complementary sequences in 3' untranslated regions of target mRNAs. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is upregulated in response to cardiac stress, and its inhibition by a cholesterol-modified antagomir has been reported to prevent card...

  1. Circulating microRNA expression profiles associated with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Anting Liu; Schetter, Aaron J; Nielsen, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the specificity of expression patterns of cell-free, circulating microRNAs in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Total RNA was purified from plasma and 45 different specific mature microRNAs were determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain...

  2. Modulation of microRNA activity by semi-microRNAs (smiRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle ePlante

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ribonuclease Dicer plays a central role in the microRNA pathway by catalyzing the formation of 19 to 24-nucleotide (nt long microRNAs. Subsequently incorporated into Ago2 effector complexes, microRNAs are known to regulate messenger RNA (mRNA translation. Whether shorter RNA species derived from microRNAs exist and play a role in mRNA regulation remains unknown. Here, we report the serendipitous discovery of a 12-nt long RNA species corresponding to the 5’ region of the microRNA let-7, and tentatively termed semi-microRNA, or smiRNA. Using a smiRNA derived from the precursor of miR-223 as a model, we show that 12-nt long smiRNA species are devoid of any direct mRNA regulatory activity, as assessed in a reporter gene activity assay in transfected cultured human cells. However, smiR-223 was found to modulate the ability of the microRNA from which it derives to mediate translational repression or cleavage of reporter mRNAs. Our findings suggest that smiRNAs may be generated along the microRNA pathway and participate to the control of gene expression by regulating the activity of the related full-length mature microRNA in vivo.

  3. MicroRNA expression profiles associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and ampullary adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nicolai A; Werner, Jens; Willenbrock, Hanni

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs have potential as diagnostic cancer biomarkers. The aim of this study was (1) to define microRNA expression patterns in formalin-fixed parafin-embedded tissue from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, ampullary adenocarcinoma, normal pancreas and chronic pancreatitis without using micro-di...

  4. MicroRNA expression in multiple myeloma is associated with genetic subtype, isotype and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezzella Francesco

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are small RNA species that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally and are aberrantly expressed in many cancers including hematological malignancies. However, the role of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM is only poorly understood. We therefore used microarray analysis to elucidate the complete miRNome (miRBase version 13.0 of purified tumor (CD138+ cells from 33 patients with MM, 5 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS and 9 controls. Results Unsupervised cluster analysis revealed that MM and MGUS samples have a distinct microRNA expression profile from control CD138+ cells. The majority of microRNAs aberrantly expressed in MM (109/129 were up-regulated. A comparison of these microRNAs with those aberrantly expressed in other B-cell and T-cell malignancies revealed a surprising degree of similarity (~40% suggesting the existence of a common lymphoma microRNA signature. We identified 39 microRNAs associated with the pre-malignant condition MGUS. Twenty-three (59% of these were also aberrantly expressed in MM suggesting common microRNA expression events in MM progression. MM is characterized by multiple chromosomal abnormalities of varying prognostic significance. We identified specific microRNA signatures associated with the most common IgH translocations (t(4;14 and t(11;14 and del(13q. Expression levels of these microRNAs were distinct between the genetic subtypes (by cluster analysis and correctly predicted these abnormalities in > 85% of cases using the support vector machine algorithm. Additionally, we identified microRNAs associated with light chain only myeloma, as well as IgG and IgA-type MM. Finally, we identified 32 microRNAs associated with event-free survival (EFS in MM, ten of which were significant by univariate (logrank survival analysis. Conclusions In summary, this work has identified aberrantly expressed microRNAs associated with the

  5. The role of microRNA in diseases of the biliary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Abaturov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This literature review provides current information about role of microRNA in diseases of the biliary system. For writing the article, we used such databases, as Scopus, Web of Science, MedLine, PubMed, Google Scholar, CyberLeninka, RSCI. The mechanisms of formation and action of microRNA are demonstrated. The data of scientific researches on the association of various microRNAs in the development and progression of diseases of the biliary system are presented. The influence of ursodeoxycholic acid on the expression of microRNA is considered. Attention is focused on the therapeutic efficacy and benefits of using ursodeoxycholic acid in diseases of the biliary system due to the effect on the activity of the generation of some microRNAs.

  6. Current status of research on microRNA associated with colorectal cancer liver metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Dongxu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor metastasis is a complicated process with multiple steps, and liver metastasis is the most common metastatic mode of colorectal cancer. Deep understanding and study of metastatic mechanism helps to find solutions for colorectal cancer liver metastasis. Recent studies have shown that microRNA are involved in tumor metastasis and recurrence, and studies on microRNA associated with colorectal cancer liver metastasis can provide new thoughts for the development and progression, diagnosis and treatment, and prognosis of the disease. This article summarizes the research advances in microRNA associated with colorectal cancer liver metastasis and reviews the biological function and molecular mechanism of microRNA, which suggests that microRNA have a vital significance in the field of tumor metastasis, especially colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

  7. Circulating, Cell-Free Micro-RNA Profiles Reflect Discordant Development of Dementia in Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Rønne, Mette E; Carlsen, Anting L

    2018-01-01

    We aim to examine if circulating micro-RNA and cytokine levels associate with dementia diagnosis and cognitive scores. To test our hypothesis, we use plasma donated from 48 monozygotic twin pairs in 1997 and 46 micro-RNAs and 10 cytokines were quantified using microfluidic RT-qPCR and multiplex...... solid-phase immunoassays, respectively. Micro-RNA and cytokine profiling were examined for associations with dementia diagnoses in a longitudinal registry study or with cognitive scores at baseline. Thirty-six micro-RNAs and all cytokines were detected consistently. Micro-RNA profiles associate...... with diagnoses and cognitive scores at statistically significant levels while cytokine only showed trends pointing at chronic inflammation in twins having or developing dementia. The most notable findings were decreased miR-106a and miR-210, and increased miR-106b expression in twins with a dementia diagnosis...

  8. From cell biology to immunology: Controlling metastatic progression of cancer via microRNA regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyon; Theodoratou, Evropi; Calin, George A; Shin, Jae Il

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the study of microRNAs has expanded our knowledge of the fundamental processes of cancer biology and the underlying mechanisms behind tumor metastasis. Extensive research in the fields of microRNA and its novel mechanisms of actions against various cancers has more recently led to the trial of a first cancer-targeted microRNA drug, MRX34. Yet, these microRNAs are mostly being studied and clinically trialed solely based on the understanding of their cell biologic effects, thus, neglecting the important immunologic effects that are sometimes opposite of the cell biologic effects. Here, we summarize both the cell biologic and immunologic effects of various microRNAs and discuss the importance of considering both effects before using them in clinical settings. We stress the importance of understanding the miRNA's effect on cancer metastasis from a "systems" perspective before developing a miRNA-targeted therapeutic in treating cancer metastasis.

  9. Prognostic microRNAs in cancer tissue from patients operated for pancreatic cancer--five microRNAs in a prognostic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nicolai A; Andersen, Klaus; Roslind, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify a panel of microRNAs (miRNAs) that can predict overall survival (OS) in non micro-dissected cancer tissues from patients operated for pancreatic cancer (PC)....

  10. MicroRNA expression in benign breast tissue and risk of subsequent invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Thomas; Ye, Kenny; Wang, Yihong; Glass, Andrew G; Ginsberg, Mindy; Loudig, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenous, small non-coding RNAs that control gene expression by directing their target mRNAs for degradation and/or posttranscriptional repression. Abnormal expression of microRNAs is thought to contribute to the development and progression of cancer. A history of benign breast disease (BBD) is associated with increased risk of subsequent breast cancer. However, no large-scale study has examined the association between microRNA expression in BBD tissue and risk of subsequent invasive breast cancer (IBC). We conducted discovery and validation case-control studies nested in a cohort of 15,395 women diagnosed with BBD in a large health plan between 1971 and 2006 and followed to mid-2015. Cases were women with BBD who developed subsequent IBC; controls were matched 1:1 to cases on age, age at diagnosis of BBD, and duration of plan membership. The discovery stage (316 case-control pairs) entailed use of the Illumina MicroRNA Expression Profiling Assay (in duplicate) to identify breast cancer-associated microRNAs. MicroRNAs identified at this stage were ranked by the strength of the correlation between Illumina array and quantitative PCR results for 15 case-control pairs. The top ranked 14 microRNAs entered the validation stage (165 case-control pairs) which was conducted using quantitative PCR (in triplicate). In both stages, linear regression was used to evaluate the association between the mean expression level of each microRNA (response variable) and case-control status (independent variable); paired t-tests were also used in the validation stage. None of the 14 validation stage microRNAs was associated with breast cancer risk. The results of this study suggest that microRNA expression in benign breast tissue does not influence the risk of subsequent IBC.

  11. Identification of reference genes for relative quantification of circulating microRNAs in bovine serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Seon Bae

    Full Text Available Circulating microRNAs in body fluids have been implicated as promising biomarkers for physiopathology disorders. Currently, the expression levels of circulating microRNAs are estimated by reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Use of appropriate reference microRNAs for normalization is critical for accurate microRNA expression analysis. However, no study has systematically investigated reference genes for evaluating circulating microRNA expression in cattle. In this study, we describe the identification and characterization of appropriate reference microRNAs for use in the normalization of circulating microRNA levels in bovine serum. We evaluated the expression stability of ten candidate reference genes in bovine serum by using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Data were analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper statistical algorithms. The results consistently showed that a combination of miR-93 and miR-127 provided the most stably expressed reference. The suitability of these microRNAs was validated, and even when compared among different genders or breeds, the combination of miR-93 and miR-127 was ranked as the most stable microRNA reference. Therefore, we conclude that this combination is the optimal endogenous reference for reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction-based detection of microRNAs in bovine serum. The data presented in this study are crucial to successful biomarker discovery and validation for the diagnosis of physiopathological conditions in cattle.

  12. Identification of differentially expressed microRNAs in human male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schipper Elisa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery of small non-coding RNAs and the subsequent analysis of microRNA expression patterns in human cancer specimens have provided completely new insights into cancer biology. Genetic and epigenetic data indicate oncogenic or tumor suppressor function of these pleiotropic regulators. Therefore, many studies analyzed the expression and function of microRNA in human breast cancer, the most frequent malignancy in females. However, nothing is known so far about microRNA expression in male breast cancer, accounting for approximately 1% of all breast cancer cases. Methods The expression of 319 microRNAs was analyzed in 9 primary human male breast tumors and in epithelial cells from 15 male gynecomastia specimens using fluorescence-labeled bead technology. For identification of differentially expressed microRNAs data were analyzed by cluster analysis and selected statistical methods. Expression levels were validated for the most up- or down-regulated microRNAs in this training cohort using real-time PCR methodology as well as in an independent test cohort comprising 12 cases of human male breast cancer. Results Unsupervised cluster analysis separated very well male breast cancer samples and control specimens according to their microRNA expression pattern indicating cancer-specific alterations of microRNA expression in human male breast cancer. miR-21, miR519d, miR-183, miR-197, and miR-493-5p were identified as most prominently up-regulated, miR-145 and miR-497 as most prominently down-regulated in male breast cancer. Conclusions Male breast cancer displays several differentially expressed microRNAs. Not all of them are shared with breast cancer biopsies from female patients indicating male breast cancer specific alterations of microRNA expression.

  13. Identification of microRNAs in the coral Stylophora pistillata.

    KAUST Repository

    Liew, Yi Jin

    2014-03-21

    Coral reefs are major contributors to marine biodiversity. However, they are in rapid decline due to global environmental changes such as rising sea surface temperatures, ocean acidification, and pollution. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses have broadened our understanding of coral biology, but a study of the microRNA (miRNA) repertoire of corals is missing. miRNAs constitute a class of small non-coding RNAs of ∼22 nt in size that play crucial roles in development, metabolism, and stress response in plants and animals alike. In this study, we examined the coral Stylophora pistillata for the presence of miRNAs and the corresponding core protein machinery required for their processing and function. Based on small RNA sequencing, we present evidence for 31 bona fide microRNAs, 5 of which (miR-100, miR-2022, miR-2023, miR-2030, and miR-2036) are conserved in other metazoans. Homologues of Argonaute, Piwi, Dicer, Drosha, Pasha, and HEN1 were identified in the transcriptome of S. pistillata based on strong sequence conservation with known RNAi proteins, with additional support derived from phylogenetic trees. Examination of putative miRNA gene targets indicates potential roles in development, metabolism, immunity, and biomineralisation for several of the microRNAs. Here, we present first evidence of a functional RNAi machinery and five conserved miRNAs in S. pistillata, implying that miRNAs play a role in organismal biology of scleractinian corals. Analysis of predicted miRNA target genes in S. pistillata suggests potential roles of miRNAs in symbiosis and coral calcification. Given the importance of miRNAs in regulating gene expression in other metazoans, further expression analyses of small non-coding RNAs in transcriptional studies of corals should be informative about miRNA-affected processes and pathways.

  14. MicroRNA-134 regulates poliovirus replication by IRES targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Bakre, Abhijeet A.; Shim, Byoung-Shik; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2017-01-01

    Global poliovirus eradication efforts include high vaccination coverage with live oral polio vaccine (OPV), surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis, and OPV “mop-up” campaigns. An important objective involves host-directed strategies to reduce PV replication to diminish viral shedding in OPV recipients. In this study, we show that microRNA-134-5p (miR-134) can regulate Sabin-1 replication but not Sabin-2 or Sabin-3 via direct interaction with the PV 5′UTR. Hypochromicity data showed miR-134 ...

  15. Control of Metastatic Progression by microRNA Regulatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencheva, Nora; Tavazoie, Sohail F.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression is a defining feature of human malignancy. Specific miRNAs have been identified as promoters or suppressors of metastatic progression. These miRNAs control metastasis through divergent or convergent regulation of metastatic gene pathways. Some miRNA regulatory networks govern cell-autonomous cancer phenotypes, while others modulate the cell-extrinsic composition of the metastatic microenvironment. The use of small RNAs as probes into the molecular and cellular underpinnings of metastasis holds promise for the identification of candidate genes for potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:23728460

  16. Exosomal MicroRNAs as Potential Biomarkers in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Gabriel R; Quevedo, Joao

    2018-01-01

    This chapter will discuss the potential use of microRNAs, particularly those located in peripherally-isolated exosomes, as biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders. These extracellular vesicles are released as a form of cell-to-cell communication and may mediate the soma-to-germline transmission of brain-relevant information, thereby potentially contributing to the inter- or transgenerational transmission of behavioral traits. Recent novel methods allow for the enrichment of peripheral exosomes specifically released by neurons and astrocytes and may provide valuable brain-relevant biosignatures of disease.

  17. MicroRNA and Cancer: Tiny Molecules with Major Implications

    OpenAIRE

    VandenBoom II, Timothy G; Li, Yiwei; Philip, Philip A; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2008-01-01

    Cancer is currently a major public health problem and, as such, emerging research is making significant progress in identifying major players in its biology. One recent topic of interest involves microRNAs (miRNAs) which are small, non-coding RNA molecules that inhibit gene expression post-transcriptionally. They accomplish this by binding to the 3? untranslated region (3?UTR) of target messengerRNA (mRNA), resulting in either their degradation or inhibition of translation, depending on the d...

  18. MicroRNAs meet calcium: joint venture in ER proteostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Fabian; Hoppe, Thorsten

    2014-11-04

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular compartment that has a key function in protein translation and folding. Maintaining its integrity is of fundamental importance for organism's physiology and viability. The dynamic regulation of intraluminal ER Ca(2+) concentration directly influences the activity of ER-resident chaperones and stress response pathways that balance protein load and folding capacity. We review the emerging evidence that microRNAs play important roles in adjusting these processes to frequently changing intracellular and environmental conditions to modify ER Ca(2+) handling and storage and maintain ER homeostasis. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. miReg: a resource for microRNA regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barh Debmalya

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs are important cellular components that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level. Various upstream components regulate miR expression and any deregulation causes disease conditions. Therefore, understanding of miR regulatory network both at upstream and downstream level is crucial and a resource on this aspect will be helpful. Currently available miR databases are mostly related to downstream targets, sequences, or diseases. But as of now, no database is available that provides a complete picture of miR regulation in a specific condition.

  20. Implication of microRNAs in the Pathogenesis of MDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing; Varney, Melinda; Starczynowski, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are significant regulators of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), and their deregulation contributes to hematological malignancies. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a spectrum of hematological disorders characterized by dysfunctional HSC, ineffective blood cell production, progressive marrow failure, and an increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Although miRNAs have been primarily studied in AML, only recently have similar studies been performed on MDS. In this review, we describe the normal function and expression of miRNAs in human HSC, and describe mounting evidence that deregulation of miRNAs contributes to the pathogenesis of MDS. PMID:22571695

  1. Can microRNAs act as biomarkers of aging?

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap, Luv

    2011-01-01

    Aging can be defined as a progressive decline in physiological efficiency regulated by an extremely complex multifactorial process. The genetic makeup of an individual appears to dictate this rate of aging in a species specific manner. For decades now, scientists have tried to look for tiny signatures or signs which might help us predict this rate of aging. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a unique class of short, non-coding RNAs that mediate the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression rangi...

  2. TNF-α-Induced microRNAs Control Dystrophin Expression in Becker Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Alyson A; Heier, Christopher R; Novak, James S; Tully, Christopher B; Brown, Kristy J; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Vila, Maria C; Ngheim, Peter P; Bello, Luca; Kornegay, Joe N; Angelini, Corrado; Partridge, Terence A; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Hoffman, Eric P

    2015-09-08

    The amount and distribution of dystrophin protein in myofibers and muscle is highly variable in Becker muscular dystrophy and in exon-skipping trials for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Here, we investigate a molecular basis for this variability. In muscle from Becker patients sharing the same exon 45-47 in-frame deletion, dystrophin levels negatively correlate with microRNAs predicted to target dystrophin. Seven microRNAs inhibit dystrophin expression in vitro, and three are validated in vivo (miR-146b/miR-374a/miR-31). microRNAs are expressed in dystrophic myofibers and increase with age and disease severity. In exon-skipping-treated mdx mice, microRNAs are significantly higher in muscles with low dystrophin rescue. TNF-α increases microRNA levels in vitro whereas NFκB inhibition blocks this in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these data show that microRNAs contribute to variable dystrophin levels in muscular dystrophy. Our findings suggest a model where chronic inflammation in distinct microenvironments induces pathological microRNAs, initiating a self-sustaining feedback loop that exacerbates disease progression. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. TNF-α-Induced microRNAs Control Dystrophin Expression in Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson A. Fiorillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The amount and distribution of dystrophin protein in myofibers and muscle is highly variable in Becker muscular dystrophy and in exon-skipping trials for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Here, we investigate a molecular basis for this variability. In muscle from Becker patients sharing the same exon 45–47 in-frame deletion, dystrophin levels negatively correlate with microRNAs predicted to target dystrophin. Seven microRNAs inhibit dystrophin expression in vitro, and three are validated in vivo (miR-146b/miR-374a/miR-31. microRNAs are expressed in dystrophic myofibers and increase with age and disease severity. In exon-skipping-treated mdx mice, microRNAs are significantly higher in muscles with low dystrophin rescue. TNF-α increases microRNA levels in vitro whereas NFκB inhibition blocks this in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these data show that microRNAs contribute to variable dystrophin levels in muscular dystrophy. Our findings suggest a model where chronic inflammation in distinct microenvironments induces pathological microRNAs, initiating a self-sustaining feedback loop that exacerbates disease progression.

  4. OP17MICRORNA PROFILING USING SMALL RNA-SEQ IN PAEDIATRIC LOW GRADE GLIOMAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapalan, Jennie N.; Jones, Tania A.; Tatevossian, Ruth G.; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Ellison, David W.; Sheer, Denise

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: MicroRNAs regulate gene expression by targeting mRNAs for translational repression or degradation at the post-transcriptional level. In paediatric low-grade gliomas a few key genetic mutations have been identified, including BRAF fusions, FGFR1 duplications and MYB rearrangements. Our aim in the current study is to profile aberrant microRNA expression in paediatric low-grade gliomas and determine the role of epigenetic changes in the aetiology and behaviour of these tumours. METHOD: MicroRNA profiling of tumour samples (6 pilocytic, 2 diffuse, 2 pilomyxoid astrocytomas) and normal brain controls (4 adult normal brain samples and a primary glial progenitor cell-line) was performed using small RNA sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis included sequence alignment, analysis of the number of reads (CPM, counts per million) and differential expression. RESULTS: Sequence alignment identified 695 microRNAs, whose expression was compared in tumours v. normal brain. PCA and hierarchical clustering showed separate groups for tumours and normal brain. Computational analysis identified approximately 400 differentially expressed microRNAs in the tumours compared to matched location controls. Our findings will then be validated and integrated with extensive genetic and epigenetic information we have previously obtained for the full tumour cohort. CONCLUSION: We have identified microRNAs that are differentially expressed in paediatric low-grade gliomas. As microRNAs are known to target genes involved in the initiation and progression of cancer, they provide critical information on tumour pathogenesis and are an important class of biomarkers.

  5. DNA methylation, microRNAs, and their crosstalk as potential biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Sumadi Lukman; Lehmann, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations have been identified as a major characteristic in human cancers. Advances in the field of epigenetics have contributed significantly in refining our knowledge of molecular mechanisms underlying malignant transformation. DNA methylation and microRNA expression are epigenetic mechanisms that are widely altered in human cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the third leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. Both DNA methylation and microRNA expression patterns are regulated in developmental stage specific-, cell type specific- and tissue-specific manner. The aberrations are inferred in the maintenance of cancer stem cells and in clonal cell evolution during carcinogenesis. The availability of genome-wide technologies for DNA methylation and microRNA profiling has revolutionized the field of epigenetics and led to the discovery of a number of epigenetically silenced microRNAs in cancerous cells and primary tissues. Dysregulation of these microRNAs affects several key signalling pathways in hepatocarcinogenesis suggesting that modulation of DNA methylation and/or microRNA expression can serve as new therapeutic targets for HCC. Accumulative evidence shows that aberrant DNA methylation of certain microRNA genes is an event specifically found in HCC which correlates with unfavorable outcomes. Therefore, it can potentially serve as a biomarker for detection as well as for prognosis, monitoring and predicting therapeutic responses in HCC. PMID:24976726

  6. mESAdb: microRNA expression and sequence analysis database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Koray D; Karakülah, Gökhan; Yakicier, Cengiz M; Acar, Aybar C; Konu, Ozlen

    2011-01-01

    microRNA expression and sequence analysis database (http://konulab.fen.bilkent.edu.tr/mirna/) (mESAdb) is a regularly updated database for the multivariate analysis of sequences and expression of microRNAs from multiple taxa. mESAdb is modular and has a user interface implemented in PHP and JavaScript and coupled with statistical analysis and visualization packages written for the R language. The database primarily comprises mature microRNA sequences and their target data, along with selected human, mouse and zebrafish expression data sets. mESAdb analysis modules allow (i) mining of microRNA expression data sets for subsets of microRNAs selected manually or by motif; (ii) pair-wise multivariate analysis of expression data sets within and between taxa; and (iii) association of microRNA subsets with annotation databases, HUGE Navigator, KEGG and GO. The use of existing and customized R packages facilitates future addition of data sets and analysis tools. Furthermore, the ability to upload and analyze user-specified data sets makes mESAdb an interactive and expandable analysis tool for microRNA sequence and expression data.

  7. Exosomes Derived From Pancreatic Stellate Cells: MicroRNA Signature and Effects on Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takikawa, Tetsuya; Masamune, Atsushi; Yoshida, Naoki; Hamada, Shin; Kogure, Takayuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) interact with pancreatic cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment. Cell constituents including microRNAs may be exported from cells within membranous nanovesicles termed exosomes. Exosomes might play a pivotal role in intercellular communication. This study aimed to clarify the microRNA signature of PSC-derived exosomes and their effects on pancreatic cancer cells. Exosomes were prepared from the conditioned medium of immortalized human PSCs. MicroRNAs were prepared from the exosomes and their source PSCs, and the microRNA expression profiles were compared by microarray. The effects of PSC-derived exosomes on proliferation, migration, and the mRNA expression profiles were examined in pancreatic cancer cells. Pancreatic stellate cell-derived exosomes contained a variety of microRNAs including miR-21-5p. Several microRNAs such as miR-451a were enriched in exosomes compared to their source PSCs. Pancreatic stellate cell-derived exosomes stimulated the proliferation, migration and expression of mRNAs for chemokine (C - X - C motif) ligands 1 and 2 in pancreatic cancer cells. The stimulation of proliferation, migration, and chemokine gene expression by the conditioned medium of PSCs was suppressed by GW4869, an exosome inhibitor. We clarified the microRNA expression profile in PSC-derived exosomes. Pancreatic stellate cell-derived exosomes might play a role in the interactions between PSCs and pancreatic cancer cells.

  8. The Regulatory Roles of MicroRNAs in Bone Remodeling and Perspectives as Biomarkers in Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengge Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are involved in many cellular and molecular activities and played important roles in many biological and pathological processes, such as tissue formation, cancer development, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it has been reported that microRNAs can modulate the differentiation and activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, the key cells that are involved in bone remodeling process. Meanwhile, the results from our and other research groups showed that the expression profiles of microRNAs in the serum and bone tissues are significantly different in postmenopausal women with or without fractures compared to the control. Therefore, it can be postulated that microRNAs might play important roles in bone remodeling and that they are very likely to be involved in the pathological process of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In this review, we will present the updated research on the regulatory roles of microRNAs in osteoblasts and osteoclasts and the expression profiles of microRNAs in osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture patients. The perspective of serum microRNAs as novel biomarkers in bone loss disorders such as osteoporosis has also been discussed.

  9. A systematic review of overlapping microRNA patterns in systemic sclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Gianluca; Roberts, William Neal; Roman, Jesse; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2017-06-30

    Lung fibrosis can be observed in systemic sclerosis and in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, two disorders where lung involvement carries a poor prognosis. Although much has been learned about the pathogenesis of these conditions, interventions capable of reversing or, at the very least, halting disease progression are not available. Recent studies point to the potential role of micro messenger RNAs (microRNAs) in cancer and tissue fibrogenesis. MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNA sequences (20-23 nucleotides) that are endogenous, evolutionarily conserved and encoded in the genome. By acting on several genes, microRNAs control protein expression. Considering the above, we engaged in a systematic review of the literature in search of overlapping observations implicating microRNAs in the pathogenesis of both idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and systemic sclerosis (SSc). Our objective was to uncover top microRNA candidates for further investigation based on their mechanisms of action and their potential for serving as targets for intervention against lung fibrosis. Our review points to microRNAs of the -29 family, -21-5p and -92a-3p, -26a-5p and let-7d-5p as having distinct and counter-balancing actions related to lung fibrosis. Based on this, we speculate that readjusting the disrupted balance between these microRNAs in lung fibrosis related to SSc and IPF may have therapeutic potential. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  10. Differentially expressed microRNA in multiple sclerosis: A window into pathogenesis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Nellie Anne; Illés, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA are small non-coding RNA that mediate mRNA translation repression or mRNA degradation, and thereby refine protein expression levels. More than 30–60% of all genes are regulated by microRNA. Exploring disease-related microRNA signatures is an emerging tool in biomarker discovery, and sile......MicroRNA are small non-coding RNA that mediate mRNA translation repression or mRNA degradation, and thereby refine protein expression levels. More than 30–60% of all genes are regulated by microRNA. Exploring disease-related microRNA signatures is an emerging tool in biomarker discovery......RNA related to multiple sclerosis has increased significantly in recent years. Differentially expressed microRNA have been identified in the whole blood, serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, blood-derived cell subsets and brain lesions of patients with multiple sclerosis....... Most studies applied a non-candidate approach of screening by microarray and validation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction or next generation sequencing; others used a candidate-driven approach. Despite a relatively high number of multiple sclerosis-associated microRNA, just a few could...

  11. Pulmonary microRNA profiling: implications in upper lobe predominant lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David A; Nymon, Amanda B; Ringelberg, Carol S; Lesseur, Corina; Hazlett, Haley F; Howard, Louisa; Marsit, Carmen J; Ashare, Alix

    2017-01-01

    Numerous pulmonary diseases manifest with upper lobe predominance including cystic fibrosis, smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and tuberculosis. Zonal hypoxia, characteristic of these pulmonary maladies, and oxygen stress in general is known to exert profound effects on various important aspects of cell biology. Lung macrophages are major participants in the pulmonary innate immune response and regional differences in macrophage responsiveness to hypoxia may contribute in the development of lung disease. MicroRNAs are ubiquitous regulators of human biology and emerging evidence indicates altered microRNA expression modulates respiratory disease processes. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the epigenetic and cellular mechanisms influencing regional differences in lung disease by investigating effect of hypoxia on regional microRNA expression in the lung. All studies were performed using primary alveolar macrophages ( n  = 10) or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ( n  = 16) isolated from human subjects. MicroRNA was assayed via the NanoString nCounter microRNA assay. Divergent molecular patterns of microRNA expression were observed in alternate lung lobes, specifically noted was disparate expression of miR-93 and miR-4454 in alveolar macrophages along with altered expression of miR-451a and miR-663a in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Gene ontology was used to identify potential downstream targets of divergent microRNAs. Targets include cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases, molecules that could have a significant impact on pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Our findings show variant regional microRNA expression associated with hypoxia in alveolar macrophages and BAL fluid in the lung-upper vs lower lobe. Future studies should address whether these specific microRNAs may act intracellularly, in a paracrine/endocrine manner to direct the innate immune response or may ultimately be involved in pulmonary host-to-pathogen trans

  12. MicroRNAs as potential biomarkers in adrenocortical cancer: progress and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia eCHERRADI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Over the last decade, pan-genomic analyses of genetic and epigenetic alterations and genome-wide expression profile studies allowed major advances in the understanding of the molecular genetics of adrenocortical carcinoma. Besides the well-known dysfunctional molecular pathways in adrenocortical tumors such as the IGF2 pathway, the Wnt pathway and TP53, high-throughput technologies enabled a more comprehensive genomic characterization of adrenocortical cancer. Integration of expression profile data with exome sequencing, SNP array analysis, methylation and microRNA profiling led to the identification of subgroups of malignant tumors with distinct molecular alterations and clinical outcomes. MicroRNAs post-transcriptionally silence their target gene expression either by degrading mRNA or by inhibiting translation. Although our knowledge of the contribution of deregulated microRNAs to the pathogenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma is still in its infancy, recent studies support their relevance in gene expression alterations in these tumors. Some microRNAs have been shown to carry potential diagnostic and prognostic values while others may be good candidates for therapeutic interventions. With the emergence of disease-specific blood-borne microRNAs signatures, analyses of small cohorts of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma suggest that circulating microRNAs represent promising non-invasive biomarkers of malignancy or recurrence. However, some technical challenges still remain, and most of the microRNAs reported in the literature have not yet been validated in sufficiently powered and longitudinal studies. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge regarding the deregulation of tumor-associated and circulating microRNAs in adrenocortical carcinoma patients, while emphasizing their potential significance in adrenocortical carcinoma pathogenic

  13. Human Milk MicroRNA and Total RNA Differ Depending on Milk Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaweed, Mohammed; Hepworth, Anna R; Lefèvre, Christophe; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T; Hassiotou, Foteini

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNA have been recently discovered in human milk signifying potentially important functions for both the lactating breast and the infant. Whilst human milk microRNA have started to be explored, little data exist on the evaluation of sample processing, and analysis to ensure that a full spectrum of microRNA can be obtained. Human milk comprises three main fractions: cells, skim milk, and lipids. Typically, the skim milk fraction has been measured in isolation despite evidence that the lipid fraction may contain more microRNA. This study aimed to standardize isolation of microRNA and total RNA from all three fractions of human milk to determine the most appropriate sampling and analysis procedure for future studies. Three different methods from eight commercially available kits were tested for their efficacy in extracting total RNA and microRNA from the lipid, skim, and cell fractions of human milk. Each fraction yielded different concentrations of RNA and microRNA, with the highest quantities found in the cell and lipid fractions, and the lowest in skim milk. The column-based phenol-free method was the most efficient extraction method for all three milk fractions. Two microRNAs were expressed and validated in the three milk fractions by qPCR using the three recommended extraction kits for each fraction. High expression levels were identified in the skim and lipid milk factions for these microRNAs. These results suggest that careful consideration of both the human milk sample preparation and extraction protocols should be made prior to embarking upon research in this area. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Role of microRNAs in the Pathogenesis of Herpesvirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedade, Diogo; Azevedo-Pereira, José Miguel

    2016-06-02

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs important in gene regulation. They are able to regulate mRNA translation through base-pair complementarity. Cellular miRNAs have been involved in the regulation of nearly all cellular pathways, and their deregulation has been associated with several diseases such as cancer. Given the importance of microRNAs to cell homeostasis, it is no surprise that viruses have evolved to take advantage of this cellular pathway. Viruses have been reported to be able to encode and express functional viral microRNAs that target both viral and cellular transcripts. Moreover, viral inhibition of key proteins from the microRNA pathway and important changes in cellular microRNA pool have been reported upon viral infection. In addition, viruses have developed multiple mechanisms to avoid being targeted by cellular microRNAs. This complex interaction between host and viruses to control the microRNA pathway usually favors viral infection and persistence by either reducing immune detection, avoiding apoptosis, promoting cell growth, or promoting lytic or latent infection. One of the best examples of this virus-host-microRNA interplay emanates from members of the Herperviridae family, namely the herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), and the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In this review, we will focus on the general functions of microRNAs and the interactions between herpesviruses, human hosts, and microRNAs and will delve into the related mechanisms that contribute to infection and pathogenesis.

  15. microRNA Response to Listeria monocytogenes Infection in Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izar, Benjamin; Mannala, Gopala Krishna; Mraheil, Mobarak Abu; Chakraborty, Trinad; Hain, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    microRNAs represent a family of very small non-coding RNAs that control several physiologic and pathologic processes, including host immune response and cancer by antagonizing a number of target mRNAs. There is limited knowledge about cell expression and the regulatory role of microRNAs following bacterial infections. We investigated whether infection with a Gram-positive bacterium leads to altered expression of microRNAs involved in the host cell response in epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were infected with Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e, a mutant strain (ΔinlAB or Δhly) or incubated with purified listeriolysin (LLO). Total RNA was isolated and microRNA and target gene expression was compared to the expression in non-infected cells using microRNA microarrays and qRT-PCR. We identified and validated five microRNAs (miR- 146b, miR-16, let-7a1, miR-145 and miR-155) that were significantly deregulated following listerial infection. We show that expression patterns of particular microRNAs strongly depend on pathogen localization and the presence of bacterial effector proteins. Strikingly, miR-155 which was shown to have an important role in inflammatory responses during infection was induced by wild-type bacteria, by LLO-deficient bacteria and following incubation with purified LLO. It was downregulated following ΔinlAB infection indicating a new potent role for internalins in listerial pathogenicity and miRNA regulation. Concurrently, we observed differences in target transcript expression of the investigated miRNAs. We provide first evidence that L. monocytogenes infection leads to deregulation of a set of microRNAs with important roles in host response. Distinct microRNA expression depends on both LLO and pathogen localization. PMID:22312311

  16. Circulating microRNA-200 Family as Diagnostic Marker in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A Dhayat

    Full Text Available In this clinical study, we aimed to evaluate the role of circulating microRNA-200 family as a non-invasive tool to identify patients with cirrhosis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC.Prognosis of HCC remains poor with increasing incidence worldwide, mainly related to liver cirrhosis. So far, no reliable molecular targets exist for early detection of HCC at surgically manageable stages. Recently, we identified members of the microRNA-200 family as potential diagnostic markers of cirrhosis-associated HCC in patient tissue samples. Their value as circulating biomarkers for HCC remained undefined.Blood samples and clinicopathological data of consecutive patients with liver diseases were collected prospectively. Expression of the microRNA-200 family was investigated by qRT-PCR in blood serum samples of 22 HCC patients with and without cirrhosis. Serum samples of patients with non-cancerous chronic liver cirrhosis (n = 22 and of healthy volunteers (n = 15 served as controls.MicroRNA-141 and microRNA-200a were significantly downregulated in blood serum of patients with HCC compared to liver cirrhosis (p<0.007 and healthy controls (p<0.002. MicroRNA-141 and microRNA-200a could well discriminate patients with cirrhosis-associated HCC from healthy volunteers with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC values of 0.85 and 0.82, respectively. Additionally, both microRNAs could differentiate between HCC and non-cancerous liver cirrhosis with a fair accuracy.Circulating microRNA-200 family members are significantly deregulated in patients with HCC and liver cirrhosis. Further studies are necessary to confirm the diagnostic value of the microRNA-200 family as accurate serum marker for cirrhosis-associated HCC.

  17. Elevated levels of circulating microRNA-200 family members correlate with serous epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Casina WS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a critical need for improved diagnostic markers for high grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC. MicroRNAs are stable in the circulation and may have utility as biomarkers of malignancy. We investigated whether levels of serum microRNA could discriminate women with high-grade SEOC from age matched healthy volunteers. Methods To identify microRNA of interest, microRNA expression profiling was performed on 4 SEOC cell lines and normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells. Total RNA was extracted from 500 μL aliquots of serum collected from patients with SEOC (n = 28 and age-matched healthy donors (n = 28. Serum microRNA levels were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR following preamplification. Results microRNA (miR-182, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c were highly overexpressed in the SEOC cell lines relative to normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells and were assessed in RNA extracted from serum as candidate biomarkers. miR-103, miR-92a and miR -638 had relatively invariant expression across all ovarian cell lines, and with small-nucleolar C/D box 48 (RNU48 were assessed in RNA extracted from serum as candidate endogenous normalizers. No correlation between serum levels and age were observed (age range 30-79 years for any of these microRNA or RNU48. Individually, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c normalized to serum volume and miR-103 were significantly higher in serum of the SEOC cohort (P  Conclusions We identified serum microRNAs able to discriminate patients with high grade SEOC from age-matched healthy controls. The addition of these microRNAs to current testing regimes may improve diagnosis for women with SEOC.

  18. Further Development of an Exhaled microRNA Biomarker of Lung Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0328 TITLE: Further Development of an Exhaled microRNA Biomarker of Lung Cancer Risk PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Further Development of an Exhaled microRNA Biomarker of Lung Cancer Risk 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH 16-1-0328 5c. PROGRAM...devise a non-invasive airway based exhaled microRNA metric for lung cancer risk, initial work to be tested in a case control study. We expanded the

  19. Role of microRNAs in the immune system, inflammation and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisch, Jennifer; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Nguyen, Hang Thi Thu

    2013-05-28

    MicroRNAs, a key class of gene expression regulators, have emerged as crucial players in various biological processes such as cellular proliferation and differentiation, development and apoptosis. In addition, microRNAs are coming to light as crucial regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses, and their abnormal expression and/or function in the immune system have been linked to multiple human diseases including inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, and cancers. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of microRNAs with a focus on their role and mode of action in regulating the immune system during inflammation and carcinogenesis.

  20. MicroRNAs play big roles in modulating macrophages response toward mycobacteria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Abualgasim Elgaili; Duan, Xiangke; Deng, Wanyan; Zeng, Jie; Xie, Jianping

    2016-11-01

    Macrophages are crucial player in the defense against multiple intracellular pathogens. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis which inflicted around one third of global population, can replicate and persist within macrophages. MicroRNAs, endogenous, small noncoding RNA, can regulate the expression of macrophages genes required for appropriate signaling. Mycobacteria can manipulate the expression of macrophages microRNAs to subvert cell response for its survival and persistence. This review summarized the progress of microRNAs in mycobacterial pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Micro-masters of glioblastoma biology and therapy: increasingly recognized roles for microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Desiree; Purow, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs encoded in eukaryotic genomes that have been found to play critical roles in most biological processes, including cancer. This is true for glioblastoma, the most common and lethal primary brain tumor, for which microRNAs have been shown to strongly influence cell viability, stem cell characteristics, invasiveness, angiogenesis, metabolism, and immune evasion. Developing microRNAs as prognostic markers or as therapeutic agents is showing increasing promise and has potential to reach the clinic in the next several years. This succinct review summarizes current progress and future directions in this exciting and steadily expanding field.

  2. MicroRNA Polymorphisms in Cancer: A Literature Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipan, Veronika; Zorc, Minja; Kunej, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in microRNA (miRNA) genes (miR-SNPs) have attracted increasing attention in recent years due to their involvement in the development of various types of cancer. Therefore, a systematic review on this topic was needed. From 55 scientific publications we collected 20 SNPs, which are located within 18 miRNA encoding genes and have been associated with 16 types of cancer. Among 20 miRNA gene polymorphisms 13 are located within the premature miRNA region, five within mature, and two within mature seed miRNA region. We graphically visualized a network of miRNA-cancer associations which revealed miRNA genes and cancer types with the highest number of connections. Our study showed that, despite a large number of variations currently known to be located within miRNA genes in humans, most of them have not yet been tested for association with cancer. MicroRNA SNPs collected in this study represent only 0.43% of known miRNA gene variations (20/4687). Results of the present study will be useful to researchers investigating the clinical use of miRNAs, such as the roles of miRNAs as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets

  3. MicroRNA 10a marks regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeker, Lukas T; Zhou, Xuyu; Gershberg, Kseniya

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial for regulatory T cell (Treg) stability and function. We report that microRNA-10a (miR-10a) is expressed in Tregs but not in other T cells including individual thymocyte subsets. Expression profiling in inbred mouse strains demonstrated that non-obese diabetic (NOD......) mice with a genetic susceptibility for autoimmune diabetes have lower Treg-specific miR-10a expression than C57BL/6J autoimmune resistant mice. Inhibition of miR-10a expression in vitro leads to reduced FoxP3 expression levels and miR-10a expression is lower in unstable "exFoxP3" T cells. Unstable...... and phenotype of natural Treg nor the capacity of conventional T cells to induce FoxP3 in response to TGFβ, RA, or a combination of the two. Thus, miR-10a is selectively expressed in Treg but inhibition by antagomiRs or genetic ablation resulted in discordant effects on FoxP3....

  4. MicroRNAs and toxicology: A love marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Schraml

    Full Text Available With the dawn of personalized medicine, secreted microRNAs (miRNAs have come into the very focus of biomarker development for various diseases. MiRNAs fulfil key requirements of diagnostic tools such as i non or minimally invasive accessibility, ii robust, standardized and non-expensive quantitative analysis, iii rapid turnaround of the test result and iv most importantly because they provide a comprehensive snapshot of the ongoing physiologic processes in cells and tissues that package and release miRNAs into cell-free space. These characteristics have also established circulating miRNAs as promising biomarker candidates for toxicological studies, where they are used as biomarkers of drug-, or chemical-induced tissue injury for safety assessment. The tissue-specificity and early release of circulating miRNAs upon tissue injury, when damage is still reversible, are main factors for their clinical utility in toxicology. Here we summarize in brief, current knowledge of this field. Keywords: microRNAs, Biomarker, Toxicology, Minimal-invasive, DILI

  5. MicroRNA Polymorphisms in Cancer: A Literature Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipan, Veronika; Zorc, Minja; Kunej, Tanja, E-mail: tanja.kunej@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Animal Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Groblje 3, SI-1230 Domzale (Slovenia)

    2015-09-09

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in microRNA (miRNA) genes (miR-SNPs) have attracted increasing attention in recent years due to their involvement in the development of various types of cancer. Therefore, a systematic review on this topic was needed. From 55 scientific publications we collected 20 SNPs, which are located within 18 miRNA encoding genes and have been associated with 16 types of cancer. Among 20 miRNA gene polymorphisms 13 are located within the premature miRNA region, five within mature, and two within mature seed miRNA region. We graphically visualized a network of miRNA-cancer associations which revealed miRNA genes and cancer types with the highest number of connections. Our study showed that, despite a large number of variations currently known to be located within miRNA genes in humans, most of them have not yet been tested for association with cancer. MicroRNA SNPs collected in this study represent only 0.43% of known miRNA gene variations (20/4687). Results of the present study will be useful to researchers investigating the clinical use of miRNAs, such as the roles of miRNAs as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets.

  6. MicroRNAs Change the Landscape of Cancer Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Wei; Wu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the cancer treatment is the development of drug resistance. It represents a major obstacle to curing cancer with constrained efficacy of both conventional chemotherapy and targeted therapies, even recent immune checkpoint blockade therapy. Deciphering the mechanisms of resistance is critical to further understanding the multifactorial pathways involved, and developing more specific targeted treatments. To date, numerous studies have reported the potential role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the resistance to various cancer treatments. MicroRNAs are a family of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by sequence-specific targeting of mRNAs causing translational repression or mRNA degradation. More than 1200 validated human miRNAs have been identified in human genome. While one miRNA can regulate hundreds of targets, a single target can also be affected by multiple miRNAs. Evidence suggests that dysregulation of specific miRNAs may be involved in the acquisition of resistance, thereby modulating the sensitivity of cancer cells to treatment. Therefore, manipulation of miRNAs may be an attractive strategy for more effective individualized therapies through reprograming resistant network in cancer cells.

  7. Differentially Expressed microRNAs and Target Genes Associated with Plastic Internode Elongation in Alternanthera philoxeroides in Contrasting Hydrological Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengyun Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is crucial for plants to survive in changing environments. Discovering microRNAs, identifying their targets and further inferring microRNA functions in mediating plastic developmental responses to environmental changes have been a critical strategy for understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. In this study, the dynamic expression patterns of microRNAs under contrasting hydrological habitats in the amphibious species Alternanthera philoxeroides were identified by time course expression profiling using high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 128 known and 18 novel microRNAs were found to be differentially expressed under contrasting hydrological habitats. The microRNA:mRNA pairs potentially associated with plastic internode elongation were identified by integrative analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles, and were validated by qRT-PCR and 5′ RLM-RACE. The results showed that both the universal microRNAs conserved across different plants and the unique microRNAs novelly identified in A. philoxeroides were involved in the responses to varied water regimes. The results also showed that most of the differentially expressed microRNAs were transiently up-/down-regulated at certain time points during the treatments. The fine-scale temporal changes in microRNA expression highlighted the importance of time-series sampling in identifying stress-responsive microRNAs and analyzing their role in stress response/tolerance.

  8. MicroRNAs in Breastmilk and the Lactating Breast: Potential Immunoprotectors and Developmental Regulators for the Infant and the Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alsaweed

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk (HM is the optimal source of nutrition, protection and developmental programming for infants. It is species-specific and consists of various bioactive components, including microRNAs, small non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. microRNAs are both intra- and extra-cellular and are present in body fluids of humans and animals. Of these body fluids, HM appears to be one of the richest sources of microRNA, which are highly conserved in its different fractions, with milk cells containing more microRNAs than milk lipids, followed by skim milk. Potential effects of exogenous food-derived microRNAs on gene expression have been demonstrated, together with the stability of milk-derived microRNAs in the gastrointestinal tract. Taken together, these strongly support the notion that milk microRNAs enter the systemic circulation of the HM fed infant and exert tissue-specific immunoprotective and developmental functions. This has initiated intensive research on the origin, fate and functional significance of milk microRNAs. Importantly, recent studies have provided evidence of endogenous synthesis of HM microRNA within the human lactating mammary epithelium. These findings will now form the basis for investigations of the role of microRNA in the epigenetic control of normal and aberrant mammary development, and particularly lactation performance.

  9. Altered spinal microRNA-146a and the microRNA-183 cluster contribute to osteoarthritic pain in knee joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Kroin, Jeffrey S; Kc, Ranjan; Gibson, Gary; Chen, Di; Corbett, Grant T; Pahan, Kalipada; Fayyaz, Sana; Kim, Jae-Sung; van Wijnen, Andre J; Suh, Joon; Kim, Su-Gwan; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether altered expression of microRNAs in central nervous system components is pathologically linked to chronic knee joint pain in osteoarthritis. A surgical animal model for knee joint OA was generated by medial meniscus transection in rats followed by behavioral pain tests. Relationships between pathological changes in knee joint and development of chronic joint pain were examined by histology and imaging analyses. Alterations in microRNAs associated with OA-evoked pain sensation were determined in bilateral lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and the spinal dorsal horn by microRNA array followed by individual microRNA analyses. Gain- and loss-of-function studies of selected microRNAs (miR-146a and miR-183 cluster) were conducted to identify target pain mediators regulated by these selective microRNAs in glial cells. The ipsilateral hind leg displayed significantly increased hyperalgesia after 4 weeks of surgery, and sensitivity was sustained for the remainder of the 8-week experimental period (F = 341, p pain was correlated with pathological changes in the knee joints as assessed by histological and imaging analyses. MicroRNA analyses showed that miR-146a and the miR-183 cluster were markedly reduced in the sensory neurons in DRG (L4/L5) and spinal cord from animals experiencing knee joint OA pain. The downregulation of miR-146a and/or the miR-183 cluster in the central compartments (DRG and spinal cord) are closely associated with the upregulation of inflammatory pain mediators. The corroboration between decreases in these signature microRNAs and their specific target pain mediators were further confirmed by gain- and loss-of-function analyses in glia, the major cellular component of the central nervous system (CNS). MicroRNA therapy using miR-146a and the miR-183 cluster could be powerful therapeutic intervention for OA in alleviating joint pain and concomitantly regenerating peripheral knee joint cartilage. © 2013

  10. Blood microRNAs in Low or No Risk Ischemic Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Rong Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a multi-factorial disease where some patients present themselves with little or no risk factors. Blood microRNA expression profiles are becoming useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of human diseases. We therefore investigated the blood microRNA profiles in young stroke patients who presented with minimal or absence of risk factors for stroke such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Blood microRNA profiles from these patients varied with stroke subtypes as well as different functional outcomes (based on modified Rankin Score. These microRNAs have been shown to target genes that are involved in stroke pathogenesis. The findings from our study suggest that molecular mechanisms in stroke pathogenesis involving low or no risk ischemic stroke patients could differ substantially from those with pre-existing risk factors.

  11. MicroRNA functional network in pancreatic cancer: From biology to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Wang J and Sen S 2011 MicroRNA functional network in pancreatic cancer: From biology to biomarkers of disease. ... growth factor type I receptor; INSR, insulin receptor; IPA, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis; IPMN, ..... Prostate cancer signalling.

  12. Circulating MicroRNAs as Potential Molecular Biomarkers in Pathophysiological Evolution of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Cretoiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs represent nonprotein coding small RNA molecules that are very stable to degradation and responsible for gene silencing in most eukaryotic cells. Increased evidence has been accumulating over the years about their potential value as biomarkers for several diseases. MicroRNAs were predicted to be involved in nearly all biological processes from development to oncogenesis. In this review, we address the importance of circulating microRNAs in different conditions associated with pregnancy starting with the implantation period to preeclampsia and we shortly describe the correlation between placental circulating miRNAs and pregnancy status. We also discuss the importance of microRNAs in recurrent abortion and ectopic pregnancy.

  13. A conformation-induced fluorescence method for microRNA detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aw, Sherry S; Tang, Melissa Xm; Teo, Yin Nah

    2016-01-01

    and quantify microRNAs may aid research into novel aspects of microRNA biology and contribute to the development of diagnostics. By introducing an additional stem loop into the fluorescent RNA Spinach and altering its 3' and 5' ends, we have generated a new RNA, Pandan, that functions as the basis for a micro......MicroRNAs play important roles in a large variety of biological systems and processes through their regulation of target mRNA expression, and show promise as clinical biomarkers. However, their small size presents challenges for tagging or direct detection. Innovation in techniques to sense......RNA sensor. Pandan contains two sequence-variable stem loops that encode complementary sequence for a target microRNA of interest. In its sensor form, it requires the binding of a target microRNA in order to reconstitute the RNA scaffold for fluorophore binding and fluorescence. Binding of the target micro...

  14. MicroRNA-146a expression as a potential biomarker for rheumatoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MicroRNA-146a expression as a potential biomarker for rheumatoid arthritis in Egypt. Heba Mohamed Abdelkader Elsayed, Walaa Shawky Khater, Ayman Asaad Ibrahim, Maha Salah El-din Hamdy, Nashwa Aly Morshedy ...

  15. Network-based ranking methods for prediction of novel disease associated microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Duc-Hau

    2015-10-01

    Many studies have shown roles of microRNAs on human disease and a number of computational methods have been proposed to predict such associations by ranking candidate microRNAs according to their relevance to a disease. Among them, machine learning-based methods usually have a limitation in specifying non-disease microRNAs as negative training samples. Meanwhile, network-based methods are becoming dominant since they well exploit a "disease module" principle in microRNA functional similarity networks. Of which, random walk with restart (RWR) algorithm-based method is currently state-of-the-art. The use of this algorithm was inspired from its success in predicting disease gene because the "disease module" principle also exists in protein interaction networks. Besides, many algorithms designed for webpage ranking have been successfully applied in ranking disease candidate genes because web networks share topological properties with protein interaction networks. However, these algorithms have not yet been utilized for disease microRNA prediction. We constructed microRNA functional similarity networks based on shared targets of microRNAs, and then we integrated them with a microRNA functional synergistic network, which was recently identified. After analyzing topological properties of these networks, in addition to RWR, we assessed the performance of (i) PRINCE (PRIoritizatioN and Complex Elucidation), which was proposed for disease gene prediction; (ii) PageRank with Priors (PRP) and K-Step Markov (KSM), which were used for studying web networks; and (iii) a neighborhood-based algorithm. Analyses on topological properties showed that all microRNA functional similarity networks are small-worldness and scale-free. The performance of each algorithm was assessed based on average AUC values on 35 disease phenotypes and average rankings of newly discovered disease microRNAs. As a result, the performance on the integrated network was better than that on individual ones. In

  16. An epidermal microRNA regulates neuronal migration through control of the cellular glycosylation state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikael Egebjerg; Snieckute, Goda; Kagias, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    An appropriate balance in glycosylation of proteoglycans is crucial for their ability to regulate animal development. Here, we report that the Caenorhabditis elegans microRNA mir-79, an ortholog of mammalian miR-9, controls sugar-chain homeostasis by targeting two proteins in the proteoglycan bio...... that impinges on a LON-2/glypican pathway and disrupts neuronal migration. Our results identify a regulatory axis controlled by a conserved microRNA that maintains proteoglycan homeostasis in cells....

  17. Identification and pathway analysis of microRNAs with no previous involvement in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Romero-Cordoba

    Full Text Available microRNA expression signatures can differentiate normal and breast cancer tissues and can define specific clinico-pathological phenotypes in breast tumors. In order to further evaluate the microRNA expression profile in breast cancer, we analyzed the expression of 667 microRNAs in 29 tumors and 21 adjacent normal tissues using TaqMan Low-density arrays. 130 miRNAs showed significant differential expression (adjusted P value = 0.05, Fold Change = 2 in breast tumors compared to the normal adjacent tissue. Importantly, the role of 43 of these microRNAs has not been previously reported in breast cancer, including several evolutionary conserved microRNA*, showing similar expression rates to that of their corresponding leading strand. The expression of 14 microRNAs was replicated in an independent set of 55 tumors. Bioinformatic analysis of mRNA targets of the altered miRNAs, identified oncogenes like ERBB2, YY1, several MAP kinases, and known tumor-suppressors like FOXA1 and SMAD4. Pathway analysis identified that some biological process which are important in breast carcinogenesis are affected by the altered microRNA expression, including signaling through MAP kinases and TP53 pathways, as well as biological processes like cell death and communication, focal adhesion and ERBB2-ERBB3 signaling. Our data identified the altered expression of several microRNAs whose aberrant expression might have an important impact on cancer-related cellular pathways and whose role in breast cancer has not been previously described.

  18. MicroRNA profiling of primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne Koens

    Full Text Available Aberrant expression of microRNAs is widely accepted to be pathogenetically involved in nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs. However, the microRNAs profiles of primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas (PCLBCLs are not yet described. Its two main subtypes, i.e., primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCLBCL-LT and primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL are characterized by an activated B-cell (ABC-genotype and a germinal center B-cell (GCB-genotype, respectively. We performed high-throughput sequencing analysis on frozen tumor biopsies from 19 cases of PCFCL and PCLBCL-LT to establish microRNA profiles. Cluster analysis of the complete microRNome could not distinguish between the two subtypes, but 16 single microRNAs were found to be differentially expressed. Single microRNA RT-qPCR was conducted on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor biopsies of 20 additional cases, confirming higher expression of miR-9-5p, miR-31-5p, miR-129-2-3p and miR-214-3p in PCFCL as compared to PCLBCL-LT. MicroRNAs previously described to be higher expressed in ABC-type as compared to GCB-type nodal DLBCL were not differentially expressed between PCFCL and PCLBCL-LT. In conclusion, PCFCL and PCLBCL-LT differ in their microRNA profiles. In contrast to their gene expression profile, they only show slight resemblance with the microRNA profiles found in GCB- and ABC-type nodal DLBCL.

  19. Smoking-related microRNAs and mRNAs in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Ming-Wei; Yu, Sung-Liang; Lin, Wen-Chang; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Chen, Po-Hua; Lee, Yungling Leo

    2016-01-01

    Teenager smoking is of great importance in public health. Functional roles of microRNAs have been documented in smoke-induced gene expression changes, but comprehensive mechanisms of microRNA-mRNA regulation and benefits remained poorly understood. We conducted the Teenager Smoking Reduction Trial (TSRT) to investigate the causal association between active smoking reduction and whole-genome microRNA and mRNA expression changes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). A total of 12 teenagers with a substantial reduction in smoke quantity and a decrease in urine cotinine/creatinine ratio were enrolled in genomic analyses. In Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), differentially expressed genes altered by smoke reduction were mainly associated with glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathway. The integrative analysis of microRNA and mRNA found eleven differentially expressed microRNAs negatively correlated with predicted target genes. CD83 molecule regulated by miR-4498 in human PBMC, was critical for the canonical pathway of communication between innate and adaptive immune cells. Our data demonstrated that microRNAs could regulate immune responses in human PBMC after habitual smokers quit smoking and support the potential translational value of microRNAs in regulating disease-relevant gene expression caused by tobacco smoke. - Highlights: • We conducted a smoke reduction trial program and investigated the causal relationship between smoke and gene regulation. • MicroRNA and mRNA expression changes were examined in human PBMC. • MicroRNAs are important in regulating disease-causal genes after tobacco smoke reduction.

  20. Let-7 microRNAs are developmentally regulated in circulating human erythroid cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Christopher

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are ~22nt-long small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate protein expression through mRNA degradation or translational repression in eukaryotic cells. Based upon their importance in regulating development and terminal differentiation in model systems, erythrocyte microRNA profiles were examined at birth and in adults to determine if changes in their abundance coincide with the developmental phenomenon of hemoglobin switching. Methods Expression profiling of microRNA was performed using total RNA from four adult peripheral blood samples compared to four cord blood samples after depletion of plasma, platelets, and nucleated cells. Labeled RNAs were hybridized to custom spotted arrays containing 474 human microRNA species (miRBase release 9.1. Total RNA from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines provided a hybridization reference for all samples to generate microRNA abundance profile for each sample. Results Among 206 detected miRNAs, 79% of the microRNAs were present at equivalent levels in both cord and adult cells. By comparison, 37 microRNAs were up-regulated and 4 microRNAs were down-regulated in adult erythroid cells (fold change > 2; p let-7 miRNA family consistently demonstrated increased abundance in the adult samples by array-based analyses that were confirmed by quantitative PCR (4.5 to 18.4 fold increases in 6 of 8 let-7 miRNA. Profiling studies of messenger RNA (mRNA in these cells additionally demonstrated down-regulation of ten let-7 target genes in the adult cells. Conclusion These data suggest that a consistent pattern of up-regulation among let-7 miRNA in circulating erythroid cells occurs in association with hemoglobin switching during the fetal-to-adult developmental transition in humans.

  1. Nanotechnology-Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0157 TITLE: Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...identify novel differentially expressed miRNAs in the body fluids (blood, urine, etc.) for an early detection of PCa. Advances in nanotechnology and

  2. MicroRNA induction in human macrophages associated with infection with ancient and modern TB strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Furci

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In this study it was observed that the genetic diversity among Mtb strains and, in particular between ancient and modern strains, reflects on several aspects of host-pathogen interaction. In particular, the modulation of specific cellular microRNAs upon MTBC infection suggests a potential role for these microRNAs in the outcome of infection and, to a major extent, to the different epidemiological success of Mtb strains.

  3. Search for microRNAs expressed by intracellular bacterial pathogens in infected mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Yuki; Finethy, Ryan; Saka, Hector A; Xet-Mull, Ana M; Sisk, Dana M; Smith, Kristen L Jurcic; Lee, Sunhee; Coers, Jörn; Valdivia, Raphael H; Tobin, David M; Cullen, Bryan R

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are expressed by all multicellular organisms and play a critical role as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Moreover, different microRNA species are known to influence the progression of a range of different diseases, including cancer and microbial infections. A number of different human viruses also encode microRNAs that can attenuate cellular innate immune responses and promote viral replication, and a fungal pathogen that infects plants has recently been shown to express microRNAs in infected cells that repress host cell immune responses and promote fungal pathogenesis. Here, we have used deep sequencing of total expressed small RNAs, as well as small RNAs associated with the cellular RNA-induced silencing complex RISC, to search for microRNAs that are potentially expressed by intracellular bacterial pathogens and translocated into infected animal cells. In the case of Legionella and Chlamydia and the two mycobacterial species M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis, we failed to detect any bacterial small RNAs that had the characteristics expected for authentic microRNAs, although large numbers of small RNAs of bacterial origin could be recovered. However, a third mycobacterial species, M. marinum, did express an ∼ 23-nt small RNA that was bound by RISC and derived from an RNA stem-loop with the characteristics expected for a pre-microRNA. While intracellular expression of this candidate bacterial microRNA was too low to effectively repress target mRNA species in infected cultured cells in vitro, artificial overexpression of this potential bacterial pre-microRNA did result in the efficient repression of a target mRNA. This bacterial small RNA therefore represents the first candidate microRNA of bacterial origin.

  4. Search for microRNAs expressed by intracellular bacterial pathogens in infected mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Furuse

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are expressed by all multicellular organisms and play a critical role as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Moreover, different microRNA species are known to influence the progression of a range of different diseases, including cancer and microbial infections. A number of different human viruses also encode microRNAs that can attenuate cellular innate immune responses and promote viral replication, and a fungal pathogen that infects plants has recently been shown to express microRNAs in infected cells that repress host cell immune responses and promote fungal pathogenesis. Here, we have used deep sequencing of total expressed small RNAs, as well as small RNAs associated with the cellular RNA-induced silencing complex RISC, to search for microRNAs that are potentially expressed by intracellular bacterial pathogens and translocated into infected animal cells. In the case of Legionella and Chlamydia and the two mycobacterial species M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis, we failed to detect any bacterial small RNAs that had the characteristics expected for authentic microRNAs, although large numbers of small RNAs of bacterial origin could be recovered. However, a third mycobacterial species, M. marinum, did express an ∼ 23-nt small RNA that was bound by RISC and derived from an RNA stem-loop with the characteristics expected for a pre-microRNA. While intracellular expression of this candidate bacterial microRNA was too low to effectively repress target mRNA species in infected cultured cells in vitro, artificial overexpression of this potential bacterial pre-microRNA did result in the efficient repression of a target mRNA. This bacterial small RNA therefore represents the first candidate microRNA of bacterial origin.

  5. Identification of serum microRNA biomarkers for tuberculosis using RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongtai; Sun, Zhaogang; Wei, Wenjing; Liu, Zhonghui; Fleming, Joy; Zhang, Shuai; Lin, Nan; Wang, Ming; Chen, Maoshan; Xu, Yuhui; Zhou, Jie; Li, Chuanyou; Bi, Lijun; Zhou, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant human health issue. More effective biomarkers for use in tuberculosis prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, including markers that can discriminate between healthy individuals and those with latent infection, are urgently needed. To identify a set of such markers, we used Solexa sequencing to examine microRNA expression in the serum of patients with active disease, healthy individuals with latent TB, and those with or without prior BCG inoculation. We identified 24 microRNAs that are up-regulated (2.85-1285.93 fold) and 6 microRNAs that are down-regulated (0.003-0.11 fold) (PmicroRNAs were up-regulated (2.05-2454.58 fold) and 11 were down-regulated (0.001-0.42 fold) (PmicroRNAs were differentially-expressed in BCG-inoculated relative to un-inoculated individuals (18 up-regulated 2.9-499.29 fold, 116 down-regulated 0.0002-0.5 fold), providing insights into the effects of BCG inoculation at the microRNA level. Target prediction of differentially-expressed microRNAs by microRNA-Gene Network analysis and analysis of pathways affected suggest that regulation of the host immune system by microRNAs is likely to be one of the main factors in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. qRT-PCR validation indicated that hsa-miR-196b and hsa-miR-376c have potential as markers for active TB disease. The microRNA differential-expression profiles generated in this study provide a good foundation for the development of markers for TB diagnosis, and for investigations on the role of microRNAs in BCG-inoculated and latent-infected individuals.

  6. microRNA Biomarkers to Generate Sensitivity to Abiraterone-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    CYP17A1 inhibition with abiraterone in castration- resistant prostate cancer : induction of steroidogenesis and androgen receptor splice variants...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0353 TITLE: microRNA Biomarkers to Generate Sensitivity to Abiraterone-Resistant Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE microRNA Biomarkers to Generate Sensitivity to Abiraterone- Resistant Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  7. An Association of Unique microRNA Turnover Machinery with Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    targeting of critical androgen receptor -604 coregulator interactions in prostate cancer . Nature communications 4, 1923, 605 doi:10.1038/ncomms2912 (2013...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0474 TITLE: An Association of Unique microRNA Turnover Machinery with Prostate Cancer Progression PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...14 Sep 2017 4. Title An Association of Unique microRNA Turnover Machinery with Prostate Cancer Progression 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  8. Understanding alcoholism through microRNA signatures in brains of human alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dayne eMayfield

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the fields of genomics and genetics in the last decade have identified a large number of genes that can potentially influence alcohol-drinking behavior in humans as well as animal models. Consequently, the task of identifying efficient molecular targets that could be used to develop effective therapeutics against the disease has become increasingly daunting. One of the reasons for this is the fact that each of the many alcohol-responsive genes only contributes a small effect to the overall mechanism and disease phenotype, as is characteristic of complex traits. Current research trends are hence shifting towards the analysis of gene networks rather than emphasizing individual genes. The discovery of microRNAs and their mechanisms of action on regulation of transcript level and protein translation have made evident the utility of these small non-coding RNA molecules that act as central coordinators of multiple cross-communicating cellular pathways. Cells exploit the fact that a single microRNA can target hundreds of mRNA transcripts and that a single mRNA transcript can be simultaneously targeted by distinct microRNAs, to ensure fine-tuned and/or redundant control over a large number of cellular functions. By the same token, we can use these properties of microRNAs to develop novel, targeted strategies to combat complex disorders. In this review, we will focus on recent discoveries of microRNA signatures in brain of human alcoholics supporting the hypothesis that changes in gene expression and regulation by microRNAs are responsible for long-term neuroadaptations occurring during development of alcoholism. We also discuss insights into the potential modulation of epigenetic regulators by a subset of microRNAs. Taken together, microRNA activity may be controlling many of the cellular mechanisms already known to be involved in the development of alcoholism, and suggests potential targets for the development of novel therapeutic

  9. Evaluation of microRNA stability in plasma and serum from healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enelund, Lars; Nielsen, Lise Nikolic; Cirera, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    . METHODS: The levels of four microRNAs (cfa-let-7a, cfa-miR-16, cfa-miR-23a and cfa-miR-26a) known to be stably expressed from other canine studies, have been measured by real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS: MicroRNA levels were found sufficiently stable for gene profiling in serum- and plasma stored...

  10. Smoking-related microRNAs and mRNAs in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Ming-Wei [Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yu, Sung-Liang [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wen-Chang [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ching-Hui [Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Po-Hua [School of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yungling Leo, E-mail: leolee@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-15

    Teenager smoking is of great importance in public health. Functional roles of microRNAs have been documented in smoke-induced gene expression changes, but comprehensive mechanisms of microRNA-mRNA regulation and benefits remained poorly understood. We conducted the Teenager Smoking Reduction Trial (TSRT) to investigate the causal association between active smoking reduction and whole-genome microRNA and mRNA expression changes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). A total of 12 teenagers with a substantial reduction in smoke quantity and a decrease in urine cotinine/creatinine ratio were enrolled in genomic analyses. In Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), differentially expressed genes altered by smoke reduction were mainly associated with glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathway. The integrative analysis of microRNA and mRNA found eleven differentially expressed microRNAs negatively correlated with predicted target genes. CD83 molecule regulated by miR-4498 in human PBMC, was critical for the canonical pathway of communication between innate and adaptive immune cells. Our data demonstrated that microRNAs could regulate immune responses in human PBMC after habitual smokers quit smoking and support the potential translational value of microRNAs in regulating disease-relevant gene expression caused by tobacco smoke. - Highlights: • We conducted a smoke reduction trial program and investigated the causal relationship between smoke and gene regulation. • MicroRNA and mRNA expression changes were examined in human PBMC. • MicroRNAs are important in regulating disease-causal genes after tobacco smoke reduction.

  11. MicroRNAs, Innate Immunity and Ventricular Rupture in Human Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Zidar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs, functionioning as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Some microRNAs have been demonstrated to play a role in regulation of innate immunity. After myocardial infarction (MI, innate immunity is activated leading to an acute inflammatory reaction. There is evidence that an intense inflammatory reaction might contribute to the development of ventricular rupture (VR after MI.

  12. MicroRNAs: From Female Fertility, Germ Cells, and Stem Cells to Cancer in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Virant-Klun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are a family of naturally occurring small noncoding RNA molecules that play an important regulatory role in gene expression. They are suggested to regulate a large proportion of protein encoding genes by mediating the translational suppression and posttranscriptional control of gene expression. Recent findings show that microRNAs are emerging as important regulators of cellular differentiation and dedifferentiation, and are deeply involved in developmental processes including human preimplantation development. They keep a balance between pluripotency and differentiation in the embryo and embryonic stem cells. Moreover, it became evident that dysregulation of microRNA expression may play a fundamental role in progression and dissemination of different cancers including ovarian cancer. The interest is still increased by the discovery of exosomes, that is, cell-derived vesicles, which can carry different proteins but also microRNAs between different cells and are involved in cell-to-cell communication. MicroRNAs, together with exosomes, have a great potential to be used for prognosis, therapy, and biomarkers of different diseases including infertility. The aim of this review paper is to summarize the existent knowledge on microRNAs related to female fertility and cancer: from primordial germ cells and ovarian function, germinal stem cells, oocytes, and embryos to embryonic stem cells.

  13. A novel serum microRNA panel to discriminate benign from malignant ovarian disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Langhe, Ream

    2015-01-28

    Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer in women and the most frequent cause of gynaecological malignancy-related mortality in women. Currently, no standardized reliable screening test exists. MicroRNA profiling has allowed the identification of signatures associated with diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment of human tumours. The aim of this study was to determine if a microRNA signature could distinguish between malignant and benign ovarian disease. A training set of 5 serous ovarian carcinomas and 5 benign serous cystadenomas were selected for the initial experiments. The validation set included 20 serous ovarian carcinomas and 20 benign serous cystadenomas. The serum\\/plasma focus microRNA Exiqon panel was used for the training set. For the validation set a pick and mix Exiqon panel, which focuses on microRNAs of interest was used. A panel of 4 microRNAs (let-7i-5p, miR-122, miR-152-5p and miR-25-3p) was significantly down regulated in cancer patients. These microRNAs target WNT signalling, AKT\\/mTOR and TLR-4\\/MyD88, which have previously been found to play a role in ovarian carcinogenesis and chemoresistance. let-7i-5p, miR-122, miR-152-5p and miR-25-3p could act as diagnostic biomarkers in ovarian cancer.

  14. Lost in translation. New unexplored avenues for neuropsychopharmacology: epigenetics and microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardito, Daniela; Mallei, Alessandra; Popoli, Maurizio

    2013-02-01

    Mood and anxiety disorders are among the major causes of disability worldwide. Despite clear need for better therapies, efforts to develop novel drugs have been relatively unsuccessful. One major reason is lack of translation into neuropsychopharmacology of the impressive recent array of knowledge accrued by clinical and preclinical researches on the brain. Here focus is on epigenetics mechanisms, including microRNAs, which seem particularly promising for the identification of new targets for alternative pharmacological approaches. First, the current knowledge about epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, posttranslational modification of histone proteins, focusing on histone methylation and acetylation, and posttranscriptional modulation of gene expression by microRNAs is described. Then evidence showing involvement of epigenetics and microRNAs in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders as well as evidence showing that some of the currently employed antidepressants and mood stabilizers also affect epigenetic and microRNA mechanisms are reviewed. Finally current evidence and novel approaches in favor of drugs regulating epigenetic and microRNA mechanisms as potential therapeutics for these disorders are discussed. Although still in its infancy, research investigating the effects of pharmacological modulation of epigenetic and microRNA mechanisms in neuropsychiatric disorders continues to provide encouraging findings, suggesting new avenues for treatment of mood and anxiety disorders.

  15. Identification of Conserved and Novel MicroRNAs during Tail Regeneration in the Mexican Axolotl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah D. Gearhart

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican axolotl salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum is one member of a select group of vertebrate animals that have retained the amazing ability to regenerate multiple body parts. In addition to being an important model system for regeneration, the axolotl has also contributed extensively to studies of basic development. While many genes known to play key roles during development have now been implicated in various forms of regeneration, much of the regulatory apparatus controlling the underlying molecular circuitry remains unknown. In recent years, microRNAs have been identified as key regulators of gene expression during development, in many diseases and also, increasingly, in regeneration. Here, we have used deep sequencing combined with qRT-PCR to undertake a comprehensive identification of microRNAs involved in regulating regeneration in the axolotl. Specifically, among the microRNAs that we have found to be expressed in axolotl tissues, we have identified 4564 microRNA families known to be widely conserved among vertebrates, as well as 59,811 reads of putative novel microRNAs. These findings support the hypothesis that microRNAs play key roles in managing the precise spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression that ensures the correct regeneration of missing tissues.

  16. Computational prediction and experimental validation of Ciona intestinalis microRNA genes

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    Pasquinelli Amy E

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study reports the first collection of validated microRNA genes in the sea squirt, Ciona intestinalis. MicroRNAs are processed from hairpin precursors to ~22 nucleotide RNAs that base pair to target mRNAs and inhibit expression. As a member of the subphylum Urochordata (Tunicata whose larval form has a notochord, the sea squirt is situated at the emergence of vertebrates, and therefore may provide information about the evolution of molecular regulators of early development. Results In this study, computational methods were used to predict 14 microRNA gene families in Ciona intestinalis. The microRNA prediction algorithm utilizes configurable microRNA sequence conservation and stem-loop specificity parameters, grouping by miRNA family, and phylogenetic conservation to the related species, Ciona savignyi. The expression for 8, out of 9 attempted, of the putative microRNAs in the adult tissue of Ciona intestinalis was validated by Northern blot analyses. Additionally, a target prediction algorithm was implemented, which identified a high confidence list of 240 potential target genes. Over half of the predicted targets can be grouped into the gene ontology categories of metabolism, transport, regulation of transcription, and cell signaling. Conclusion The computational techniques implemented in this study can be applied to other organisms and serve to increase the understanding of the origins of non-coding RNAs, embryological and cellular developmental pathways, and the mechanisms for microRNA-controlled gene regulatory networks.

  17. MicroRNAs in Heart Failure, Cardiac Transplantation, and Myocardial Recovery: Biomarkers with Therapeutic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Palak; Bristow, Michael R; Port, J David

    2017-12-01

    Heart failure is increasing in prevalence with a lack of recently developed therapies that produce major beneficial effects on its associated mortality. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression, are differentially regulated in heart failure, and are found in the circulation serving as a biomarker of heart failure. Data suggests that microRNAs may be used to detect allograft rejection in cardiac transplantation and may predict the degree of myocardial recovery in patients with a left ventricular assist device or treated with beta-blocker therapy. Given their role in regulating cellular function, microRNAs are an intriguing target for oligonucleotide therapeutics, designed to mimic or antagonize (antagomir) their biological effects. We review the current state of microRNAs as biomarkers of heart failure and associated conditions, the mechanisms by which microRNAs control cellular function, and how specific microRNAs may be targeted with novel therapeutics designed to treat heart failure.

  18. PACCMIT/PACCMIT-CDS: identifying microRNA targets in 3' UTRs and coding sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Miroslav; Marín, Ray M; Robins, Harlan S; Vaníček, Jiří

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the proposed web server, publicly available at http://paccmit.epfl.ch, is to provide a user-friendly interface to two algorithms for predicting messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules regulated by microRNAs: (i) PACCMIT (Prediction of ACcessible and/or Conserved MIcroRNA Targets), which identifies primarily mRNA transcripts targeted in their 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs), and (ii) PACCMIT-CDS, designed to find mRNAs targeted within their coding sequences (CDSs). While PACCMIT belongs among the accurate algorithms for predicting conserved microRNA targets in the 3' UTRs, the main contribution of the web server is 2-fold: PACCMIT provides an accurate tool for predicting targets also of weakly conserved or non-conserved microRNAs, whereas PACCMIT-CDS addresses the lack of similar portals adapted specifically for targets in CDS. The web server asks the user for microRNAs and mRNAs to be analyzed, accesses the precomputed P-values for all microRNA-mRNA pairs from a database for all mRNAs and microRNAs in a given species, ranks the predicted microRNA-mRNA pairs, evaluates their significance according to the false discovery rate and finally displays the predictions in a tabular form. The results are also available for download in several standard formats. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. PACCMIT/PACCMIT-CDS: identifying microRNA targets in 3′ UTRs and coding sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Miroslav; Marín, Ray M.; Robins, Harlan S.; Vaníček, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the proposed web server, publicly available at http://paccmit.epfl.ch, is to provide a user-friendly interface to two algorithms for predicting messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules regulated by microRNAs: (i) PACCMIT (Prediction of ACcessible and/or Conserved MIcroRNA Targets), which identifies primarily mRNA transcripts targeted in their 3′ untranslated regions (3′ UTRs), and (ii) PACCMIT-CDS, designed to find mRNAs targeted within their coding sequences (CDSs). While PACCMIT belongs among the accurate algorithms for predicting conserved microRNA targets in the 3′ UTRs, the main contribution of the web server is 2-fold: PACCMIT provides an accurate tool for predicting targets also of weakly conserved or non-conserved microRNAs, whereas PACCMIT-CDS addresses the lack of similar portals adapted specifically for targets in CDS. The web server asks the user for microRNAs and mRNAs to be analyzed, accesses the precomputed P-values for all microRNA–mRNA pairs from a database for all mRNAs and microRNAs in a given species, ranks the predicted microRNA–mRNA pairs, evaluates their significance according to the false discovery rate and finally displays the predictions in a tabular form. The results are also available for download in several standard formats. PMID:25948580

  20. Regulation of MicroRNAs, and the Correlations of MicroRNAs and Their Targeted Genes by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Ovarian Granulosa Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhao

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles (NPs have been applied in numerous industrial products and personal care products like sunscreens and cosmetics. The released ZnO NPs from consumer and household products into the environment might pose potential health issues for animals and humans. In this study the expression of microRNAs and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes in ZnO NPs treated chicken ovarian granulosa cells were investigated. ZnSO4 was used as the sole Zn2+ provider to differentiate the effects of NPs from Zn2+. It was found that ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs involved in embryonic development although ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml and ZnSO4-10 μg/ml treatments produced the same intracellular Zn concentrations and resulted in similar cell growth inhibition. And ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml also specifically regulated the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes. This is the first investigation that intact NPs in ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml treatment specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs, and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes compared to that by Zn2+. This expands our knowledge for biological effects of ZnO NPs and at the same time it raises the health concerns that ZnO NPs might adversely affect our biological systems, even the reproductive systems through regulation of specific signaling pathways.

  1. MicroRNAs Expression Profiles in Cardiovascular Diseases

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    Elsa Bronze-da-Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current search for new markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs is explained by the high morbidity and mortality still observed in developed and developing countries due to cardiovascular events. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs have emerged as potential new biomarkers and are small sequences of RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level by inhibiting translation or inducing degradation of the target mRNAs. Circulating miRNAs are involved in the regulation of signaling pathways associated to aging and can be used as novel diagnostic markers for acute and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular pathologies. This review summarizes the biogenesis, maturation, and stability of miRNAs and their use as potential biomarkers for coronary artery disease (CAD, myocardial infarction (MI, and heart failure (HF.

  2. Circulating Extracellular microRNA in Systemic Autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Niels H. H.; Carlsen, Anting Liu; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    killer cells, neutrophil granulocytes, and monocyte-macrophages. Exploratory studies (only validated in a few cases) also show that specific profiles of circulating miRNAs are associated with different systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis......, extracellular miRNA is protected against degradation by complexation with carrier proteins and/or by being enclosed in subcellular membrane vesicles. This, together with their tissue- and disease-specific expression, has fuelled the interest in using circulating microRNA profiles as harbingers of disease, i.......e., as diagnostic analytes and as clues to dysregulated pathways in disease. Many studies show that inflammation and immune dysregulation, e.g., in autoimmune diseases, are associated with distinct miRNA expression changes in targeted tissues and in innate and adaptive immunity cells such as lymphocytes, natural...

  3. Extracellular microRNA signature in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Jagdeesan; Ramezani, Ali; Hubal, Monica; Knoblach, Susan; Shrivastav, Shashi; Karandish, Sara; Scott, Richard; Maxwell, Nirmal; Ozturk, Savas; Beddhu, Srinivasan; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Raj, Dominic S

    2017-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that regulate posttranscriptional gene expression. In this study we characterized the circulating and urinary miRNA pattern associated with reduced glomerular filtration rate, using Affymetrix GeneChip miR 4.0 in 28 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Top miRNA discoveries from the human studies were validated in an Alb/TGFβ mouse model of CKD, and in rat renal proximal tubular cells (NRK52E) exposed to TGFβ1. Plasma and urinary levels of procollagen III N-terminal propeptide and collagen IV were elevated in patients with decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Expression of 384 urinary and 266 circulatory miRNAs were significantly different between CKD patients with eGFR ≥30 vs. kidney fibrosis, and specific urinary and plasma miRNA profile may have diagnostic and prognostic utility in CKD. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. MicroRNAs at the epicenter of intestinal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcheva, Antoaneta

    2017-03-01

    Maintaining intestinal homeostasis is a key prerequisite for a healthy gut. Recent evidence points out that microRNAs (miRNAs) act at the epicenter of the signaling networks regulating this process. The fine balance in the interaction between gut microbiota, intestinal epithelial cells, and the host immune system is achieved by constant transmission of signals and their precise regulation. Gut microbes extensively communicate with the host immune system and modulate host gene expression. On the other hand, sensing of gut microbiota by the immune cells provides appropriate tolerant responses that facilitate the symbiotic relationships. While the role of many regulatory proteins, receptors and their signaling pathways in the regulation of the intestinal homeostasis is well documented, the involvement of non-coding RNA molecules in this process has just emerged. This review discusses the most recent knowledge about the contribution of miRNAs in the regulation of the intestinal homeostasis. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Diverse microRNAs with convergent functions regulate tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min-Yan; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Tao

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate several biological processes, including tumorigenesis. In order to comprehend the roles of miRNAs in cancer, various screens were performed to investigate the changes in the expression levels of miRNAs that occur in different types of cancer. The present review focuses on the results of five recent screens, whereby a number of overlapping miRNAs were identified to be downregulated or differentially regulated, whereas no miRNAs were observed to be frequently upregulated. Furthermore, the majority of the miRNAs that were common to >1 screen were involved in signaling networks, including wingless-related integration site, receptor tyrosine kinase and transforming growth factor-β, or in cell cycle checkpoint control. The present review will discuss the aforementioned miRNAs implicated in cell cycle checkpoint control and signaling networks.

  6. MicroRNAs Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anja Elaine; Wissing, Marie Louise Muff; Salö, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, though heterogeneous, endocrine aberration in women of reproductive age, with high prevalence and socioeconomic costs. The syndrome is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, as well as being associated...... with infertility, insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and an increased life time risk of type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Altered miRNA levels have been associated with diabetes, insulin......RNAs with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome...

  7. MicroRNAs: Processing, Maturation, Target Recognition and Regulatory Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Girish C.; Singh, Jagjit; Barik, Sailen

    2012-01-01

    The remarkable discovery of small noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) and their role in posttranscriptional gene regulation have revealed another fine-tuning step in the expression of genetic information. A large number of cellular pathways, which act in organismal development and are important in health and disease, appear to be modulated by miRNAs. At the molecular level, miRNAs restrain the production of proteins by affecting the stability of their target mRNA and/or by down-regulating their translation. This review attempts to offer a snapshot of aspects of miRNA coding, processing, target recognition and function in animals. Our goal here is to provide the readers with a thought-provoking and mechanistic introduction to the miRNA world rather than with a detailed encyclopedia. PMID:22468167

  8. MicroRNAs in prostate cancer: Functional role as biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwal, Rajnee; Plaga, Alexis R; Liu, Xiaoqi; Shukla, Girish C; Gupta, Sanjay

    2017-10-28

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous non-coding molecules that alters gene expression through post-transcriptional regulation of messenger RNA. Compelling evidence suggest the role of miRNA in cancer biology having potential as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. This review summarizes the current knowledge on miRNA deregulated in prostate cancer and their role as oncogene, tumor suppressor and metastasis regulators. The emerging information elucidating the biological function of miRNA is promising and may lead to their potential usefulness as diagnostic/prognostic markers and development as effective therapeutic tools for management of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Uncovering growth-suppressive MicroRNAs in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xi; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Galimberti, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles improve classification, diagnosis, and prognostic information of malignancies, including lung cancer. This study uncovered unique growth-suppressive miRNAs in lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: miRNA arrays were done on normal lung tissues...... and adenocarcinomas from wild-type and proteasome degradation-resistant cyclin E transgenic mice to reveal repressed miRNAs in lung cancer. Real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays validated these findings. Lung cancer cell lines were derived from each......-malignant human lung tissue bank. RESULTS: miR-34c, miR-145, and miR-142-5p were repressed in transgenic lung cancers. Findings were confirmed by real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays. Similar miRNA profiles occurred in human normal versus malignant lung...

  10. Functions of MicroRNAs in Cardiovascular Biology and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    In 1993, lin-4 was discovered as a critical modulator of temporal development in Caenorhabditis elegans and, most notably, as the first in the class of small, single-stranded noncoding RNAs now defined as microRNAs (miRNAs). Another eight years elapsed before miRNA expression was detected in mammalian cells. Since then, explosive advancements in the field of miRNA biology have elucidated the basic mechanism of miRNA biogenesis, regulation, and gene-regulatory function. The discovery of this new class of small RNAs has augmented the complexity of gene-regulatory programs as well as the understanding of developmental and pathological processes in the cardiovascular system. Indeed, the contributions of miRNAs in cardiovascular development and function have been widely explored, revealing the extensive role of these small regulatory RNAs in cardiovascular physiology. PMID:23157557

  11. Selective blockade of microRNA processing by Lin-28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Srinivas R.; Daley, George Q.; Gregory, Richard I.

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in development, and dysregulation of miRNA expression has been observed in human malignancies. Recent evidence suggests that the processing of several primary miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs) is blocked post-transcriptionally in embryonic stem (ES) cells, embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, and primary tumors. Here we show that Lin-28, a developmentally regulated RNA-binding protein, selectively blocks the processing of pri-let-7 miRNAs in embryonic cells. Using in vitro and in vivo studies, we demonstrate that Lin-28 is necessary and sufficient for blocking Microprocessor-mediated cleavage of pri-let-7 miRNAs. Our results identify Lin-28 as a negative regulator of miRNA biogenesis and suggest that Lin-28 may play a central role in blocking miRNA-mediated differentiation in stem cells and certain cancers. PMID:18292307

  12. The MicroRNA Repertoire in Enteroendocrine Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lina A; Petersen, Natalia; Schwartz, Thue W

    2015-01-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are crucial for many biological processes, but their role in the enteroendocrine development and differentiation has been neglected due to the elusive nature of the enteroendocrine cells. However, transgenic mice expressing fluorescent reporter proteins under the control...... of promoters for Cck, Gpr41, and Lgr5, ie, two different enteroendocrine markers and a marker for the stem cells, now enables identification and FACS purification of enteroendocrine cells at different stages of their differentiation along the crypt-villus axis. Surprisingly few of the 746 analyzed mi......RNAs differed in their expression pattern between enteroendocrine and nonenteroendocrine cells of the gut mucosa and between enteroendocrine cells of the crypt versus the villus. Thus, only let-7g-3p, miR-7b-5p (miR-7b), and miR-375-3p (miR-375) were up-regulated in the enteroendocrine cells of both the crypt...

  13. Roles of MicroRNA across Prenatal and Postnatal Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Floris

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Communication between mother and offspring in mammals starts at implantation via the maternal–placental–fetal axis, and continues postpartum via milk targeted to the intestinal mucosa. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, short, noncoding single-stranded RNAs, of about 22 nucleotides in length, are actively involved in many developmental and physiological processes. Here we highlight the role of miRNA in the dynamic signaling that guides infant development, starting from implantation of conceptus and persisting through the prenatal and postnatal periods. miRNAs in body fluids, particularly in amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, and breast milk may offer new opportunities to investigate physiological and/or pathological molecular mechanisms that portend to open novel research avenues for the identification of noninvasive biomarkers.

  14. MicroRNAs and the metabolic hallmarks of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Berta; Nunez Lopez, Yury O; Masternak, Michal M

    2017-11-05

    Aging, the natural process of growing older, is characterized by a progressive deterioration of physiological homeostasis at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level. Metabolically, the aging process is characterized by extensive changes in body composition, multi-tissue/multi-organ insulin resistance, and physiological declines in multiple signaling pathways including growth hormone, insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1, and sex steroids regulation. With this review, we intend to consolidate published information about microRNAs that regulate critical metabolic processes relevant to aging. In certain occasions we uncover relationships likely relevant to aging, which has not been directly described before, such as the miR-451/AMPK axis. We have also included a provocative section highlighting the potential role in aging of a new designation of miRNAs, namely fecal miRNAs, recently discovered to regulate intestinal microbiota in mammals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. MicroRNAs in Experimental Models of Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Tae Lee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNAs comprised of 20–25 nucleotides that regulates gene expression by inducing translational repression or degradation of target mRNA. The importance of miRNAs as a mediator of disease pathogenesis and therapeutic targets is rapidly emerging in neuroscience, as well as oncology, immunology, and cardiovascular diseases. In Parkinson’s disease and related disorders, multiple studies have identified the implications of specific miRNAs and the polymorphisms of miRNA target genes during the disease pathogenesis. With a focus on Parkinson’s disease, spinocerebellar ataxia, hereditary spastic paraplegia, and Huntington’s disease, this review summarizes and interprets the observations, and proposes future research topics in this field.

  16. MicroRNAs: regulators of oncogenesis and stemness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papagiannakopoulos Thales

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs are essential post-transcriptional regulators that determine cell identity and fate. Aberrant expression of miRNAs can lead to diseases, including cancer. Expression of many miRNAs in the de-differentiated brain tumor cancer stem cells resembles that of neural stem cells. In this issue of BMC Medicine, Silber et al provide evidence of the expression of such miRNAs and their potential to mediate differentiation in both stem cell populations. In this commentary, we discuss the known functions of miRNAs in cancer and stem cells, their therapeutic potential and how the findings of Silber et al provide insight into the role of miR-124/miR-137 dysregulation in glioblastomas.

  17. Involvement and Clinical Aspects of MicroRNA in Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Mohan Ram Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is the most common primary bone cancer in children and adolescents, but its pathogenesis has been difficult to establish because of its well-known heterogeneous nature. OS has been associated with genetic and cytogenetic abnormalities, which include function-impairing mutations in tumor suppressors and the activation of oncogenes. OS tumorigenesis has been linked to alterations of several genes characterized by a high level of genetic instability and recurrent DNA amplifications and deletions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, 18–25-nucleotide noncoding RNAs, are critical for various biological processes like differentiation, cell growth and cell death. Dysregulation of miRNA expression leads to phenotypic and genotypic changes in cells, which leads to cancer. Studies on miRNAs have initiated a significant effect in both diagnosis and treatment of cancer. This review focuses on the current knowledge of clinical applications of miRNAs for the better diagnosis and management of OS.

  18. Role of microRNA-7 in digestive system malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Qun; Hu, Ling; Chen, Geng-Xin; Deng, Hai-Xia

    2016-01-15

    There are several malignancies of the digestive system (including gastric, pancreatic and colorectal cancers, and hepatocellular carcinoma), which are the most common types of cancer and a major cause of death worldwide. MicroRNA (miR)-7 is abundant in the pancreas, playing an important role in pancreatic development and endocrine function. Expression of miR-7 is downregulated in digestive system malignancies compared with normal tissue. Although there are contrasting results for miR-7 expression, almost all research reveals that miR-7 is a tumor suppressor, by targeting various genes in specific pathways. Moreover, miR-7 can target different genes simultaneously in different malignancies of the digestive system. By acting on many cytokines, miR-7 is also involved in many gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases as a significant carcinogenic factor. Consequently, miR-7 might be a biomarker or therapeutic target gene in digestive system malignancies.

  19. Diet-derived microRNAs: unicorn or silver bullet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witwer, Kenneth W; Zhang, Chen-Yu

    2017-01-01

    In ancient lore, a bullet cast from silver is the only effective weapon against monsters. The uptake of active diet-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) in consumers may be the silver bullet long sought after in nutrition and oral therapeutics. However, the majority of scientists consider the transfer and regulation of consumer's gene activity by these diet-derived miRNAs to be a fantasy akin to spotting a unicorn. Nevertheless, groups like Dr. Chen-Yu Zhang's lab in Nanjing University have stockpiled breathtaking amounts of data to shoot down these naysayers. Meanwhile, Dr. Ken Witwer at John Hopkins has steadfastly cautioned the field to beware of fallacies caused by contamination, technical artifacts, and confirmation bias. Here, Dr. Witwer and Dr. Zhang share their realities of dietary miRNAs by answering five questions related to this controversial field.

  20. Overview of research on Bombyx mori microRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Tang, Shun-ming; Shen, Xing-jia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute some of the most significant regulatory factors involved at the post-transcriptional level after gene expression, contributing to the modulation of a large number of physiological processes such as development, metabolism, and disease occurrence. This review comprehensively and retrospectively explores the literature investigating silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombicidae), miRNAs published to date, including discovery, identification, expression profiling analysis, target gene prediction, and the functional analysis of both miRNAs and their targets. It may provide experimental considerations and approaches for future study of miRNAs and benefit elucidation of the mechanisms of miRNAs involved in silkworm developmental processes and intracellular activities of other unknown non-coding RNAs. PMID:25368077

  1. Cellular Response to Ionizing Radiation: A MicroRNA Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, Mohammad; Asghari, S. Mohsen; Sariri, Reyhaneh; Moslemi, Dariush; Parsian, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They play a crucial role in diverse cellular pathways. Ionizing radiation (IR) is one of the most important treatment protocols for patients that suffer from cancer and affects directly or indirectly cellular integration. Recently it has been discovered that microRNA-mediated gene regulation interferes with radio-related pathways in ionizing radiation. Here, we review the recent discoveries about miRNAs in cellular response to IR. Thoroughly understanding the mechanism of miRNAs in radiation response, it will be possible to design new strategies for improving radiotherapy efficiency and ultimately cancer treatment. PMID:24551775

  2. MicroRNAs in large herpesvirus DNA genomes: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorel, Océane; Dewals, Benjamin G

    2016-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that regulate gene expression. They alter mRNA translation through base-pair complementarity, leading to regulation of genes during both physiological and pathological processes. Viruses have evolved mechanisms to take advantage of the host cells to multiply and/or persist over the lifetime of the host. Herpesviridae are a large family of double-stranded DNA viruses that are associated with a number of important diseases, including lymphoproliferative diseases. Herpesviruses establish lifelong latent infections through modulation of the interface between the virus and its host. A number of reports have identified miRNAs in a very large number of human and animal herpesviruses suggesting that these short non-coding transcripts could play essential roles in herpesvirus biology. This review will specifically focus on the recent advances on the functions of herpesvirus miRNAs in infection and pathogenesis.

  3. MicroRNA Related Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Michailidou, Kyriaki

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer....... We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41......,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated...

  4. MicroRNA-338 modulates cortical neuronal placement and polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Aron; de Mooij-Malsen, Annetrude J; van Bokhoven, Hans; Kaplan, Barry B; Martens, Gerard J; Kolk, Sharon M; Aschrafi, Armaz

    2017-07-03

    The precise spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression orchestrates the many intricate processes during brain development. In the present study we examined the role of the brain-enriched microRNA-338 (miR-338) during mouse cortical development. Reduction of miR-338 levels in the developing mouse cortex, using a sequence-specific miR-sponge, resulted in a loss of neuronal polarity in the cortical plate and significantly reduced the number of neurons within this cortical layer. Conversely, miR-338 overexpression in developing mouse cortex increased the number of neurons, which exhibited a multipolar morphology. All together, our results raise the possibility for a direct role for this non-coding RNA, which was recently associated with schizophrenia, in the regulation of cortical neuronal polarity and layer placement.

  5. Role of microRNA Pathway in Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurashi, Abrar; Chang, Shuang; Jin, Peng

    2007-01-01

    Deficits in cognitive functions lead to mental retardation (MR). Understanding the genetic basis of inherited MR has provided insights into the pathogenesis of MR. Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited MR, caused by the loss of functional Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, single-stranded RNAs between 18 and 25 nucleotides in length, which have been implicated in diversified biological pathways. Recent studies have linked the miRNA pathway to fragile X syndrome. Here we review the role of the miRNA pathway in fragile X syndrome and discuss its implication in MR in general. PMID:17982588

  6. MicroRNAs and the Evolution of Insect Metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belles, Xavier

    2017-01-31

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of a number of processes associated with metamorphosis, either in the less modified hemimetabolan mode or in the more modified holometabolan mode. The miR-100/let-7/miR-125 cluster has been studied extensively, especially in relation to wing morphogenesis in both hemimetabolan and holometabolan species. Other miRNAs also participate in wing morphogenesis, as well as in programmed cell and tissue death, neuromaturation, neuromuscular junction formation, and neuron cell fate determination, typically during the pupal stage of holometabolan species. A special case is the control of miR-2 over Kr-h1 transcripts, which determines adult morphogenesis in the hemimetabolan metamorphosis. This is an elegant example of how a single miRNA can control an entire process by acting on a crucial mediator; however, this is a quite exceptional mechanism that was apparently lost during the transition from hemimetaboly to holometaboly.

  7. Multilayer checkpoints for microRNA authenticity during RISC assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Yoda, Mayuko; Tomari, Yukihide

    2011-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function through the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which contains an Argonaute (Ago) protein at the core. RISC assembly follows a two-step pathway: miRNA/miRNA* duplex loading into Ago, and separation of the two strands within Ago. Here we show that the 5' phosphate of the miRNA strand is essential for duplex loading into Ago, whereas the preferred 5' nucleotide of the miRNA strand and the base-pairing status in the seed region and the middle of the 3' region function as additive anchors to Ago. Consequently, the miRNA authenticity is inspected at multiple steps during RISC assembly.

  8. Can microRNAs act as biomarkers of aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Luv

    2011-02-07

    Aging can be defined as a progressive decline in physiological efficiency regulated by an extremely complex multifactorial process. The genetic makeup of an individual appears to dictate this rate of aging in a species specific manner. For decades now, scientists have tried to look for tiny signatures or signs which might help us predict this rate of aging. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a unique class of short, non-coding RNAs that mediate the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression ranging from developmental processes to disease induction or amelioration. Recently, they have also been implicated to have a role in aging in C.elegans. Based on the fact that there is a considerable similarity between aging in C.elegans and humans, these recent findings might suggest a possible role of miRNAs as bio-markers of aging. This mini-review brushes through the possibilities towards this direction.

  9. Plasma EBV microRNAs in paediatric renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Jaythoon; Dean, Jonathan; De Gascun, Cillian F; Riordan, Michael; Sweeney, Clodagh; Connell, Jeff; Awan, Atif

    2018-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the first human virus identified to express microRNA (miRNA). To date, 44 mature miRNAs are encoded for within the EBV genome. EBV miRNAs have not been profiled in paediatric renal transplant recipients. In this study, we investigated circulating EBV miRNA profiles as novel biomarkers in paediatric renal transplant patients. Forty-two microRNAs encoded within 2 EBV open reading frames (BART and BHRF) were examined in renal transplant recipients who resolved EBV infection (REI) or maintained chronic high viral loads (CHL), and in non-transplant patients with acute infectious mononucleosis (IM). Plasma EBV-miR-BART2-5p was present in higher numbers of IM (7/8) and CHL (7/10) compared to REI (7/12) patients. A trend was observed between the numbers of plasma EBV miRNAs expressed and EBV viral load (p < 0.07). Several EBV-miRs including BART7-3p, 15, 9-3p, 11-3p, 1-3p and 3-3p were detected in IM and CHL patients only. The lytic EBV-miRs, BHRF1-2-3p and 1-1, indicating active viral replication, were detected in IM patients only. One CHL patient developed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) after several years and analysis of 10 samples over a 30-month period showed an average 24-fold higher change in plasma EBV-miR-BART2-5p compared to the CHL group and 110-fold higher change compared to the REI group. Our results suggest that EBV-miR-BART2-5p, which targets the stress-induced immune ligand MICB to escape recognition and elimination by NK cells, may have a role in sustaining high EBV viral loads in CHL paediatric kidney transplant recipients.

  10. MicroRNA transcriptome profiles during swine skeletal muscle development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonstegard Tad S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA (miR are a class of small RNAs that regulate gene expression by inhibiting translation of protein encoding transcripts. To evaluate the role of miR in skeletal muscle of swine, global microRNA abundance was measured at specific developmental stages including proliferating satellite cells, three stages of fetal growth, day-old neonate, and the adult. Results Twelve potential novel miR were detected that did not match previously reported sequences. In addition, a number of miR previously reported to be expressed in mammalian muscle were detected, having a variety of abundance patterns through muscle development. Muscle-specific miR-206 was nearly absent in proliferating satellite cells in culture, but was the highest abundant miR at other time points evaluated. In addition, miR-1 was moderately abundant throughout developmental stages with highest abundance in the adult. In contrast, miR-133 was moderately abundant in adult muscle and either not detectable or lowly abundant throughout fetal and neonate development. Changes in abundance of ubiquitously expressed miR were also observed. MiR-432 abundance was highest at the earliest stage of fetal development tested (60 day-old fetus and decreased throughout development to the adult. Conversely, miR-24 and miR-27 exhibited greatest abundance in proliferating satellite cells and the adult, while abundance of miR-368, miR-376, and miR-423-5p was greatest in the neonate. Conclusion These data present a complete set of transcriptome profiles to evaluate miR abundance at specific stages of skeletal muscle growth in swine. Identification of these miR provides an initial group of miR that may play a vital role in muscle development and growth.

  11. MicroRNA-31 Regulates Chemosensitivity in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

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    Hannah L. Moody

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is associated with an extremely poor prognosis, and most patients initially are or rapidly become unresponsive to platinum-based chemotherapy. MicroRNA-31 (miR-31 is encoded on a genomic fragile site, 9p21.3, which is reportedly lost in many MPM tumors. Based on previous findings in a variety of other cancers, we hypothesized that miR-31 alters chemosensitivity and that miR-31 reconstitution may influence sensitivity to chemotherapeutics in MPM. Reintroduction of miR-31 into miR-31 null NCI-H2452 cells significantly enhanced clonogenic resistance to cisplatin and carboplatin. Although miR-31 re-expression increased chemoresistance, paradoxically, a higher relative intracellular accumulation of platinum was detected. This was coupled to a significantly decreased intranuclear concentration of platinum. Linked with a downregulation of OCT1, a bipotential transcriptional regulator with multiple miR-31 target binding sites, we subsequently identified an indirect miR-31-mediated upregulation of ABCB9, a transporter associated with drug accumulation in lysosomes, and increased uptake of platinum to lysosomes. However, when overexpressed directly, ABCB9 promoted cellular chemosensitivity, suggesting that miR-31 promotes chemoresistance largely via an ABCB9-independent mechanism. Overall, our data suggest that miR-31 loss from MPM tumors promotes chemosensitivity and may be prognostically beneficial in the context of therapeutic sensitivity. Keywords: malignant pleural mesothelioma, microRNA-31, chemoresistance, cisplatin, ABCB9

  12. Control of Drosophila Type I and Type II central brain neuroblast proliferation by bantam microRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weng, Ruifen; Cohen, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation of stem cell self-renewal by microRNAs is emerging as an important mechanism controlling tissue homeostasis. Here, we provide evidence that bantam microRNA controls neuroblast number and proliferation in the Drosophila central brain. Bantam also supports proliferat......Post-transcriptional regulation of stem cell self-renewal by microRNAs is emerging as an important mechanism controlling tissue homeostasis. Here, we provide evidence that bantam microRNA controls neuroblast number and proliferation in the Drosophila central brain. Bantam also supports...

  13. MicroRNA-122 is involved in oxidative stress in isoniazid-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, L; Zhang, Z R; Zhang, J L; Zhu, X B; He, L; Shi, Z; Gao, L; Li, Y; Hu, B; Feng, F M

    2015-10-27

    Many studies have shown that the pathogenesis of liver injury includes oxidative stress. MicroRNA-122 may be a marker for the early diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury. However, the relationship between microRNA-122 and oxidative stress in anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury remains unknown. We measured changes in tissue microRNA-122 levels and indices of oxidative stress during liver injury in mice after administration of isoniazid, a first-line anti-tuberculosis drug. We quantified microRNA-122 expression and indices of oxidative stress at 7 time points, including 1, 3, and 5 days and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The tissue microRNA-122 levels and oxidative stress significantly changed at 3 and 5 days, suggesting that isoniazid-induced liver injury reduces oxidative stress and microRNA-122 expression compared to in the control group (P microRNA-122, began to change at 5 days (P microRNA-122 profile may affect oxidative stress by regulating mitochondrial ribosome protein S11 gene during isoniazid-induced liver injury, which may contribute to the response mechanisms of microRNA-122 and oxidative stress.

  14. Identification of serum microRNA biomarkers for tuberculosis using RNA-seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtai Zhang

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a significant human health issue. More effective biomarkers for use in tuberculosis prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, including markers that can discriminate between healthy individuals and those with latent infection, are urgently needed. To identify a set of such markers, we used Solexa sequencing to examine microRNA expression in the serum of patients with active disease, healthy individuals with latent TB, and those with or without prior BCG inoculation. We identified 24 microRNAs that are up-regulated (2.85-1285.93 fold and 6 microRNAs that are down-regulated (0.003-0.11 fold (P<0.05 in patients with active TB relative to the three groups of healthy controls. In addition, 75 microRNAs were up-regulated (2.05-2454.58 fold and 11 were down-regulated (0.001-0.42 fold (P<0.05 in latent-TB infected individuals relative to BCG- inoculated individuals. Of interest, 134 microRNAs were differentially-expressed in BCG-inoculated relative to un-inoculated individuals (18 up-regulated 2.9-499.29 fold, 116 down-regulated 0.0002-0.5 fold, providing insights into the effects of BCG inoculation at the microRNA level. Target prediction of differentially-expressed microRNAs by microRNA-Gene Network analysis and analysis of pathways affected suggest that regulation of the host immune system by microRNAs is likely to be one of the main factors in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. qRT-PCR validation indicated that hsa-miR-196b and hsa-miR-376c have potential as markers for active TB disease. The microRNA differential-expression profiles generated in this study provide a good foundation for the development of markers for TB diagnosis, and for investigations on the role of microRNAs in BCG-inoculated and latent-infected individuals.

  15. Environmental contaminants and microRNA regulation: Transcription factors as regulators of toxicant-altered microRNA expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sollome, James; Martin, Elizabeth [Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Sethupathy, Praveen [Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Fry, Rebecca C., E-mail: rfry@unc.edu [Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Curriculum in Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by binding mRNA and inhibiting translation and/or inducing degradation of the associated transcripts. Expression levels of miRNAs have been shown to be altered in response to environmental toxicants, thus impacting cellular function and influencing disease risk. Transcription factors (TFs) are known to be altered in response to environmental toxicants and play a critical role in the regulation of miRNA expression. To date, environmentally-responsive TFs that are important for regulating miRNAs remain understudied. In a state-of-the-art analysis, we utilized an in silico bioinformatic approach to characterize potential transcriptional regulators of environmentally-responsive miRNAs. Using the miRStart database, genomic sequences of promoter regions for all available human miRNAs (n = 847) were identified and promoter regions were defined as − 1000/+500 base pairs from the transcription start site. Subsequently, the promoter region sequences of environmentally-responsive miRNAs (n = 128) were analyzed using enrichment analysis to determine overrepresented TF binding sites (TFBS). While most (56/73) TFs differed across environmental contaminants, a set of 17 TFs was enriched for promoter binding among miRNAs responsive to numerous environmental contaminants. Of these, one TF was common to miRNAs altered by the majority of environmental contaminants, namely SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A, member 3 (SMARCA3). These identified TFs represent candidate common transcriptional regulators of miRNAs perturbed by environmental toxicants. - Highlights: • Transcription factors that regulate environmentally-modulated miRNA expression are understudied • Transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) located within DNA promoter regions of miRNAs were identified. • Specific transcription factors may serve as master regulators of environmentally-mediated microRNA expression.

  16. Environmental contaminants and microRNA regulation: Transcription factors as regulators of toxicant-altered microRNA expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollome, James; Martin, Elizabeth; Sethupathy, Praveen; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by binding mRNA and inhibiting translation and/or inducing degradation of the associated transcripts. Expression levels of miRNAs have been shown to be altered in response to environmental toxicants, thus impacting cellular function and influencing disease risk. Transcription factors (TFs) are known to be altered in response to environmental toxicants and play a critical role in the regulation of miRNA expression. To date, environmentally-responsive TFs that are important for regulating miRNAs remain understudied. In a state-of-the-art analysis, we utilized an in silico bioinformatic approach to characterize potential transcriptional regulators of environmentally-responsive miRNAs. Using the miRStart database, genomic sequences of promoter regions for all available human miRNAs (n = 847) were identified and promoter regions were defined as − 1000/+500 base pairs from the transcription start site. Subsequently, the promoter region sequences of environmentally-responsive miRNAs (n = 128) were analyzed using enrichment analysis to determine overrepresented TF binding sites (TFBS). While most (56/73) TFs differed across environmental contaminants, a set of 17 TFs was enriched for promoter binding among miRNAs responsive to numerous environmental contaminants. Of these, one TF was common to miRNAs altered by the majority of environmental contaminants, namely SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A, member 3 (SMARCA3). These identified TFs represent candidate common transcriptional regulators of miRNAs perturbed by environmental toxicants. - Highlights: • Transcription factors that regulate environmentally-modulated miRNA expression are understudied • Transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) located within DNA promoter regions of miRNAs were identified. • Specific transcription factors may serve as master regulators of environmentally-mediated microRNA expression

  17. MicroRNAs take part in pathophysiology and pathogenesis of Male Pattern Baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Hamed R; Abbasi, Ali; Saffari, Mojtaba; Tabei, Mohammad B; Noori Daloii, Mohammad R

    2010-07-01

    Male Pattern Baldness (MPB) or androgenetic alopecia is a common form of hair loss with androgens and genetics having etiological significance. Androgens are thought to pathophysiologically power on cascades of chronically dramatic alterations in genetically susceptible scalp dermal papillas, specialized cells in hair follicles in which androgens react, and finally resulting in a patterned alopecia. However, the exact mechanisms through which androgens, positive regulators of growth and anabolism in most body sites, paradoxically exert their effects on balding hair follicles, are not yet known. The role of microRNAs, a recently discovered class of non-coding RNAs, with a wide range of regulatory functions, has been documented in hair follicle formation and their deregulation in cancer of prostate, a target organ of androgens has also been delineated. Yet, there is a lack of knowledge in agreement with microRNAs' contribution in pathophysiology of MPB. To investigate the role of microRNAs in pathogenesis of MPB, we selected seven microRNAs, predicted bioinformatically on a reverse engineering basis, from previously published microarray gene expression data and analyzed their expression in balding relative to non-balding dermal papillas. We found for the first time upregulation of four microRNAs (miR-221, miR-125b, miR-106b and miR-410) that could participate in pathogenesis of MPB. Regarding microRNAs' therapeutic potential and accessibility of hair follicles for gene therapy, these microRNAs can be considered as good candidates for a new revolutionized generation of treatments.

  18. Role of microRNA-7 and selenoprotein P in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarek, Marwa; Louka, Manal Louis; Khairy, Eman; Ali-Labib, Randa; Zakaria Zaky, Doaa; Montasser, Iman F

    2017-05-01

    There is an obvious need to diagnose hepatocellular carcinoma using novel non-invasive and sensitive biomarkers. In this regard, the aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate both relative quantification of microRNA-7 using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and quantitative analysis of selenoprotein P using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera of hepatocellular carcinoma patients, chronic liver disease patients, as well as normal healthy subjects in order to establish a new diagnostic biomarker with a valid non-invasive technique. In addition, this study aimed to investigate whether changes in selenium supply affect microRNA-7 expression and selenoprotein P levels in human hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2). The results showed a highly significant decrease in serum microRNA-7 relative quantification values and selenoprotein P levels in malignant group in comparison with benign and control groups. The best cutoff for serum microRNA-7 and selenoprotein P to discriminate hepatocellular carcinoma group from benign and control groups was 0.06 and 4.30 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, this study showed that changes in selenium supply to HepG2 cell line can alter the microRNA-7 profile and are paralleled by changes in the concentration of its target protein (selenoprotein P). Hence, serum microRNA-7 and selenoprotein P appear to be potential non-invasive diagnostic markers for hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, the results suggest that selenium could be used as an anticancer therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma by affecting both microRNA-7 and selenoprotein P.

  19. microRNA expression profiling on individual breast cancer patients identifies novel panel of circulating microRNA for early detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamam, Rimi; Ali, Arwa M.; Alsaleh, Khalid A.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer type and the second cause of cancer-related death among women. Therefore, better understanding of breast cancer tumor biology and the identification of novel biomarkers is essential for the early diagnosis and for better disease stratification and mana......Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer type and the second cause of cancer-related death among women. Therefore, better understanding of breast cancer tumor biology and the identification of novel biomarkers is essential for the early diagnosis and for better disease stratification...... and management choices. Herein we developed a novel approach which relies on the isolation of circulating microRNAs through an enrichment step using speed-vacuum concentration which resulted in 5-fold increase in microRNA abundance. Global miRNA microarray expression profiling performed on individual samples...... of 46 BC and 14 controls. The expression of those microRNAs was overall higher in patients with stage I, II, and III, compared to stage IV, with potential utilization for early detection. The expression of this microRNA panel was slightly higher in the HER2 and TN compared to patients with luminal...

  20. Role of G3BP1 in glucocorticoid receptor-mediated microRNA-15b and microRNA-23a biogenesis in endothelial cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kwok, Hoi-Hin; Poon, Po-Ying; Mak, Kylie Hin-Man; Zhang, Lin-Yao; Liu, Pei; Zhang, Huoming; Mak, Nai-Ki; Yue, Patrick Ying-Kit; Wong, Ricky Ngok-Shun

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in regulating various normal cellular responses. Recent studies revealed that the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway is subject to sophisticated regulation. Hormonal control

  1. MicroRNA-31 functions as an oncogenic microRNA in mouse and human lung cancer cells by repressing specific tumor suppressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xi; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Ouyang, Haoxu

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression. It has been suggested that obtaining miRNA expression profiles can improve classification, diagnostic, and prognostic information in oncology. Here, we sought to comprehensively identify the miRNAs that are overexpressed in lung cancer by conducting mi...

  2. Differential expression of microRNA-675, microRNA-139-3p and microRNA-335 in benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, J; Bertram, S; Sheu, S Y; Suttorp, A C; Seggewiß, J; Willscher, E; Walz, M K; Worm, K; Schmid, K W

    2011-01-01

    Background For the clinical management of adrenocortical neoplasms it is crucial to correctly distinguish between benign and malignant tumours. Even histomorphologically based scoring systems do not allow precise separation in single lesions, thus novel parameters are desired which offer a more accurate differentiation. The tremendous potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) as diagnostic biomarkers in surgical pathology has recently been shown in a broad variety of tumours. Methods In order to elucidate the diagnostic impact of miRNA expression in adrenocortical neoplasms, a cohort of 20 adrenocortical specimens including normal adrenal tissue (n=4), adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) (n=9), adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) (n=4) and metastases (n=3) was analysed using TaqMan low density arrays to identify specific miRNA profiles in order to distinguish between benign and malignant adrenocortical lesions. Results were validated in a validation cohort (n=16). Results Concerning the differential diagnosis of ACAs and ACCs, 159 out of 667 miRNAs were up- and 89 were down-regulated in ACAs. Using real-time PCR analysis of three of the most significantly expressed single key miRNAs allowed separation of ACAs from ACCs. ACCs exhibited significantly lower levels of miR-139-3p (up to 8.49-fold, p<0.001), miR-675 (up to 23.25-fold, p<0.001) and miR-335 (up to 5.25-fold, p<0.001). A validation cohort of 16 specimen with known Weiss score showed up-regulation of miR-335 and miR-675 in the majority of cases with probable malignant course, although overlapping values exist. Conclusion miRNA profiling of miR-675 and miR-335 helps in discriminating ACCs from ACAs. miRNA analysis may indicate malignant behaviour in cases with indeterminate malignant potential. PMID:21471143

  3. Systematic validation of predicted microRNAs for cyclin D1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Qiong; Feng, Ming-Guang; Mo, Yin-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs are the endogenous small non-coding RNA molecules capable of silencing protein coding genes at the posttranscriptional level. Based on computer-aided predictions, a single microRNA could have over a hundred of targets. On the other hand, a single protein-coding gene could be targeted by many potential microRNAs. However, only a relatively small number of these predicted microRNA/mRNA interactions are experimentally validated, and no systematic validation has been carried out using a reporter system. In this study, we used luciferease reporter assays to validate microRNAs that can silence cyclin D1 (CCND1) because CCND1 is a well known proto-oncogene implicated in a variety of types of cancers. We chose miRanda (http://www.microRNA.org) as a primary prediction method. We then cloned 51 of 58 predicted microRNA precursors into pCDH-CMV-MCS-EF1-copGFP and tested for their effect on the luciferase reporter carrying the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of CCND1 gene. Real-time PCR revealed the 45 of 51 cloned microRNA precursors expressed a relatively high level of the exogenous microRNAs which were used in our validation experiments. By an arbitrary cutoff of 35% reduction, we identified 7 microRNAs that were able to suppress Luc-CCND1-UTR activity. Among them, 4 of them were previously validated targets and the rest 3 microRNAs were validated to be positive in this study. Of interest, we found that miR-503 not only suppressed the luciferase activity, but also suppressed the endogenous CCND1 both at protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, we showed that miR-503 was able to reduce S phase cell populations and caused cell growth inhibition, suggesting that miR-503 may be a putative tumor suppressor. This study provides a more comprehensive picture of microRNA/CCND1 interactions and it further demonstrates the importance of experimental target validation

  4. Large-scale identification of microRNA targets in murine Dgcr8-deficient embryonic stem cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P A Davis

    Full Text Available Small RNAs such as microRNAs play important roles in embryonic stem cell maintenance and differentiation. A broad range of microRNAs is expressed in embryonic stem cells while only a fraction of their targets have been identified. We have performed large-scale identification of embryonic stem cell microRNA targets using a murine embryonic stem cell line deficient in the expression of Dgcr8. These cells are heavily depleted for microRNAs, allowing us to reintroduce specific microRNA duplexes and identify refined target sets. We used deep sequencing of small RNAs, mRNA expression profiling and bioinformatics analysis of microRNA seed matches in 3' UTRs to identify target transcripts. Consequently, we have identified a network of microRNAs that converge on the regulation of several important cellular pathways. Additionally, our experiments have revealed a novel candidate for Dgcr8-independent microRNA genesis and highlighted the challenges currently facing miRNA annotation.

  5. Clinical applications of microRNAs [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/218

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Hydbring

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs represent a class of small RNAs derived from polymerase II controlled transcriptional regions. The primary transcript forms one or several bulging double stranded hairpins which are processed by Drosha and Dicer into hetero-duplexes. The targeting microRNA strand of the duplex is incorporated into the RNA Induced Silencing Complex from where it silences up to hundreds of mRNA transcript by inducing mRNA degradation or blocking protein translation. Apart from involvement in a variety of biological processes, microRNAs were early recognized for their potential in disease diagnostics and therapeutics. Due to their stability, microRNAs could be used as biomarkers. Currently, there are microRNA panels helping physicians determining the origins of cancer in disseminated tumors. The development of microRNA therapeutics has proved more challenging mainly due to delivery issues. However, one drug is already in clinical trials and several more await entering clinical phases. This review summarizes what has been recognized pre-clinically and clinically on diagnostic microRNAs. In addition, it highlights individual microRNA drugs in running platforms driven by four leading microRNA-therapeutic companies.

  6. Clinical applications of microRNAs [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/14d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Hydbring

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs represent a class of small RNAs derived from polymerase II controlled transcriptional regions. The primary transcript forms one or several bulging double stranded hairpins which are processed by Drosha and Dicer into hetero-duplexes. The targeting microRNA strand of the duplex is incorporated into the RNA Induced Silencing Complex from where it silences up to hundreds of mRNA transcript by inducing mRNA degradation or blocking protein translation. Apart from involvement in a variety of biological processes, microRNAs were early recognized for their potential in disease diagnostics and therapeutics. Due to their stability, microRNAs could be used as biomarkers. Currently, there are microRNA panels helping physicians determining the origins of cancer in disseminated tumors. The development of microRNA therapeutics has proved more challenging mainly due to delivery issues. However, one drug is already in clinical trials and several more await entering clinical phases. This review summarizes what has been recognized pre-clinically and clinically on diagnostic microRNAs. In addition, it highlights individual microRNA drugs in running platforms driven by four leading microRNA-therapeutic companies.

  7. A functional screen implicates microRNA-138-dependent regulation of the depalmitoylation enzyme APT1 in dendritic spine morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, Gabriele; Obernosterer, Gregor; Fiore, Roberto; Oehmen, Martin; Bicker, Silvia; Christensen, Mette; Khudayberdiev, Sharof; Leuschner, Philipp F; Busch, Clara J L; Kane, Christina; Hübel, Katja; Dekker, Frank; Hedberg, Christian; Rengarajan, Balamurugan; Drepper, Carsten; Waldmann, Herbert; Kauppinen, Sakari; Greenberg, Michael E; Draguhn, Andreas; Rehmsmeier, Marc; Martinez, Javier; Schratt, Gerhard M; Dekker, Frank

    The microRNA pathway has been implicated in the regulation of synaptic protein synthesis and ultimately in dendritic spine morphogenesis, a phenomenon associated with long-lasting forms of memory. However, the particular microRNAs (miRNAs) involved are largely unknown. Here we identify specific

  8. Identification of valid reference genes for microRNA expression studies in a hepatitis B virus replicating liver cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kari Stougaard; Nielsen, Kirstine Overgaard; Nordmann Winther, Thilde

    2016-01-01

    expressed microRNAs with liver-specific target genes in plasma from children with chronic hepatitis B. To further understand the biological role of these microRNAs in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B, we have used the human liver cell line HepG2, with and without HBV replication, after transfection...

  9. MicroRNAs as Biomarkers for Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Nelson Hayes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Serum levels of liver enzymes, such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and α-fetoprotein, provide insight into liver function and are used during treatment of liver disease, but such information is limited. In the case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, which is often not detected until an advanced stage, more sensitive biomarkers may help to achieve earlier detection. Serum also contains microRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs that play an important role in regulating gene expression. miR-122 is specific to the liver and correlates strongly with liver enzyme levels and necroinflammatory activity, and other microRNAs are correlated with the degree of fibrosis. miR-122 has also been found to be required for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, whereas other microRNAs have been shown to play antiviral roles. miR-125a-5p and miR-1231 have been shown to directly target hepatitis B virus (HBV transcripts, and others are up- or down-regulated in infected individuals. MicroRNA profiles also differ in the case of HBV and HCV infection as well as between HBeAg-positive and negative patients, and in patients with occult versus active HBV infection. In such patients, monitoring of changes in microRNA profiles might provide earlier warning of neoplastic changes preceding HCC.

  10. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for MicroRNA Detection in Archived Oral Cancer Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonggao Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The noncoding RNA designated as microRNA (miRNA is a large group of small single-stranded regulatory RNA and has generated wide-spread interest in human disease studies. To facilitate delineating the role of microRNAs in cancer pathology, we sought to explore the feasibility of detecting microRNA expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues. Using FFPE materials, we have compared fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH procedures to detect miR-146a with (a different synthetic probes: regular custom DNA oligonucleotides versus locked nucleic acid (LNA incorporated DNA oligonucleotides; (b different reporters for the probes: biotin versus digoxigenin (DIG; (c different visualization: traditional versus tyramide signal amplification (TSA system; (d different blocking reagents for endogenous peroxidase. Finally, we performed miR-146a FISH on a commercially available oral cancer tissue microarray, which contains 40 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and 10 cases of normal epithelia from the human oral cavity. A sample FISH protocol for detecting miR-146a is provided. In summary, we have established reliable in situ hybridization procedures for detecting the expression of microRNA in FFPE oral cancer tissues. This method is an important tool for studies on the involvement of microRNA in oral cancer pathology and may have potential prognostic or diagnostic value.

  11. Exosome-mediated microRNA transfer plays a role in radiation-induced bystander effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuai; Wang, Jufang; Ding, Nan; Hu, Wentao; Zhang, Xurui; Wang, Bing; Hua, Junrui; Wei, Wenjun; Zhu, Qiyun

    2015-01-01

    Bystander effects can be induced through cellular communication between irradiated cells and non-irradiated cells. The signals that mediate this cellular communication, such as cytokines, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and even microRNAs, can be transferred between cells via gap junctions or extracellular medium. We have previously reported that miR-21, a well described DDR (DNA damage response) microRNA, is involved in radiation-induced bystander effects through a medium-mediated way. However, the mechanisms of the microRNA transfer have not been elucidated in details. In the present study, it was found that exosomes isolated from irradiated conditioned medium could induce bystander effects. Furthermore, we demonstrated plenty of evidences that miR-21, which is up-regulated as a result of mimic transfection or irradiation, can be transferred from donor or irradiated cells into extracellular medium and subsequently get access to the recipient or bystander cells through exosomes to induce bystander effects. Inhibiting the miR-21 expression in advance can offset the bystander effects to some extent. From all of these results, it can be concluded that the exosome-mediated microRNA transfer plays an important role in the radiation-induced bystander effects. These findings provide new insights into the functions of microRNAs and the cellular communication between the directly irradiated cells and the non-irradiated cells.

  12. Effects of pathogen reduction systems on platelet microRNAs, mRNAs, activation, and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Abdimajid; Hitzler, Walter E; Meyer, Claudius U; Landry, Patricia; Corduan, Aurélie; Laffont, Benoit; Boilard, Eric; Hellstern, Peter; Vamvakas, Eleftherios C; Provost, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen reduction (PR) systems for platelets, based on chemically induced cross-linking and inactivation of nucleic acids, potentially prevent transfusion transmission of infectious agents, but can increase clinically significant bleeding in some clinical studies. Here, we documented the effects of PR systems on microRNA and mRNA levels of platelets stored in the blood bank, and assessed their impact on platelet activation and function. Unlike platelets subjected to gamma irradiation or stored in additive solution, platelets treated with Intercept (amotosalen+ ultraviolet-A [UVA] light) exhibited significantly reduced levels of 6 of the 11 microRNAs, and 2 of the 3 anti-apoptotic mRNAs (Bcl-xl and Clusterin) that we monitored, compared with platelets stored in plasma. Mirasol (riboflavin+ UVB light) treatment of platelets did not produce these effects. PR neither affected platelet microRNA synthesis or function nor induced cross-linking of microRNA-sized endogenous platelet RNA species. However, the reduction in the platelet microRNA levels induced by Intercept correlated with the platelet activation (p < 0.05) and an impaired platelet aggregation response to ADP (p < 0.05). These results suggest that Intercept treatment may induce platelet activation, resulting in the release of microRNAs and mRNAs from platelets. The clinical implications of this reduction in platelet nucleic acids secondary to Intercept remain to be established.

  13. Peripheral blood cell microRNA quantification during the first trimester predicts preeclampsia: Proof of concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward E Winger

    Full Text Available We investigated the capacity of microRNAs isolated from peripheral blood buffy coat collected late during the first trimester to predict preeclampsia.The cohort study comprised 48 pregnant women with the following pregnancy outcomes: 8 preeclampsia and 40 with normal delivery outcomes. Quantitative rtPCR was performed on a panel of 30 microRNAs from buffy coat samples drawn at a mean of 12.7±0.5 weeks gestation. MicroRNA Risk Scores were calculated and AUC-ROC calculations derived.The AUC-ROC for preeclampsia risk was 0.91 (p<0.0001. When women with normal delivery and high-risk background (those with SLE/APS, chronic hypertension and/or Type 2 Diabetes were compared to women who developed preeclampsia but with a normal risk background (without these mentioned risk factors, preeclampsia was still predicted with an AUC-ROC of 0.92 (p<0.0001.MicroRNA quantification of peripheral immune cell microRNA provides sensitive and specific prediction of preeclampsia in the first trimester of pregnant women. With this study, we extend the range during which disorders of the placental bed may be predicted from early to the end of the first trimester. This study confirms that buffy coat may be used as a sample preparation.

  14. The Role of microRNAs in the Biology of Rare Diseases

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    Domenica Taruscio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Rare diseases (RD are characterized by low prevalence and affect not more than five individuals per 10,000 in the European population; they are a large and heterogeneous group of disorders including more than 7,000 conditions and often involve all organs and tissues, with several clinical subtypes within the same disease. Very often information concerning either diagnosis and/or prognosis on many RD is insufficient. microRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level by either degrading or blocking translation of messenger RNA targets. Recently, microRNA expression patterns of body fluids underscored their potential as noninvasive biomarkers for various diseases. The role of microRNAs as potential biomarkers has become particularly attractive. The identification of disease-related microRNAs is essential for understanding the pathogenesis of diseases at the molecular level, and is critical for designing specific molecular tools for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Computational analysis of microRNA-disease associations is an important complementary means for prioritizing microRNAs for further experimental examination. In this article, we explored the added value of miRs as biomarkers in a selected panel of RD hitting different tissues/systems at different life stages, but sharing the need of better biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic purposes.

  15. Role of MicroRNAs in Islet Beta-Cell Compensation and Failure during Diabetes

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    Valérie Plaisance

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic beta-cell function and mass are markedly adaptive to compensate for the changes in insulin requirement observed during several situations such as pregnancy, obesity, glucocorticoids excess, or administration. This requires a beta-cell compensation which is achieved through a gain of beta-cell mass and function. Elucidating the physiological mechanisms that promote functional beta-cell mass expansion and that protect cells against death, is a key therapeutic target for diabetes. In this respect, several recent studies have emphasized the instrumental role of microRNAs in the control of beta-cell function. MicroRNAs are negative regulators of gene expression, and are pivotal for the control of beta-cell proliferation, function, and survival. On the one hand, changes in specific microRNA levels have been associated with beta-cell compensation and are triggered by hormones or bioactive peptides that promote beta-cell survival and function. Conversely, modifications in the expression of other specific microRNAs contribute to beta-cell dysfunction and death elicited by diabetogenic factors including, cytokines, chronic hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and oxidized LDL. This review underlines the importance of targeting the microRNA network for future innovative therapies aiming at preventing the beta-cell decline in diabetes.

  16. No miR quirk: dysregulation of microRNAs in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Philip Y; Szafranska-Schwarzbach, Anna E; Schlageter, Annette M; Andruss, Bernard F; Weiss, Glen J

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression with tissue-specific expression profiles. Dysregulation of microRNAs has been shown to play a role in carcinogenesis. Although progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of many cancers, pancreatic cancer remains an intractable public health problem, causing 6.58% of cancer deaths despite making up less than 3% of cancer diagnoses in the United States. No screening, diagnostic or imaging techniques exist with the sensitivity to detect pancreatic cancer in its early, operable stages. Risk factors include numerous inherited syndromes, diabetes mellitus, and hepatitis C virus infection. Here we review the literature regarding dysregulation of microRNA expression in native pancreas, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (the dominant form of pancreatic cancer), and its risk factors to illuminate the biology and progression of this disease. We explore promising evidence for the use of microRNAs as prognostic and diagnostic tools, and discuss emerging reports on microRNA therapeutics.

  17. Circulating MicroRNAs as Biomarkers of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Updates and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Guarino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is defined as any degree of carbohydrate intolerance, with onset or first recognition during second or third trimester of gestation. It is estimated that approximately 7% of all pregnancies are complicated by GDM and that its prevalence is rising all over the world. Thus, the screening for abnormal glucose levels is generally recommended as a routine component of care for pregnant women. However, additional biomarkers are needed in order to predict the onset or accurately monitor the status of gestational diabetes. Recently, microRNAs, a class of small noncoding RNAs demonstrated to modulate gene expression, have been proven to be secreted by cells of origin and can be found in many biological fluids such as serum or plasma. Such feature renders microRNAs as optimal biomarkers and sensors of in situ tissue alterations. Furthermore, secretion of microRNAs via exosomes has been reported to contribute to tissue cross talk, thus potentially represents, if disrupted, a mechanistic cause of tissue/cell dysfunction in a specific disease. In this review, we summarized the recent findings on circulating microRNAs and gestational diabetes mellitus with particular focus on the potential use of microRNAs as putative biomarkers of disease as well as a potential cause of GDM complications and β cell dysfunction.

  18. MicroRNAs in CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion disorders: an integrated review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Laura; Popescu, Bogdan O

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small RNAs involved in gene silencing. They play important roles in transcriptional regulation and are selectively and abundantly expressed in the central nervous system. A considerable amount of the human genome is comprised of tandem repeating nucleotide streams. Several diseases are caused by above-threshold expansion of certain trinucleotide repeats occurring in a protein-coding or non-coding region. Though monogenic, CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion disorders have a complex pathogenesis, various combinations of multiple coexisting pathways resulting in one common final consequence: selective neurodegeneration. Mutant protein and mutant transcript gain of toxic function are considered to be the core pathogenic mechanisms. The profile of microRNAs in CAG trinucleotide repeat disorders is scarcely described, however microRNA dysregulation has been identified in these diseases and microRNA-related intereference with gene expression is considered to be involved in their pathogenesis. Better understanding of microRNAs functions and means of manipulation promises to offer further insights into the pathogenic pathways of CAG repeat expansion disorders, to point out new potential targets for drug intervention and to provide some of the much needed etiopathogenic therapeutic agents. A number of disease-modifying microRNA silencing strategies are under development, but several implementation impediments still have to be resolved. CAG targeting seems feasible and efficient in animal models and is an appealing approach for clinical practice. Preliminary human trials are just beginning.

  19. Performance comparison of digital microRNA profiling technologies applied on human breast cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Knutsen

    Full Text Available MicroRNA profiling represents an important first-step in deducting individual RNA-based regulatory function in a cell, tissue, or at a specific developmental stage. Currently there are several different platforms to choose from in order to make the initial miRNA profiles. In this study we investigate recently developed digital microRNA high-throughput technologies. Four different platforms were compared including next generation SOLiD ligation sequencing and Illumina HiSeq sequencing, hybridization-based NanoString nCounter, and miRCURY locked nucleic acid RT-qPCR. For all four technologies, full microRNA profiles were generated from human cell lines that represent noninvasive and invasive tumorigenic breast cancer. This study reports the correlation between platforms, as well as a more extensive analysis of the accuracy and sensitivity of data generated when using different platforms and important consideration when verifying results by the use of additional technologies. We found all the platforms to be highly capable for microRNA analysis. Furthermore, the two NGS platforms and RT-qPCR all have equally high sensitivity, and the fold change accuracy is independent of individual miRNA concentration for NGS and RT-qPCR. Based on these findings we propose new guidelines and considerations when performing microRNA profiling.

  20. MicroRNA-target binding structures mimic microRNA duplex structures in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    Full Text Available Traditionally, researchers match a microRNA guide strand to mRNA sequences using sequence comparisons to predict its potential target genes. However, many of the predictions can be false positives due to limitations in sequence comparison alone. In this work, we consider the association of two related RNA structures that share a common guide strand: the microRNA duplex and the microRNA-target binding structure. We have analyzed thousands of such structure pairs and found many of them share high structural similarity. Therefore, we conclude that when predicting microRNA target genes, considering just the microRNA guide strand matches to gene sequences may not be sufficient--the microRNA duplex structure formed by the guide strand and its companion passenger strand must also be considered. We have developed software to translate RNA binding structure into encoded representations, and we have also created novel automatic comparison methods utilizing such encoded representations to determine RNA structure similarity. Our software and methods can be utilized in the other RNA secondary structure comparisons as well.

  1. Urinary microRNAs as potential biomarkers of pesticide exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, Brittany A.; Shubin, Sara Pacheco; Smith, Marissa N.; Workman, Tomomi; Artemenko, Alexander; Griffith, William C.; Thompson, Beti; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators that silence messenger RNAs. Because miRNAs are stable at room temperature and long-lived, they have been proposed as molecular biomarkers to monitor disease and exposure status. While urinary miRNAs have been used clinically as potential diagnostic markers for kidney and bladder cancers and other diseases, their utility in non-clinical settings has yet to be fully developed. Our goal was to investigate the potential for urinary miRNAs to act as biomarkers of pesticide exposure and early biological response by identifying the miRNAs present in urine from 27 parent/child, farmworker/non-farmworker pairs (16FW/11NFW) collected during two agricultural seasons (thinning and post-harvest) and characterizing the between- and within-individual variability of these miRNA epigenetic regulators. MiRNAs were isolated from archived urine samples and identified using PCR arrays. Comparisons were made between age, households, season, and occupation. Of 384 miRNAs investigated, 297 (77%) were detectable in at least one sample. Seven miRNAs were detected in at least 50% of the samples, and one miRNA was present in 96% of the samples. Principal components and hierarchical clustering analyses indicate significant differences in miRNA profiles between farmworker and non-farmworker adults as well as between seasons. Six miRNAs were observed to be positively associated with farmworkers status during the post-harvest season. Expression of five of these miRNA trended towards a positive dose response relationship with organophosphate pesticide metabolites in farmworkers. These results suggest that miRNAs may be novel biomarkers of pesticide exposure and early biological response. - Highlights: • A novel method to identify microRNA biomarkers in urinary samples is proposed. • Six miRNAs have been identified as associated with occupational farm work and pesticide exposure. • An observed seasonal difference suggests transient

  2. Urinary microRNAs as potential biomarkers of pesticide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldon, Brittany A.; Shubin, Sara Pacheco; Smith, Marissa N.; Workman, Tomomi; Artemenko, Alexander; Griffith, William C. [Institute for Risk Analysis and Risk Communication, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Thompson, Beti [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Faustman, Elaine M., E-mail: faustman@uw.edu [Institute for Risk Analysis and Risk Communication, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators that silence messenger RNAs. Because miRNAs are stable at room temperature and long-lived, they have been proposed as molecular biomarkers to monitor disease and exposure status. While urinary miRNAs have been used clinically as potential diagnostic markers for kidney and bladder cancers and other diseases, their utility in non-clinical settings has yet to be fully developed. Our goal was to investigate the potential for urinary miRNAs to act as biomarkers of pesticide exposure and early biological response by identifying the miRNAs present in urine from 27 parent/child, farmworker/non-farmworker pairs (16FW/11NFW) collected during two agricultural seasons (thinning and post-harvest) and characterizing the between- and within-individual variability of these miRNA epigenetic regulators. MiRNAs were isolated from archived urine samples and identified using PCR arrays. Comparisons were made between age, households, season, and occupation. Of 384 miRNAs investigated, 297 (77%) were detectable in at least one sample. Seven miRNAs were detected in at least 50% of the samples, and one miRNA was present in 96% of the samples. Principal components and hierarchical clustering analyses indicate significant differences in miRNA profiles between farmworker and non-farmworker adults as well as between seasons. Six miRNAs were observed to be positively associated with farmworkers status during the post-harvest season. Expression of five of these miRNA trended towards a positive dose response relationship with organophosphate pesticide metabolites in farmworkers. These results suggest that miRNAs may be novel biomarkers of pesticide exposure and early biological response. - Highlights: • A novel method to identify microRNA biomarkers in urinary samples is proposed. • Six miRNAs have been identified as associated with occupational farm work and pesticide exposure. • An observed seasonal difference suggests transient

  3. Circulating MicroRNAs in Plasma of Hepatitis B e Antigen Positive Children Reveal Liver-Specific Target Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Jacobsen, Kari Stougaard; Mirza, Aashiq Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. Hepatitis B e antigen positive (HBeAg-positive) children are at high risk of severe complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Liver damage is caused by the host immune response to infected hepatocytes, and we hypothesise that specific microRNAs play a role...... in this complex interaction between virus and host. The study aimed to identify microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children and with liver-specific target genes. Methods. By revisiting our previous screen of microRNA plasma levels in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative children...... with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and in healthy controls, candidate microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children were identified. MicroRNAs targeting liver-specific genes were selected based on bioinformatics analysis and validated by qRT-PCR using plasma samples from 34 HBe...

  4. MicroRNA-145 influences the balance of Th1/Th2 via regulating RUNX3 in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Linxia; Wang, Xiaojun; Fan, Linlan; Chen, Qizhang; Zhang, Hong; Pan, Hui; Xu, Aixia; Wang, Hongjuan; Yu, Yang

    To delineate the underlying mechanism of microRNA-145 modulate the balance of Th1/Th2 via targeting RUNX3 in asthma patients. Peripheral blood samples were collected from asthma patients and healthy controls. CD4 + T cells were isolated and cultured. Using quantitative PCR detect, the level of microRNA-145 and RUNX3 mRNA level in the CD4 + T cells from asthma patients and healthy controls, meanwhile, western blot was used to detect the RUNX3 protein level. Th1 or Th2 related cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay was performed to confirm the correlation between microRNA-145 and RUNX3. MicroRNA-145 mimic or inhibitor was transfected in the CD4 + T cells and the changes of RUNX3 level, Th1 or Th2 related cytokines and the percentage of Th1 and Th2 were observed after transfection. MicroRNA-145 level of CD4 + T cells was higher with a lower RUNX3 expression in asthma patients. There is negative correlation between microRNA-145 and RUNX3. Th2 hyperactivity and Th1 deficiency was detected in the CD4 + T cells of asthma patients. Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay has shown that RUNX3 is a target of microRNA. Up-regulation or down-regulation of miR-145 level caused RUNX3 expression changes in CD4 + T cells and influence the related cytokines. Inhibition of microRNA-145 may reverse the imbalance of Th1/Th2 in asthma patients. MicroRNA-145 could regulate the balance of Th1/Th2 through targeting the RUNX3 in asthma patients. MicroRNA-145 and RUNX3 may be used as biomarkers or targets in the diagnosis or therapy of asthma.

  5. MicroRNA profiling reveals dysregulated microRNAs and their target gene regulatory networks in cemento-ossifying fibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Thaís Dos Santos Fontes; Brito, João Artur Ricieri; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena; Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; de Lacerda, Júlio Cesar Tanos; de Castro, Wagner Henriques; Coimbra, Roney Santos; Diniz, Marina Gonçalves; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2018-01-01

    Cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is a benign fibro-osseous neoplasm of uncertain pathogenesis, and its treatment results in morbidity. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and may represent therapeutic targets. The purpose of the study was to generate a comprehensive miRNA profile of COF compared to normal bone. Additionally, the most relevant pathways and target genes of differentially expressed miRNA were investigated by in silico analysis. Nine COF and ten normal bone samples were included in the study. miRNA profiling was carried out by using TaqMan® OpenArray® Human microRNA panel containing 754 validated human miRNAs. We identified the most relevant miRNAs target genes through the leader gene approach, using STRING and Cytoscape software. Pathways enrichment analysis was performed using DIANA-miRPath. Eleven miRNAs were downregulated (hsa-miR-95-3p, hsa-miR-141-3p, hsa-miR-205-5p, hsa-miR-223-3p, hsa-miR-31-5p, hsa-miR-944, hsa-miR-200b-3p, hsa-miR-135b-5p, hsa-miR-31-3p, hsa-miR-223-5p and hsa-miR-200c-3p), and five were upregulated (hsa-miR-181a-5p, hsa-miR-181c-5p, hsa-miR-149-5p, hsa-miR-138-5p and hsa-miR-199a-3p) in COF compared to normal bone. Eighteen common target genes were predicted, and the leader genes approach identified the following genes involved in human COF: EZH2, XIAP, MET and TGFBR1. According to the biology of bone and COF, the most relevant KEGG pathways revealed by enrichment analysis were proteoglycans in cancer, miRNAs in cancer, pathways in cancer, p53-, PI3K-Akt-, FoxO- and TGF-beta signalling pathways, which were previously found to be differentially regulated in bone neoplasms, odontogenic tumours and osteogenesis. miRNA dysregulation occurs in COF, and EZH2, XIAP, MET and TGFBR1 are potential targets for functional analysis validation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. MicroRNAs in the pathogenesis of cystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Yu Leng; Ho, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    Cystic kidney diseases are common renal disorders characterized by the formation of fluid-filled epithelial cysts in the kidneys. The progressive growth and expansion of the renal cysts replace existing renal tissue within the renal parenchyma, leading to reduced renal function. While several genes have been identified in association with inherited causes of cystic kidney disease, the molecular mechanisms that regulate these genes in the context of post-transcriptional regulation are still poorly understood. There is increasing evidence that microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation is associated with the pathogenesis of cystic kidney disease. In this review, recent studies that implicate dysregulation of miRNA expression in cystogenesis will be discussed. The relationship of specific miRNAs, such as the miR-17∼92 cluster and cystic kidney disease, miR-92a and von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and alterations in LIN28-LET7 expression in Wilms tumor will be explored. At present, there are no specific treatments available for patients with cystic kidney disease. Understanding and identifying specific miRNAs involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders may have the potential to lead to the development of novel therapies and biomarkers.

  7. HIV-1 nef suppression by virally encoded microRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisibe Ebiamadon

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are 21~25-nucleotides (nt long and interact with mRNAs to trigger either translational repression or RNA cleavage through RNA interference (RNAi, depending on the degree of complementarity with the target mRNAs. Our recent study has shown that HIV-1 nef dsRNA from AIDS patients who are long-term non-progressors (LTNPs inhibited the transcription of HIV-1. Results Here, we show the possibility that nef-derived miRNAs are produced in HIV-1 persistently infected cells. Furthermore, nef short hairpin RNA (shRNA that corresponded to a predicted nef miRNA (~25 nt, miR-N367 can block HIV-1 Nef expression in vitro and the suppression by shRNA/miR-N367 would be related with low viremia in an LTNP (15-2-2. In the 15-2-2 model mice, the weight loss, which may be rendered by nef was also inhibited by shRNA/miR-N367 corresponding to suppression of nef expression in vivo. Conclusions These data suggest that nef/U3 miRNAs produced in HIV-1-infected cells may suppress both Nef function and HIV-1 virulence through the RNAi pathway.

  8. Neurodegenerative Disorders Treatment: The MicroRNA Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Barbara; Abdel-Haq, Hanin

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease and prion disease are not timely and effectively treated using conventional therapies. This emphasizes the need for alternative therapeutic approaches. In this respect, gene-based therapies have been adopted as potentially feasible alternative therapies, where the microRNA (miRNA) approach has experienced a great explosion in recent years. Because miRNAs have been shown to be implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, they are intensely studied as candidates for diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, as predictors of drug response and as therapeutic agents. In this review, we evaluate the feasibility of both direct and indirect miRNA mimics and inhibitors toward the regulation of neurodegenerative-related genes both in vivo and in vitro models, highlight the advantages and drawbacks associated with miRNA-based therapy, and summarize the relevant techniques and approaches attempted to deliver miRNAs to the central nervous system for therapeutic purposes, with particular regard to the exosomes. Additionally, we describe a new approach that holds great promise for the treatment of a wide range of diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. This approach is based on addressing the incorporation of miRNAs into exosomes to increase the quantity and quality of miRNA packed and delivered to the central nervous system and other sites of action. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. MicroRNAs and the regulation of intestinal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runtsch, Marah C; Round, June L; O'Connell, Ryan M

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal tract is a unique site in which a large portion of our immune system and the 10(14) commensal organisms that make up the microbiota reside in intimate contact with each other. Despite the potential for inflammatory immune responses, this complex interface contains host immune cells and epithelial cells interacting with the microbiota in a manner that promotes symbiosis. Due to the complexity of the cell types and microorganisms involved, this process requires elaborate regulatory mechanisms to ensure mutualism and prevent disease. While many studies have described critical roles for protein regulators of intestinal homeostasis, recent reports indicate that non-coding RNAs are also major contributors to optimal host-commensal interactions. In particular, there is emerging evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) have evolved to fine tune host gene expression networks and signaling pathways that modulate cellular physiology in the intestinal tract. Here, we review our present knowledge of the influence miRNAs have on both immune and epithelial cell biology in the mammalian intestines and the impact this has on the microbiota. We also discuss a need for further studies to decipher the functions of specific miRNAs within the gut to better understand cellular mechanisms that promote intestinal homeostasis and to identify potential molecular targets underlying diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer.

  10. Natural RNA circles function as efficient microRNA sponges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Birkballe; Jensen, Trine I; Clausen, Bettina Hjelm

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that act by direct base pairing to target sites within untranslated regions of messenger RNAs. Recently, miRNA activity has been shown to be affected by the presence of miRNA sponge transcripts, the so-called comp......MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that act by direct base pairing to target sites within untranslated regions of messenger RNAs. Recently, miRNA activity has been shown to be affected by the presence of miRNA sponge transcripts, the so......-called competing endogenous RNA in humans and target mimicry in plants. We previously identified a highly expressed circular RNA (circRNA) in human and mouse brain. Here we show that this circRNA acts as a miR-7 sponge; we term this circular transcript ciRS-7 (circular RNA sponge for miR-7). ciRS-7 contains more...... sponge, suggesting that miRNA sponge effects achieved by circRNA formation are a general phenomenon. This study serves as the first, to our knowledge, functional analysis of a naturally expressed circRNA....

  11. Convergent microRNA actions coordinate neocortical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca-Mayo, Olga; De Pietri Tonelli, Davide

    2014-08-01

    Neocortical development is a complex process that, at the cellular level, involves tight control of self-renewal, cell fate commitment, survival, differentiation and delamination/migration. These processes require, at the molecular level, the precise regulation of intrinsic signaling pathways and extrinsic factors with coordinated action in a spatially and temporally specific manner. Transcriptional regulation plays an important role during corticogenesis; however, microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as important post-transcriptional regulators of various aspects of central nervous system development. miRNAs are a class of small, single-stranded noncoding RNA molecules that control the expression of the majority of protein coding genes (i.e., targets). How do different miRNAs achieve precise control of gene networks during neocortical development? Here, we critically review all the miRNA-target interactions validated in vivo, with relevance to the generation and migration of pyramidal-projection glutamatergic neurons, and for the initial formation of cortical layers in the embryonic development of rodent neocortex. In particular, we focus on convergent miRNA actions, which are still a poorly understood layer of complexity in miRNA signaling, but potentially one of the keys to disclosing how miRNAs achieve the precise coordination of complex biological processes such as neocortical development.

  12. Identifying MicroRNAs and Transcript Targets in Jatropha Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Vanessa; Guzman, Frank; de Oliveira, Luiz F. V.; Loss-Morais, Guilherme; Körbes, Ana P.; Silva, Sérgio D. A.; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia M. A. N.; Margis, Rogério

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs, or miRNAs, are endogenously encoded small RNAs that play a key role in diverse plant biological processes. Jatropha curcas L. has received significant attention as a potential oilseed crop for the production of renewable oil. Here, a sRNA library of mature seeds and three mRNA libraries from three different seed development stages were generated by deep sequencing to identify and characterize the miRNAs and pre-miRNAs of J. curcas. Computational analysis was used for the identification of 180 conserved miRNAs and 41 precursors (pre-miRNAs) as well as 16 novel pre-miRNAs. The predicted miRNA target genes are involved in a broad range of physiological functions, including cellular structure, nuclear function, translation, transport, hormone synthesis, defense, and lipid metabolism. Some pre-miRNA and miRNA targets vary in abundance between the three stages of seed development. A search for sequences that produce siRNA was performed, and the results indicated that J. curcas siRNAs play a role in nuclear functions, transport, catalytic processes and disease resistance. This study presents the first large scale identification of J. curcas miRNAs and their targets in mature seeds based on deep sequencing, and it contributes to a functional understanding of these miRNAs. PMID:24551031

  13. [Use of microRNAs in heart failure management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Sosa, Luis Alejandro

    Heart failure (HF) is a high impact disease that affects all human populations, demanding the development of new strategies and methods to manage this pathology. That's why microRNAs, small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression, appear as an important option in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of this disease. MiRNAs seems to have a future on HF handling, because can be isolated from body fluids such as blood, and changes in its levels can be associated with the presence, stage and specific disease features, which makes them an interesting option as biomarkers. Also, due to the important role of these molecules on regulation of gene expression and cell homeostasis, it has been explored its potential use as a therapeutic method to prevent or treat HF. That is why this review seeks to show the importance of biomedical research involving the use of miRNAs as a method to approach the HF, showing the impact of disease in the world, aspects of miRNAs biology, and their use as biomarkers and as important therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. MicroRNAs: an epigenetic tool to study celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla A. Bascuñán-Gamboa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes recent findings on the role of microRNAs (miRNAs in biological processes associated with the regulation of chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that have been recently emerged as a new class of modulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNAs bind to complementary sequences of specific targets of messengers RNA, which can interfere with protein synthesis. We reviewed studies that evaluated the expression patterns of miRNAs in different autoimmune diseases, especially in celiac disease (CD. CD is a chronic enteropathy triggered by gluten proteins, characterized by altered immune responses in genetically susceptible individuals that results in damage to the bowel mucosa. CD has a high prevalence and an effective treatment by a specific diet ("gluten free diet". Genetic factors confer susceptibility but do not explain the whole disease, suggesting that environmental factors do play a relevant role in the development of the condition. The evaluation of the potential role of miRNA is of particular interest in CD given that these epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases have been recently described. Improving our understanding of miRNAs in CD will contribute to clarify the role of altered epigenetic regulation in the development and course of this disease.

  15. MicroRNAs Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Anja Elaine; Wissing, Marie Louise; Salö, Sofia; Englund, Anne Lis Mikkelsen; Dalgaard, Louise Torp

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, though heterogeneous, endocrine aberration in women of reproductive age, with high prevalence and socioeconomic costs. The syndrome is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, as well as being associated with infertility, insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and an increased life time risk of type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Altered miRNA levels have been associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation and various cancers. Studies have shown that circulating miRNAs are present in whole blood, serum, plasma and the follicular fluid of PCOS patients and that they might serve as potential biomarkers and a new approach for the diagnosis of PCOS. In this review, recent work on miRNAs with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome. PMID:25158044

  16. Cardiac Insulin Resistance and MicroRNA Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Pulakat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac insulin resistance is a metabolic and functional disorder that is often associated with obesity and/or the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS, and this disorder may be accentuated by chronic alcohol consumption. In conditions of over-nutrition, increased insulin (INS and angiotensin II (Ang II activate mammalian target for rapamycin (mTOR/p70 S6 kinase (S6K1 signaling, whereas chronic alcohol consumption inhibits mTOR/S6K1 activation in cardiac tissue. Although excessive activation of mTOR/S6K1 induces cardiac INS resistance via serine phosphorylation of INS receptor substrates (IRS-1/2, it also renders cardioprotection via increased Ang II receptor 2 (AT2R upregulation and adaptive hypertrophy. In the INS-resistant and hyperinsulinemic Zucker obese (ZO rat, a rodent model for CRS, activation of mTOR/S6K1signaling in cardiac tissue is regulated by protective feed-back mechanisms involving mTOR↔AT2R signaling loop and profile changes of microRNA that target S6K1. Such regulation may play a role in attenuating progressive heart failure. Conversely, alcohol-mediated inhibition of mTOR/S6K1, down-regulation of INS receptor and growth-inhibitory mir-200 family, and upregulation of mir-212 that promotes fetal gene program may exacerbate CRS-related cardiomyopathy.

  17. MicroRNA-2400 promotes bovine preadipocyte proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yao; Cui, Ya Feng; Tong, Hui Li; Zhang, Wei Wei; Yan, Yun Qin

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in the proliferation of bovine preadipocytes. miR-2400 is a novel and unique miRNA from bovines. In the present study, we separated and identified preadipocytes from bovine samples. miR-2400 overexpression increased the rate of preadipocyte proliferation, which was analyzed with a combination of EdU and flow cytometry. Simultaneously, functional genes related to proliferation (PCNA, CCND2, CCNB1) were also increased, which was detected by real-time PCR. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-2400 bound directly to the 3'untranslated regions (3′UTRs) of PRDM11 mRNA. These data suggested that miR-2400 could promote preadipocyte proliferation by targeting PRDM11. - Highlights: • miRNAs are important in bovine preadipocyte proliferation. • miR-2400 is a novel miRNA from bovines. • miR-2400 overexpression increased preadipocyte proliferation. • Functional genes related to preadipocyte proliferation were upregulated. • Preadipocyte proliferation was promoted by targeting PRDM11.

  18. Functions of microRNA in response to cocaine stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L-F; Wang, J; Lv, F B; Song, Q

    2013-12-04

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a type of non-protein-coding single-stranded RNA, which are typically 20-25 nt in length. miRNAs play important roles in various biological processes, including development, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. We aimed to detect the miRNA response to cocaine stimulations and their target genes. Using the miRNA expression data GSE21901 downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, we screened out the differentially expressed miRNA after short-term (1 h) and longer-term (6 h) cocaine stimulations based on the fold change >1.2. Target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs were retrieved from TargetScan database with the context score -0.3. Functional annotation enrichment analysis was performed for all the target genes with DAVID. A total of 121 differentially expressed miRNAs between the 1-h treatment and the control samples, 58 between the 6-h treatment and the control samples, and 69 between the 1-h and the 6-h treatment samples. Among them, miR-212 results of particular interest, since its expression level was constantly elevated responding to cocaine treatment. After functional and pathway annotations of target genes, we proved that miR-212 was a critical element in cocaine-addiction, because of its involvement in regulating several important cell cycle events. The results may pave the way for further understanding the regulatory mechanisms of cocaine-response in human bodies.

  19. MicroRNA and Pathogenesis of Enterovirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Bing-Ching; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yu, Sung-Liang

    2016-01-06

    There are no currently available specific antiviral therapies for non-polio Enterovirus infections. Although several vaccines have entered clinical trials, the efficacy requires further evaluation, particularly for cross-strain protective activity. Curing patients with viral infections is a public health problem due to antigen alterations and drug resistance caused by the high genomic mutation rate. To conquer these limits in the development of anti-Enterovirus treatments, a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between Enterovirus and host cells is urgently needed. MicroRNA (miRNA) constitutes the biggest family of gene regulators in mammalian cells and regulates almost a half of all human genes. The roles of miRNAs in Enterovirus pathogenesis have recently begun to be noted. In this review, we shed light on recent advances in the understanding of Enterovirus infection-modulated miRNAs. The impacts of altered host miRNAs on cellular processes, including immune escape, apoptosis, signal transduction, shutdown of host protein synthesis and viral replication, are discussed. Finally, miRNA-based medication provides a promising strategy for the development of antiviral therapy.

  20. Micro-RNAs and their roles in eye disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Azhwar; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2015-01-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are members of the family of noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by translational repression and mRNA degradation. Initial identification of miRNAs revealed them only as developmental regulators; later, their radiated roles in various cellular processes have been established. They regulate several pathways, including developmental timing, hematopoiesis, organogenesis, apoptosis, cell differentiation and proliferation. Their roles in eye disorders are being explored by biologists around the world. Eye physiology requires the perfect orchestration of all the regulatory networks; any defect in any of the networks leads to eye disorders. The dysregulation of miRNA expression has been reported in many eye disorders, which paves the way for new therapeutics. This review summarizes the biogenesis of miRNAs and their role in eye disorders. miRNA studies also have implications for the understanding of various complex metabolic pathways leading to disorders of the eye. The ultimate understanding leads to potential opportunities in evaluating miRNAs as molecular biomarkers, prognostic tools, diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents for eye disorders. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. MicroRNAs as Therapeutic Targets for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Meco, Antonio; Praticò, Domenico

    2016-05-07

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. With increasing longevity and the absence of a cure, AD has become not only a major health problem but also a heavy social and economic burden worldwide. Given this public health challenge, and that the current approved therapy for AD is limited to symptomatic treatment (i.e., cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA receptor antagonists), exploration of new molecular pathways as novel therapeutic targets remains an attractive option for disease modifying drug development. microRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA that control gene expression at the post-translational level by inhibiting translation of specific mRNAs or degrading them. Dysregulation of several miRNAs has been described in AD brains. Interestingly, their molecular targets are pathways that are well-established functional players in the onset and development of AD pathogenesis. Today several molecular tools have been developed to modulate miRNA levels in vitro and in vivo. These scientific advancements are affording us for the first time with the real possibility of targeting in vivo these dysregulated miRNAs as a novel therapeutic approach against AD.

  2. Detecting microRNA activity from gene expression data

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madden, Stephen F

    2010-05-18

    Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the messenger RNA (mRNA) of protein coding genes. They control gene expression by either inhibiting translation or inducing mRNA degradation. A number of computational techniques have been developed to identify the targets of miRNAs. In this study we used predicted miRNA-gene interactions to analyse mRNA gene expression microarray data to predict miRNAs associated with particular diseases or conditions. Results Here we combine correspondence analysis, between group analysis and co-inertia analysis (CIA) to determine which miRNAs are associated with differences in gene expression levels in microarray data sets. Using a database of miRNA target predictions from TargetScan, TargetScanS, PicTar4way PicTar5way, and miRanda and combining these data with gene expression levels from sets of microarrays, this method produces a ranked list of miRNAs associated with a specified split in samples. We applied this to three different microarray datasets, a papillary thyroid carcinoma dataset, an in-house dataset of lipopolysaccharide treated mouse macrophages, and a multi-tissue dataset. In each case we were able to identified miRNAs of biological importance. Conclusions We describe a technique to integrate gene expression data and miRNA target predictions from multiple sources.

  3. Detecting microRNA activity from gene expression data.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madden, Stephen F

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the messenger RNA (mRNA) of protein coding genes. They control gene expression by either inhibiting translation or inducing mRNA degradation. A number of computational techniques have been developed to identify the targets of miRNAs. In this study we used predicted miRNA-gene interactions to analyse mRNA gene expression microarray data to predict miRNAs associated with particular diseases or conditions. RESULTS: Here we combine correspondence analysis, between group analysis and co-inertia analysis (CIA) to determine which miRNAs are associated with differences in gene expression levels in microarray data sets. Using a database of miRNA target predictions from TargetScan, TargetScanS, PicTar4way PicTar5way, and miRanda and combining these data with gene expression levels from sets of microarrays, this method produces a ranked list of miRNAs associated with a specified split in samples. We applied this to three different microarray datasets, a papillary thyroid carcinoma dataset, an in-house dataset of lipopolysaccharide treated mouse macrophages, and a multi-tissue dataset. In each case we were able to identified miRNAs of biological importance. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a technique to integrate gene expression data and miRNA target predictions from multiple sources.

  4. Vitamin D and microRNAs in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Thomas S; Adams, John S; Hewison, Martin

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that orchestrate complex posttranscriptional regulatory networks essential to the regulation of gene expression. Through complementarity with messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences, miRNAs act primarily to silence gene expression through either degradation or inhibited translation of target transcripts. In this way, miRNAs can act to fine-tune the transcriptional regulation of gene expression, but they may also play distinct roles in the proliferation, differentiation, and function of specific cell types. miRNA regulatory networks may be particularly important for signaling molecules such as vitamin D that exert pleiotropic effects on tissues throughout the body. The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) functions as a steroid hormone that, when bound to its nuclear vitamin D receptor, is able to regulate target gene expression. However, recent studies have also implicated 1,25(OH)2D in epigenetic regulation of genes most notably as a modulator of miRNA function. The current review details our understanding of vitamin D and miRNAs with specific emphasis on the implications of this interaction for biological responses to vitamin D in one of its classical target tissues, i.e., bone.

  5. Clinical implications of microRNAs in human glioblastoma

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    Masahiro eMizoguchi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is one of the most common and dismal brain tumors in adults. Further elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of GBM is mandatory to improve the overall survival of patients. A novel small non-coding RNA molecule, microRNA (miRNA, appears to represent one of the most attractive target molecules contributing to the pathogenesis of various types of tumors. Recent global analyses have revealed that several miRNAs are clinically implicated in GBM, with some reports indicating the association of miRNA dysregulation with acquired temozolomide (TMZ resistance. More recent studies have revealed that miRNAs could play a role in cancer stem cell (CSC properties, contributing to treatment resistance. In addition, greater impact might be expected from miRNA-targeted therapies based on tumor-derived exosomes that contain numerous functional miRNAs, which could be transferred between tumor cells and surrounding structures. Tumor-derived miRNAs are now considered to be a novel molecular mechanism promoting the progression of GBM. Establishment of miRNA-targeted therapies based on miRNA dysregulation of CSCs could provide effective therapeutic strategies for TMZ-resistant GBM. Recent progress has revealed that miRNAs are not only putative biological markers for diagnosis, but also one of the most promising targets for GBM treatment. Herein, we summarize the translational aspects of miRNAs in the diagnosis and treatment of GBM.

  6. Function and evolution of microRNAs in eusocial Hymenoptera

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    Eirik eSovik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of eusociality (true sociality in several insect lineages represents one of the most successful evolutionary adaptations in the animal kingdom in terms of species richness and global biomass. In contrast to solitary insects, eusocial insects evolved a set of unique behavioral and physiological traits such as reproductive division of labor and cooperative brood care, which likely played a major role in their ecological success. The molecular mechanisms that support the social regulation of behavior in eusocial insects, and their evolution, are mostly unknown. The recent whole-genome sequencing of several eusocial insect species set the stage for deciphering the molecular and genetic bases of eusociality, and the possible evolutionary modifications that led to it. Studies of mRNA expression patterns in the brains of diverse eusocial insect species have indicated that specific social behavioral states of individual workers and queens are often associated with particular tissue-specific transcriptional profiles. Here we discuss recent findings that highlight the role of non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs in modulating traits associated with reproductive and behavioral divisions of labor in eusocial insects. We provide bioinformatic and phylogenetic data, which suggest that some Hymenoptera-specific miRNA may have contributed to the evolution of traits important for the evolution of eusociality in this group.

  7. The Destiny of Glucose from a MicroRNA Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirra, Paola; Nigro, Cecilia; Prevenzano, Immacolata; Leone, Alessia; Raciti, Gregory Alexander; Formisano, Pietro; Beguinot, Francesco; Miele, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Glucose serves as a primary, and for some tissues the unique, fuel source in order to generate and maintain the biological functions. Hyperglycemia is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes and is the direct consequence of perturbations in the glucose homeostasis. Insulin resistance, referred to as a reduced response of target tissues to the hormone, contributes to the development of hyperglycemia. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the altered glucose homeostasis are numerous and not completely understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are now recognized as regulators of the lipid and glucose metabolism and are involved in the onset of metabolic diseases. Indeed, these small non-coding RNA molecules operate in the RNA silencing and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression and may modulate the levels of kinases and enzymes in the glucose metabolism. Therefore, a better characterization of the function of miRNAs and a deeper understanding of their role in disease may represent a fundamental step toward innovative treatments addressing the causes, not only the symptoms, of hyperglycemia, using approaches aimed at restoring either miRNAs or their specific targets. In this review, we outline the current understanding regarding the impact of miRNAs in the glucose metabolism and highlight the need for further research focused on altered key kinases and enzymes in metabolic diseases.

  8. Circulating microRNAs as Potential Biomarkers of Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Carolina N.; Nalpas, Nicolas C.; McLoughlin, Kirsten E.; Browne, John A.; Gordon, Stephen V.; MacHugh, David E.; Shaughnessy, Ronan G.

    2017-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that regulate a wide range of biological processes by post-transcriptionally regulating gene expression. Thousands of these molecules have been discovered to date, and multiple miRNAs have been shown to coordinately fine-tune cellular processes key to organismal development, homeostasis, neurobiology, immunobiology, and control of infection. The fundamental regulatory role of miRNAs in a variety of biological processes suggests that differential expression of these transcripts may be exploited as a novel source of molecular biomarkers for many different disease pathologies or abnormalities. This has been emphasized by the recent discovery of remarkably stable miRNAs in mammalian biofluids, which may originate from intracellular processes elsewhere in the body. The potential of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of disease has mainly been demonstrated for various types of cancer. More recently, however, attention has focused on the use of circulating miRNAs as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers of infectious disease; for example, human tuberculosis caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, sepsis caused by multiple infectious agents, and viral hepatitis. Here, we review these developments and discuss prospects and challenges for translating circulating miRNA into novel diagnostics for infectious disease. PMID:28261201

  9. MicroRNAs as serum biomarkers for periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomofuji, Takaaki; Yoneda, Toshiki; Machida, Tatsuya; Ekuni, Daisuke; Azuma, Tetsuji; Kataoka, Kota; Maruyama, Takayuki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-05-01

    Studies demonstrated that periodontitis modulates microRNA (miRNAs) expression rates in periodontal tissue. However, the relationship between periodontitis and miRNAs profile in circulation remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of periodontitis on serum miRNAs profile in a rat model. Male Wistar rats (n = 32, 8 weeks old) were divided into four groups of eight rats each. The control groups received no treatment for 2 or 4 weeks. In the other two groups, periodontitis was ligature induced for 2 or 4 weeks. Serum miRNAs expression profiles of each group were compared. Ligation around teeth induced periodontal inflammation at 2 weeks and periodontal tissue destruction at 4 weeks. Microarray results showed that 25 miRNAs were expressed with a 2 difference between the control and periodontitis groups at 4 weeks. Results of real-time PCR revealed that the periodontitis group up-regulated expression rates of serum miR-207 and miR-495 at 2 weeks, and miR-376b-3p at 4 weeks (p periodontitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. MicroRNAs: a novel therapeutic target for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bravo, Javier A

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most disabling psychiatric conditions. Current treatments target monoamine receptors but this approach does not address the full complexity of the disorder. Here we explore the possibility of developing new anti-psychotics by targeting microRNAs (miRNAs), single stranded RNA molecules, 21-23 nucleotides in length that are not translated into proteins and regulate gene expression. The present review reveals that research involving schizophrenia and miRNA is very recent (the earliest report from 2007) and miRNAs add a significant layer of complexity to the pathophysiology of the disorder. However, miRNAs offer an exciting potential not only to understand the underlying mechanisms of schizophrenia, but also for the future development of antipsychotics, as the human miRNA system provides a rich and diverse opportunity for pharmacological targeting. However, technology is still developing in order to produce effective strategies to modulate specific and localized changes in miRNA, particularly in relation to the central nervous system and schizophrenia.

  11. Role of microRNAs in embryo implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjie Liang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Failure of embryo implantation is a major limiting factor in early pregnancy and assisted reproduction. Determinants of implantation include the embryo viability, the endometrial receptivity, and embryo-maternal interactions. Multiple molecules are involved in the regulation of implantation, but their specific regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. MicroRNA (miRNA, functioning as the transcriptional regulator of gene expression, has been widely reported to be involved in embryo implantation. Recent studies reveal that miRNAs not only act inside the cells, but also can be released by cells into the extracellular environment through multiple packaging forms, facilitating intercellular communication and providing indicative information associated with physiological and pathological conditions. The discovery of extracellular miRNAs shed new light on implantation studies. MiRNAs provide new mechanisms for embryo-maternal communication. Moreover, they may serve as non-invasive biomarkers for embryo selection and assessment of endometrial receptivity in assisted reproduction, which improves the accuracy of evaluation while reducing the mechanical damage to the tissue. In this review, we discuss the involvement of miRNAs in embryo implantation from several aspects, focusing on the role of extracellular miRNAs and their potential applications in assisted reproductive technologies (ART to promote fertility efficiency.

  12. The Roles of MicroRNAs in Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryou-u; Miyazaki, Hiroaki; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a large family of small, approximately 20–22 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes, mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Accumulating lines of evidence have indicated that miRNAs play important roles in the maintenance of biological homeostasis and that aberrant expression levels of miRNAs are associated with the onset of many diseases, including cancer. In various cancers, miRNAs play important roles in tumor initiation, drug resistance and metastasis. Recent studies reported that miRNAs could also be secreted via small endosome-derived vesicles called exosomes, which are derived from multiple cell types, including dendritic cells, lymphocytes, and tumor cells. Exosomal miRNAs play an important role in cell-to-cell communication and have been investigated as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the major findings related to the functions of miRNAs in breast cancer, which is the most frequent cancer in women, and discuss the potential clinical uses of miRNAs, including their roles as therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers

  13. Cerebellar neurodegeneration in the absence of microRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Anne; O'Carroll, Dónal; Tan, Chan Lek; Hillman, Dean; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinas, Rodolfo; Greengard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Genome-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) are potent regulators of gene expression. The significance of miRNAs in various biological processes has been suggested by studies showing an important role of these small RNAs in regulation of cell differentiation. However, the role of miRNAs in regulation of differentiated cell physiology is not well established. Mature neurons express a large number of distinct miRNAs, but the role of miRNAs in postmitotic neurons has not been examined. Here, we provide evidence for an essential role of miRNAs in survival of differentiated neurons. We show that conditional Purkinje cell–specific ablation of the key miRNA-generating enzyme Dicer leads to Purkinje cell death. Deficiency in Dicer is associated with progressive loss of miRNAs, followed by cerebellar degeneration and development of ataxia. The progressive neurodegeneration in the absence of Dicer raises the possibility of an involvement of miRNAs in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:17606634

  14. MicroRNA Functions in Osteogenesis and Dysfunctions in Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijnen, Andre J.; van de Peppel, Jeroen; van Leeuwen, Johannes P.; Lian, Jane B.; Stein, Gary S.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Oursler, Merry-Jo; Sampen, Hee-Jeong Im; Taipaleenmaki, Hanna; Hesse, Eric; Riester, Scott; Kakar, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that control osteoblast mediated bone formation and osteoclast-related bone remodelling. Deregulation of miRNA mediated mechanisms is emerging as an important pathological factor in bone degeneration (e.g., osteoporosis) and other bone-related diseases. MiRNAs are intriguing regulatory molecules that are networked with cell signaling pathways and intricate transcriptional programs through ingenuous circuits with remarkably simple logic. This overview examines key principles by which miRNAs control differentiation of osteoblasts as they evolve from mesenchymal stromal cells during osteogenesis, or of osteoclasts as they originate from monocytic precursors in the hematopoietic lineage during osteoclastogenesis. Of particular note are miRNAs that are temporally up-regulated during osteoblastogenesis (e.g., miR-218) or osteoclastogenesis (e.g., miR-148a). Each miRNA stimulates differentiation by suppressing inhibitory signalling pathways (‘double-negative’ regulation). The excitement surrounding miRNAs in bone biology stems from the prominent effects that individual miRNAs can have on biological transitions during differentiation of skeletal cells and correlations of miRNA dysfunction with bone diseases. MiRNAs have significant clinical potential which is reflected by their versatility as disease-specific biomarkers and their promise as therapeutic agents to ameliorate or reverse bone tissue degeneration. PMID:23605904

  15. MicroRNAs dynamically remodel gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanjae Park

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle cells (SMCs express a unique set of microRNAs (miRNAs which regulate and maintain the differentiation state of SMCs. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of miRNAs during the development of gastrointestinal (GI SMCs in a transgenic animal model. We generated SMC-specific Dicer null animals that express the reporter, green fluorescence protein, in a SMC-specific manner. SMC-specific knockout of Dicer prevented SMC miRNA biogenesis, causing dramatic changes in phenotype, function, and global gene expression in SMCs: the mutant mice developed severe dilation of the intestinal tract associated with the thinning and destruction of the smooth muscle (SM layers; contractile motility in the mutant intestine was dramatically decreased; and SM contractile genes and transcriptional regulators were extensively down-regulated in the mutant SMCs. Profiling and bioinformatic analyses showed that SMC phenotype is regulated by a complex network of positive and negative feedback by SMC miRNAs, serum response factor (SRF, and other transcriptional factors. Taken together, our data suggest that SMC miRNAs are required for the development and survival of SMCs in the GI tract.

  16. MicroRNAs in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Clara; de Nijs, Laurence; Baker, Dewleen G; Hauger, Richard L; van den Hove, Daniel; Kenis, Gunter; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Boks, Marco P; Vermetten, Eric; Gage, Fred H; Rutten, Bart P F

    2017-10-21

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that can develop following exposure to or witnessing of a (potentially) threatening event. A critical issue is to pinpoint the (neuro)biological mechanisms underlying the susceptibility to stress-related disorder such as PTSD, which develops in the minority of ~15% of individuals exposed to trauma. Over the last few years, a first wave of epigenetic studies has been performed in an attempt to identify the molecular underpinnings of the long-lasting behavioral and mental effects of trauma exposure. The potential roles of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs) in moderating or mediating the impact of severe stress and trauma are increasingly gaining attention. To date, most studies focusing on the roles of miRNAs in PTSD have, however, been completed in animals, using cross-sectional study designs and focusing almost exclusively on subjects with susceptible phenotypes. Therefore, there is a strong need for new research comprising translational and cross-species approaches that use longitudinal designs for studying trajectories of change contrasting susceptible and resilient subjects. The present review offers a comprehensive overview of available studies of miRNAs in PTSD and discusses the current challenges, pitfalls, and future perspectives of this field.

  17. MicroRNAs: New Players in the Pathobiology of Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey R. Bounds

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of how microRNAs (miRNAs regulate gene networks and affect different molecular pathways leading to various human pathologies has significantly improved over the years. In contrary, the role of miRNAs in pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders such as preeclampsia (PE is only beginning to emerge. Recent papers highlight that adverse pregnancy outcomes are associated with aberrant expression of several miRNAs. Presently, efforts are underway to determine the biologic function of these placental miRNAs which can shed light on their contribution to these pregnancy-related disease conditions. The discovery that miRNAs are stable in circulation coupled with the fact that the placenta is capable of releasing them to the circulation in exosomes generates a lot of enthusiasm to use them as biomarkers. In this review, we will summarize the recent findings of our understanding of miRNA regulation in relation to PE, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Particular emphasis will be given to the role of key miRNA molecules such as miR-210 and miR-155 that are known to be consistently dysregulated in women with PE.

  18. MicroRNAs in Human Placental Development and Pregnancy Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Peng

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs, which function as critical posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression by promoting mRNA degradation and translational inhibition. Placenta expresses many ubiquitous as well as specific miRNAs. These miRNAs regulate trophoblast cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion/migration, and angiogenesis, suggesting that miRNAs play important roles during placental development. Aberrant miRNAs expression has been linked to pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia. Recent research of placental miRNAs focuses on identifying placental miRNA species, examining differential expression of miRNAs between placentas from normal and compromised pregnancies, and uncovering the function of miRNAs in the placenta. More studies are required to further understand the functional significance of miRNAs in placental development and to explore the possibility of using miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for pregnancy-related disorders. In this paper, we reviewed the current knowledge about the expression and function of miRNAs in placental development, and propose future directions for miRNA studies.

  19. Regulation of IGF-1 signaling by microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Jin eJung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 signaling pathway regulates critical biological processes including development, homeostasis, and aging. Dysregulation of this pathway has been implicated in a myriad of diseases such as cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, and metabolic disorders, making the IGF-1 signaling pathway a prime target to develop therapeutic and intervention strategies. Recently, small non-coding RNA molecules in ~22 nucleotide length, microRNAs (miRNAs, have emerged as a new regulator of biological processes in virtually all organ systems and increasing studies are linking altered miRNA function to disease mechanisms. A miRNA binds to 3’UTRs of multiple target genes and coordinately down-regulates their expression, thereby exerting a profound influence on gene regulatory networks. Here we review the components of the IGF-1 signaling pathway that are known targets of miRNA regulation, and highlight recent studies that suggest therapeutic potential of these miRNAs against various diseases.

  20. MicroRNA Implications across Neurodevelopment and Neuropathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabata Martino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs have rapidly emerged as biologically important mediators of posttranscriptional and epigenetic regulation in both plants and animals. miRNAs function through a variety of mechanisms including mRNA degradation and translational repression; additionally, miRNAs may guide gene expression by serving as transcription factors. miRNAs are highly expressed in human brain. Tissue and cell type-specific enrichments of certain miRNAs within the nervous system argue for a biological significance during neurodevelopmental stages. On the other hand, a large number of studies have reported links between alterations of miRNA homeostasis and pathologic conditions such as cancer, heart diseases, and neurodegeneration. Thus, profiles of distinct or aberrant miRNA signatures have most recently surged as one of the most fascinating interests in current biology. Here, the most recent insights into the involvement of miRNAs in the biology of the nervous system and the occurrence of neuropathological disorders are reviewed and discussed.

  1. Cell Cycle Regulation of Stem Cells by MicroRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mens, Michelle M J; Ghanbari, Mohsen

    2018-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA molecules involved in the regulation of gene expression. They are involved in the fine-tuning of fundamental biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis in many cell types. Emerging evidence suggests that miRNAs regulate critical pathways involved in stem cell function. Several miRNAs have been suggested to target transcripts that directly or indirectly coordinate the cell cycle progression of stem cells. Moreover, previous studies have shown that altered expression levels of miRNAs can contribute to pathological conditions, such as cancer, due to the loss of cell cycle regulation. However, the precise mechanism underlying miRNA-mediated regulation of cell cycle in stem cells is still incompletely understood. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of miRNAs regulatory role in cell cycle progression of stem cells. We describe how specific miRNAs may control cell cycle associated molecules and checkpoints in embryonic, somatic and cancer stem cells. We further outline how these miRNAs could be regulated to influence cell cycle progression in stem cells as a potential clinical application.

  2. A quick reality check for microRNA target prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Juergen

    2011-04-01

    The regulation of protein abundance by microRNA (miRNA)-mediated repression of mRNA translation is a rapidly growing area of interest in biochemical research. In animal cells, the miRNA seed sequence does not perfectly match that of the mRNA it targets, resulting in a large number of possible miRNA targets and varied extents of repression. Several software tools are available for the prediction of miRNA targets, yet the overlap between them is limited. Jovanovic et al. have developed and applied a targeted, quantitative approach to validate predicted miRNA target proteins. Using a proteome database, they have set up and tested selected reaction monitoring assays for approximately 20% of more than 800 predicted let-7 targets, as well as control genes in Caenorhabditis elegans. Their results demonstrate that such assays can be developed quickly and with relative ease, and applied in a high-throughput setup to verify known and identify novel miRNA targets. They also show, however, that the choice of the biological system and material has a noticeable influence on the frequency, extent and direction of the observed changes. Nonetheless, selected reaction monitoring assays, such as those developed by Jovanovic et al., represent an attractive new tool in the study of miRNA function at the organism level.

  3. Circulating MicroRNAs as Potential Biomarkers of Exercise Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mája Polakovičová

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Systematic physical activity increases physical fitness and exercise capacity that lead to the improvement of health status and athletic performance. Considerable effort is devoted to identifying new biomarkers capable of evaluating exercise performance capacity and progress in training, early detection of overtraining, and monitoring health-related adaptation changes. Recent advances in OMICS technologies have opened new opportunities in the detection of genetic, epigenetic and transcriptomic biomarkers. Very promising are mainly small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs. miRNAs post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by binding to mRNA and causing its degradation or inhibiting translation. A growing body of evidence suggests that miRNAs affect many processes and play a crucial role not only in cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, but also affect extracellular matrix composition and maintaining processes of homeostasis. A number of studies have shown changes in distribution profiles of circulating miRNAs (c-miRNAs associated with various diseases and disorders as well as in samples taken under physiological conditions such as pregnancy or physical exercise. This overview aims to summarize the current knowledge related to the response of blood c-miRNAs profiles to different modes of exercise and to highlight their potential application as a novel class of biomarkers of physical performance capacity and training adaptation.

  4. The Role of MicroRNAs in Kidney Disease

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    Sydwell Mukhadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short noncoding RNAs that regulate pathophysiological processes that suppress gene expression by binding to messenger RNAs. These biomolecules can be used to study gene regulation and protein expression, which will allow better understanding of many biological processes such as cell cycle progression and apoptosis that control the fate of cells. Several pathways have also been implicated to be involved in kidney diseases such as Transforming Growth Factor-β, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase signaling, and Wnt signaling pathways. The discovery of miRNAs has provided new insights into kidney pathologies and may provide new innovative and effective therapeutic strategies. Research has demonstrated the role of miRNAs in a variety of kidney diseases including renal cell carcinoma, diabetic nephropathy, nephritic syndrome, renal fibrosis, lupus nephritis and acute pyelonephritis. MiRNAs are implicated as playing a role in these diseases due to their role in apoptosis, cell proliferation, differentiation and development. As miRNAs have been detected in a stable condition in different biological fluids, they have the potential to be tools to study the pathogenesis of human diseases with a great potential to be used in disease prognosis and diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of miRNA in kidney disease.

  5. MicroRNAs in addiction: adaptation’s middlemen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, MD; van der Vaart, AD

    2014-01-01

    A central question in addiction is how drug-induced changes in synaptic signaling are converted into long-term neuroadaptations. Emerging evidence reveals that microRNAs (miRNAs) have a distinct role in this process through rapid response to cellular signals and dynamic regulation of local mRNA transcripts. Because each miRNA can target hundreds of mRNAs, relative changes in the expression of miRNAs can greatly impact cellular responsiveness, synaptic plasticity and transcriptional events. These diverse consequences of miRNA action occur through coordination with genes implicated in addictions, the most compelling of these being the neurotrophin BDNF, the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and the DNA-binding methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). In this study, we review the recent progress in the understanding of miRNAs in general mechanisms of plasticity and neuroadaptation and then focus on specific examples of miRNA regulation in the context of addiction. We conclude that miRNA-mediated gene regulation is a conserved means of converting environmental signals into neuronal response, which holds significant implications for addiction and other psychiatric illnesses. PMID:21606928

  6. The Clinical Application of MicroRNAs in Infectious Disease

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    Ruth E. Drury

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short single-stranded non-coding RNA sequences that posttranscriptionally regulate up to 60% of protein encoding genes. Evidence is emerging that miRNAs are key mediators of the host response to infection, predominantly by regulating proteins involved in innate and adaptive immune pathways. miRNAs can govern the cellular tropism of some viruses, are implicated in the resistance of some individuals to infections like HIV, and are associated with impaired vaccine response in older people. Not surprisingly, pathogens have evolved ways to undermine the effects of miRNAs on immunity. Recognition of this has led to new experimental treatments, RG-101 and Miravirsen—hepatitis C treatments which target host miRNA. miRNAs are being investigated as novel infection biomarkers, and they are being used to design attenuated vaccines, e.g., against Dengue virus. This comprehensive review synthesizes current knowledge of miRNA in host response to infection with emphasis on potential clinical applications, along with an evaluation of the challenges still to be overcome.

  7. The Clinical Application of MicroRNAs in Infectious Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Ruth E; O'Connor, Daniel; Pollard, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded non-coding RNA sequences that posttranscriptionally regulate up to 60% of protein encoding genes. Evidence is emerging that miRNAs are key mediators of the host response to infection, predominantly by regulating proteins involved in innate and adaptive immune pathways. miRNAs can govern the cellular tropism of some viruses, are implicated in the resistance of some individuals to infections like HIV, and are associated with impaired vaccine response in older people. Not surprisingly, pathogens have evolved ways to undermine the effects of miRNAs on immunity. Recognition of this has led to new experimental treatments, RG-101 and Miravirsen-hepatitis C treatments which target host miRNA. miRNAs are being investigated as novel infection biomarkers, and they are being used to design attenuated vaccines, e.g., against Dengue virus. This comprehensive review synthesizes current knowledge of miRNA in host response to infection with emphasis on potential clinical applications, along with an evaluation of the challenges still to be overcome.

  8. Capillary electrophoresis methods for microRNAs assays: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Eunmi; Song, Eun Joo, E-mail: ejsong@kist.re.kr

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • A review of CE analysis of miRNAs. • Summary of developments and applications of CE systems in miRNA studies. • Applications and development of microchip-based CE for rapid analysis of miRNA. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that conduct important roles in many cellular processes such as development, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In particular, circulating miRNAs have been proposed as biomarkers for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other illnesses. Therefore, determination of miRNA expression levels in various biofluids is important for the investigation of biological processes in health and disease and for discovering their potential as new biomarkers and drug targets. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is emerging as a useful analytical tool for analyzing miRNA because of its simple sample preparation steps and efficient resolution of a diverse size range of compounds. In particular, CE with laser-induced fluorescence detection is a promising and relatively rapidly developing tool with the potential to provide high sensitivity and specificity in the analysis of miRNAs. This paper covers a short overview of the recent developments and applications of CE systems in miRNA studies in biological and biomedical areas.

  9. MicroRNAs Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Elaine Sørensen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common, though heterogeneous, endocrine aberration in women of reproductive age, with high prevalence and socioeconomic costs. The syndrome is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, as well as being associated with infertility, insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and an increased life time risk of type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Altered miRNA levels have been associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation and various cancers. Studies have shown that circulating miRNAs are present in whole blood, serum, plasma and the follicular fluid of PCOS patients and that they might serve as potential biomarkers and a new approach for the diagnosis of PCOS. In this review, recent work on miRNAs with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome.

  10. Control of the gut microbiome by fecal microRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirong Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery in the early 90s, microRNAs (miRNAs, small non-coding RNAs, have mainly been associated with posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression on a cell-autonomous level. Recent evidence has extended this role by adding inter-species communication to the manifold functional range. In our latest study [Liu S, et al., 2016, Cell Host & Microbe], we identified miRNAs in gut lumen and feces of both mice and humans. We found that intestinal epithelial cells (IEC and Hopx+ cells were the two main sources of fecal miRNA. Deficiency of IEC-miRNA resulted in gut dysbiosis and WT fecal miRNA transplantation restored the gut microbiota. We investigated potential mechanisms for this effect and found that miRNAs were able to regulate the gut microbiome. By culturing bacteria with miRNAs, we found that host miRNAs were able to enter bacteria, specifically regulate bacterial gene transcripts and affect bacterial growth. Oral administration of synthetic miRNA mimics affected specific bacteria in the gut. Our findings describe a previously unknown pathway by which the gut microbiome is regulated by the host and raises the possibility that miRNAs may be used therapeutically to manipulate the microbiome for the treatment of disease.

  11. The Roles of MicroRNAs in Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryou-u [Division of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, National Cancer Center Research Institute 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Miyazaki, Hiroaki [Division of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, National Cancer Center Research Institute 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Showa University School of Dentistry, 1-5-8 Hatanodai Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Ochiya, Takahiro, E-mail: tochiya@ncc.go.jp [Division of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, National Cancer Center Research Institute 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2015-04-09

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a large family of small, approximately 20–22 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes, mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Accumulating lines of evidence have indicated that miRNAs play important roles in the maintenance of biological homeostasis and that aberrant expression levels of miRNAs are associated with the onset of many diseases, including cancer. In various cancers, miRNAs play important roles in tumor initiation, drug resistance and metastasis. Recent studies reported that miRNAs could also be secreted via small endosome-derived vesicles called exosomes, which are derived from multiple cell types, including dendritic cells, lymphocytes, and tumor cells. Exosomal miRNAs play an important role in cell-to-cell communication and have been investigated as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the major findings related to the functions of miRNAs in breast cancer, which is the most frequent cancer in women, and discuss the potential clinical uses of miRNAs, including their roles as therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers.

  12. Use of MicroRNA biomarkers to distinguish enchondroma from low-grade chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Yang, Maozhou; Mayer, Theodore; Johnstone, Brian; Les, Clifford; Frisch, Nicholas; Parsons, Theodore; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Gibson, Gary

    2017-03-01

    Establishing a definitive diagnosis between benign enchondroma versus low-grade chondrosarcoma presents a potential challenge to both clinicians and pathologists. microRNAs (small non-coding RNAs) have proven to be effective biomarkers for the identification of tumors and tumor progression. We present analysis, both array and quantitative PCR, that shows consistently and substantially increased expression of two microRNAs, miRs-181a and -138, in low-grade chondrosarcomas compared with enchondromas. The data suggest these microRNAs would provide an analytical distinction between the chondrosarcoma and benign neoplasms that can be performed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. Together with recent publications, these data indicate that miRs-181a and -138 also play a role in tumor development and homeostasis and may provide new targets for the development of much needed therapeutic intervention.

  13. Bioinformatic analysis of microRNA biogenesis and function related proteins in eleven animal genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuying; Luo, GuanZheng; Bai, Xiujuan; Wang, Xiu-Jie

    2009-10-01

    MicroRNAs are approximately 22 nt long small non-coding RNAs that play important regulatory roles in eukaryotes. The biogenesis and functional processes of microRNAs require the participation of many proteins, of which, the well studied ones are Dicer, Drosha, Argonaute and Exportin 5. To systematically study these four protein families, we screened 11 animal genomes to search for genes encoding above mentioned proteins, and identified some new members for each family. Domain analysis results revealed that most proteins within the same family share identical or similar domains. Alternative spliced transcript variants were found for some proteins. We also examined the expression patterns of these proteins in different human tissues and identified other proteins that could potentially interact with these proteins. These findings provided systematic information on the four key proteins involved in microRNA biogenesis and functional pathways in animals, and will shed light on further functional studies of these proteins.

  14. Role of microRNAs in Alcohol-Induced Multi-Organ Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Kumar Natarajan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption and its abuse is a major health problem resulting in significant healthcare cost in the United States. Chronic alcoholism results in damage to most of the vital organs in the human body. Among the alcohol-induced injuries, alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent in the United States. Remarkably, ethanol alters expression of a wide variety of microRNAs that can regulate alcohol-induced complications or dysfunctions. In this review, we will discuss the role of microRNAs in alcoholic pancreatitis, alcohol-induced liver damage, intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction, and brain damage including altered hippocampus structure and function, and neuronal loss, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, and muscle damage. Further, we have reviewed the role of altered microRNAs in the circulation, teratogenic effects of alcohol, and during maternal or paternal alcohol consumption.

  15. How the RNA isolation method can affect microRNA microarray results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolska, Agnieszka; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Litman, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    RNA microarray analysis on porcine brain tissue. One method is a phenol-guanidine isothiocyanate-based procedure that permits isolation of total RNA. The second method, miRVana™ microRNA isolation, is column based and recovers the small RNA fraction alone. We found that microarray analyses give different results...... that depend on the RNA fraction used, in particular because some microRNAs appear very sensitive to the RNA isolation method. We conclude that precautions need to be taken when comparing microarray studies based on RNA isolated with different methods.......The quality of RNA is crucial in gene expression experiments. RNA degradation interferes in the measurement of gene expression, and in this context, microRNA quantification can lead to an incorrect estimation. In the present study, two different RNA isolation methods were used to perform micro...

  16. Profiling microRNAs in lung tissue from pigs infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolska, Agnieszka; Anthon, Christian; Bak, Mads

    2012-01-01

    significantly up-regulated in the necrotic sample and 12 were down-regulated. The expression analysis of a number of candidates revealed microRNAs of potential importance in the innate immune response. MiR-155, a known key player in inflammation, was found expressed in both samples. Moreover, miR-664-5p, mi......R-451 and miR-15a appear as very promising candidates for microRNAs involved in response to pathogen infection. Conclusions: This is the first study revealing significant differences in composition and expression profiles of miRNAs in lungs infected with a bacterial pathogen. Our results extend......Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-protein-coding genes that play a crucial regulatory role in mammalian development and disease. Whereas a large number of miRNAs have been annotated at the structural level during the latest years, functional annotation is sparse. Actinobacillus...

  17. Diagnostic and Prognostic MicroRNA Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer in Cell-free Urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsøe, Jacob Christian; Rasmussen, Anne Karin; Thomsen, Anni Rønfeldt

    2017-01-01

    Background: Widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for prostate cancer (PC) detection has led to extensive overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Urine-based microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers could be useful in PC diagnosis and prognosis. Objective: To train and validate urine-based micro......RNA (miRNA) biomarkers that may assist in PC diagnosis and prognosis. Design, setting, and participants: We profiled the expression levels of 92 miRNAs via reverse transcriptase–poymerase chain reaction in cell-free urine samples from 29 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 215 patients...... could help in primary diagnosis of PC and guide treatment decisions. Further validation studies are warranted. Patient summary: Using two large patient cohorts, we searched for novel prostate cancer biomarkers in urine. We found two new sets of microRNA biomarkers in urine that could accurately predict...

  18. MicroRNAs: Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Alveolar Bone Loss in Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayoshi Kagiya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease caused by bacterial infection of tooth-supporting structures, which results in the destruction of alveolar bone. Osteoclasts play a central role in bone destruction. Osteoclasts are tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive multinucleated giant cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells. Recently, we and other researchers revealed that microRNAs are involved in osteoclast differentiation. MicroRNAs are novel, single-stranded, non-coding, small (20–22 nucleotides RNAs that act in a sequence-specific manner to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through cleavage or translational repression of their target mRNAs. They regulate various biological activities such as cellular differentiation, apoptosis, cancer development, and inflammatory responses. In this review, the roles of microRNAs in osteoclast differentiation and function during alveolar bone destruction in periodontal disease are described.

  19. In Situ Detection of MicroRNA Expression with RNAscope Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Viravuth P

    2018-01-01

    Elucidating the spatial resolution of gene transcripts provides important insight into potential gene function. MicroRNAs are short, singled-stranded noncoding RNAs that control gene expression through base-pair complementarity with target mRNAs in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) and inhibiting protein expression. However, given their small size of ~22- to 24-nt and low expression levels, standard in situ hybridization detection methods are not amendable for microRNA spatial resolution. Here, I describe a technique that employs RNAscope probe design and propriety amplification technology that provides simultaneous single molecule detection of individual microRNA and its target gene. This method allows for rapid and sensitive detection of noncoding RNA transcripts in frozen tissue sections.

  20. MicroRNAs as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Martinez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is characterized by primary damage to the brain from the external mechanical force and by subsequent secondary injury due to various molecular and pathophysiological responses that eventually lead to neuronal cell death. Secondary brain injury events may occur minutes, hours, or even days after the trauma, and provide valuable therapeutic targets to prevent further neuronal degeneration. At the present time, there is no effective treatment for TBI due, in part, to the widespread impact of numerous complex secondary biochemical and pathophysiological events occurring at different time points following the initial injury. MicroRNAs control a range of physiological and pathological functions such as development, differentiation, apoptosis and metabolism, and may serve as potential targets for progress assessment and intervention against TBI to mitigate secondary damage to the brain. This has implications regarding improving the diagnostic accuracy of brain impairment and long-term outcomes as well as potential novel treatments. Recent human studies have identified specific microRNAs in serum/plasma (miR-425-p, -21, -93, -191 and -499 and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF (miR-328, -362-3p, -451, -486a as possible indicators of the diagnosis, severity, and prognosis of TBI. Experimental animal studies have examined specific microRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for moderate and mild TBI (e.g., miR-21, miR-23b. MicroRNA profiling was altered by voluntary exercise. Differences in basal microRNA expression in the brain of adult and aged animals and alterations in response to TBI (e.g., miR-21 have also been reported. Further large-scale studies with TBI patients are needed to provide more information on the changes in microRNA profiles in different age groups (children, adults, and elderly.

  1. MicroRNA modulation combined with sunitinib as a novel therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passadouro M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marta Passadouro,1,2 Maria C Pedroso de Lima,1,2 Henrique Faneca11Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, 2Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, PortugalAbstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is a highly aggressive and mortal cancer, characterized by a set of known mutations, invasive features, and aberrant microRNA expression that have been associated with hallmark malignant properties of PDAC. The lack of effective PDAC treatment options prompted us to investigate whether microRNAs would constitute promising therapeutic targets toward the generation of a gene therapy approach with clinical significance for this disease. In this work, we show that the developed human serum albumin–1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine:cholesterol/anti-microRNA oligonucleotides (+/– (4/1 nanosystem exhibits the ability to efficiently deliver anti-microRNA oligonucleotides targeting the overexpressed microRNAs miR-21, miR-221, miR-222, and miR-10 in PDCA cells, promoting an almost complete abolishment of microRNA expression. Silencing of these microRNAs resulted in a significant increase in the levels of their targets. Moreover, the combination of microRNA silencing, namely miR-21, with low amounts of the chemotherapeutic drug sunitinib resulted in a strong and synergistic antitumor effect, showing that this combined strategy could be of great importance for therapeutic application in PDAC. Keywords: pancreatic cancer gene therapy, anti-microRNAs oligonucleotides, delivery nanosystems, albumin-associated lipoplexes

  2. A Cancer-Indicative microRNA Pattern in Normal Prostate Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schlomm

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the levels of selected micro-RNAs in normal prostate tissue to assess their potential to indicate tumor foci elsewhere in the prostate. Histologically normal prostate tissue samples from 31 prostate cancer patients and two cancer negative control groups with either unsuspicious or elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA levels (14 and 17 individuals, respectively were analyzed. Based on the expression analysis of 157 microRNAs in a pool of prostate tissue samples and information from data bases/literature, we selected eight microRNAs for quantification by real-time polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs. Selected miRNAs were analyzed in histologically tumor-free biopsy samples from patients and healthy controls. We identified seven microRNAs (miR-124a, miR-146a & b, miR-185, miR-16 and let-7a & b, which displayed significant differential expression in normal prostate tissue from men with prostate cancer compared to both cancer negative control groups. Four microRNAs (miR-185, miR-16 and let-7a and let-7b remained to significantly discriminate normal tissues from prostate cancer patients from those of the cancer negative control group with elevated PSA levels. The transcript levels of these microRNAs were highly indicative for the presence of cancer in the prostates, independently of the PSA level. Our results suggest a microRNA-pattern in histologically normal prostate tissue, indicating prostate cancer elsewhere in the organ.

  3. A plasma microRNA signature as a biomarker for acquired aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Kohei; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Feng, Xingmin; Desierto, Marie J; Fernandez Ibanez, Maria Del Pilar; Rios, Olga; Weinstein, Barbara; Scheinberg, Phillip; Townsley, Danielle M; Young, Neal S

    2017-01-01

    Aplastic anemia is an acquired bone marrow failure characterized by marrow hypoplasia, a paucity of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and pancytopenia of the peripheral blood, due to immune attack on the bone marrow. In aplastic anemia, a major challenge is to develop immune biomarkers to monitor the disease. We measured circulating microRNAs in plasma samples of aplastic anemia patients in order to identify disease-specific microRNAs. A total of 179 microRNAs were analyzed in 35 plasma samples from 13 aplastic anemia patients, 11 myelodysplastic syndrome patients, and 11 healthy controls using the Serum/Plasma Focus microRNA Polymerase Chain Reaction Panel. Subsequently, 19 microRNAs from the discovery set were investigated in the 108 plasma samples from 41 aplastic anemia patients, 24 myelodysplastic syndrome patients, and 43 healthy controls for validation, confirming that 3 microRNAs could be validated as dysregulated (>1.5-fold change) in aplastic anemia, compared to healthy controls. MiR-150-5p (induction of T-cell differentiation) and miR-146b-5p (involvement in the feedback regulation of innate immune response) were elevated in aplastic anemia plasma, whereas miR-1 was decreased in aplastic anemia. By receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, we developed a logistic model with these 3 microRNAs that enabled us to predict the probability of a diagnosis of aplastic anemia with an area under the curve of 0.86. Dysregulated expression levels of the microRNAs became normal after immunosuppressive therapy at 6 months. Specifically, miR-150-5p expression was significantly reduced after successful immunosuppressive therapy, but did not change in non-responders. We propose 3 novel plasma biomarkers in aplastic anemia, in which miR-150-5p, miR-146b-5p, and miR-1 can serve for diagnosis and miR-150-5p for disease monitoring. Clinicaltrials.gov identifiers:00260689, 00217594, 00961064. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  4. Use of microRNAs in directing therapy and evaluating treatment response in colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreoli, Silmara Cristiane da Silveira; Gasparini, Nina Jardim [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Carvalho, Gisele Pereira de [Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Garicochea, Bernardo [Centro de Oncologia Sírio Libanês, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pogue, Robert Edward; Andrade, Rosângela Vieira de [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Survival and prognosis depend on tumor stage upon diagnosis, and in more than 50% of cases, the tumor has already invaded adjacent tissues or metastasis has occurred. Aiming to improve diagnosis, clinical prognosis and treatment of patients with colorectal cancer, several studies have investigated microRNAs as molecular markers of the disease due to their potential regulatory functions on tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. This review aimed to summarize the main topics related to the use of microRNAs in diagnosis, clinical prognosis and evaluating treatment response in colorectal cancer.

  5. Use of microRNAs in directing therapy and evaluating treatment response in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoli, Silmara Cristiane da Silveira; Gasparini, Nina Jardim; Carvalho, Gisele Pereira de; Garicochea, Bernardo; Pogue, Robert Edward; Andrade, Rosângela Vieira de

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Survival and prognosis depend on tumor stage upon diagnosis, and in more than 50% of cases, the tumor has already invaded adjacent tissues or metastasis has occurred. Aiming to improve diagnosis, clinical prognosis and treatment of patients with colorectal cancer, several studies have investigated microRNAs as molecular markers of the disease due to their potential regulatory functions on tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. This review aimed to summarize the main topics related to the use of microRNAs in diagnosis, clinical prognosis and evaluating treatment response in colorectal cancer

  6. Microrna-31 mediates radiation induced apoptosis selectively in malignant tumour cells with dysfunctional P53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ashish; Mukherjee, Prabuddho; Babu, Bincy; Chandna, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    The protein p53 has been recognized as an important radio-responsive protein which functions mainly through transcriptional control of its target genes and microRNAs that target multiple response pathways. In this study, we investigate a putative link between p53 functionality and microRNA-31 expression that largely contributes to cellular transformation/malignancy and also establishes the role of miR-31 in radiation-induced cell death. The expression of miR-31 is found to be attenuated in cells in successive stages of cancer progression

  7. MicroRNA-200a suppresses the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway by interacting with ?-catenin

    OpenAIRE

    SU, JUAN; ZHANG, ANLING; SHI, ZHENDONG; MA, FEIFEI; PU, PEIYU; WANG, TAO; ZHANG, JIE; KANG, CHUNSHENG; ZHANG, QINGYU

    2011-01-01

    The Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway is crucial for human organ development and is involved in tumor progression of many cancers. Accumulating evidence suggests that the expression of ?-catenin is, in part, regulated by specific microRNAs (miRNAs). The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of a recently identified epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated tumor suppressor microRNA (miR)-200a, in cancer cells. We also aimed to identify specific miR-200a target genes ...

  8. Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract protects against alveolar bone loss in ovariectomized rats via microRNAs regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Song, Changheng; Zhang, Fangzhen; Xiang, Lihua; Chen, Yanjing; Li, Yan; Pan, Jinghua; Liu, Hong; Xiao, Gary Guishan; Ju, Dahong

    2015-02-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of aqueous Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract (RDE) on the alveolar bone of rats with ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Female Wistar rats underwent either ovariectomy or sham operation (SHAM). The ovariectomized (OVX) rats were treated with vehicle (OVX), estradiol valerate (EV), or RDE. After treatments, the bone mineral density (BMD) and the three-dimensional microarchitecture of the alveolar bone were analyzed to assess bone mass. Microarrays were used to evaluate microRNA expression profiles in alveolar bone from RDE-treated and OVX rats. The differential expression of microRNAs was validated using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the target genes of validated microRNAs were predicted and further analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The key findings were verified using qRT-PCR. Our results show that RDE inhibits alveolar bone loss in OVX rats. Compared to the OVX rats, the RDE-treated rats showed upregulated expression levels of 8 microRNAs and downregulated expression levels of 8 microRNAs in the alveolar bone in the microarray analysis. qRT-PCR helped validate 13 of 16 differentially expressed microRNAs, and 114 putative target genes of the validated microRNAs were retrieved. The IPA showed that these putative target genes had the potential to code for proteins that were involved in the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)/Smad signaling pathway (Tgfbr2/Bmpr2, Smad3/4/5, and Bcl-2) and interleukin (IL)-6/oncostatin M (OSM)/Jak1/STAT3 signaling pathway (Jak1, STAT3, and Il6r). These experiments revealed that RDE could inhibit ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone loss in rats. The mechanism of this anti-osteopenic effect in alveolar bone may involve the simultaneous inhibition of bone formation and bone resorption, which is associated with modulation of the TGF-β/BMPs/Smad and the IL-6/OSM/Jak1/STAT3 signaling pathways via microRNA regulation.

  9. Role of microRNAs and microRNA machinery in the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caramuta, S; Lee, L; Özata, D M; Akçakaya, P; Georgii-Hemming, P; Xie, H; Amini, R-M; Lawrie, C H; Enblad, G; Larsson, C; Berglund, M; Lui, W-O

    2013-01-01

    Deregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression has been documented in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the impact of miRNAs and their machinery in DLBCL is not fully determined. Here, we assessed the role of miRNA expression and their processing genes in DLBCL development. Using microarray and RT-qPCR approaches, we quantified global miRNAs and core components of miRNA-processing genes expression in 75 DLBCLs (56 de novo and 19 transformed) and 10 lymph nodes (LN). Differential miRNA signatures were identified between DLBCLs and LNs, or between the de novo and transformed DLBCLs. We also identified subsets of miRNAs associated with germinal center B-cell phenotype, BCL6 and IRF4 expression, and clinical staging. In addition, we showed a significant over-expression of TARBP2 in de novo DLBCLs as compared with LNs, and decreased expression of DROSHA, DICER, TARBP2 and PACT in transformed as compared with de novo cases. Interestingly, cases with high TARBP2 and DROSHA expression had a poorer chemotherapy response. We further showed that TARBP2 can regulate miRNA-processing efficiency in DLBCLs, and its expression inhibition decreases cell growth and increases apoptosis in DLBCL cell lines. Our findings provide new insights for the understanding of miRNAs and its machinery in DLBCL

  10. Profile of microRNA in Giant Panda Blood: A Resource for Immune-Related and Novel microRNAs.

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    Yang, Mingyu; Du, Lianming; Li, Wujiao; Shen, Fujun; Fan, Zhenxin; Jian, Zuoyi; Hou, Rong; Shen, Yongmei; Yue, Bisong; Zhang, Xiuyue

    2015-01-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the world's most beloved endangered mammals. Although the draft genome of this species had been assembled, little was known about the composition of its microRNAs (miRNAs) or their functional profiles. Recent studies demonstrated that changes in the expression of miRNAs are associated with immunity. In this study, miRNAs were extracted from the blood of four healthy giant pandas and sequenced by Illumina next generation sequencing technology. As determined by miRNA screening, a total of 276 conserved miRNAs and 51 novel putative miRNAs candidates were detected. After differential expression analysis, we noticed that the expressions of 7 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in young giant pandas compared with that of adults. Moreover, 2 miRNAs were up-regulated in female giant pandas and 1 in the male individuals. Target gene prediction suggested that the miRNAs of giant panda might be relevant to the expressions of 4,602 downstream genes. Subseuqently, the predicted target genes were conducted to KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis and we found that these genes were mainly involved in host immunity, including the Ras signaling pathway, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and the MAPK signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results provide the first miRNA profiles of giant panda blood, and the predicted functional analyses may open an avenue for further study of giant panda immunity.

  11. Role of MicroRNAs in Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System-Mediated Cardiovascular Inflammation and Remodeling

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    Maricica Pacurari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are endogenous regulators of gene expression either by inhibiting translation or protein degradation. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs play a role in cardiovascular disease and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system- (RAAS- mediated cardiovascular inflammation, either as mediators or being targeted by RAAS pharmacological inhibitors. The exact role(s of microRNAs in RAAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling is/are still in early stage of investigation. However, few microRNAs have been shown to play a role in RAAS signaling, particularly miR-155, miR-146a/b, miR-132/122, and miR-483-3p. Identification of specific microRNAs and their targets and elucidating microRNA-regulated mechanisms associated RAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling might lead to the development of novel pharmacological strategies to target RAAS-mediated vascular pathologies. This paper reviews microRNAs role in inflammatory factors mediating cardiovascular inflammation and RAAS genes and the effect of RAAS pharmacological inhibition on microRNAs and the resolution of RAAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling. Also, this paper discusses the advances on microRNAs-based therapeutic approaches that may be important in targeting RAAS signaling.

  12. Identification of Novel and Conserved microRNAs in Homalodisca vitripennis, the Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter by Expression Profiling.

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    Raja Sekhar Nandety

    Full Text Available The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, is a xylem-feeding leafhopper and an important vector of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa; the causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapevines. MicroRNAs are a class of small RNAs that play an important role in the functional development of various organisms including insects. In H. vitripennis, we identified microRNAs using high-throughput deep sequencing of adults followed by computational and manual annotation. A total of 14 novel microRNAs that are not found in the miRBase were identified from adult H. vitripennis. Conserved microRNAs were also found in our datasets. By comparison to our previously determined transcriptome sequence of H. vitripennis, we identified the potential targets of the microRNAs in the transcriptome. This microRNA profile information not only provides a more nuanced understanding of the biological and physiological mechanisms that govern gene expression in H. vitripennis, but may also lead to the identification of novel mechanisms for biorationally designed management strategies through the use of microRNAs.

  13. MicroRNA expression variability in human cervical tissues.

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    Patrícia M Pereira

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short (approximately 22 nt non-coding regulatory RNAs that control gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Deregulation of miRNA expression has been discovered in a wide variety of tumours and it is now clear that they contribute to cancer development and progression. Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide and there is a strong need for a non-invasive, fast and efficient method to diagnose the disease. We investigated miRNA expression profiles in cervical cancer using a microarray platform containing probes for mature miRNAs. We have evaluated miRNA expression profiles of a heterogeneous set of cervical tissues from 25 different patients. This set included 19 normal cervical tissues, 4 squamous cell carcinoma, 5 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL and 9 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL samples. We observed high variability in miRNA expression especially among normal cervical samples, which prevented us from obtaining a unique miRNA expression signature for this tumour type. However, deregulated miRNAs were identified in malignant and pre-malignant cervical tissues after tackling the high expression variability observed. We were also able to identify putative target genes of relevant candidate miRNAs. Our results show that miRNA expression shows natural variability among human samples, which complicates miRNA data profiling analysis. However, such expression noise can be filtered and does not prevent the identification of deregulated miRNAs that play a role in the malignant transformation of cervical squamous cells. Deregulated miRNAs highlight new candidate gene targets allowing for a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the development of this tumour type.

  14. MicroRNAs in Muscle: Characterizing the Powerlifter Phenotype

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    D'Souza, Randall F.; Bjørnsen, Thomas; Zeng, Nina; Aasen, Kirsten M. M.; Raastad, Truls; Cameron-Smith, David; Mitchell, Cameron J.

    2017-01-01

    Powerlifters are the epitome of muscular adaptation and are able to generate extreme forces. The molecular mechanisms underpinning the significant capacity for force generation and hypertrophy are not fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRs) are short non-coding RNA sequences that control gene expression via promotion of transcript breakdown and/or translational inhibition. Differences in basal miR expression may partially account for phenotypic differences in muscle mass and function between powerlifters and untrained age-matched controls. Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis of 15 national level powerlifters (25.1 ± 5.8 years) and 13 untrained controls (24.1 ± 2.0 years). The powerlifters were stronger than the controls (isokinetic knee extension at 60°/s: 307.8 ± 51.6 Nm vs. 211.9 ± 41.9 Nm, respectively P powerlifters and five having lower expression. Established transcriptionally regulated miR downstream gene targets involved in muscle mass regulation, including myostatin and MyoD, were also differentially expressed between groups. Correlation analysis demonstrates the abundance of eight miRs was correlated to phenotype including peak strength, fiber size, satellite cell abundance, and fiber type regardless of grouping. The unique miR expression profiles between groups allow for categorization of individuals as either powerlifter or healthy controls based on a five miR signature (miR-126, -23b, -16, -23a, -15a) with considerable accuracy (100%). Thus, this unique miR expression may be important to the characterization of the powerlifter phenotype. PMID:28638346

  15. Multicolor microRNA FISH effectively differentiates tumor types

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    Renwick, Neil; Cekan, Pavol; Masry, Paul A.; McGeary, Sean E.; Miller, Jason B.; Hafner, Markus; Li, Zhen; Mihailovic, Aleksandra; Morozov, Pavel; Brown, Miguel; Gogakos, Tasos; Mobin, Mehrpouya B.; Snorrason, Einar L.; Feilotter, Harriet E.; Zhang, Xiao; Perlis, Clifford S.; Wu, Hong; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Feng, Huichen; Shuda, Masahiro; Moore, Patrick S.; Tron, Victor A.; Chang, Yuan; Tuschl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are excellent tumor biomarkers because of their cell-type specificity and abundance. However, many miRNA detection methods, such as real-time PCR, obliterate valuable visuospatial information in tissue samples. To enable miRNA visualization in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, we developed multicolor miRNA FISH. As a proof of concept, we used this method to differentiate two skin tumors, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), with overlapping histologic features but distinct cellular origins. Using sequencing-based miRNA profiling and discriminant analysis, we identified the tumor-specific miRNAs miR-205 and miR-375 in BCC and MCC, respectively. We addressed three major shortcomings in miRNA FISH, identifying optimal conditions for miRNA fixation and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) retention using model compounds and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses, enhancing signal amplification and detection by increasing probe-hapten linker lengths, and improving probe specificity using shortened probes with minimal rRNA sequence complementarity. We validated our method on 4 BCC and 12 MCC tumors. Amplified miR-205 and miR-375 signals were normalized against directly detectable reference rRNA signals. Tumors were classified using predefined cutoff values, and all were correctly identified in blinded analysis. Our study establishes a reliable miRNA FISH technique for parallel visualization of differentially expressed miRNAs in FFPE tumor tissues. PMID:23728175

  16. Molecular Beacon-Based MicroRNA Imaging During Neurogenesis.

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    Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Soonhag

    2016-01-01

    The fluorescence monitoring system for examining endogenous microRNA (miRNA) activity in cellular level provides crucial information on not only understanding a critical role of miRNA involving a variety of biological processes, but also evaluating miRNA expression patterns in a noninvasive manner. In this protocol, we report the details of a new procedure for a molecular beacon-based miRNA monitoring system, which includes the illustration scheme for miRNA detection strategy, exogenous miRNA detection, and measurement of endogenous miRNA expression level during neurogenesis. The fluorescence signal of miR-124a beacon quenched by BHQ2 was gradually recovered as increasing concentration of the miR-124a in tube. The functional work of miR-124a beacon was examined in intracellular environment, allowing for the internalization of the miR-124a beacon by lipofectamine, which resulted in activated fluorescent signals of the miR-124a beacon in the HeLa cells after the addition of synthetic miR-124a. The endogenous miR-124a expression level was detected by miR-124a beacon system during neurogenesis, showing brighter fluorescence intensity in cytoplasmic area of P19 cells after induction of neuronal differentiation by retinoic acid. The molecular beacon based-miRNA detection technique could be applicable to the simultaneous visualization of a variety of miRNA expression patterns using different fluorescence dyes. For the study of examining endogenous miRNA expression level using miRNA-beacon system, if cellular differentiation step is already prepared, transfection step of miR-124a beacon into P19 cells, and acquisition of activated fluorescence signal measured by confocal microscope can be conducted approximately within 6 h.

  17. Identification of Conserved and Novel MicroRNAs in Blueberry

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    Junyang Yue

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small endogenous RNAs that play important regulatory roles in cells by negatively affecting gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. There have been extensive studies aiming to identify miRNAs and to elucidate their functions in various plant species. In the present study, we employed the high-throughput sequencing technology to profile miRNAs in blueberry fruits. A total of 9,992,446 small RNA tags with sizes ranged from 18 to 30 nt were obtained, indicating that blueberry fruits have a large and diverse small RNA population. Bioinformatic analysis identified 412 conserved miRNAs belonging to 29 families, and 35 predicted novel miRNAs that are likely to be unique to blueberries. Among them, expression profiles of five conserved miRNAs were validated by stem loop qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the potential target genes of conserved and novel miRNAs were predicted and subjected to Gene Ontology (GO annotation. Enrichment analysis of the GO-represented biological processes and molecular functions revealed that these target genes were potentially involved in a wide range of metabolic pathways and developmental processes. Particularly, anthocyanin biosynthesis has been predicted to be directly or indirectly regulated by diverse miRNA families. This study is the first report on genome-wide miRNA profile analysis in blueberry and it provides a useful resource for further elucidation of the functional roles of miRNAs during fruit development and ripening.

  18. Deregulated Cardiac Specific MicroRNAs in Postnatal Heart Growth

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    Pujiao Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The heart is recognized as an organ that is terminally differentiated by adulthood. However, during the process of human development, the heart is the first organ with function in the embryo and grows rapidly during the postnatal period. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs, as regulators of gene expression, play important roles during the development of multiple systems. However, the role of miRNAs in postnatal heart growth is still unclear. In this study, by using qRT-PCR, we compared the expression of seven cardiac- or muscle-specific miRNAs that may be related to heart development in heart tissue from mice at postnatal days 0, 3, 8, and 14. Four miRNAs—miR-1a-3p, miR-133b-3p, miR-208b-3p, and miR-206-3p—were significantly decreased while miR-208a-3p was upregulated during the postnatal heart growth period. Based on these results, GeneSpring GX was used to predict potential downstream targets by performing a 3-way comparison of predictions from the miRWalk, PITA, and microRNAorg databases. Gene Ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis were used to identify potential functional annotations and signaling pathways related to postnatal heart growth. This study describes expression changes of cardiac- and muscle-specific miRNAs during postnatal heart growth and may provide new therapeutic targets for cardiovascular diseases.

  19. MicroRNA regulation of immune events at conception.

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    Robertson, Sarah A; Zhang, Bihong; Chan, Honyueng; Sharkey, David J; Barry, Simon C; Fullston, Tod; Schjenken, John E

    2017-09-01

    The reproductive tract environment at conception programs the developmental trajectory of the embryo, sets the course of pregnancy, and impacts offspring phenotype and health. Despite the fundamental importance of this stage of reproduction, the rate-limiting regulatory mechanisms operating locally to control fertility and fecundity are incompletely understood. Emerging studies highlight roles for microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating reproductive and developmental processes and in modulating the quality and strength of the female immune response. Since endometrial receptivity and robust placentation require specific adaptation of the immune response, we hypothesize that miRNAs participate in establishing pregnancy through effects on key gene networks in immune cells. Our recent studies investigated miRNAs that are induced in the peri-conception environment, focusing on miRNAs that have immune-regulatory roles-particularly miR-223, miR-155, and miR-146a. Genetic mouse models deficient in individual miRNAs are proving informative in defining roles for these miRNAs in the generation and stabilization of regulatory T cells (Treg cells) that confer adaptive immune tolerance. Overlapping and redundant functions between miRNAs that target multiple genes, combined with multiple miRNAs targeting individual genes, indicate complex and sensitive regulatory networks. Although to date most data on miRNA regulation of reproductive events are from mice, conserved functions of miRNAs across species imply similar biological pathways operate in all mammals. Understanding the regulation and roles of miRNAs in the peri-conception immune response will advance our knowledge of how environmental determinants act at conception, and could have practical applications for animal breeding as well as human fertility. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Circulating microRNA Profile throughout the menstrual cycle.

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    Kadri Rekker

    Full Text Available Normal physiological variables, such as age and gender, contribute to alterations in circulating microRNA (miRNA expression levels. The changes in the female body during the menstrual cycle can also be reflected in plasma miRNA expression levels. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the plasma miRNA profile of healthy women during the menstrual cycle and to assess which circulating miRNAs are derived from blood cells. The plasma miRNA expression profiles in nine healthy women were determined by quantitative real time PCR using Exiqon Human Panel I assays from four time-points of the menstrual cycle. This platform was also used for studying miRNAs from pooled whole blood RNA samples at the same four time-points. Our results indicated that circulating miRNA expression levels in healthy women were not significantly altered by the processes occurring during the menstrual cycle. No significant differences in plasma miRNA expression levels were observed between the menstrual cycle time-points, but the number of detected miRNAs showed considerable variation among the studied individuals. miRNA analysis from whole blood samples revealed that majority of miRNAs in plasma are derived from blood cells. The most abundant miRNA in plasma and blood was hsa-miR-451a, but a number of miRNAs were only detected in one or the other sample type. In conclusion, our data suggest that the changes in the female body during the menstrual cycle do not affect the expression of circulating miRNAs at measurable levels.