Sample records for adducts

  1. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways.

    Sapkota, Muna; Wyatt, Todd A


    Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA) adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease.

  2. DNA adducts-chemical addons

    T R Rajalakshmi


    Full Text Available DNA adduct is a piece of DNA covalently bond to a chemical (safrole, benzopyrenediol epoxide, acetaldehyde. This process could be the start of a cancerous cell. When a chemical binds to DNA, it gets damaged resulting in abnormal replication. This could be the start of a mutation and without proper DNA repair, this can lead to cancer. It is this chemical that binds with the DNA is our prime area of concern. Instead of performing the whole body analysis for diagnosing cancer, this test could be carried out for early detection of cancer. When scanning tunneling microscope is used, the DNA results can be obtained earlier. DNA adducts in scientific experiments are used as biomarkers.

  3. DNA adducts-chemical addons

    Rajalakshmi, T. R.; AravindhaBabu, N.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Masthan, K. M. K.


    DNA adduct is a piece of DNA covalently bond to a chemical (safrole, benzopyrenediol epoxide, acetaldehyde). This process could be the start of a cancerous cell. When a chemical binds to DNA, it gets damaged resulting in abnormal replication. This could be the start of a mutation and without proper DNA repair, this can lead to cancer. It is this chemical that binds with the DNA is our prime area of concern. Instead of performing the whole body analysis for diagnosing cancer, this test could be carried out for early detection of cancer. When scanning tunneling microscope is used, the DNA results can be obtained earlier. DNA adducts in scientific experiments are used as biomarkers. PMID:26015708

  4. Sodium adduct formation efficiency in ESI source.

    Kruve, Anneli; Kaupmees, Karl; Liigand, Jaanus; Oss, Merit; Leito, Ivo


    Formation of sodium adducts in electrospray (ESI) has been known for long time, but has not been used extensively in practice, and several important aspects of Na(+) adduct formation in ESI source have been almost unexplored: the ionization efficiency of different molecules via Na(+) adduct formation, its dependence on molecular structure and Na(+) ion concentration in solution, fragmentation behaviour of the adducts as well as the ruggedness (a prerequisite for wider practical use) of ionization via Na(+) adduct formation. In this work, we have developed a parameter describing sodium adducts formation efficiency (SAFE) of neutral molecules and have built a SAFE scale that ranges for over four orders of magnitude and contains 19 compounds. In general, oxygen bases have higher efficiency of Na(+) adducts formation than nitrogen bases because of the higher partial negative charge on oxygen atoms and competition from protonation in the case of nitrogen bases. Chelating ability strongly increases the Na(+) adduct formation efficiency. We show that not only protonation but also Na(+) adduct formation is a quantitative and reproducible process if relative measurements are performed.

  5. Biophysical aspects of lysozyme adduct with monocrotophos.

    Amaraneni, Sreenivasa Rao; Kumar, Sudhir; Gourinath, Samudrala


    The present study on in vitro formation and characterization of lysozyme adduct with monocrotophos (MP) evaluates the potential of lysozyme to be used as a sensitive biomarker to monitor exposure levels to the commonly used organophosphorus pesticide monocrotophos. Crystallization of lysozyme protein adduct with monocrotophos was also undertaken to understand the adduct formation mechanism at a molecular level. The binding of organophosphorus pesticides to lysozyme is one of the key steps in their mutagenicity. The formation and structural characterization of lysozyme adduct with monocrotophos was done using MALDI-TOFMS, fluorescence, UV/Vis spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and X-ray diffraction studies. We report the crystal structure of lysozyme adduct with monocrotophos at 1.9 Å. It crystallized in the P43 space group with two monomers in one asymmetric unit having one molecule of monocrotophos bound to each protein chain. The results proved that the fluorescence quenching of lysozyme by monocrotophos is due to binding of monocrotophos with a tryptophan residue of lysozyme. Monocrotophos interacts most strongly with the Trp-108 and Asp-52 of lysozyme. The interactions of the monocrotophos molecule with the lysozyme suggest the formation of a stable adduct. In addition, the alteration of lysozyme secondary structure in the presence of monocrotophos was confirmed by circular dichroism and fluorescence inhibition of lysozyme by increasing monocrotophos and UV/Vis spectrophotometry. The formation of lysozyme adduct with monocrotophos was confirmed by MALDI-TOFMS.

  6. Detection of DNA adducts by bioluminescence

    Xu, Shunqing; Tan, Xianglin; Yao, Qunfeng; He, Min; Zhou, Yikai; Chen, Jian


    Luminescent assay for detection ATP is very sensitive with limitation of 10-17 moles. ATP using styrene oxide as a model carcinogen we currently apply a luminescence technique to detect the very low levels of carcinogen-DNA adducts in vitro and in vivo. The bioluminescent assay of DNA adducts entails three consecutive steps: digestion of modified DNA to adducted dinucleoside monophosphate and normal nucleotide are hydrolyzed to nucleosides (N) by nuclease P1 and prostatic acid phosphomonesterase (PAP); incorporation of (gamma) -P of ATP into normal nucleoside(N); detection of consumption of ATP by luminescence. This assay does not require separate manipulation because of the selective property of nuclease P1. One fmol of carcinogen- DNA adducts was detected by luminescent assay. A good correlation between results of luminescent assay and 32P-postlabeling procedures has been observed. We detect 1 adduct in 108 nucleotides for 10(mu) g DNA sample. The procedures of luminescent method is very simple and low- cost. IT appears applicable to the ultra sensitive detection of low levels of DNA adducts without radioactive isotope.

  7. New DNA adducts of crotonaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

    Hecht, S S; McIntee, E J; Wang, M


    This paper summarizes our recent studies on adducts produced in the reactions of the carcinogens crotonaldehyde (2-butenal) and acetaldehyde with deoxyguanosine (dG) and DNA. Human exposure to these carcinogens can be considerable, from both exogenous and endogenous sources. Crotonaldehyde reacts with DNA to form Michael addition products, a pathway that has been well described. We describe a second major pathway, in which 3-hydroxybutanal, formed by addition of H(2)O to crotonaldehyde, reacts with DNA to produce the Schiff base N(2)-(3-hydroxybut-1-ylidene)dG as well as several diastereomers of N(2)-paraldol-dG. Acetaldehyde reacts with DNA and dG giving a major Schiff base adduct, N(2)-ethylidene-dG. A cross-linked adduct of acetaldehyde has been characterized for the first time, and other adducts resulting from the reaction of two and three molecules of acetaldehyde with dG have been observed. The results of these studies demonstrate that some structurally unique adducts are formed from these carcinogenic aldehydes and suggest some new directions for research on the potential role of aldehydes in human cancer.

  8. Hip adduction and abduction strength profiles in elite soccer players

    Serner, Andreas; Petersen, Jesper; Madsen, Thomas Moller


    An ipsilateral hip adduction/abduction strength ratio of more than 90%, and hip adduction strength equal to that of the contralateral side have been suggested to clinically represent adequate strength recovery of hip adduction strength in athletes after groin injury. However, to what extent side-......-to-side symmetry in isometric hip adduction and abduction strength can be assumed in soccer players remains uncertain....

  9. 40 CFR 721.4590 - Mannich-based adduct.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mannich-based adduct. 721.4590 Section... Substances § 721.4590 Mannich-based adduct. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as a Mannich-based adduct (PMN P-93-66)...

  10. Hip adduction and abduction strength profiles in elite soccer players

    Thorborg, Kristian; Serner, Andreas; Petersen, Jesper;


    An ipsilateral hip adduction/abduction strength ratio of more than 90%, and hip adduction strength equal to that of the contralateral side have been suggested to clinically represent adequate strength recovery of hip adduction strength in athletes after groin injury. However, to what extent side...



    Objective. DNA modification fixed as mutations in the cells may be an essential factor in the initiation step of chemical carcinogenesis. In order to explore the mechanism of gene mutation and cell transformation induced by glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), the current test studied the characteristics of GMA-DNA adducts formation in vitro.Methods. In vitro test, dAMP, dCMP, dGMP, dTMP and calf thymus DNA were allowed to react with GMA (Glycidyl Methacrylate). After the reaction, the mixtures were detected by UV and subjected to reversed-phase HPLC on ultrasphere ODS reversed-phase column, the reaction products were eluted with a linear gradients of methanol (solvent A) and 10mmol/L ammonium formate, pH5.0 (solvent B). The synthesized adducts were then characterized by UV spectroscopy in acid (pH1.0), neutral (pH7.2), alkaline (pH11.0) and by mass spectroscopy.Results. The results showed that GMA could bind with dAMP, dCMP, dGMP and calf thymus DNA by covalent bond, and the binding sites were specific (N6 of adenine, N3 of cytosine). Meanwhile, a main GMA-DNA adduct in the reaction of GMA with calf thymus DNA was confirmed as N3-methacrylate-2-hydroxypropy1-dCMP.Conclusions. GMA can react with DNA and /or deoxynucleotide monophosphate and generate some adducts such as N6-methacrylate-2-hydroxypropyl-dAMP and N3-methacrylate-2-hydroxypropyl-dCMP, ets. Formation of GMA-DNA adducts is an important molecular event in gene mutation and cell transformation induced by GMA.

  12. Acetaldehyde Adducts in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Mashiko Setshedi


    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol abuse causes liver disease that progresses from simple steatosis through stages of steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually hepatic failure. In addition, chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD, with or without cirrhosis, increases risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Acetaldehyde, a major toxic metabolite, is one of the principal culprits mediating fibrogenic and mutagenic effects of alcohol in the liver. Mechanistically, acetaldehyde promotes adduct formation, leading to functional impairments of key proteins, including enzymes, as well as DNA damage, which promotes mutagenesis. Why certain individuals who heavily abuse alcohol, develop HCC (7.2–15% versus cirrhosis (15–20% is not known, but genetics and co-existing viral infection are considered pathogenic factors. Moreover, adverse effects of acetaldehyde on the cardiovascular and hematologic systems leading to ischemia, heart failure, and coagulation disorders, can exacerbate hepatic injury and increase risk for liver failure. Herein, we review the role of acetaldehyde adducts in the pathogenesis of chronic ALD and HCC.

  13. Prolonged Acetaminophen-Protein Adduct Elimination During Renal Failure, Lack of Adduct Removal by Hemodiafiltration, and Urinary Adduct Concentrations After Acetaminophen Overdose.

    Curry, Steven C; Padilla-Jones, Angela; O'Connor, Ayrn D; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Bikin, Dale S; Wilkins, Diana G; Rollins, Douglas E; Slawson, Matthew H; Gerkin, Richard D


    Elevated concentrations of serum acetaminophen-protein adducts, measured as protein-derived acetaminophen-cysteine (APAP-CYS), have been used to support a diagnosis of APAP-induced liver injury when histories and APAP levels are unhelpful. Adducts have been reported to undergo first-order elimination, with a terminal half-life of about 1.6 days. We wondered whether renal failure would affect APAP-CYS elimination half-life and whether continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), commonly used in liver failure patients, would remove adducts to lower their serum concentrations. Terminal elimination half-lives of serum APAP-CYS were compared between subjects with and without renal failure in a prospective cohort study of 168 adults who had ingested excessive doses of APAP. APAP-CYS concentrations were measured in plasma ultrafiltrate during CVVHDF at times of elevated serum adduct concentrations. Paired samples of urine and serum APAP-CYS concentrations were examined to help understand the potential importance of urinary elimination of serum adducts. APAP-CYS elimination half-life was longer in 15 renal failure subjects than in 28 subjects with normal renal function (41.3 ± 2.2 h versus 26.8 ± 1.1 h [mean ± SEM], respectively, p adduct elimination, and consideration of prolonged elimination needs to be considered if attempting back-extrapolation of adduct concentrations. CVVHDF did not remove detectable APAP-CYS, suggesting approximate APAP-protein adduct molecular weights ≥ 50,000 Da. The presence of urinary APAP-CYS in the minority of instances was most compatible with renal adduct production and protein shedding into urine rather than elimination of serum adducts.

  14. Organocatalytic Removal of Formaldehyde Adducts from RNA and DNA Bases


    Formaldehyde is universally employed to fix tissue specimens, where it forms hemiaminal and aminal adducts with biomolecules, hindering the ability to retrieve molecular information. Common methods for removing these adducts involve extended heating, which can cause extensive degradation of nucleic acids, particularly RNA. Here we show that water-soluble bifunctional catalysts (anthranilates and phosphanilates) speed the reversal of formaldehyde adducts of mononucleotides over standard buffer...

  15. The antimicrobial activities of the cinnamaldehyde adducts with amino acids.

    Wei, Qing-Yi; Xiong, Jia-Jun; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Chao; Wen Ye


    Cinnamaldehyde is a well-established natural antimicrobial compound. It is probable for cinnamaldehyde to react with amino acid forming Schiff base adduct in real food system. In this paper, 9 such kind of adducts were prepared by the direct reaction of amino acids with cinnamaldehyde at room temperature. Their antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated with benzoic acid as a reference. The adducts showed a dose-dependent activities against the three microbial strains. Both cinnamaldehyde and their adducts were more active against B. subtilis than on E. coli, and their antimicrobial activities were higher at lower pH. Both cinnamaldehyde and its adducts were more active than benzoic acid at the same conditions. The adduct compound A was non-toxic by primary oral acute toxicity study in mice. However, in situ effect of the adduct compound A against E. coli was a little lower than cinnamaldehyde in fish meat. This paper for the first time showed that the cinnamaldehyde adducts with amino acids had similar strong antimicrobial activities as cinnamaldehyde, which may provide alternatives to cinnamaldehyde in food to avoid the strong unacceptable odor of cinnamaldehyde.

  16. Fluorescence of Phytochrome Adducts with Synthetic Locked Chromophores*

    Zienicke, Benjamin; Chen, Li-Yi; Khawn, Htoi; Hammam, Mostafa A. S.; Kinoshita, Hideki; Reichert, Johannes; Ulrich, Anne S.; Inomata, Katsuhiko; Lamparter, Tilman


    We performed steady state fluorescence measurements with phytochromes Agp1 and Agp2 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and three mutants in which photoconversion is inhibited. These proteins were assembled with the natural chromophore biliverdin (BV), with phycoerythrobilin (PEB), which lacks a double bond in the ring C-D-connecting methine bridge, and with synthetic bilin derivatives in which the ring C-D-connecting methine bridge is locked. All PEB and locked chromophore adducts are photoinactive. According to fluorescence quantum yields, the adducts may be divided into four different groups: wild type BV adducts exhibiting a weak fluorescence, mutant BV adducts with about 10-fold enhanced fluorescence, adducts with locked chromophores in which the fluorescence quantum yields are around 0.02, and PEB adducts with a high quantum yield of around 0.5. Thus, the strong fluorescence of the PEB adducts is not reached by the locked chromophore adducts, although the photoconversion energy dissipation pathway is blocked. We therefore suggest that ring D of the bilin chromophore, which contributes to the extended π-electron system of the locked chromophores, provides an energy dissipation pathway that is independent on photoconversion. PMID:21071442

  17. Fluorescence of phytochrome adducts with synthetic locked chromophores.

    Zienicke, Benjamin; Chen, Li-Yi; Khawn, Htoi; Hammam, Mostafa A S; Kinoshita, Hideki; Reichert, Johannes; Ulrich, Anne S; Inomata, Katsuhiko; Lamparter, Tilman


    We performed steady state fluorescence measurements with phytochromes Agp1 and Agp2 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and three mutants in which photoconversion is inhibited. These proteins were assembled with the natural chromophore biliverdin (BV), with phycoerythrobilin (PEB), which lacks a double bond in the ring C-D-connecting methine bridge, and with synthetic bilin derivatives in which the ring C-D-connecting methine bridge is locked. All PEB and locked chromophore adducts are photoinactive. According to fluorescence quantum yields, the adducts may be divided into four different groups: wild type BV adducts exhibiting a weak fluorescence, mutant BV adducts with about 10-fold enhanced fluorescence, adducts with locked chromophores in which the fluorescence quantum yields are around 0.02, and PEB adducts with a high quantum yield of around 0.5. Thus, the strong fluorescence of the PEB adducts is not reached by the locked chromophore adducts, although the photoconversion energy dissipation pathway is blocked. We therefore suggest that ring D of the bilin chromophore, which contributes to the extended π-electron system of the locked chromophores, provides an energy dissipation pathway that is independent on photoconversion.

  18. A liquid-crystalline hexa-adduct of [60]fullerene

    Chuard, Thierry; Deschenaux, Robert; Hirsch, Andreas; Schönberger, Hubert


    A hexa-adduct of [60]fullerene was synthesized by addition of a mesomorphic twin cyanobiphenyl malonate derivative to C60; whereas the malonate derivative gave a monotropic nematic phase, the fullerene hexa-adduct showed an enantiotropic smectic A phase.

  19. 18. Adduct detection in human monitoring for carcinogen exposure


    @@Determination of the covalently bound products (adducts) of carcinogens with DNA or proteins may be used for the monitoring of exposure to these compounds. Protein adducts are generally stable and are not enzymatically repaired, and the use of these for cxposure monitoring is normally carried out with globin or albumin, because

  20. Synthesis and Photophysical Properties of C60-carbazole Adducts

    YIN ,Gui(尹桂); YIN,Gui; MAO,Xin-Ping(毛新平); MAO,Xin-Ping; SUO,Zhi-Yong(锁志勇); SUO,Zhi-Yong; XU,Zheng(徐正); XU,Zheng


    Three C60-cartazole adducts have been synthesized by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction.Intramolecular energy/electron transfer from carbazole to C60 was observed by steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectra.The fluorescence spectra of these adducts were similau to each other and dependent on the excitation wavelength and solvent.

  1. Diet-related DNA adduct formation in relation to carcinogenesis.

    Hemeryck, Lieselot Y; Vanhaecke, Lynn


    The human diet contributes significantly to the initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. It has become clear that the human diet contains several groups of natural foodborne chemicals that are at least in part responsible for the genotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic potential of certain foodstuffs. Electrophilic chemicals are prone to attack nucleophilic sites in DNA, resulting in the formation of altered nucleobases, also known as DNA adducts. Since DNA adduct formation is believed to signal the onset of chemically induced carcinogenesis, the DNA adduct-inducing potential of certain foodstuffs has been investigated to gain more insight into diet-related pathways of carcinogenesis. Many studies have investigated diet-related DNA adduct formation. This review summarizes work on known or suspected dietary carcinogens and the role of DNA adduct formation in hypothesized carcinogenesis pathways.

  2. The knee adduction moment during gait is associated with the adduction angle measured during computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty.

    Roda, Richard D; Wilson, Janie L Astephen; Wilson, David A J; Richardson, Glen; Dunbar, Michael J


    Computer-assisted surgery can be used to measure 3-dimensional knee function during arthroplasty surgery; however, it is unknown if the movement of the knee measured during surgery is related to the in vitro, dynamic state of the knee joint, specifically the knee adduction moment during gait, which has been related to implant migration. The purpose of this study was to determine if the preoperative adduction moment is correlated with the knee abduction/adduction angle measured intraoperatively. A statistically significant correlation was found between the mean (r(2) = 0.59; P = .001) and peak (r(2) = 0.53; P = .003) preoperative knee adduction moment and the mean abduction/adduction angle measured intraoperatively. The association found in this study suggests the potential for incorporating functional information that relates to surgical outcome into surgical decision making using computer-assisted surgery.

  3. Redshift or adduct stabilization -- a computational study of hydrogen bonding in adducts of protonated carboxylic acids

    Olesen, Solveig Gaarn; Hammerum, Steen


    not always yield consistent predictions, as illustrated by the hydrogen bonds formed by the E and Z OH groups of protonated carboxylic acids. The delta-PA and the stabilization of a series of hydrogen bonded adducts indicate that the E OH group forms the stronger hydrogen bonds, whereas the bond length...... carboxylic acids are different. The OH bond length and IR redshift afford the better measure of hydrogen bond strength....

  4. Infrared spectroscopy of fullerene C60/anthracene adducts

    Garcia-Hernandez, D A; Manchado, A


    Recent Spitzer Space Telescope observations of several astrophysical environments such as Planetary Nebulae, Reflection Nebulae, and R Coronae Borealis stars show the simultaneous presence of mid-infrared features attributed to neutral fullerene molecules (i.e., C60) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). If C60 fullerenes and PAHs coexist in fullerene-rich space environments, then C60 may easily form adducts with a number of different PAH molecules; at least with catacondensed PAHs. Here we present the laboratory infrared spectra (~2-25 um) of C60 fullerene and anthracene Dies-Alder mono- and bis-adducts as produced by sonochemical synthesis. We find that C60/anthracene Diels-Alder adducts display spectral features strikingly similar to those from C60 (and C70) fullerenes and other unidentified infrared emission features. Thus, fullerene-adducts - if formed under astrophysical conditions and stable/abundant enough - may contribute to the infrared emission features observed in fullerene-containing circu...

  5. Detection of adriamycin-DNA adducts by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Coldwell, Kate; Cutts, Suzanne M; Ognibene, Ted J; Henderson, Paul T; Phillips, Don R


    There have been many attempts in the past to determine whether significant levels of Adriamycin-DNA adducts form in cells and contribute to the anticancer activity of this agent. Supraclincal drug levels have been required to study drug-DNA adducts because of the lack of sensitivity associated with many of the techniques employed, including liquid scintillation counting of radiolabeled drug. The use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has provided the first direct evidence of Adriamycin-DNA adduct formation in cells at clinically relevant Adriamycin concentrations. The exceedingly sensitive nature of AMS has enabled over three orders of magnitude increased sensitivity of Adriamycin-DNA adduct detection (compared to liquid scintillation counting) and has revealed adduct formation within an hour of drug treatment. The rigorous protocol required for this approach, together with many notes on the precautions and procedures required in order to ensure that absolute levels of Adriamycin-DNA adducts can be determined with good reproducibility, is outlined in this chapter.

  6. Stable acetaldehyde--protein adducts as biomarkers of alcohol exposure.

    Conduah Birt, J E; Shuker, D E; Farmer, P B


    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been associated with increased risks of a number of chronic disorders including cancers. It is still not clear whether ethyl alcohol or other components such as metabolites are directly involved in the carcinogenic process or whether the effects are due to the modulation of metabolism of other carcinogens. At present, there is no good biomarker of alcohol intake, particularly at low or moderate levels of consumption. A number of studies have shown the ability of the major metabolite acetaldehyde to react with proteins in vitro to give stable and unstable adducts. The interaction of acetaldehyde with model peptides, which correspond to N-terminal globin sequences, was studied. The major stable adduct was identified by mass spectrometry and NMR as a diastereoisomeric mixture of imidazolidinones. This is believed to be formed by reaction and cyclization of the initial Schiff base adduct with the N-terminal valine. Incubation of human globin with acetaldehyde (0-2 mM) yielded products which were identified as the N-terminal adducts by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) of proteolytic digests. The specificity and sensitivity of the analysis was improved by the use of on-line HPLC-ESI-MS. Tryptic digests of the modified globin which contained both the N-terminal acetaldehyde adducts of alpha-globin (heptapeptide) and beta-globin (octapeptide) were resolved. These results suggest that analysis of stable imidazolidinone adducts is a promising approach to estimation of alcohol exposure.

  7. A mitomycin-N6-deoxyadenosine adduct isolated from DNA.

    Palom, Y; Lipman, R; Musser, S M; Tomasz, M


    A minor N6-deoxyadenosine adduct of mitomycin C (MC) was isolated from synthetic oligonucleotides and calf thymus DNA, representing the first adduct of MC and a DNA base other than guanine. The structure of the adduct (8) was elucidated using submilligram quantities of total available material. UV difference spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and electrospray mass spectroscopy as well as chemical transformations were utilized in deriving the structure of 8. A series of synthetic oligonucleotides was designed to probe the specificities of the alkylation of adenine by MC. The nature and frequency of the oligonucleotide-MC adducts formed under conditions of reductive activation of MC were determined by their enzymatic digestion to the nucleoside level followed by quantitative analysis of the products by HPLC. The analyses indicated the following: (i) (A)n sequence is favored over (AT)n for adduct formation; (ii) the alkylation favors the duplex structure; (iii) at adenine sites only monofunctional alkylation occurs; (iv) the adenine-to-alkylation frequency in the model oligonucleotides was 0.3-0.6 relative to guanine alkylation at the 5'-ApG sequence but only 0.02-0.1 relative to guanine alkylation at 5'-CpG. The 5'-phosphodiester linkage of the MC-adenine adduct is resistant to snake venom diesterase. The overall ratio of adenine to guanine alkylation in calf thymus DNA was 0.03, indicating that 8 is a minor MC-DNA adduct relative to MC-DNA adducts at guanine residues in the present experimental residues in the present experimental system. However, the HPLC elution time of 8 coincides with that of a major, unknown MC adduct detected previously in mouse mammary tumor cells treated with radiolabeled MC [Bizanek, R., Chowdary, D., Arai, H., Kasai, M., Hughes, C. S., Sartorelli, A. C., Rockwell, S., and Tomasz, M. (1993) Cancer Res. 53, 5127-5134]. Thus, 8 may be identical or closely related to this major adduct formed in vivo. This possibility can now be tested by

  8. Tissue distribution of DNA adducts and their persistence in blood of mice exposed to benzene

    Guilan Li; Wang Chunguang; Songnian Yin [Institute of Occupational Medicine Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, Beijing (China); Weidong Xin [Medical College of Qingdao, Shandong Province (China)


    Chemicals combine with DNA, resulting in DNA damage, which could initiate carcinogenesis. To study whether benzene or benzene metabolites bind to DNA, DNA adducts in various tissues and their persistence in leukocytes were examined using the {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay. LACA mice were dosed in with benzene at 500 mg/kg bw twice daily for 5 days. Two additional spots of DNA adducts are formed in bone marrow cells, liver cells, and peripheral blood compared with control mice. The relative adduct labeling values are 10.39, 11.32, and 13.77 adducts; x 10{sup -8} nucleotides in these tissues, respectively. DNA adducts in blood leukocytes were observed at 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days after exposure to benzene, but adduct levels decreased as a function of time. Relative adduct labeling of {open_quotes}adduct B{close_quotes} declined linearly but mildly, while {open_quotes}adduct C{close_quotes} displayed a stepwise decrease. The relative adduct labeling values of both these adducts at day 14 were 50% of those at day 1 after the last treatment. Both adducts were still detectable at day 21 after benzene exposure. These studies demonstrate that benzene could induce DNA adducts; in bone marrow, liver, and white blood cells of mice dosed with benzene and that measurement of adducts in white blood cells may be useful as a biomarker to predict carcinogenic risk of benzene to workers exposed to benzene. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Partitioning of knee joint internal forces in gait is dictated by the knee adduction angle and not by the knee adduction moment.

    Adouni, M; Shirazi-Adl, A


    Medial knee osteoarthritis is a debilitating disease. Surgical and conservative interventions are performed to manage its progression via reduction of load on the medial compartment or equivalently its surrogate measure, the external adduction moment. However, some studies have questioned a correlation between the medial load and adduction moment. Using a musculoskeletal model of the lower extremity driven by kinematics-kinetics of asymptomatic subjects at gait midstance, we aim here to quantify the relative effects of changes in the knee adduction angle versus changes in the adduction moment on the joint response and medial/lateral load partitioning. The reference adduction rotation of 1.6° is altered by ±1.5° to 3.1° and 0.1° or the knee reference adduction moment of 17Nm is varied by ±50% to 25.5Nm and 8.5Nm. Quadriceps, hamstrings and tibiofemoral contact forces substantially increased as adduction angle dropped and diminished as it increased. The medial/lateral ratio of contact forces slightly altered by changes in the adduction moment but a larger adduction rotation hugely increased this ratio from 8.8 to a 90 while in contrast a smaller adduction rotation yielded a more uniform distribution. If the aim in an intervention is to diminish the medial contact force and medial/lateral load ratio, a drop of 1.5° in adduction angle is much more effective (causing respectively 12% and 80% decreases) than a reduction of 50% in the adduction moment (causing respectively 4% and 13% decreases). Substantial role of changes in adduction angle is due to the associated alterations in joint nonlinear passive resistance. These findings explain the poor correlation between knee adduction moment and tibiofemoral compartment loading during gait suggesting that the internal load partitioning is dictated by the joint adduction angle.

  10. Organocatalytic removal of formaldehyde adducts from RNA and DNA bases

    Karmakar, Saswata; Harcourt, Emily M.; Hewings, David S.; Lovejoy, Alexander F.; Kurtz, David M.; Ehrenschwender, Thomas; Barandun, Luzi J.; Roost, Caroline; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Kool, Eric T.


    Formaldehyde is universally used to fix tissue specimens, where it forms hemiaminal and aminal adducts with biomolecules, hindering the ability to retrieve molecular information. Common methods for removing these adducts involve extended heating, which can cause extensive degradation of nucleic acids, particularly RNA. Here, we show that water-soluble bifunctional catalysts (anthranilates and phosphanilates) speed the reversal of formaldehyde adducts of mononucleotides over standard buffers. Studies with formaldehyde-treated RNA oligonucleotides show that the catalysts enhance adduct removal, restoring unmodified RNA at 37 °C even when extensively modified, while avoiding the high temperatures that promote RNA degradation. Experiments with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell samples show that the catalysis is compatible with common RNA extraction protocols, with detectable RNA yields increased by 1.5-2.4-fold using a catalyst under optimized conditions and by 7-25-fold compared with a commercial kit. Such catalytic strategies show promise for general use in reversing formaldehyde adducts in clinical specimens.

  11. Glutathione Adduct Patterns of Michael-Acceptor Carbonyls.

    Slawik, Christian; Rickmeyer, Christiane; Brehm, Martin; Böhme, Alexander; Schüürmann, Gerrit


    Glutathione (GSH) has so far been considered to facilitate detoxification of soft organic electrophiles through covalent binding at its cysteine (Cys) thiol group, followed by stepwise catalyzed degradation and eventual elimination along the mercapturic acid pathway. Here we show that in contrast to expectation from HSAB theory, Michael-acceptor ketones, aldehydes and esters may form also single, double and triple adducts with GSH involving β-carbon attack at the much harder N-terminus of the γ-glutamyl (Glu) unit of GSH. In particular, formation of the GSH-N single adduct contradicts the traditional view that S alkylation always forms the initial reaction of GSH with Michael-acceptor carbonyls. To this end, chemoassay analyses of the adduct formation of GSH with nine α,β-unsaturated carbonyls employing high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry have been performed. Besides enriching the GSH adductome and potential biomarker applications, electrophilic N-terminus functio-nalization is likely to impair GSH homeostasis substantially through blocking the γ-glutamyl transferase catalysis of the first breakdown step of modified GSH, and thus its timely reconstitution. The discussion includes a comparison with cyclic adducts of GSH and furan metabolites as reported in literature, and quantum chemically calculated thermodynamics of hard-hard, hard-soft and soft-soft adducts.

  12. A stabilised tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane adduct in reduced collagen.

    Cannon, D J; Davison, P F


    The reduction of collagen with sodium [3H] borohydride in the presence of Tris buffer results in the stabilization of a Schiff base adduct which is formed between allysine residues and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane. The reduced, radioactive derivative of this adduct has been identified in hydrolyzates or reduced collagen. It elutes before hydroxylysine on an amino acid analyzer column close to the position of dihydroxylysinonorleucine. Similar artifacts may occur when aldehydes present in or added to proteins react with Tris or other amines prior to reduction.

  13. Chemistry and Biology of Aflatoxin-DNA Adducts

    Stone, Michael P.; Banerjee, Surajit; Brown, Kyle L.; Egli, Martin (Vanderbilt)


    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal contaminant of stored rice, wheat, corn, and other grainstuffs, and peanuts. This is of concern to human health because it produces the mycotoxin aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}), which is genotoxic and is implicated in the etiology of liver cancer. AFB{sub 1} is oxidized in vivo by cytochrome P450 to form aflatoxin B{sub 1} epoxide, which forms an N7-dG adduct (AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG) in DNA. The latter rearranges to a formamidopyrimidine (AFB{sub 1}-FAPY) derivative that equilibrates between {alpha} and {beta} anomers of the deoxyribose. In DNA, both the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adducts intercalate above the 5'-face of the damaged guanine. Each produces G {yields} T transversions in Escherichia coli, but the AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adduct is more mutagenic. The Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) provides a model for understanding error-prone bypass of the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adducts. It bypasses the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct, but it conducts error-prone replication past the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct, including mis-insertion of dATP, consistent with the G {yields} T mutations characteristic of AFB{sub 1} mutagenesis in E. coli. Crystallographic analyses of a series of binary and ternary complexes with the Dpo4 polymerase revealed differing orientations of the N7-C8 bond of the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct as compared to the N{sup 5}-C8 bond in the AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adduct, and differential accommodation of the intercalated AFB{sub 1} moieties within the active site. These may modulate AFB{sub 1} lesion bypass by this polymerase.

  14. Quantitation of DNA Adducts Induced by 1,3-Butadiene

    Sangaraju, Dewakar; Villalta, Peter W.; Wickramaratne, Susith; Swenberg, James; Tretyakova, Natalia


    Human exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) present in automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke, and forest fires is of great concern because of its potent carcinogenicity. The adverse health effects of BD are mediated by its epoxide metabolites such as 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), which covalently modify genomic DNA to form promutagenic nucleobase adducts. Because of their direct role in cancer, BD-DNA adducts can be used as mechanism-based biomarkers of BD exposure. In the present work, a mass spectrometry-based methodology was developed for accurate, sensitive, and precise quantification of EB-induced N-7-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl) guanine (EB-GII) DNA adducts in vivo. In our approach, EB-GII adducts are selectively released from DNA backbone by neutral thermal hydrolysis, followed by ultrafiltration, offline HPLC purification, and isotope dilution nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 analysis on an Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. Following method validation, EB-GII lesions were quantified in human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells treated with micromolar concentrations of EB and in liver tissues of rats exposed to sub-ppm concentrations of BD (0.5-1.5 ppm). EB-GII concentrations increased linearly from 1.15 ± 0.23 to 10.11 ± 0.45 adducts per 106 nucleotides in HT1080 cells treated with 0.5-10 μM DEB. EB-GII concentrations in DNA of laboratory rats exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm BD were 0.17 ± 0.05, 0.33 ± 0.08, and 0.50 ± 0.04 adducts per 106 nucleotides, respectively. We also used the new method to determine the in vivo half-life of EB-GII adducts in rat liver DNA (2.20 ± 0.12 d) and to detect EB-GII in human blood DNA. To our knowledge, this is the first application of nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 Orbitrap methodology to quantitative analysis of DNA adducts in vivo.

  15. Strategy for identifying unknown hemoglobin adducts using adductome LC-MS/MS data: Identification of adducts corresponding to acrylic acid, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and 1-octen-3-one.

    Carlsson, Henrik; Törnqvist, Margareta


    Electrophilic compounds have the ability to form adducts with nucleophilic sites in proteins and DNA in tissues, and thereby constitute risks for toxic effects. Adductomic approaches are developed for systematic screening of adducts to DNA and blood proteins, with the aim to detect unknown internal exposures to electrophiles. In a previous adductomic screening of adducts to N-terminals in hemoglobin, using LC-MS/MS, 19 unknown adducts were detected in addition to seven previously identified adducts. The present paper describes the identification of four of these unknown adducts, as well as the strategy used to identify them. Using LC-MS data from the screening, hypotheses about adduct identities were formulated: probable precursor electrophiles with matching molecular weights were suggested based on the molecular weights of the modifications and the retention times of the analytes, in combination with comparisons of theoretical Log P calculations and databases. Reference adducts were generated by incubation of blood samples with the hypothesized precursor electrophiles. The four identified precursor electrophiles, corresponding to the observed unknown adducts, were glyoxal, methylglyoxal, acrylic acid and 1-octen-3-one. Possible origins/exposure sources and toxicological information concerning the electrophilic precursors are discussed. The identified adducts could be explored as possible biomarkers for exposure.

  16. DNA and protein adducts in human tissues resulting from exposure to tobacco smoke

    Phillips, David H.; Venitt, Stan


    Tobacco smoke contains a variety of genotoxic carcinogens that form adducts with DNA and protein in the tissues of smokers. Not only are these biochemical events relevant to the carcinogenic process, but the detection of adducts provides a means of monitoring exposure to tobacco smoke. Characterization of smoking-related adducts has shed light on the mechanisms of smoking-related diseases and many different types of smoking-derived DNA and protein adducts have been identified. Such approaches...


    Kosińska, Katarzyna; Frański, Rafał; Frańska, Magdalena


    Amoxicillin and ampicillin were subjected to methanolysis. As expected, the methanolysis products were observed by HPLC-ESI-MS. Besides these products, diketopiperazine derivatives were also detected. Additionally, unusually stable adduct formed between the products of methanolysis and diketopiperazine derivatives was also identified. Analogical adducts were detected when ethanolysis was performed instead of methanolysis. HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of the separated adducts confirmed that the adducts were composed of methanolysis products and diketopiperazine derivatives.

  18. 40 CFR 721.465 - Alkoxylated alkylpolyol acrylates, adduct with alkylamine (generic).


    ..., adduct with alkylamine (generic). 721.465 Section 721.465 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.465 Alkoxylated alkylpolyol acrylates, adduct with... substances identified generically as alkoxylated alkylpolyol acrylates, adduct with alkylamine (PMNs...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1850 - Toluene sulfonamide bis-phe-nol A epoxy adduct.


    ... epoxy adduct. 721.1850 Section 721.1850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1850 Toluene sulfonamide bis-phe-nol A epoxy adduct. (a) Chemical... as toluene sulfonamide bisphenol A epoxy adduct (PMN P-90-113) is subject to reporting under...

  20. Environmental, Dietary, Maternal, and Fetal Predictors of Bulky DNA Adducts in Cord Blood

    Pedersen, Marie; Mendez, Michelle A; Schoket, Bernadette


    BACKGROUND: Bulky DNA adducts reflect genotoxic exposures, have been associated with lower birth weight, and may predict cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: We selected factors known or hypothesized to affect in utero adduct formation and repair and examined their associations with adduct levels in neonates....

  1. Triphosgene mediated chlorination of Baylis-Hillman adducts

    Narender Reddy Thatikonda; Naga Sesha Sai Pavan Kumar Chebolu; Mahendar Budde; Jayathirtha Rao Vaidya


    An efficient method for the preparation of allyl chlorides from Baylis-Hillman adducts has been developed using triphosgene/pyridine system. This method is best illustrated by its advantages like operational simplicity, excellent yields, short reaction time, simple procedure and stereoselectivity.

  2. EMG evaluation of hip adduction exercises for soccer players

    Serner, Andreas; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis


    for the adductor longus during eight hip adduction strengthening exercises and peak EMG was normalised (nEMG) using an isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) as reference. Furthermore, muscle activation of the gluteus medius, rectus abdominis and the external abdominal obliques was analysed during...

  3. Spin traps: in vitro toxicity and stability of radical adducts.

    Khan, Nadeem; Wilmot, Carmen M; Rosen, Gerald M; Demidenko, Eugene; Sun, Jie; Joseph, Joy; O'Hara, Julia; Kalyanaraman, B; Swartz, Harold M


    We have evaluated the effects of DMPO, CMPO, EMPO, BMPO, and DEPMPO on functioning CHO cells and the stability of the radical adducts in the presence of cells. The potential toxic effects of the spin traps were measured by two estimates of cell viability (trypan blue exclusion and colony formation) and one of cell function (rate of oxygen consumption). We also studied the effects of the spin traps on colony formation in a second cell line, 9L tumor cells. Toxicity varied with the type of cell line and the parameter that was measured. In aqueous solutions the order of stability for all spin adducts was SO(3) > OH > CH(3), while in cell suspensions it was SO(3) > OH approximately CH(3). The radical adducts of the new spin traps have significantly increased stability as compared to DMPO. These results indicate that the new spin traps potentially offer increased stability of spin adducts in functioning cells. It also is clear that it is necessary to carry out appropriate studies of the stability and toxicity in the system that is to be studied for any particular use of these spin traps. It then should be feasible to select the spin trap(s) best suited for the proposed study.




    Full Text Available Three new adducts and derivative have been synthesized and studied by infrared and NMR spectroscopies. The suggested structures are discrete with a sulfate behaving as a monochelating, bichelating or monodentate ligand, the environments around the tin centre being octahedral or pentagonal bipyramidal. In all the studied compounds, proposed supramolecular architectures may be obtained when intermolecular hydrogen bonds are considered.

  5. Therapy-induced carboplatin-DNA adduct levels in human ovarian tumours in relation to assessment of adduct measurement in mouse tissues.

    Jarvis, Ian W H; Meczes, Emma L; Thomas, Huw D; Edmondson, Richard J; Veal, Gareth J; Boddy, Alan V; Ottley, Christopher J; Pearson, D Graham; Tilby, Michael J


    Despite an increasing understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which platinum drug DNA adducts interact with cellular processes, the relationship between adduct formation in tumours and clinical response remains unclear. We have determined carboplatin-DNA adduct levels in biopsies removed from ovarian cancer patients following treatment. Reliability of DNA adduct measurements in tissues samples were assessed using experimental animals. Platinum-DNA adduct levels were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and plasma drug concentrations determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Adduct levels in tissues and plasma pharmacokinetics were determined in Balb/c mice exposed to platinum drugs. Comparisons of adduct levels in tumour and normal tissue were made in nu/nu mice carrying human neuroblastoma xenografts. At 30 min post-cisplatin administration, adduct levels in DNA from kidney and liver were approximately 10- and 6-fold higher than spleen or tumour. By 60 min, levels in liver and kidney, but not spleen or tumour, had fallen considerably. Carboplatin showed high adduct levels only in kidney. Adduct levels in tumour xenografts were comparable to those induced in vitro with similar drug exposures. In clinical samples removed 6h after drug administration, adduct levels ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 and 0.2 to 3.6 nmol Pt/g DNA for tumour biopsies and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively. No correlation was apparent between these two data sets. The present results demonstrate that reliable measurements of adducts in clinical tumours are feasible. Future results should provide insight into drug resistance.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of manganese-glycine and copper-glycine adducts

    Robson Fernandes de Farias


    Full Text Available This work reports the synthesis and characterization of adducts of general formula MCl2.ngly, where M= Mn and Cu; n= 2 and 4, and gly= glycine. The manganese adducts were synthesized by dissolution of both, manganese chloride and glycine in water, whereas the copper adducts were obtained by using an alternative solid state synthesis approach. For all adducts, the obtained infrared data shows that the coordination involves the amine nitrogen atom, as well as an oxygen atom of the COO- group. The TG curves for the synthesized adducts exhibit only one mass loss step associated with the release of glycine molecules.

  7. Immunochemical detection of sulfur mustard-adducts with DNA and proteins: Exploratory research on adducts with proteins

    Schans, G.P. van der; Noort, D.; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Dijk-Knijnenburg, H.C.M. van; Fidder, A.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Benschop, H.P.


    We have developed two modes of a standard operating procedure (SOP) for immunochemical detection of sulfur mustard adducts to DNA in human blood and skin. In the shortened mode data could be generated within 9 h after in vitro exposure of human blood to > 1 μM sulfur mustard. The sensitive mode allo

  8. Photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry

    Shi, Yun-bo


    This thesis consists of three main parts and totally eight chapters. In Part I, The author will present studies on the photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, specifically, the wavelength dependencies for the photoreversals of thymidine-HMT (4'-hydroxymethyl-4, 5', 8-trimenthylpsoralen) monoadducts and diadduct and the same adducts incorporated in DNA helices and the wavelength dependecies for the photocrossslinking of thymidine-HMT monoadducts in double-stranded helices. In Part II, The author will report some biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, i.e., the effects on double-stranded DNA stability, DNA structure, and transcription by E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases. Finally, The author will focus on the applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry to investigation of protein-DNA interaction during transcription, which includes the interaction of E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases with DNA in elongation complexes arrested at specific psoralen-DNA adduct sites as revealed by DNase I footprinting experiments. 123 refs., 52 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Synthesis, structure, and reactivity of diazene adducts: isolation of iso-diazene stabilized as a borane adduct.

    Reiß, Fabian; Schulz, Axel; Villinger, Alexander


    This work describes the synthesis and full characterization of a series of GaCl3 and B(C6 F5 )3 adducts of diazenes R(1) NNR(2) (R(1) =R(2) =Me3 Si, Ph; R(1) =Me3 Si, R(2) =Ph). Trans-PhNNPh forms a stable adduct with GaCl3 , whereas no adduct, but instead a frustrated Lewis acid-base pair is formed with B(C6 F5 )3 . The cis-PhNNPh⋅B(C6 F5 )3 adduct could only be isolated when UV light was used, which triggers the isomerization from trans- to cis-PhNNPh, which provides more space for the bulky borane. Treatment of trans-PhNNSiMe3 with GaCl3 led to the expected trans-PhNNSiMe3 ⋅GaCl3 adduct but the reaction with B(C6 F5 )3 triggered a 1,2-Me3 Si shift, which resulted in the formation of a highly labile iso-diazene, Me3 Si(Ph)NN; stabilized as a B(C6 F5 )3 adduct. Trans-Me3 SiNNSiMe3 forms a labile cis-Me3 SiNNSiMe3 ⋅B(C6 F5 )3 adduct, which isomerizes to give the transient iso-diazene species (Me3 Si)2 NN⋅B(C6 F5 )3 upon heating. Both iso-diazene species insert easily into one BC bond of B(C6 F5 )3 to afford hydrazinoboranes. All new compounds were fully characterized by means of X-ray crystallography, vibrational spectroscopy, CHN analysis, and NMR spectroscopy. All compounds were further investigated by DFT and the bonding situation was assessed by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis.

  10. Detection of Adriamycin-DNA adducts by accelerator mass spectrometry at clinically relevant Adriamycin concentrations.

    Coldwell, Kate E; Cutts, Suzanne M; Ognibene, Ted J; Henderson, Paul T; Phillips, Don R


    Limited sensitivity of existing assays has prevented investigation of whether Adriamycin-DNA adducts are involved in the anti-tumour potential of Adriamycin. Previous detection has achieved a sensitivity of a few Adriamycin-DNA adducts/10(4) bp DNA, but has required the use of supra-clinical drug concentrations. This work sought to measure Adriamycin-DNA adducts at sub-micromolar doses using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a technique with origins in geochemistry for radiocarbon dating. We have used conditions previously validated (by less sensitive decay counting) to extract [(14)C]Adriamycin-DNA adducts from cells and adapted the methodology to AMS detection. Here we show the first direct evidence of Adriamycin-DNA adducts at clinically-relevant Adriamycin concentrations. [(14)C]Adriamycin treatment (25 nM) resulted in 4.4 +/- 1.0 adducts/10(7) bp ( approximately 1300 adducts/cell) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, representing the best sensitivity and precision reported to date for the covalent binding of Adriamycin to DNA. The exceedingly sensitive nature of AMS has enabled over three orders of magnitude increased sensitivity of Adriamycin-DNA adduct detection and revealed adduct formation within an hour of drug treatment. This method has been shown to be highly reproducible for the measurement of Adriamycin-DNA adducts in tumour cells in culture and can now be applied to the detection of these adducts in human tissues.

  11. Exposure of bus and taxi drivers to urban air pollutants as measured by DNA and protein adducts

    Hemminki, K.; Zhang, L.F.; Krüger, J.;


    Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, lymphocyte DNA adducts, serum protein-bound PAH and hemoglobin-bound alkene adducts were analysed from 4 groups of non-smoking men: urban and suburban bus drivers, taxi drivers and suburban controls. The only differences between the groups were in DNA adducts between...... suburban bus drivers and controls, and in DNA adduct and plasma protein PAH-adducts between taxi drivers and controls....

  12. Crystal Structure of Ethanolamine 5-Nitrosalicylic Acid Organic Adduct

    金轶; 车云霞; 魏荣敏; 郑吉民


    The title adduct (C18H24N4O12, Mr = 488.41) crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 4.0514(19), b = 25.193(11), c = 10.751(5)(A), β = 95.070(8)o, V = 1093.0(9)(A)3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.484 g/cm3, F(000) = 512, μ(MoKα) = 1.26 cm-1, T = 293 K, the final R = 0.0593 and wR = 0.0862 for 956 observed reflections with I > 2(I). The compound is a 1:1 adduct of ethanolamine and 5-nitrosalicylic acid. The nitrogen atom of ethanolamine is protonated. In this crystal there exist a number of hydrogen bonds which link the ethanolamine and 5-nitrosalicylic acid molecules to form a three-dimensional infinite network structure.

  13. Diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure to sulfur mustard: Development of a standard operating procedure for mass spectrometric analysis of haemoglobin adducts - Exploratory research on albumin and keratin adducts

    Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Benschop, H.P.


    Experiments were carried out to develop a standard operating procedure for analysis of sulfur mustard adducts to the N-terminal valine in haemoglobin and to explore adduct formation with albumin and keratin. In the first approach, gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization/mass spectrometry (GC

  14. Diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure to sulfur mustard: Development of a standard operating procedure for hemoglobin adducts: Exploratory research on albumin and keratin adducts

    Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Schans, G.P. van der; Benschop, H.P.


    A standard operating procedure (SOP) for determination of the sulfur mustard adduct to the N-terminal valine in hemoglobin was developed. By using this SOP, it was found that the Nterminal valine adduct in globin of hairless guinea pigs and marmosets which had been exposed to sulfur mustard (0.5 LD5

  15. Protein tyrosine adduct in humans self-poisoned by chlorpyrifos

    Li, Bin, E-mail: [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Eyer, Peter, E-mail: [Walther-Straub-Institut Für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80336 München (Germany); Eddleston, Michael, E-mail: [Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Jiang, Wei, E-mail: [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Schopfer, Lawrence M., E-mail: [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Lockridge, Oksana, E-mail: [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States)


    Studies of human cases of self-inflicted poisoning suggest that chlorpyrifos oxon reacts not only with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase but also with other blood proteins. A favored candidate is albumin because in vitro and animal studies have identified tyrosine 411 of albumin as a site covalently modified by organophosphorus poisons. Our goal was to test this proposal in humans by determining whether plasma from humans poisoned by chlorpyrifos has adducts on tyrosine. Plasma samples from 5 self-poisoned humans were drawn at various time intervals after ingestion of chlorpyrifos for a total of 34 samples. All 34 samples were analyzed for plasma levels of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) as a function of time post-ingestion. Eleven samples were analyzed for the presence of diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine by mass spectrometry. Six samples yielded diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine in pronase digests. Blood collected as late as 5 days after chlorpyrifos ingestion was positive for CPO-tyrosine, consistent with the 20-day half-life of albumin. High plasma CPO levels did not predict detectable levels of CPO-tyrosine. CPO-tyrosine was identified in pralidoxime treated patients as well as in patients not treated with pralidoxime, indicating that pralidoxime does not reverse CPO binding to tyrosine in humans. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase was a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than adducts on tyrosine. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon makes a stable covalent adduct on the tyrosine residue of blood proteins in humans who ingested chlorpyrifos. - Highlights: • Chlorpyrifos-poisoned patients have adducts on protein tyrosine. • Diethoxyphosphate-tyrosine does not lose an alkyl group. • Proteins in addition to AChE and BChE are modified by organophosphates.

  16. Ion Pairs or Neutral Molecule Adducts? Cooperativity in Hydrogen Bonding

    DeKock, Roger L.; Schipper, Laura A.; Dykhouse, Stephanie C.; Heeringa, Lee P.; Brandsen, Benjamin M.


    We performed theoretical studies on the systems NH[subscript 3] times HF times mH[subscript 2]O, NH[subscript 3] times HCl times mH[subscript 2]O, with m = 0, 1, 2, and 6. The molecules with m = 0 form hydrogen-bonded adducts with little tendency to form an ion-pair structure. The molecule NH[subscript 3] times HCl times H[subscript 2]O cannot be…

  17. Fluorescence of Phytochrome Adducts with Synthetic Locked Chromophores*

    Zienicke, Benjamin; Chen, Li-Yi; Khawn, Htoi; Hammam, Mostafa A. S.; Kinoshita, Hideki; Reichert, Johannes; Ulrich, Anne S.; Inomata, Katsuhiko; Lamparter, Tilman


    We performed steady state fluorescence measurements with phytochromes Agp1 and Agp2 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and three mutants in which photoconversion is inhibited. These proteins were assembled with the natural chromophore biliverdin (BV), with phycoerythrobilin (PEB), which lacks a double bond in the ring C-D-connecting methine bridge, and with synthetic bilin derivatives in which the ring C-D-connecting methine bridge is locked. All PEB and locked chromophore adducts are photoinactive...




    Full Text Available Two new hydrogenoxalato and one malonato adduct and complex have been synthesized and studied by infrared and NMR spectroscopies. The suggested structures are discrete, the hydrogenoxalate behaving as a monodentate ligand or only involved in hydrogen bonding, the environment around the tin (IV centre being tetrahedral or trigonal bipyramidal. The malonate anion is a monodentate ligand. In all the suggested structures, when extra hydrogen bonds are considered, supramolecular architectures are obtained.




    Full Text Available Three new adducts have been synthesized and studied by infrared and NMR spectroscopies. The suggested structures are discrete with a pyridine -3- sulfonate acting as a tri O-chelating and N-donor or as a non σ coordinating ligand, a 4-aminobenzenesulfonate behaving as a monodentate O-donor, the environments around the tin centre being tetrahedral, octahedral or seven coordinated. In all the studied compounds, supramolecular architectures are obtained when hydrogen bonds are considered.




    Full Text Available Four new phenylarseniato adducts and organotin derivatives have been synthesized and studied by infrared. The suggested structures are polymeric, (SnX4; X = Cl, Br and SnPh3Cl while being discrete for SnPh2Cl(PhAsO3H2isoBu2NH2. When OH- - - Cl, NH - - - O or NH- - -Cl hydrogen bonds are involved, supramolecular architectures are obtained.

  1. Synthesis and selenation of tandem multicomponent condensation adducts

    Hua, Guoxiong; Du, Junyi; Fuller, Amy; Athukorala Arachchige, Kasun Sankalpa; Cordes, David Bradford; Slawin, Alexandra Martha Zoya; Woollins, J. Derek


    A number of four-component condensation adducts, which were readily obtained from one-pot reaction of aryl carboxylic acids, arylaldehydes, arylamines and c-hexylisocyanide, were treated with two equivalents of Woollins’ reagent leading to the formation of a series of novel selenoamides with one or two C=Se groups, or heterocyclic compounds such as 1,3-selenazole and 1,3-selenazolidin-5-one Postprint Peer reviewed



    Two new hydrogenoxalato and one malonato adduct and complex have been synthesized and studied by infrared and NMR spectroscopies. The suggested structures are discrete, the hydrogenoxalate behaving as a monodentate ligand or only involved in hydrogen bonding, the environment around the tin (IV) centre being tetrahedral or trigonal bipyramidal. The malonate anion is a monodentate ligand. In all the suggested structures, when extra hydrogen bonds are considered, supramolecular architectures are...


    Mouhamadou Birame Diop


    Full Text Available Two new adducts have been synthesized and studied by infrared and NMR spectroscopy. The suggested structures are discrete or of infinite chain type with a phosphate behaving as a bidentate ligand, a phosphonate acting as a monodentate ligand, the environments around the tin centre being tetrahedral or trigonal bipyramidal. In all the studied compounds, supramolecular architectures are obtained when hydrogen bonds are considered.

  4. Characterization of a Hemoglobin Adduct from Ethyl Vinyl Ketone Detected in Human Blood Samples.

    Carlsson, Henrik; Motwani, Hitesh V; Osterman Golkar, Siv; Törnqvist, Margareta


    Electrophiles have the ability to form adducts to nucleophilic sites in proteins and DNA. Internal exposure to such compounds thus constitutes a risk for toxic effects. Screening of adducts using mass spectrometric methods by adductomic approaches offers possibilities to detect unknown electrophiles present in tissues. Previously, we employed untargeted adductomics to detect 19 unknown adducts to N-terminal valine in hemoglobin (Hb) in human blood. This article describes the characterization of one of these adducts, which was identified as the adduct from ethyl vinyl ketone (EVK). The mean adduct level was 40 ± 12 pmol/g Hb in 12 human blood samples; adduct levels from acrylamide (AA) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) were quantified for comparison. Using l-valine p-nitroanilide (Val-pNA), introduced as a model of the N-terminal valine, the rate of formation of the EVK adduct was studied, and the rate constant determined to 200 M(-1)h(-1) at 37 °C. In blood, the reaction rate was too fast to be feasibly measured, EVK showing a half-life adduct was found to be unstable, with a half-life of 7.6 h. From the mean adduct level measured in human blood, a daily dose (area under the concentration-time-curve, AUC) of 7 nMh EVK was estimated. The AUC of AA from intake via food is about 20 times higher. EVK is naturally present in a wide range of foods and is also used as a food additive. Most probably, naturally formed EVK is a major source to observed adducts. Evaluation of available toxicological data and information on occurrence of EVK indicate that further studies of EVK are motivated. This study illustrates a quantitative strategy in the initial evaluation of the significance of an adduct detected through adduct screening.

  5. Zinc acetylacetonate hydrate adducted with nitrogen donor ligands: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and thermal analysis

    Brahma, Sanjaya; Shivashankar, S. A.


    We report synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and thermal analysis of zinc acetylacetonate complex adducted by nitrogen donor ligands, such as pyridine, bipyridine, and phenanthroline. The pyridine adducted complex crystallizes to monoclinic crystal structure, whereas other two adducted complexes have orthorhombic structure. Addition of nitrogen donor ligands enhances the thermal property of these complexes as that with parent metal-organic complex. Zinc acetylacetonate adducted with pyridine shows much higher volatility (106 °C), decomposition temperature (202 °C) as that with zinc acetylacetonate (136 °C, 220 °C), and other adducted complexes. All the adducted complexes are thermally stable, highly volatile and are considered to be suitable precursors for metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The formation of these complexes is confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The complexes are widely used as starting precursor materials for the synthesis of ZnO nanostructures by microwave irradiation assisted coating process.

  6. Charge transfer adducts of metal complexes of π-donor ligands with I 2 and TCNQ

    Bera, T. R.; Sen, D.; Ghosh, R.


    Copper(II) and nickel(II) biguanides and O-alkyl-1-amidinourea can act as donors for the formation of charge transfer (CT) adducts with I 2 and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TNCQ) as acceptors. Iodine adducts are characterized both in solid and solution states whereas TCNQ adducts obtain only in solution. Appearance of a broad band at 355 nm for iodine adducts and at 335 nm for TNCQ adducts and shifting of i.r. frequencies support the formation of donor acceptor associates. Elemental analysis establishes 1:1 stoichiometry of the solid adducts. The K and ɛ values determined by modified Benesi—Hildebrand, Scott and Rose—Drago equations are found to be of the order of 10 4 and 10 3 respectively at 298 K in methanol. The solvent effect on the K values is discussed in terms of coupled solute-solute and solute-solvent equilibria.

  7. Hydrolytic Cleavage Products of Globin Adducts in Urine as Possible Biomarkers of Cumulative Dose: Proof of Concept Using Styrene Oxide as a Model Adduct-Forming Compound.

    Mráz, Jaroslav; Hanzlíková, Iveta; Moulisová, Alena; Dušková, Šárka; Hejl, Kamil; Bednářová, Aneta; Dabrowská, Ludmila; Linhart, Igor


    A new experimental model was designed to study the fate of globin adducts with styrene 7,8-oxide (SO), a metabolic intermediate of styrene and a model electrophilic compound. Rat erythrocytes were incubated with SO at 7 or 22 °C. Levels of specific amino acid adducts in globin were determined by LC/MS analysis of the globin hydrolysate, and erythrocytes with known adduct content were administered intravenously to recipient rats. The course of adduct elimination from the rat blood was measured over the following 50 days. In the erythrocytes incubated at 22 °C, a rapid decline in the adduct levels on the first day post-transfusion followed by a slow phase of elimination was observed. In contrast, the adduct elimination in erythrocytes incubated at 7 °C was nearly linear, copying elimination of intact erythrocytes. In the urine of recipient rats, regioisomeric SO adducts at cysteine, valine, lysine, and histidine in the form of amino acid adducts and/or their acetylated metabolites as well as SO-dipeptide adducts were identified by LC/MS supported by synthesized reference standards. S-(2-Hydroxy-1-phenylethyl)cysteine and S-(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)cysteine, the most abundant globin adducts, were excreted predominantly in the form of the corresponding urinary mercapturic acids (HPEMAs). Massive elimination of HPEMAs via urine occurred within the first day from the erythrocytes incubated at both 7 and 22 °C. However, erythrocytes incubated at 7 °C also showed a slow second phase of elimination such that HPEMAs were detected in urine up to 50 days post-transfusion. These results indicate for the first time that globin adducts can be cleaved in vivo to modified amino acids and dipeptides. The cleavage products and/or their predictable metabolites are excreted in urine over the whole life span of erythrocytes. Some of the urinary adducts may represent a new type of noninvasive biomarker for exposure to adduct-forming chemicals.

  8. Tissue distribution of DNA adducts and their persistence in blood of mice exposed to benzene.

    Li, G.; Wang, C.; Xin, W. (Weidong); Yin, S


    Chemicals combine with DNA, resulting in DNA damage, which could initiate carcinogenesis. To study whether benzene or benzene metabolites bind to DNA, DNA adducts in various tissues and their persistence in leukocytes were examined using the 32P-postlabeling assay. LACA mice were dosed ip with benzene at 500 mg/kg bw twice for 5 days. Two additional spots of DNA adducts are formed in bone marrow cells, liver cells, and peripheral blood compared with control mice. The relative adduct labeling ...

  9. Detection and quantification of 4-ABP adducts in DNA from bladder cancer patients.

    Zayas, Beatriz; Stillwell, Sara W; Wishnok, John S; Trudel, Laura J; Skipper, Paul; Yu, Mimi C; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Wogan, Gerald N


    We analyzed bladder DNA from 27 cancer patients for dG-C8-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-ABP) adducts using the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method with a 700 attomol (1 adduct in 10(9) bases) detection limit. Hemoglobin (Hb) 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) adduct levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After isolation of dG-C8-ABP by immunoaffinity chromatography and further purification, deuterated (d9) dG-C8-ABP (MW=443 Da) was added to each sample. Structural evidence and adduct quantification were determined by selected reaction monitoring, based on the expected adduct ion [M+H+]+1, at m/z 435 with fragmentation to the product ion at m/z 319, and monitoring of the transition for the internal standard, m/z 444-->328. The method was validated by analysis of DNA (100 microg each) from calf thymus; livers from ABP-treated and untreated rats; human placentas; and TK6 lymphoblastoid cells. Adduct was detected at femtomol levels in DNA from livers of ABP-treated rats and calf thymus, but not in other controls. The method was applied to 41 DNA samples (200 microg each) from 27 human bladders; 28 from tumor and 14 from surrounding non-tumor tissue. Of 27 tissues analyzed, 44% (12) contained 5-80 dG-C8-ABP adducts per 10(9) bases; only 1 out of 27 (4%) contained adduct in both tumor and surrounding tissues. The Hb adduct was detected in samples from all patients, at levels of 12-1960 pg per gram Hb. There was no correlation between levels of DNA and Hb adducts. The presence of DNA adducts in 44% of the subjects and high levels of Hb adducts in these non-smokers indicate environmental sources of exposure to 4-ABP.

  10. Detection and characterization of human serum antibodies to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol-epoxide DNA adducts.

    Newman, M J; Light, B A; Weston, A; Tollurud, D; Clark, J L; Mann, D L; Blackmon, J P; Harris, C C


    The presence of serum antibodies to the diol-epoxide DNA adducts of representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene, was determined by ELISA using serum samples obtained from normal healthy individuals. Antibodies that reacted against PAH adducted-DNA, but not against PAH-adducted protein, were found in the serum of approximately 40% of the test individuals. Specificity analysis of the antibodies demonstrated that serological cross-reactio...

  11. Correlation between Quadriceps Endurance and Adduction Moment in Medial Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Soon-Hyuck Lee

    Full Text Available It is not clear whether the strength or endurance of thigh muscles (quadriceps and hamstring is positively or negatively correlated with the adduction moment of osteoarthritic knees. This study therefore assessed the relationships between the strength and endurance of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles and adduction moment in osteoarthritic knees and evaluated predictors of the adduction moment. The study cohort comprised 35 patients with unilateral medial osteoarthritis and varus deformity who were candidates for open wedge osteotomy. The maximal torque (60°/sec and total work (180°/sec of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles and knee adduction moment were evaluated using an isokinetic testing device and gait analysis system. The total work of the quadriceps (r = 0.429, P = 0.037 and hamstring (r = 0.426, P = 0.045 muscles at 180°/sec each correlated with knee adduction moment. Preoperative varus deformity was positively correlated with adduction moment (r = 0.421, P = 0.041. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that quadriceps endurance at 180°/sec was the only factor independently associated with adduction moment (β = 0.790, P = 0.032. The adduction moment of osteoarthritic knees correlated with the endurance, but not the strength, of the quadriceps muscle. However, knee adduction moment did not correlate with the strength or endurance of the hamstring muscle.

  12. N7-guanine adducts of the epoxy metabolites of 1,3-butadiene in mice lung.

    Koivisto, P; Peltonen, K


    Epoxy metabolites of 1,3-butadiene are electrophilic and can bind to nucleophilic sites in DNA forming DNA adducts. In this study, guanine N7 adducts of epoxy butene and guanine N7 adducts of epoxy butanediol were measured in lung tissues of mice inhalation exposed to various concentrations of 1,3-butadiene. 32P-postlabeling of DNA adducts were used to demonstrate that the DNA adducts derived from epoxybutene and epoxybutanediol were formed in a dose dependent manner. More than 98% of all adducts detected were formed from epoxybutanediol. Enantiomeric distribution of the adducts formed in vivo differs from that of in vitro experiments demonstrated before. In the case of epoxybutene most of the adducts were formed to the terminal carbon of the S-epoxybutene enantiomer. Most of the adducts derived from epoxybutanediol were formed from the 2S-3R enantiomer. The data demonstrates that enzymatic processes involved with activation and/or detoxification of the metabolites are enantiospecific and/or DNA repair machinery repairs the damage with stereochemical considerations. These are the crucial factors if interspecies differences in tumor sensitiveness is concerned.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of the Adducts of Bis(O-ethyldithiocarbonatocopper(II with Substituted Pyridines

    Gurpreet Kour


    Full Text Available Monomeric five coordinated adducts of bis(O-ethyldithiocarbonatocopper(II of general formula [Cu(C2H5OCS22(L], [L = 2-, 3-, 4-methylpyridines and 2-, 3-, 4-ethylpyridines] have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, i.r. and electronic spectroscopy, magnetic and conductivity measurements. Analytical results show that the adducts have 1 : 1 stoichiometry. The adducts were found to be paramagnetic and their magnetic moments at room temperature lie within the 1.81–1.94 B.M. range and this indicates the presence of one unpaired electron. All the adducts have distorted square pyramidal geometry.

  14. Temporal and spatial features of the formation of DNA adducts in sulfur mustard-exposed skin

    Batal, Mohamed [Laboratoire «Lésions des Acides Nucléiques», Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1, CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); Bérard, Izabel [Laboratoire «Lésions des Acides Nucléiques», Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1, CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Cléry-Barraud, Cécile [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); and others


    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that targets skin where it induces large blisters. DNA alkylation is a critical step to explain SM-induced cutaneous symptoms. We determined the kinetics of formation of main SM–DNA adducts and compare it with the development of the SM-induced pathogenesis in skin. SKH-1 mice were exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM and treated skin was biopsied between 6 h and 21 days. Formation of SM DNA adducts was dose-dependent with a maximum immediately after exposure. However, adducts were persistent and still detectable 21 days post-exposure. The time-dependent formation of DNA adducts was also found to be correlated with the appearance of apoptotic cells. This temporal correlation suggests that these two early events are responsible for the severity of the damage to the skin. Besides, SM–DNA adducts were also detected in areas located next to contaminated zone, thus suggesting that SM diffuses in skin. Altogether, this work provides for the first time a clear picture of SM-induced genotoxicity using DNA adducts as a marker. - Highlights: • Sulfur mustard adducts are formed in DNA after skin exposure. • DNA damage formation is an early event in the pathological process of skin burn. • The amount of SM–DNA adducts is maximal at the earliest time point investigated. • Adducts are still detected 3 weeks after exposure. • Sulfur mustard diffuses in skin especially when large doses are applied.

  15. Environmental air pollution and DNA adducts in Copenhagen bus drivers - effect of GSTM1 and NAT2 genotypes on adduct level

    Nielsen, Per Sabro; de Pater, Nettie; Okkels, Henrik


    The lymphocyte bulky PAH-DNA adduct levels have been studied in persons occupationally exposed to ambient air pollution. The exposure group consisted of 90 healthy, nonsmoking bus drivers from the Copenhagen area, divided into three exposure groups according to driving area, and 60 rural controls...... to levels of exposure to urban air pollution and indicated that these adducts might be helpful as a means of classifying better different exposure groups for epidemiological studies. Furthermore, it demonstrated the ability of 32P-postlabelling to discern small differences in low exposure to ambient air...... pollution and suggested a possible effect of GSTM1*0/0 on DNA adduct levels....

  16. Stability, accumulation and cytotoxicity of an albumin-cisplatin adduct

    Møller, Charlotte; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Gammelgaard, Bente


    The accumulation and cytotoxicity of a 10 µmol L¿¹ equimolar human serum albumin-cisplatin adduct (HSA-Pt) was investigated in suspension Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettré Ascites Cells (Lettré). HSA-Pt did not induce apoptosis nor was it taken up by the cells to any...... significant amount within 24 h incubation. The accumulation and cytotoxicity of HSA-Pt was compared to 10 µmol L¿¹ cisplatin for which a larger accumulation and cytotoxicity were observed in EATC compared to Lettré. The experiment was performed with cell medium exchange every fourth hour as HSA...

  17. Aromatic DNA adducts in human white blood cells and skin after dermal application of coal tar

    Godschalk, R.W.L.; Ostertag, J.U.; Moonen, E.J.C.; Neumann, H.A.M.; Kleinjans, J.C.S.; Schooten, F.J. van [University of Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology


    A group of eczema patients topically treated with coal tar (CT) ointments was used as a model population to examine the applicability of DNA adducts in white blood cell (WBC) subpopulations as a measure of dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Aromatic DNA adducts were examined by {sup 32}P-postlabeling in exposed skin and WBC subsets, and urinary excretion of PAH metabolites was determined to assess the whole-body burden. The median urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene and 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene was 0.39 and 0.01 {mu}mol/mol creatinine respectively, before the dermal application of CT ointments. After treatment for 1 week, these levels increased to 139.7 and 1.18 {mu}mol/mol creatinine respectively, indicating that considerable amounts of PAHs were absorbed. Median aromatic DNA adduct levels were significantly increased in skin from 2.9 adduct/10{sup 8} nucleotides before treatment to 63.3 adducts/10{sup 8} nt after treatment with CT, in monocytes from 0.28 to 0.86 adducts/10{sup 8} nt, in lymphocytes from 0.33 to 0.89 adducts/10{sup 8} nt and in granulocytes from 0.28 to 0.54 adducts/10{sup 8} nt. A week after stopping the CT treatment, the DNA adduct levels in monocytes and granulocytes were reduced to 0.38 and 0.38 adducts/10{sup 8} nt respectively, whereas the adduct levels in lymphocytes remained enhanced. Total DNA adduct levels in skin correlated with the adduct levels in monocytes and lymphocytes. Excretion of urinary metabolites during the first week of treatment was correlated with the percentage of the skin surface treated with CT ointment and decreased within a week after the cessation of treatment. 3-Hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene excretion, correlated with the levels of DNA adducts in skin that comigrated with benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide-DNA. This study indicates that the DNA adduct levels in mononuclear WBCs can possibly be used as a surrogate for skin DNA after dermal exposure to PAHs. 34 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Differences in lysine adduction by acrolein and methyl vinyl ketone: implications for cytotoxicity in cultured hepatocytes.

    Kaminskas, Lisa M; Pyke, Simon M; Burcham, Philip C


    Acrolein is a highly toxic environmental pollutant that readily alkylates the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues in proteins. In model systems, such chemistry involves sequential addition of two acrolein molecules to a given nitrogen, forming bis-Michael-adducted species that undergo aldol condensation and dehydration to form Nepsilon-(3-formyl-3,4-dehydropiperidino)lysine. Whether this ability to form cyclic adducts participates in the toxicity of acrolein is unknown. To address this issue, we compared the chemistry of protein adduction by acrolein to that of its close structural analogue methyl vinyl ketone, expecting that the alpha-methyl group would hinder the intramolecular cyclization of any bis-adducted species formed by methyl vinyl ketone. Both acrolein and methyl vinyl ketone displayed comparable protein carbonylating activity during in vitro studies with the model protein bovine serum albumin, confirming the alpha,beta,-unsaturated bond of both compounds is an efficient Michael acceptor for protein nucleophiles. However, differences in adduction chemistry became apparent during the use of electrospray ionization-MS to monitor reaction products in a lysine-containing peptide after modification by each compound. For example, although a Schiff base adduct was detected following reaction of the peptide with acrolein, an analogous species was not formed by methyl vinyl ketone. Furthermore, while ions corresponding to mono- and bis-Michael adducts were detected at the N-terminus and lysine residues following peptide modification by both carbonyls, only acrolein modification generated ions attributable to cyclic adducts. Despite these differences in adduction chemistry, in mouse hepatocytes, the two compounds exhibited very comparable abilities to induce rapid, concentration-dependent cell death as well as protein carbonylation. These findings suggest that the acute toxicity of short-chain alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds involves their ability to

  19. Detection of Riddelliine-Derived DNA Adducts in Blood of Rats Fed Riddelliine

    Ming W. Chou


    Full Text Available Abstract: We have previously shown that riddelliine, a naturally occurring genotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, induces liver tumors in rats and mice through a genotoxic mechanism mediated by the formation of a set of eight 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5Hpyrrolizine ( DHP-derived DNA adducts. In this study we report the formation of these DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood DNA of rats fed riddelliine. In an adduct formation and removal experiment, male and female F344 rats (8 weeks of age were administered riddelliine by gavage at a single dose of 10.0 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. At 8, 24, 48, and 168 hrs after dosing, the levels of DHP-derived DNA adduct in blood and liver were determined by 32P-postlabeling/HPLC. Maximum DNA adduct formation occurred at 48 hr after treatment. From 48 to 168 hours, the adduct levels in female rat blood were 4-fold greater than those in male rats. In a dose response experiment, female rats were gavaged 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses of riddelliine for three consecutive days and the DHPderived DNA adducts in blood DNA were assayed. The levels of the DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood of rats receiving 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses were 12.9 and 51.8 adducts/107 nucleotides. These results suggest that: (i leucocyte DNA can bind with DHP to form a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts generated in liver; (ii DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood can serve as a potential non-invasive biomarkers for assessing the exposure to riddelliine.

  20. Fullerene–Carbene Lewis Acid–Base Adducts

    Li, Huaping


    The reaction between a bulky N-heterocylic carbene (NHC) and C60 leads to the formation of a thermally stable zwitterionic Lewis acid-base adduct that is connected via a C-C single bond. Low-energy absorption bands with weak oscillator strengths similar to those of n-doped fullerenes were observed for the product, consistent with a net transfer of electron density to the C60 core. Corroborating information was obtained using UV photoelectron spectroscopy, which revealed that the adduct has an ionization potential ∼1.5 eV lower than that of C60. Density functional theory calculations showed that the C-C bond is polarized, with a total charge of +0.84e located on the NHC framework and -0.84e delocalized on the C 60 cage. The combination of reactivity, characterization, and theoretical studies demonstrates that fullerenes can behave as Lewis acids that react with C-based Lewis bases and that the overall process describes n-doping via C-C bond formation. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. Exposure-route-dependent DNA adduct formation by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Godschalk, R.W.L.; Moonen, E.J.C.; Schilderman, A.E.L.; Broekmans, W.M.R.; Kleinjans, J.C.S.; Schooten, F.J. van


    Understanding the kinetics of aromatic-DNA adducts in target tissues and white blood cells (WBC) would enhance the applicability of DNA adducts in WBC as surrogate source of DNA in biomonitoring studies. In the present study, rats were acutely exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P; 10 mg/kg body wt) via

  2. Specific plant DNA adducts as molecular biomarkers of genotoxic atmospheric environments.

    Weber-Lotfi, F; Obrecht-Pflumio, S; Guillemaut, P; Kleinpeter, J; Dietrich, A


    The general purpose of this study was to determine whether the formation of DNA addition products ('adducts') in plants could be a valuable biomarker of genotoxic air pollution. Plants from several species were exposed to ambient atmosphere at urban and suburban sites representative of different environmental conditions. The levels of NO2 and of the quantitatively major genotoxic air pollutants benzene, toluene, and xylene were monitored in parallel with plant exposure. DNA adducts were measured in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), rye-grass (Lolium perenne), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seedlings by means of the [32P]-postlabeling method. Whereas, no correlation was found between the levels of the major genotoxic air pollutants and the total amounts of DNA adducts, individual analyses revealed site-specific and plant species-specific adduct responses, both at the qualitative and quantitative level. Among these, the amount of a specific rye-grass DNA adduct (rgs1) correlated with benzene/toluene/xylene levels above a threshold. For further characterization, rye-grass seedlings were treated in controlled conditions with benzene, toluene, xylene or their derivatives. On the other hand, in vitro DNA adduct formation assays were developed involving benzene, toluene, xylene, or their derivatives, and plant microsomes or purified peroxidase. Although in some cases, these approaches produced specific adduct responses, they failed to generate the rgs1 DNA adduct, which appeared to be characteristic for on-site test-plant exposure. Our studies have thus identified an interesting candidate for further analysis of environmental biomarkers of genotoxicity.

  3. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.


    ... ester with pentaerythritol. 721.3680 Section 721.3680 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  4. Comparison of EMG activity on abdominal muscles during plank exercise with unilateral and bilateral additional isometric hip adduction.

    Kim, Soo-Yong; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Eui-Ryong; Jung, In-Gui; Seo, Eun-Young; Oh, Jae-Seop


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of additional isometric hip adduction during the plank exercise on the abdominal muscles. Twenty healthy young men participated in this study. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to monitor the activity of the bilateral rectus abdominis (RA), the internal oblique (IO), and the external oblique (EO) muscles. The participants performed three types of plank exercise; the standard plank exercise, the plank exercise with bilateral isometric hip adduction, and the plank exercise with unilateral isometric hip adduction. All abdominal muscle activity was significantly increased during the plank exercise combined with the bilateral and unilateral isometric hip adduction compared with the standard plank exercise (pmuscle activity was significantly increased during the unilateral isometric hip adduction compared with the bilateral isometric hip adduction (pabdominal muscle activity. In particular, the unilateral isometric hip adduction is a more beneficial exercise than the bilateral isometric hip adduction.

  5. Quantitation of 4,4′-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate human serum albumin adducts

    Leah G. Luna


    Full Text Available 4,4′-Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (herein 4,4′-MDI is used in the production of polyurethane foams, elastomers, coatings, adhesives and the like for a wide range of commercial products. Occupational exposure to MDI levels above current airborne exposure limits can elicit immune mediated hypersensitivity reactions such as occupational asthma in sensitive individuals. To accurately determine exposure, there has been increasing interest in developing analytical methods to measure internal biomarkers of exposure to MDI. Previous investigators have reported methodologies for measuring MDI diamine metabolites and MDI-Lysine (4,4′-MDI-Lys adducts. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an ultra performance liquid chromatography isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ID/MS/MS quantitation method via a signature peptide approach to enable biomonitoring of 4,4′-MDI adducted to human serum albumin (HSA in plasma. A murine, anti-4,4′-MDI monoclonal IgM antibody was bound to magnetic beads and utilized for enrichment of the MDI adducted HSA. Following enrichment, trypsin digestion was performed to generate the expected 414 site (primary site of adduction 4,4′-MDI-adducted HSA signature peptide that was quantified by UPLC-ID/MS/MS. An Agilent 6530 UPLC/quadrupole time of flight MS (QTOF system was utilized for intact adducted protein analysis and an Agilent 6490 UPLC/MS/MS system operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM mode was utilized for quantification of the adducted signature peptide biomarker both for in chemico and worker serum samples. Worker serum samples were initially screened utilizing the previously developed 4,4′-MDI-Lys amino acid method and results showed that 12 samples were identified as quantifiable for 4,4′-MDI-Lys adducts. The signature peptide adduct approach was applied to the 12 worker samples identified as quantifiable for 4,4′-MDI-Lys adducts. Results indicated no positive results

  6. Liquid chromatography-thermospray mass spectrometry of DNA adducts formed with mitomycin C, porfiromycin and thiotepa.

    Musser, S M; Pan, S S; Callery, P S


    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thermospray mass spectrometry were combined for the analysis of DNA adducts formed from the interaction of the anticancer drugs mitomycin C, porfiromycin and thiotepa with calf thymus DNA. The adducts formed from reaction of mitomycin C and porfiromycin with DNA were separated from unmodified nucleosides by HPLC on a C18 column and identified by thermospray mass spectrometry. Thiotepa DNA adducts readily depurinated from DNA and were chromatographed and identified by thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as the modified bases without the ribose moiety attached. The utility of thermospray mass spectrometry for the identification of microgram quantities of nucleoside adducts and depurinated base adducts of these anticancer drugs was demonstrated.

  7. Line narrowing spectroscopic studies of DNA-carcinogen adducts and DNA-dye complexes

    Suh, Myungkoo [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing and non-line narrowing spectroscopic methods were applied to conformational studies of stable DNA adducts of the 7β, 8α-dihydoxy-9α, l0α-epoxy-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[α]pyrene (anti-BPDE). Stereochemically distinct (+)-trans-, (-)-trans-, (+)-cis- and (-)-cis adducts of anti-BPDE bound to exocyclic amino group of the central guanine in an 11-mer oligonucleotide, exist in a mixture of conformations in frozen aqueous buffer matrices. The (+)-trans adduct adopts primarily an external conformation with a smaller fraction ( ~25 %) exists in a partially base-stacked conformation. Both cis adducts were found to be intercalated with significant π-π stacking interactions between the pyrenyl residues and the bases. Conformations of the trans-adduct of (+)-anti -BPDE in 11-mer oligonucleotides were studied as a function of flanking bases. In single stranded form the adduct at G2 or G3 (5 ft-flanking, base guanine) adopts a conformation with strong, interaction with the bases. In contrast, the adduct with a 5ft-flanking, thymine exists in a primarily helixexternal conformation. Similar differences were observed in the double stranded oligonucleotides. The nature of the 3ft-flanking base has little influence on the conformational equilibrium of the (+)-trans-anti BPDE-dG adduct. The formation and repair of BPDE-N2-dG in DNA isolated from the skin of mice treated topically with benzo[α]pyrene (BP) was studied. Low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy of the intact DNA identified the major adduct as (+)-trans-anti-BPDE-N-dG, and the minor adduct fraction consisted mainly of (+)-cis-anti-BPDE-N2-dG.

  8. Line narrowing spectroscopic studies of DNA-carcinogen adducts and DNA-dye complexes

    Suh, Myungkoo


    Laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing and non-line narrowing spectroscopic methods were applied to conformational studies of stable DNA adducts of the 7{beta}, 8{alpha}-dihydoxy-9{alpha}, l0{alpha}-epoxy-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[{alpha}]pyrene (anti-BPDE). Stereochemically distinct (+)-trans-, ({minus})-trans-, (+)-cis- and ({minus})-cis adducts of anti-BPDE bound to exocyclic amino group of the central guanine in an 11-mer oligonucleotide, exist in a mixture of conformations in frozen aqueous buffer matrices. The (+)-trans adduct adopts primarily an external conformation with a smaller fraction ( {approximately} 25 %) exists in a partially base-stacked conformation. Both cis adducts were found to be intercalated with significant {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions between the pyrenyl residues and the bases. Conformations of the trans-adduct of (+)-anti -BPDE in 11-mer oligonucleotides were studied as a function of flanking bases. In single stranded form the adduct at G{sub 2} or G{sub 3} (5 ft-flanking, base guanine) adopts a conformation with strong, interaction with the bases. In contrast, the adduct with a 5ft-flanking, thymine exists in a primarily helixexternal conformation. Similar differences were observed in the double stranded oligonucleotides. The nature of the 3ft-flanking base has little influence on the conformational equilibrium of the (+)-trans-anti BPDE-dG adduct. The formation and repair of BPDE-N{sup 2}-dG in DNA isolated from the skin of mice treated topically with benzo[{alpha}]pyrene (BP) was studied. Low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy of the intact DNA identified the major adduct as (+)-trans-anti-BPDE-N-dG, and the minor adduct fraction consisted mainly of (+)-cis-anti-BPDE-N{sup 2}-dG.

  9. Non Covalent Interactions and Internal Dynamics in Adducts of Freons

    Caminati, Walther; Gou, Qian; Evangelisti, Luca; Feng, Gang; Spada, Lorenzo; Vallejo-López, Montserrat; Lesarri, Alberto; Cocinero, Emilio J.


    The complexation of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) with atmospheric water and pollutants of the atmosphere affects their reactivity and it seems to accelerate, for example, the decomposition rate of freons in the atmosphere [1]. For this reason we characterized shapes, stabilities, nature of the non-covalent interactions, structures and internal dynamics of a number of complexes of CFCs with water and of their dimers or oligomers by rotational spectroscopy. It has been found that hydrogenated CFCs form adducts with other molecules through weak hydrogen bonds (WHBs). Their C-H groups can act as proton donors, enhanced by the electron withdrawing of the halogen atoms, interacting with the electron rich regions of the partner molecules [2]. Also in adducts or oligomers of hydrogenated CFCs the monomer units are held together by nets of WHBs [3]. When CFCs are perhalogenated, the positive electrostatic region ("σ-hole") can interact electrostatically with negative sites of another, or of the same molecular entity, giving rise, according to IUPAC, to the so called halogen bond (HaB). However, it has been observed that when the perhalogenated CFCs has a Π electron system, a lone pair•••Π interaction (Bürgi-Dunitz) is favoured [4]. We describe here the HaBs that CF4 and CF3Cl form with a variety of partner molecules such as water, ammonia, dimethyl ether, etc. Important spectroscopic features outline strong dynamics effects taking place in this kind of complex. References [1] V. Vaida, H. G. Kjaergaard, K. J. Feierabend, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 22 (2003) 203. [2] See, for example: W. Caminati, S. Melandri, A. Maris, P. Ottaviani, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45 (2006) 2438. [3] G. Feng, L. Evangelisti, I. Cacelli, L. Carbonaro, G. Prampolini, W. Caminati, Chem. Commun. 50 (2014) 171. [4] Q. Gou, G. Feng, L. Evangelisti, W. Caminati, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 52 (2013) 52 11888.

  10. Aminoguanidine pyridoxal adduct is superior to aminoguanidine for preventing diabetic nephropathy in mice.

    Miyoshi, H; Taguchi, T; Sugiura, M; Takeuchi, M; Yanagisawa, K; Watanabe, Y; Miwa, I; Makita, Z; Koike, T


    Aminoguanidine inhibits the formation of advanced glycation end-products, and has been extensively examined in animals. However, administration of aminoguanidine decreases the hepatic content of pyridoxal phosphate. In order to avoid this problem, we developed an aminoguanidine pyridoxal Schiff base adduct and examined its efficacy in vitro as well as in a model of diabetic nephropathy. Mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were treated with aminoguanidine or aminoguanidine pyridoxal adduct for 9 weeks. An in vitro study was also performed to assess the antioxidant activity of aminoguanidine and its pyridoxal adduct. Neither drug altered glycemic control. Aminoguanidine pyridoxal adduct significantly improved urinary albumin excretion by 78.1 % compared with the diabetic control, and also had a better preventive effect on the progression of renal pathology than aminoguanidine did. Inhibition of glycation by both drugs was similar, but the antioxidant activity of the pyridoxal adduct was far superior. These findings suggest that aminoguanidine pyridoxal adduct may be superior to aminoguanidine, as it not only prevents vitamin B6 deficiency but is also better at controlling diabetic nephropathy, as this adduct inhibits oxidation as well as glycation.

  11. Hemoglobin adducts of N-substituted aryl compounds in exposure control and risk assessment.

    Neumann, H G; Birner, G; Kowallik, P; Schütze, D; Zwirner-Baier, I


    Arylamines, nitroarenes, and azo dyes yield a common type of metabolite, the nitroarene, which produces a hydrolyzable adduct with protein and is closely related to the critical, ultimate toxic and genotoxic metabolite. The target dose as measured by hemoglobin adducts in erythrocytes reflects not only the actual uptake from the environment but also an individual's capacity for metabolic activation and is therefore an improved dosimeter for human exposure. The usefulness of hemoglobin adducts in molecular epidemiology is now widely recognized. With regard to risk assessment, many questions need to be answered. The described experiments in rats address some of these questions. The relationship between binding to hemoglobin in erythrocytes and to proteins in plasma has been found to vary considerably for a number of diamines. The fraction of hydrolyzable adducts out of the total protein adducts formed also varies in both compartments. This indicates that the kind of circulating metabolites and their availability in different compartments is compound specific. This has to do with the complex pattern of competing metabolic pathways, and the role of N-acetylation and deacetylation is emphasized. An example of nonlinear dose dependence adds to the complexity. Analysis of hemoglobin adducts reveals interesting insights into prevailing pathways, which not only apply to the chemical, but may also be useful to assess an individual's metabolic properties. In addition, it is demonstrated that the greater part of erythrocytes and benzidine-hemoglobin adducts are eliminated randomly in rats, i.e., following first-order kinetics.

  12. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Exposure and DNA Adduct Semi-Quantitation in Archived Human Tissues

    M. Margaret Pratt


    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are combustion products of organic materials, mixtures of which contain multiple known and probable human carcinogens. PAHs occur in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in char-broiled meats and fish. Human exposure to PAHs occurs by inhalation, ingestion and topical absorption, and subsequently formed metabolites are either rendered hydrophilic and excreted, or bioactivated and bound to cellular macromolecules. The formation of PAH-DNA adducts (DNA binding products, considered a necessary step in PAH-initiated carcinogenesis, has been widely studied in experimental models and has been documented in human tissues. This review describes immunohistochemistry (IHC studies, which reveal localization of PAH-DNA adducts in human tissues, and semi-quantify PAH-DNA adduct levels using the Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS. These studies have shown that PAH-DNA adducts concentrate in: basal and supra-basal epithelium of the esophagus, cervix and vulva; glandular epithelium of the prostate; and cytotrophoblast cells and syncitiotrophoblast knots of the placenta. The IHC photomicrographs reveal the ubiquitous nature of PAH-DNA adduct formation in human tissues as well as PAH-DNA adduct accumulation in specific, vulnerable, cell types. This semi-quantative method for PAH-DNA adduct measurement could potentially see widespread use in molecular epidemiology studies.

  13. Detection and characterization of human serum antibodies to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol-epoxide DNA adducts

    Newman, M.J.; Light, B.A.; Weston, A.; Tollurud, D.; Clark, J.L.; Mann, D.L.; Blackmon, J.P.; Harris, C.C.


    The presence of serum antibodies to the diol-epoxide DNA adducts of representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chrysene, benz(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene, was determined by ELISA using serum samples obtained from normal healthy individuals. Antibodies that reacted against PAH adducted-DNA, but not against PAH-adducted protein, were found in the serum of approximately 40% of the test individuals. Specificity analysis of the antibodies demonstrated that serological cross-reactions between the benzo(a)pyrene and the chrysene diol-epoxide adducts were present. Similar cross-reactivity between the benz(a)anthracene and the chrysene adducts was observed. Sera containing antibodies that were apparently specific for each of the three PAH-DNA adducts were also identified. The presence of antibodies to PAH-DNA adducts indicates both past exposure to these carcinogenic PAH and their metabolic activation to the DNA damaging metabolites. These antibodies may prove to be useful in both retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies of various diseases associated with PAH exposure.

  14. Reactivity of monofunctional cis-platinum adducts as a function of DNA sequence.

    Malinge, J M; Leng, M


    The purpose of this work was to study the chemical reactivity of monofunctional cis-platinum-nucleic acid adducts as a function of nucleic acid sequence. The first part of the paper deals with the formation of these adducts. It is shown that the ternary nucleic acid-cis-platinum-ethidium bromide complexes in which ethidium bromide and nucleotide residues are cross-linked by cis-platinum, are relatively unstable at 37 degrees C. In the presence of acridine, ethidium bromide (but not cis-platinum) is slowly released which leads to the formation of monofunctional cis-platinum-nucleic acid adducts. After removal of acridine, the monofunctional adducts react further to become bifunctional. The second part of the paper deals with the kinetics of disappearance of the monofunctional adducts in several polynucleotides but not in poly(dG).poly(dC). When the adducts possess a chloride ligand, the limiting step in the cross-linking is the rate of aquation reaction of the chloride ligand. The rate constants are an order of magnitude larger when the monofunctional adducts do not possess a chloride ligand. In both the cases, the rate constants are apparently independent of the nucleic acid sequence.

  15. Complex conformational heterogeneity of the highly flexible O6-benzyl-guanine DNA adduct.

    Wilson, Katie A; Wetmore, Stacey D


    The conformational preference of the O6-benzyl-guanine (BzG) adduct was computationally examined using nucleoside, nucleotide, and DNA models, which provided critical information about the potential mutagenic consequences and toxicity of the BzG adduct in our cells. Substantial conformational flexibility of the BzG moiety, including rotation of the bulky group with respect to the base and the internal conformation of the bulk moiety, is seen in the nucleoside and nucleotide models. This large conformational flexibility suggests the conformation adopted by BzG is dependent on the local environment of the BzG adduct. Upon incorporation of the adduct into the DNA helix, the BzG conformational flexibility is maintained. The range of BzG conformations adopted in DNA likely arises due to a combination of the long and flexible (-CH2-) linker, the small adduct size, and the lack of discrete interactions between the bulky moiety and G. Because of the conformational flexibility of the adduct, many DNA conformations are observed for BzG adducted DNA, including those not previously reported in the literature, and thus, a modified nomenclature for adducted DNA conformations is presented. Furthermore, the preferred conformation of BzG adducted DNA is greatly dependent on a number of factors, including the pairing nucleotide, the discrete interactions in the helix, and the solvation of the benzyl moiety. These factors in turn lead to a complicated mutagenic and toxic profile that may invoke pairing with natural C, mispairs, or deletion mutations, which is supported by previously reported experimental biochemical studies. Despite this complex mutagenic profile, pairing with C leads to the most stable helical structure, which is the first combined structural and energetic explanation for experimental studies reporting a higher rate of C incorporation than any other nucleobase upon BzG replication.

  16. Base-Displaced Intercalated Structure of the N-(2'-Deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone DNA Adduct.

    Politica, Dustin A; Malik, Chanchal K; Basu, Ashis K; Stone, Michael P


    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), an environmental mutagen found in diesel exhaust and a suspected carcinogen, undergoes metabolic reduction followed by reaction with DNA to form aminobenzanthrone (ABA) adducts, with the major alkylation product being N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (C8-dG-ABA). Site-specific synthesis of the C8-dG-ABA adduct in the oligodeoxynucleotide 5'-d(GTGCXTGTTTGT)-3':5'-d(ACAAACACGCAC)-3'; X = C8-dG-ABA adduct, including codons 272-275 of the p53 gene, has allowed for investigation into the structural and thermodynamic properties of this adduct. The conformation of the C8-dG-ABA adduct was determined using NMR spectroscopy and was refined using molecular dynamics (MD) calculations restrained by experimentally determined interproton distance restraints obtained from NOE experiments. The refined structure revealed that the C8-dG-ABA adduct formed a base-displaced intercalated conformation. The adducted guanine was shifted into the syn conformation about the glycosidic bond. The 5'- and 3'-neighboring base pairs remained intact. While this facilitated π-stacking interactions between the ABA moiety and neighboring bases, the thermal melting temperature (Tm) of the adduct-containing duplex showed a decrease of 11 °C as compared to the corresponding unmodified oligodeoxynucleotide duplex. Overall, in this sequence, the base-displaced intercalated conformation of the C8-dG-ABA lesion bears similarity to structures of other arylamine C8-dG adducts. However, in this sequence, the base-displaced intercalated conformation for the C8-dG-ABA adduct differs from the conformation of the N(2)-dG-ABA adduct reported by de los Santos and co-workers, in which it is oriented in the minor groove toward the 5' end of the duplex, with the modified guanine remaining in the anti conformation about the glyosidic torsion angle, and the complementary base remaining within the duplex. The results are discussed in relationship to differences between the C8-d

  17. Preferential Formation of Benzo[a]pyrene Adducts at Lung Cancer Mutational Hotspots in P53

    Denissenko, Mikhail F.; Pao, Annie; Tang, Moon-Shong; Pfeifer, Gerd P.


    Cigarette smoke carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene are implicated in the development of lung cancer. The distribution of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) adducts along exons of the P53 gene in BPDE-treated HeLa cells and bronchial epithelial cells was mapped at nucleotide resolution. Strong and selective adduct formation occurred at guanine positions in codons 157, 248, and 273. These same positions are the major mutational hotspots in human lung cancers. Thus, targeted adduct formation rather than phenotypic selection appears to shape the P53 mutational spectrum in lung cancer. These results provide a direct etiological link between a defined chemical carcinogen and human cancer.

  18. Glottal configuration, acoustic, and aerodynamic changes induced by variation in suture direction in arytenoid adduction procedures.

    Inagi, Katsuhide; Connor, Nadine P; Suzuki, Tatsutoshi; Ford, Charles N; Bless, Diane M; Nakajima, Masami


    Arytenoid adduction is a phonosurgical procedure in which the arytenoid cartilages are approximated to reduce posterior glottal gap size and improve voice. Voice outcomes following arytenoid adduction are not always optimal. The goal of this study was to systematically vary suture direction and force of pull on the arytenoid cartilages in a human excised laryngeal model to determine the optimal combination of factors for reducing glottal gap and improving voice. Several factors demonstrated significant effects. Changes in suture direction and force of pull affected glottal configuration in both the horizontal and vertical planes. Increased force of pull on the muscular process resulted in increased adduction of the vocal process for all suture directions. Changes in suture direction and force of pull also affected acoustic and aerodynamic measures of induced voice. Therefore, voice outcomes can be optimized with arytenoid adduction if the vocal fold plane is accurately adjusted.

  19. DNA adducts and cancer risk in prospective studies: a pooled analysis and a meta-analysis

    Veglia, Fabrizio; Loft, Steffen; Matullo, Giuseppe;


    Bulky DNA adducts are biomarkers of exposure to aromatic compounds and of the ability of the individual to metabolically activate carcinogens and to repair DNA damage. Their ability to predict cancer onset is uncertain. We have performed a pooled analysis of three prospective studies on cancer risk...... in which bulky DNA adducts have been measured in blood samples collected from healthy subjects (N = 1947; average follow-up 51-137 months). In addition, we have performed a meta-analysis by identifying all articles on the same subject published up to the end of 2006, including case-control studies....... In the pooled analysis, a weakly statistically significant increase in the risk of lung cancer was apparent (14% per unit standard deviation change in adduct levels, 95% confidence interval 1-28%; using the weighted mean difference method, 0.15 SD, units higher adducts in cases than in controls...

  20. Bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells: a pooled analysis of 3,600 subjects

    Ricceri, Fulvio; Godschalk, Roger W; Peluso, Marco;


    Bulky DNA adducts are markers of exposure to genotoxic aromatic compounds, which reflect the ability of an individual to metabolically activate carcinogens and to repair DNA damage. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a major class of carcinogens that are capable of forming such add......Bulky DNA adducts are markers of exposure to genotoxic aromatic compounds, which reflect the ability of an individual to metabolically activate carcinogens and to repair DNA damage. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a major class of carcinogens that are capable of forming...... such adducts. Factors that have been reported to be related to DNA adduct levels include smoking, diet, body mass index (BMI), genetic polymorphisms, the season of collection of biologic material, and air pollutants....

  1. Lifetimes and stabilities of familiar explosive molecular adduct complexes during ion mobility measurements.

    McKenzie-Coe, Alan; DeBord, John Daniel; Ridgeway, Mark; Park, Melvin; Eiceman, Gary; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco


    Trapped ion mobility spectrometry coupled to mass spectrometry (TIMS-MS) was utilized for the separation and identification of familiar explosives in complex mixtures. For the first time, molecular adduct complex lifetimes, relative stability, binding energies and candidate structures are reported for familiar explosives. Experimental and theoretical results showed that the adduct size and reactivity, complex binding energy and the explosive structure tailor the stability of the molecular adduct complex. The flexibility of TIMS to adapt the mobility separation as a function of the molecular adduct complex stability (i.e., short or long IMS experiments/low or high IMS resolution) permits targeted measurements of explosives in complex mixtures with high confidence levels.




    Full Text Available Five new S2- adducts with SbIII and SbV halides have been synthesized and studied by infrared. Discrete structures have been suggested, the environment around the antimony being tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal or octahedral.

  3. Investigation of protein-styrene oxide adducts as a molecularbiomarker of human exposed to styrene


    Hemoglobin-styrene oxide adducts in blood has been studied as a molecular biomarker of worker exposed to styrene.Determination of protein-styrene oxide adducts in different biological samples with modified Raney-Ni procedure is described in this paper. The following biological samples have been investigated: fresh rat blood reacted with styrene oxide in vitro; rat blood reacted with styrene or styrene oxide in vivo; vein blood from workers exposed to styrene in two factories. The data showed that there was a good linear dose-response relationship between reacting dose of styrene oxide or styrene and amount of protein-styrene oxide adducts in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. For human samples, a dose-response relationship between protein adducts and styrene exposure can be found in glass fiber factory, but not in piano manufacture plant.

  4. Recent progress in quantitative analysis of DNA adducts of nephrotoxin aristolochic acid


    Aristolochic acid (AA), a mixture of structure-related nitrophenanthrene carboxylic acid derivatives derived from Aristolochia spp, is associated with nephrotoxin and carcinogen. AA-DNA adducts induced by reductive metabolic activation of AA were detected in tissues of animals and in patients exposed to AA. The DNA adducts were generally used as biomarkers in toxicological study of AA. In this short review, quantitative analysis of AA-DNA adducts in various in vitro and in vivo systems by using 32P-postlabelling assay, HPLC-UV, HPLC-radiation monitor, HPLC-FLD, HPLC-ESI/MS and UPLC-MS/MS methods is discussed. The distribution of AA-DNA adducts in various tissues is also summarized.

  5. Halothane potentiates the alcohol-adduct induced TNF-alpha release in heart endothelial cells

    Freeman Thomas L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The possibility exists for major complications to occur when individuals are intoxicated with alcohol prior to anesthetization. Halothane is an anesthetic that can be metabolized by the liver into a highly reactive product, trifluoroacetyl chloride, which reacts with endogenous proteins to form a trifluoroacetyl-adduct (TFA-adduct. The MAA-adduct which is formed by acetaldehyde (AA and malondialdehyde reacting with endogenous proteins, has been found in both patients and animals chronically consuming alcohol. These TFA and MAA-adducts have been shown to cause the release of inflammatory products by various cell types. If both adducts share a similar mechanism of cell activation, receiving halothane anesthesia while intoxicated with alcohol could exacerbate the inflammatory response and lead to cardiovascular injury. Methods We have recently demonstrated that the MAA-adduct induces tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α release by heart endothelial cells (HECs. In this study, pair and alcohol-fed rats were randomized to receive halothane pretreatments intra peritoneal. Following the pretreatments, the intact heart was removed, HECs were isolated and stimulated with unmodified bovine serum albumin (Alb, MAA-modified Alb (MAA-Alb, Hexyl-MAA, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, and supernatant concentrations of TNF-α were measured by ELISA. Results Halothane pre-treated rat HECs released significantly greater TNF-α concentration following MAA-adduct and LPS stimulation than the non-halothane pre-treated in both pair and alcohol-fed rats, but was significantly greater in the alcohol-fed rats. Conclusion These results demonstrate that halothane and MAA-adduct pre-treatment increases the inflammatory response (TNF-α release. Also, these results suggest that halothane exposure may increase the risk of alcohol-induced heart injury, since halothane pre-treatment potentiates the HEC TNF-α release measured following both MAA-Alb and LPS

  6. Translesion synthesis past acrolein-derived DNA adducts by human mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ.

    Kasiviswanathan, Rajesh; Minko, Irina G; Lloyd, R Stephen; Copeland, William C


    Acrolein, a mutagenic aldehyde, is produced endogenously by lipid peroxidation and exogenously by combustion of organic materials, including tobacco products. Acrolein reacts with DNA bases forming exocyclic DNA adducts, such as γ-hydroxy-1,N(2)-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine (γ-HOPdG) and γ-hydroxy-1,N(6)-propano-2'-deoxyadenosine (γ-HOPdA). The bulky γ-HOPdG adduct blocks DNA synthesis by replicative polymerases but can be bypassed by translesion synthesis polymerases in the nucleus. Although acrolein-induced adducts are likely to be formed and persist in mitochondrial DNA, animal cell mitochondria lack specialized translesion DNA synthesis polymerases to tolerate these lesions. Thus, it is important to understand how pol γ, the sole mitochondrial DNA polymerase in human cells, acts on acrolein-adducted DNA. To address this question, we investigated the ability of pol γ to bypass the minor groove γ-HOPdG and major groove γ-HOPdA adducts using single nucleotide incorporation and primer extension analyses. The efficiency of pol γ-catalyzed bypass of γ-HOPdG was low, and surprisingly, pol γ preferred to incorporate purine nucleotides opposite the adduct. Pol γ also exhibited ∼2-fold lower rates of excision of the misincorporated purine nucleotides opposite γ-HOPdG compared with the corresponding nucleotides opposite dG. Extension of primers from the termini opposite γ-HOPdG was accomplished only following error-prone purine nucleotide incorporation. However, pol γ preferentially incorporated dT opposite the γ-HOPdA adduct and efficiently extended primers from the correctly paired terminus, indicating that γ-HOPdA is probably nonmutagenic. In summary, our data suggest that acrolein-induced exocyclic DNA lesions can be bypassed by mitochondrial DNA polymerase but, in the case of the minor groove γ-HOPdG adduct, at the cost of unprecedented high mutation rates.

  7. Structural Elucidation of a Carnosine-Acrolein Adduct and its Quantification in Human Urine Samples.

    Bispo, Vanderson S; de Arruda Campos, Ivan P; Di Mascio, Paolo; Medeiros, Marisa H G


    Aldehydes accumulate in inflammation, during myocardial infarction and have been associated with pain symptoms. One pathway of aldehyde detoxification is the conjugation with carnosine. A 3-methylpyridinium carnosine adduct from the reaction of carnosine and acrolein was characterized using extensive spectroscopic measurements. The adduct with urinary concentrations of 1.82 ± 0.68 nmol/mg of creatinine is one of the most abundant acrolein metabolites in urine and opens promising therapeutic strategies for carnosine.

  8. Tamoxifen-DNA adduct formation in monkey and human reproductive organs.

    Hernandez-Ramon, Elena E; Sandoval, Nicole A; John, Kaarthik; Cline, J Mark; Wood, Charles E; Woodward, Ruth A; Poirier, Miriam C


    The estrogen analog tamoxifen (TAM), used for adjuvant therapy of breast cancer, induces endometrial and uterine tumors in breast cancer patients. Proliferation stimulus of the uterine endometrium is likely involved in tumor induction, but genotoxicity may also play a role. Formation of TAM-DNA adducts in human tissues has been reported but remains controversial. To address this issue, we examined TAM-DNA adducts in uteri from two species of monkeys, Erythrocebus patas (patas) and Macaca fascicularis (macaque), and in human endometrium and myometrium. Monkeys were given 3-4 months of chronic TAM dosing scaled to be equivalent to the daily human dose. In the uteri, livers and brains from the patas (n = 3), and endometrium from the macaques (n = 4), TAM-DNA adducts were measurable by TAM-DNA chemiluminescence immunoassay. Average TAM-DNA adduct values for the patas uteri (23 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) were similar to those found in endometrium of the macaques (19 adducts/10(8) nucleotides). Endometrium of macaques exposed to both TAM and low-dose estradiol (n = 5) averaged 34 adducts/10(8) nucleotides. To examine TAM-DNA persistence in the patas, females (n = 3) were exposed to TAM for 3 months and to no drug for an additional month, resulting in low or non-detectable TAM-DNA in livers and uteri. Human endometrial and myometrial samples from women receiving (n = 8) and not receiving (n = 8) TAM therapy were also evaluated. Women receiving TAM therapy averaged 10.3 TAM-DNA adducts/10(8) nucleotides, whereas unexposed women showed no detectable TAM-DNA. The data indicate that genotoxicity, in addition to estrogen agonist effects, may contribute to TAM-induced human endometrial cancer.

  9. Effect of Laterally Wedged Insoles on the External Knee Adduction Moment across Different Reference Frames.

    Satoshi Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Biomechanical effects of laterally wedged insoles are assessed by reduction in the knee adduction moment. However, the degree of reduction may vary depending on the reference frame with which it is calculated. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of reference frame on the reduction in the knee adduction moment by laterally wedged insoles.Twenty-nine healthy participants performed gait trials with a laterally wedged insole and with a flat insole as a control. The knee adduction moment, including the first and second peaks and the angular impulse, were calculated using four different reference frames: the femoral frame, tibial frame, laboratory frame and the Joint Coordinate System.There were significant effects of reference frame on the knee adduction moment first and second peaks (P < 0.001 for both variables, while the effect was not significant for the angular impulse (P = 0.84. No significant interaction between the gait condition and reference frame was found in either of the knee adduction moment variables (P = 0.99 for all variables, indicating that the effects of laterally wedged insole on the knee adduction moments were similar across the four reference frames. On the other hand, the average percent changes ranged from 9% to 16% for the first peak, from 16% to 18% for the second peak and from 17% to 21% for the angular impulse when using the different reference frames.The effects of laterally wedged insole on the reduction in the knee adduction moment were similar across the reference frames. On the other hand, Researchers need to recognize that when the percent change was used as the parameter of the efficacy of laterally wedged insole, the choice of reference frame may influence the interpretation of how laterally wedged insoles affect the knee adduction moment.

  10. DNA adducts in human tissues:biomarkers of exposure to carcinogens in tobacco smoke

    Phillips, D.H.


    Tobacco smoking causes millions of cancer deaths annually. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of thousands of chemicals including many known animal carcinogens. Because many carcinogens from DNA adducts in target animal or human tissues, the detection of the formation of adducts using such methods as postlabeling, immunoassay, fluorescence spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry is a means of monitoring human exposure to tobacco carcinogens. Smokers are at increased risk of cancer in many organs,...

  11. Effects of metal ion adduction on the gas-phase conformations of protein ions.

    Flick, Tawnya G; Merenbloom, Samuel I; Williams, Evan R


    Changes in protein ion conformation as a result of nonspecific adduction of metal ions to the protein during electrospray ionization (ESI) from aqueous solutions were investigated using traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS). For all proteins examined, protein cations (and in most cases anions) with nonspecific metal ion adducts are more compact than the fully protonated (or deprotonated) ions with the same charge state. Compaction of protein cations upon nonspecific metal ion binding is most significant for intermediate charge state ions, and there is a greater reduction in collisional cross section with increasing number of metal ion adducts and increasing ion valency, consistent with an electrostatic interaction between the ions and the protein. Protein cations with the greatest number of adducted metal ions are no more compact than the lowest protonated ions formed from aqueous solutions. These results show that smaller collisional cross sections for metal-attached protein ions are not a good indicator of a specific metal-protein interaction in solution because nonspecific metal ion adduction also results in smaller gaseous protein cation cross sections. In contrast, the collisional cross section of α-lactalbumin, which specifically binds one Ca(2+), is larger for the holo-form compared with the apo-form, in agreement with solution-phase measurements. Because compaction of protein cations occurs when metal ion adduction is nonspecific, elongation of a protein cation may be a more reliable indicator that a specific metal ion-protein interaction occurs in solution.

  12. Biomonitoring Human Albumin Adducts: The Past, the Present, and the Future


    Serum albumin (Alb) is the most abundant protein in blood plasma. Alb reacts with many carcinogens and/or their electrophilic metabolites. Studies conducted over 20 years ago showed that Alb forms adducts with the human carcinogens aflatoxin B1 and benzene, which were successfully used as biomarkers in molecular epidemiology studies designed to address the role of these chemicals in cancer risk. Alb forms adducts with many therapeutic drugs or their reactive metabolites such as β-lactam antibiotics, acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, chemotherapeutic agents, and antiretroviral therapy drugs. The identification and characterization of the adduct structures formed with Alb have served to understand the generation of reactive metabolites and to predict idiosyncratic drug reactions and toxicities. The reaction of candidate drugs with Alb is now exploited as part of the battery of screening tools to assess the potential toxicities of drugs. The use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography, or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) enabled the identification and quantification of multiple types of Alb xenobiotic adducts in animals and humans during the past three decades. In this perspective, we highlight the history of Alb as a target protein for adduction to environmental and dietary genotoxicants, pesticides, and herbicides, common classes of medicinal drugs, and endogenous electrophiles, and the emerging analytical mass spectrometry technologies to identify Alb-toxicant adducts in humans. PMID:27989119

  13. N-acetylcysteine prevents the geldanamycin cytotoxicity by forming geldanamycin-N-acetylcysteine adduct.

    Mlejnek, Petr; Dolezel, Petr


    Geldanamycin (GDN) is a benzoquinone ansamycin antibiotic with anti-proliferative activity on tumor cells. GDN cytotoxicity has been attributed to the disruption of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) binding and stabilizing client proteins, and by the induction of oxidative stress with concomitant glutathione (GSH) depletion. The later mechanism of cytotoxicity can be abrogated by N-acetylcysteine (NAC). It was suggested that NAC prevents GDN cytotoxicity mainly by the restoring of glutathione (GSH) level (Clark et al., 2009). Here we argue that NAC does not protect cells from the GDN cytotoxicity by restoring the level of GSH. A detailed LC/MS/MS analysis of cell extracts indicated formation of GDN adducts with GSH. The amount of the GDN-GSH adduct is proportional to the GDN concentration and increases with incubation time. While nanomolar and low micromolar GDN concentrations induce cell death without an apparent GSH decrease, only much higher micromolar GDN concentrations cause a significant GSH decrease. Therefore, only high micromolar GDN concentrations can cause cell death which might be related to GSH depletion. Addition of NAC leads to the formation of adducts with GDN which diminish formation of GDN adducts with GSH. NAC also forms stable adducts with GDN extracellularly. Although NAC induces an increase in the GSH pool, this effect is not crucial for abrogation of GDN cytotoxicity. Indeed, the presence of NAC in the growth medium causes a rapid conversion of GDN into the GDN-NAC adduct, which is the real cause of the abrogated GDN cytotoxicity.

  14. Specific incorporation of an artificial nucleotide opposite a mutagenic DNA adduct by a DNA polymerase.

    Wyss, Laura A; Nilforoushan, Arman; Eichenseher, Fritz; Suter, Ursina; Blatter, Nina; Marx, Andreas; Sturla, Shana J


    The ability to detect DNA modification sites at single base resolution could significantly advance studies regarding DNA adduct levels, which are extremely difficult to determine. Artificial nucleotides that are specifically incorporated opposite a modified DNA site offer a potential strategy for detection of such sites by DNA polymerase-based systems. Here we investigate the action of newly synthesized base-modified benzimidazole-derived 2'-deoxynucleoside-5'-O-triphosphates on DNA polymerases when performing translesion DNA synthesis past the pro-mutagenic DNA adduct O(6)-benzylguanine (O(6)-BnG). We found that a mutated form of KlenTaq DNA polymerase, i.e., KTqM747K, catalyzed O(6)-BnG adduct-specific processing of the artificial BenziTP in favor of the natural dNTPs. Steady-state kinetic parameters revealed that KTqM747K catalysis of BenziTP is 25-fold more efficient for template O(6)-BnG than G, and 5-fold more efficient than natural dTMP misincorporation in adduct bypass. Furthermore, the nucleotide analogue BenziTP is required for full-length product formation in O(6)-BnG bypass, as without BenziTP the polymerase stalls at the adduct site. By combining the KTqM747K polymerase and BenziTP, a first round of DNA synthesis enabled subsequent amplification of Benzi-containing DNA. These results advance the development of technologies for detecting DNA adducts.

  15. Scavenging of Toxic Acrolein by Resveratrol and Hesperetin and Identification of Adducts.

    Wang, Weixin; Qi, Yajing; Rocca, James R; Sarnoski, Paul J; Jia, Aiqun; Gu, Liwei


    The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of resveratrol and hesperetin to scavenge acrolein at pH 7.4 and 37 °C. About 6.4 or 5.2% of acrolein remained after reaction with resveratrol or hesperetin for 12 h at equimolar concentrations. An acrolein-resveratrol adduct and two acrolein-hesperetin adducts were isolated. Their structures were elucidated using mass and NMR spectroscopy. Acrolein reacted with resveratrol at the C-2 and C-3 positions through nucleophilic addition and formed an additional heterocyclic ring. Two similar monoacrolein-conjugated adducts were identified for hesperetin. Spectroscopic data suggested each acrolein-hesperetin adduct was a mixture of four stereoisomers due to the existence of two chiral carbon atoms. Yield of adducts was low at pH 5.4 but increased at pH 7.4 and 8.4. Higher pH also promoted the formation of diacrolein adducts. Results suggest that resveratrol and hesperetin exert health benefits in part through neutralizing toxic acrolein in vivo.

  16. Sperm DNA adducts impair fertilization during ICSI but not during IVF.

    Piotr Widłak


    Full Text Available Many studies emphasize the influence of the status of spermatozoal nucleus on fertilization, mainly with regard to DNA fragmentation. This study was undertaken to analyze the influence of DNA adducts content in spermatozoa on fertilization during assisted reproduction. Ovarian hyperstimulation, oocyte retrieval and laboratory work-up in 61 IVF (in vitro fertilization and 118 ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection first cycles were performed according to the same protocol. Semen analysis was made according to WHO Manual (1999. DNA adducts assay in spermatozoa was performed by 32Ppostlabeling method. In total 331 fertilizable oocytes were obtained during IVF and 659 during ICSI. Both groups differed significantly by sperm count, motility and morphology but not by the concentration of DNA adducts in spermatozoa (0.0306 +/- 0.0217 in IVF versus 0.0373 +/- 0.0321 in ICSI. The fertilization rate during IVF was significantly influenced by sperm count (p=0.0002 and motility (p=0.0037 but not by DNA adducts concentration (p=0.30528, whereas during ICSI was positively influenced by sperm motility (p=0.04669 and negatively by DNA adducts concentration (p=0.00796. DNA adducts concentration in spermatozoa significantly negatively influences fertilization rate during ICSI, but not during IVF.

  17. Detection and characterization of DNA adducts formed from metabolites of the fungicide ortho-phenylphenol.

    Zhao, Shouxun; Narang, Amarjit; Gierthy, John; Eadon, George


    The significance of DNA adduction in ortho-phenylphenol-induced carcinogenesis remains unclear. Establishing adduct structures may contribute to resolving this issue. The chemical structures of the DNA adduction products resulting from the in vitro reaction of phenylbenzoquinone, the putative ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of the fungicide/disinfectant ortho-phenylphenol, are reported here. Three isomeric adducts that resulted from reaction of deoxyguanosine were characterized by UV, LC-ESI-MS, and MS/MS, and 1D and 2D COSY-NMR spectroscopy. The proposed mechanism of product formation is nucleophilic attack by the deoxyguanosine exocyclic amine nitrogen on an electrophilic quinone carbon, followed by stabilization through enolization. Another nucleophilic attack forms a five-membered ring, which aromatizes by dehydration to form the final product. Adducts were also characterized from deoxyadenosine and deoxycytidine, although conversions were at least 10 times lower. Structures are also proposed for these products. Cell culture studies confirmed that HepG2 cells incubated with phenylbenzoquinone at concentrations associated with cytotoxicity form the same DNA adducts.

  18. Abacavir forms novel cross-linking abacavir protein adducts in patients.

    Meng, Xiaoli; Lawrenson, Alexandre S; Berry, Neil G; Maggs, James L; French, Neil S; Back, David J; Khoo, Saye H; Naisbitt, Dean J; Park, B Kevin


    Abacavir (ABC), a nucleoside-analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor, is associated with severe hypersensitivity reactions that are thought to involve the activation of CD8+ T cells in a HLA-B*57:01-restricted manner. Recent studies have claimed that noncovalent interactions of ABC with HLA-B*57:01 are responsible for the immunological reactions associated with ABC. However, the formation of hemoglobin-ABC aldehyde (ABCA) adducts in patients exposed to ABC suggests that protein conjugation might represent a pathway for antigen formation. To further characterize protein conjugation reactions, we used mass spectrometric methods to define ABCA modifications in patients receiving ABC therapy. ABCA formed a novel intramolecular cross-linking adduct on human serum albumin (HSA) in patients and in vitro via Michael addition, followed by nucleophilic adduction of the aldehyde with a neighboring protein nucleophile. Adducts were detected on Lys159, Lys190, His146, and Cys34 residues in the subdomain IB of HSA. Only a cysteine adduct and a putative cross-linking adduct were detected on glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTP). These findings reveal that ABC forms novel types of antigens in all patients taking the drug. It is therefore vital that the immunological consequences of such pathways of haptenation are explored in the in vitro models that have been used by various groups to define new mechanisms of drug hypersensitivity exemplified by ABC.

  19. 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts: Key mediator in Rett syndrome oxinflammation.

    Valacchi, Giuseppe; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Cervellati, Carlo; Hayek, Joussef


    In the last 15 years a strong correlation between oxidative stress (OxS) and Rett syndrome (RTT), a rare neurodevelopmental disorder known to be caused in 95% of the cases, by a mutation in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene, has been well documented. Here, we revised, summarized and discussed the current knowledge on the role of lipid peroxidation byproducts, with special emphasis on 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE), in RTT pathophysiology. The posttranslational modifications of proteins via 4HNE, known as 4HNE protein adducts (4NHE-PAs), causing detrimental effects on protein functions, appear to contribute to the clinical severity of the syndrome, since their levels increase significantly during the subsequent 4 clinical stages, reaching the maximum degree at stage 4, represented by a late motor deterioration. In addition, 4HNE-PA are only partially removed due to the compromised functionality of the proteasome activity, contributing therefore to the cellular damage in RTT. All this will lead to a characteristic subclinical inflammation, defined "OxInflammation", derived by a positive feedback loop between OxS byproducts and inflammatory mediators that in a long run further aggravates the clinical features of RTT patients. Therefore, in a pathology completely orphan of any therapy, aiming 4HNE as a therapeutic target could represent a coadjuvant treatment with some beneficial impact in these patients.‬‬‬.

  20. Cellulose based hybrid hydroxylated adducts for polyurethane foams

    De Pisapia, Laura; Verdolotti, Letizia; Di Mauro, Eduardo; Di Maio, Ernesto; Lavorgna, Marino; Iannace, Salvatore


    Hybrid flexible polyurethane foams (HPU) were synthesized by using a hybrid hydroxilated adduct (HHA) based on renewable resources. In particular the HHA was obtained by dispersing cellulose wastes in colloidal silica at room temperature, pressure and humidity. The colloidal silica was selected for its ability of modifying the cellulose structure, by inducing a certain "destructurization" of the crystalline phase, in order to allow cellulose to react with di-isocyanate for the final synthesis of the polyurethane foam. In fact, cellulose-polysilicate complexes are engaged in the reaction with the isocyanate groups. This study provides evidence of the effects of the colloidal silica on the cellulose structure, namely, a reduction of the microfiber cellulose diameter and the formation of hydrogen bonds between the polysilicate functional groups and the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose, as assessed by IR spectroscopy and solid state NMR. The HHA was added to a conventional polyol in different percentages (between 5 and 20%) to synthesize HPU in presence of catalysts, silicone surfactant and diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). The mixture was expanded in a mold and cured for two hours at room temperature. Thermal analysis, optical microscopy and mechanical tests were performed on the foams. The results highlighted an improvement of thermal stability and a decrease of the cell size with respect neat polyurethane foam. Mechanical tests showed an improvement of the elastic modulus and of the damping properties with increasing HHA amount.

  1. Compact bis-adduct fullerenes and additive-assisted morphological optimization for efficient organic photovoltaics.

    Lai, Yun-Yu; Liao, Ming-Hung; Chen, Yen-Ting; Cao, Fong-Yi; Hsu, Chain-Shu; Cheng, Yen-Ju


    Bis-adduct fullerenes surrounded by two insulating addends sterically attenuate intermolecular interaction and cause inferior electron transportation. In this research, we have designed and synthesized a new class of bis-adduct fullerene materials, methylphenylmethano-C60 bis-adduct (MPC60BA), methylthienylmethano-C60 bis-adduct (MTC60BA), methylphenylmethano-C70 bis-adduct (MPC70BA), and methylthienylmethano-C70 bis-adduct (MTC70BA), functionalized with two compact phenylmethylmethano and thienylmethylmethano addends via cyclopropyl linkages. These materials with much higher-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels successfully enhanced the Voc values of the P3HT-based solar cell devices. The compact phenylmethylmethano and thienylmethylmethano addends to promote fullerene intermolecular interactions result in aggregation-induced phase separation as observed by the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT)/bis-adduct fullerene thin films. The device based on the P3HT/MTC60BA blend yielded a Voc of 0.72 V, a Jsc of 5.87 mA/cm(2), and a fill factor (FF) of 65.3%, resulting in a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.76%. The unfavorable morphologies can be optimized by introducing a solvent additive to fine-tune the intermolecular interactions. 1-Chloronaphthalene (CN) having better ability to dissolve the bis-adduct fullerenes can homogeneously disperse the fullerene materials into the P3HT matrix. Consequently, the aggregated fullerene domains can be alleviated to reach a favorable morphology. With the assistance of CN additive, the P3HT/MTC60BA-based device exhibited enhanced characteristics (a Voc of 0.78 V, a Jsc of 9.04 mA/cm(2), and an FF of 69.8%), yielding a much higher PCE of 4.92%. More importantly, the additive-assisted morphological optimization is consistently effective to all four compact bis-adduct fullerenes regardless of the methylphenylmethano

  2. Revisiting the stability of endo/exo Diels-Alder adducts between cyclopentadiene and 1,4-benzoquinone

    Tormena, Claudio F. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Lacerda Junior, Valdemar [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Oliveira, Kleber T. de [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas


    In this work it is presented a detailed theoretical analysis of the relative stability of endo/exo Diels-Alder adducts formed by the reaction between cyclopentadiene (1) and 1,4-benzoquinone (2). The intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) showed the existence of only one transition state for the reaction studied, for both endo 3 and exo 4 adducts. The energies of both adducts were obtained at high level of theory (CBS-Q) confirming that the endo adduct is more stable than exo, which is in the opposite way to the observed in reactions that usually follow Alder's rule. An electronic structure analysis was performed through NBO methodology, indicating that the attractive delocalization interaction predominates over the steric repulsive interaction in the endo adducts. In summary, for the studied cycloaddition reaction the endo adduct is the thermodynamic and kinetic product, which can be also confirmed by experimental data mentioned in this work. (author)

  3. Structures of benzo(a)pyrene-nucleic acid adducts formed in human and bovine bronchial explants


    obtained evidence that the same derivative is involved in the binding of BP to the DNA of human bronchial explants, although details of the specific isomer involved and of the structure of the adduct were not reported. We describe here studies on RNA and DNA adducts formed by human bronchial explants...... and provide evidence that the structures of the major adducts are similar to those formed in the analogous bovine system....

  4. Synthesis of an oligodeoxyribonucleotide adduct of mitomycin C by the postoligomerization method via a triamino mitosene.

    Champeil, Elise; Paz, Manuel M; Ladwa, Sweta; Clement, Cristina C; Zatorski, Andrzej; Tomasz, Maria


    The cancer chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C (MC) alkylates and cross-links DNA monofunctionally and bifunctionally in vivo and in vitro, forming six major MC-deoxyguanosine adducts of known structures. The synthesis of one of the monoadducts (8) by the postoligomerization method was accomplished both on the nucleoside and oligonucleotide levels, the latter resulting in the site-specific placement of 8 in a 12-mer oligodeoxyribonucleotide 26. This is the first application of this method to the synthesis of a DNA adduct of a complex natural product. Preparation of the requisite selectively protected triaminomitosenes 14 and 24 commenced with removal of the 10-carbamoyl group from MC, followed by reductive conversion to 10-decarbamoyl-2,7-diaminomitosene 10. This substance was transformed to 14 or 24 in several steps. Both were successfully coupled to the 2-fluoro-O(6)-(2-trimethylsilylethyl)deoxyinosine residue of the 12-mer oligonucleotide. The N(2)-phenylacetyl protecting group of 14 after its coupling to the 12-mer oligonucleotide could not be removed by penicillinamidase as expected. Nevertheless, the Teoc protecting group of 24 after coupling to the 12-mer oligonucleotide was removed by treatment with ZnBr2 to give the adducted oligonucleotide 26. However, phenylacetyl group removal was successful on the nucleoside-level synthesis of adduct 8. Proof of the structure of the synthetic nucleoside adduct included HPLC coelution and identical spectral properties with a natural sample, and (1)H NMR. Structure proof of the adducted oligonucleotide 26 was provided by enzymatic digestion to nucleosides and authentic adduct 8, as well as MS and MS/MS analysis.

  5. 7-glutathione pyrrole adduct: a potential DNA reactive metabolite of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Xia, Qingsu; Ma, Liang; He, Xiaobo; Cai, Lining; Fu, Peter P


    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA)-containing plants are the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. PAs require metabolic activation to form pyrrolic metabolites to exert cytotoxicity and tumorigenicity. We previously determined that metabolism of tumorigenic PAs produced four DNA adducts, designated as DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4, that are responsible for liver tumor initiation. 7-Glutathione-(±)-6,7-dihydro-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (7-GS-DHP), formed in vivo and in vitro, and 7,9-di-GS-DHP, formed in vitro, are both considered detoxified metabolites. However, in this study we determined that incubation of 7-GS-DHP with 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) and 2'-deoxyadenosine (dA) yields DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4 adducts as well as the reactive metabolite DHP. Furthermore, reaction of 7-GS-DHP with calf thymus DNA in aqueous solution at 37 °C for 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, or 72 h, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis yielded DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4 adducts. Under our current experimental conditions, DHP-dA-3 and DHP-dA-4 adducts were formed in a trace amount from the reaction of 7,9-di-GS-DHP with dA. No DHP-dG-3 or DHP-dG-4 adducts were detected from the reaction of 7,9-di-GS-DHP with dG. This study represents the first report that the 7-GS-DHP adduct can be a potential reactive metabolite of PAs leading to DNA adduct formation.

  6. Fabrication and electrochemical properties of insoluble fullerene-diamine adduct thin-films as buffer layer by alternate immersion process

    Saito, Jo; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Oku, Takeo


    Insoluble fullerene-diamine adduct thin-films consisting of C60 and 1,2-diaminoethane were easily fabricated on an electrode by an alternate immersion process. Formation of the C60-diamine adduct films were confirmed using transmission absorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. An inverted-type organic solar cells were fabricated by using the C60-diamine adduct film as the electron transport layer. The resultant photoelectric conversation performance of the solar cells suggested that photocurrent is generated via the photoexcitation of polythiophene. The result suggests that the present insoluble fullerene-diamine adduct films worked as buffer layer for organic thin-film solar cells.

  7. Quantitation of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (cisplatin)-DNA-intrastrand adducts in testicular and ovarian cancer patients receiving cisplatin chemotherapy.

    Reed, E; Yuspa, S H; Zwelling, L A; Ozols, R F; Poirier, M C


    The antitumor activity of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (cisplatin) is believed to be related to its covalent interaction with DNA where a major DNA binding product is an intrastrand N7-bidentate adduct on adjacent deoxyguanosines. A novel immunoassay was used to quantitate this adduct in buffy coat DNA from testicular and ovarian cancer patients undergoing cisplatin therapy. 44 out of 120 samples taken from 45 cisplatin patients had detectable cisplatin-DNA adducts. No adducts were detected in 18 samples of DNA taken from normal controls, patients on other chemotherapy, or patients before treatment. The quantity of measurable adducts increased as a function of cumulative dose of cisplatin. This was observed both during repeated daily infusion of the drug and over long-term, repeated 21-28 d cycles of administration. These results suggested that adduct removal is slow even though the tissue has a relatively rapid turnover. Patients receiving cisplatin for the first time on 56-d cycles, and those given high doses of cisplatin as a "salvage" regimen, did not accumulate adducts as rapidly as patients on first time chemotherapy on 21- or 28-d cycles. Disease response data, evaluated for 33 cisplatin-treated patients, showed a positive correlation between the formation of DNA adducts and response to drug therapy. However, more data will be required to confirm this relationship. These data show that specific immunological probes can readily be applied to quantitate DNA adducts in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy.

  8. DNA isolation and sample preparation for quantification of adduct levels by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Dingley, Karen H; Ubick, Esther A; Vogel, John S; Ognibene, Ted J; Malfatti, Michael A; Kulp, Kristen; Haack, Kurt W


    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a highly sensitive technique used for the quantification of adducts following exposure to carbon-14- or tritium-labeled chemicals, with detection limits in the range of one adduct per 10(11)-10(12) nucleotides. The protocol described in this chapter provides an optimal method for isolating and preparing DNA samples to measure isotope-labeled DNA adducts by AMS. When preparing samples, special precautions must be taken to avoid cross-contamination of isotope among samples and produce a sample that is compatible with AMS. The DNA isolation method described is based upon digestion of tissue with proteinase K, followed by extraction of DNA using Qiagen isolation columns. The extracted DNA is precipitated with isopropanol, washed repeatedly with 70 % ethanol to remove salt, and then dissolved in water. DNA samples are then converted to graphite or titanium hydride and the isotope content measured by AMS to quantify adduct levels. This method has been used to reliably generate good yields of uncontaminated, pure DNA from animal and human tissues for analysis of adduct levels.

  9. Structural definition of early lysine and histidine adduction chemistry of 4-hydroxynonenal.

    Nadkarni, D V; Sayre, L M


    The lipid peroxidation product trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) has been implicated in the covalent modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) thought to contribute to the over-accumulation of LDL in the arterial wall in the initial stages of atherosclerosis. Proposals for the exact structures of "early" protein side-chain modifications until now have been based on indirect evidence. In this paper, the structures of first-formed His- and Lys-based adducts were elucidated by correlating NMR spectral properties with those obtained on models with reduced chiral center content, in some cases following hydride reduction. In this manner, we could confirm unambiguously the structure of a HNE-His imidazole(N tau) Michael adduct, stabilized as a cyclic hemiacetal and isolated from a neutral aqueous 1:1 stoichiometry reaction mixture. In the case of Lys/amine reactivity, where an excess of amine is needed to avert HNE aldol condensation, the predominance of a 1:1 Michael adduct in homogeneous aqueous solution and a 1:2 Michael-Schiff base adduct under two-phase aqueous-organic conditions could be verified by isolation of the respective borohydride-reduced forms. The 1:2 adduct, shown to exist as the cyclic hemiaminal, could represent a stable lysine-based cross-link in certain protein microenvironments.

  10. Formation of DNA Adducts by Ellipticine and Its Micellar Form in Rats — A Comparative Study

    Marie Stiborova


    Full Text Available The requirements for early diagnostics as well as effective treatment of cancer diseases have increased the pressure on development of efficient methods for targeted drug delivery as well as imaging of the treatment success. One of the most recent approaches covering the drug delivery aspects is benefitting from the unique properties of nanomaterials. Ellipticine and its derivatives are efficient anticancer compounds that function through multiple mechanisms. Formation of covalent DNA adducts after ellipticine enzymatic activation is one of the most important mechanisms of its pharmacological action. In this study, we investigated whether ellipticine might be released from its micellar (encapsulated form to generate covalent adducts analogous to those formed by free ellipticine. The 32P-postlabeling technique was used as a useful imaging method to detect and quantify covalent ellipticine-derived DNA adducts. We compared the efficiencies of free ellipticine and its micellar form (the poly(ethylene oxide-block-poly(allyl glycidyl ether (PAGE-PEO block copolymer, P 119 nanoparticles to form ellipticine-DNA adducts in rats in vivo. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that treatment of rats with ellipticine in micelles resulted in formation of ellipticine-derived DNA adducts in vivo and suggest that a gradual release of ellipticine from its micellar form might produce the enhanced permeation and retention effect of this ellipticine-micellar delivery system.

  11. Inhibition of nicotine-DNA adduct formation by polyphenolic compounds in vitro

    CHENG Yan; WANG Hai-Fang; SUN Hong-Fang; LI Hong-Li


    Nicotine [3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine], a major alkaloid in tobacco products, has proven to be a potential genotoxic compound. Some polyphenolic compounds can suppress the DNA adduction, and hence act as the potential inhibitors of carcinogenesis. In this study, the inhibitory effects of three polyphenolic compounds, curcumin (diferuloylmethane), resveratrol (trans-3, 5, 4-trihydroxystilbene) and tea polyphenols, on the nicotine-DNA adduction have been investigated in vitro using radiolabelled nicotine and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) technique. Also, the inhibition mechanism of these chemopreventive agents in regard to the activity of the biotransformation enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP450), cytochrome b5 (CYb5) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), has been studied. The results demonstrated that these three polyphenols induced marked dose-dependent decrease in nicotine-DNA adducts as compared with the controls. The elimination rate of adducts reached above 46% at the highest dose for all the three agents with 51.6% for resveratrol. Correspondingly, three polyphenols all suppressed CYP450 and CYb5, whereas curcumin and resveratrol induced GST. We may arrive at a point that the three polyphenols are beneficial to prevent the nicotine adduct formation, and thus may be used to block the potential carcinogenesis induced by nicotine.

  12. Serine Protease Catalysis: A Computational Study of Tetrahedral Intermediates and Inhibitory Adducts.

    Ngo, Phong D; Mansoorabadi, Steven O; Frey, Perry A


    Peptide boronic acids and peptidyl trifluoromethyl ketones (TFKs) inhibit serine proteases by forming monoanionic, tetrahedral adducts to serine in the active sites. Investigators regard these adducts as analogs of monoanionic, tetrahedral intermediates. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and fractional charge analysis show that tetrahedral adducts of model peptidyl TFKs are structurally and electrostatically very similar to corresponding tetrahedral intermediates. In contrast, the DFT calculations show the structures and electrostatic properties of analogous peptide boronate adducts to be significantly different. The peptide boronates display highly electrostatically positive boron, with correspondingly negative ligands in the tetrahedra. In addition, the computed boron-oxygen and boron-carbon bond lengths in peptide boronates (which are identical or very similar to the corresponding bonds in a peptide boronate adduct of α-lytic protease determined by X-ray crystallography at subangstrom resolution) are significantly longer than the corresponding bond lengths in model tetrahedral intermediates. Since protease-peptidyl TFKs incorporate low-barrier hydrogen bonds (LBHBs) between an active site histidine and aspartate, while the protease-peptide boronates do not, these data complement the spectroscopic and chemical evidence for the participation of LBHBs in catalysis by serine proteases. Moreover, while the potency of these classes of inhibitors can be correlated to the structures of the peptide moieties, the present results indicate that the strength of their bonds to serine contribute significantly to their inhibitory properties.

  13. Comparison of Bile Acids and Acetaminophen Protein Adducts in Children and Adolescents with Acetaminophen Toxicity.

    James, Laura; Yan, Ke; Pence, Lisa; Simpson, Pippa; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Gill, Pritmohinder; Letzig, Lynda; Kearns, Gregory; Beger, Richard


    Metabolomics approaches have enabled the study of new mechanisms of liver injury in experimental models of drug toxicity. Disruption of bile acid homeostasis is a known mechanism of drug induced liver injury. The relationship of individual bile acids to indicators of oxidative drug metabolism (acetaminophen protein adducts) and liver injury was examined in children with acetaminophen overdose, hospitalized children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and children with no recent exposure to acetaminophen. Nine bile acids were quantified through targeted metabolomic analysis in the serum samples of the three groups. Bile acids were compared to serum levels of acetaminophen protein adducts and alanine aminotransferase. Glycodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid were significantly increased in children with acetaminophen overdose compared to healthy controls. Among patients with acetaminophen overdose, bile acids were higher in subjects with acetaminophen protein adduct values > 1.0 nmol/mL and modest correlations were noted for three bile acids and acetaminophen protein adducts as follows: taurodeoxycholic acid (R=0.604; pacetaminophen than in healthy children with no recent acetaminophen exposure. Compared to bile acids, acetaminophen protein adducts more accurately discriminated among children with acetaminophen overdose, children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and healthy control subjects. In children with acetaminophen overdose, elevations of conjugated bile acids were associated with specific indicators of acetaminophen metabolism and non-specific indicators of liver injury.

  14. Purine DNA adducts of 4,5-dioxovaleric acid and 2,4-decadienal.

    Cadet, J; Carvalho, V M; Onuki, J; Douki, T; Medeiros, M H; Di Mascio, P D


    The present overview describes recent findings on the formation of cyclic adducts of purine DNA bases after reaction with two aldehyde compounds, 4,5-dioxovaleric acid (DOVA) and 2,4-decadlenal (DDE), which are involved in 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) accumulation and lipid peroxidation, respectively. ALA accumulates under pathological conditions and is associated with an increased incidence of liver cancer. The final oxidation product of ALA, DOVA, is an efficient alkylating agent of the guanine moieties in both nucleoside and isolated DNA. Adducts were produced through the formation of a Schiff base involving the N2-amino group of 2'-deoxyguanosine and the ketone function of DOVA, respectively. DDE is an important breakdown product of lipid peroxidation. It is cytotoxic to mammalian cells and is known to be implicated in DNA damage. It can bind to 2'-deoxyadenosine, yielding highly fluorescent products, including 1,N6-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine and two other, related adducts. The reaction mechanism for the formation of DDE-2'-deoxyadenosine adducts involves epoxidation of DDE and subsequent addition of the resulting reactive intermediates to the N6 amino group of 2'-deoxyadenosine, followed by cyclization at the N1 site. Formation of endogenous DNA adducts may contribute to the genotoxic potential of ALA and DDE.

  15. DNA adduct formation by o-phenylphenol metabolite in vivo and in vitro.

    Ushiyama, K; Nagai, F; Nakagawa, A; Kano, I


    [U-14C]o-Phenylphenol (OPP) was found to bind covalently to calf thymus DNA during a 60 min incubation in the presence of microsomes, but not in their absence, indicating that metabolic conversion of the parent compound, OPP, to an activated form is essential. Postlabeling analysis with bladder DNA of rats fed a diet containing 2% OPP for 13 weeks revealed one major adduct on TLC. In an in vitro postlabeling experiment with calf thymus DNA, both of the major metabolites of OPP, phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) and phenylbenzoquinone (PBQ), formed adducts, but no adducts were observed with OPP. The chemical structure responsible for adduct formation is thought to be the PHQ semiquinone radical intermediate formed during interconversion between PHQ and PBQ. When the oligonucleotides, pd(A)12-18, pd(C)12-18, pd(G)12-18 and pd(T)12-18, were used in vitro, only pd(G)12-18 gave TLC-detectable adducts on treatment with PHQ and PBQ. The covalent binding appears to be rather specific to guanine residues. These results suggest that covalent binding of the OPP metabolite is one of the underlying events in OPP-induced carcinogenesis in rats.

  16. Metabolic stability of superoxide adducts derived from newly developed cyclic nitrone spin traps.

    Bézière, Nicolas; Hardy, Micael; Poulhès, Florent; Karoui, Hakim; Tordo, Paul; Ouari, Olivier; Frapart, Yves-Michel; Rockenbauer, Antal; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Mansuy, Daniel; Peyrot, Fabienne


    Reactive oxygen species are by-products of aerobic metabolism involved in the onset and evolution of various pathological conditions. Among them, the superoxide radical is of special interest as the origin of several damaging species such as H2O2, hydroxyl radical, or peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Spin trapping coupled with ESR is a method of choice to characterize these species in chemical and biological systems and the metabolic stability of the spin adducts derived from reaction of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals with nitrones is the main limit to the in vivo application of the method. Recently, new cyclic nitrones bearing a triphenylphosphonium or permethylated β-cyclodextrin moiety have been synthesized and their spin adducts demonstrated increased stability in buffer. In this article, we studied the stability of the superoxide adducts of four new cyclic nitrones in the presence of liver subcellular fractions and biologically relevant reductants using an original setup combining a stopped-flow device and an ESR spectrometer. The kinetics of disappearance of the spin adducts were analyzed using an appropriate simulation program. Our results highlight the interest of the new spin trapping agents CD-DEPMPO and CD-DIPPMPO for specific detection of superoxide with high stability of the superoxide adducts in the presence of liver microsomes.

  17. Foot rotation--a potential target to modify the knee adduction moment.

    Teichtahl, A J; Morris, M E; Wluka, A E; Baker, R; Wolfe, R; Davis, S R; Cicuttini, F M


    Isolating the particular joints/limb segments associated with knee adductor moment variability may provide clinically important data that could help to identify strategies to reduce medial tibiofemoral joint load. The aim of this study was to examine whether or not foot and thigh rotation during human locomotion are significant determinants of knee adductor moment variability. Three-dimensional gait analyses were performed on 32 healthy adult women (mean age 54+/-12 years, mean BMI 25+/-4 kg m(-2)) with radiologically normal knees. The relationships between foot rotation, thigh rotation and the external knee adduction moment were examined during early and late-stance phases of the gait cycle. The degree of foot rotation correlated significantly with the magnitude of the peak knee adduction moment during late stance (r=0.40, p=0.024). No significant associations were apparent between thigh rotation and the peak knee adduction moment. The association between foot rotation and the knee adduction moment in this study suggests that women who walk with external rotation at the foot reduce their knee adduction moment during late stance. This result implies that changes in foot kinematics can modify the medial tibiofemoral load during gait, which may be important in the prevention and management of knee osteoarthritis.

  18. 32P-postlabelling analysis of dibenz[a,j]acridine-DNA adducts in mice: identification of proximate metabolites.

    Talaska, G; Roh, J; Schamer, M; Reilman, R; Xue, W; Warshawsky, D


    N-Heterocyclic polynuclear aromatics are widely-occurring environmental pollutants formed during the pyrolysis of nitrogen-containing organic chemicals. Dibenz[a,j]acridine (DBA), a member of this class, has been shown to be a skin carcinogen in mice. We undertook studies to determine the organ distribution of DBA-DNA adducts and to identify the DBA metabolites which lead to the formation of carcinogen-DNA adducts in vivo. DBA and its metabolites, trans-DBA-1,2-dihydrodiol (DBA-1,2-DHD) trans-DBA-3,4-dihydrodiol (DBA-3,4-DHD) and trans-DBA-5,6-dihydrodiol (DBA-5,6-DHD), were topically applied on mice. DNA was isolated using enzyme-solvent extraction methods, and analyzed for carcinogen-DNA adducts using 32P-postlabelling. In skin, DBA produced two distinct adducts (Adducts 1 and 2). The same two adducts were seen when DBA-3,4-DHD was applied. In addition, the total adduct level elicited by DBA-3,4-DHD was twice that of the parent compound. Two adducts (Adducts 3 and 4) were also seen in mouse skin when DBA-5,6-DHD was applied, but these differed chromatographically from adducts seen with DBA. However, when DBA-3,4-DHD was applied and analyzed using sensitive nuclease P1 32P-postlabelling, all four adducts could be detected. These results suggest that the major route of DBA activation to DNA-binding species in skin is through formation of DBA-3,4-DHD and subsequent metabolism of this compound to a bay-region diol-epoxide. However, we postulate that another activation pathway may proceed through a bis-dihydrodiol-epoxide.

  19. Immunochemical quantitation of 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen adducts in serum and liver proteins of acetaminophen-treated mice.

    Pumford, N R; Hinson, J A; Potter, D W; Rowland, K L; Benson, R W; Roberts, D W


    Using a recently developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific for 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen adducts we have quantitated the formation of these specific adducts in liver and serum protein of B6C3F1 male mice dosed with acetaminophen. Administration of acetaminophen at doses of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg to mice resulted in evidence of hepatotoxicity (increase in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) at 4 hr in the 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg treatment groups only. The formation of 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen adducts in liver protein was not observed in the groups receiving 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses, but was observed in the groups receiving doses above 300 mg/kg of acetaminophen. Greater levels of adduct formation were observed at the higher doses. 3-(Cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen protein adducts were also observed in serum of mice receiving hepatotoxic doses of acetaminophen. After a 400 mg/kg dose of acetaminophen, 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen adducts in the liver protein reached peak levels 2 hr after dosing. By 12 hr the levels decreased to approximately 10% of the peak level. In contrast, 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen adducts in serum protein were delayed, reaching a sustained peak 6 to 12 hr after dosing. The dose-response correlation between the appearance of serum aminotransferases and 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen adducts in serum protein and the temporal correlation between the decrease in 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen adducts in liver protein and the appearance of adducts in serum protein are consistent with a hepatic origin of the adducts detected in serum protein.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Acetaminophen-cysteine adducts during therapeutic dosing and following overdose

    Judge Bryan S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetaminophen-cysteine adducts (APAP-CYS are a specific biomarker of acetaminophen exposure. APAP-CYS concentrations have been described in the setting of acute overdose, and a concentration >1.1 nmol/ml has been suggested as a marker of hepatic injury from acetaminophen overdose in patients with an ALT >1000 IU/L. However, the concentrations of APAP-CYS during therapeutic dosing, in cases of acetaminophen toxicity from repeated dosing and in cases of hepatic injury from non-acetaminophen hepatotoxins have not been well characterized. The objective of this study is to describe APAP-CYS concentrations in these clinical settings as well as to further characterize the concentrations observed following acetaminophen overdose. Methods Samples were collected during three clinical trials in which subjects received 4 g/day of acetaminophen and during an observational study of acetaminophen overdose patients. Trial 1 consisted of non-drinkers who received APAP for 10 days, Trial 2 consisted of moderate drinkers dosed for 10 days and Trial 3 included subjects who chronically abuse alcohol dosed for 5 days. Patients in the observational study were categorized by type of acetaminophen exposure (single or repeated. Serum APAP-CYS was measured using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Results Trial 1 included 144 samples from 24 subjects; Trial 2 included 182 samples from 91 subjects and Trial 3 included 200 samples from 40 subjects. In addition, we collected samples from 19 subjects with acute acetaminophen ingestion, 7 subjects with repeated acetaminophen exposure and 4 subjects who ingested another hepatotoxin. The mean (SD peak APAP-CYS concentrations for the Trials were: Trial 1- 0.4 (0.20 nmol/ml, Trial 2- 0.1 (0.09 nmol/ml and Trial 3- 0.3 (0.12 nmol/ml. APAP-CYS concentrations varied substantially among the patients with acetaminophen toxicity (0.10 to 27.3 nmol/ml. No subject had detectable APAP

  1. Spectral characterization of environment-sensitive adducts of interleukin-1 beta.

    Epps, D E; Yem, A W; Fisher, J F; McGee, J E; Paslay, J W; Deibel, M R


    We have determined the fluorescence properties of two covalently attached acrylodan derivatives of recombinant human interleukin-1 beta, namely the Cys-8 and Lys-103 adducts. The emission and excitation maxima indicated the presence of two operationally distinct conformers for each probe. The iodide quenching and the kinetics of fluorescence changes associated with guanidinium chloride-induced denaturation show that each covalent adduct exists both in hydrated and dehydrated environments. Furthermore, fluorescence changes associated with the binding of the adducts to a recombinant soluble murine receptor indicated that only the conformers with the label in the hydrophobic environment are competent toward the soluble murine interleukin receptor and that the hydrated and dehydrated conformers are in a dynamic equilibrium on the time scale of the binding experiments.

  2. Rotational Investigation of the Adducts of Formic Acid with Alcohols, Ethers and Esters

    Evangelisti, Luca; Spada, Lorenzo; Li, Weixing; Caminati, Walther


    Mixtures of formic acid with methyl alcohol, with isopropyl alcohol, with tert-butyl alcohol, with dimethylether and with isopropylformiate have been supersonically expanded as pulsed jets. The obtained cool plumes have been analyzed by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. It has been possible to assign the rotational spectra of the 1:1 adducts of formic acid with tert-butyl alcohol, with dimethyl ether and with isopropylformiate. The conformational shapes and geometries of these adducts, as well as the topologies of their itermolecular hydrogen bonds will be presented. An explanation is given of the failure of the assignments of the rotational spectra of the adducts of formic acid with methyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol.

  3. Kinetic studies of the decom position reaction of adducts of dinuclear Fe( Ⅱ )/O2


    Kinetic studies of the decomposition reaction of dinuclear Fe( Ⅱ ) adducts [Fe2(N-Et-HPTB){O2P(OPh)2}](CIO4)2 (1)and [Fe2(N-Et-HPTB) {O2P(Ph)2}] (CIO4)2 (2) with O2 have been carried out at low temperature using UV-vis spectra. The decomposition reaction of Fe( Ⅱ)/O2 adducts was first-order in the experimental conditions, and the activation parameters were obtained. △H¢ = 85.62 kJ @ mol-1, △S≠= 19.43 J @ mol-1 @ K-1 for compound (1) and △H¢ = 97.97 kJ @ mol-1,△S≠ = 55.68 J @ mol-1 @ K-1 for compound (2). These results are similar to those of dioxygen adducts of other metals complexes and natural enzymes such as methane monooxygenase (MMOH).

  4. Synthesis of Mitomycin C and Decarbamoylmitomycin C N(2) deoxyguanosine-adducts.

    Champeil, Elise; Cheng, Shu-Yuan; Huang, Bik Tzu; Conchero-Guisan, Marta; Martinez, Thibaut; Paz, Manuel M; Sapse, Anne-Marie


    Mitomycin C (MC) and Decarbamoylmitomycin C (DMC) - a derivative of MC lacking the carbamate on C10 - are DNA alkylating agents. Their cytotoxicity is attributed to their ability to generate DNA monoadducts as well as intrastrand and interstrand cross-links (ICLs). The major monoadducts generated by MC and DMC in tumor cells have opposite stereochemistry at carbon one of the guanine-mitosene bond: trans (or alpha) for MC and cis (or beta) for DMC. We hypothesize that local disruptions of DNA structure from trans or cis adducts are responsible for the different biochemical responses produced by MC and DMC. Access to DNA substrates bearing cis and trans MC/DMC lesions is essential to verify this hypothesis. Synthetic oligonucleotides bearing trans lesions can be obtained by bio-mimetic methods. However, this approach does not yield cis adducts. This report presents the first chemical synthesis of a cis mitosene DNA adduct. We also examined the stereopreference exhibited by the two drugs at the mononucleotide level by analyzing the formation of cis and trans adducts in the reaction of deoxyguanosine with MC or DMC using a variety of activation conditions. In addition, we performed Density Functional Theory calculations to evaluate the energies of these reactions. Direct alkylation under autocatalytic or bifunctional conditions yielded preferentially alpha adducts with both MC and DMC. DFT calculations showed that under bifunctional activation, the thermodynamically favored adducts are alpha, trans, for MC and beta, cis, for DMC. This suggests that the duplex DNA structure may stabilize/oriente the activated pro-drugs so that, with DMC, formation of the thermodynamically favored beta products are possible in a cellular environment.

  5. Insights into the conformation of aminofluorene-deoxyguanine adduct in a DNA polymerase active site.

    Vaidyanathan, Vaidyanathan G; Liang, Fengting; Beard, William A; Shock, David D; Wilson, Samuel H; Cho, Bongsup P


    The active site conformation of the mutagenic fluoroaminofluorene-deoxyguanine adduct (dG-FAF, N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-7-fluoro-2-aminofluorene) has been investigated in the presence of Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (Kfexo(-)) and DNA polymerase β (pol β) using (19)F NMR, insertion assay, and surface plasmon resonance. In a single nucleotide gap, the dG-FAF adduct adopts both a major-groove- oriented and base-displaced stacked conformation, and this heterogeneity is retained upon binding pol β. The addition of a non-hydrolysable 2'-deoxycytosine-5'-[(α,β)-methyleno]triphosphate (dCMPcPP) nucleotide analog to the binary complex results in an increase of the major groove conformation of the adduct at the expense of the stacked conformation. Similar results were obtained with the addition of an incorrect dAMPcPP analog but with formation of the minor groove binding conformer. In contrast, dG-FAF adduct at the replication fork for the Kfexo(-) complex adopts a mix of the major and minor groove conformers with minimal effect upon the addition of non-hydrolysable nucleotides. For pol β, the insertion of dCTP was preferred opposite the dG-FAF adduct in a single nucleotide gap assay consistent with (19)F NMR data. Surface plasmon resonance binding kinetics revealed that pol β binds tightly with DNA in the presence of correct dCTP, but the adduct weakens binding with no nucleotide specificity. These results provide molecular insights into the DNA binding characteristics of FAF in the active site of DNA polymerases and the role of DNA structure and sequence on its coding potential.

  6. Safrole-DNA adduct in hepatocellular carcinoma associated with betel quid chewing.

    Chung, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chiu-Lan; Wu, Cheng-Chung; Chan, Shan-An; Chi, Chin-Wen; Liu, Tsung-Yun


    Betel quid chewing, which contributes high concentration of safrole in saliva, is a popular oral habit in Taiwan. Safrole is a documented rodent hepatocarcinogen, yet its hepatocarcinogenic potential in human is not known. Here, we used LC/ESI-ITMS(n) and LC/QTOF-MS confirmed safrole-dGMP as reference standard to detect the safrole-DNA adduct in hepatic tissues from HBsAg-/HCV-seronegative hepatocellular carcinoma patients by (32)P-postlabeling. We first synthesized and confirmed safrole-dGMP by LC/MS. Two isomeric safrole-dGMPs were characterized as N(2)-(trans-isosafrol-3'-yl) deoxyguanosine and N(2)-(safrol-1'-yl) deoxyguanosine. This technique was able to detect hepatic safrole-DNA adduct in mice that were treated with safrole but not sensitive enough to detect safrole-DNA adduct in human samples. Using the nuclease P1 version of the (32)P-postlabeling technique, we detected the presence of safrole-DNA adduct in two out of 28 hepatic tissues from hepatocellular carcinoma patients, and only these two patients had a history of betel quid chewing lasting more than 10 years. From co-chromatography with the mass confirmed safrole-dGMPs, this safrole-DNA adduct was identified as N(2)-(trans-isosafrol-3'-yl) deoxyguanosine. These results suggest that betel quid-containing safrole might be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma in human beings and LC/MS has the potential to identify DNA adducts in clinical samples.

  7. GSTM1 and XRCC3 Polymorphisms: Effects on Levels of Aflatoxin B1-DNA Adducts

    Xi-dai Long; Yun Ma; Zhou-lin Deng


    Objective: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which can cause the formation of AFB1-DNA adducts, is a known human carcinogen. AFB1-exposure individuals with inherited susceptible carcinogen-metabolizing or repairing genotypes may experience an increased risk of genotoxicity. This study was designed to investigate whether the polymorphisms of two genes, the metabolic gene Glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and DNA repair gene x-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3), can affect the levels of AFB1-DNA adducts in Guangxi Population (n= 966) from an AFB1-exposure area.Methods: AFB1-DNA adducts were measured by ELISA, and GSTM1 and XRCC3 codon 241 genotypes were identified by PCR-RFLP.Results: The GSTM1-null genotype [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.61(2.71] and XRCC3 genotypes with 241 Met alleles [i.e., XRCC3-TM and -MM, adjusted ORs (95% CI) were 1.43 (1.08(1.89) and 2.42 (1.13(5.22), respectively] were significantly associated with higher levels of AFB1-DNA adducts. Compared with those individuals who did not express any putative risk genotypes as reference (OR = 1), individuals featuring all of the putative risk genotypes did experience a significantly higher DNA-adduct levels (adjusted ORs were 2.87 for GSTM1-null and XRCC3-TM; 5.83 for GSTM1-null and XRCC3-MM). Additionally, there was a positive joint effect between XRCC3 genotypes and long-term AFB1 exposure in the formation of AFB1-DNA adducts.Conclusion: These results suggest that individuals with susceptible genotypes GSTM1-null, XRCC3-TM, or XRCC3-MM may experience an increased risk of DNA damage elicited by AFB1 exposure.

  8. Simultaneous analysis of hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Pérez, H L; Cheong, H K; Yang, J S; Osterman-Golkar, S


    Acrylamide (AA) is a carcinogen in experimental animals. Glycidamide (GA), formed by metabolic epoxidation of AA, is believed to be responsible for the carcinogenicity of AA. Occupational exposure to AA has been assessed earlier by measurement of its adducts with N-terminal valine in hemoglobin. A background of AA adducts [N-(2-carbamoylethyl)valine (AAVal), about 30 pmol/g globin] was found in individuals without known exposure to the compound. The method previously available for adducts of GA only allowed analysis of samples from highly exposed individuals and showed similar levels of AAVal and adducts of GA [N-(2-hydroxy-2-carbamoylethyl)valine (GAVal)]. We have developed a sensitive method for simultaneous quantification of adducts of GA and AA, which is suitable down to low exposure levels. The method is based on the so-called modified Edman method, where globin is reacted with pentafluorophenyl isothiocyanate under neutral conditions. The valine adducts are then extracted in the form of pentafluorophenylthiohydantoin (PFPTH) derivatives. The analytical procedure included reaction of the PFPTH derivatives with acetic anhydride in order to protect the hydroxyl group of GAVal. The PFPTH derivatives of AAVal and GAVal were analyzed by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. ((2)H(3))AAVal-PFPTH was used as the internal standard. The method was applied to samples from 11 workers at an AA production plant, 1 nonexposed nonsmoker, and a few participants of a smoking cessation program. AAVal levels were in the range 27-1854 pmol/g globin. Recorded levels of GAVal were 3-12% of those of AAVal, suggesting that previous measurements of GAVal overestimate GAVal at low levels of exposure to AA.

  9. "Danger" conditions increase sulfamethoxazole-protein adduct formation in human antigen-presenting cells.

    Lavergne, S N; Wang, H; Callan, H E; Park, B K; Naisbitt, D J


    Antigen-presenting cells (APC) are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of drug-induced immune reactions. Various pathological factors can activate APC and therefore influence the immune equilibrium. It is interesting that several diseases have been associated with an increased rate of drug allergy. The aim of this project was to evaluate the impact of such "danger signals" on sulfamethoxazole (SMX) metabolism in human APC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, Epstein-Barr virus-modified B lymphocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and two cell lines). APC were incubated with SMX (100 microM-2 mM; 5 min-24 h), in the presence of pathological factors: bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide and staphylococcal enterotoxin B), flu viral proteins, cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-10; tumor necrosis factor-alpha; interferon-gamma; and transforming growth factor-beta], inflammatory molecules (prostaglandin E2, human serum complement, and activated protein C), oxidants (buthionine sulfoximine and H(2)O(2)), and hyperthermia (37.5-39.5 degrees C). Adduct formation was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confocal microscopy. SMX-protein adduct formation was time- and concentration-dependent for each cell type tested, in both physiological and danger conditions. A danger environment significantly increased the formation of SMX-protein adducts and significantly shortened the delay for their detection. An additive effect was observed with a combination of danger signals. Dimedone (chemical selectively binding cysteine sulfenic acid) and antioxidants decreased both baseline and danger-enhanced SMX-adduct formation. Various enzyme inhibitors were associated with a significant decrease in SMX-adduct levels, with a pattern varying depending on the cell type and the culture conditions. These results illustrate that danger signals enhance the formation of intracellular SMX-protein adducts in human APC. These findings might be relevant

  10. Olefin Hydroborations with Diamidocarbene–BH3 Adducts at Room Temperature

    Dominika N. Lastovickova


    Full Text Available An isolable N,N’-diamidocarbene (DAC was previously shown to promote the B–H bond activation of various BH3 complexes. The resultant DAC–BH3 adducts facilitated olefin hydroborations under mild conditions and in the absence of exogenous initiators. The substrate scope for such transformations was further explored and is described herein. While organoboranes were obtained in quantitative yields from various terminal and internal olefins, use of the latter substrates resulted in intramolecular ring-expansion of the newly formed DAC–borane adducts.

  11. Active Oxygen Radical Scavenging Ability of Water-Soluble β-Alanine C60 Adducts


    Water-soluble β-alanine C60 adducts were synthesized, and the scavenging ability to superoxygen anion radical O2-and hydroxyl radicalOH were studied by autoxidation ofpyrogallol and chemiluminescence, respectively. It was found that β-alanine C60 adducts showed an excellent efficiency in eliminating superoxygen anion radical and hydroxyl radical. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) for superoxygen anion radical and hydroxyl radical were 0.15 mg/mL and 0.048 mg/mL, respectively. The difference should be mainly attributed to the different scavenging mechanisms.

  12. Effect of external electric field on Cyclodextrin-Alcohol adducts: A DFT study

    Kundan Baruah; Pradip Kr Bhattacharyya


    Effect of external electric fields on the interaction energy between cyclodextrin and alcohol was analyzed in the light of density functional theory (DFT) and density functional reactivity theory (DFRT). Stability of the cyclodextrin-alcohol adducts was measured in terms of DFT based reactivity descriptor, global hardness, electrophilicity, and energy of the HOMO. Stability of adducts was observed to be sensitive towards the strength as well as direction of the applied external electric field. In addition, reactivity pattern follows the maximum hardness and minimum electrophilicity principles.

  13. Synthesis and structural studies of flavin and alloxazine adducts with O-nucleophiles

    Ménová, Petra; Eigner, Václav; Čejka, Jan; Dvořáková, Hana; Šanda, Miloslav; Cibulka, Radek


    Five flavin (isoalloxazine) and alloxazine adducts with O-nucleophiles, 5-ethyl-4a-hydroxy-3,7,8,10-tetramethyl-4a,5-dihydroisoalloxazine ( 1a-OH), 5-ethyl-4a-hydroxy-3,10-dimethyl-4a,5-dihydroisoalloxazine ( 1b-OH), 5-ethyl-4a-methoxy-3,10-dimethyl-4a,5-dihydroisoalloxazine ( 1b-OMe), 5-ethyl-4a-hydroxy-1,3-dimethyl-4a,5-dihydroalloxazine ( 2a-OH) and 5-ethyl-4a-methoxy-1,3-dimethyl-4a,5-dihydroalloxazine ( 2a-OMe) were prepared from the corresponding salts, 5-ethyl-3,7,8,10-tetramethylisoalloxazinium ( 1a), 5-ethyl-3,10-dimethylisoalloxazinium ( 1b) and 5-ethyl-1,3-dimethylalloxazinium ( 2a) perchlorates by the addition of a nucleophile (water or methanol) and triethylamine as a base. The prepared adducts represent artificial analogs of flavin cofactor derivatives which are essential for the functioning of flavoenzymes. They were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, HR-MS and UV-VIS spectra. In the cases of 1a-OH, 1b-OH, and 2a-OMe, the crystal structures were determined by X-ray diffraction. Flavinium and alloxazinium salts are in rapid equilibria with their adducts in water or methanolic solutions without the presence of a base. It was found that the equilibrium constants for flavin adduct formation is higher by six orders of magnitude than those for alloxazine derivatives. The presence of the sp 3 hybridized C4a atom in the molecule of the adducts causes deviation from planarity. The interplanar angles between benzene and the pyrimidine ring were found to be 31.5°, 23.64° and 15.62° for 1a-OH, 1b-OH and 2a-OMe, respectively, which are much higher than those of previously published adducts of C-nucleophiles. In isoalloxazine adducts, delocalization of π electrons between the N10-C10a and C10a-N1 bonds was detected while the length of the N10-C10a and C10a-N1 bonds in the alloxazine adducts corresponds to a double and single bond, respectively.

  14. Reactivity of monofunctional cis-platinum adducts as a function of DNA sequence.

    Malinge, J M; Leng, M


    The purpose of this work was to study the chemical reactivity of monofunctional cis-platinum-nucleic acid adducts as a function of nucleic acid sequence. The first part of the paper deals with the formation of these adducts. It is shown that the ternary nucleic acid-cis-platinum-ethidium bromide complexes in which ethidium bromide and nucleotide residues are cross-linked by cis-platinum, are relatively unstable at 37 degrees C. In the presence of acridine, ethidium bromide (but not cis-platin...

  15. Diagnostic ions for the analysis of phenylalanine adducts of acrylamide and styrene by ESI-QTOF mass spectrometry.

    Chu, Fong Lam; Sleno, Lekha; Yaylayan, Varoujan Antranik


    To facilitate the detection of acrylamide or styrene adduct of amino acids by mass spectrometry based techniques, phenylalanine was used as a representative amino acid and pyrolysis was employed in conjunction with isotope labeling technique as a microscale sample preparation tool to generate the reaction products. The residues remaining after the pyrolysis of phenylalanine/styrene, phenylalanine/acrylamide, and phenylalanine/glucose mixtures at 250 °C were analyzed by electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight (ESI-QqTOF) mass spectrometry to identify the adducts. The phenylalanine/acrylamide adduct was independently synthesized for confirmation. Characteristic product ions in the tandem mass spectra were found at m/z 191 for the acrylamide adduct and at m/z 262 and 190 for its double-addition product. On the other hand, an ion at m/z 224 was shown to be diagnostic of the styrene adduct. The ability of the m/z 224 ion to predict the presence of styrene adduct in a heated phenylalanine/glucose model system was tested and verified. Detailed isotope labeling analysis of the phenylalanine/glucose model further indicated the formation of a novel adduct that was consistent with the reaction of the Amadori product with styrene. Such diagnostic ions that are needed to develop MS/MS-based screening methodologies may accelerate in the future the detection of Michael-type adducts in food.

  16. Iridium-catalysed dehydrocoupling of aryl phosphine-borane adducts: synthesis and characterisation of high molecular weight poly(phosphinoboranes).

    Paul, Ursula S D; Braunschweig, Holger; Radius, Udo


    The thermal dehydrogenative coupling of aryl phosphine-borane adducts with iridium complexes bearing a bis(phosphinite) pincer ligand is reported. This catalysis produces high molecular weight poly(phosphinoboranes) [ArPH-BH2]n (Ar = Ph, (p)Tol, Mes). Furthermore, we investigated the reactivity of these pincer complexes towards primary phosphines and their respective borane adducts on a stoichiometric scale.

  17. Cigarette Smoking, BPDE-DNA Adducts, and Aberrant Promoter Methylations of Tumor Suppressor Genes (TSGs) in NSCLC from Chinese Population.

    Jin, Yongtang; Xu, Peiwei; Liu, Xinneng; Zhang, Chunye; Tan, Cong; Chen, Chunmei; Sun, Xiaoyu; Xu, Yingchun


    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is related to the genetic and epigenetic factors. The goal of this study was to determine association of cigarette smoking and BPDE-DNA adducts with promoter methylations of several genes in NSCLC. Methylation of the promoters of p16, RARβ, DAPK, MGMT, and TIMP-3 genes of tumor tissues from 199 lung cancer patients was analyzed with methylation-specific PCR (MSP), and BPDE-DNA adduct level in lung cancer tissue was obtained by ELISA. Level of BPDE-DNA adduct increased significantly in males, aged people (over 60 years), and smokers; however, no significant difference was found while comparing the BPDE-DNA adduct levels among different tumor types, locations, and stages. Cigarette smoking was also associated with increased BPDE-DNA adducts level (OR = 2.43, p > .05) and increased methylation level in at least 1 gene (OR = 5.22, p smoking also significantly increase the risk of p16 or DAPK methylation (OR = 3.02, p smoking for more than 40 pack-years (OR = 4.21, p smoking is significantly associated with the increase of BPDE-DNA adduct level, promoter hypermethylation of p16 and DAPK genes, while BPDE-DNA adduct was not significantly related to abnormal promoter hypermethylation in TSGs, suggesting that BPDE-DNA adducts and TSGs methylations play independent roles in NSCLC.

  18. Immunohistochemical localization and quantification of the 3-(cystein-S-yl)-acetaminophen protein adduct in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity.

    Roberts, D W; Bucci, T J; Benson, R W; Warbritton, A R; McRae, T A; Pumford, N R; Hinson, J A


    Acetaminophen overdose causes severe hepatotoxicity in humans and laboratory animals, presumably by metabolism to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine: and binding to cysteine groups as 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen-protein adduct. Antiserum specific for the adduct was used immunohistochemically to demonstrate the formation, distribution, and concentration of this specific adduct in livers of treated mice and was correlated with cell injury as a function of dose and time. Within the liver lobule, immunohistochemically demonstrable adduct occurred in a temporally progressive, central-to-peripheral pattern. There was concordance between immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the adduct in hepatic 10,000g supernate, using a quantitative particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay. Findings include: 1) immunochemically detectable adduct before the appearance of centrilobular necrosis, 2) distinctive lobular zones of adduct localization with subsequent depletion during the progression of toxicity, 3) drug-protein binding in hepatocytes at subhepatotoxic doses and before depletion of total hepatic glutathione, 4) immunohistochemical evidence of drug binding in the nucleus, and 5) adduct in metabolically active and dividing hepatocytes and in macrophagelike cells in the regenerating liver.

  19. On the complexity and dynamics of in vivo Cisplatin-DNA adduct formation using HPLC/ICP-MS.

    Ziehe, Matthias; Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Hochkirch, Ulrike; Thomale, Jürgen; Linscheid, Michael W


    In this work we present a methodology to measure the complex adduct spectrum caused by the interaction of Cisplatin with DNA. By using an optimized DNA digestion procedure we were able to show that the adduct spectrum in in vivo duplex DNA is much more complex than described so far. For the first time a high abundance of interstrand adducts has been detected by using HPLC/ESI-MS. These adducts could play a key role in the DNA repair mechanisms and the development of cellular resistance to Cisplatin. By species-unspecific isotope dilution analysis HPLC/ICP-MS measurements, we were able to study the kinetics of adduct formation. With these experiments we proved that after the initial formation of adducts a rearrangement occurs on the DNA-strands leading to significant changes in adduct patterns over time. Furthermore, the parameters of the species-unspecific isotope dilution analysis were optimized to allow measurements of specific adducts in the DNA of Cisplatin exposed cells.

  20. Measurement of HNE-protein adducts in human plasma and serum by ELISA—Comparison of two primary antibodies

    Daniela Weber


    After modification and validation of the protocol for both antibodies, samples of two groups were analyzed: apparently healthy obese (n=62 and non-obese controls (n=15. Although the detected absolute values of HNE–protein adducts were different, depending on the antibody used, both ELISA methods showed significantly higher values of HNE–protein adducts in the obese group.

  1. Elevated levels of 4-hydroxynonenal-histidine Michael adduct in the hippocampi of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Fukuda, Mitsugu; Kanou, Fumihisa; Shimada, Nobuko; Sawabe, Motoji; Saito, Yuko; Murayama, Shigeo; Hashimoto, Masakatsu; Maruyama, Naoki; Ishigami, Akihito


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is among the most common causes of progressive cognitive impairment in humans and is characterized by neurodegeneration in the brain. Lipid peroxidation is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of AD. 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) results from peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and it in turn gives evidence of lipid peroxidation in vivo. HNE reacts with protein histidine residue to form a stable HNE-histidine Michael adduct. To clarify the influence of lipid peroxidation on the pathogenesis of AD, we measured HNE-histidine Michael adduct in hippocampi from four AD patients and four age-matched controls by means of semiquantitative immunohistochemistry using a specific antibody to cyclic hemiacetal type of HNE-histidine Michael adduct. This antibody does not react with the ring-opened form of HNE-histidine Michael adduct and the pyrrole form of HNE-lysine Michael adduct. The HNE adduct was detected in the hippocampi of both AD and control donors, especially in the CA2, CA3 and CA4 sectors. Immunoreactive intensity of HNE adduct in these sectors were significantly higher in AD patients than in the controls. The HNE adduct was found in the perikarya of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus. These results show that the hippocampi of patients with AD undergo lipid peroxidation and imply that this activity underlies the production of cytotoxic products such as HNE that are responsible for the pathogenesis of AD.

  2. Lifestyle, Environmental, and Genetic Predictors of Bulky DNA Adducts in a Study Population Nested within a Prospective Danish Cohort

    Eriksen, K. T.; Sørensen, M.; Autrup, H.


    Bulky DNA adducts are considered a potential biomarker of cancer risk. In this study, the association between various lifestyle, environmental, and genetic factors and the levels of bulky DNA adducts in peripheral leukocytes was examined in a study group nested within a population-based prospecti...

  3. Comparison of immunoaffinity chromatography enrichment and nuclease P1 procedures for 32P-postlabelling analysis of PAH- DNA adducts

    Randerath, K.; Sriram, P.; Moorthy, B.; Aston, J.P.; Baan, R.A.; Berg, P.T.M. van den; Booth, E.D.; Watson, W.P.


    32P-postlabelling analysis for detecting DNA adducts formed by polycyclic aromatic compounds is one of the most widely used techniques for assessing genotoxicity associated with these compounds. In cases where the formation of adducts is extremely low, a crucial step in the analysis is an enrichment

  4. Quantitative comparison between in vivo DNA adduct formation from exposure to selected DNA-reactive carcinogens, natural background levels of DNA adduct formation and tumour incidence in rodent bioassays.

    Paini, Alicia; Scholz, Gabriele; Marin-Kuan, Maricel; Schilter, Benoît; O'Brien, John; van Bladeren, Peter J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M


    This study aimed at quantitatively comparing the occurrence/formation of DNA adducts with the carcinogenicity induced by a selection of DNA-reactive genotoxic carcinogens. Contrary to previous efforts, we used a very uniform set of data, limited to in vivo rat liver studies in order to investigate whether a correlation can be obtained, using a benchmark dose (BMD) approach. Dose-response data on both carcinogenicity and in vivo DNA adduct formation were available for six compounds, i.e. 2-acetylaminofluorene, aflatoxin B1, methyleugenol, safrole, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline and tamoxifen. BMD(10) values for liver carcinogenicity were calculated using the US Environmental Protection Agency BMD software. DNA adduct levels at this dose were extrapolated assuming linearity of the DNA adduct dose response. In addition, the levels of DNA adducts at the BMD(10) were compared to available data on endogenous background DNA damage in the target organ. Although for an individual carcinogen the tumour response increases when adduct levels increase, our results demonstrate that when comparing different carcinogens, no quantitative correlation exists between the level of DNA adduct formation and carcinogenicity. These data confirm that the quantity of DNA adducts formed by a DNA-reactive compound is not a carcinogenicity predictor but that other factors such as type of adduct and mutagenic potential may be equally relevant. Moreover, comparison to background DNA damage supports the notion that the mere occurrence of DNA adducts above or below the level of endogenous DNA damage is neither correlated to development of cancer. These data strongly emphasise the need to apply the mode of action framework to understand the contribution of other biological effect markers playing a role in carcinogenicity.

  5. Reversible addition of the OH radical to p-cymene in the gas phase: multiple adduct formation. Part 2.

    Alarcón, Paulo; Bohn, Birger; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Rayez, Marie-Thérèse; Rayez, Jean-Claude


    A flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence (FP-RF) system was used to study the p-cymene (PC) + OH reaction at temperatures between 299 and 349 K in helium. Triexponential functions were fitted to groups of observed OH decay curves according to a model considering a reversible addition to form two adducts as thermolabile reservoirs of OH. Compared to Part 1 of this paper, consideration of a second adduct strongly improved the fits to our measurements, and the rate constants for the major pathways were optimized between 299 and 349 K. The Arrhenius expression for the rate constant of the sum of OH addition and H-atom abstraction pathways was found to be kOH = 1.9 × 10(-12) exp[(610 ± 210) K/T] cm(3) s(-1). Rate constants of unimolecular decomposition reactions of the adducts were similar to other aromatic compounds with the following Arrhenius expressions: 1 × 10(12) exp[(-7600 ± 800) K/T] s(-1) for adduct 1 and 4 × 10(11) exp[(-8000 ± 300) K/T] s(-1) for adduct 2. Adduct yields increased and decreased with temperature for adduct 1 and 2, respectively, but were similar (∼0.4) around room temperature. Equilibrium constants yielded values for reaction enthalpies and entropies of adduct formations. While for one adduct reasonable agreement was obtained with theoretical predictions, there were significant deviations for the other adduct. This indicates the presence of more than two adduct isomers that were not accounted for in the reaction model. Quantum chemical calculations (DFT M06-2X/6-31G(d,p)) and RRKM kinetics were employed with the aim of clarifying the mechanism of the OH addition to PC. These calculations show that formation of adducts with OH in ortho positions to the isopropyl and methyl substituents is predominant (55% and 24%) to those with OH in ipso positions (21% and 3%). A large fraction (>90%) of the ipso-C3H7 adduct is predicted to react by dealkylation forming p-cresol (in the absence of oxygen) and isopropyl radicals. These theoretical

  6. The analysis of high explosives by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: multiplexed detection of negative ion adducts.

    Mathis, John A; McCord, Bruce R


    The negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) detection of adducts of high explosives with chloride, formate, acetate, and nitrate was used to demonstrate the gas-phase interaction of neutral explosives with these anions. The relative intensities of the adduct species were determined to compare the competitive formation of the selected high explosives and anions. The relative stability of the adduct species varies, yielding preferential formation of certain anionic adducts with different high explosives. To exploit this effect, an isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/ESI-MS method was developed and used for the simultaneous analysis of high explosives using two different techniques for the addition of the anionic additives; pre- and post-column. The results show that the pre-column approach provides similar results with improved selectivity for specific explosives. By detecting characteristic adduct species for each explosive, this method provides a qualitative and quantitative approach for the analysis and identification of high explosives.

  7. Phosphorous bonding in PCl3:H2O adducts: A matrix isolation infrared and ab initio computational studies

    Joshi, Prasad Ramesh; Ramanathan, N.; Sundararajan, K.; Sankaran, K.


    Non-covalent interaction between PCl3 and H2O was studied using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy and ab initio computations. Computations indicated that the adducts are stabilized through novel P⋯O type phosphorus bonding and conventional Psbnd Cl⋯H type hydrogen bonding interactions, where the former adduct is the global minimum. Experimentally, the P⋯O phosphorus bonded adduct was identified in N2 matrix, which was evidenced from the shifts in the vibrational wavenumbers of the modes involving PCl3 and H2O sub-molecules. Atoms in Molecules and Natural Bond Orbital analyses have been performed to understand the nature of interactions in the phosphorus and hydrogen bonded adducts. Interestingly, experimental evidence for the formation of higher PCl3sbnd H2O adduct was also observed in N2 matrix.

  8. Bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and exposure to environmental and occupational sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Influence of susceptibility genotypes on adduct level

    Sabro Nielsen, P.


    PAH exposure, whether it is of occupational or environmental origin, is thought to result in an elevated risk of cancer especially in the lungs. DNA damage is considered an important step in the carcinogenic effect of PAH. Hence, methods that elucidate the steps in the carcinogenic process are important to understand the action of PAH. It may prove useful in the exposure assessment and in combination with classical epidemiological methods give better basis for risk estimation. The objective in this thesis was to evaluate the feasibility of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling method to detect carcinogen-DNA adducts for assessing exposure to DNA damaging compounds in different occupationally and environmentally exposed groups. The studies included groups, that have an elevated cancer risk due to occupational exposure to PAH. Exposure levels were supposed to be relatively low according to reports on occupational and environmental air quality programs. Another aim was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in metabolizing enzyme genes on DNA adduct levels. A third objective was to establish some kind of baseline DNA adduct level for individuals with supposed low exposure, and compare it to the more exposed groups. A fourth aim in these studies was to examine if biomarkers of genotoxic exposure could be useful in epidemiological studies to identify groups at risk and thereby contribute with better exposure estimates in the study of PAH related cancer risk. (EG).

  9. Analysis of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils and determination of DNA adducts in topically treated mice by 32P-postlabelling.

    Carmichael, P L; Jacob, J; Grimmer, G; Phillips, D H


    Engine lubricating oils are known to accumulate carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during engine running. Oils from nine petrol-powered and 11 diesel-powered vehicles, in addition to samples of unused oil, were analysed for PAH content and ability to form DNA adducts when applied topically to mouse skin. The levels of 19 PAHs, determined by GC, were in total, approximately 22 times higher in used oils from petrol engines than in oils from diesel engines. Male Parkes mice were treated with 50 microliters of oil daily for 4 days before they were killed and DNA isolated from skin and lung tissue. DNA samples were analysed by nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabelling. Used oils from both diesel and petrol engines showed several adduct spots on PEI-cellulose plates at total adduct levels of up to 0.57 fmol/microgram DNA [approximately 60 times greater than in experiments with samples of unused oil in which adduct levels (0.01-0.02 fmol adducts/microgram DNA) were close to the limit of detection]. Higher adduct levels were generally formed by petrol engine oils than by diesel engine oils. Lung DNA contained similar total adduct levels to those in skin although the adduct maps were less complex. Total adduct levels correlated with extent of oil use in the engine, the total PAH concentration in oils and with the concentrations of certain individual PAHs present in the oils. An adduct spot that co-eluted with that of the major benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct accounted for 9-26% of the total adducts in skin DNA, and approximately 8% of the adducts in lung DNA, of mice treated with petrol engine oils. A major, and as yet unidentified, adduct spot comprised up to 30% of the total adducts in skin DNA, and up to 89% of the total adducts in lung DNA, of these animals.

  10. Gene-diet interactions in exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines and bulky DNA adduct levels in blood leukocytes.

    Ho, Vikki; Peacock, Sarah; Massey, Thomas E; Godschalk, Roger W L; van Schooten, Frederik J; Chen, Jian; King, Will D


    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), carcinogens produced in meat when cooked at high temperatures, are an emerging biologic explanation for the meat-colorectal cancer relationship. HAAs form DNA adducts; left unrepaired, adducts can induce mutations, which may initiate/promote carcinogenesis. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between dietary HAAs, genetic susceptibility and bulky DNA adduct levels. Least squares regression was used to examine the relationship between dietary HAA exposure and bulky DNA adduct levels in blood measured using (32)P-postlabeling among 99 healthy volunteers. Gene-diet interactions between dietary HAAs and genetic factors relevant to the biotransformation of HAAs and DNA repair were also examined. No main effects of dietary HAAs on bulky DNA adduct levels was found. However, those with the putative NAT1 rapid acetylator phenotype had lower adduct levels than those with the slow acetylator phenotype (P = 0.02). Furthermore, having five or more 'at-risk' genotypes was associated with higher bulky DNA adduct levels (P = 0.03). Gene-diet interactions were observed between NAT1 polymorphisms and dietary HAAs (P adduct levels compared to lower intakes. This study provides evidence of a biologic relationship between dietary HAAs, genetic susceptibility and bulky DNA adduct formation. However, the lack of a strong main effect of HAAs suggests that dietary HAAs are not a large contributor to bulky DNA adducts in this population; future studies should consider relevant gene-diet interactions to clarify the role of HAAs in carcinogenesis.

  11. Structural water cluster as a possible proton acceptor in the adduct decay reaction of oat phototropin 1 LOV2 domain.

    Chan, Ruby H; Bogomolni, Roberto A


    LOV domains (Light, Oxygen, Voltage) are the light-sensory modules of phototropins, the blue-light photoreceptor kinases in plants, and of a wide variety of flavoproteins found in all three domains of life. These 12 kDa modules bind a flavin chromophore (FMN or FAD) noncovalently and undergo a photochemical activation in which the sulfur atom of a conserved cysteine forms an adduct to the C(4a) carbon of the flavin. The adduct breaks spontaneously in a base-catalyzed reaction involving a rate-limiting proton-transfer step, regenerating the dark state in seconds. This photocycle involves chromophore and protein structural changes that activate the C-terminal serine/threonine kinase. Previous studies (Biochemistry 2007, 46, 7016-7021) showed that decreased hydration obtained at high glycerol concentrations stabilizes the adduct state in a manner similar to that attained at low temperatures, resulting in much longer adduct decay times. This kinetic effect was attributed to an increased protein rigidity that hindered structural fluctuations necessary for the decay reaction. In this work, we studied the adduct decay kinetics of oat phototropin 1 (phot1) LOV2 at varying hydration using a specially designed chamber that allowed for measurement of UV-visible and FTIR spectra of the same samples. Therefore, we obtained LOV protein concentrations, adduct decay kinetics, and the different populations of bound water by deconvolution of the broad water absorption peak around 3500 cm(-1). A linear dependence of the adduct decay rate constant on the concentration of double and triple hydrogen-bonded waters strongly suggests that the adduct decay is a pseudo-first-order reaction in which both the adduct and the strongly bound waters are reactants. We suggest that a cluster of strongly bound water functions as the proton acceptor in the rate-limiting step of adduct decay.

  12. Metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene and identification of the major benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adducts in cultured human colon


    ]benzo(a)pyrene for another 24 hr and the binding to cellular DMA and protein was measured. Two adducts, formed between benzo(a)pyrene and DMA, have been isolated. The major adduct (72 to 100%) was formed between the 10-position of benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide I and the 2-amino group of guanine, and the minor adduct...

  13. The potential of platinum-DNA adduct determination in ex vivo treated tumor fragments for the prediction of sensitivity to cisplatin chemotherapy

    Welters, M.J.P.; Braakhuis, B.J.M.; Jacobs-Bergmans, A.J.; Kegel, A.; Baan, R.A.; Vijgh, W.J.F. van der; Fichtinger-Schepman, A.M.J.


    Background: Response to cisplatin-therapy is assumed to be related to the formation of platinum (Pt)-DNA adducts. Measurement of these adducts prior to therapy could be of value to improve cisplatin based cancer therapy. Materials and methods: We determined Pt-GG and Pt-AG adduct levels by use of 32

  14. DNA adducts induced by in vitro activation of extracts of diesel and biodiesel exhaust particles

    AbstractContext: Biodiesel and biodiesel-blend fuels offer a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel, but few data are available concerning the carcinogenic potential of biodiesel exhausts. Objectives: We compared the formation of covalent DNA adducts by the in vitro metabol...

  15. Formation of Schiff base adduct between acetaldehyde and rat liver microsomal phosphatidylethanolamine.

    Kenney, W C


    Recent studies have established the formation of acetaldehyde adducts of proteins even at low concentrations of acetaldehyde expected to occur in vivo under conditions of ethanol metabolism. Although formation of acetaldehyde adducts with phospholipids has been obtained at high pH values and at high concentrations of acetaldehyde, the occurrence of such adducts under more physiological conditions had yet to be demonstrated. Rat liver microsomes were incubated with 0.2 mM [14C]acetaldehyde at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C. After treatment with sodium borohydride to reduce any Schiff bases formed, the phospholipids were isolated. The major radioactive component within the phospholipid fraction had chromatographic properties identical to N-ethylphosphatidylethanolamine. In addition, the nitrogenous base derived therefrom by acid hydrolysis was identical to N-ethylethanolamine. These results indicate that a Schiff base adduct between acetaldehyde and microsomal phosphatidylethanolamine had been formed during incubation of low concentrations of acetaldehyde with rat liver microsomes.

  16. Conformational, IR spectroscopic and electronic properties of conium alkaloids and their adducts with C60 fullerene

    Zabolotnyi, M. A.; Prylutskyy, Yu I.; Poluyan, N. A.; Evstigneev, M. P.; Dovbeshko, G. I.


    Conformational, IR spectroscopic and electronic properties of the components of Conium alkaloids (Conium maculatum) in aqueous environment were determined by model calculations and experiment. With the help of FT-IR spectroscopy the possibility of formation of an adduct between γ-coniceine alkaloid and C60 fullerene was demonstrated, which is important for further application of conium analogues in biomedical purposes.

  17. Sigma-Adducts of pteridines and 3-deazapteridines : structure and reactivity

    Nagel, A.


    In the introduction of this thesis the reactions of pteridines and pyrido[2,3- b ]-pyrazines with nucleophiles are reviewed. In the following chapters the results of an NMR investigation on the formation of σ-adducts between these azaaromatic ring systems and nitrogen nucleophiles, especially KNH

  18. Cisplatin-DNA adduct formation in rat spermatozoa and its effect on fetal development

    Hooser, S.T.; Dijk-Knijnenburg, C.M. van; Waalkens-Berendsen, I.D.H.; Smits-van Prooije, A.E.; Snoeij, N.J.; Baan, R.A.; Fichtinger-Schepman, M.J.


    Exposure of males to some genotoxic chemicals causes DNA damage in spermatozoa resulting in embryotoxicity and developmental defects in their offspring. This study demonstrates that cisplatin-DNA adducts could be measured in spermatozoa following treatment with the antineoplastic drug, cisplatin. Th




    Full Text Available Eight new SbF3, SbCl5 and HgX2 (X = Cl, Br amine adducts have been synthesized and their infrared study carried out. Discrete structures have been suggested on the basis of elemental analysis and infrared data, the coordination number of antimony varying from five to nine, while the environment around Hg is tetrahedral.




    Full Text Available Three iodato adducts and one derivative have been synthesized and studied by infrared data. The suggested structures are discrete, the iodate behaving as a mono- or bidentate ligand, or an infinite chain with bridging iodate, the environment around the tin centre being trigonal bipyramidal, tetrahedral or octahedral.

  1. The regioselectivity of glutathione adduct formation with flavonoid quinone methides is pH-dependent

    Awad, H.M.; Boersma, M.G.; Boeren, S.; Vervoort, J.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.


    In the present study, the formation of glutathionyl adducts from a series of 3',4'-dihydroxy flavonoid o-quinone/p-quinone methides was investigated with special emphasis on the regioselectivity of the glutathione addition as a function of pH. The flavonoid o-quinones were generated using horseradis

  2. Correlation between the knee adduction torque and medial contact force for a variety of gait patterns.

    Zhao, Dong; Banks, Scott A; Mitchell, Kim H; D'Lima, Darryl D; Colwell, Clifford W; Fregly, Benjamin J


    The external knee adduction torque has been proposed as a surrogate measure for medial compartment load during gait. However, a direct link between these two quantities has not been demonstrated using in vivo measurement of medial compartment load. This study uses in vivo data collected from a single subject with an instrumented knee implant to evaluate this link. The subject performed five different overground gait motions (normal, fast, slow, wide, and toe-out) with simultaneous collection of instrumented implant, video motion, and ground reaction data. For each trial, the knee adduction torque was measured externally while the total axial force applied to the tibial insert was measured internally. Based on data collected from the same subject performing treadmill gait under fluoroscopic motion analysis, a regression equation was developed to calculate medial contact force from the implant load cell measurements. Correlation analyses were performed for the stance phase and entire gait cycle to quantify the relationship between the knee adduction torque and both the medial contact force and the medial to total contact force ratio. When the entire gait cycle was analyzed, R(2) for medial contact force was 0.77 when all gait trials were analyzed together and between 0.69 and 0.93 when each gait trial was analyzed separately (p knee adduction torque is highly correlated with medial compartment contact force and medial to total force ratio during gait.

  3. Comprehensive DNA Adduct Analysis Reveals Pulmonary Inflammatory Response Contributes to Genotoxic Action of Magnetite Nanoparticles

    Kousuke Ishino


    Full Text Available Nanosized-magnetite (MGT is widely utilized in medicinal and industrial fields; however, its toxicological properties are not well documented. In our previous report, MGT showed genotoxicity in both in vitro and in vivo assay systems, and it was suggested that inflammatory responses exist behind the genotoxicity. To further clarify mechanisms underlying the genotoxicity, a comprehensive DNA adduct (DNA adductome analysis was conducted using DNA samples derived from the lungs of mice exposed to MGT. In total, 30 and 42 types of DNA adducts were detected in the vehicle control and MGT-treated groups, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA against a subset of DNA adducts was applied and several adducts, which are deduced to be formed by inflammation or oxidative stress, as the case of etheno-deoxycytidine (εdC, revealed higher contributions to MGT exposure. By quantitative-LC-MS/MS analysis, εdC levels were significantly higher in MGT-treated mice than those of the vehicle control. Taken together with our previous data, it is suggested that inflammatory responses might be involved in the genotoxicity induced by MGT in the lungs of mice.

  4. The use of lithiated adducts for structural analysis of acylglycerols by MS-ESI

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) using lithium adducts is the method of choice for the analysis of acyglycerols. The method can be used for the identification of the structures of fatty acid constituents, including the number and location of double bonds and hydroxyl groups. The me...

  5. Quantum Chemical Studies on Detail Mechanism of Nitrosylation of NAMI-A-HSA Adduct.

    Das, Dharitri; Mondal, Paritosh


    Hydrolysis of NAMI-A in NAMI-A-HSA (HSA = human serum albumin) and nitrosylation of hydrolyzed NAMI-A-HSA adduct have been studied in detail using density functional theory method. It has been observed that the chloride exchange reaction with water in the NAMI-A-HSA adduct follows an interchange dissociative mechanism passing through an unstable heptacoordinated activated complex. The computed free energy of activation (ΔG) and rate constant (k) for the hydrolysis process in aqueous medium are observed to be 24.85 kcal mol(-1) and 3.81 × 10(-6) s(-1), respectively. Nitrosylation of hydrolyzed NAMI-A-HSA adduct with nitric oxide is found to be thermodynamically more favorable with the incorporation of solvent effect and provides a detailed understanding related to the antimetastatic activity of the NAMI-A drug. This investigation shows that nitric oxide coordinates linearly to NAMI-A-HSA adduct leading to the reduction of ruthenium(III) to more active ruthenium(II), with the reduction potential of -2.32 V. Negative relative solvation and relative binding free energies suggest that the hydrolysis and nitrosylation reactions are found to be thermodynamically favorable and faster. Our computed results provide a detailed thermodynamics and kinetics which may be highly beneficial for understanding antimetastatic activity as well as the nitric oxide scavenging ability of NAMI-A.

  6. The N(2)-Furfuryl-deoxyguanosine Adduct Does Not Alter the Structure of B-DNA.

    Ghodke, Pratibha P; Gore, Kiran R; Harikrishna, S; Samanta, Biswajit; Kottur, Jithesh; Nair, Deepak T; Pradeepkumar, P I


    N(2)-Furfuryl-deoxyguanosine (fdG) is carcinogenic DNA adduct that originates from furfuryl alcohol. It is also a stable structural mimic of the damage induced by the nitrofurazone family of antibiotics. For the structural and functional studies of this model N(2)-dG adduct, reliable and rapid access to fdG-modified DNAs are warranted. Toward this end, here we report the synthesis of fdG-modified DNAs using phosphoramidite chemistry involving only three steps. The functional integrity of the modified DNA has been verified by primer extension studies with DNA polymerases I and IV from E. coli. Introduction of fdG into a DNA duplex decreases the Tm by ∼1.6 °C/modification. Molecular dynamics simulations of a DNA duplex bearing the fdG adduct revealed that though the overall B-DNA structure is maintained, this lesion can disrupt W-C H-bonding, stacking interactions, and minor groove hydrations to some extent at the modified site, and these effects lead to slight variations in the local base pair parameters. Overall, our studies show that fdG is tolerated at the minor groove of the DNA to a better extent compared with other bulky DNA damages, and this property will make it difficult for the DNA repair pathways to detect this adduct.

  7. Creating Context for the Use of DNA Adduct Data in Risk Assessment

    Assessments of human cancer risk require the integration of diverse types of data. Advancing technologies for quantitative measurements at the sub-cellular domain raise the critical issue of interpretation and use of DNA adduct data in context with current understanding of cancer...

  8. Biotransformation of a cage-like diels-alder adduct and derivatives by Mucor ramosissimus samutsevitsch

    Ito, Felicia Megumi; Mena, Ana Elisa Maciel; Marques, Maria Rita; de Lima, Dênis Pires; Beatriz, Adilson


    The present study aimed to evaluate the ability for biotransformation of the Diels-Alder adduct tricyclo[,7]undeca-4,9-dien-3,6-dione (1) and two synthetic derivatives by the saprobe fungus Mucor ramosissimus Samutsevitsch. Products from oxidation, isomerization and, regioselective and enantioselective reduction were achieved. PMID:24031400

  9. The knee adduction moment measured with an instrumented force shoe in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    Noort, van den Josien C.; Esch, van der Martin; Steultjens, Martijn P.M.; Dekker, Joost; Schepers, H. Martin; Veltink, Peter H.; Harlaar, Jaap


    The external knee adduction moment (KAdM) during gait is an important parameter in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). KAdM measurement is currently restricted to instruments only available in gait laboratories. However, ambulatory movement analysis technology, including instrumented force shoes

  10. Lysine adducts between methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride and collagen in guinea pig lung.

    Jönsson, B A; Wishnok, J S; Skipper, P L; Stillwell, W G; Tannenbaum, S R


    The formation of adducts between methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTHPA), an important industrial chemical and potent allergen, and collagen from guinea pig lung tissue was investigated. Collagen peptides were obtained from the lung tissue by homogenization, defatting, washing, and digestion with collagenase. In experiments in vitro, lung tissue was exposed to 8.4 mumol (50 microCi) of 14C MTHPA. The amount of adducts was 97 nmol MTHPA/g of wet tissue as determined from the bound radioactivity. In a study in vivo, four guinea pigs were injected intratracheally with 8.4 mumol of 14C MTHPA each. The amount of adducts was 0-1.2 nmol MTHPA/g of wet tissue (determined by bound radioactivity). N epsilon-methyltetrahydrophthaloyl-L-lysine (MTHPL) was synthesized and characterized by NMR, UV, and mass spectrometry (MS). A method to analyze MTHPL, after derivatization with methanol and pentafluorobenzoyl chloride, using gas chromatography-MS was developed. Analysis of Pronase-digested MTHPA-exposed lung tissue showed a concentration of 19 nmol MTHPL/g wet lung in vitro and between 0 and 0.15 nmol MTHPL/g wet lung in vivo. Thus, 20% in vitro and 12-15% in vivo of the bound radioactivity was found as adducts with lysine. These results are a first step toward studies of allergenic epitopes in proteins and methods for biological monitoring of exposure to acid anhydrides.

  11. Oral Cell DNA Adducts as Potential Biomarkers for Lung Cancer Susceptibility in Cigarette Smokers

    Hecht, Stephen S.


    This perspective considers the use of oral cell DNA adducts, together with exposure and genetic information, to potentially identify those cigarette smokers at highest risk for lung cancer, so that appropriate preventive measures could be initiated at a relatively young age before too much damage has been done. There are now well established and validated analytical methods for the quantitation of urinary and serum metabolites of tobacco smoke toxicants and carcinogens. These metabolites provide a profile of exposure and in some cases lung cancer risk. But they do not yield information on the critical DNA damage parameter that leads to mutations in cancer growth control genes such as KRAS and TP53. Studies demonstrate a correlation between changes in the oral cavity and lung in cigarette smokers, due to the field effect of tobacco smoke. Oral cell DNA is readily obtained in contrast to DNA samples from the lung. Studies in which oral cell DNA and salivary DNA have been analyzed for specific DNA adducts are reviewed; some of the adducts identified have also been previously reported in lung DNA from smokers. The multiple challenges of developing a panel of oral cell DNA adducts that could be routinely quantified by mass spectrometry are discussed. PMID:28092948

  12. Eccentric hip adduction and abduction strength in elite soccer players and matched controls

    Thorborg, K; Couppé, C; Petersen, J;


    Eccentric hip adduction and abduction strength plays an important role in the treatment and prevention of groin injuries in soccer players. Lower extremity strength deficits of less than 10% on the injured side, compared to the uninjured side, have been suggested as the clinical milestone before...

  13. Comparison of estimated dietary intake of acrylamide with hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide

    Bjellaas, Thomas; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;


    In a study comprising 50 subjects, we investigated the relationship between acrylamide (AA) intake from food using food frequency questionnaires and the concentration of hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of AA and its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide (GA) as a measure of the internal exposure. A method using...... solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with negative electrospray tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) detection for the determination of the Hb adducts as phenylthiohydantoin derivatives in human blood was developed. The limit of quantification for AA- and GA-Hb adducts were 2 and 6 pmol....../day (4.1-30.2), respectively. Non-smokers had a median AA and GA adduct concentration of 36.8 (range 17.9-65.5) and 18.2 (range 6.7-45.6) pmol/g globin, respectively. In smokers, the values were 165.8 (98.8-211) and 83.2 (29.1-99.0) pmol/g globin, respectively. Using multiple linear regression analysis...

  14. Eccentric hip adduction and abduction strength in elite soccer players and matched controls

    Thorborg, Kristian; Couppé, C; Petersen, J;


    Eccentric hip adduction and abduction strength plays an important role in the treatment and prevention of groin injuries in soccer players. Lower extremity strength deficits of less than 10% on the injured side, compared to the uninjured side, have been suggested as the clinical milestone before...... returning to sports following injury....

  15. Heating of food and haemoglobin adducts from carcinogens: possible precursor role of glycidol.

    Hindsø Landin, H; Tareke, E; Rydberg, P; Olsson, U; Törnqvist, M


    Studies of adducts from reactive compounds to haemoglobin (Hb) by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to the N-alkyl Edman method reveals the occurrence of N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine (diHOPrVal) at levels of 1-2 pmol/g Hb, in persons without known exposure. The hypothesis that this background originates from glycidol or related compounds during heating of food was tested in experiments with rats. Animals fed fried animal feed for 30 or 72 days showed an increase of the diHOPrVal level by about 50% compared with controls. Several arguments, such as the formation of reactive oxiranes by heat-induced dehydration of glycol configurations in glycerol and sugars, support the idea that glycidol (or e.g. glycidyl esters) are precursors of the adduct. In Hb samples, reduced for stabilisation of aldehyde adducts, relatively high levels of adducts determined as diHOPrVal were found, although without significant relation to frying of the feed. There is thus no indication that reduction in vivo of, for example, the Schiff base from glyceraldehyde, is a pathway for formation of the diHOPrVal. The background level of diHOPrVal in humans Hb is low, and the cancer risk associated with exposure to the specific alkylator-probably glycidol-formed in cooking, is therefore presumably low. The result implies, however, that low-molecular mass mutagenic oxiranes formed during the heating of food should be studied further.

  16. Ambulatory measurement of the knee adduction moment in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee

    Noort, van den J.C.; Esch, van der M.; Steultjens, M.P.M.; Dekker, J.; Schepers, H.M.; Veltink, P.H.


    High knee joint-loading increases the risk and progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Mechanical loading on the knee is reflected in the external knee adduction moment (KAdM) that can be measured during gait with laboratory-based measurement systems. However, clinical application of these systems

  17. New adduct of abietane-type diterpene from Salvia leriifolia Benth.

    Hussain, Amjad; Adhikari, Achyut; Iqbal Choudhary, M; Ayatollahi, Syed Abdulmajid; Atta-Ur-Rahman


    A new adduct of abietane-type diterpene, salvialeriicone (1), was isolated from Salvia leriifolia Benth., along with a new chemical entity nor-abietane diterpene, 2-isopropyl-8,8-dimethyl-7,8-dihydrophenanthrene-1,4,5(6H)-trione (2). Their structures were determined using mass spectrometry, and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy.

  18. Formation of DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine induced by man-made mineral fibres.

    Leanderson, P; Söderkvist, P; Tagesson, C; Axelson, O


    Two man-made mineral fibres, rockwool and glasswool, were found to mediate hydroxylation of deoxyguanosine and calf thymus DNA to form the DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. The modification of the nucleoside is probably mediated by hydroxyl radicals and may play a role in fibre-induced carcinogenesis.

  19. Adduct formation of ionic and nanoparticular silver with amino acids and glutathione

    Blaske, Franziska; Stork, Lisa; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe, E-mail: [University of Muenster, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry (Germany)


    To investigate the interaction of ionic and nanoparticular silver with amino acids and small peptides, an electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was developed. Monomeric and oligomeric silver adducts were formed with amino acids including cysteine (Cys), methionine, histidine, lysine, or the tripeptide glutathione (GSH). The obtained spectra for ionic silver show clusters in different ratios between Ag{sup +} and the reaction partners (X) including [Ag{sub n}X{sub m} - (n + 1)H]{sup -} (n = 1-4, m = 1-3). Regarding Cys, adduct clusters up to n = 5 and m = 4 were observed as well. Considering silver-GSH interactions, even doubly charged oligomers occur generating [Ag{sub (a+1)}GSH{sub a} - (a + 3)H]{sup 2-} (a = 5-7) and [Ag{sub b}GSH{sub b} - (b + 2)H]{sup 2-} (b = 4-8) ions. {sup 1}H NMR data of free GSH compared to that after treatment with Ag{sup +} confirm sulfur-metal interactions due to changing chemical shifts for the protons located adjacent to the thiol group. Density functional theory calculations for silver-GSH clusters may explain the formation of experimentally recorded large clusters due to cooperative effects between silver and carboxylic acid side chains. Both sets of experiments indicate the presence of these adducts in the liquid phase. For silver nanoparticles, the respective data confirm the release of silver ions and the subsequent adduct formation.

  20. Immunomagnetic separation and quantification of butyrylcholinesterase nerve agent adducts in human serum

    Sporty, J.L.S.; Lemire, S.W.; Jakubowski, E.M.; Renner, J.A.; Evans, R.A.; Williams, R.F.; Schmidt, J.G.; Schans, M.J. van der; Noort, D.; Johnson, R.C.


    A novel method for extracting butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) from serum as a means of identifying and measuring nerve agent adducts to human BuChE is presented here. Antibutyrylcholinesterase monoclonal antibodies were conjugated to protein-G ferromagnetic particles and mixed with 500 μL serum sample

  1. Bypass of Aflatoxin B[subscript 1] Adducts by the Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Polymerase IV

    Banerjee, Surajit; Brown, Kyle L.; Egli, Martin; Stone, Michael P. (Vanderbilt)


    Aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) is oxidized to an epoxide in vivo, which forms an N7-dG DNA adduct (AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG). The AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG can rearrange to a formamidopyrimidine (AFB{sub 1}-FAPY) derivative. Both AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and the {beta}-anomer of the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct yield G {yields} T transversions in Escherichia coli, but the latter is more mutagenic. We show that the Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) bypasses AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG in an error-free manner but conducts error-prone replication past the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct, including misinsertion of dATP, consistent with the G {yields} T mutations observed in E. coli. Three ternary (Dpo4-DNA-dNTP) structures with AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adducted template:primers have been solved. These demonstrate insertion of dCTP opposite the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct, and correct vs incorrect insertion of dATP vs dTTP opposite the 5'-template neighbor dT from a primed AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG:dC pair. The insertion of dTTP reveals hydrogen bonding between the template N3 imino proton and the O{sup 2} oxygen of dTTP, and between the template T O{sup 4} oxygen and the N3 imino proton of dTTP, perhaps explaining why this polymerase does not efficiently catalyze phosphodiester bond formation from this mispair. The AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG maintains the 5'-intercalation of the AFB{sub 1} moiety observed in DNA. The bond between N7-dG and C8 of the AFB{sub 1} moiety remains in plane with the alkylated guanine, creating a 16{sup o} inclination of the AFB{sub 1} moiety with respect to the guanine. A binary (Dpo4-DNA) structure with an AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adducted template:primer also maintains 5'-intercalation of the AFB{sub 1} moiety. The {beta}-deoxyribose anomer is observed. Rotation about the FAPY C5-N{sup 5} bond orients the bond between N{sup 5} and C8 of the AFB{sub 1} moiety out of plane in the 5'-direction, with respect to the FAPY base. The formamide group extends in the 3'-direction. This improves

  2. 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine adduct formation in aortic DNA following inhalation of acrolein.

    Penn, A; Nath, R; Pan, J; Chen, L; Widmer, K; Henk, W; Chung, F L


    Recent reports indicate that many of the cytotoxic and health-threatening components of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) reside in the vapor phase of the smoke. We have reported previously that inhalation of 1,3-butadiene, a prominent vapor phase component of ETS, accelerates arteriosclerotic plaque development in cockerels. In this study we asked whether inhaled acrolein, a reactive aldehyde that is also a prominent vapor-phase component of ETS, damages artery-wall DNA and accelerates plaque development. Cockerels inhaled 0, 1, or 10 ppm acrolein mixed with HEPA-filtered air for 6 hr. Half were killed immediately (day 1 group) for detection of the stable, premutagenic 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine acrolein adduct (AdG3) in aortic DNA via a (32)P-postlabeling/HPLC method, and half were killed after 10 days (day 10 group) for indirect assessment of adduct repair. In the day 1 group, acrolein-DNA adducts were 5 times higher in the 1 and 10 ppm groups than in HEPA-filtered air controls. However, in the day 10 group, adduct levels in the 1 and 10 ppm acrolein groups were reduced to the control adduct level. For the plaque studies, cockerels inhaled 1 ppm acrolein (6 hr/day, 8 weeks), mixed with the same HEPA-filtered air inhaled by controls. Plaque development was measured blind by computerized morphometry. Unlike butadiene inhalation, acrolein inhalation did not accelerate plaque development. Thus, even though repeated exposure to acrolein alone has no effect on plaque size under the exposure conditions described here, a single, brief inhalation exposure to acrolein elicits repairable DNA damage to the artery wall. These results suggest that frequent exposure to ETS may lead to persistent artery-wall DNA damage and thus provide sites on which other ETS plaque accelerants can act.

  3. Comparison of Bile Acids and Acetaminophen Protein Adducts in Children and Adolescents with Acetaminophen Toxicity.

    Laura James

    Full Text Available Metabolomics approaches have enabled the study of new mechanisms of liver injury in experimental models of drug toxicity. Disruption of bile acid homeostasis is a known mechanism of drug induced liver injury. The relationship of individual bile acids to indicators of oxidative drug metabolism (acetaminophen protein adducts and liver injury was examined in children with acetaminophen overdose, hospitalized children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and children with no recent exposure to acetaminophen. Nine bile acids were quantified through targeted metabolomic analysis in the serum samples of the three groups. Bile acids were compared to serum levels of acetaminophen protein adducts and alanine aminotransferase. Glycodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid were significantly increased in children with acetaminophen overdose compared to healthy controls. Among patients with acetaminophen overdose, bile acids were higher in subjects with acetaminophen protein adduct values > 1.0 nmol/mL and modest correlations were noted for three bile acids and acetaminophen protein adducts as follows: taurodeoxycholic acid (R=0.604; p<0.001, glycodeoxycholic acid (R=0.581; p<0.001, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (R=0.571; p<0.001. Variability in bile acids was greater among hospitalized children receiving low doses of acetaminophen than in healthy children with no recent acetaminophen exposure. Compared to bile acids, acetaminophen protein adducts more accurately discriminated among children with acetaminophen overdose, children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and healthy control subjects. In children with acetaminophen overdose, elevations of conjugated bile acids were associated with specific indicators of acetaminophen metabolism and non-specific indicators of liver injury.

  4. Covalent adduct formation between the plasmalogen-derived modification product 2-chlorohexadecanal and phloretin.

    Üllen, Andreas; Nusshold, Christoph; Glasnov, Toma; Saf, Robert; Cantillo, David; Eibinger, Gerald; Reicher, Helga; Fauler, Günter; Bernhart, Eva; Hallstrom, Seth; Kogelnik, Nora; Zangger, Klaus; Oliver Kappe, C; Malle, Ernst; Sattler, Wolfgang


    Hypochlorous acid added as reagent or generated by the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2O2-Cl(-) system oxidatively modifies brain ether-phospholipids (plasmalogens). This reaction generates a sn2-acyl-lysophospholipid and chlorinated fatty aldehydes. 2-Chlorohexadecanal (2-ClHDA), a prototypic member of chlorinated long-chain fatty aldehydes, has potent neurotoxic potential by inflicting blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. During earlier studies we could show that the dihydrochalcone-type polyphenol phloretin attenuated 2-ClHDA-induced BBB dysfunction. To clarify the underlying mechanism(s) we now investigated the possibility of covalent adduct formation between 2-ClHDA and phloretin. Coincubation of 2-ClHDA and phloretin in phosphatidylcholine liposomes revealed a half-life of 2-ClHDA of approx. 120min, decaying at a rate of 5.9×10(-3)min(-1). NMR studies and enthalpy calculations suggested that 2-ClHDA-phloretin adduct formation occurs via electrophilic aromatic substitution followed by hemiacetal formation on the A-ring of phloretin. Adduct characterization by high-resolution mass spectroscopy confirmed these results. In contrast to 2-ClHDA, the covalent 2-ClHDA-phloretin adduct was without adverse effects on MTT reduction (an indicator for metabolic activity), cellular adenine nucleotide content, and barrier function of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC). Of note, 2-ClHDA-phloretin adduct formation was also observed in BMVEC cultures. Intraperitoneal application and subsequent GC-MS analysis of brain lipid extracts revealed that phloretin is able to penetrate the BBB of C57BL/6J mice. Data of the present study indicate that phloretin scavenges 2-ClHDA, thereby attenuating 2-ClHDA-mediated brain endothelial cell dysfunction. We here identify a detoxification pathway for a prototypic chlorinated fatty aldehyde (generated via the MPO axis) that compromises BBB function in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Formation of 1,N6-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine adducts by trans,trans-2, 4-Decadienal.

    Carvalho, V M; Di Mascio, P; de Arruda Campos, I P; Douki, T; Cadet, J; Medeiros, M H


    trans,trans-2,4-Decadienal (DDE) is an important breakdown product of lipid peroxidation. This aldehyde is cytotoxic to mammalian cells and is known to be implicated in DNA damage. Therefore, attempts were made in this work to assess the reactivity of DDE with 2'-deoxyadenosine (dAdo). It was shown that DDE is able to bind to 2'-deoxyadenosine, yielding highly fluorescent products. Besides 1, N6-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (epsilondAdo), two other related adducts, 1-[3-(2-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-3H-imidazo[2, 1-i]purin-7-yl]-1,2,3-octanetriol and 1-[3-(2-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-3H-imidazo[2, 1-i]purin-7-yl]-1,2-heptanediol, were isolated by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and characterized on the basis of their UV, fluorescence, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry features. The reaction mechanism for the formation of the DDE-2'-deoxyadenosine adducts involves 2,4-decadienal epoxidation and subsequent addition to the N2 amino group of 2'-deoxyadenosine, followed by cyclization at the N-1 site. Adducts differ by the length of carbon side chain and the number of hydroxyl groups. The present data indicate that DDE can be epoxidized by peroxides, and the resulting products are able to form several adducts with 2'-deoxyadenosine and/or DNA. Endogenous DNA adduct formation can contribute to the already reported high cytotoxicity of DDE to mammalian cells.

  6. Role of CYP1B1 in PAH-DNA adduct formation and breast cancer risk

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Russell, Marion L.; Muller, A.P.; Caleffi, M.; Eschiletti, J.; Graudenz, M.; Sohn, Michael D.


    This study investigated the hypothesis that increased exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) increases breast cancer risk. PAHs are products of incomplete burning of organic matter and are present in cigarette smoke, ambient air, drinking water, and diet. PAHs require metabolic transformation to bind to DNA, causing DNA adducts, which can lead to mutations and are thought to be an important pre-cancer marker. In breast tissue, PAHs appear to be metabolized to their cancer-causing form primarily by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1B1. Because the genotoxic impact of PAH depends on their metabolism, we hypothesized that high CYP1B1 enzyme levels result in increased formation of PAH-DNA adducts in breast tissue, leading to increased development of breast cancer. We have investigated molecular mechanisms of the relationship between PAH exposure, CYP1B1 expression and breast cancer risk in a clinic-based case-control study. We collected histologically normal breast tissue from 56 women (43 cases and 13 controls) undergoing breast surgery and analyzed these specimens for CYP1B1 genotype, PAH-DNA adducts and CYP1B1 gene expression. We did not detect any difference in aromatic DNA adduct levels of cases and controls, only between smokers and non-smokers. CYP1B1 transcript levels were slightly lower in controls than cases, but the difference was not statistically significant. We found no correlation between the levels of CYP1B1 expression and DNA adducts. If CYP1B1 has any role in breast cancer etiology it might be through its metabolism of estrogen rather than its metabolism of PAHs. However, due to the lack of statistical power these results should be interpreted with caution.

  7. Immunoassay of haemoglobin-acrylonitrile adduct in rat as a biomarker of exposure.

    L Wong Yu Ting Zheng Junyu Li Carlo H Tamburro Frederick W Benz, J


    Acrylonitrile (AN) is a rat carcinogen. Human exposure may come from chemical industries and smoking. A haemoglobin adduct of acrylonitrile (Hb-AN) has been used as a biomarker of exposure by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. We have developed specific monoclonal antibodies (Mab) to human Hb-AN and wish to report evaluation of an immunoassay in rats using an Mab that cross-reacts with rat Hb-AN. A dose response study of LD 0, 10, 50, and 90 in Sprague-Dawley rats was undertaken, with each rat receiving \\[2,3-14C]AN at 50 Ci kg-1 sc, and Hb from an aliquot of blood was taken for covalent binding analysis by liquid scintillation spectrometry and fluorescence ELISA. The dose responses of rats at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 h after AN doses of 20, 50, 80, 115 mg kg-1 were compared by both methods with Hb and globin samples. Regression analysis showed a linear relationship between immunoassay and 14C-AN binding. This indicates that an antigenic form of Hb-AN may be used as a surrogate of Hb-AN adduct. The sensitivity of ELISA was tested in rats exposed for 1 h to sub-toxic doses of AN (10-1.1 mg kg-1). Quantification of Hb-AN by immunoassay was achieved by calibration with a synthetic adduct HbAN4h, a reference adduct prepared by treating rat Hb with excess AN for 4 h. ELISA and GC-MS analysis of N-terminal valine-AN in the Hb-AN adduct were compared and similar detection levels were found. This rat study appears to have validated the new immunoassay method for biomonitoring of AN exposure.

  8. PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood and fetal and child development in a Chinese cohort

    Tang, D.L.; Li, T.Y.; Liu, J.J.; Chen, Y.H.; Qu, L.R.; Perera, F. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States). Dept. for Environmental Health Science


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important class of toxic pollutants released by fossil fuel combustion. Other pollutants include metals and particulate matter. PAH-DNA adducts, or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) adducts as their proxy, provide a chemical-specific measure of individual biologically effective doses that have been associated with increased risk of cancer and adverse birth outcomes. In the present study we examined the relationship between prenatal PAH exposure and fetal and child growth and development in Tongliang, China, where a seasonally operated coal-fired power plant was the major pollution source. In a cohort of 150 nonsmoking women and their newborns enrolled between 4 March 2002 and 19 June 2002, BaP-DNA adducts were measured in maternal and umbilical cord blood obtained at delivery. High PAH-DNA adduct levels (above the median of detectable adduct level) were associated with decreased birth head circumference (p = 0.057) and reduced children's weight at 18 months, 24 months, and 30 months of age (p {lt} 0.05), after controlling for potential confounders. In addition, in separate models, longer duration of prenatal exposure was associated with reduced birth length (p = 0.033) and reduced children's height at 18 (p = 0.001), 24 (p {lt} 0.001), and 30 months of age (p {lt} 0.001). The findings suggest that exposure to elevated levels of PAHS, with the Tongliang power plant being a significant source, is associated with reduced fetal and child growth in this population.

  9. Aromatic adducts and lung cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Spanish cohort.

    Gilberson, Tamra; Peluso, Marco E M; Munia, Armelle; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Quirós, J Ramón; Molina-Montes, Esther; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Tormo, María-José; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Confortini, Massimo; Bonet, Catalina; Sala, Núria; González, Carlos A; Agudo, Antonio


    In this case-cohort study, we examined the association between bulky DNA adducts and the risk of lung cancer within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Spanish cohort with an average 7-year follow-up, including 98 cases of primary lung cancer and 296 subjects randomly selected from the cohort. Aromatic adducts were measured using (32)P-postlabeling in leukocyte DNA from blood samples collected at enrollment. The association between DNA adducts and the risk of lung cancer was estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model with a modified partial likelihood. There was an overall significant increased risk for developing lung cancer when DNA adduct concentrations were doubled, with relative risk (RR) adjusting for all relevant confounders of 1.36 with 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-157. There was a significant increased risk for developing lung cancer when DNA adduct concentrations were doubled for current smokers and among subjects exposed to PAH at work; there was also a slightly higher increase among males than females. However, no statistically significant differences were observed for the effect of adduct levels across smoking status, sex or occupational exposure to PAH. A meta-analysis combined four prospective studies, including this study, resulting in a significant association among current smokers, with an overall estimate of 34% increase in the risk of lung cancer when doubling the level of aromatic DNA adducts in leukocytes.

  10. Screening for DNA Alkylation Mono and Cross-Linked Adducts with a Comprehensive LC-MS(3) Adductomic Approach.

    Stornetta, Alessia; Villalta, Peter W; Hecht, Stephen S; Sturla, Shana J; Balbo, Silvia


    A high-resolution/accurate-mass DNA adductomic approach was developed to investigate anticipated and unknown DNA adducts induced by DNA alkylating agents in biological samples. Two new features were added to a previously developed approach to significantly broaden its scope, versatility, and selectivity. First, the neutral loss of a base (guanine, adenine, thymine, or cytosine) was added to the original methodology's neutral loss of the 2'-deoxyribose moiety to allow for the detection of all DNA base adducts. Second, targeted detection of anticipated DNA adducts based on the reactivity of the DNA alkylating agent was demonstrated by inclusion of an ion mass list for data dependent triggering of MS(2) fragmentation events and subsequent MS(3) fragmentation. Additionally, untargeted screening of the samples, based on triggering of an MS(2) fragmentation event for the most intense ions of the full scan, was included for detecting unknown DNA adducts. The approach was tested by screening for DNA mono and cross-linked adducts in purified DNA and in DNA extracted from cells treated with PR104A, an experimental DNA alkylating nitrogen mustard prodrug currently under investigation for the treatment of leukemia. The results revealed the ability of this new DNA adductomic approach to detect anticipated and unknown PR104A-induced mono and cross-linked DNA adducts in biological samples. This methodology is expected to be a powerful tool for screening for DNA adducts induced by endogenous or exogenous exposures.

  11. Measurement of glycidol hemoglobin adducts in humans who ingest edible oil containing small amounts of glycidol fatty acid esters.

    Honda, Hiroshi; Onishi, Masayuki; Fujii, Kenkichi; Ikeda, Naohiro; Yamaguchi, Tohru; Fujimori, Taketoshi; Nishiyama, Naohiro; Kasamatsu, Toshio


    Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts are frequently used to address and/or monitor exposure to reactive chemicals. Glycidol (G), a known animal carcinogen, has been reported to form Hb adducts. Here, we measure G adduct levels in humans who daily ingest DAG oil, an edible oil consisting mainly of diacylglycerol. Since DAG oil contains a small amount of glycidol fatty acid esters (GEs), possible exposure to G released from GEs has been raised as a possible concern. For measurement of Hb adducts, we employed the N-alkyl Edman method reported by Landin et al. (1996) using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with minor modifications to detect G-Hb adducts as N-(2,3-dihydroxy-propyl)valine (diHOPrVal). Blood samples were collected from 7 DAG oil users and 6 non-users, and then G-Hb adduct levels were measured. G-Hb adducts were detected in all samples. The average level of diHOPrVal was 3.5±1.9pmol/g globin in the DAG oil users and 7.1±3.1pmol/g globin in the non-users. We conclude that there is no increased exposure to G in individuals who daily ingest DAG oil.

  12. Characterization of DNA adducts of the carcinogen N-methyl-4-aminoazobenzene in vitro and in vivo.

    Beland, F A; Tullis, D L; Kadlubar, F F; Straub, K M; Evans, F E


    Since the susceptibility of specific tissues to tumor formation has been correlated with the persistence of DNA-carcinogen adducts, the identity and persistence of DNA adducts formed from the hepatocarcinogen N-methyl-4-aminoazobenzene (MAB) has been determined. The synthetic ultimate carcinogen N-benzoyloxy-N-methyl-4-aminoazobenzene (N-BxO-MAB) was reacted in vitro with either calf thymus or rat liver DNA to yield approx. 1 bound residue per 1000 nucleotides. After enzymatic hydrolysis of the DNA and high pressure liquid chromatographic analysis, at least six MAB adducts were detected. Two of the products cochromatographed with MAB-DNA adducts formed in rat liver in vivo following oral administration of the precarcinogen MAB. These two adducts were identified by mass, UV and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)- and 3-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-MAB. The former adduct was initially the predominant product in vivo, but it could not be detected 7 days following treatment. The latter adduct remained at a constant level for 14 days and therefore appears to be a persistent lesion.

  13. Characterization of nitrogen mustard formamidopyrimidine adduct formation of bis(2-chloroethyl)ethylamine with calf thymus DNA and a human mammary cancer cell line.

    Gruppi, Francesca; Hejazi, Leila; Christov, Plamen P; Krishnamachari, Sesha; Turesky, Robert J; Rizzo, Carmelo J


    A robust, quantitative ultraperformance liquid chromatography ion trap multistage scanning mass spectrometric (UPLC/MS(3)) method was established to characterize and measure five guanine adducts formed by reaction of the chemotherapeutic nitrogen mustard (NM) bis(2-chloroethyl)ethylamine with calf thymus (CT) DNA. In addition to the known N7-guanine (NM-G) adduct and its cross-link (G-NM-G), the ring-opened formamidopyrimidine (FapyG) monoadduct (NM-FapyG) and cross-links in which one (FapyG-NM-G) or both (FapyG-NM-FapyG) guanines underwent ring-opening to FapyG units were identified. Authentic standards of all adducts were synthesized and characterized by NMR and mass spectrometry. These adducts were quantified in CT DNA treated with NM (1 μM) as their deglycosylated bases. A two-stage neutral thermal hydrolysis was developed to mitigate the artifactual formation of ring-opened FapyG adducts involving hydrolysis of the cationic adduct at 37 °C, followed by hydrolysis of the FapyG adducts at 95 °C. The limit of quantification values ranged between 0.3 and 1.6 adducts per 10(7) DNA bases when the equivalent of 5 μg of DNA hydrolysate was assayed on column. The principal adduct formed was the G-NM-G cross-link, followed by the NM-G monoadduct; the FapyG-NM-G cross-link adduct; and the FapyG-NM-FapyG was below the limit of detection. The NM-FapyG adducts were formed in CT DNA at a level ∼20% that of the NM-G adduct. NM-FapyG has not been previously quanitified, and the FapyG-NM-G and FapyG-NM-FapyG adducts have not been previously characterized. Our validated analytical method was then applied to measure DNA adduct formation in the MDA-MB-231 mammary tumor cell line exposed to NM (100 μM) for 24 h. The major adduct formed was NM-G (970 adducts per 10(7) bases), followed by G-NM-G (240 adducts per 10(7) bases), NM-FapyG (180 adducts per 10(7) bases), and, last, the FapyG-NM-G cross-link adduct (6.0 adducts per 10(7) bases). These lesions are expected to

  14. ECETOC workshop on the biological significance of DNA adducts: summary of follow-up from an expert panel meeting.

    Pottenger, Lynn H; Carmichael, Neil; Banton, Marcy I; Boogaard, Peter J; Kim, James; Kirkland, David; Phillips, Richard D; van Benthem, Jan; Williams, Gary M; Castrovinci, Alexis


    This workshop on the biological significance of DNA adducts included presentations of research results in the following areas: endogenous versus exogenous adduct levels; in vitro dose-response data on adducts and mutagenesis from alkylating agents; methyltransferases and alkyl transferase-like proteins in repair of O(6)-alkylguanine adducts; mathematical modeling of threshold dose-response in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis; and the use of genomics to characterize the relationships between adducts, gene expression, and downstream adverse effects. Presentations by regulatory scientists and other authorities addressed the role of adduct and mutation data in risk characterization. Consensus statements were developed and included the following: DNA adducts should be considered as biomarkers of exposure, which may play a key role in establishing a mode of action (MOA) for cancer. Adducts themselves should not be considered as equivalent to mutations or later stage events in carcinogenesis. Although it was not possible at this time to agree on a general level of adducts below which there is no adverse biological effect, there are examples of genotoxic mutagens/carcinogens for which thresholds have been demonstrated. Evidence regarding thresholds for mutations should be considered on a case-by-case basis, in light of available MOA and mechanistic data, to build a knowledge base. Participants agreed that guidance on a recommended format for data presentation (especially agreement on units and appropriate statistical analyses) would be beneficial. Finally, for initial cases, provision of a mechanistic explanation to support a hypothesis of a threshold for mutations was essential for the eventual use of this information in risk assessment.

  15. Modulatory effects of essential oils from spices on the formation of DNA adduct by aflatoxin B1 in vitro.

    Hashim, S; Aboobaker, V S; Madhubala, R; Bhattacharya, R K; Rao, A R


    Essential oils from common spices such as nutmeg, ginger, cardamom, celery, xanthoxylum, black pepper, cumin, and coriander were tested for their ability to suppress the formation of DNA adducts by aflatoxin B1 in vitro in a microsomal enzyme-mediated reaction. All oils were found to inhibit adduct formation very significantly and in a dose-dependent manner. The adduct formation appeared to be modulated through the action on microsomal enzymes, because an effective inhibition on the formation of activated metabolite was observed with each oil. The enzymatic modulation is perhaps due to the chemical constituents of the oils, and this could form a basis for their potential anticarcinogenic roles.

  16. 2-Hydrazinobenzothiazole-based etheno-adduct repair protocol (HERP): a method for quantitative determination of direct repair of etheno-bases.

    Shivange, Gururaj; Kodipelli, Naveena; Anindya, Roy


    Etheno-DNA adducts are mutagenic and lead to genomic instability. Enzymes belonging to Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase family repair etheno-DNA adducts by directly removing alkyl chain as glyoxal. Presently there is no simple method to assess repair reaction of etheno-adducts. We have developed a rapid and sensitive assay for studying etheno-DNA adduct repair by Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. Using AlkB as model Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, we performed in vitro repair of etheno-adducts containing DNA and detected glyoxal by reacting with 2-hydrazinobenzothiazole which forms complex yellow color compound with distinct absorption spectrum with a peak absorption at 365 nm. We refer this method as 2-hydrazinobenzothiazole-based etheno-adduct repair protocol or HERP. Our novel approach for determining repair of etheno-adducts containing DNA overcomes several drawbacks of currently available radioisotope-based assay.

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of an N2-guanine adduct derived from the tumorigen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in DNA: impact of adduct stereochemistry, size, and local DNA sequence on solution conformations.

    Rodríguez, Fabián A; Liu, Zhi; Lin, Chin H; Ding, Shuang; Cai, Yuqin; Kolbanovskiy, Alexander; Kolbanovskiy, Marina; Amin, Shantu; Broyde, Suse; Geacintov, Nicholas E


    The dimensions and arrangements of aromatic rings (topology) in adducts derived from the reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) diol epoxide metabolites with DNA influence the distortions and stabilities of double-stranded DNA, and hence their recognition and processing by the human nucleotide excision repair (NER) system. Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) is a highly tumorigenic six-ring PAH, which contains a nonplanar and aromatic fjord region that is absent in the structurally related bay region five-ring PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). The PAH diol epoxide-DNA adducts formed include the stereoisomeric 14S and 14R trans-anti-DB[a,l]P-N(2)-dG and the stereochemically analogous 10S- and 10R-B[a]P-N(2)-dG (B[a]P-dG) guanine adducts. However, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) solution studies of the 14S-DB[a,l]P-N(2)-dG adduct in DNA have not yet been presented. Here we have investigated the 14S-DB[a,l]P-N(2)-dG adduct in two different sequence contexts using NMR methods with distance-restrained molecular dynamics simulations. In duplexes with dC opposite the adduct deleted, a well-resolved base-displaced intercalative adduct conformation can be observed. In full duplexes, in contrast to the intercalated 14R stereoisomeric adduct, the bulky DB[a,l]P residue in the 14S adduct is positioned in a greatly widened and distorted minor groove, with significant disruptions and distortions of base pairing at the lesion site and two 5'-side adjacent base pairs. These unique structural features are significantly different from those of the stereochemically analogous but smaller B[a]P-dG adduct. The greater size and different topology of the DB[a,l]P aromatic ring system lead to greater structurally destabilizing DNA distortions that are partially compensated by stabilizing DB[a,l]P-DNA van der Waals interactions, whose combined effects impact the NER response to the adduct. These structural results broaden our understanding of the structure-function relationship in NER.

  18. Quantitation of the DNA Adduct of Semicarbazide in Organs of Semicarbazide-Treated Rats by Isotope-Dilution Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A Comparative Study with the RNA Adduct.

    Wang, Yinan; Wong, Tin-Yan; Chan, Wan


    Semicarbazide is a widespread food contaminant that is produced by multiple pathways. However, the toxicity of semicarbazide to human health remains unclear. Using a highly accurate and sensitive isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, we identified and quantitated in this study for the first time the DNA and RNA adduct of semicarbazide in DNA/RNA isolated from the internal organs of semicarbazide-exposed rats. The analysis revealed a dose-dependent formation of the adducts in the internal organs of the semicarbazide-dosed rats and with the highest adduct levels identified in the stomach and small intestine. Furthermore, results showed significantly higher levels of the RNA adduct (4.1-7.0 times) than that of the DNA adducts. By analyzing DNA/RNA samples isolated from rat organs in semicarbazide-dosed rats at different time points postdosing, the adduct stability in vivo was also investigated. These findings suggest that semicarbazide could have exerted its toxicity by affecting both the transcription and translation processes of the cell.

  19. Structural and energetic characterization of the major DNA adduct formed from the food mutagen ochratoxin A in the NarI hotspot sequence: influence of adduct ionization on the conformational preferences and implications for the NER propensity.

    Sharma, Purshotam; Manderville, Richard A; Wetmore, Stacey D


    The nephrotoxic food mutagen ochratoxin A (OTA) produces DNA adducts in rat kidneys, the major lesion being the C8-linked-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct (OTB-dG). Although research on other adducts stresses the importance of understanding the structure of the associated adducted DNA, site-specific incorporation of OTB-dG into DNA has yet to be attempted. The present work uses a robust computational approach to determine the conformational preferences of OTB-dG in three ionization states at three guanine positions in the NarI recognition sequence opposite cytosine. Representative adducted DNA helices were derived from over 2160 ns of simulation and ranked via free energies. For the first time, a close energetic separation between three distinct conformations is highlighted, which indicates OTA-adducted DNA likely adopts a mixture of conformations regardless of the sequence context. Nevertheless, the preferred conformation depends on the flanking bases and ionization state due to deviations in discrete local interactions at the lesion site. The structural characteristics of the lesion thus discerned have profound implications regarding its repair propensity and mutagenic outcomes, and support recent experiments suggesting the induction of double-strand breaks and deletion mutations upon OTA exposure. This combined structural and energetic characterization of the OTB-dG lesion in DNA will encourage future biochemical experiments on this potentially genotoxic lesion.

  20. Analysis of hemoglobin adducts from acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide in paired mother/cord blood samples from Denmark

    von Stedingk, Hans; Vikström, Anna C; Rydberg, Per


    The knowledge about fetal exposure to acrylamide/glycidamide from the maternal exposure through food is limited. Acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide are electrophiles and form adducts with hemoglobin (Hb), which could be used for in vivo dose measurement. In this study, a method......, and ethylene oxide, were increased in tobacco smokers. Highly significant correlations were found between cord and maternal blood with regard to measured adduct levels of the three compounds. The mean cord/maternal hemoglobin adduct level ratios were 0.48 (range 0.27-0.86) for acrylamide, 0.38 (range 0.......20-0.73) for glycidamide, and 0.43 (range 0.17-1.34) for ethylene oxide. In vitro studies with acrylamide and glycidamide showed a lower (0.38-0.48) rate of adduct formation with Hb in cord blood than with Hb in maternal blood, which is compatible with the structural differences in fetal and adult Hb. Together...




    Full Text Available Five new molybdato (four and hydrogenomolybdato (one adducts and complexes have been synthesized and studied by infrared spectroscopy. The suggested structures are all discrete, the molybdate anion behaving as a trichelating, a monochelating, a bridging, a tetrachelating and a bichelating ligand. The environment around Zn, Co, Cd is tetrahedral or trigonal bipyramidal also for Zn - while being octahedral for Sb. The Cd pentanuclear adduct has a two metallic components structure, a tetranuclear anionic one with a tetrachelating molybdate, the second being a neutral dehydrated adduct component. The suggested structure for the hydrogenomolybdato adduct is discrete, the hydrogenomolybdate being present as a hydrogen bonded dimer behaves as a bridging bidentate ligand. The water molecules can be considered as a coordinating ligand or lattice. When secondary interactions through hydrogen bonds involving the water molecules are considered supramolecular architectures are obtained.

  2. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts as a common biological biomarker of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced tumorigenicity.

    Xia, Qingsu; Zhao, Yuewei; Von Tungeln, Linda S; Doerge, Daniel R; Lin, Ge; Cai, Lining; Fu, Peter P


    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) classified riddelliine, a tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" in the NTP 12th Report on Carcinogens in 2011. We previously determined that four DNA adducts were formed in rats dosed with riddelliine. The structures of the four DNA adducts were elucidated as (i) a pair of epimers of 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)dehydrosupinidine adducts (termed as DHP-dG-3 and DHP-dG-4) as the predominant adducts; and (ii) a pair of epimers of 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl)dehydrosupinidine adducts (termed as DHP-dA-3 and DHP-dA-4 adducts). In this study, we selected a nontumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, platyphylliine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide, riddelliine N-oxide, and nine tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (riddelliine, retrorsine, monocrotaline, lycopsamine, retronecine, lasiocarpine, heliotrine, clivorine, and senkirkine) for study in animals. Seven of the nine tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, with the exception of lycopsamine and retronecine, are liver carcinogens. At 8-10 weeks of age, female F344 rats were orally gavaged for 3 consecutive days with 4.5 and 24 μmol/kg body weight test article in 0.5 mL of 10% DMSO in water. Twenty-four hours after the last dose, the rats were sacrificed, livers were removed, and liver DNA was isolated for DNA adduct analysis. DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4 adducts were formed in the liver of rats treated with the individual seven hepatocarcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids and riddelliine N-oxide. These DNA adducts were not formed in the liver of rats administered retronecine, the nontumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, platyphylliine, or vehicle control. These results indicate that this set of DNA adducts, DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4, is a common biological biomarker of

  3. Mitomycin C-DNA adducts generated by DT-diaphorase. Revised mechanism of the enzymatic reductive activation of mitomycin C.

    Suresh Kumar, G; Lipman, R; Cummings, J; Tomasz, M


    Mitomycin C (MC) was reductively activated by DT-diaphorase [DTD; NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase] from rat liver carcinoma cells in the presence of Micrococcus lysodeicticus DNA at pH 5.8 and 7.4. The resulting alkylated MC-DNA complexes were digested to the nucleoside level and the covalent MC-nucleoside adducts were separated, identified, and quantitatively analyzed by HPLC. In analogous experiments, two other flavoreductases, NADH-cytochrome c reductase and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, as well as two chemical reductive activating agents Na2S2O4 and H2/PtO2 were employed as activators for the alkylation of DNA by MC. DTD as well as all the other activators generated the four known major guanine-N2-MC adducts at both pHs. In addition, at the lower pH, the guanine-N7-linked adducts of 2,7-diaminomitosene were detectable in the adduct patterns. At a given pH all the enzymatic and chemical reducing agents generated very similar adduct patterns which, however, differed dramatically at the acidic as compared to the neutral pH. Overall yield of MC adducts was 3-4-fold greater at pH 7.4 than at 5. 8 except in the case of DTD when it was 4-fold lower. Without exception, however, cross-link adduct yields were greater at the acidic pH (2-10-fold within the series). The ratio of adducts of bifunctional activation to those of monofunctional activation was 6-20-fold higher at the acidic as compared to the neutral pH. A comprehensive mechanism of the alkylation of DNA by activated MC was derived from the DNA adduct analysis which complements earlier model studies of the activation of MC. The mechanism consists of three competing activation pathways yielding three different DNA-reactive electrophiles 11, 12, and 17 which generate three unique sets of DNA adducts as endproducts. The relative amounts of these adducts are diagnostic of the relative rates of the competing pathways in vitro, and most likely, in vivo. Factors that influence the relative rates of individual pathways

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in cervix of women infected with carcinogenic human papillomavirus types: An immunohistochemistry study

    Pratt, M. Margaret [Carcinogen-DNA Interactions Section, LCBG, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States)], E-mail:; Sirajuddin, Paul; Poirier, Miriam C. [Carcinogen-DNA Interactions Section, LCBG, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Schiffman, Mark [Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Glass, Andrew G.; Scott, David R.; Rush, Brenda B. [Northwest Kaiser Permanente, Portland, OR (United States); Olivero, Ofelia A. [Carcinogen-DNA Interactions Section, LCBG, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Castle, Philip E. [Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States)


    Among women infected with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), there is a two- to five-fold increased risk of cervical precancer and cancer in women who smoke compared to those who do not smoke. Because tobacco smoke contains carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), it was of interest to examine human cervical tissue for PAH-DNA adduct formation. Here, we measured PAH-DNA adduct formation in cervical biopsies collected in follow-up among women who tested positive for carcinogenic HPV at baseline. A semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) method using antiserum elicited against DNA modified with r7,t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE) was used to measure nuclear PAH-DNA adduct formation. Cultured human cervical keratinocytes exposed to 0, 0.153, or 0.331 {mu}M BPDE showed dose-dependent increases in r7,t8,t9-trihydroxy-c-10-(N{sup 2}deoxyguanosyl)-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene (BPdG) adducts. For BPdG adduct analysis, paraffin-embedded keratinocytes were stained by IHC with analysis of nuclear color intensity by Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS) and, in parallel cultures, extracted DNA was assayed by quantitative BPDE-DNA chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA). For paraffin-embedded samples from carcinogenic HPV-infected women, normal-appearing cervical squamous epithelium suitable for scoring was found in samples from 75 of the 114 individuals, including 29 cases of cervical precancer or cancer and 46 controls. With a lower limit of detection of 20 adducts/10{sup 8} nucleotides, detectable PAH-DNA adduct values ranged from 25 to 191/10{sup 8} nucleotides, with a median of 75/10{sup 8} nucleotides. PAH-DNA adduct values above 150/10{sup 8} nucleotides were found in eight samples, and in three samples adducts were non-detectable. There was no correlation between PAH-DNA adduct formation and either smoking or case status. Therefore, PAH-DNA adduct formation as measured by this methodology did not appear

  5. Morphological changes of calcite single crystals induced by graphene-biomolecule adducts

    Calvaresi, Matteo; Di Giosia, Matteo; Ianiro, Alessandro; Valle, Francesco; Fermani, Simona; Polishchuk, Iryna; Pokroy, Boaz; Falini, Giuseppe


    Calcite has the capability to interact with a wide variety of molecules. This usually induces changes in shape and morphology of crystals. Here, this process was investigated using sheets of graphene-biomolecule adducts. They were prepared and made dispersible in water through the exfoliation of graphite by tip sonication in the presence tryptophan or N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. The crystallization of calcium carbonate in the presence of these additives was obtained by the vapor diffusion method and only calcite formed. The analysis of the microscopic observations showed that the graphene-biomolecule adducts affected shape and morphology of rhombohedral {10.4} faced calcite crystals, due to their stabilization of additional {hk.0} faces. The only presence of the biomolecule affected minimally shape and morphology of calcite crystals, highlighting the key role of the graphene sheets as 2D support for the adsorption of the biomolecules.

  6. Diastereoselective synthesis of substituted 2-amino-1,3-propanediols from Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts

    Paioti, Paulo H.S.; Rezende, Patricia; Coelho, Fernando [Laboratorio de Sintese de Produtos Naturais e Farmacos, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)


    We report herein a new diastereoselective approach to substituted 2-amino-1,3-propanediols with anti relative stereochemistry from Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) adducts. These structural moieties have been used as intermediates for the synthesis of several compounds with relevant pharmacological and commercial interest. In this strategy, substituted anti 2-amino-1,3-propanediols were readily prepared via ozonolysis of allylic diols obtained from MBH adducts, followed by a diastereoselective reductive amination of the substituted 2-oxo-1,3-propanediols. To demonstrate the synthetic utility of these aminodiols, they were transformed into substituted oxazolidine-2-ones, which were also used in the indirect determination of the relative stereochemistry of the aminodiols. (author)

  7. Lewis Acid-Base Adduct Approach for High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Lee, Jin-Wook; Kim, Hui-Seon; Park, Nam-Gyu


    Since the first report on the long-term durable 9.7% solid-state perovskite solar cell employing methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3), mesoporous TiO2, and 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis[N,N-di(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) in 2012, following the seed technologies on perovskite-sensitized liquid junction solar cells in 2009 and 2011, a surge of interest has been focused on perovskite solar cells due to superb photovoltaic performance and extremely facile fabrication processes. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells reached 21% in a very short period of time. Such an unprecedentedly high photovoltaic performance is due to the intrinsic optoelectronic property of organolead iodide perovskite material. Moreover, a high dielectric constant, sub-millimeter scale carrier diffusion length, an underlying ferroelectric property, and ion migration behavior can make organolead halide perovskites suitable for multifunctionality. Thus, besides solar cell applications, perovskite material has recently been applied to a variety fields of materials science such as photodetectors, light emitting diodes, lasing, X-ray imaging, resistive memory, and water splitting. Regardless of application areas, the growth of a well-defined perovskite layer with high crystallinity is essential for effective utilization of its excellent physicochemical properties. Therefore, an effective methodology for preparation of high quality perovskite layers is required. In this Account, an effective methodology for production of high quality perovskite layers is described, which is the Lewis acid-base adduct approach. In the solution process to form the perovskite layer, the key chemicals of CH3NH3I (or HC(NH2)2I) and PbI2 are used by dissolving them in polar aprotic solvents. Since polar aprotic solvents bear oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen, they can act as a Lewis base. In addition, the main group compound PbI2 is known to be a Lewis acid. Thus, PbI2 has a chance

  8. Crystal Structure of Dimethylamine 3,5-Dinitrobenzoic Acid Organic Adduct

    ZHU Jun; ZHANG Yun; CHEN Hao; CHE Yun-Xia; ZHENG Ji-Min


    The title adduct (C9H11N3O6, Mr = 257.21) was synthesized and it crystallizes in orthorhombic, space group P212121 with a = 5.8835(19), b = 9.517(3), c = 20.399(6) (A), V= 1142.2(6) (A)3, Z = 4, Dc= 1.496 g/cm3, F(000) = 536,μ(MoKα) = 0.128 mm-1, the final R = 0.0396 and wR =0.0800 for 1047 observed reflections with I>2σ(I). The compound is a 1:1 adduct of dimethylamine and 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid which are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a two-dimensional network.The dimethylamine is protonated at the nitrogen atom with the proton from the carboxyl of 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid.

  9. Maternal diet and dioxin-like activity, bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei in mother newborns

    Pedersen, Marie; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Autrup, Herman


    was estimated on the basis of maternal food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) completed by the end of pregnancy. Biomarkers were detected in paired blood samples through the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX)(®) bioassay, (32)P-postlabelling technique and cytokinesis-block MN assay......Maternal diet can contribute to carcinogenic exposures and also modify effects of environmental exposures on maternal and fetal genetic stability. In this study, associations between maternal diet and the levels of dioxin-like plasma activity, bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells and micronuclei...... dietary variables and the biomarkers measured in maternal and fetal samples were identified. The present study suggests that maternal intake of meats with dark surface contributes to the bulky DNA adduct levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relationship between food preparation and bulky DNA...

  10. AlkB recognition of a bulky DNA base adduct stabilized by chemical cross-linking


    E.coli AlkB is a direct DNA/RNA repair protein that oxidatively reverses N1 alkylated purines and N3 alkylated pyrimidines to regular bases.Previous crystal structures have revealed N1-methyl adenine(1-meA) recognition by AlkB and a unique base flipping mechanism,but how the AlkB active site can accommodate bulky base adducts is largely unknown.Employing a previously developed chemical cross-linking technique,we crystallized AlkB with a duplex DNA containing a caged thymine base(cagedT).The structure revealed a flexible hairpin lid and a reorganized substrate recognition loop used by AlkB to accommodate cagedT.These observations demonstrate,at the molecular level,how bulky DNA adducts may be recognized and processed by AlkB.

  11. Evidence for phosphorus bonding in phosphorus trichloride-methanol adduct: a matrix isolation infrared and ab initio computational study.

    Joshi, Prasad Ramesh; Ramanathan, N; Sundararajan, K; Sankaran, K


    The weak interaction between PCl3 and CH3OH was investigated using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy and ab initio computations. In a nitrogen matrix at low temperature, the noncovalent adduct was generated and characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Computations were performed at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ, and MP2/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory to optimize the possible geometries of PCl3-CH3OH adducts. Computations revealed two minima on the potential energy surface, of which, the global minimum is stabilized by a noncovalent P···O interaction, known as a pnictogen bonding (phosphorus bonding or P-bonding). The local minimum corresponded to a cyclic adduct, stabilized by the conventional hydrogen bonding (Cl···H-O and Cl···H-C interactions). Experimentally, 1:1 P-bonded PCl3-CH3OH adduct in nitrogen matrix was identified, where shifts in the P-Cl modes of PCl3, O-C, and O-H modes of CH3OH submolecules were observed. The observed vibrational frequencies of the P-bonded adduct in a nitrogen matrix agreed well with the computed frequencies. Furthermore, computations also predicted that the P-bonded adduct is stronger than H-bonded adduct by ∼1.56 kcal/mol. Atoms in molecules and natural bond orbital analyses were performed to understand the nature of interactions and effect of charge transfer interaction on the stability of the adducts.

  12. Contribution of artifacts to N-methylated piperazine cyanide adduct formation in vitro from N-alkyl piperazine analogs.

    Zhang, Minli; Resuello, Christina M; Guo, Jian; Powell, Mark E; Elmore, Charles S; Hu, Jun; Vishwanathan, Karthick


    In the liver microsome cyanide (CN)-trapping assays, piperazine-containing compounds formed significant N-methyl piperazine CN adducts. Two pathways for the N-methyl piperazine CN adduct formation were proposed: 1) The α-carbon in the N-methyl piperazine is oxidized to form a reactive iminium ion that can react with cyanide ion; 2) N-dealkylation occurs followed by condensation with formaldehyde and dehydration to produce N-methylenepiperazine iminium ion, which then reacts with cyanide ion to form the N-methyl CN adduct. The CN adduct from the second pathway was believed to be an artifact or metabonate. In the present study, a group of 4'-N-alkyl piperazines and 4'-N-[¹³C]methyl-labeled piperazines were used to determine which pathway was predominant. Following microsomal incubations in the presence of cyanide ions, a significant percentage of 4'-N-[¹³C]methyl group in the CN adduct was replaced by an unlabeled natural methyl group, suggesting that the second pathway was predominant. For 4'-N-alkyl piperazine, the level of 4'-N-methyl piperazine CN adduct formation was limited by the extent of prior 4'-N-dealkylation. In a separate study, when 4'-NH-piperaziens were incubated with potassium cyanide and [¹³C]-labeled formaldehyde, 4'-N-[¹³C]methyl piperazine CN-adduct was formed without NADPH or liver microsome suggesting a direct Mannich reaction is involved. However, when [¹³C]-labeled methanol or potassium carbonate was used as the one-carbon donor, 4'-N-[¹³C]methyl piperazine CN adduct was not detected without liver microsome or NADPH present. The biologic and toxicological implications of bioactivation via the second pathway necessitate further investigation because these one-carbon donors for the formation of reactive iminium ions could be endogenous and readily available in vivo.

  13. In vivo validation of DNA adduct formation by estragole in rats predicted by physiologically based biodynamic modelling.

    Paini, Alicia; Punt, Ans; Scholz, Gabriele; Gremaud, Eric; Spenkelink, Bert; Alink, Gerrit; Schilter, Benoît; van Bladeren, Peter J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M


    Estragole is a naturally occurring food-borne genotoxic compound found in a variety of food sources, including spices and herbs. This results in human exposure to estragole via the regular diet. The objective of this study was to quantify the dose-dependent estragole-DNA adduct formation in rat liver and the urinary excretion of 1'-hydroxyestragole glucuronide in order to validate our recently developed physiologically based biodynamic (PBBD) model. Groups of male outbred Sprague Dawley rats (n = 10, per group) were administered estragole once by oral gavage at dose levels of 0 (vehicle control), 5, 30, 75, 150, and 300mg estragole/kg bw and sacrificed after 48h. Liver, kidney and lungs were analysed for DNA adducts by LC-MS/MS. Results obtained revealed a dose-dependent increase in DNA adduct formation in the liver. In lungs and kidneys DNA adducts were detected at lower levels than in the liver confirming the occurrence of DNA adducts preferably in the target organ, the liver. The results obtained showed that the PBBD model predictions for both urinary excretion of 1'-hydroxyestragole glucuronide and the guanosine adduct formation in the liver were comparable within less than an order of magnitude to the values actually observed in vivo. The PBBD model was refined using liver zonation to investigate whether its predictive potential could be further improved. The results obtained provide the first data set available on estragole-DNA adduct formation in rats and confirm their occurrence in metabolically active tissues, i.e. liver, lung and kidney, while the significantly higher levels found in liver are in accordance with the liver as the target organ for carcinogenicity. This opens the way towards future modelling of dose-dependent estragole liver DNA adduct formation in human.

  14. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Macrocyclic Cavitand Cucurbit[5]uril and Its Supramolecular Adduct with Cu(Ⅱ)

    LIU,Si-Min(刘思敏); HUANG,Zi-Xiang(黄子祥); WU,Xiao-Jun(吴晓军); LIANG,Feng(梁峰); WU,Cheng-Tai(吴成泰)


    The first supramolecular adduct (H3O)2[Cu(H2O)4](SO4)2·2(C30H30N20O10)·24(H2O) based on cucurbit[5]uril was synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In the adduct, copper ion is coordinated by four oxygen atoms from H2O. The latter links two cucurbit[5]uril molecules due to a complicated hydrogen bonding containing lattice water molecules.

  15. Hydroxyl radical reaction with trans-resveratrol: initial carbon radical adduct formation followed by rearrangement to phenoxyl radical.

    Li, Dan-Dan; Han, Rui-Min; Liang, Ran; Chen, Chang-Hui; Lai, Wenzhen; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Skibsted, Leif H


    In the reaction between trans-resveratrol (resveratrol) and the hydroxyl radical, kinetic product control leads to a short-lived hydroxyl radical adduct with an absorption maximum at 420 nm and a lifetime of 0.21 ± 0.01 μs (anaerobic acetonitrile at 25 °C) as shown by laser flash photolysis using N-hydroxypyridine-2(1H)-thione (N-HPT) as a "photo-Fenton" reagent. The transient spectra of the radical adduct are in agreement with density functional theory (DFT) calculations showing an absorption maximum at 442 or 422 nm for C2 and C6 hydroxyl adducts, respectively, and showing the lowest energy for the transition state leading to the C2 adduct compared to other radical products. From this initial product, the relative long-lived 4'-phenoxyl radical of resveratrol (τ = 9.9 ± 0.9 μs) with an absorption maximum at 390 nm is formed in a process with a time constant (τ = 0.21 ± 0.01 μs) similar to the decay constant for the C2 hydroxyl adduct (or a C2/C6 hydroxyl adduct mixture) and in agreement with thermodynamics identifying this product as the most stable resveratrol radical. The hydroxyl radical adduct to phenoxyl radical conversion with concomitant water dissociation has a rate constant of 5 × 10(6) s(-1) and may occur by intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer or by stepwise proton-assisted electron transfer. Photolysis of N-HPT also leads to a thiyl radical which adds to resveratrol in a parallel reaction forming a sulfur radical adduct with a lifetime of 0.28 ± 0.04 μs and an absorption maximum at 483 nm.

  16. Efficient CO2 capture by tertiary amine-functionalized ionic liquids through Li+-stabilized zwitterionic adduct formation

    Yang, Zhen-zhen; He, Liang-Nian


    Highly efficient CO2 absorption was realized through formation of zwitterionic adducts, combining synthetic strategies to ionic liquids (ILs) and coordination. The essence of our strategy is to make use of multidentate cation coordination between Li+ and an organic base. Also PEG-functionalized organic bases were employed to enhance the CO2-philicity. The ILs were reacted with CO2 to form the zwitterionic adduct. Coordination effects between various lithium salts and neutral ligands, as well ...

  17. Sterically locked synthetic bilin derivatives and phytochrome Agp1 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens form photoinsensitive Pr- and Pfr-like adducts.

    Inomata, Katsuhiko; Hammam, Mostafa A S; Kinoshita, Hideki; Murata, Yasue; Khawn, Htoi; Noack, Steffi; Michael, Norbert; Lamparter, Tilman


    Phytochrome photoreceptors undergo reversible photoconversion between the red-absorbing form, Pr, and the far-red-absorbing form, Pfr. The first step in the conversion from Pr to Pfr is a Z to E isomerization around the C15=C16 double bond of the bilin chromophore. We prepared four synthetic biliverdin (BV) derivatives in which rings C and D are sterically locked by cyclizing with an additional carbon chain. In these chromophores, which are termed 15Za, 15Zs, 15Ea, and 15Es, the C15=C16 double bond is in either the Z or E configuration and the C14-C15 single bond in either the syn or anti conformation. The chromophores were assembled with Agrobacterium phytochrome Agp1, which incorporates BV as natural chromophore. All locked BV derivatives bound covalently to the protein and formed adducts with characteristic spectral properties. The 15Za adduct was spectrally similar to the Pr form and the 15Ea adduct similar to the Pfr form of the BV adduct. Thus, the chromophore of Agp1 adopts a C15=C16 Z configuration and a C14-C15 anti conformation in the Pr form and a C15=C16 E configuration and a C14-C15 anti conformation in the Pfr form. Both the 15Zs and the 15Es adducts absorbed only in the blue region of the visible spectra. All chromophore adducts were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography and histidine kinase activity to probe for protein conformation. In either case, the 15Za adduct behaved like the Pr and the 15Ea adduct like the Pfr form of Agp1. Replacing the natural chromophore by a locked 15Ea derivative can thus bring phytochrome holoprotein in the Pfr form in darkness. In this way, physiological action of Pfr can be studied in vivo and separated from Pr/Pfr cycling and other light effects.

  18. Significant Positive Correlation of Plasma BPDE-Albumin Adducts to Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene in Coke Oven Workers



    Objective To investigate the application of BPDE-albumin adducts as monitoring biomarkers for coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs)and to explore possible relationship between BPDE-albumin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP)levels in them.Methods Thirty-seven coke oven workers from a coke plant and 47 controls without the occupational exposure to PAHs were recruited in this study.The levels of plasma BPDE-albumin adducts and urinary 1-OHP were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography.Results The median levels of BPDE-albumin adducts(42.10 fmol/mg albumin)and urinary 1-OHP(5.46 μmol/mol creatinine)were significantly higher in coke oven workers than in controls(14.16 fmol/mg albumin,2.96 μmol/mol creatinine,respectively;P<0.01).Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that coke oven workers were at higher risk of having BPDE-albumin adduct levels above 25.30 prnol/mg albumin(OR=1.79,P<0.01)and urinary 1-OHP levels above 4.13 μmol/mol creatinine(OR=2.45,P<0.05).There was a positive correlation between the levels of BPDE-albumin adducts and urinary 1-OHP in all subjects(rs=0.349,P<0.01).Conclusion BPDE-albumin adduct is a useful biomarker for monitoring long-term exposure to PAHs,and plasma BPDE-albumin adducts level is significantly correlated to urinary 1-OHP levels in coke oven workers.

  19. Free flow electrophoresis separation and AMS quantitation of C-naphthalene-protein adducts.

    Buchholz, Bruce A; Haack, Kurt W; Sporty, Jennifer L; Buckpitt, Alan R; Morin, Dexter


    Naphthalene is a volatile aromatic hydrocarbon to which humans are exposed from a variety of sources including mobile air sources and cigarette smoke. Naphthalene produces dose- (concentration) dependent injury to airway epithelial cells of murine lung which is observed at concentrations well below the current occupational exposure standard. Toxicity is dependent upon the cytochrome P450 mediated metabolic activation of the parent substrate to unstable metabolites which become bound covalently to tissue proteins. Nearly 70 proteins have been identified as forming adducts with reactive naphthalene metabolites using in vitro systems but very little work has been conducted in vivo because reasonably large amounts (100 μCi) of (14)C labeled parent compound must be administered to generate detectable adduct levels on storage phosphor screens following separation of labeled proteins by 2 D gel electrophoresis. The work described here was done to provide proof of concept that protein separation by free flow electrophoresis followed by AMS detection of protein fractions containing protein bound reactive metabolites would provide adducted protein profiles in animals dosed with trace quantities of labeled naphthalene. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg naphthalene intraperitoneally at a calculated specific activity of 2 DPM/nmol (1 pCi/nmol) and respiratory epithelial tissue was obtained by lysis lavage 4 hr post injection. Free flow electrophoresis (FFE) separates proteins in the liquid phase over a large pH range (2.5-11.5) using low molecular weight acids and bases to modify the pH. The apparatus separates fractions into standard 96-well plates that can be used in other protein analysis techniques. The buffers of the fractions have very high carbon content, however, and need to be dialyzed to yield buffers compatible with (14)C-AMS. We describe the processing techniques required to couple FFE to AMS for quantitation of protein adducts.

  20. Determinants of formation of aflatoxin-albumin adducts: a seven-township study in Taiwan


    Dietary exposure to aflatoxins is one of the major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma. Individual susceptibility to aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis may be modulated by both genetic and environmental factors affecting metabolism. A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate determinants of the formation of aflatoxin covalently bound to albumin (AFB1-albumin adducts). A total of 474 subjects who were free of liver cancer and cirrhosis and were initially selected as controls f...

  1. Melamine-melem adduct phases: investigating the thermal condensation of melamine.

    Sattler, Andreas; Pagano, Sandro; Zeuner, Martin; Zurawski, Alexander; Gunzelmann, Daniel; Senker, Jürgen; Müller-Buschbaum, Klaus; Schnick, Wolfgang


    By studying the thermal condensation of melamine, we have identified three solid molecular adducts consisting of melamine C(3)N(3)(NH(2))(3) and melem C(6)N(7)(NH(2))(3) in differing molar ratios. We solved the crystal structure of 2 C(3)N(3)(NH(2))(3)C(6)N(7)(NH(2))(3) (1; C2/c; a=21.526(4), b=12.595(3), c=6.8483(14) A; beta=94.80(3) degrees ; Z=4; V=1850.2(7) A(3)), C(3)N(3)(NH(2))(3)C(6)N(7)(NH(2))(3) (2; Pcca; a=7.3280(2), b=7.4842(2), c=24.9167(8) A; Z=4; V=1366.54(7) A(3)), and C(3)N(3)(NH(2))(3)3 C(6)N(7)(NH(2))(3) (3; C2/c; a=14.370(3), b=25.809(5), c=8.1560(16) A; beta=94.62(3) degrees ; Z=4; V=3015.0(10) A(3)) by using single-crystal XRD. All syntheses were carried out in sealed glass ampoules starting from melamine. By variation of the reaction conditions in terms of temperature, pressure, and the presence of ammonia-binding metals (europium) we gained a detailed insight into the occurrence of the three adduct phases during the thermal condensation process of melamine leading to melem. A rational bulk synthesis allowed us to realize adduct phases as well as phase separation into melamine and melem under equilibrium conditions. A solid-state NMR spectroscopic investigation of adduct 1 was conducted.

  2. Rearrangement mechanism of the sodium adducts of Fmoc protected amino acids

    DU Jintang; LI Yanmei; ZHU Zhentai; CHEN Yi; ZHAO Yufen


    The cationized 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) protected amino acidswere analyzed by the electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). A rearrangement reaction leading to the C-terminal hydroxyl group transfer was observed. The sodium adducts of Fmoc-OH was formed. A possible rearrangement mechanism was proposed. The rearrangement reaction depended on the Fmoc group, metal ions and metal ion radius. It was shown that the Fmoc group has a strong affinity to the hydroxyl group in the gas phase.

  3. The 1:1 adduct of caffeine and 2-(1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-ylacetic acid

    Moazzam H. Bhatti


    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title adduct [systematic name: 2-(1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-ylacetic acid–1,3,7-trimethyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purine-2,6-dione (1/1], C8H10N4O2·C10H7NO4, the components are linked by an O—H...N hydrogen-bond and no proton transfer occurs.

  4. Adduct formation in liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometric measurement of bryostatin 1.

    Nelson, Thomas J; Sen, Abhik; Alkon, Daniel L; Sun, Miao-Kun


    Bryostatin 1, a potential anti-Alzheimer drug, is effective at subnanomolar concentrations. Measurement is complicated by the formation of low m/z degradation products and the formation of adducts with various cations, which make accurate quantitation difficult. Adduct formation caused the sample matrix or mobile phase to partition bryostatin 1 into products of different mass. Degradation of the 927 [M+Na](+) ion to a 869m/z product was strongly influenced by ionization conditions. We validated a bryostatin 1 assay in biological tissues using capillary column HPLC with nanospray ionization (NSI) in a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Adduct formation was controlled by adding 1mM acetic acid and 0.1mM sodium acetate to the HPLC buffer, maximizing the formation of the [M+Na](+) ion. Efficient removal of contaminating cholesterol from the sample during solvent extraction was also critical. The increased sensitivity provided by NSI and capillary-bore columns and the elimination of signal partitioning due to adduct formation and degradation in the ionization source enabled a detection limit of 1×10(-18)mol of bryostatin 1 and a LLOQ of 3×10(-18)mol from 1μl of sample. Bryostatin 1 at low pmol/l concentrations enabled measurement in brain and other tissues without the use of radioactive labels. Despite bryostatin 1's high molecular weight, considerable brain access was observed, with peak brain concentrations exceeding 8% of the peak blood plasma concentrations. Bryostatin 1 readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, reaching peak concentrations of 0.2nM, and specifically activates and translocates brain PKCɛ.

  5. DFT study on adduct reaction paths of GaN MOCVD growth

    SHI; JunCao; ZUO; Ran; MENG; SuCi


    The adduct reaction paths for GaN growth by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) were studied by quantum chemical calculations employing density functional theory (DFT). Five possible adduct reaction paths with or without the ex-cess NH3were proposed and the corresponding potential energy surfaces were calculated. From the calculation results, it is concluded that after the formation of DMGNH2from TMG:NH3, the further decomposition paths have very slim probability because of the high energy barriers; whereas the oligomerization pathway to form oligomers [DMGNH2]x(x=2, 3) is probable,because of zero energy barrier. Since the oligomers tend to further polymerize, the nanoparticles are easily formed through this path. When NH3is in excess, TMG:NH3 tends to combine with the second NH3to form two new complexes: the coordination-bonded compound H3N:TMG:NH3and the hydrogen-bonded compound TMG:NH3 NH3. The formation of hydrogen-bonded compound TMG:NH3 NH3 will be more probable because of the lower energy than H3N:TMG:NH3. By comparing the potential energy surfaces in five adduct reaction paths, we postulate that, under the growth conditions of GaN MOCVD, the formation of hydrogen-bonded compound TMG:NH3 NH3 followed by the reversible decomposition may be the main reaction path for GaN thin film growth; while the adduct oligomerization path to generate oligomers [DMGNH2]2 and [DMGNH2]3might be the main reaction path for nanoparticles formation.

  6. Large eccentric strength increase using the Copenhagen Adduction exercise in football

    Ishøi, L; Sørensen, C N; Kaae, N M


    demonstrated a 35.7% increase in EHAD (P  0.335). Compliance was 91.25%, and median muscle soreness ranged from 0 to 2. The CA......Hip adductor injuries are frequent in football, and players with low adductor strength appear to be at increased risk of injury. High adductor muscle activity has been shown in the Copenhagen Adduction exercise (CA); however, an associated strength gain has not been investigated. This study aims...

  7. Synthesis of an oligodeoxyribonucleotide adduct of mitomycin C by the postoligomerization method via a triamino mitosene

    Champeil, Elise; Paz, Manuel M.; Ladwa, Sweta; Cristina C. Clement; ZATORSKI, ANDRZEJ; Tomasz, Maria


    The cancer chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C (MC) alkylates and cross-links DNA monofunctionally and bifunctionally in vivo and in vitro, forming six major MC-deoxyguanosine adducts of known structures. The synthesis of one of the monoadducts (8) by the postoligomerization method was accomplished both on the nucleoside and oligonucleotide levels, the latter resulting in the site-specific placement of 8 in a 12-mer oligodeoxyribonucleotide 26. This is the first application of this method to t...

  8. Maternal diet and dioxin-like activity, bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei in mother-newborns.

    Pedersen, Marie; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Autrup, Herman; Brouwer, Abraham; Besselink, Harrie; Loft, Steffen; Knudsen, Lisbeth E


    Maternal diet can contribute to carcinogenic exposures and also modify effects of environmental exposures on maternal and fetal genetic stability. In this study, associations between maternal diet and the levels of dioxin-like plasma activity, bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells and micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes from mother to newborns were examined. From 98 pregnant women living in the greater area of Copenhagen, Denmark in 2006-2007, maternal peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, together with information on health, environmental exposure and lifestyle. Maternal diet was estimated on the basis of maternal food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) completed by the end of pregnancy. Biomarkers were detected in paired blood samples through the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX)(®) bioassay, (32)P-postlabelling technique and cytokinesis-block MN assay. Maternal preference for meats with dark surface were significantly associated with higher bulky DNA adducts in both maternal (β 95%CI; 0.46 (0.08, 0.84)) and cord blood (β 95%CI; 0.46 (0.05, 0.86)) before and after adjustment for potential confounders. No other significant associations between the 18 dietary variables and the biomarkers measured in maternal and fetal samples were identified. The present study suggests that maternal intake of meats with dark surface contributes to the bulky DNA adduct levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relationship between food preparation and bulky DNA adducts appear to be captured by a FFQ while potential associations for other biomarkers might be more complex or need larger sample size.

  9. Maternal diet and dioxin-like activity, bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei in mother-newborns

    Pedersen, Marie, E-mail: [Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, CSS, Oester Farimagsgade, Copenhagen K (Denmark); Halldorsson, Thorhallur I., E-mail: [Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland Reykjavik (Iceland); Center for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Autrup, Herman, E-mail: [School of Public Health, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Brouwer, Abraham, E-mail: [BioDetection Systems B.V., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Besselink, Harrie, E-mail: [BioDetection Systems B.V., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Loft, Steffen, E-mail: [Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, CSS, Oester Farimagsgade, Copenhagen K (Denmark); Knudsen, Lisbeth E., E-mail: [Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, CSS, Oester Farimagsgade, Copenhagen K (Denmark)


    Maternal diet can contribute to carcinogenic exposures and also modify effects of environmental exposures on maternal and fetal genetic stability. In this study, associations between maternal diet and the levels of dioxin-like plasma activity, bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells and micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes from mother to newborns were examined. From 98 pregnant women living in the greater area of Copenhagen, Denmark in 2006-2007, maternal peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, together with information on health, environmental exposure and lifestyle. Maternal diet was estimated on the basis of maternal food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) completed by the end of pregnancy. Biomarkers were detected in paired blood samples through the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX){sup Registered-Sign} bioassay, {sup 32}P-postlabelling technique and cytokinesis-block MN assay. Maternal preference for meats with dark surface were significantly associated with higher bulky DNA adducts in both maternal ({beta} 95%CI; 0.46 (0.08, 0.84)) and cord blood ({beta} 95%CI; 0.46 (0.05, 0.86)) before and after adjustment for potential confounders. No other significant associations between the 18 dietary variables and the biomarkers measured in maternal and fetal samples were identified. The present study suggests that maternal intake of meats with dark surface contributes to the bulky DNA adduct levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relationship between food preparation and bulky DNA adducts appear to be captured by a FFQ while potential associations for other biomarkers might be more complex or need larger sample size.

  10. Genotoxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids — Mechanisms Leading to DNA Adduct Formation and Tumorigenicity


    Abstract: Plants that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids are widely distributed in the world. Although pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been shown to be genotoxic and tumorigenic in experimental animals, the mechanisms of actions have not been fully understood. The results of our recent mechanistic studies suggest that pyrrolizidine alkaloids induce tumors via a genotoxic mechanism mediated by 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5Hpyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adduct formation. This mechanism may ...

  11. Characterization of glycidol-hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of exposure and in vivo dose.

    Honda, Hiroshi; Törnqvist, Margareta; Nishiyama, Naohiro; Kasamatsu, Toshio


    Hemoglobin adducts have been used as biomarkers of exposure to reactive chemicals. Glycidol, an animal carcinogen, has been reported to form N-(2,3-dihydroxy-propyl)valine adducts to hemoglobin (diHOPrVal). To support the use of these adducts as markers of glycidol exposure, we investigated the kinetics of diHOPrVal formation and its elimination in vitro and in vivo. Five groups of rats were orally administered a single dose of glycidol ranging from 0 to 75mg/kg bw, and diHOPrVal levels were measured 24h after administration. A dose-dependent increase in diHOPrVal levels was observed with high linearity (R(2)=0.943). Blood sampling at different time points (1, 10, 20, or 40days) from four groups administered glycidol at 12mg/kg bw suggested a linear decrease in diHOPrVal levels compatible with the normal turnover of rat erythrocytes (life span, 61days), with the calculated first-order elimination rate constant (kel) indicating that the diHOPrVal adduct was chemically stable. Then, we measured the second-order rate constant (kval) for the reaction of glycidol with N-terminal valine in rat and human hemoglobin in in vitro experiments with whole blood. The kval was 6.7±1.1 and 5.6±1.3 (pmol/g globin per μMh) in rat and human blood, respectively, indicating no species differences. In vivo doses estimated from kval and diHOPrVal levels were in agreement with the area under the (concentration-time) curve values determined in our earlier toxicokinetic study in rats. Our results indicate that diHOPrVal is a useful biomarker for quantification of glycidol exposure and for risk assessment.

  12. The presence of aflatoxin B₁-FAPY adduct and human papilloma virus in cervical smears from cancer patients in Mexico.

    Carvajal, Magda; Berumen, Jaime; Guardado-Estrada, Mariano


    The carcinogenic biomarker aflatoxin B(1)-formamidopyrimidine 2,3-dihydro-2-(N-formyl)-2',5',6'-triamino-4'-4'-oxy-N-pyrimidyl-3-hydroxy-AFB(1) called AFB(1)-FAPY adduct, and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 were quantified from DNA cervical scrapes from 40 women with cervical cancer (CC) and 14 healthy women as controls. The relationship between the AFB(1)-FAPY adduct and HPV types 16 and 18 was determined. Competitive inhibitory indirect ELISA was validated with 94% inhibition to quantify the AFB(1)-FAPY adducts in picograms per milligram of DNA (limit of detection = 0.1 pg/mg, and limit of quantification = 10 pg/mg), polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing to identify HPV types. The average concentration of AFB(1)-FAPY adducts/mg DNA in the CC cases was 1025 pg, 1420 pg with HPV16 and 630 pg sharing HPV18 (p = 0.03). In comparison, healthy controls had ≤ 2.6 pg/mg DNA, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.00006). The presence of AFB(1)-FAPY adduct increased six-fold the risk for CC between cases and controls, the odds ratio was 6.1 (95% CI = 1.4-25.4). There was a close relationship between the AFB(1)-FAPY adducts and HPV16 in CC samples.

  13. Structure of lysine adducts with 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone and cortisol.

    Bucala, R; Ulrich, P C; Chait, B T; Bencsath, F A; Cerami, A


    Recent studies indicate that steroids containing a vicinal hydroxyketone moiety can react with proteins both in vitro and in vivo to form covalent addition products. This reaction is non-enzymatic and occurs via the Heyns rearrangement of an initial Schiff base adduct between the steroid carbonyl and the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues. The present study describes the synthesis, isolation, and structural analysis of model adducts prepared by the incubation of 16 alpha-hydroxyesterone or cortisol with NaCNBH3 and lysine derivatives blocked in the N alpha-position. The product formed from the reaction of 16 alpha-hydroxyesterone and lysine was found to have the structure predicted for a reduced Schiff base between these molecules. A stable, cortisol-lysine adduct was similarly synthesized and isolated. This conjugate was found not to be the expected reduced Schiff base but rather a C-20 cyano amine. This compound most likely was formed by the nucleophilic addition of cyanide during the course of the incubation. The observation that the cortisol-lysine Schiff base is not reducible with NaCNBH3 accounts for the observation that the incorporation rate of glucocorticoids into proteins is not increased by the presence of NaCNBH3.

  14. Carbofuran poisoning detected by mass spectrometry of butyrylcholinesterase adduct in human serum.

    Li, He; Ricordel, Ivan; Tong, Larry; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Baud, Frédéric; Mégarbane, Bruno; Maury, Eric; Masson, Patrick; Lockridge, Oksana


    Carbofuran is a pesticide whose acute toxicity is due to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in plasma is inhibited by carbofuran and serves as a biomarker of poisoning by carbofuran. The goal was to develop a method to positively identify poisoning by carbofuran. Sera from an attempted murder and an attempted suicide were analyzed for the presence of carbofuran adducts on BChE. The BChE from 1 ml of serum was rapidly purified on a 0.2 ml procainamide-Sepharose column. Speed was essential because the carbofuran-BChE adduct decarbamylates with a half-life of about 2 h. The partially purified BChE was boiled to denature the protein, thus stopping decarbamylation and making the protein vulnerable to digestion with trypsin. The labeled peptide was partially purified by HPLC before analysis by LC/MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode on the QTRAP 2000 mass spectrometer. Carbofuran was found to be covalently bound to Ser 198 of human BChE in serum samples from two poisoning cases. Multiple reaction monitoring triggered MS/MS spectra positively identified the carbofuran-BChE adduct. In conclusion a mass spectrometry method to identify carbofuran poisoning in humans has been developed. The method uses 1 ml of serum and detects low-level exposure associated with as little as 20% inhibition of plasma butyrylcholinesterase.

  15. Chemical discrimination between dC and 5MedC via their hydroxylamine adducts.

    Münzel, Martin; Lercher, Lukas; Müller, Markus; Carell, Thomas


    The presence of the methylated nucleobase (5Me)dC in CpG islands is a key factor that determines gene silencing. False methylation patterns are responsible for deteriorated cellular development and are a hallmark of many cancers. Today genes can be sequenced for the content of (5Me)dC only with the help of the bisulfite reagent, which is based exclusively on chemical reactivity differences established by the additional methyl group. Despite intensive optimization of the bisulfite protocol, the method still has specificity problems. Most importantly ∼95% of the DNA analyte is degraded during the analysis procedure. We discovered that the reagent O-allylhydroxylamine is able to discriminate between dC and (5Me)dC. The reagent, in contrast to bisulfite, does not exploit reactivity differences but gives directly different reaction products. The reagent forms a stable mutagenic adduct with dC, which can exist in two states (E versus Z). In case of dC the allylhydroxylamine adduct switches into the E-isomeric form, which generates dC to dT transition mutations that can easily be detected by established methods. Significantly, the (5Me)dC-adduct adopts exclusively the Z-isomeric form, which causes the polymerase to stop. O-allylhydroxylamine does allow differentiation between dC and (5Me)dC with high accuracy, leading towards a novel and mild chemistry for methylation analysis.

  16. Signal transduction in light–oxygen–voltage receptors lacking the adduct-forming cysteine residue

    Yee, Estella F.; Diensthuber, Ralph P.; Vaidya, Anand T.; Borbat, Peter P.; Engelhard, Christopher; Freed, Jack H.; Bittl, Robert; Möglich, Andreas; Crane, Brian R.


    Light–oxygen–voltage (LOV) receptors sense blue light through the photochemical generation of a covalent adduct between a flavin-nucleotide chromophore and a strictly conserved cysteine residue. Here we show that, after cysteine removal, the circadian-clock LOV-protein Vivid still undergoes light-induced dimerization and signalling because of flavin photoreduction to the neutral semiquinone (NSQ). Similarly, photoreduction of the engineered LOV histidine kinase YF1 to the NSQ modulates activity and downstream effects on gene expression. Signal transduction in both proteins hence hinges on flavin protonation, which is common to both the cysteinyl adduct and the NSQ. This general mechanism is also conserved by natural cysteine-less, LOV-like regulators that respond to chemical or photoreduction of their flavin cofactors. As LOV proteins can react to light even when devoid of the adduct-forming cysteine, modern LOV photoreceptors may have arisen from ancestral redox-active flavoproteins. The ability to tune LOV reactivity through photoreduction may have important implications for LOV mechanism and optogenetic applications. PMID:26648256

  17. Molecular structures of five adducts assembled from p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and organic acids

    Jin, Shouwen; Wang, Lanqing; Liu, Hui; Liu, Li; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Daqi; Li, Minghui; Guo, Jianzhong; Guo, Ming


    Five adducts 1-5 derived from p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde have been prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. Of the five adducts two are organic salts (1, and 2) and the other three (3-5) are cocrystals. In salts 1, and 2, the L molecules are protonated. The supramolecular architectures of the adducts 1-5 involve extensive intermolecular N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O, O-H⋯S, and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds as well as other non-covalent interactions. The role of weak and strong non-covalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. The complexes displayed 2D/3D framework structure for the synergistic effect of the various non-covalent interactions. The results presented herein tell that the strength and directionality of the N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O, and O-H⋯S hydrogen bonds between organic acids and p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde are sufficient to bring about the formation of binary cocrystals or organic salts.

  18. Supramolecular Adducts of Cucurbit[7]uril and Amino Acids in the Gas Phase

    Kovalenko, Ekaterina; Vilaseca, Marta; Díaz-Lobo, Mireia; Masliy, A. N.; Vicent, Cristian; Fedin, Vladimir P.


    The complexation of the macrocyclic cavitand cucurbit[7]uril (Q7) with a series of amino acids (AA) with different side chains (Asp, Asn, Gln, Ser, Ala, Val, and Ile) is investigated by ESI-MS techniques. The 1:1 [Q7 + AA + 2H]2+ adducts are observed as the base peak when equimolar Q7:AA solutions are electrosprayed, whereas the 1:2 [Q7 + 2AA + 2H]2+ dications are dominant when an excess of the amino acid is used. A combination of ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and DFT calculations of the 1:1 [Q7 + AA + 2H]2+ (AA = Tyr, Val, and Ser) adducts is also reported and proven to be unsuccessful at discriminating between exclusion or inclusion-type conformations in the gas phase. Collision induced dissociation (CID) revealed that the preferred dissociation pathways of the 1:1 [Q7 + AA + 2H]2+ dications are strongly influenced by the identity of the amino acid side chain, whereas ion molecule reactions towards N-butylmethylamine displayed a common reactivity pattern comprising AA displacement. Special emphasis is given on the differences between the gas-phase behavior of the supramolecular adducts with amino acids (AA = Asp, Asn, Gln, Ser, Ala, Val, and Ile) and those featuring basic (Lys and Arg) and aromatic (Tyr and Phe) side chains.

  19. Immune response to acetaldehyde-human serum albumin adduct among healthy subjects related to alcohol intake.

    Romanazzi, Valeria; Schilirò, Tiziana; Carraro, Elisabetta; Gilli, Giorgio


    Acetaldehyde (AA) is the main metabolic product in ethanol metabolism, although it can also derive from sources of airborne pollution. As a typical aldehyde, AA is able to react with a variety of molecular targets, including DNA and protein. This property justifies the hypothesis of a immune reaction against this kind of adduct, to be studied by a seroprevalence screening approach. In this study, the correlation between drinking habits and the amount of circulating AA-human serum albumin adduct (AA-HSA) was evaluated in a group of healthy subjects, non alcohol-addicted. Daily ethanol intake (grams) was inferred for each subject using the information collected through a questionnaire, and AA-HSA antibodies (AA-HSA ab) analyses were performed using the Displacement Assay on whole blood samples. The findings showed a correlation between ethanol intake and immune response to molecular adduct. These results underscore the evaluation of AA-HSA ab amount as a suitable molecular marker for alcohol intake that can be applied in future investigations on a large scale for prevention screening.

  20. Protein adducts of the prostate carcinogen PhIP in children

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory


    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men in the United States. few epidemiology studies have indicated that exposure to PhIP, a rodent prostate carcinogen formed in meat during cooking, may be an important risk factor for prostate cancer in humans. Therefore, a highly sensitive biomarker assay is urgently needed to clarify the role of PhIP in prostate cancer. The goal of this project is to develop an assay that can be used to more accurately quantify human exposure to PhIP and potential prostate cancer risk. Our hypothesis is that an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry-based method can be developed to measure protein adducts of PhIP in the blood of humans. This will provide a measure of the internal dose, as well as the capacity for carcinogen bioactivation to a form that can initiate the cancer process. Towards this goal, we have characterized an adduct formed by PhIP in vitro with the amino acid cysteine. This adduct should provide a biomarker of dietary PhIP exposure and potential prostate cancer risk that could be used to identify individuals for prevention and for monitoring the effect chemoprevention strategies.

  1. Role of Scaphoid in the Abduction and Adduction Movements of Wrist Joint

    Sadik I Shaikh


    Full Text Available Background: Being a carpal bone scaphoid has an important role in wrist movements. Wrist joint is a synovial modified ellipsoid joint where movements like flexion, extension and adduction, abduction take place around two axes (transverse and antero-posterior. These movements at the wrist joint are associated with considerable range of movements at the mid carpal joint, as same group of muscles act on both of these joints. Methodology: A study has been done amongst 120 persons at the tertiary care hospital during the period from 2006-07 to detect the important movements of scaphoid bone specially during the abduction and adduction of wrist joint (which occur in association with the intercarpal joints and also to detect whether such movements have any speciality in the population. Results: In fully abducted position, it was 45o among 53.3% subjects and the average among all the subjects was 60o. So, the degree of abduction was 30o. The extent of movement was more in adduction (ie, 1.90 cm - 1.03 cm = 0.87 cm than in abduction (ie, 1.03 cm - 0.72 cm = 0.31cm. Conclusion: It was found in this study that the scaphoid acts as a link bone between the two rows of carpal bones and prevents the buckling of midcarpal joint especially of the capitato- lunate joint interface. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(3.000: 253-256

  2. A three-dimensional model of vocal fold abduction/adduction

    Hunter, Eric J.; Titze, Ingo R.; Alipour, Fariborz


    A three-dimensional biomechanical model of tissue deformation was developed to simulate dynamic vocal fold abduction and adduction. The model was made of 1721 nearly incompressible finite elements. The cricoarytenoid joint was modeled as a rocking-sliding motion, similar to two concentric cylinders. The vocal ligament and the thyroarytenoid muscle's fiber characteristics were implemented as a fiber-gel composite made of an isotropic ground substance imbedded with fibers. These fibers had contractile and/or passive nonlinear stress-strain characteristics. The verification of the model was made by comparing the range and speed of motion to published vocal fold kinematic data. The model simulated abduction to a maximum glottal angle of about 31°. Using the posterior-cricoarytenoid muscle, the model produced an angular abduction speed of 405° per second. The system mechanics seemed to favor abduction over adduction in both peak speed and response time, even when all intrinsic muscle properties were kept identical. The model also verified the notion that the vocalis and muscularis portions of the thyroarytenoid muscle play significantly different roles in posturing, with the muscularis portion having the larger effect on arytenoid movement. Other insights into the mechanisms of abduction/adduction were given.

  3. LC-MS/MS screening strategy for unknown adducts to N-terminal valine in hemoglobin applied to smokers and nonsmokers.

    Carlsson, Henrik; von Stedingk, Hans; Nilsson, Ulrika; Törnqvist, Margareta


    Electrophilically reactive compounds have the ability to form adducts with nucleophilic sites in DNA and proteins, constituting a risk for toxic effects. Mass spectrometric detection of adducts to N-terminal valine in hemoglobin (Hb) after detachment by modified Edman degradation procedures is one approach for in vivo monitoring of exposure to electrophilic compounds/metabolites. So far, applications have been limited to one or a few selected reactive species, such as acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide. This article presents a novel screening strategy for unknown Hb adducts to be used as a basis for an adductomic approach. The method is based on a modified Edman procedure, FIRE, specifically developed for LC-MS/MS analysis of N-terminal valine adducts in Hb detached as fluorescein thiohydantoin (FTH) derivatives. The aim is to detect and identify a priori unknown Hb adducts in human blood samples. Screening of valine adducts was performed by stepwise scanning of precursor ions in small mass increments, monitoring four fragments common for the FTH derivative of valine with different N-substitutions in the multiple-reaction mode, covering a mass range of 135 Da (m/z 503-638). Samples from six smokers and six nonsmokers were analyzed. Control experiments were performed to compare these results with known adducts and to check for artifactual formation of adducts. In all samples of smokers and nonsmokers, seven adducts were identified, of which six have previously been studied. Nineteen unknown adducts were observed, and 14 of those exhibited fragmentation patterns similar to earlier studied FTH derivatives of adducts to valine. Identification of the unknown adducts will be the focus of future work. The presented methodology is a promising screening tool using Hb adducts to indicate exposure to potentially toxic electrophilic compounds and metabolites.

  4. Metabolic Activation of the Tumorigenic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid, Retrorsine, Leading to DNA Adduct Formation In Vivo

    Ming W. Chou


    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are naturally occurring genotoxic chemicals produced by a large number of plants. The high toxicity of many pyrrolizidine alkaloids has caused considerable loss of free-ranging livestock due to liver and pulmonary lesions. Chronic exposure of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids to laboratory animals induces cancer. This investigation studies the metabolic activation of retrorsine, a representative naturally occurring tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, and shows that a genotoxic mechanism is correlated to the tumorigenicity of retrorsine. Metabolism of retrorsine by liver microsomes of F344 female rats produced two metabolites, 6, 7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP, at a rate of 4.8 ± 0.1 nmol/mg/min, and retrorsine-N-oxide, at a rate of 17.6±0.5 nmol/mg/min. Metabolism was enhanced 1.7-fold by using liver microsomes prepared from dexamethasone-treated rats. DHP formation was inhibited 77% and retrorsine N-oxide formation was inhibited 29% by troleandomycin, a P450 3A enzyme inhibitor. Metabolism of retrorsine with lung, kidney, and spleen microsomes from dexamethasone-treated rats also generated DHP and the N-oxide derivative. When rat liver microsomal metabolism of retrorsine occurred in the presence of calf thymus DNA, a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts was formed; these adducts were detected and quantified by using a previously developed 32P-postlabeling/HPLC method. These same DNA adducts were also found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine. Since DHP-derived DNA adducts are suggested to be potential biomarkers of riddelliine-induced tumorigenicity, our results indicate that (i similar to the metabolic activation of riddelliine, the mechanism of retrorsine-induced carcinogenicity in rats is also through a genotoxic mechanism involving DHP; and (ii the set of DHP-derived DNA adducts found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine or riddelliine can serve as biomarkers for the

  5. Characterization of glycidol-hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of exposure and in vivo dose

    Honda, Hiroshi, E-mail: [R and D Safety Science Research, Kao Corporation, 2606 Akabane, Ichikai-Machi, Haga-Gun, Tochigi 321-3497 (Japan); Törnqvist, Margareta [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry Unit, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Nishiyama, Naohiro [R and D Safety Science Research, Kao Corporation, 2606 Akabane, Ichikai-Machi, Haga-Gun, Tochigi 321-3497 (Japan); Kasamatsu, Toshio, E-mail: [R and D Safety Science Research, Kao Corporation, 2606 Akabane, Ichikai-Machi, Haga-Gun, Tochigi 321-3497 (Japan)


    Hemoglobin adducts have been used as biomarkers of exposure to reactive chemicals. Glycidol, an animal carcinogen, has been reported to form N-(2,3-dihydroxy-propyl)valine adducts to hemoglobin (diHOPrVal). To support the use of these adducts as markers of glycidol exposure, we investigated the kinetics of diHOPrVal formation and its elimination in vitro and in vivo. Five groups of rats were orally administered a single dose of glycidol ranging from 0 to 75 mg/kg bw, and diHOPrVal levels were measured 24 h after administration. A dose-dependent increase in diHOPrVal levels was observed with high linearity (R{sup 2} = 0.943). Blood sampling at different time points (1, 10, 20, or 40 days) from four groups administered glycidol at 12 mg/kg bw suggested a linear decrease in diHOPrVal levels compatible with the normal turnover of rat erythrocytes (life span, 61 days), with the calculated first-order elimination rate constant (k{sub el}) indicating that the diHOPrVal adduct was chemically stable. Then, we measured the second-order rate constant (k{sub val}) for the reaction of glycidol with N-terminal valine in rat and human hemoglobin in in vitro experiments with whole blood. The k{sub val} was 6.7 ± 1.1 and 5.6 ± 1.3 (pmol/g globin per μMh) in rat and human blood, respectively, indicating no species differences. In vivo doses estimated from k{sub val} and diHOPrVal levels were in agreement with the area under the (concentration–time) curve values determined in our earlier toxicokinetic study in rats. Our results indicate that diHOPrVal is a useful biomarker for quantification of glycidol exposure and for risk assessment. - Highlight: • Glycidol-hemoglobin adduct (diHOPrVal) was characterized for exposure evaluation. • We studied the kinetics of diHOPrVal formation and elimination in vitro and in vivo. • Dose dependent formation and chemical stability were confirmed in the rat study. • In vivo dose (AUC) of glycidol could be estimated from diHOPrVal levels

  6. Separation and identification of DMPO adducts of oxygen-centered radicals formed from organic hydroperoxides by HPLC-ESR, ESI-MS and MS/MS.

    Guo, Qiong; Qian, Steven Y; Mason, Ronald P


    Many electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) radical adducts from the reaction of organic hydroperoxides with heme proteins or Fe(2+) were assigned to the adducts of DMPO with peroxyl, alkoxyl, and alkyl radicals. In particular, the controversial assignment of DMPO/peroxyl radical adducts was based on the close similarity of their ESR spectra to that of the DMPO/superoxide radical adduct in conjunction with their insensitivity to superoxide dismutase, which distinguishes the peroxyl adducts from the DMPO/superoxide adduct. Although recent reports assigned the spectra suggested to be DMPO/peroxyl radical adducts to the DMPO/methoxyl adduct based on independent synthesis of the adduct and/or (17)O-labeling, (17)O-labeling is extremely expensive, and both of these assignments were still based on hyperfine coupling constants, which have not been confirmed by independent techniques. In this study, we have used online high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC or LC)/ESR, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to separate and directly characterize DMPO oxygen-centered radical adducts formed from the reaction of Fe(2+) with t-butyl or cumene hydroperoxide. In each reaction system, two DMPO oxygen-centered radical adducts were separated and detected by online LC/ESR. The first DMPO radical adduct from both systems showed identical chromatographic retention times (t(R) = 9.6 min) and hyperfine coupling constants (a(N) = 14.51 G, a(H)(beta) = 10.71 G, and a(H)(gamma) = 1.32 G). The ESI-MS and MS/MS spectra demonstrated that this radical was the DMPO/methoxyl radical adduct, not the peroxyl radical adduct as was thought at one time, although its ESR spectrum is nearly identical to that of the DMPO/superoxide radical adduct. Similarly, based on their MS/MS spectra, we verified that the second adducts (a(N) = 14.86 G and a(H)(beta) = 16.06 G in the reaction system containing t

  7. (32)P-postlabelling analysis of 1,3-butadiene-induced DNA adducts in vivo and in vitro.

    Zhao, C; Koskinen, M; Hemminki, K


    Butadiene monoepoxide (BMO), epoxybutanediol (EBD) and diepoxybutane (DEB) are reactive metabolites of 1,3-butadiene (BD), an important industrial chemical classified as a probable human carcinogen. The covalent interactions of these metabolites with DNA lead to the formation of DNA adducts which may induce mutations or other types of DNA damage, resulting in tumour formation. In the present study, two pairs of diastereomeric N-1-BMO-adenine adducts were identified in the reaction of BMO with 2´-deoxyadenosine-5´-monophosphate (5´-dAMP). The major products formed by reacting EBD with 2´-deoxyguanosine-5´-monophosphate (5´-dGMP) were characterized as diastereomeric N-7-(2´,3´,4´-trihydroxybut-1´-yl)-5´-dGMP by UV and electrospray mass spectrometry. The formation of N-7-BMO-guanine adducts (1´-carbon, 60; 2´carbon, 54/10(4) nucleotides) in BMO-treated DNA was about four times higher than that of N-1-BMO-adenine adducts (1´-carbon, 20; 2´-carbon, 8.7/10(4) nucleotides). However, the recovery of N-1-BMO-adenine adducts in DNA (45 ± 5%) was two times higher than that of N-7-guanine adducts (20 ± 4%) by 32P-postlabelling analysis. Using the 32P-postlabelling/ HPLC assay, N-1-BMO-adenine, N-7-BMO-guanine and N-7-EBDguanine adducts were detected in BMO- or DEB-treated DNA and in liver DNA of rats exposed to BD by inhalation. The amount of N-7-EBD-guanine adducts (11/10(8) nucleotides) in rat liver was about three-fold higher than N-7-BMO-guanine adducts (4.0/10(8) nucleotides). The novel finding of N-1-BMO-adenine adducts formed in vivo may contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of BD carcinogenic action.

  8. Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution--comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress

    Autrup, H; Daneshvar, B; Dragsted, L O;


    Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts...... nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/ microg albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative...... correlations were observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adduct and PAH-albumin levels (p = 0.005), and between DNA adduct and [gamma]-glutamyl semialdehyde (GGS) in hemoglobin (p = 0.11). Highly significant correlations were found between PAH-albumin adducts and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and GGS in hemoglobin...

  9. Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution - Comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress

    Autrup, Herman; Daneshvar, Bahram; Dragsted, Lars Ove;


    Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts.......96 nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/mu g albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative...... correlations were observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adduct and PAM-albumin levels (p = 0.005), and between DNA adduct and gamma-glutamyl semialdehyde (GGS) in hemoglobin (p = 0.11). Highly significant correlations were found between PAM-albumin adducts and AAS in plasma (r = 0.001) and GGS in hemoglobin (p...

  10. Formation of covalent adducts between cortisol and 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone and protein: possible role in the pathogenesis of cortisol toxicity and systemic lupus erythematosus.


    The incubation of albumin with cortisol or 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone results in the formation of covalent steroid-protein adducts. The rate of adduct formation increases in the presence of sodium cyanoborohydride (NaCNBH3), indicating that the reaction proceeds nonenzymatically through a Schiff base intermediate. Under nonreducing conditions, a stable adduct forms with cortisol and 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone but not with estrone, which lacks a hydroxyl group adjacent to the reactive carbonyl. It i...

  11. Instability of the hindfoot after lesion of the lateral ankle ligaments: investigations of the anterior drawer and adduction maneuvers in autopsy specimens

    Kjaersgaard-Andersen, P.; Frich, Lars Henrik; Madsen, F.;


    instability in adduction, whereas further lesion to the CFL increased adduction in the entire range of flexion, with a maximum median of 14.2 degrees in dorsiflexion. The anterior drawer maneuver can reveal a combined lesion of the ATL and CFL if performed with the tibiotalocalcaneal joint complex...... in dorsiflexion. Significant clinical instability in adduction will only take place when a combined lesion of the ATL and CFL is present....

  12. Photochemical Reaction of 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA and Formation of DNA Covalent Adducts

    Peter P. Fu


    Full Text Available DMBA, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, is a widely studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that has long been recognized as a probable human carcinogen. It has been found that DMBA is phototoxic in bacteria as well as in animal or human cells and photomutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA102. This article tempts to explain the photochemistry and photomutagenicity mechanism. Light irradiation converts DMBA into several photoproducts including benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione, 7-hydroxy-12-keto-7-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 7,12-epidioxy-7,12-dihydro-DMBA, 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-hydroxymethyl-7-methylbenz[a]anthracene. Structures of these photoproducts have been identified by either comparison with authentic samples or by NMR/MS. At least four other photoproducts need to be assigned. Photo-irradiation of DMBA in the presence of calf thymus DNA was similarly conducted and light-induced DMBA-DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling/TLC, which indicates that multiple DNA adducts were formed. This indicates that formation of DNA adducts might be the source of photomutagenicity of DMBA. Metabolites obtained from the metabolism of DMBA by rat liver microsomes were reacted with calf thymus DNA and the resulting DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling/TLC under identical conditions. Comparison of the DNA adduct profiles indicates that the DNA adducts formed from photo-irradiation are different from the DNA adducts formed due to the reaction of DMBA metabolites with DNA. These results suggest that photo-irradiation of DMBA can lead to genotoxicity through activation pathways different from those by microsomal metabolism of DMBA.

  13. Aromatic DNA adducts and polymorphisms in metabolic genes in healthy adults: findings from the EPIC-Spain cohort.

    Agudo, Antonio; Peluso, Marco; Sala, Núria; Capellá, Gabriel; Munnia, Armelle; Piro, Sara; Marín, Fátima; Ibáñez, Raquel; Amiano, Pilar; Tormo, M José; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, M Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Larrañaga, Nerea; Martínez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Quirós, J Ramón; Sánchez, M José; González, Carlos A


    Aromatic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arylamines and heterocyclic amines require metabolic activation to form metabolites able to bind to DNA, a process mediated by polymorphic enzymes. We measured aromatic DNA adducts in white blood cells by the (32)P-post-labelling assay in a sample of 296 healthy adults (147 men and 149 women) from five regions of Spain. We also analyzed functional polymorphisms in the metabolic genes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2 and SULT1A1. A significant increased level of DNA aromatic adducts was found related to the fast oxidation-hydrolysis phenotype defined by the polymorphism I462V in CYP1A1, the allele A in IVS1-154C>A of CYP1A2 and the combination Tyrosine-Arginine for Y113H and H139R of EPHX1. Geometric means (adducts per 10(-9) normal nucleotides) were 2.17, 4.04 and 6.30 for slow, normal and fast phenotypes, respectively (P-trend = 0.01). Slow acetylation by NAT2 was associated with a significant decrease in adduct level; subjects with slow alleles *5A and *7A/B had in average 1.56 x 10(-9)adducts, as compared with 5.60 for those with normal NAT2 activity (P-value = 0.01). No association was seen with polymorphisms of other metabolic genes such as GSTM1, GSTT1 or SULT1A1. We concluded that the metabolic pathways of oxidation, hydrolysis and acetylation are relevant to the formation of bulky DNA adducts. This could suggest a potential involvement of aromatic compounds in the formation of such adducts; however, given lack of specificity of the post-labeling assay, a firm conclusion cannot be drawn.

  14. Glutathione adduct of methylmercury activates the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Yoshida, Eiko; Abiko, Yumi; Kumagai, Yoshito


    Methylmercury (MeHg) reacts readily with GSH, leading to the formation of a MeHg-SG adduct that is excreted into extracellular space through multidrug-resistance-associated protein (MRP), which is regulated by the transcription factor Nrf2. We previously reported that MeHg covalently modifies Keap1 and activates Nrf2 in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In the study presented here, we examined whether the MeHg-SG adduct could also modulate the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway because the formation of the Hg-S bond is believed to be reversible in the presence of a nucleophile. SH-SY5Y cells exposed to the synthetic ethyl monoester of the MeHg-SG adduct (which is hydrolyzed by cellular esterase(s) to give the MeHg-SG adduct) exhibited a concentration-dependent cellular toxicity that was enhanced by pretreatment with a specific MRP inhibitor. As expected, the MeHg-SG adduct was able to modify cellular proteins in the SH-SY5Y cells and purified Keap1. We also found that this prodrug, as well as MeHg, causes the cellular Keap1 in the cells to be modified, resulting in Nrf2 activation and, thereby, the upregulation of the downstream genes. These results suggest that the MeHg-SG adduct is not electrophilic but that it modifies protein thiols (including Keap1) through S-transmercuration and that rapid Nrf2-dependent excretion of the MeHg-SG adduct is essential in decreasing the cytotoxicity of MeHg.

  15. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells

    Ganesan, Shanthi, E-mail:; Keating, Aileen F., E-mail:


    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability was reduced (P < 0.05) after 48 h of exposure to 3 or 6 μM PM. The NOR-G-OH DNA adduct was detected after 24 h of 6 μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48 h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response. - Highlights: • PM forms ovarian DNA adducts. • DNA damage marker γH2AX increased by PM exposure. • PM induces ovarian DNA double strand break repair.

  16. Detection of human butyrylcholinesterase-nerve gas adducts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis after in gel chymotryptic digestion.

    Tsuge, Kouichiro; Seto, Yasuo


    To verify the exposure to nerve gas, a method for detecting human butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE)-nerve gas adduct was developed using LC-electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Purified human serum BuChE was incubated with sarin, soman or VX, and the adduct was purified by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and digested in gel by treatment with chymotrypsin. The resulting peptide mixture was subjected to LC-ESI-MS. From the chymotryptic digest of untreated human BuChE, one peak corresponding to the peptide fragment containing the active center serine residue was detected on the extracted ion chromatogram at m/z 948.5, and the sequence was ascertained to be "GESAGAASVSL" by MS/MS analysis. From the chymotryptic digest of the human BuChE-sarin adduct, a singly charged peptide peak was detected on the extracted ion chromatogram at m/z 1,069.5, and the sequence was ascertained to be "GEXAGAASVSL" by MS/MS analysis (X denotes isopropylmethylphosphonylated serine). The difference in molecular weight (120.0 Da) between the active center peptide fragments corresponding to the untreated BuChE and BuChE-sarin adduct was assumed to be derived from the addition of an isopropyl methylphosphonyl moiety to the serine residue. The formation of human BuChE adducts with soman, VX and an aged soman adduct was confirmed by detecting the respective active center peptide fragments using LC-ESI-MS. To apply the established method to an actual biological sample, human serum was incubated with VX, and the adduct was purified by procainamide affinity chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE. After chymotryptic in gel digestion, the ethylphosphonylated active center peptide fragment could be detected, and the structure of the residue was ascertained by LC-ESI-MS analysis.

  17. Contributions of aryl hydrocarbon receptor genetic variants to the risk of glioma and PAH-DNA adducts.

    Gu, Aihua; Ji, Guixiang; Jiang, Tao; Lu, Ailin; You, Yongping; Liu, Ning; Luo, Chengzhang; Yan, Wei; Zhao, Peng


    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene is involved in the response to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure. To investigate the hypothesis that the genetic variants in the AHR gene might be a causal genetic susceptibility to PAH-DNA adduct formation and glioma risk, we conducted a case-control study of 384 glioma cases and 384 cancer-free controls to explore the association between six common single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the AHR gene and glioma risk. Using PAH-DNA adducts as biomarkers, we then evaluated the association between PAH-DNA adduct levels and glioma risk based on a tissue microarray including 11 controls and 77 glioma patients. We further explored the contributions of the glioma risk-associated AHR polymorphisms to the levels of PAH-DNA adducts in glioma tissues based on 77 glioma patients. We found that PAH-DNA adduct staining existed in normal brain tissues and grades I-IV gliomas, and the staining intensity was significantly associated with the glioma grade. Two AHR polymorphisms (rs2066853 and rs2158041) demonstrated significant association with glioma risk. Intriguingly, we also found statistically significant associations between these two variants and PAH-DNA adduct levels in glioma tissue. These data suggest the contributions of AHR rs2066853 and rs2158041 to glioma risk and the PAH-DNA adduct levels, which shed new light on gene-environment interactions in the etiology of glioma. Further studies with a larger sample size and ethnically diverse populations are required to elucidate the potential biological mechanism for, as well as the impact of, the susceptibility to glioma due to genetic variants of AHR.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of the Adducts of Morpholinedithioccarbamate Complexes of Oxovanadium (IV, Nickel(II, and Copper(II with Piperidine and Morpholine

    Mousami Sharma


    Full Text Available A series of 1:1 adducts of bis(morpholinedithiocarbamato complex of VO(IV, 1:1 and 1:2 adducts of bis(morpholinedithiocarbamato complexes of Ni(II and Cu(II with piperidine and morpholine have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, IR, UV-Vis, and TGA/DTA techniques. Analytical data reveals that VO(IV complex forms only 1:1 adducts with the formula [VO(morphdtc2L].H2O while Ni(II and Cu(II complexes form both 1:1 and 1:2 adducts with 1:1 adducts having general formula Ni(morphdtc2.L and Cu(morphdtc2.L and 1:2 adducts having general formula Ni(morphdtc2.L2 and Cu(morphdtc2.L2 (morphdtc = morpholinedithiocarbamate, L = morpholine and piperidine. Antifungal activity of some complexes has been carried out against the fungal strain Fusarium oxysporium. Thermal studies indicate a continuous weight loss. A square pyramidal geometry has been proposed for the 1:1 adducts of Ni(II and Cu(II complexes while an octahedral geometry has been proposed for the 1:1 adducts of VO(IV and for the 1:2 adducts of Ni(II and Cu(II complexes.

  19. Kinetics and mechanism of the reaction of OH with the trimethylbenzenes--experimental evidence for the formation of adduct isomers.

    Bohn, Birger; Zetzsch, Cornelius


    The reversible gas-phase addition of OH radicals to the trimethylbenzenes was investigated in pulsed experiments utilizing VUV flash-photolysis resonance-fluorescence of H(2)O in the temperature range of 275-340 K. Triexponential OH decays were observed in the presence of the trimethylbenzenes, indicating the participation of more than one adduct species. Analytical solutions for the system of differential equations with two adduct isomers were derived, and the OH decay curves were evaluated based on this reaction model. This led to significant improvements of fit qualities and notable changes in OH rate constants compared to a previous model with a single adduct species. The detailed analysis was confined to 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene where reversible formation of two OH-aromatic ortho- and ipso-adduct isomers is feasible in accordance with the extended reaction model. Only after inclusion of additional isomerization reactions, consistent thermochemical data were obtained from the fitted rate constants. Reaction enthalpies of -83 ± 7 kJ mol(-1) and -35 ± 22 kJ mol(-1) were derived for the formation of one adduct isomer and the isomerization into the other, respectively. Based on literature data, the more and less stable adducts were assigned to ipso- and ortho-adduct isomers, respectively. The potential isomerization precluded the determination of primary yields of adduct isomers but formation of the ipso-adduct in any case is a minor process. For the rate constants of the OH + 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene reaction an Arrhenius expression k(OH) = 1.32 × 10(-11) cm(3) s(-1) exp(450 ± 50 K/T) was obtained. Based on the same approach, the rate constants of the OH reactions with 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were derived as k(OH) = 3.61 × 10(-12) cm(3) s(-1) exp(620 ± 80 K/T) and k(OH) = 2.73 × 10(-12) cm(3) s(-1) exp(730 ± 70 K/T), respectively.

  20. Photoinduced charge transfer in donor-acceptor (DA) copolymer: fullerene bis-adduct polymer solar cells.

    Kang, Tae Eui; Cho, Han-Hee; Cho, Chul-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kang, Hyunbum; Lee, Myounghee; Lee, Sunae; Kim, Bongsoo; Im, Chan; Kim, Bumjoon J


    Polymer solar cells (PSCs) consisting of fullerene bis-adduct and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) blends have shown higher efficiencies than P3HT:phenyl C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) devices, because of the high-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level of the fullerene bis-adducts. In contrast, the use of fullerene bis-adducts in donor-acceptor (DA) copolymer systems typically causes a decrease in the device's performance due to the decreased short-circuit current (J(SC)) and the fill factor (FF). However, the reason for such poor performance in DA copolymer:fullerene bis-adduct blends is not fully understood. In this work, bulk-heterojunction (BHJ)-type PSCs composed of three different electron donors with four different electron acceptors were chosen and compared. The three electron donors were (1) poly[(4,8-bis-(2-ethylhexyloxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene)-2,6-diyl-alt-(5-octylthieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione)-1,3-diyl] (PBDTTPD), (2) poly[(4,8-bis-(2-ethylhexyloxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene)-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexanoyl)-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene)-2,6-diyl] (PBDTTT-C), and (3) P3HT polymers. The four electron acceptors were (1) PCBM, (2) indene-C(60) monoadduct (ICMA), (3) indene-C(60) bis-adduct (ICBA), and (4) indene-C(60) tris-adduct (ICTA). To understand the difference in the performance of BHJ-type PSCs for the three different polymers in terms of the choice of fullerene acceptor, the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the blends were measured by the external quantum efficiency (EQE), photoluminescence, grazing incidence X-ray scattering, and transient absorption spectroscopy. We observed that while the molecular packing and optical properties cannot be the main reasons for the dramatic decrease in the PCE of the DA copolymers and ICBA, the value of the driving force for charge transfer (ΔG(CT)) is a key parameter for determining the change in J(SC) and device efficiency in the DA copolymer- and P3HT-based PSCs in

  1. Determination of DNA adducts by combining acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and chromatographic analysis of the carcinogen-modified nucleobases.

    Leung, Elvis M K; Deng, Kailin; Wong, Tin-Yan; Chan, Wan


    The commonly used method of analyzing carcinogen-induced DNA adducts involves the hydrolysis of carcinogen-modified DNA samples by using a mixture of enzymes, followed by (32)P-postlabeling or liquid chromatography (LC)-based analyses of carcinogen-modified mononucleotides/nucleosides. In the present study, we report the development and application of a new approach to DNA adduct analysis by combining the H(+)/heat-catalyzed release of carcinogen-modified nucleobases and the use of LC-based methods to analyze DNA adducts. Results showed that heating the carcinogen-modified DNA samples at 70 °C for an extended period of 4 to 6 h in the presence of 0.05% HCl can efficiently induce DNA depurination, releasing the intact carcinogen-modified nucleobases for LC analyses. After optimizing the hydrolysis conditions, DNA samples with C8- and N (2) -modified 2'-deoxyguanosine, as well as N (6) -modified 2'-deoxyadenosine, were synthesized by reacting DNA with 1-nitropyrene, acetaldehyde, and aristolochic acids, respectively. These samples were then hydrolyzed, and the released nucleobase adducts were analyzed using LC-based analytical methods. Analysis results demonstrated a dose-dependent release of target DNA adducts from carcinogen-modified DNA samples, indicating that the developed H(+)/heat-catalyzed hydrolysis method was quantitative. Comparative studies with enzymatic digestion method on carcinogen-modified DNA samples revealed that the two hydrolysis methods did not yield systematically different results.

  2. Biomonitoring of diesel exhaust-exposed workers. DNA and hemoglobin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as markers of exposure

    Nielsen, Per Sabro; Andreassen, Åshild; Farmer, Peter B.;


    Diesel exhaust-exposed workers have been shown to have an increased risk of lung cancer. A battery of biomarkers were evaluated for their ability to assess differences in exposure to genotoxic compounds in bus garage workers and mechanics and controls. Lymphocyte DNA adducts were analyzed using...... the 32P-postlabelling method with butanol and P1 enrichment procedures. Hydroxyethylvaline (HOEtVal) adducts in hemoglobin were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 1-hydroxypyrene (HPU) in urine determined using HPLC analysis. The exposed workers had significantly higher levels...... of all three biomarkers compared to the controls. Total DNA adduct levels were 0.84 fmol/micrograms DNA vs 0.26 in controls (butanol) and 0.65 fmol/micrograms DNA vs. 0.08 (P1 nuclease). Median HOEtVal adduct level in exposed workers was 33.3 pmol/g hemoglobin vs. 22.1 in controls. HOEtVal adducts...

  3. Neighborhood socioeconomic status modifies the association between individual smoking status and PAH-DNA adduct levels in prostate tissue.

    Rundle, Andrew; Richards, Catherine; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Tang, Deliang; Rybicki, Benjamin A


    Interactions between smoking and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (SES) as risk factors for higher polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) DNA adduct levels in prostate tissue were investigated. PAH-DNA adducts were measured by immunohistochemistry with staining intensity measured in optical density units by semiquantitative absorbance image analysis in tumor adjacent tissue from 400 prostatectomy specimens from the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit. For each subject, their U.S. Census tract of residence was classified as being of higher or lower SES using the median value of the distribution of the proportion of tract residents with a high-school education. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess interactions between neighborhood-level SES and smoking status, adjusting for race, age, education level, tumor volume, primary Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis. There was a statistical interaction (P = 0.004) between tract-level SES and smoking status. In lower SES tracts smoking status was not associated with adduct staining, but in higher SES tracts adduct staining intensity was 13% (P = 0.01) higher in ever-smokers as compared to never-smokers. Among never-smokers, living in a lower SES tract was associated with a 25% higher mean staining intensity (P adduct levels in prostate tissue.

  4. Cysteine amide adduct formation from carboxylic acid drugs via UGT-mediated bioactivation in human liver microsomes.

    Harada, H; Toyoda, Y; Endo, T; Kobayashi, M


    Although chemical trapping has been widely used to evaluate cytochrome P450-mediated drug bioactivation, thus far, only a few in vitro-trapping studies have been performed on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)-mediated drug bioactivation. In this study, we used cysteine (Cys) as trapping agent to gain new insights into the UGT-mediated bioactivation involving acyl glucuronides of carboxylic acid drugs. Diclofenac, ketoprofen and ibuprofen were incubated in human liver microsomes with UDPGA and Cys, followed by analysis using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS). The N-acyl-Cys amide adduct of diclofenac was characterized by mass analysis and was detectable even in photodiode array analysis. Our data indicated that the formation of such adducts reflects the reactivity of the corresponding acyl glucuronides. In addition, it was suggested that the adduct formation requires an N-terminal Cys moiety with both a free amine and a free thiol group, from the results using various cysteine derivatives. We propose that the S-acyl-Cys thioester adduct can form via transacylation of an acyl glucuronide and can then form to an N-acyl-Cys amide adduct through intramolecular S- to N-acyl rearrangement. This series of the reactions has important implications as a possible bioactivation mechanism for covalent binding of carboxylic acid drugs to macromolecules.

  5. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells.

    Ganesan, Shanthi; Keating, Aileen F


    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6μM) for 24 or 48h. Cell viability was reduced (Padduct was detected after 24h of 6μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response.

  6. Safrole-DNA adducts in tissues from esophageal cancer patients: clues to areca-related esophageal carcinogenesis.

    Lee, Jang-Ming; Liu, Tsung-Yung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Tang, Hseau-Chung; Leh, Julie; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Hsu, Hsao-Hsun; Huang, Pei-Ming; Chen, Jin-Shing; Lee, Chun-Jean; Lee, Yung-Chie


    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that areca quid chewing can be an independent risk factor for developing esophageal cancer. However, no studies are available to elucidate the mechanisms of how areca induces carcinogenesis in the esophagus. Since the areca nut in Taiwan contains a high concentration of safrole, a well-known carcinogenic agent, we analyzed safrole-DNA adducts by the 32P-postlabelling method in tissue specimens from esophageal cancer patients. In total, we evaluated 47 patients with esophageal cancer (16 areca chewers and 31 non-chewers) who underwent esophagectomy at the National Taiwan University Hospital between 1996 and 2002. Of the individuals with a history of habitual areca chewing (14 cigarette smokers and two non-smokers), one of the tumor tissue samples and five of the normal esophageal mucosa samples were positive for safrole-DNA adducts. All patients positive for safrole-DNA adducts were also cigarette smokers. Such adducts could not be found in patients who did not chew areca, irrespective of their habits of alcohol consumption or cigarette smoking (psafrole was also tested in vitro in three esophageal cell lines and four cultures of primary esophageal keratinocytes. In two of the esophageal keratinocyte cultures, adduct formation was increased by treatment with safrole after induction of cytochrome P450 by 3-methyl-cholanthrene. This paper provides the first observation of how areca induces esophageal carcinogenesis, i.e., through the genotoxicity of safrole, a component of the areca juice.

  7. A new general pathway for synthesis of reference compounds of N-terminal valine-isocyanate adducts.

    Davies, Ronnie; Rydberg, Per; Westberg, Emelie; Motwani, Hitesh V; Johnstone, Erik; Törnqvist, Margareta


    Adducts to Hb could be used as biomarkers to monitor exposure to isocyanates. Particularly useful is the measurement of carbamoylation of N-terminal valines in Hb, after detachment as hydantoins. The synthesis of references from the reactive isocyanates, especially diisocyanates, has been problematic due to side reactions and polymerization of the isocyanate starting material. A simpler, safer, and more general method for the synthesis of valine adducts of isocyanates has been developed using N-[(4-nitrophenyl)carbamate]valine methylamide (NPCVMA) as the key precursor to adducts of various mono- and diisocyanates of interest. By reacting NPCVMA with a range of isocyanate-related amines, carbamoylated valines are formed without the use of the reactive isocyanates. The carbamoylated products synthesized here were cyclized with good yields of the formed hydantoins. The carbamoylated derivative from phenyl isocyanate also showed quantitative yield in a test with cyclization under the conditions used in blood. This new pathway for the preparation of N-carbamoylated model compounds overcomes the above-mentioned problems in the synthesis and is a general and simplified approach, which could make such reference compounds of adducts to N-terminal valine from isocyanates accessible for biomonitoring purposes. The synthesized hydantoins corresponding to adducts from isocyanic acid, methyl isocyanate, phenyl isocyanate, and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate were characterized by LC-MS analysis. The background level of the hydantoin from isocyanic acid in human blood was analyzed with the LC-MS conditions developed.

  8. Specific adducts formed through a radical reaction between peptides and contact allergenic hydroperoxides.

    Redeby, Theres; Nilsson, Ulrika; Altamore, Timothy M; Ilag, Leopold; Ambrosi, Annalisa; Broo, Kerstin; Börje, Anna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese


    The first step in the development of contact allergy (allergic contact dermatitis) includes the penetration of an allergy-causing chemical (hapten) into the skin, where it binds to macromolecules such as proteins. The protein-hapten adduct is then recognized by the immune system as foreign to the body. For hydroperoxides, no relevant hapten target proteins or protein-hapten adducts have so far been identified. In this work, bovine insulin and human angiotensin I were used as model peptides to investigate the haptenation mechanism of three hydroperoxide haptens: (5R)-5-isopropenyl-2-methyl-2-cyclohexene-1-hydroperoxide (Lim-2-OOH), cumene hydroperoxide (CumOOH), and 1-(1-hydroperoxy-1-methylethyl) cyclohexene (CycHexOOH). These hydroperoxides are expected to react via a radical mechanism, for which 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine iron(III) chloride (Fe(III)TPPCl) was used as a radical initiator. The reactions were carried out in 1:1 ethanol/10 mM ammonium acetate buffer pH 7.4, for 3 h at 37 degrees C, and the reaction products were either enzymatically digested or analyzed directly by MALDI/TOF-MS, HPLC/MS/MS, and 2D gel electrophoresis. Both hydroperoxide-specific and unspecific reaction products were detected, but only in the presence of the iron catalyst. In the absence of catalyst, the hydroperoxides remained unreacted. This suggests that the hydroperoxides can enter into the skin and remain inert until activated. Through the detection of a Lim-2-OOH adduct bound at the first histidine (of two) of angiotensin I, it was confirmed that hydroperoxides have the potential to form specific antigens in contact allergy.

  9. Detection of acrolein-derived cyclic DNA adducts in human cells by monoclonal antibodies.

    Pan, Jishen; Awoyemi, Bisola; Xuan, Zhuoli; Vohra, Priya; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Dyba, Marcin; Greenspan, Emily; Fu, Ying; Creswell, Karen; Zhang, Lihua; Berry, Deborah; Tang, Moon-Shong; Chung, Fung-Lung


    Acrolein (Acr) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant found in cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust. It can also be produced endogenously by oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The Acr-derived 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine (Acr-dG) adducts in DNA are mutagenic lesions that are potentially involved in human cancers. In this study, monoclonal antibodies were raised against Acr-dG adducts and characterized using ELISA. They showed strong reactivity and specificity toward Acr-dG, weaker reactivity toward crotonaldehyde- and trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-derived 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosines, and weak or no reactivity toward 1,N(6)-ethenodeoxyadenosine and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine. Using these antibodies, we developed assays to detect Acr-dG in vivo: first, a simple and quick FACS-based assay for detecting these adducts directly in cells; second, a highly sensitive direct ELISA assay for measuring Acr-dG in cells and tissues using only 1 μg of DNA without DNA digestion and sample enrichment; and third, a competitive ELISA for better quantitative measurement of Acr-dG levels in DNA samples. The assays were validated using Acr-treated HT29 cell DNA samples or calf thymus DNA, and the results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS-MRM. An immunohistochemical assay was also developed to detect and visualize Acr-dG in HT29 cells as well as in human oral cells. These antibody-based methods provide useful tools for the studies of Acr-dG as a cancer biomarker and of the molecular mechanisms by which cells respond to Acr-dG as a ubiquitous DNA lesion.

  10. Polymerase Bypass of N6-Deoxyadenosine Adducts Derived from Epoxide Metabolites of 1,3-Butadiene

    Kotapati, Srikanth; Wickramaratne, Susith; Esades, Amanda; Boldry, Emily J.; Dorr, Danae Quirk; Pence, Matthew G.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Tretyakova, Natalia Y.


    N 6-(2-Hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-2′-deoxyadenosine (N6-HB-dA I) and N6,N6-(2,3-dihydroxybutan-1,4-diyl)-2′-deoxyadenosine (N6,N6-DHB-dA) are exocyclic DNA adducts formed upon alkylation of the N6 position of adenine in DNA by epoxide metabolites of 1,3-butadiene (BD), a common industrial and environmental chemical classified as a human and animal carcinogen. Since the N6-H atom of adenine is required for Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding with thymine, N6-alkylation can prevent adenine from normal pairing with thymine, potentially compromising the accuracy of DNA replication. To evaluate the ability of BD-derived N6-alkyladenine lesions to induce mutations, synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing site-specific (S)-N6-HB-dA I and (R,R)-N6,N6-DHB-dA adducts were subjected to in vitro translesion synthesis in the presence of human DNA polymerases β, η, ι, and κ. While (S)-N6-HB-dA I was readily bypassed by all four enzymes, only polymerases η and κ were able to carry out DNA synthesis past (R,R)-N6,N6-DHB-dA. Steady-state kinetic analyses indicated that all four DNA polymerases preferentially incorporated the correct base (T) opposite (S)-N6-HB-dA I. In contrast, hPol β was completely blocked by (R,R)-N6,N6-DHB-dA, while hPol η and κ inserted A, G, C, or T opposite the adduct with similar frequency. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of primer extension products confirmed that while translesion synthesis past (S)-N6-HB-dA I was mostly error-free, replication of DNA containing (R,R)-N6,N6-DHB-dA induced significant numbers of A, C, and G insertions and small deletions. These results indicate that singly substituted (S)-N6-HB-dA I lesions are not miscoding, but exocyclic (R,R)-N6,N6-DHB-dA adducts are strongly mispairing, probably due to their inability to form stable Watson-Crick pairs with dT. PMID:26098310

  11. Preparation of SRN1-type coupling adducts from aliphatic gem-dinitro compounds in ionic liquids.

    Kamimura, Akio; Toyoshima, Seiichi


    S(RN)1-type coupling adducts are readily prepared by the reaction between a-sulfonylesters or a-cyanosulfones and gem-dinitro compounds in ionic liquids. The reactions progress smoothly and recovered ionic liquids can be used for several iterations, as long as they are washed with water to remove alkali metallic salts. The reaction rate is slower than the corresponding S(RN)1 reaction in DMSO, but no acceleration on irradiation or no inhibition in the presence of m-DNB are observed.

  12. Insight on mendable resin made by combining Diels-Alder epoxy adducts with DGEBA

    Dello Iacono, S.; Martone, A.; Filippone, G.; Acierno, D.; Zarrelli, M.; Giordano, M.; Amendola, E.


    Formation of micro-cracks is a critical problem in polymers and polymer composites during their service in structural applications. In this context, materials endowed with self-healing features would lead to the next polymers generation. In the present paper, an epoxy system integrating Diels-Alder epoxy adducts is investigated by thermal and spectroscopic analysis. The direct and retro D-A reaction have been studied by FTIR and specific absorption bands have been identified. Finally, mechanical tests have been performed on the system. The polymer is able to heal fracture and micro-cracks recovering its stiffness after a thermal treatment.

  13. Chalcone-derived Diels-Alder adducts as NF-κB inhibitors from Morus alba.

    Phung, Thi Xuan Binh; Tran, Thi Hong Hanh; Dan, Thi Thuy Hang; Chau, Van Minh; Hoang, Thanh Huong; Nguyen, Tien Dat


    A bioassay-guided phytochemical fractionation of the methanol extract of the Morus alba root barks led to the isolation of two chalcone-derived Diels-Alder adducts (1 and 2). Their structures were elucidated as kuwanon J 2,4,10″-trimethyl ether (1) and kuwanon R (2) by means of spectroscopic methods. Both compounds strongly inhibited nuclear transcription factor.κB activity with the IC₅₀ values of 4.65 and 7.38 μM, respectively.

  14. Growth and characterization of an adduct 4-aminobenzoic acid with nicotinic acid

    Anandhi, S.; Rajalakshmi, M.; Shyju, T. S.; Gopalakrishnan, R.


    Synthesis, crystal growth of an adduct 2:1 4-aminobenzoic acid-nicotinic acid (AMN) and characterization are reported. The crystallographic data of the title compound are obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The optical absorbance spectrum from 200 to 2250 nm shows the cutoff occurs at 490 nm. Thermal analysis carried out reveals the melting point and thermal stability of the grown crystal. Dielectric studies were carried out at different temperatures and frequencies. Vicker's microhardness test was performed to analyze the mechanical strength of the grown specimen. The grown features were analyzed by chemical etching.

  15. Conformational Preferences and the Phase Stability of Fullerene Hexa-adducts.

    Wu, San-Lien; Hong, Chen-Yang; Wu, Kuan-Yi; Lan, Shih-Ting; Hsieh, Chou-Ting; Chen, Hsin-Lung; Wang, Chien-Lung


    Molecular conformation and the assembly structure determine the spatial arrangements of the constituent units and the functions of a molecule. Although, fullerene hexa-adducts (FHAs) have been known as functional materials with great versatility, their conformational preferences and phase stability remain a complicate issue. By choosing bithiophene (T2 ) and dodecyl bithiophene (C12 T2 ) as the peripheral units of FHA, and using microscopic, scattering and diffraction characterizations, our study reveals how the intramolecular interaction and environmental stimulus affects the conformational preferences and phase stability of FHAs.

  16. Strong Room-Temperature Photoluminescence from the Novel Adduct of C60 with Aliphatic Amines


    Strong room-temperature photoluminescence from the adducts of C60 reacting with five different aliphatic amines, namely propylethylamine (PPA), n-butyl amine (BTA), n-heptylamine (HPA) and dodecylamine (DDA) and diethylamine (DEA), was firstly found from their toluene solution at relatively shorter wavelength around 519 nm.The fluorescence intensity has a good correlation with the length of n-alkyl group chain, the steric position and concentration of different amines and setting of solution as well as the UV-radiation. Their fluorescence quenching by concentration and by aromatic electron-donor N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) were first investigated and determined.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Ester from Rosin Acrylic Acid Adduct and Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate

    C.L.Yu; F.A.Zhang


    1 Results Rosin is a sort of important renewable resources,which is a foremost product of our country forestry. It has very important meaning to modify the rosin based on its molecule structure and active group, to develop some deep processing products, and to endure with rosin new characteristic[1]. This work uses the rosin and acrylic acid to form rosin adduct, and then reacted with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) to form ester under the different condition. The effect of different ratios with the ...

  18. Chlorabietols A-C, Phloroglucinol-Diterpene Adducts from the Chloranthaceae Plant Chloranthus oldhamii.

    Xiong, Juan; Hong, Zhi-Lai; Gao, Li-Xin; Shen, Jie; Liu, Shu-Ting; Yang, Guo-Xun; Li, Jia; Zeng, Huaqiang; Hu, Jin-Feng


    Three unprecedented phloroglucinol-diterpene adducts, chlorabietols A-C (1-3), were isolated from the roots of the rare Chloranthaceae plant Chloranthus oldhamii. They represent a new class of compounds, featuring an abietane-type diterpenoid coupled with different alkenyl phloroglucinol units by forming a 2,3-dihydrofuran ring. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis, molecular modeling studies, and electronic circular dichroism calculations. Compounds 1-3 showed inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with IC50 values of 12.6, 5.3, and 4.9 μM, respectively.

  19. Theoretical study on the molecular and crystal structures of nitrogen trifluoride and it's adduct with BF3

    Hongchen Du


    The molecular and crystal structure of the adduct NF3·BF3 was studied computationally using density functional theory. It shows that the adduct exists in the form of a complex but is not ionic. The heats of formation in the gas and the condensed phase of the adduct are −1266.09 and −1276.37 kJ·mol−1, respectively, which indicates that it is stable under atmospheric conditions. The crystal form belongs to 21/ space group. The calculated large band gap ( g) of the crystal proves that it is stable. The conduction band (LUCO) is mainly contributed by the orbital of N atom and the valence band (HOCO) from the orbital of F atom.

  20. Myeloperoxidase - 463A variant reduces benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide DNA adducts in skin of coal tar treated patients

    Rojas, M.; Godschalk, R.; Alexandrov, K.; Cascorbi, I.; Kriek, E.; Ostertag, J.; Van Schooten, F.J.; Bartsch, H. [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Div. of Toxicology & Cancer Risk Factors


    The skin of atopic dermatitis patients provides an excellent model to study the role of inflammation in benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) activation, since these individuals are often topically treated with ointments containing high concentrations of BaP. The authors determined, by HPLC with fluorescence detection, the BaP diol epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adduct levels in human skin after topical treatment with coal tar and their modulation by the -453G into A myeloperoxidase (MPO) polymorphism, which reduces MPO mRNA expression. The data show for the first time: (i) the in vivo formation of BPDE-DNA adducts in human skin treated with coal tar; (ii) that the MPO-463AA/AG genotype reduced BPDE-DNA adduct levels in human skin.

  1. Efficient CO2 capture by tertiary amine-functionalized ionic liquids through Li(+)-stabilized zwitterionic adduct formation.

    Yang, Zhen-Zhen; He, Liang-Nian


    Highly efficient CO2 absorption was realized through formation of zwitterionic adducts, combining synthetic strategies to ionic liquids (ILs) and coordination. The essence of our strategy is to make use of multidentate cation coordination between Li(+) and an organic base. Also PEG-functionalized organic bases were employed to enhance the CO2-philicity. The ILs were reacted with CO2 to form the zwitterionic adduct. Coordination effects between various lithium salts and neutral ligands, as well as the CO2 capacity of the chelated ILs obtained were investigated. For example, the CO2 capacity of PEG150MeBu2N increased steadily from 0.10 to 0.66 (mol CO2 absorbed per mol of base) through the formation of zwitterionic adducts being stabilized by Li(+).

  2. Genotoxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids — Mechanisms Leading to DNA Adduct Formation and Tumorigenicity

    Ming W. Chou


    Full Text Available Abstract: Plants that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids are widely distributed in the world. Although pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been shown to be genotoxic and tumorigenic in experimental animals, the mechanisms of actions have not been fully understood. The results of our recent mechanistic studies suggest that pyrrolizidine alkaloids induce tumors via a genotoxic mechanism mediated by 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5Hpyrrolizine (DHP-derived DNA adduct formation. This mechanism may be general to most carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, including the retronecine-, heliotridine-, and otonecinetype pyrrolizidine alkaloids. It is hypothesized that these DHP-derived DNA adducts are potential biomarkers of pyrrolizidine alkaloid tumorigenicity. The mechanisms that involve the formation of DNA cross-linking and endogenous DNA adducts are also discussed.

  3. Characterization of isomeric VX nerve agent adducts on albumin in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Saeidian, Hamid; Mirkhani, Valioallah; Mousavi Faraz, Sajjad; Taghi Naseri, Mohammad; Babri, Mehran


    This study includes the characterization of isomeric VX organophosphorus adducts on albumin in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). VX or its structural isomers were spiked into a vial containing plasma in order to obtain phosphorylated albumin. After pronase and trypsin digestion, the resulting solutions were analyzed to confirm adduct formation with the amino acid tyrosine on the albumin in human plasma. The LC-MS/MS experiments show that VX and its isomers can be attached to tyrosine on the albumin in human blood. Mass spectrometric studies revealed some interesting fragmentation pathways during the ionization process, such as ethylene, formic acid and ammonia elimination and an intermolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. The proposed mechanisms for the formation of the fragments were confirmed through the analysis of fragments of deuterated adducts.

  4. Benzene-derived N2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-deoxyguanosine adduct: UvrABC incision and its conformation in DNA

    Hang, Bo; Rodriguez, Ben; Yang, Yanu; Guliaev, Anton B.; Chenna, Ahmed


    Benzene, a ubiquitous human carcinogen, forms DNA adducts through its metabolites such as p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) and hydroquinone (HQ). N(2)-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-4-HOPh-dG) is the principal adduct identified in vivo by (32)P-postlabeling in cells or animals treated with p-BQ or HQ. To study its effect on repair specificity and replication fidelity, we recently synthesized defined oligonucleotides containing a site-specific adduct using phosphoramidite chemistry. We here report the repair of this adduct by Escherichia coli UvrABC complex, which performs the initial damage recognition and incision steps in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. We first showed that the p-BQ-treated plasmid was efficiently cleaved by the complex, indicating the formation of DNA lesions that are substrates for NER. Using a 40-mer substrate, we found that UvrABC incises the DNA strand containing N(2)-4-HOPh-dG in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The specificity of such repair was also compared with that of DNA glycosylases and damage-specific endonucleases of E. coli, both of which were found to have no detectable activity toward N(2)-4-HOPh-dG. To understand why this adduct is specifically recognized and processed by UvrABC, molecular modeling studies were performed. Analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories showed that stable G:C-like hydrogen bonding patterns of all three Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds are present within the N(2)-4-HOPh-G:C base pair, with the hydroxyphenyl ring at an almost planar position. In addition, N(2)-4-HOPh-dG has a tendency to form more stable stacking interactions than a normal G in B-type DNA. These conformational properties may be critical in differential recognition of this adduct by specific repair enzymes.

  5. A physiologically based in silico model for trans-2-hexenal detoxification and DNA adduct formation in rat.

    Kiwamoto, Reiko; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Punt, Ans


    trans-2-Hexenal (2-hexenal) is an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde that occurs naturally in a wide range of fruits, vegetables, and spices. 2-Hexenal as well as other α,β-unsaturated aldehydes that are natural food constituents or flavoring agents may raise a concern for genotoxicity due to the ability of the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety to react with DNA. Controversy remains, however, on whether α,β-unsaturated aldehydes result in significant DNA adduct formation in vivo at realistic dietary exposure. In this study, a rat physiologically based in silico model was developed for 2-hexenal as a model compound to examine the time- and dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of this selected α,β-unsaturated aldehyde. The model was developed based on in vitro and literature-derived parameters, and its adequacy was evaluated by comparing predicted DNA adduct formation in the liver of rats exposed to 2-hexenal with reported in vivo data. The model revealed that at an exposure level of 0.04 mg/kg body weight, a value reflecting estimated daily human dietary intake, 2-hexenal is rapidly detoxified predominantly by conjugation with glutathione (GSH) by glutathione S-transferases. At higher dose levels, depletion of GSH results in a shift to 2-hexenal oxidation and reduction as the major pathways for detoxification. The level of DNA adduct formation at current levels of human dietary intake was predicted to be more than 3 orders of magnitude lower than endogenous DNA adduct levels. These results support that rapid detoxification of 2-hexenal reduces the risk arising from 2-hexenal exposure and that at current dietary exposure levels, DNA adduct formation is negligible.

  6. Acetaminophen-induced liver damage in mice is associated with gender-specific adduction of peroxiredoxin-6

    Isaac Mohar


    Full Text Available The mechanism by which acetaminophen (APAP causes liver damage evokes many aspects drug metabolism, oxidative chemistry, and genetic-predisposition. In this study, we leverage the relative resistance of female C57BL/6 mice to APAP-induced liver damage (AILD compared to male C57BL/6 mice in order to identify the cause(s of sensitivity. Furthermore, we use mice that are either heterozygous (HZ or null (KO for glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (Gclm, in order to titrate the toxicity relative to wild-type (WT mice. Gclm is important for efficient de novo synthesis of glutathione (GSH. APAP (300 mg/kg, ip or saline was administered and mice were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. Male mice showed marked elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase by 6 h. In contrast, female WT and HZ mice showed minimal toxicity at all time points. Female KO mice, however, showed AILD comparable to male mice. Genotype-matched male and female mice showed comparable APAP–protein adducts, with Gclm KO mice sustaining significantly greater adducts. ATP was depleted in mice showing toxicity, suggesting impaired mitochondria function. Indeed, peroxiredoxin-6, a GSH-dependent peroxiredoxin, was preferentially adducted by APAP in mitochondria of male mice but rarely adducted in female mice. These results support parallel mechanisms of toxicity where APAP adduction of peroxiredoxin-6 and sustained GSH depletion results in the collapse of mitochondria function and hepatocyte death. We conclude that adduction of peroxiredoxin-6 sensitizes male C57BL/6 mice to toxicity by acetaminophen.

  7. Genetic polymorphisms in catalase and CYP1B1 determine DNA adduct formation by benzo(a)pyrene ex vivo.

    Schults, Marten A; Chiu, Roland K; Nagle, Peter W; Wilms, Lonneke C; Kleinjans, Jos C; van Schooten, Frederik J; Godschalk, Roger W


    Genetic polymorphisms can partially explain the large inter-individual variation in DNA adduct levels following exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Effects of genetic polymorphisms on DNA adduct formation are difficult to assess in human studies because exposure misclassification attenuates underlying relationships. Conversely, ex vivo studies offer the advantage of controlled exposure settings, allowing the possibility to better elucidate genotype-phenotype relationships and gene-gene interactions. Therefore, we exposed lymphocytes of 168 non-smoking volunteers ex vivo to the environmental pollutant benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and BaP-related DNA adducts were quantified. Thirty-four genetic polymorphisms were assessed in genes involved in carcinogen metabolism, oxidative stress and DNA repair. Polymorphisms in catalase (CAT, rs1001179) and cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1, rs1800440) were significantly associated with DNA adduct levels, especially when combined. Moreover, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis in a subset of 30 subjects revealed that expression of catalase correlated strongly with expression of CYP1B1 (R = 0.92, P CYP1B1 and how they simultaneously affect BaP-related DNA adduct levels, catalase expression was transiently knocked down in the human lung epithelial cell line A549. Although catalase knockdown did not immediately change CYP1B1 gene expression, recovery of catalase expression 8 h after the knockdown coincided with a 2.2-fold increased expression of CYP1B1 (P polymorphism in the promoter region of CAT may determine the amount and activity of catalase, which may subsequently regulate the expression of CYP1B1. As a result, both genetic polymorphisms modulate DNA adduct levels in lymphocytes by BaP ex vivo.

  8. Fast repair of dAMP hydroxyl radical adduct by verbascoside via electron transfer

    石益民; 王文锋; 姚思德; 林维真; 韩镇辉; 师彦平; 贾忠建; 郑荣梁


    DNA damaged by oxygen radicals has been implicated as a causative event in a number of degenerative diseases, including cancer and aging. So it is very impotant to look for ways in which either oxygen radicals are scavenged prior to DNA damage or damaged DNA is repaired to supplement the cells’ inadequate repair capacity. The repair activity and its mechanism of verbaseoside, isolated from Pedicularis species, towards dAMP-OH·was studied with pulse radiolytic technique. On pulse irradiation of nitrous oxide saturated 2 mmol/L dAMP aqueous solution containing verbascoside, the transient absorption spectrum of the hydroxyl adduct of dAMP decayed with the formation of that of the phenoxyl radical of verbascoside well under 100 microseconds after electron pulse irradiation. The result indicated that dAMP hydroxyl adducts can be repaired by verbascoside. The rate constants of the repair reaction was deduced to be 5.9×108 dm3·mol-1·s-1. A deeper understanding of this new repair mechanism will undo

  9. The effect of formaldehyde fixation on RNA: optimization of formaldehyde adduct removal.

    Evers, David L; Fowler, Carol B; Cunningham, Brady R; Mason, Jeffrey T; O'Leary, Timothy J


    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues generally provide low yields of extractable RNA that exhibit both covalent modification of nucleic acid bases and strand cleavage. This frustrates efforts to perform retrospective analyses of gene expression using archival tissue specimens. A variety of conditions have been reported to demodify formaldehyde-fixed RNA in different model systems. We studied the reversal of formaldehyde fixation of RNA using a 50 base RNA oligonucleotide and total cellular RNA. Formaldehyde-adducted, native, and hydrolyzed RNA species were identified by their bioanalyzer electrophoretic migration patterns and RT-quantitative PCR. Demodification conditions included temperature, time, buffer, and pH. The reversal of formaldehyde-fixed RNA to native species without apparent RNA hydrolysis was most successfully performed in dilute Tris, phosphate, or similar buffers (pH 8) at 70°C for 30 minutes. Amines were not required for efficient formaldehyde demodification. Formaldehyde-fixed RNA was more labile than native RNA to treatment with heat and buffer, suggesting that antigen retrieval methods for proteins may impede RNA hybridization or RNA extraction. Taken together, the data indicate that reliable conditions may be used to remove formaldehyde adducts from RNA to improve the quality of RNA available for molecular studies.

  10. Adduct of magnesium tetraphenylporphyrin with aniline for colorimetric detection of SO2

    Li Hua Liu; Wen Bin Li; Fei Gao; Tian Rui Huo


    Adduct of magnesium tetraphenylporphyrin (MgTPP) with aniline for colorimetric detection of SO2.was investigated in CH2Cl2 by steady-state fluorescence and UV-vis absorption spectroscopic techniques.The UV-vis spectra showed that the increasing aniline concentrations resulted in red shift of 3 nm for MgTPP Soret absorption band.Once introduced,SO2 competes with MgTPP for aniline,which eventually leads to the release of MgTPP and changes in the solution color/absorption.The fluorescence spectra suggested that MgTPP interacted with aniline to form 1∶1 molecular adducts,and showed that the binding of MgTPP with aniline with the binding constants of 1.58-1.64 is not only endothermal but entropy-driven with △H=1.622 kJ mol -1,△S=9.389 J mol-1 K -1,and △G=-1.585 kJ mol -1 at T=298.15 K.

  11. Preparation and Crystal Structure of Sarcosine 5-Nitrosalicylic Acid Organic Adduct

    金轶; 车云霞; 魏荣敏; 郑吉民


    The title compound (C10H12N2O7, Mr = 272.22) crystallizes in triclinic, space group P with a = 5.532(2), b = 9.760(4), c = 11.731(5) A, α = 68.107(7), β = 89.179(7), γ = 77.830(7)o, V = 573.1(4) A3, Z = 2, Dc = 1.578 g/cm3, F(000) = 284 and μ(MoKa) = 0.136 mm-1. The final R = 0.0400 and wR = 0.0951 for 1468 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). The title compound is a 1:1 adduct of sarcosine and 5-nitrosalicylic acid. The nitrogen atom of sarcosine is protonated, and the proton is from the carboxyl group of sarcosine and 5-nitrosalicylic acid with the probability of 50 percent for each. The 5-nitrosalicylic acid and sarcosine molecule of the title adduct are ABAB arranged along the c axis. There exist a lot of hydrogen bonds in the structure, linking sarcosine and 5-nitrosalicylic acid to form a three-dimensional network.

  12. Linking DNA adduct formation and human cancer risk in chemical carcinogenesis.

    Poirier, Miriam C


    Over two centuries ago, Sir Percival Pott, a London surgeon, published a pioneering treatise showing that soot exposure was the cause of high incidences of scrotal cancers occurring in young men who worked as chimney sweeps. Practicing at a time when cellular pathology was not yet recognized, Sir Percival nonetheless observed that the high incidence and short latency of the chimney sweep cancers, was fundamentally different from the rare scrotal cancers typically found in elderly men. Furthermore, his diagnosis that the etiology of these cancers was related to chimney soot exposure, was absolutely accurate, conceptually novel, and initiated the field of "occupational cancer epidemiology." After many intervening years of research focused on mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis, briefly described here, it is clear that DNA damage, or DNA adduct formation, is "necessary but not sufficient" for tumor induction, and that many additional factors contribute to carcinogenesis. This review includes a synopsis of carcinogen-induced DNA adduct formation in experimental models and in the human population, with particular attention paid to molecular dosimetry and molecular cancer epidemiology. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:499-507, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. High-pressure Fourier transform micro-Raman spectroscopic investigation of diiodine-heterocyclic thioamide adducts.

    dos Santos, João Henrique Z; Butler, Ian S; Daga, Vasiliki; Hadjikakou, Sotiris; Hadjiliadis, Nick


    The pressure dependences of the Fourier transform micro-Raman spectra of four heterocyclic thioamides [[(bztzdtH)I2] x I2] (1) (bztzdtH = benzothiazole-2-thione), [(bztzdtH)I2] (2), [[(tzdtH)2I+] x I3- x 2I2] (3) (tzdtH = thiazoline-2-thione), and [[(bzimtH)I2]2 x I2 x 2H2O] (4) (bzimtH = benzimidazole-2-thione) have been studied between ambient pressure and 50 kbar. For 1, generation of I3- ions through disproportionation reactions is evident as the pressure is increased. There are empirical linear correlations between the frequency and (I-I) bond length and the applied pressure. The iodine adduct of thioamide 2 is more sensitive to pressure when compared to the 1 or 4 iodine adducts. This difference in behavior may be attributed to differences in crystal structures or to a lower I-I bond order. Monitoring of other vibrational transitions of the thiomide structure reveals several less important pressure dependences.

  14. Formation of BH3 Adducts with Pyridine-2-Methylaminophosphine ligands: An experimental and computational study

    Harinath Adimulam; Dwijendra P Kukri; Bhabani S Mallik; Tarun K Panda


    The reaction of pyridine-2-methylaminophosphine [C5H4N-CH2NHPPh2] (1) and pyridine-2-methylphosphinoselenoic amide [C5H4N-CH2NHP(Se)Ph2] (2) with BH3·SMe2 yields the corresponding adducts [C5H4N(BH3)-CH2NHP(BH3)Ph2] (1a), and [C5H4N(BH3)-CH2NHP(Se)Ph2] (2a), respectively. The solid state structures of both the compounds were established by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The phosphorus and the pyridine nitrogen atoms are coordinated to the boron atom in the case of 1a whereas only pyridine nitrogen atom is attached to the BH3 group in the case of 2a. To understand the nature of P-B/ N-B bonds and to compare the basicities of pyridine nitrogen, amino nitrogen and phosphorus atoms, density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations were performed on the BH3 adducts 1a and 2a. The results are consistent with the experimental results.

  15. The association between submaximal quadriceps force steadiness and the knee adduction moment during walking in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    Sørensen, Tina Juul; Langberg, Henning; Aaboe, Jens


    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between quadriceps force steadiness and knee adduction moment during walking in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that quadriceps force steadiness is impaired in patients with knee......, and knee pain was assessed using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) pain subscale and a visual analog scale. RESULTS: Regression analyses showed that quadriceps force steadiness did not predict the peak knee adduction moment (adjusted R2 = 0.05, P = .41). Inclusion of covariates did...

  16. trans,trans-2,4-decadienal-induced 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct formation.

    Loureiro, A P; Di Mascio, P; Gomes, O F; Medeiros, M H


    A number of ring-extended DNA adducts resulting from the reaction of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, or their epoxides, with DNA bases have been characterized in recent years. These adducts may lead to miscoding during DNA replication, resulting, if not repaired, in mutations that can contribute to cancer development. trans,trans-2, 4-Decadienal (DDE) is one of the highly cytotoxic aldehydes endogenously formed from lipid peroxidation. To evaluate its DNA damaging potential, we have investigated the reaction of DDE with 2'-deoxyguanosine (dGuo) in the presence of peroxides. Three stable adducts were isolated by reverse-phase HPLC. Adduct A1, 3-(2-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentafuranosyl)-5,9-dihydro-9H-imidazo[2 , 1-i]purin-9-hydroxy, is a tautomer of 1, N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine, a well-known reaction product of epoxy aldehydes with dGuo. Two new diasteroisomeric products, A2-1 and A2-2, 1-¿[3-(2'-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentafuranosyl)-5, 9-dihydro-9H-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-9-hydroxy]-7-yl¿-2-one-3-octanol, were isolated and characterized on the basis of their spectroscopic features as 1,N(2)-etheno adducts possessing a carbon side chain with a carbonyl and a hydroxyl group. The proposed reaction mechanism for the formation of adducts A2 involves DDE double epoxidation and hydrolysis of the C4 epoxy group prior to nucleophilic addition of the exocyclic amino group of dGuo to C1 of the aldehyde, followed by cyclization via nucleophilic attack on the C2 epoxy group by N-1 and elimination of H(2)O. After treatment of calf thymus DNA with DDE, formation of adducts A1 and A2 was detected by the LC/ESI/MS-MS technique. These results can contribute to a better understanding of the chemical structures of adducts resulting from the reaction of aldehydes with nucleic acid bases, a necessary step in assessing the genotoxic risks associated with this class of compounds.

  17. Susceptibility factors and DNA adducts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of aluminium smelter workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Tuominen, Rainer; Warholm, Margareta; Rannug, Agneta [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm (Sweden); Baranczewski, Pawel; Moeller, Lennart [Center for Nutrition and Toxicology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge (Sweden); Hagmar, Lars [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, (Sweden)


    Formation of DNA adducts as a result of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was studied in 98 potroom workers from an aluminium smelting plant and in 55 blue-collar workers without occupational PAH exposure. DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was used for quantitation of individual PAH-DNA adducts by {sup 32}P-postlabelling/high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Four individual DNA adducts (denoted A, B, C and D) were quantified in 141 of a total of 153 subjects. Genetic polymorphisms for cytochrome P-4501A1 (CYP1A1), microsomal epoxide hydrolase, N-acetyltransferase 2, glutathione transferases M1, P1 and T1 (GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1, respectively) and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) were analysed. For 52 subjects, analysis of mRNA inducibility of CYP1A1 was performed. No statistically significant differences in the levels of total or individual DNA adducts A, C and D were found between potroom workers and control subjects. All potroom workers and the subgroup of potroom workers who reported to never/sometimes use personal respiratory protection (n=72) were found to have a significantly higher likelihood of having high levels of adduct B than control subjects [odds ratio (OR) =3.4 with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.3-9.2, and OR=4.2 with 95% CI 1.6-11.5, respectively]. In the subgroup, levels of adducts A and B were found to be significantly higher among workers with employment time of less than 6 months (n=5). Also, the levels of the individual DNA adducts were to some extent modified by genetic polymorphisms in CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTP1 and NQO1 and by CYP1A1 inducibility. In conclusion, levels of adduct B, identified by {sup 32}P-postlabelling/HPLC methodology as an indicator of PAH exposure in aluminium production, were modified by the use of respiratory protection, length of employment and genetic polymorphisms. (orig.)




    Full Text Available The new adducts and complexes obtained have discrete or dimeric structures; in these structures the diamine behaves as a monodentate and hydrogen bonds involved or bidentate ligand. In one rare earth halide adduct the high coordination number (7 proposed is common for this family. When extra intermolecular hydrogen bonds are taken into account, supramolecular architectures may be obtained.

  19. Cisplatin-DNA adduct formation in patients treated with cisplatin-based chemoradiation: lack of correlation between normal tissues and primary tumor.

    Hoebers, F.J.; Pluim, D.; Hart, A.A.M.; Verheij, M.; Balm, A.J.M.; Fons, G.; Rasch, C.R.; Schellens, J.H.M.; Stalpers, L.J.A.; Bartelink, H.; Begg, A.C.


    PURPOSE: In this study, the formation of cisplatin-DNA adducts after concurrent cisplatin-radiation and the relationship between adduct-formation in primary tumor tissue and normal tissue were investigated. METHODS: Three intravenous cisplatin-regimens, given concurrently with radiation, were studie

  20. Cisplatin-DNA adduct formation in patients treated with cisplatin-based chemoradiation: lack of correlation between normal tissues and primary tumor

    Hoebers, F.J.P.; Pluim, D.; Hart, A.A.M.; Verheij, M.; Balm, A.J.M.; Fons, G.; Rasch, C.R.N.; Schellens, J.H.M.; Stalpers, L.J.A.; Bartelink, H.; Begg, A.C.


    Purpose: In this study, the formation of cisplatin-DNA adducts after concurrent cisplatin-radiation and the relationship between adduct-formation in primary tumor tissue and normal tissue were investigated. Methods: Three intravenous cisplatin-regimens, given concurrently with radiation, were stu

  1. Meaningful differences in spectral performance, thermal behavior, and heterogeneous catalysis between ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate and its adduct of beta-cyclodextrin.

    Song, Le Xin; Wang, Mang; Dang, Zheng; Du, Fang Yun


    A novel molecule-ion adduct of ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate (AMT) with beta-cyclodextrin (CD) was prepared in this work. Significant differences in spectral properties between AMT and the adduct AMT-beta-CD were observed by a series of experimental probes, such as powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that, although the crystal growth of AMT-beta-CD was dominated by the molecular stacking of AMT, the size and morphology of the adduct were rather different from those seen in free AMT. The difference in stacking forms was attributed to the contribution of the molecule-ion interaction between AMT and beta-CD. A drastic improvement in thermal stability of AMT and beta-CD after adduct formation was observed by thermogravimetry analysis, which was confirmed by controlled sintering measurements. This revealed that the adduct interaction between them played an important role in mediating the thermal decomposition process of the adducted components. Furthermore, our results indicated that AMT and its adduct had a different performance in the catalytic desulfurization of thiophene and its derivatives. The fact that the catalytic efficiency of AMT was decreased after adduct formation implied there was a complexation between AMT and beta-CD. Besides, several unusual molecular ions--NH(3)(+), NH(2)(+), and NH(+)--were simultaneously found with gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry of free AMT.


    The stability of cysteinyl adducts of benzene oxide (BO) and mono-S-substituted cysteinyl adducts of 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ) was investigated in both hemoglobin (Hb) and albumin (Alb) following administration of a single oral dose of 400 mg [U-14C/13C6]benzene/kg body weight ...

  3. DNA damage induced by the environmental carcinogen butadiene: identification of a diepoxybutane-adenine adduct and its detection by 32P-postlabelling.

    Leuratti, C; Jones, N J; Marafante, E; Kostiainen, R; Peltonen, K; Waters, R


    To date only a few studies have been undertaken on DNA adducts formed by epoxybutene (EB) and diepoxybutane (DEB), the two active metabolites of 1,3-butadiene. Our interests have focused on further investigating DNA alkylation by the two epoxides, especially in relation to the development of a method for human biomonitoring. Here, following the reaction of deoxyadenosine monophosphate and poly(dA-dT)(dA-dT) with DEB and subsequent HPLC, we have identified an adenine adduct. MS analyses indicate the structure of an adenine adducted by DEB at the N6 position. A HPLC/32P-postlabelling method was developed for its measurement in DNA samples and the adduct was detected in calf thymus DNA and DNA from Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed to DEB. The 100% labelling efficiency during postlabelling, the amount of the adduct and its elution before the normal nucleotides during HPLC suggest it could be a suitable indicator of BUT exposure.

  4. Development and validation of a direct sandwich chemiluminescence immunoassay for measuring DNA adducts of benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Kovács, Katalin; Kaila, Stella;


    We have developed and validated a sandwich chemiluminescence immunoassay (SCIA) which measures polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts combining high throughput and adequate sensitivity, appropriate for evaluation of adduct levels in human population studies. Fragmented DNA is incubated...... with rabbit antiserum elicited against DNA modified with r7,t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE) and subsequently trapped by goat anti-rabbit IgG bound to a solid surface. Anti-single-stranded (ss) DNA antibodies binds in a quantity proportional to the adduct levels...... and is detected by chemiluminescence. The BPDE-DNA SCIA has a limit of detection of 3 adducts per 10(9) nucleotides with 5 µg DNA per well. We have validated the BPDE-DNA SCIA using DNA modified in vitro, DNA from benzo[a]pyrene (BP)-exposed cultured cells and mice. The levels of adduct measured by SCIA were...

  5. Constraining the sensitivity of iodide adduct chemical ionization mass spectrometry to multifunctional organic molecules using the collision limit and thermodynamic stability of iodide ion adducts

    Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Iyer, Siddarth; Mohr, Claudia; Lee, Ben H.; D'Ambro, Emma L.; Kurtén, Theo; Thornton, Joel A.


    The sensitivity of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ions formed per number density of analytes) is fundamentally limited by the collision frequency between reagent ions and analytes, known as the collision limit, the ion-molecule reaction time, and the transmission efficiency of product ions to the detector. We use the response of a time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS) to N2O5, known to react with iodide at the collision limit, to constrain the combined effects of ion-molecule reaction time, which is strongly influenced by mixing and ion losses in the ion-molecule reaction drift tube. A mass spectrometric voltage scanning procedure elucidates the relative binding energies of the ion adducts, which influence the transmission efficiency of molecular ions through the electric fields within the vacuum chamber. Together, this information provides a critical constraint on the sensitivity of a ToF-CIMS towards a wide suite of routinely detected multifunctional organic molecules for which no calibration standards exist. We describe the scanning procedure and collision limit determination, and we show results from the application of these constraints to the measurement of organic aerosol composition at two different field locations.

  6. The long persistence of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts in vivo: kinetic study following single and multiple exposures in male ICR mice.

    Zhu, Lin; Xue, Junyi; Xia, Qingsu; Fu, Peter P; Lin, Ge


    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA)-containing plants are widespread in the world and the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Our previous studies demonstrated that PA-derived DNA adducts can potentially be a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In order to validate the use of these PA-derived DNA adducts as a biomarker, it is necessary to understand the basic kinetics of the PA-derived DNA adducts formed in vivo. In this study, we studied the dose-dependent response and kinetics of PA-derived DNA adduct formation and removal in male ICR mice orally administered with a single dose (40 mg/kg) or multiple doses (10 mg/kg/day) of retrorsine, a representative carcinogenic PA. In the single-dose exposure, the PA-derived DNA adducts exhibited dose-dependent linearity and persisted for up to 4 weeks. The removal of the adducts following a single-dose exposure to retrorsine was biphasic with half-lives of 9 h (t 1/2α) and 301 h (~12.5 days, t 1/2β). In the 8-week multiple exposure study, a marked accumulation of PA-derived DNA adducts without attaining a steady state was observed. The removal of adducts after the multiple exposure also demonstrated a biphasic pattern but with much extended half-lives of 176 h (~7.33 days, t 1/2α) and 1736 h (~72.3 days, t 1/2β). The lifetime of PA-derived DNA adducts was more than 8 weeks following the multiple-dose treatment. The significant persistence of PA-derived DNA adducts in vivo supports their role in serving as a biomarker of PA exposure.

  7. Immunochemical quantitation of 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen protein adducts in subcellular liver fractions following a hepatotoxic dose of acetaminophen.

    Pumford, N R; Roberts, D W; Benson, R W; Hinson, J A


    The hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen correlates with the formation of 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen protein adducts. Using a sensitive and specific immunochemical assay, we quantitated the formation of these protein adducts in liver fractions and serum after administration of a hepatotoxic dose of acetaminophen (400 mg/kg) to B6C3F1 mice. Adducts in the cytosolic fraction increased to 3.6 nmol/mg protein at 2 hr and then decreased to 1.1 nmol/mg protein by 8 hr. Concomitant with the decrease in adducts in the cytosol, 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen protein adducts appeared in serum and their levels paralleled increases in serum alanine aminotransferase. Microsomal protein adducts peaked at 1 hr (0.7 nmol/mg protein) and subsequently decreased to 0.2 nmol/mg at 8 hr. The 4000 g pellet (nuclei, plasma membranes, and cell debris) had the highest level of adducts (3.5 nmol/mg protein), which remained constant from 1 to 8 hr. Evaluation of fractions purified from a 960 g pellet indicated that the highest concentration of 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen protein adducts was located in plasma membranes and mitochondria; peak levels were 10.3 and 5.1 nmol/mg respectively. 3-(Cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen protein adducts were detected in nuclei only after enzymatic hydrolysis of the proteins. The localization of high levels of 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen protein adducts in plasma membranes and mitochondria may play a critical role in acetaminophen toxicity.

  8. Miscoding properties of 1,N{sup 6}-ethanoadenine, a DNA adduct derived from reaction with antitumor agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea

    Hang, Bo; Guliaev, Anton B.; Chenna, Ahmed; Singer, B.


    1,N{sup 6}-Ethanoadenine (EA) is an exocyclic adduct formed from DNA reaction with the antitumor agent, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). To understand the role of this adduct in the mechanism of mutagenicity or carcinogenicity by BCNU, an oligonucleotide with a site-specific EA was synthesized using phosphoramidite chemistry. We now report the in vitro miscoding properties of EA in translesion DNA synthesis catalyzed by mammalian DNA polymerases (pols) {alpha}, {beta}, {eta} and {iota}. These data were also compared with those obtained for the structurally related exocyclic adduct, 1,N{sup 6}-ethenoadenine ({var_epsilon}A). Using a primer extension assay, both pols {alpha} and {beta} were primarily blocked by EA or {var_epsilon}A with very minor extension. Pol {eta} a member of the Y family of polymerases, was capable of catalyzing a significant amount of bypass across both adducts. Pol {eta} incorporated all four nucleotides opposite EA and {var_epsilon}A, but with differential preferences and mainly in an error-prone manner. Human pol {iota}, a paralog of human pol {eta}, was blocked by both adducts with a very small amount of synthesis past {var_epsilon}A. It incorporated C and, to a much lesser extent, T, opposite either adduct. In addition, the presence of an A adduct, e.g. {var_epsilon}A, could affect the specificity of pol {iota} toward the template T immediately 3 feet to the adduct. In conclusion, the four polymerases assayed on templates containing an EA or {var_epsilon}A showed differential bypass capacity and nucleotide incorporation specificity, with the two adducts not completely identical in influencing these properties. Although there was a measurable extent of error-free nucleotide incorporation, all these polymerases primarily misincorporated opposite EA, indicating that the adduct, similar to {var_epsilon}A, is a miscoding lesion.

  9. Identification of Bound Nitro Musk-Protein Adduct in Fish Liver By Gas Chromatography-Mass Sectrometry: Biotransformation, Dose-Response and Toxicokinetics of Nitro Musk Metabolites Protein Adducts in Trout Liver as Biomarker of Exposure

    Ubiquitous occurrences of synthetic nitro musks are evident in the literature. The In vivo analysis of musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) - protein adducts in trout liver have been performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using selected ion monitoring (GC-SIM-MS). Bio...

  10. Quantitative comparison between in vivo DNA adduct formation from exposure to selected DNA-reactive carcinogens, natural background levels of DNA adduct formation and tumour incidende in rodent bioassays

    Paini, A.; Scholz, G.; Marin-Kuan, M.; Schilter, B.; O'Brien, J.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Rietjens, I.


    This study aimed at quantitatively comparing the occurrence/formation of DNA adducts with the carcinogenicity induced by a selection of DNA-reactive genotoxic carcinogens. Contrary to previous efforts, we used a very uniform set of data, limited to in vivo rat liver studies in order to investigate w

  11. Intravenous toxicokinetics of sulfur mustard and its DNA-adducts in the hairless guinea pig and marmoset

    Langenberg, J.P.; Spruit, W.E.T.; Kuijpers, W.C.; Mars, R.H.; Helden, H.P.M. van; Schans, G.P. van der; Benschop, H.P.


    ln order to provide a quantitative basis for pretreatment and therapy of intoxications with sulfur mustard the toxicokinetics of this agent as well as its major DNA-adducts are being studied in male hairless guinea pigs for the intravenous, respiratory and percutaneous routes. A highly sensitive met

  12. Structural aspects, thermal behavior, and stability of a self-assembled supramolecular polymer derived from flunixin-meglumine supramolecular adducts

    Cassimiro, Douglas L.; Kobelnik, Marcelo [Institute of Chemistry, Paulista State University, Av. Prof. Francisco Degni, s/n, 14800-900 Araraquara, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ribeiro, Clovis A., E-mail: [Institute of Chemistry, Paulista State University, Av. Prof. Francisco Degni, s/n, 14800-900 Araraquara, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Crespi, Marisa S.; Boralle, Nivaldo [Institute of Chemistry, Paulista State University, Av. Prof. Francisco Degni, s/n, 14800-900 Araraquara, Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal behavior of flunixin-meglumine, a potent NSAID, was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This supramolecular adduct self-assembled resulting in a polymer-like material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supramolecular polymer showed a high molecular weight around 290 {+-} 88 MDa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NMR and FT-IR showed that hydrogen bonding can be responsible for the self-assembly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The stability of the supramolecular polymer was also studied and presented here. - Abstract: Flunixin-meglumine, a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor for Veterinary use, is a hydrogen-bonded supramolecular adduct. Two monotropically related crystalline modifications (Forms I and II) were observed for a flunixin-meglumine sample. During the melt of form I, flunixin-meglumine adducts self-assembled by hydrogen bonds involving the hydroxyl groups from meglumine, resulting in an amorphous rigid glassy supramolecular polymer, which showed a high molecular weight around 290 {+-} 88 MDa and a glass transition around 49.5 Degree-Sign C. Both the adduct and the resulting supramolecular polymer were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and weight-average molecular weight determination by light scattering. The chemical stability and morphological changes of the depolymerization process were also investigated for the supramolecular polymer, by DSC and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively.

  13. DNA adducts, mutant frequencies, and mutation spectra in various organs of λlacZ mice exposed to ethylating agents

    Mientjes, E.J.; Luiten-Schuite, A.; Wolf, E. van der; Borsboom, Y.; Bergmans, A.; Berends, F.; Lohman, P.H.M.; Baan, R.A.; Delft, J.H.M. van


    To investigate tissue-specific relations between DNA adducts and mutagenesis in vivo, λlacZ transgenic mice were treated i.p. with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), diethylnitrosamine (DEN), and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS). In liver, bone marrow, and brain DNA from mice sacrificed at several time point

  14. Environmental exposure of the mouse germ line: DNA adducts in spermatozoa and formation of de novo mutations during spermatogenesis.

    Ann-Karin Olsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spermatozoal DNA damage is associated with poor sperm quality, disturbed embryonic development and early embryonic loss, and some genetic diseases originate from paternal de novo mutations. We previously reported poor repair of bulky DNA-lesions in rodent testicular cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the fate of DNA lesions in the male germ line. B[a]PDE-N(2-dG adducts were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and de novo mutations were measured in the cII-transgene, in Big Blue mice exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P; 3 x 50 mg/kg bw, i.p.. Spermatozoa were harvested at various time-points following exposure, to study the consequences of exposure during the different stages of spermatogenesis. B[a]PDE-N(2-dG adducts induced by exposure of spermatocytes or later stages of spermatogenesis persisted at high levels in the resulting spermatozoa. Spermatozoa originating from exposed spermatogonia did not contain DNA adducts; however de novo mutations had been induced (p = 0.029, specifically GC-TA transversions, characteristic of B[a]P mutagenesis. Moreover, a specific spectrum of spontaneous mutations was consistently observed in spermatozoa. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A temporal pattern of genotoxic consequences following exposure was identified, with an initial increase in DNA adduct levels in spermatozoa, believed to influence fertility, followed by induction of germ line de novo mutations with possible consequences for the offspring.

  15. A convenient synthesis of 1,5-diarylpyrazoles from Baylis-Hillman adducts using HY-zeolite

    Mohammad; Nikpassand; Manouchehr; Mamaghani; Mohammad; Ali; Zanjanchi; Nosrat; Olah; Mahmoodi; Massomeh; Mirzaeinejad


    A facile and convenient protocol was developed for the synthesis of 1,5-diarylpyrazoles using Baylis-Hillman adducts in the presence of HY-zeolite as an efficient recyclable heterogeneous catalyst in reasonable reaction times(1.5-2.5 h) and high yields (78-90%).

  16. Sorocenols G and H, Anti-MRSA Oxygen Heterocyclic Diels-Alder-type Adducts from Sorocea muriculata Roots

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a root extract of Sorocea muriculata led to the isolation and identification of two new oxygen heterocyclic Diels-Alder-type adducts, sorocenols G (1) and H (2), along with lupeol-3-(3'R-hydroxytetradecanoate) and oxyresveratrol. The structures of 1 and 2 were eluci...

  17. In silico attempt for adduct agent(s) against malaria: Combination of chloroquine with alkaloids of Adhatoda vasica.

    Swain, Shasank S; Sahu, Mahesh C; Padhy, Rabindra N


    With the aim of controlling drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum, a computational attempt of designing novel adduct antimalarial drugs through the molecular docking method of combining chloroquine with five alkaloids, individually is presented. These alkaloids were obtained from the medicinal plant, Adhatoda vasica. From the obtained individual docking values of important derivatives of quinine and chloroquine, as well as, individual alkaloids and adduct agents of chloroquine with Adhatoda alkaloids as ligands, it was discernible that the 'adduct agent-1 with chloroquine and adhatodine' combination had the minimum energy of interaction, as the docking score value of -11.144 kcal/mol against the target protein, triosephosphate isomerase (TIM), the key enzyme of glycolytic pathway. Drug resistance of P. falciparum is due to a mutation in the polypeptide of TIM. Moratorium of mutant TIM would disrupt the metabolism during the control of the drug resistant P. falciparum. This in silico work helped to locate the 'adduct agent-1 with chloroquine and adhatodine', which could be taken up by pharmacology for further development of this compound as a new drug against drug resistant Plasmodium.

  18. Formation of fractals by the self-assembly of interpolymer adducts of polymethacrylic acid with complementary polymers in aqueous solution

    Kandhasamy Durai Murugan; Arlin Jose Amali; Paramasivam Natarajan


    Interpolymer adducts of poly(methacrylic acid), (PMAA), with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) in presence of sodium chloride or potassium chloride form highly ordered fractal patterns in films on glass surface on drying at ambient temperature. The structure, morphology and the conditions under which the formation of fractal patterns occurs were investigated by SEM, EDX and confocal microscopic techniques. Self-organization of PMAA with complementary polymers such as poly(vinylpyrrolidone) is well-known and in the presence of sodium chloride formation of the fractals in films of the adducts is a novel observation. Fractal formation occurs due to the aggregation of interpolymer adducts. The composition of the fractals in the film is studied by EDX and confocal microscopic images of the fluorophores covalently bound to PMAA. In presence of salts, sodium chloride or potassium chloride, micellar like entities of 80 nm size were formed which further aggregate to form fractal patterns. It is suggested that the fractals result from the interpolymer adduct by Diffusion Limited Aggregation mechanism.

  19. Fast Fourier Transform IR Characterization of Epoxy GY Systems Crosslinked with Aliphatic and Cycloaliphatic EH Polyamine Adducts

    Caslav Lacnjevac


    Full Text Available The use of fast FT-IR spectroscopy as a sensitive method to estimate a change of the crosslinking kinetics of epoxy resin with polyamine adducts is described in this study. A new epoxy formulation based on the use of polyamine adducts as the hardeners was analyzed. Crosslinking reactions of the different stoichiometric mixtures of the unmodified GY250 epoxy resin with the aliphatic EH606 and the cycloaliphatic EH637 polyamine adducts were studied using mid FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. As the crosslinking proceeded, the primary amine groups in polyamine adduct are converted to secondary and the tertiary amines. The decrease in the IR band intensity of epoxy groups at about 915 cm-1, as well as at about 3,056 cm-1, was observed due to process. Mid IR spectral analysis was used to calculate the content of the epoxy groups as a function of crosslinking time and the crosslinking degree of resin. The amount of all the epoxy species was estimated from IR spectra to changes during the crosslinking kinetics of epichlorhydrin.

  20. Chlorine-radical Induced Oxidation of Glyoxal and Glyoxal-S(Ⅳ) Adducts in the Aqueous Phase

    Ying LI; Yun TANG; Jia Qiang WANG


    A laser flash photolysis study of the reactivity of Cl with glyoxai, glyoxal mono- and dibisulfite adducts, 1-hydroxy-2, 2-diol-ethanesulfonate and 1, 2-dihydroxy-1, 2-ethanedi sulfonate in the aqueous phase was carried out. The obtained rate constants can be used for atmospheric modeling.

  1. A New Diels-Alder Type Adduct and a New Flavone from the Stem and Root Bark of Morus mongolica

    Jie KANG; Ruo Yun CHEN; De Quan YU


    A new Diels-Alder type adduct mongolicin G (1) and a new flavone 5'-(1", 1"-dimethylallyl)-5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (2) were isolated from the stem and root bark of Morus mongolica. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chiroptical methods.

  2. Creating context for the use of DNA adduct data in cancer risk assessment: I. Proposed framework for data organization *

    The assessment of human cancer risk from chemical exposure requires the integration of diverse types of data. Such data involve effects at the cell and tissue levels. This report focuses on the specific utility of one type of data, namely DNA adducts. Emphasis is placed on the ap...

  3. Malabaricone C-containing mace extract inhibits safrole bioactivation and DNA adduct formation both in vitro and in vivo

    Martati, E.; Boonpawa, R.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Paini, A.; Spenkelink, A.; Punt, A.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Rietjens, I.


    Safrole, present in mace and its essential oils, causes liver tumors in rodents at high dose levels due to formation of a DNA reactive 1'-sulfooxysafrole. The present study identifies malabaricone C as a mace constituent able to inhibit safrole DNA adduct formation at the level of sulfotransferase m

  4. Plasma and liver acetaminophen-protein adduct levels in mice after acetaminophen treatment: Dose–response, mechanisms, and clinical implications

    McGill, Mitchell R.; Lebofsky, Margitta [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Norris, Hye-Ryun K.; Slawson, Matthew H. [Center for Human Toxicology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bajt, Mary Lynn; Xie, Yuchao; Williams, C. David [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Wilkins, Diana G.; Rollins, Douglas E. [Center for Human Toxicology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)


    At therapeutic doses, acetaminophen (APAP) is a safe and effective analgesic. However, overdose of APAP is the principal cause of acute liver failure in the West. Binding of the reactive metabolite of APAP (NAPQI) to proteins is thought to be the initiating event in the mechanism of hepatotoxicity. Early work suggested that APAP-protein binding could not occur without glutathione (GSH) depletion, and likely only at toxic doses. Moreover, it was found that protein-derived APAP-cysteine could only be detected in serum after the onset of liver injury. On this basis, it was recently proposed that serum APAP-cysteine could be used as diagnostic marker of APAP overdose. However, comprehensive dose–response and time course studies have not yet been done. Furthermore, the effects of co-morbidities on this parameter have not been investigated. We treated groups of mice with APAP at multiple doses and measured liver GSH and both liver and plasma APAP-protein adducts at various timepoints. Our results show that protein binding can occur without much loss of GSH. Importantly, the data confirm earlier work that showed that protein-derived APAP-cysteine can appear in plasma without liver injury. Experiments performed in vitro suggest that this may involve multiple mechanisms, including secretion of adducted proteins and diffusion of NAPQI directly into plasma. Induction of liver necrosis through ischemia–reperfusion significantly increased the plasma concentration of protein-derived APAP-cysteine after a subtoxic dose of APAP. While our data generally support the measurement of serum APAP-protein adducts in the clinic, caution is suggested in the interpretation of this parameter. - Highlights: • Extensive GSH depletion is not required for APAP-protein binding in the liver. • APAP-protein adducts appear in plasma at subtoxic doses. • Proteins are adducted in the cell and secreted out. • Coincidental liver injury increases plasma APAP-protein adducts at subtoxic doses

  5. A Synthetic Aptamer-Drug Adduct for Targeted Liver Cancer Therapy.

    Trinh, Thu Le; Zhu, Guizhi; Xiao, Xilin; Puszyk, William; Sefah, Kwame; Wu, Qunfeng; Tan, Weihong; Liu, Chen


    AS1411 (previously known as AGRO100) is a 26 nucleotide guanine-rich DNA aptamer which forms a guanine quadruplex structure. AS1411 has shown promising utility as a treatment for cancers in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials without causing major side-effects. AS1411 inhibits tumor cell growth by binding to nucleolin which is aberrantly expressed on the cell membrane of many tumors. In this study, we utilized a simple technique to conjugate a widely-used chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin (Dox), to AS1411 to form a synthetic Drug-DNA Adduct (DDA), termed as AS1411-Dox. We demonstrate the utility of AS1411-Dox in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by evaluating the targeted delivery of Dox to Huh7 cells in vitro and in a murine xenograft model of HCC.

  6. A Synthetic Aptamer-Drug Adduct for Targeted Liver Cancer Therapy.

    Thu Le Trinh

    Full Text Available AS1411 (previously known as AGRO100 is a 26 nucleotide guanine-rich DNA aptamer which forms a guanine quadruplex structure. AS1411 has shown promising utility as a treatment for cancers in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials without causing major side-effects. AS1411 inhibits tumor cell growth by binding to nucleolin which is aberrantly expressed on the cell membrane of many tumors. In this study, we utilized a simple technique to conjugate a widely-used chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin (Dox, to AS1411 to form a synthetic Drug-DNA Adduct (DDA, termed as AS1411-Dox. We demonstrate the utility of AS1411-Dox in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC by evaluating the targeted delivery of Dox to Huh7 cells in vitro and in a murine xenograft model of HCC.

  7. Nitrated and Brominated Narcotine and its Cleaved Adduct as Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors

    M. A. Abbasi


    Full Text Available Narcotine is a very antitussive agent and its modification may lead to some more biological activities. In this presented paper, narcotine (1 was first subjected to nitration and bromination to yield nitrated narcotine (2 and brominated narcotine (3. It was further made to react with phenylchloroformate (6 to give a cleaved addition product 4. This adduct 4 was further nitrated and brominated to yield substituted derivatives 5 and 6, respectively. The structure elucidation of the synthesized compounds was processed via IR, EI-MS and 1H-NMR spectra. These were also screened against butyrylcholinesterase enzyme and were found to the moderate inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase except nitrated product, 2, of narcotine (1.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in beluga whales from the Arctic.

    Mathieu, A; Payne, J F; Fancey, L L; Santella, R M; Young, T L


    The Arctic is still relatively pristine in nature, but it is also vulnerable to pollution because contaminants originating from midlatitudes are transported to the Arctic by atmospheric processes, ocean currents, and rivers (Muir et al., 1992). Recognition of this fact of Arctic vulnerability has resulted in a Declaration on the Protection of the Arctic Environment by eight Arctic countries. A manifest aim of this declaration is to develop an Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program. We report here on the presence of measurable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts, including relatively high levels in Arctic beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). These results lend support to the value of developing biological assessment programs for Arctic wildlife.

  9. Crystal structure of the bis(cyclohexylammonium succinate succinic acid salt adduct

    Modou Sarr


    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title salt adduct, 2C6H14N+·C4H4O42−·C4H6O4, consists of two cyclohexylammonium cations, one succcinate dianion and one neutral succinic acid molecule. Succinate dianions and succinic acid molecules are self-assembled head-to-tail through O—H...O hydrogen bonds and adopt a syn–syn configuration, leading to a strand-like arrangement along [101]. The cyclohexylammonium cations have a chair conformation and act as multidentate hydrogen-bond donors linking adjacent strands through intermolecular N—H...O interactions to both the succinate and the succinic acid components. This results in two-dimensional supramolecular layered structures lying parallel to (010.

  10. Human DNA polymerases catalyze lesion bypass across benzo[a]pyrene-derived DNA adduct clustered with an abasic site.

    Starostenko, Lidia V; Rechkunova, Nadejda I; Lebedeva, Natalia A; Kolbanovskiy, Alexander; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Lavrik, Olga I


    The combined action of oxidative stress and genotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons derivatives can lead to cluster-type DNA damage that includes both a modified nucleotide and a bulky lesion. As an example, we investigated the possibility of repair of an AP site located opposite a minor groove-positioned (+)-trans-BPDE-dG or a base-displaced intercalated (+)-cis-BPDE-dG adduct (BP lesion) by a BER system. Oligonucleotides with single uracil residue in the certain position were annealed with complementary oligonucleotides bearing either a cis- or trans-BP adduct. Digestion with uracil DNA glycosylase was utilized to generate an AP site which was then hydrolyzed by APE1, and the resulting gap was processed by X-family DNA polymerases β (Polβ) and λ (Polλ), or Y-family polymerase ι (Polι). By varying reaction conditions, namely, Mg2+/Mn2+ replacement/combination and ionic strength decrease, we found that under certain conditions both Polβ and Polι can catalyze lesion bypass across both cis- and trans-BP adducts in the presence of physiological dNTP concentrations. Polβ and Polι catalyze gap filling trans-lesion synthesis in an error prone manner. By contrast, Polλ selectively introduced the correct dCTP opposite the modified dG in the case of cis-BP-dG adduct only, and did not bypass the stereoisomeric trans-adduct under any of the conditions examined. The results suggest that Polλ is a specialized polymerase that can process these kinds of lesions.

  11. Foot alignments influence the effect of knee adduction moment with lateral wedge insoles during gait.

    Sawada, Tomonori; Tokuda, Kazuki; Tanimoto, Kenji; Iwamoto, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Yuta; Anan, Masaya; Takahashi, Makoto; Kito, Nobuhiro; Shinkoda, Koichi


    Lateral wedge insoles (LWIs) reduce the peak external knee adduction moment (KAM). However, the efficacy of LWIs is limited in certain individuals for whom they fail to decrease KAM. Possible explanations for a lack of desired LWI response are variations in foot alignments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the immediate biomechanical effects of LWIs depend on individual foot alignments during gait. Fifteen healthy adults participated in this study. Their feet were categorized as normal, pronated, and supinated using the foot posture index. All subjects were subsequently requested to perform a normal gait under barefoot and LWI conditions. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to record the kinematic and kinetic data, included peak KAM, KAM impulse (KAAI), center of pressure displacement, and knee-ground reaction force lever arm (KLA). Furthermore, lower limb frontal plane kinematic parameters at the rear foot, ankle, knee, and hip were evaluated. Among all feet, there was no significant difference in the peak KAM and KAAI between the conditions. In contrast, the peak KAM was significantly reduced under the LWI condition relative to the barefoot condition in the normal foot group. Reductions in the peak KAM were correlated with a more lateral center of pressure and reduced KLA. In addition, a reduced KLA was correlated with decreased hip adduction. LWIs significantly reduced the peak KAM in normal feet, indicating that biomechanical effects of LWIs vary between individual foot alignments. Our findings suggest that it is helpful to assess individual foot alignment to ensure adequate insole treatment for patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  12. Main group adducts of carbon dioxide and related chemistry (LDRD 149938).

    Barry, Brian M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.; Dickie, Diane A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)


    This late-start LDRD was broadly focused on the synthetic attempts to prepare novel ligands as complexing agents for main group metals for the sequestration of CO{sub 2}. In prior work we have shown that certain main group (p block elements) metals such as tin and zinc, when ligated to phosphinoamido- ligands, can bind CO{sub 2} in a novel fashion. Rather than simple insertion into the metal-nitrogen bonds to form carbamates, we have seen the highly unusual complexation of CO{sub 2} in a mode that is more similar to a chemical 'adduct' rather than complexation schemes that have been observed previously. The overarching goal in this work is to prepare more of these complexes that can (a) sequester (or bind) CO{sub 2} easily in this adduct form, and (b) be stable to chemical or electrochemical reduction designed to convert the CO{sub 2} to useful fuels or fuel precursors. The currently used phosphinoamido- ligands appear at this point to be less-stable than desired under electrochemical reduction conditions. This instability is believed due to the more delicate, reactive nature of the ligand framework system. In order to successfully capture and convert CO{sub 2} to useful organics, this instability must be addressed and solved. Work described in the late-start LDRD was designed to screen a variety of ligand/metal complexes that a priori are believed to be more stable to polar solvents and possible mild hydrolytic conditions than are the phosphinoamido-ligands. Results from ligand syntheses and metal complexation studies are reported.

  13. Neurotoxic thioether adducts of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine identified in human urine after ecstasy ingestion.

    Perfetti, Ximena; O'Mathúna, Brian; Pizarro, Nieves; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Khymenets, Olha; Almeida, Bruno; Pellegrini, Manuela; Pichini, Simona; Lau, Serrine S; Monks, Terrence J; Farré, Magí; Pascual, Jose Antonio; Joglar, Jesús; de la Torre, Rafael


    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) is a widely misused synthetic amphetamine derivative and a serotonergic neurotoxicant in animal models and possibly humans. The underlying mechanism of neurotoxicity involves the formation of reactive oxygen species although their source remains unclear. It has been postulated that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity is mediated via the formation of bioreactive metabolites. In particular, the primary catechol metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA) and 3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (HHA), subsequently cause the formation of glutathione and N-acetylcysteine conjugates, which retain the ability to redox cycle and are serotonergic neurotoxicants in rats. Although the presence of such metabolites has been recently demonstrated in rat brain microdialysate, their formation in humans has not been reported. The present study describes the detection of 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (N-Ac-5-Cys-HHMA) and 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (N-Ac-5-Cys-HHA) in human urine of 15 recreational users of MDMA (1.5 mg/kg) in a controlled setting. The results reveal that in the first 4 h after MDMA ingestion approximately 0.002% of the administered dose was recovered as thioether adducts. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and catechol-O-methyltransferase expression, the combination of which are major determinants of steady-state levels of HHMA and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine, probably explain the interindividual variability seen in the recovery of N-Ac-5-Cys-HHMA and N-Ac-5-Cys-HHA. In summary, the formation of neurotoxic thioether adducts of MDMA has been demonstrated for the first time in humans. The findings lend weight to the hypothesis that the bioactivation of MDMA to neurotoxic metabolites is a relevant pathway to neurotoxicity in humans.

  14. Chlorophyllin intervention reduces aflatoxin-DNA adducts in individuals at high risk for liver cancer.

    Egner, P A; Wang, J B; Zhu, Y R; Zhang, B C; Wu, Y; Zhang, Q N; Qian, G S; Kuang, S Y; Gange, S J; Jacobson, L P; Helzlsouer, K J; Bailey, G S; Groopman, J D; Kensler, T W


    Residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China, are at high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, in part from consumption of foods contaminated with aflatoxins. Chlorophyllin, a mixture of semisynthetic, water-soluble derivatives of chlorophyll that is used as a food colorant and over-the-counter medicine, has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of aflatoxin hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models by blocking carcinogen bioavailability. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled chemoprevention trial, we tested whether chlorophyllin could alter the disposition of aflatoxin. One hundred and eighty healthy adults from Qidong were randomly assigned to ingest 100 mg of chlorophyllin or a placebo three times a day for 4 months. The primary endpoint was modulation of levels of aflatoxin-N(7)-guanine adducts in urine samples collected 3 months into the intervention measured by using sequential immunoaffinity chromatography and liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. This aflatoxin-DNA adduct excretion product serves as a biomarker of the biologically effective dose of aflatoxin, and elevated levels are associated with increased risk of liver cancer. Adherence to the study protocol was outstanding, and no adverse events were reported. Aflatoxin-N(7)-guanine could be detected in 105 of 169 available samples. Chlorophyllin consumption at each meal led to an overall 55% reduction (P = 0.036) in median urinary levels of this aflatoxin biomarker compared with those taking placebo. Thus, prophylactic interventions with chlorophyllin or supplementation of diets with foods rich in chlorophylls may represent practical means to prevent the development of hepatocellular carcinoma or other environmentally induced cancers.

  15. Immunoblot analysis of protein containing 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen adducts in serum and subcellular liver fractions from acetaminophen-treated mice.

    Pumford, N R; Hinson, J A; Benson, R W; Roberts, D W


    The hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen is believed to be mediated by the metabolic activation of acetaminophen to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine which covalently binds to cysteinyl residues on proteins as 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen adducts. The formation of these adducts in hepatic protein correlates with the hepatotoxicity. In this study, the formation of 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen adducts in specific cellular proteins was investigated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and detected using affinity-purified antisera specific for 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen adducts on immunoblots. These techniques were used to investigate the liver 10,000g supernatant and serum from B6C3F1 mice that received hepatotoxic doses of acetaminophen. More than 15 proteins containing 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen adducts were detected in the liver 10,000g supernatant. The most prominent protein containing 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen adducts in the hepatic 10,000g supernatant had a relative molecular mass of 55 kDa. Serum proteins containing 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen adducts had molecular masses similar to those found in the liver 10,000g supernatant (55, 87, and approximately 102 kDa). These data, combined with our previous findings describing the temporal relationship between the appearance of 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen adducts in protein in the serum and the decrease in the levels of 3-(cystein-S-yl)acetaminophen adducts in protein in the liver, suggested that liver adducts were released into the serum following lysis of hepatocytes. The temporal relationship between the formation of specific adducts and hepatotoxicity in mice following a hepatotoxic dose of acetaminophen was examined using immunoblots of mitochondria, microsomes, cytosol, and plasma membranes. Hepatotoxicity indicated by serum alanine aminotransferase levels was increased at 2 and 4 hr after dosing. The cytosolic fraction contained numerous proteins with 3-(cystein

  16. Levels of PAH-DNA adducts in placental tissue and the risk of fetal neural tube defects in a Chinese population.

    Yuan, Yue; Jin, Lei; Wang, Linlin; Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Le; Zhu, Huiping; Finnell, Richard H; Zhou, Guodong; Ren, Aiguo


    We examined the relationship between PAH-DNA adduct levels in the placental tissue, measured by a highly sensitive (32)P-postlabeling assay, and the risk of fetal neural tube defects (NTDs). We further explored the interaction between PAH-DNA adducts and placental PAHs with respect to NTD risk. Placental tissues from 80 NTD-affected pregnancies and 50 uncomplicated normal pregnancies were included in this case-control study. Levels of PAH-DNA adducts were lower in the NTD group (8.12 per 10(8) nucleotides) compared to controls (9.92 per 10(8) nucleotides). PAH-DNA adduct concentrations below the median was associated with a 3-fold increased NTD risk. Women with a low PAH-DNA adduct level in concert with a high placental PAH level resulted in a 10-fold elevated risk of having an NTD-complicated pregnancy. A low level of placental PAH-DNA adducts was associated with an increased risk of NTDs; this risk increased dramatically when a low adduct level was coupled with a high placental PAH concentration.

  17. Estimativa da entalpia de decomposição (deltaD Hmº de adutos por termogravimetria Estimative of deltaD Hmº for adducts by thermogravimetry

    Robson Fernandes de Farias


    Full Text Available An empirical equation: deltaD HmO = t i/2.2(2-n is obtained and tested for 102 adducts (mainly adducts with zinc group halides. In the equation, t i is the Kelvin temperature of the beginning of the thermal decomposition of the adduct, (obtained by thermogravimetry, and n is the number of ligands. For 1/3 of the tested adducts the difference between experimental and calculated values was less than 5%. For about 1/3 of the adducts that difference exceeds 15%.

  18. 32P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducts in the skin of mice treated with petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils and exhaust condensates.

    Schoket, B; Hewer, A; Grover, P L; Phillips, D H


    Samples of unused or used petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils were applied to the shaved dorsal skin of 4- to 6-week-old male Parkes mice, either as a single treatment (50 microliters/mouse) or as four consecutive daily treatments (50 microliters/application). DNA isolated from the skin 24 h after the final treatment was digested to 3'-mononucleotides and analysed by 32P-postlabelling for the presence of aromatic adducts. Enhancement of sensitivity using butanol extraction or nuclease P1 digestion of the DNA hydrolysates led to the detection of up to eight adduct spots on polyethyleneimine-cellulose thin-layer chromatograms with samples of DNA from skin treated with used engine oils, at levels of 40-150 amol total adducts/micrograms DNA. Multiple treatments with the used oils gave rise to similar patterns of adducts in lung DNA. A single treatment of mouse skin with petrol engine exhaust condensate (50 microliters), or diesel engine exhaust condensate (50 microliters), containing 20 and 46 micrograms benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)/g respectively, gave rise to approximately 75 amol total adducts/micrograms DNA in skin. A significant proportion, 31 and 48% respectively, of the adducts formed by the petrol and diesel engine exhaust condensates co-chromatographed with the major BaP-DNA adduct, but with the used engine oils, only petrol engine oil, and not diesel engine oil, produced significant amounts of an adduct (22% of total) that corresponded to the BaP-DNA adduct.

  19. Screening for DNA adducts by data-dependent constant neutral loss-triple stage mass spectrometry with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    Bessette, Erin E; Goodenough, Angela K; Langouët, Sophie; Yasa, Isil; Kozekov, Ivan D; Spivack, Simon D; Turesky, Robert J


    A two-dimensional linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (LIT/MS) was employed to simultaneously screen for DNA adducts of environmental, dietary, and endogenous genotoxicants, by data-dependent constant neutral loss scanning followed by triple-stage mass spectrometry (CNL-MS3). The loss of the deoxyribose (dR) from the protonated DNA adducts ([M + H - 116]+) in the MS/MS scan mode triggered the acquisition of MS3 product ion spectra of the aglycone adducts [BH2]+. Five DNA adducts of the tobacco carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) were detected in human hepatocytes treated with 4-ABP, and three DNA adducts of the cooked-meat carcinogen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) were identified in the livers of rats exposed to MeIQx, by the CNL-MS3 scan mode. Buccal cell DNA from tobacco smokers was screened for DNA adducts of various classes of carcinogens in tobacco smoke including 4-ABP, 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AalphaC), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP); the cooked-meat carcinogens MeIQx, AalphaC, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylmidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); and the lipid peroxidation products acrolein (AC) and trans-4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). The CNL-MS3 scanning technique can be used to simultaneously screen for multiple DNA adducts derived from different classes of carcinogens, at levels of adduct modification approaching 1 adduct per 108 unmodified DNA bases, when 10 microg of DNA is employed for the assay.

  20. Red wine consumption is inversely associated with 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-DNA adduct levels in prostate.

    Rybicki, Benjamin A; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Bock, Cathryn H; Nock, Nora L; Rundle, Andrew; Jankowski, Michelle; Levin, Albert M; Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer; Savera, Adnan T; Takahashi, Satoru; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Tang, Deliang


    In humans, genetic variation and dietary factors may alter the biological effects of exposure to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), one of the major heterocyclic amines generated from cooking meats at high temperatures that has carcinogenic potential through the formation of DNA adducts. Previously, we reported grilled red meat consumption associated with PhIP-DNA adduct levels in human prostate. In this study, we expanded our investigation to estimate the associations between beverage consumption and PhIP-DNA adduct levels in prostate for 391 prostate cancer cases. Of the 15 beverages analyzed, red wine consumption had the strongest association with PhIP-DNA adduct levels showing an inverse correlation in both tumor (P = 0.006) and nontumor (P = 0.002) prostate cells. Red wine consumption was significantly lower in African American compared with white cases, but PhIP-DNA adduct levels in prostate did not vary by race. In African Americans compared with whites, however, associations between red wine consumption and PhIP-DNA adduct levels were not as strong as associations with specific (e.g., SULT1A1 and UGT1A10 genotypes) and nonspecific (e.g., African ancestry) genetic variation. In a multivariable model, the covariate for red wine consumption explained a comparable percentage (13%-16%) of the variation in PhIP-DNA adduct levels in prostate across the two racial groups, but the aforementioned genetic factors explained 33% of the PhIP-DNA adduct variation in African American cases, whereas only 19% of the PhIP-DNA adduct variation in whites. We conclude that red wine consumption may counteract biological effects of PhIP exposure in human prostate, but genetic factors may play an even larger role, particularly in African Americans.

  1. DNA adduct kinetics in reproductive tissues of DNA repair proficient and deficient male mice after oral exposure to benzo(a)pyrene.

    Verhofstad, Nicole; van Oostrom, Conny Th M; van Benthem, Jan; van Schooten, Frederik J; van Steeg, Harry; Godschalk, Roger W L


    Benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) can induce somatic mutations, whereas its potential to induce germ cell mutations is unclear. There is circumstantial evidence that paternal exposure to B[a]P can result in germ cell mutations. Since DNA adducts are thought to be a prerequisite for B[a]P induced mutations, we studied DNA adduct kinetics by (32)P-postlabeling in sperm, testes and lung tissues of male mice after a single exposure to B[a]P (13 mg/kg bw, by gavage). To investigate DNA adduct formation at different stages of spermatogenesis, mice were sacrificed at Day 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 32, and 42 after exposure. In addition, DNA repair deficient (Xpc(-/-)) mice were used to study the contribution of nucleotide excision repair in DNA damage removal. DNA adducts were detectable with highest levels in lung followed by sperm and testis. Maximum adduct levels in the lung and testis were observed at Day 1 after exposure, while adduct levels in sperm reached maximum levels at approximately 1 week after exposure. Lung tissue and testis of Xpc(-/-) mice contained significantly higher DNA adduct levels compared to wild type (Wt) mice over the entire 42 day observation period (P adduct half-life between Xpc(-/-) and Wt mice were only observed in testis. In sperm, DNA adduct levels were significantly higher in Xpc(-/-) mice than in Wt mice only at Day 42 after exposure (P = 0.01). These results indicate that spermatogonia and testes are susceptible for the induction of DNA damage and rely on nucleotide excision repair for maintaining their genetic integrity.

  2. Effect of multiple adduct fullerenes on microstructure and phase behavior of P3HT:fullerene blend films for organic solar cells.

    Guilbert, Anne A Y; Reynolds, Luke X; Bruno, Annalisa; MacLachlan, Andrew; King, Simon P; Faist, Mark A; Pires, Ellis; Macdonald, J Emyr; Stingelin, Natalie; Haque, Saif A; Nelson, Jenny


    The bis and tris adducts of [6,6]phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) offer lower reduction potentials than PCBM and are therefore expected to offer larger open-circuit voltages and more efficient energy conversion when blended with conjugated polymers in photovoltaic devices in place of PCBM. However, poor photovoltaic device performances are commonly observed when PCBM is replaced with higher-adduct fullerenes. In this work, we use transmission electron microscopy (TEM), steady-state and ultrafast time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to probe the microstructural properties of blend films of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) with the bis and tris adducts of PCBM. TEM and PL indicate that, in as-spun blend films, fullerenes become less soluble in P3HT as the number of adducts increases. PL indicates that upon annealing crystallization leads to phase separation in P3HT:PCBM samples only. DSC studies indicate that the interactions between P3HT and the fullerene become weaker with higher-adduct fullerenes and that all systems exhibit eutectic phase behavior with a eutectic composition being shifted to higher molar fullerene content for higher-adduct fullerenes. We propose two different mechanisms of microstructure development for PCBM and higher-adduct fullerenes. P3HT:PCBM blends, phase segregation is the result of crystallization of either one or both components and is facilitated by thermal treatments. In contrast, for blends containing higher adducts, the phase separation is due to a partial demixing of the amorphous phases. We rationalize the lower photocurrent generation by the higher-adduct fullerene blends in terms of film microstructure.

  3. Simultaneous quantification of soman and VX adducts to butyrylcholinesterase, their aged methylphosphonic acid adduct and butyrylcholinesterase in plasma using an off-column procainamide-gel separation method combined with UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Liu, Chang-Cai; Huang, Gui-Lan; Xi, Hai-Ling; Liu, Shi-Lei; Liu, Jing-Quan; Yu, Hui-Lan; Zhou, Shi-Kun; Liang, Long-Hui; Yuan, Ling


    This work describes a novel and sensitive non-isotope dilution method for simultaneous quantification of organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) soman (GD) and VX adducts to butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), their aged methylphosphonic acid (MeP) adduct and unadducted BChE in plasma exposed to OPNA. OPNA-BChE adducts were isolated with an off-column procainamide-gel separation (PGS) from plasma, and then digested with pepsin into specific adducted FGES(*)AGAAS nonapeptide (NP) biomarkers. The resulting NPs were detected by UHPLC-MS/MS MRM. The off-column PGS method can capture over 90% of BChE, MeP-BChE, VX-BChE and GD-BChE from their respective plasma materials. One newly designed and easily synthesized phosphorylated BChE nonapeptide with one Gly-to-Ala mutation was successfully reported to serve as internal standard instead of traditional isotopically labeled BChE nonapeptide. The linear range of calibration curves were from 1.00-200ngmL(-1) for VX-NP, 2.00-200ngmL(-1) for GD-NP and MeP-NP (R(2)≥0.995), and 3.00-200ngmL(-1) for BChE NP (R(2)≥0.990). The inter-day precision had relative standard deviation (%RSD) of VX-NP, GD-NP, MeP-NP and BChE NP, respectively. OPNA-exposed quality control plasma samples were characterized as part of method validation. Investigation of plasma samples unexposed to OPNA revealed no baseline values or interferences. Using the off-column PGS method combined with UHPLC-MS/MS, VX-NP and GD-NP adducts can be unambiguously detected with high confidence in 0.10ngmL(-1) and 0.50ngmL(-1) of exposed human plasma respectively, only requiring 0.1mL of plasma sample and taking about four hours without special sample preparation equipment. These improvements make it a simple, sensitive and robust PGS-UHPLC-MS/MS method, and this method will become an attractive alternative to immunomagnetic separation (IMS) method and a useful diagnostic tool for retrospective detection of OPNA exposure with high confidence. Furthermore, using the developed

  4. Congenital third nerve palsy with synergistic depression on attempted adduction and trigemino-oculomotor synkinesis: Underpinnings of a spectral dysinnervation disorder.

    Pandey, Pramod Kumar; Bhambhwani, Vishaal; Ranjith, P C; Kadav, Mandar; Aparnaa, C


    The authors describe a case of congenital partial pupil-sparing third cranial nerve palsy with absent adduction, synergistic depression of globe and widening of palpebral fissure on attempted adduction and synergistic elevation and adduction on mouth opening and sideways thrusting of jaw. The case illustrates trigemino-oculomotor synkinesis associated with congenital third nerve palsy. The possible mechanism of miswiring involving the medial longitudinal fasciculus and trigeminal nuclei is discussed. At least some cases of congenital third cranial nerve palsy may fall in the realm of congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs) sharing a much wider spectrum of presentation.

  5. Association between mutation spectra and stable and unstable DNA adduct profiles in Salmonella for benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene

    DeMarini, David M., E-mail: [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hanley, Nancy M.; Warren, Sarah H.; Adams, Linda D.; King, Leon C. [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)


    Highlights: {yields} Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) induces stable DNA adducts and mutations primarily at guanine. {yields} Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) induces them primarily at adenine. {yields} BP induces abasic sites, but DBP does not in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. {yields} Stable DNA adducts alone appear to account for the mutation spectrum of DBP. {yields} Stable DNA adducts and possibly abasic sites account for the mutation spectrum of BP. - Abstract: Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) are two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that exhibit distinctly different mutagenicity and carcinogenicity profiles. Although some studies show that these PAHs produce unstable DNA adducts, conflicting data and arguments have been presented regarding the relative roles of these unstable adducts versus stable adducts, as well as oxidative damage, in the mutagenesis and tumor-mutation spectra of these PAHs. However, no study has determined the mutation spectra along with the stable and unstable DNA adducts in the same system with both PAHs. Thus, we determined the mutagenic potencies and mutation spectra of BP and DBP in strains TA98, TA100 and TA104 of Salmonella, and we also measured the levels of abasic sites (aldehydic-site assay) and characterized the stable DNA adducts ({sup 32}P-postlabeling/HPLC) induced by these PAHs in TA104. Our results for the mutation spectra and site specificity of stable adducts were consistent with those from other systems, showing that DBP was more mutagenic than BP in TA98 and TA100. The mutation spectra of DBP and BP were significantly different in TA98 and TA104, with 24% of the mutations induced by BP in TA98 being complex frameshifts, whereas DBP produced hardly any of these mutations. In TA104, BP produced primarily GC to TA transversions, whereas DBP produced primarily AT to TA transversions. The majority (96%) of stable adducts induced by BP were at guanine, whereas the majority (80%) induced by DBP were at adenine

  6. Investigation of the DNA adducts formed in B6C3F1 mice treated with benzene: Implications for molecular dosimetry

    Bodell, W.J.; Pathak, D.N.; Levay, G. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others


    We have investigated the formation of DNA adducts in the bone marrow and white blood cells of male B6C3F1 mice treated with benzene using P1-enhanced {sup 32}P-postlabeling. No adducts were detected in the bone marrow of controls or mice treated with various doses of benzene once a day. After twice-daily treatment for 1 to 7 days with benzene, 440 mg/kg, one major (no. 1) and UP to two minor DNA adducts were detected in both the bone marrow and white blood cells. The relative adduct levels in these cells ranged from 0.06 to 1.46 x 10{sup -7}. A significant correlation (r 0.95) between levels of adducts in bone marrow and white blood cells was observed. After a 7-day treatment with benzene, 440 mg/kg twice a day, the number of cells per femur decreased from 1.6 x 10{sup 7} to 0.85 X 10{sup 7}, indicating myelotoxicity. In contrast, administration of benzene once a day produced only a small decrease in bone marrow cellularity. The observed induction of toxicity in bone marrow was paralleled by formation of DNA adducts. In vitro treatment of bone marrow with hydroquinone (HQ) for 24 hr produced the same DNA adducts as found after treatment of mice with benzene, suggesting that HQ is the principal metabolite of benzene leading to DNA adduct formation in vivo. Using {sup 32}P-postlabeling the principal DNA adduct formed in vivo was compared with N{sup 2}-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-deoxyguanosine-3-phosphate. The results of this comparison demonstrates that the DNA adduct formed in vivo co-chromatographs with N{sup 2}-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-deoxyguanosine-3{prime}-phosphate. These studies indicate that metabolic activation of benzene leads to the formation of DNA adducts in bone marrow and white blood cells and suggest that measurement of DNA adducts in white blood cells may be an indicator of biological effect following benzene exposure. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. DNA adducts, benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenase activity, and lysosomal membrane stability in Mytilus galloprovincialis from different areas in Taranto coastal waters (Italy).

    Pisoni, M; Cogotzi, L; Frigeri, A; Corsi, I; Bonacci, S; Iacocca, A; Lancini, L; Mastrototaro, F; Focardi, S; Svelto, M


    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of environmental pollution at different stations along the Taranto coastline (Ionian Sea, Puglia, Italy) using several biomarkers of exposure and the effect on mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected in October 2001 and October 2002. Five sampling sites were compared with a "cleaner" reference site in the Aeronautics Area. In this study we also investigated the differences between adduct levels in gills and digestive gland. This Taranto area is the most significant industrial settlement on the Ionian Sea known to be contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, heavy metals, etc. Exposure to PAHs was evaluated by measuring DNA adduct levels and benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenase activity (B(a)PMO); DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling with nuclease P1 enhancement in both gills and digestive glands to evaluate differences between DNA adduct levels in the two tissues. B(a)PMO was assayed in the microsomal fraction of the digestive glands as a result of the high expression of P450-metabolizing enzymes in this tissue. Lysosomal membrane stability, a potential biomarker of anthropogenic stress, was also evaluated in the digestive glands of mussels, by measuring the latent activity of beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase. Induction of DNA adducts was evident in both tissues, although the results revealed large tissue differences in DNA adduct formation. In fact, gills showed higher DNA adduct levels than did digestive gland. No significant differences were found in DNA adduct levels over time, with both tissues providing similar results in both years. DNA adduct levels were correlated with B(a)PMO activity in digestive gland in both years (r = 0.60 in 2001; r = 0.73 in 2002). Increases were observed in B(a)PMO activity and DNA adduct levels at different stations; no statistical difference was observed in B(a)PMO activity over the two monitoring campaigns. The membrane labilization

  8. LC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) determination of direct condensation flavanol-anthocyanin adducts in pressure extracted pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice.

    Sentandreu, Enrique; Navarro, Jose L; Sendra, Jose M


    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice, obtained by pressure extraction of the whole fruit, has been analyzed for its flavanol-anthocyanin adduct content using reversed-phase liquid chromatography with diode array detection, coupled to mass spectrometry (ion trap) with electrospray ionization (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n)), operating in positive ion mode. A total of 35 dimers have been detected, consisting of mono- and disubstituted hexoside derivatives of the adducts between the flavan-3-ols (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)catechin and (epi)afzelechin and the anthocyanidins delphinidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin. In addition, evidence is given for the presence of additional anthocyanin-flavanol adducts in this juice.

  9. Congenital third nerve palsy with synergistic depression on attempted adduction and trigemino-oculomotor synkinesis: Underpinnings of a spectral dysinnervation disorder

    Pramod Kumar Pandey


    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of congenital partial pupil-sparing third cranial nerve palsy with absent adduction, synergistic depression of globe and widening of palpebral fissure on attempted adduction and synergistic elevation and adduction on mouth opening and sideways thrusting of jaw. The case illustrates trigemino-oculomotor synkinesis associated with congenital third nerve palsy. The possible mechanism of miswiring involving the medial longitudinal fasciculus and trigeminal nuclei is discussed. At least some cases of congenital third cranial nerve palsy may fall in the realm of congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs sharing a much wider spectrum of presentation.

  10. Acute and sub-acute effects of repetitive kicking on hip adduction torque in injury-free elite youth soccer players

    Jensen, Jesper; Bandholm, Thomas; Hölmich, Per;


    Hip adduction strength is important for kicking and acceleration in soccer players. Changes in hip adduction strength may therefore have an effect on soccer players' athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and sub-acute effects of a kicking drill session on hip...... strength, concerning isometric hip adduction, abduction and flexion torque of the kicking leg and the supporting leg. Ten injury-free male elite soccer players, mean ± s age of 15.8 ± 0.4 years participated. All players underwent a specific 20 min kicking drill session, comprising 45 kicks. The players...

  11. Characterization of Thioether-Linked Protein Adducts of DNA Using a Raney-Ni Mediated Desulfurization Method and Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Chowdhury, Goutam; Guengerich, F. Peter


    This unit contains a complete procedure for the detection and structural characterization of DNA protein crosslinks (DPCs). The procedure also describes an approach for the quantitation of the various structurally distinct DPCs. Although various methods have been described in the literature for labile DPCs, characterization of non-labile adducts remain a challenge. Here we present a novel approach for characterization of both labile and non-labile adducts by the use of a combination of chemical, enzymatic, and mass spectrometric approaches. A Raney Ni-catalyzed reductive desulfurization method was used for removal of the bulky peptide adducts, enzymatic digestion was used to digest the protein to smaller peptides and DNA to nucleosides, and finally LC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry (MS) was utilized for detection and characterization of nucleoside adducts. PMID:25754888


    Summary What is the study? Near roadway and immediate roadway exposures to transportation emissions gave very similar results in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay and in an assay for DNA adducts indicating that near roadway genotoxicity is not altered significantly over...

  13. Eccentric and Isometric Hip Adduction Strength in Male Soccer Players With and Without Adductor-Related Groin Pain An Assessor-Blinded Comparison

    Thorborg, Kristian; Branci, Sonia; Nielsen, Peter Martin;


    investigated. PURPOSE: To investigate whether isometric and eccentric hip strength are decreased in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain compared with asymptomatic soccer controls. The hypothesis was that players with adductor-related groin pain would have lower isometric and eccentric hip adduction.......5 ± 2.5 years, and the mean age of the asymptomatic controls was 22.9 ± 2.4 years. Isometric hip strength (adduction, abduction, and flexion) and eccentric hip strength (adduction) were assessed with a handheld dynamometer using reliable test procedures and a blinded assessor. RESULTS: Eccentric hip...... adduction strength was lower in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain in the dominant leg (n = 21) compared with asymptomatic controls (n = 16), namely 2.47 ± 0.49 versus 3.12 ± 0.43 N·m/kg, respectively (P

  14. Absolute configuration, stability, and interconversion of 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine valine adducts and their phenylthiohydantoin derivatives

    Xiao Jiang


    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are widespread in the world and probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids require metabolic activation to form dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids that bind to cellular proteins and DNA leading to hepatotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. At present, it is not clear how dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids bind to cellular amino acids and proteins to induced toxicity. We previously reported that reaction of dehydromonocrotaline with valine generated four highly unstable 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP-derived valine (DHP-valine adducts that upon reaction with phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC formed four DHP-valine-PITC adduct isomers. In this study, we report the absolute configuration and stability of DHP-valine and DHP-valine-PITC adducts, and the mechanism of interconversion between DHP-valine-PITC adducts.

  15. Formation of a major DNA adduct of the mitomycin metabolite 2,7-diaminomitosene in EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells treated with mitomycin C.

    Palom, Y; Belcourt, M F; Kumar, G S; Arai, H; Kasai, M; Sartorelli, A C; Rockwell, S; Tomasz, M


    Treatment of EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells with [3H]mitomycin C (MC) results in the formation of six major DNA adducts, as described earlier using an HPLC assay of 3H-labeled products of enzymatic hydrolysis of DNA isolated from MC-treated cells. Four of these adducts were identified as monofunctional and bifunctional guanine-N2 adducts in the minor groove of DNA. In order to establish relationships between individual types of MC-DNA adducts and biological responses it is necessary to identify all of the adducts formed in cells. To this end we have now identified a predominant, previously unknown adduct formed in MC-treated EMT6 cells as a derivative not of MC, but of 2,7-diaminomitosene (2,7-DAM), the major bioreductive metabolite of MC. Rigorous proof demonstrates that it is a DNA major groove, guanine-N7 adduct of 2,7-DAM, linked at C-10 to DNA. The adduct is relatively stable at ambient temperature, but is readily depurinated upon heating. Its isolation from MC-treated cells indicates that MC is reductively metabolized to 2,7-DAM, which then undergoes further reductive activation to alkylate DNA, along with the parent MC. Low MC:DNA ratios were identified as a critical factor promoting 2,7-DAM adduct formation in an in vitro model calf thymus DNA/ MC/reductase model system, as well as in MC-treated EMT6 cells. The 2,7-DAM-guanine-N7 DNA adduct appears to be relatively noncytotoxic, as indicated by the dramatically lower cytotoxicity of 2,7-DAM in comparison with MC in EMT6 cells. Like MC, 2,7-DAM exhibited slightly greater cytotoxicity to cells treated under hypoxic as compared to aerobic conditions. However, 2,7-DAM was markedly less cytotoxic than MC under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions. Thus, metabolic reduction of MC to 2,7-DAM represents a detoxification process. The differential effects of MC-DNA and 2,7-DAM-DNA adducts support the concept that specific structural features of the DNA damage may play a critical role in the cytotoxic response to a DNA

  16. Using cyclodextrins to encapsulate oxygen-centered and carbon-centered radical adducts: the case of DMPO, PBN, and MNP spin traps.

    Spulber, Mariana; Schlick, Shulamith


    We present electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments that describe the interaction of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) with spin adducts of three spin traps: 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN), and 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane (MNP). The focus was on spin adducts of oxygen-centered radicals trapped by DMPO and PBN and on carbon-centered radical adducts trapped by MNP. The radicals were generated by reaction with hydroxyl radicals and the spin adducts studied were DMPO/OH and PBN/OH, MNP/CH(2)COOH generated in CH(3)COOH, and MNP/CF(2)COOH in CF(2)HCOOH. Di-tert-butyl nitroxide ((CH(3))(3)C)(2)NO (DTBN) was also detected in experiments with MNP as the spin trap. A range of interactions of the spin adducts and DTBN with beta-CD was identified. The presence of beta-CD led to significant stabilization of DMPO/OH and PBN/OH but to a negligible effect on the (14)N hyperfine splitting of the adducts, a(N), indicating that the N-O group is outside the beta-CD cavity. An increase of a(N) was detected for DTBN and MNP/CH(2)COOH in CH(3)COOH in the presence of beta-CD, a result we assigned to bonding at the rim of the host. Experiments with methylated beta-CD (Me beta-CD) provided support for this conclusion. A different type of complexation was detected for DTBN and MNP/CF(2)COOH in CF(2)HCOOH: for specific host concentrations both "in" and "out" species were detected. We suggest that the hydrophobicity of the fluorinated adduct leads to insertion of the adduct inside the host cavity. Calculation of the association constant K(a) indicated the competition between DTBN and the adduct for inclusion in the host. For MNP as spin trap, the two nitroxide radicals (adduct and DTBN) have the same type of interaction with the host: at the rim in acetic acid, and inside the host cavity in CF(2)HCOOH. Experiments with DTBN in the absence of the spin trap and of adducts illuminated the effect of the local polarity and of the pH on the hyperfine

  17. Structure of cis-[Pt(NH3)(2-picoline)]2+ and DNA adduct and its bonding characteristics

    JIA; Muxin; LIU; Kai; YANG; Zuoyin; CHEN; Guangju


    Several methods including molecular mechanics, molecular dynamics, ONIOM that combines quantum chemistry with molecular mechanics and standard quantum chemistry are used to study the configuration and electron structures of an adduct of the DNA segment d(ATACATG*G*TACATA)·d(TATGTACCATGTAT) with cis-[Pt(NH3)(2-Picoline)]2+. The investigation shows that the configuration optimized by ONIOM is similar to that determined by NMR. Strong chemical bonds between Pt of the complex and two N7s of neighboring guanines in the DNA duplex and hydrogen bond between the NH3 of the complex and O6 of a nearby guanine have a large impact on the configuration of the adduct. Chemical bonds, the aforementioned hydrogen bond, and the interaction between a methyl of the complex and a methyl of the base in close proximity are critical for the complex to specifically recognize DNA.

  18. Increased micronuclei and bulky DNA adducts in cord blood after maternal exposures to traffic-related air pollution

    Pedersen, M.; Wichmann, J.; Autrup, H.


    Exposure to traffic-related air pollution in urban environment is common and has been associated with adverse human health effects. In utero exposures that result in DNA damage may affect health later in life. Early effects of maternal and in utero exposures to traffic-related air pollution were...... for potential confounders and effect modifiers. For the first time increased bulky DNA adducts and MN in cord blood after maternal exposures to traffic-related air pollution are found, demonstrating that these transplacental environmental exposures induce DNA damage in newborns. Given that increased DNA damage...... umbilical cords, concurrently collected at the time of planned Caesarean section. Modeled residential traffic density, a proxy measure of traffic-related air pollution exposures, was validated by indoor levels of nitrogen dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 42 non-smoking homes. DNA adduct...

  19. Crystal Structure of Adduct 2-Phenyl-imidazo [ 4,5-f ] 1,10-phenanthroline Methanol

    林惠文; 朱文祥


    The structure of the title adduct comprises a phenanthroline derivative 2-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline and a methanol.The composition of the crystalline adduct was characterized as C19H12N4.CH3OH.It belongs to orthorhombic system,space group Pna21 with a=1.3693(4)nm,b=2.2988(7)nm,c=0.51338(15)nm,V=1.6160(8)nm3.Z=4,and final R1=0.0423.wR2=0.1012 .Crystal structure shows that all the 19 carbon atoms and 4 nitrogen atoms are coplanar.The bond length data indicated that a very extensive conjugation system was formed.This conjugation makes the compound being a potentially excellent energy transformer used for luminescent materials.

  20. Assessment of Interactions between PAH Exposure and Genetic Polymorphisms on PAH-DNA Adducts in African American, Dominican, and Caucasian Mothers and Newborns

    Wang, Shuang; Chanock, Stephen; Tang, Deliang; Li, Zhigang; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are widespread pollutants commonly found in air, food, and drinking water. Benzo[a]pyrene is a well-studied representative PAH found in air from fossil fuel combustion and a transplacental carcinogen experimentally. PAHs bind covalently to DNA to form DNA adducts, an indicator of DNA damage, and an informative biomarker of potential cancer risk. Associations between PAH-DNA adduct levels and both cancer risk and developmental deficits have been seen in p...

  1. The modulation of topoisomerase I-mediated DNA cleavage and the induction of DNA–topoisomerase I crosslinks by crotonaldehyde-derived DNA adducts


    Crotonaldehyde is a representative α,β-unsaturated aldehyde endowed of mutagenic and carcinogenic properties related to its propensity to react with DNA. Cyclic crotonaldehyde-derived deoxyguanosine (CrA-PdG) adducts can undergo ring opening in duplex DNA to yield a highly reactive aldehydic moiety. Here, we demonstrate that site-specifically modified DNA oligonucleotides containing a single CrA-PdG adduct can form crosslinks with topoisomerase I (Top1), both directly and indirectly. Direct c...

  2. Synthesis of oxa-bridged derivatives from Diels–Alder bis-adducts of butadiene and 1,2,3,4-tetrahalo-5,5-dimethoxycyclopentadiene

    Faiz Ahmed Khan


    Full Text Available Bis-adducts of 1,2,3,4-tetrahalo-5,5-dimethoxycyclopentadiene and 1,3-butadiene, generated in situ from 3-sulfolene, have been synthesized in excellent yield. Ruthenium catalyzed oxidation of the bis-adducts followed by a one-pot transformation of the resulting α-diketone furnished oxa-bridged compounds. Unambiguous stereochemical assignments of both diastereomeric series are reported.

  3. DMAP-catalyzed [3 + 2] and [4 + 2] cycloaddition reactions between [60]fullerene and unmodified Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts in the presence of Ac2O.

    Yang, Hai-Tao; Ren, Wen-Long; Miao, Chun-Bao; Dong, Chun-Ping; Yang, Yang; Xi, Hai-Tao; Meng, Qi; Jiang, Yan; Sun, Xiao-Qiang


    One-step DMAP-catalyzed [3 + 2] and [4 + 2] cycloaddition reactions between C(60) and unmodified Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts in the presence of Ac(2)O have been developed for the easy preparation of cyclopentene- and cyclohexene-fused [60]fullerene derivatives. When the MBH adducts bear an alkyl group, two different reaction pathways could be controlled selectively depending on the conditions.

  4. Bulky DNA Adducts in Cord Blood, Maternal Fruit-and-Vegetable Consumption, and Birth Weight in a European Mother–Child Study (NewGeneris)

    Pedersen, Marie; Schoket, Bernadette; Godschalk, Roger W.; Wright, John; von Stedingk, Hans; Törnqvist, Margareta; Sunyer, Jordi; Nielsen, Jeanette K.; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Mendez, Michelle A.; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Lukacs, Viktoria; Landström, Anette; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Kovacs, Katalin


    Background: Tobacco-smoke, airborne, and dietary exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been associated with reduced prenatal growth. Evidence from biomarker-based studies of low-exposed populations is limited. Bulky DNA adducts in cord blood reflect the prenatal effective dose to several genotoxic agents including PAHs. Objectives: We estimated the association between bulky DNA adduct levels and birth weight in a multicenter study and examined modification of this associat...

  5. Effects of alkyl chain length and substituent pattern of fullerene bis-adducts on film structures and photovoltaic properties of bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    Tao, Ran; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Kurotobi, Kei; Imahori, Hiroshi


    A series of alkoxycarbonyl-substituted dihydronaphthyl-based [60]fullerene bis-adduct derivatives (denoted as C2BA, C4BA, and C6BA with the alkyl chain of ethyl, n-butyl, and n-hexyl, respectively) have been synthesized to investigate the effects of alkyl chain length and substituent pattern of fullerene bis-adducts on the film structures and photovoltaic properties of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells. The shorter alkyl chain length caused lower solubility of the fullerene bis-adducts (C6BA > C4BA > C2BA), thereby resulting in the increased separation difficulty of respective bis-adduct isomers. The device performance based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the fullerene bis-adduct regioisomer mixtures was enhanced by shortening the alkyl chain length. When using the regioisomerically separated fullerene bis-adducts, the devices based on trans-2 and a mixture of trans-4 and e of C4BA exhibited the highest power conversion efficiencies of ca. 2.4%, which are considerably higher than those of the C6BA counterparts (ca. 1.4%) and the C4BA regioisomer mixture (1.10%). The film morphologies as well as electron mobilities of the P3HT:bis-adduct blend films were found to affect the photovoltaic properties considerably. These results reveal that the alkyl chain length and substituent pattern of fullerene bis-adducts significantly influence the photovoltaic properties as well as the film structures of bulk heterojunction solar cells.

  6. Evaluation of Interindividual Human Variation in Bioactivation and DNA Adduct Formation of Estragole in Liver Predicted by Physiologically Based Kinetic/Dynamic and Monte Carlo Modeling.

    Punt, Ans; Paini, Alicia; Spenkelink, Albertus; Scholz, Gabriele; Schilter, Benoit; van Bladeren, Peter J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M


    Estragole is a known hepatocarcinogen in rodents at high doses following metabolic conversion to the DNA-reactive metabolite 1'-sulfooxyestragole. The aim of the present study was to model possible levels of DNA adduct formation in (individual) humans upon exposure to estragole. This was done by extending a previously defined PBK model for estragole in humans to include (i) new data on interindividual variation in the kinetics for the major PBK model parameters influencing the formation of 1'-sulfooxyestragole, (ii) an equation describing the relationship between 1'-sulfooxyestragole and DNA adduct formation, (iii) Monte Carlo modeling to simulate interindividual human variation in DNA adduct formation in the population, and (iv) a comparison of the predictions made to human data on DNA adduct formation for the related alkenylbenzene methyleugenol. Adequate model predictions could be made, with the predicted DNA adduct levels at the estimated daily intake of estragole of 0.01 mg/kg bw ranging between 1.6 and 8.8 adducts in 10(8) nucleotides (nts) (50th and 99th percentiles, respectively). This is somewhat lower than values reported in the literature for the related alkenylbenzene methyleugenol in surgical human liver samples. The predicted levels seem to be below DNA adduct levels that are linked with tumor formation by alkenylbenzenes in rodents, which were estimated to amount to 188-500 adducts per 10(8) nts at the BMD10 values of estragole and methyleugenol. Although this does not seem to point to a significant health concern for human dietary exposure, drawing firm conclusions may have to await further validation of the model's predictions.

  7. A physiologically based in silico model for trans-2-hexenal detoxification and DNA adduct formation in human including interindividual variation indicates efficient detoxification and a negligible genotoxicity risk.

    Kiwamoto, R; Spenkelink, A; Rietjens, I M C M; Punt, A


    A number of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes are present in food both as natural constituents and as flavouring agents. Their reaction with DNA due to their electrophilic α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety may result in genotoxicity as observed in some in vitro models, thereby raising a safety concern. A question that remains is whether in vivo detoxification would be efficient enough to prevent DNA adduct formation and genotoxicity. In this study, a human physiologically based kinetic/dynamic (PBK/D) model of trans-2-hexenal (2-hexenal), a selected model α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, was developed to examine dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation in humans upon dietary exposure. The kinetic model parameters for detoxification were quantified using relevant pooled human tissue fractions as well as tissue fractions from 11 different individual subjects. In addition, a Monte Carlo simulation was performed so that the impact of interindividual variation in 2-hexenal detoxification on the DNA adduct formation in the population as a whole could be examined. The PBK/D model revealed that DNA adduct formation due to 2-hexenal exposure was 0.039 adducts/10⁸ nucleotides (nt) at the estimated average 2-hexenal dietary intake (0.04 mg 2-hexenal/kg bw) and 0.18 adducts/10⁸ nt at the 95th percentile of the dietary intake (0.178 mg 2-hexenal/kg bw) in the most sensitive people. These levels are three orders of magnitude lower than natural background DNA adduct levels that have been reported in disease-free humans (6.8-110 adducts/10⁸ nt), suggesting that the genotoxicity risk for the human population at realistic dietary daily intakes of 2-hexenal may be negligible.

  8. S-adenosyl-L-methionine protection of acetaminophen mediated oxidative stress and identification of hepatic 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts by mass spectrometry

    Brown, James Mike [Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Kuhlman, Christopher [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ (United States); Terneus, Marcus V. [Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Labenski, Matthew T. [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ (United States); Lamyaithong, Andre Benja; Ball, John G. [Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Lau, Serrine S. [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ (United States); Valentovic, Monica A., E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States)


    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is protected by S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) treatment 1 hour (h) after APAP in C57/Bl6 mice. This study examined protein carbonylation as well as mitochondrial and cytosolic protein adduction by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) using mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Additional studies investigated the leakage of mitochondrial proteins and 4-HNE adduction of these proteins. Male C57/Bl6 mice (n = 5/group) were divided into the following groups and treated as indicated: Veh (15 ml/kg water, ip), SAMe (1.25 mmol/kg, ip), APAP (250 mg/kg), and SAMe given 1 h after APAP (S + A). APAP toxicity was confirmed by an increase (p < 0.05) in plasma ALT (U/l) and liver weight/10 g body weight relative to the Veh, SAMe and S + A groups 4 h following APAP treatment. SAMe administered 1 h post-APAP partially corrected APAP hepatotoxicity as ALT and liver weight/10 g body weights were lower in the S + A group compared the APAP group. APAP induced leakage of the mitochondrial protein, carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS-1) into the cytosol and which was reduced in the S + A group. SAMe further reduced the extent of APAP mediated 4-HNE adduction of CPS-1. MS analysis of hepatic and mitochondrial subcellular fractions identified proteins from APAP treated mice. Site specific 4-HNE adducts were identified on mitochondrial proteins sarcosine dehydrogenase and carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS-1). In summary, APAP is associated with 4-HNE adduction of proteins as identified by MS analysis and that CPS-1 leakage was greater in APAP treated mice. SAMe reduced the extent of 4-HNE adduction of proteins as well as leakage of CPS-1. - Highlights: • Acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity protected by S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) • 4-Hydroxynonenal adducted to sarcosine dehydrogenase • 4-Hydroxynonenal adducted to carbamoyl phosphate synthetase-1 • SAMe reduced APAP mediated CPS-1 mitochondrial leakage.

  9. DNA Polymerases η and ζ Combine to Bypass O(2)-[4-(3-Pyridyl)-4-oxobutyl]thymine, a DNA Adduct Formed from Tobacco Carcinogens.

    Gowda, A S Prakasha; Spratt, Thomas E


    4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) are important human carcinogens in tobacco products. They are metabolized to produce a variety 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobutyl (POB) DNA adducts including O(2)-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]thymidine (O(2)-POB-dT), the most abundant POB adduct in NNK- and NNN-treated rodents. To evaluate the mutagenic properties of O(2)-POB-dT, we measured the rate of insertion of dNTPs opposite and extension past O(2)-POB-dT and O(2)-Me-dT by purified human DNA polymerases η, κ, ι, and yeast polymerase ζ in vitro. Under conditions of polymerase in excess, polymerase η was most effective at the insertion of dNTPs opposite O(2)-alkyl-dTs. The time courses were biphasic suggesting the formation of inactive DNA-polymerase complexes. The kpol parameter was reduced approximately 100-fold in the presence of the adduct for pol η, κ, and ι. Pol η was the most reactive polymerase for the adducts due to a higher burst amplitude. For all three polymerases, the nucleotide preference was dATP > dTTP ≫ dGTP and dCTP. Yeast pol ζ was most effective in bypassing the adducts; the kcat/Km values were reduced only 3-fold in the presence of the adducts. The identity of the nucleotide opposite the O(2)-alkyl-dT did not significantly affect the ability of pol ζ to bypass the adducts. The data support a model in which pol η inserts ATP or dTTP opposite O(2)-POB-dT, and then, pol ζ extends past the adduct.

  10. A convenient and stereoselective synthesis of (Z)-allyl selenides via Sm/TMSCI system-promoted coupling of Baylis-Hillman adducts with diselenides

    LIU Yun-kui; XU Dan-qian; XU Zhen-yuan; ZHANG Yong-min


    A simple and convenient procedure for stereoselective synthesis of (Z)-allyl selenides has been developed by a one-pot reaction of diselenides with Baylis-Hillman adducts in the presence of samarium metal-trimethylsilyl chloride under mild conditions. Presumably, the diselenides are cleaved by Sm/TMSCl system to form selenide anions, which then undergo SN2' substitution of Baylis-Hillman adducts to produce the (Z)-allyl selenides.

  11. Simultaneous Screening of Glutathione and Cyanide Adducts Using Precursor Ion and Neutral Loss Scans-Dependent Product Ion Spectral Acquisition and Data Mining Tools

    Jian, Wenying; Liu, Hua-Fen; Zhao, Weiping; Jones, Elliott; Zhu, Mingshe


    Drugs can be metabolically activated to soft and hard electrophiles, which are readily trapped by glutathione (GSH) and cyanide (CN), respectively. These adducts are often detected and structurally characterized using separate tandem mass spectrometry methods. We describe a new method for simultaneous screening of GSH and CN adducts using precursor ion (PI) and neutral loss (NL) scans-dependent product ion spectral acquisition and data mining tools on an triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry. GSH, potassium cyanide, and their stable isotope labeled analogues were incubated with liver microsomes and a test compound. Negative PI scan of m/z 272 for detection of GSH adducts and positive NL scans of 27 and 29 Da for detection of CN adducts were conducted as survey scans to trigger acquisition of enhanced resolution (ER) spectrum and subsequent enhanced product ion (EPI) spectrum. Post-acquisition data mining of EPI data set using NL filters of 129 and 27 Da was then performed to reveal the GSH adducts and CN adducts, respectively. Isotope patterns and EPI spectra of the detected adducts were utilized for identification of their molecular weights and structures. The effectiveness of this method was evaluated by analyzing reactive metabolites of nefazodone formed from rat liver microsomes. In addition to known GSH- and CN-trapped reactive metabolites, several new CN adducts of nefazodone were identified. The results suggested that current approach is highly effective in the analysis of both soft and hard reactive metabolites and can be used as a high-throughput method in drug discovery.

  12. Verification, Dosimetry and Biomonitoring of Mustard Gas Exposure via Immunochemical Detection of Mustard Gas Adducts to DNA and Proteins


    11.11.2. The samples resulting from the various treatments were tested in the competitive ELISA . Treatment Vih alkli Single-stranded calf-thymus DNA...exposure, Biomonitoring, Verification, Immunochemical detection, Competitive ELISA , Interstrand DNA crossslinking, Alkaline elution. Monoclonal antibodies...material at 50 ng per well. A competitive ELISA was developed in which mustard gas adducts to DNA could be detected with a minimum detectable amount of a few

  13. Induction of somatic mutations but not methylated DNA adducts in λlacZ transgenic mice by dichlorvos

    Pletsa, V.; Steenwinkel, M.-J.S.T.; Delft, J.H.M. van; Baan, R.A.; Kyrtopoulos, S.A.


    In order to examine the in vivo genotoxic activity of dichlorvos, λlacZ transgenic mice (Muta(TM)Mouse) were treated i.p. with single (4.4 or 11 mg/kg) or multiple (5x11 mg/kg) doses of this agent and sacrificed 4 h or 14 days post-treatment for DNA adduct measurement or mutant frequency analysis, r

  14. Synthesis and NMR Spectral Studies of the 7-C60-Adduct of N,N-(Tetrachlorophthaloyl Dehydroabietylamine

    Zhi Zhou


    Full Text Available The 7-C60-adduct of N,N-(tetrachlorophthaloyldehydroabietylamine was synthesized for the first time and characterized by IR, UV-vis, mass and NMR spectral studies. The 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR resonance signals of the new compound are unambiguously assigned by using homo- and heteronuclear 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques such as COSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC. The C1 symmetric structure with 6,6-junction of compound was determined.

  15. Theoretical study of the hydroxyl radical addition to uracil and photochemistry of the formed U6OH• adduct.

    Francés-Monerris, Antonio; Merchán, Manuela; Roca-Sanjuán, Daniel


    Hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) is produced in biological systems by external or endogenous agents. It can damage DNA/RNA by attacking pyrimidine nucleobases through the addition to the C5═C6 double bond. The adduct resulting from the attachment at the C5 position prevails in the experimental measurements, although the reasons for this preference remain unclear. The first aim of this work is therefore to shed light on the comprehension of this important process. Thus, the thermal (•)OH addition to the C5═C6 double bond of uracil has been studied theoretically by using DFT, MP2, and the multiconfigurational CASPT2//CASSCF methodologies. The in-vacuo results obtained with the latter protocol plus the analysis of solvent effects support the experimental observation. A significant lower barrier height is predicted for the C5 pathway with respect to that of the C6 route. In contrast to the C5 adduct, the C6 adduct is able to absorb visible light. Hence, the second aim of the work is to study the photochemistry of this species using the CASPT2//CASSCF methodology within the framework of the photochemical reaction path approach (PRPA). The nonradiative decay to the ground state of this compound has been characterized. A photoreactive character is predicted for the C6 adduct in the excited states according to the presence of excited-state minima along the main decay channel. Finally, a new mechanism of photodissociation has been explored, which implies the photoinduced regeneration of the canonical nucleobase by irradiating with visible light, being therefore relevant in RNA protection against damage by reactive oxygen species.

  16. Detection of serum AFB1-lysine adduct in Malaysia and its association with liver and kidney functions.

    Mohd Redzwan, S; Rosita, Jamaluddin; Mohd Sokhini, A M; Nurul 'Aqilah, A R; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Kang, Min-Su; Zuraini, Ahmad


    Aflatoxin is ubiquitously found in many foodstuffs and produced by Aspergillus species of fungi. Of many aflatoxin metabolites, AFB1 is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as group one carcinogen and linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The study on molecular biomarker of aflatoxin provides a better assessment on the extent of human exposure to aflatoxin. In Malaysia, the occurrences of aflatoxin-contaminated foods have been documented, but there is a lack of data on human exposure to aflatoxin. Hence, this study investigated the occurrence of AFB1-lysine adduct in serum samples and its association with liver and kidney functions. 5ml fasting blood samples were collected from seventy-one subjects (n=71) for the measurement of AFB1-lysine adduct, albumin, total bilirubin, AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine transaminase), ALP (alkaline phosphatase), GGT (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase), creatinine and BUN (blood urea nitrogen). The AFB1-lysine adduct was detected in all serum samples (100% detection rate) with a mean of 6.85±3.20pg/mg albumin (range: 1.13-18.85pg/mg albumin). Male subjects (mean: 8.03±3.41pg/mg albumin) had significantly higher adduct levels than female subjects (mean: 5.64±2.46pg/mg albumin) (padduct levels greater than average (>6.85pg/mg albumin) had significantly elevated level of total bilirubin (padduct. This study provides a valuable insight on human exposure to aflatoxin in Malaysia. Given that aflatoxin can pose serious problem to the health, intervention strategies should be implemented to limit/reduce human exposure to aflatoxin. Besides, a study with a big sample size should be warranted in order to assess aflatoxin exposure in the general population of Malaysia.

  17. Inhalation and Percutaneous Toxicokinetics of Sulfur Mustard and Its Adducts in Hairless Guinea Pigs and Marmosets. Efficacy of Naval Scavengers


    Marmosets . Efficacy of Nasal Scavengers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jan P. Langenberg, Ph.D., Pharm.D. Henk C. Trap CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: TNO Prins...Inhalation and Percutaneous Toxicokinetics of Sulfur Mustard and Its Adducts in Hairless Guinea Pigs and Marmosets . Efficacy of Nasal Scavengers 5b. GRANT...inhalation toxicokinetics of sulfur mustard were studied in more detail in the hairless guinea pig as well as in the marmoset . Hairless guinea pigs were 5

  18. Sustained systemic delivery of green tea polyphenols by polymeric implants significantly diminishes benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA adducts.

    Cao, Pengxiao; Vadhanam, Manicka V; Spencer, Wendy A; Cai, Jian; Gupta, Ramesh C


    The polyphenolics in green tea are believed to be the bioactive components. However, poor bioavailability following ingestion limits their efficacy in vivo. In this study, polyphenon E (poly E), a standardized green tea extract, was administered by sustained-release polycaprolactone implants (two, 2-cm implants; 20% drug load) grafted subcutaneously or via drinking water (0.8% w/v) to female S/D rats. Animals were treated with continuous low dose of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) via subcutaneous polymeric implants (2 cm; 10% load) and euthanized after 1 and 4 weeks. Analysis of lung DNA by (32)P-postlabeling resulted in a statistically significant reduction (50%; p = 0.023) of BP-induced DNA adducts in the implant group; however, only a modest (34%) but statistically insignificant reduction occurred in the drinking water group at 1 week. The implant delivery system also showed significant reduction (35%; p = 0.044) of the known BP diolepoxide-derived DNA adduct after 4 weeks. Notably, the total dose of poly E administered was >100-fold lower in the implant group than the drinking water group (15.7 versus 1,632 mg, respectively). Analysis of selected phase I, phase II, and nucleotide excision repair enzymes at both mRNA and protein levels showed no significant modulation by poly E, suggesting that the reduction in the BP-induced DNA adducts occurred presumably due to known scavenging of the antidiolepoxide of BP by the poly E catechins. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that sustained systemic delivery of poly E significantly reduced BP-induced DNA adducts in spite of its poor bioavailability following oral administration.

  19. Improved method to measure aldehyde adducts to N-terminal valine in hemoglobin using 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 2,5-furandialdehyde as model compounds.

    Davies, R; Hedebrant, U; Athanassiadis, I; Rydberg, P; Törnqvist, M


    Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts are used to measure reactive compounds/metabolites in vivo. Schiff base adducts from aldehydes to N-termini in Hb have been measured by GC-MS/MS after stabilisation through reduction, and detachment by a modified Edman procedure. This paper describes a further development using 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and its probable metabolite, 2,5-furandialdehyde (FDA), as model compounds. Reference compounds were synthesized and characterized. The conditions for the reduction of the Schiff bases were optimized using NaBH(3)CN as a mild reducing agent, and steps used in the earlier method could be deleted. The adduct from FDA could not be specifically analysed, as selective reduction of the imine could not be achieved. In a few samples of human blood, background levels of 10-35 pmol/g globin of the HMF adduct were observed. Half-lifes of the reversible Schiff base adduct from HMF were determined to 3.4h at 37 degrees C and 10.9h at 25 degrees C. The developed method showed good sensitivity and reproducibility for the analysis of the Schiff base from HMF, with improvements regarding simplicity of work-up procedures due to mild conditions. The developed method could be explored for application to adducts from other aldehydes bound as Schiff bases to N-termini in Hb.

  20. Complex relationships between occupation, environment, DNA adducts, genetic polymorphisms and bladder cancer in a case-control study using a structural equation modeling.

    Porru, Stefano; Pavanello, Sofia; Carta, Angela; Arici, Cecilia; Simeone, Claudio; Izzotti, Alberto; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe


    DNA adducts are considered an integrate measure of carcinogen exposure and the initial step of carcinogenesis. Their levels in more accessible peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) mirror that in the bladder tissue. In this study we explore whether the formation of PBL DNA adducts may be associated with bladder cancer (BC) risk, and how this relationship is modulated by genetic polymorphisms, environmental and occupational risk factors for BC. These complex interrelationships, including direct and indirect effects of each variable, were appraised using the structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis. Within the framework of a hospital-based case/control study, study population included 199 BC cases and 213 non-cancer controls, all Caucasian males. Data were collected on lifetime smoking, coffee drinking, dietary habits and lifetime occupation, with particular reference to exposure to aromatic amines (AAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). No indirect paths were found, disproving hypothesis on association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk. DNA adducts were instead positively associated with occupational cumulative exposure to AAs (p = 0.028), whereas XRCC1 Arg 399 (poccupational cumulative exposure to AAs with DNA adducts and BC risk, strengthening the central role of AAs in bladder carcinogenesis. However the lack of an association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk advises that these snapshot measurements are not representative of relevant exposures. This would envisage new scenarios for biomarker discovery and new challenges such as repeated measurements at different critical life stages.

  1. An integrated QSAR-PBK/D modelling approach for predicting detoxification and DNA adduct formation of 18 acyclic food-borne α,β-unsaturated aldehydes.

    Kiwamoto, R; Spenkelink, A; Rietjens, I M C M; Punt, A


    Acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes present in food raise a concern because the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety is considered a structural alert for genotoxicity. However, controversy remains on whether in vivo at realistic dietary exposure DNA adduct formation is significant. The aim of the present study was to develop physiologically based kinetic/dynamic (PBK/D) models to examine dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of a group of 18 food-borne acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes without 2- or 3-alkylation, and with no more than one conjugated double bond. Parameters for the PBK/D models were obtained using quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) defined with a training set of six selected aldehydes. Using the QSARs, PBK/D models for the other 12 aldehydes were defined. Results revealed that DNA adduct formation in the liver increases with decreasing bulkiness of the molecule especially due to less efficient detoxification. 2-Propenal (acrolein) was identified to induce the highest DNA adduct levels. At realistic dietary intake, the predicted DNA adduct levels for all aldehydes were two orders of magnitude lower than endogenous background levels observed in disease free human liver, suggesting that for all 18 aldehydes DNA adduct formation is negligible at the relevant levels of dietary intake. The present study provides a proof of principle for the use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling to facilitate group evaluations and read-across in risk assessment.

  2. DNA adducts induced by food mutagen PhIP in a mouse model expressing human sulfotransferases 1A1 and 1A2.

    Høie, Anja Hortemo; Monien, Bernhard Hans; Glatt, Hansruedi; Hjertholm, Hege; Husøy, Trine


    Food processing contaminant 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) has previously been shown to induce formation of DNA adducts in vivo. In a previous study the adduct levels were found to increase in a mouse model expressing human (h) sulfotransferases (SULTs) 1A1 and 1A2 after PhIP exposure, detected by (32)P-postlabelling. Isotope dilution ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) is emerging as the method of choice for selective and reproducible detection of known DNA adducts. In the present study we investigated the level and distribution of PhIP induced DNA adducts in male FVB mice 9-11 weeks of age with hSULT mice or wild-type mice (wt) using UPLC-MS/MS. Mice received a single administration of 75 mg/kg bw PhIP by oral gavage, and DNA was analysed 3h after exposure. C8-(2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine- N(2)-yl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (C8-PhIP-dG) adduct levels are significantly higher in PhIP exposed hSULT mice compared with PhIP exposed wt mice. The liver was the least affected organ in wild-type mice, whereas it was the most affected organ in hSULT mice with a 14-fold higher adduct level.

  3. A new approach to evaluating the extent of Michael adduct formation to PAH quinones: tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis with GC/MS.

    Briggs, Mary K; Desavis, Emmanuel; Mazzer, Paula A; Sunoj, R B; Hatcher, Susan A; Hadad, Christopher M; Hatcher, Patrick G


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants that are converted to cytotoxic and carcinogenic metabolites, quinones, by detoxifying enzyme systems in animals. PAH metabolites such as the quinones can form Michael adducts with biological macromolecules containing reactive nucleophiles, making detection of exposure to PAHs difficult using conventional techniques. A technique has been developed for detecting exposure to PAHs. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis coupled with GC/MS is proposed as an assay method for PAH quinones that have formed Michael adducts with biological molecules. Three PAH quinones (1,4-naphthoquinone, 1,2-naphthoquinone, and 1,4-anthraquinone) and 1,4-benzoquinone were reacted with cysteine, and the TMAH thermochemolysis method was used to assay for both thiol and amine adduction between the quinones and the cysteine. Additional studies with 1,4-naphthoquinone adducts to glutathione and bovine serum albumin showed the same thiol and amine TMAH thermochemolysis products with larger peptides as was observed with cysteine adducts. The TMAH GC/MS method clearly shows great promise for detecting PAH quinones, produced by enzymatic conversion of PAHs in biological systems, that have been converted to respective Michael adducts.

  4. Redox proteomic profiling of neuroketal-adducted proteins in human brain: Regional vulnerability at middle age increases in the elderly.

    Domínguez, Mayelín; de Oliveira, Eliandre; Odena, María Antonia; Portero, Manuel; Pamplona, Reinald; Ferrer, Isidro


    Protein lipoxidation was assessed in the parietal cortex (PC), frontal cortex (FC), and cingulate gyrus (CG) in middle-aged and old-aged individuals with no clinical manifestations of cognitive impairment, in order to increase understanding of regional brain vulnerability to oxidative damage during aging. Twenty-five lipoxidized proteins were identified in all the three regions although with regional specificities, by using redox proteomics to detect target proteins of neuroketals (NKT) adduction. The number of cases with NKT-adducted proteins was higher in old-aged individuals but most oxidized proteins were already present in middle-aged individuals. Differences in vulnerability to oxidation were dependent on the sub-cellular localization, secondary structure, and external exposition of certain amino acids. Lipoxidized proteins included those involved in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, proteostasis, neurotransmission and O2/CO2, and heme metabolism. Total NKT and soluble oligomer levels were estimated employing slot-blot, and these were compared between age groups. Oligomers increased with age in PC and FC; NKT significantly increased with age in FC, whereas total NKT and oligomer levels were not modified in CG, thus highlighting differences in brain regional vulnerability with age. Oligomers significantly correlated with NKT levels in the three cortical regions, suggesting that protein NKT adduction parallels soluble oligomer formation.

  5. Equilibrium Dynamics of β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (BMAA) and Its Carbamate Adducts at Physiological Conditions

    Zimmerman, David; Goto, Joy J.; Krishnan, Viswanathan V


    Elevated incidences of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/Parkinsonism Dementia complex (ALS/PDC) is associated with β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a non-protein amino acid. In particular, the native Chamorro people living in the island of Guam were exposed to BMAA by consuming a diet based on the cycad seeds. Carbamylated forms of BMAA are glutamate analogues. The mechanism of neurotoxicity of the BMAA is not completely understood, and BMAA acting as a glutamate receptor agonist may lead to excitotoxicity that interferes with glutamate transport systems. Though the interaction of BMAA with bicarbonate is known to produce carbamate adducts, here we demonstrate that BMAA and its primary and secondary adducts coexist in solution and undergoes a chemical exchange among them. Furthermore, we determined the rates of formation/cleavage of the carbamate adducts under equilibrium conditions using two-dimensional proton exchange NMR spectroscopy (EXSY). The coexistence of the multiple forms of BMAA at physiological conditions adds to the complexity of the mechanisms by which BMAA functions as a neurotoxin. PMID:27513925

  6. Collision-induced dissociation analysis of negative atmospheric ion adducts in atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization mass spectrometry.

    Sekimoto, Kanako; Takayama, Mitsuo


    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments were performed on atmospheric ion adducts [M + R](-) formed between various types of organic compounds M and atmospheric negative ions R(-) [such as O2(-), HCO3(-), COO(-)(COOH), NO2(-), NO3(-), and NO3(-)(HNO3)] in negative-ion mode atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI) mass spectrometry. All of the [M + R](-) adducts were fragmented to form deprotonated analytes [M - H](-) and/or atmospheric ions R(-), whose intensities in the CID spectra were dependent on the proton affinities of the [M - H](-) and R(-) fragments. Precursor ions [M + R](-) for which R(-) have higher proton affinities than [M - H](-) formed [M - H](-) as the dominant product. Furthermore, the CID of the adducts with HCO3(-) and NO3(-)(HNO3) led to other product ions such as [M + HO](-) and NO3(-), respectively. The fragmentation behavior of [M + R](-) for each R(-) observed was independent of analyte type (e.g., whether the analyte was aliphatic or aromatic, or possessed certain functional groups).

  7. Methyl-Cytosine-Driven Structural Changes Enhance Adduction Kinetics of an Exon 7 fragment of the p53 Gene

    Malla, Spundana; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Fu, You-Jun; Choudhary, Dharamainder; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.


    Methylation of cytosine (C) at C-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites enhances reactivity of DNA towards electrophiles. Mutations at CpG sites on the p53 tumor suppressor gene that can result from these adductions are in turn correlated with specific cancers. Here we describe the first restriction-enzyme-assisted LC-MS/MS sequencing study of the influence of methyl cytosines (MeC) on kinetics of p53 gene adduction by model metabolite benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), using methodology applicable to correlate gene damage sites for drug and pollutant metabolites with mutation sites. This method allows direct kinetic measurements by LC-MS/MS sequencing for oligonucleotides longer than 20 base pairs (bp). We used MeC and non-MeC (C) versions of a 32 bp exon 7 fragment of the p53 gene. Methylation of 19 cytosines increased the rate constant 3-fold for adduction on G at the major reactive CpG in codon 248 vs. the non-MeC fragment. Rate constants for non-CpG codons 244 and 243 were not influenced significantly by MeC. Conformational and hydrophobicity changes in the MeC-p53 exon 7 fragment revealed by CD spectra and molecular modeling increase the BPDE binding constant to G in codon 248 consistent with a pathway in which preceding reactant binding greatly facilitates the rate of covalent SN2 coupling.

  8. Error-prone replication bypass of the primary aflatoxin B1 DNA adduct, AFB1-N7-Gua.

    Lin, Ying-Chih; Li, Liang; Makarova, Alena V; Burgers, Peter M; Stone, Michael P; Lloyd, R Stephen


    Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) are the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The highest rates of early onset HCCs occur in geographical regions with high aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure, concomitant with hepatitis B infection. Although the carcinogenic basis of AFB1 has been ascribed to its mutagenic effects, the mutagenic property of the primary AFB1-DNA adduct, AFB1-N7-Gua, in mammalian cells has not been studied extensively. Taking advantage of the ability to create vectors containing a site-specific DNA adduct, the mutagenic potential was determined in primate cells. This adduct was highly mutagenic following replication in COS-7 cells, with a mutation frequency of 45%. The spectrum of mutations was predominantly G to T base substitutions, a result that is consistent with previous mutation data derived from aflatoxin-associated HCCs. To assess which DNA polymerases (pol) might contribute to the mutational outcome, in vitro replication studies were performed. Unexpectedly, replicative pol δ and the error-prone translesion synthesis pol ζ were able to accurately bypass AFB1-N7-Gua. In contrast, replication bypass using pol κ was shown to occur with low fidelity and could account for the commonly detected G to T transversions.

  9. A new approach to the synthesis of monomers and polymers incorporating furan/maleimide Diels-Alder adducts

    Banella, Maria Barbara; Gioia, Claudio; Vannini, Micaela; Colonna, Martino; Celli, Annamaria; Gandini, Alessandro


    The Diels-Alder reaction between furan and maleimide moieties is a well-known and widely used strategy to build bio-based macromolecular structures with peculiar properties. The furan-maleimide adducts are thermally reversible because they can be broken above about 120°C and recombined at lower temperatures. At the moment only the monomers exhibiting the furan or the maleimide moieties on their extremity are used in order to get linear or cross-linked polymeric structures. The innovative idea described here consists in using a monomer bearing two carboxylic acidic groups on its extremities and a furan-maleimide Diels-Alder adduct within its structure. This monomer can give rise to classical polycondensation reactions leading to polymers. These polymers (which are polyesters in the present case) can be broken at high temperatures in correspondence of the furane-maleimide Diels-Alder adduct leading to segments exhibiting furan or maleimide moieties at their extremities, which at lower temperature recombine leading to random or block copolymers.

  10. Methyl-Cytosine-Driven Structural Changes Enhance Adduction Kinetics of an Exon 7 fragment of the p53 Gene

    Malla, Spundana; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Fu, You-Jun; Choudhary, Dharamainder; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.


    Methylation of cytosine (C) at C-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites enhances reactivity of DNA towards electrophiles. Mutations at CpG sites on the p53 tumor suppressor gene that can result from these adductions are in turn correlated with specific cancers. Here we describe the first restriction-enzyme-assisted LC-MS/MS sequencing study of the influence of methyl cytosines (MeC) on kinetics of p53 gene adduction by model metabolite benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), using methodology applicable to correlate gene damage sites for drug and pollutant metabolites with mutation sites. This method allows direct kinetic measurements by LC-MS/MS sequencing for oligonucleotides longer than 20 base pairs (bp). We used MeC and non-MeC (C) versions of a 32 bp exon 7 fragment of the p53 gene. Methylation of 19 cytosines increased the rate constant 3-fold for adduction on G at the major reactive CpG in codon 248 vs. the non-MeC fragment. Rate constants for non-CpG codons 244 and 243 were not influenced significantly by MeC. Conformational and hydrophobicity changes in the MeC-p53 exon 7 fragment revealed by CD spectra and molecular modeling increase the BPDE binding constant to G in codon 248 consistent with a pathway in which preceding reactant binding greatly facilitates the rate of covalent SN2 coupling. PMID:28102315

  11. Novel Fluorinated Phosphorus–Sulfur Heteroatom Compounds: Synthesis and Characterization of Ferrocenyl- and Aryl-Phosphonofluorodithioic Salts, Adducts, and Esters

    Guoxiong Hua


    Full Text Available A series of novel ferrocenyl- and aryl-phosphonofluorodithioic salts, adducts, and esters has been prepared. The reaction of 2,4-diferrocenyl-1,3,2,4-diathiadiphosphetane 2,4-disulfide {[FcP(μ-SS]2, FcLR} with dry KF or tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF led to the corresponding potassium and tetrabutylammonium salts of ferrocenyldithiofluorophosphinic acids. Treating potassium ferrocenyldithiofluorophosphinic acid with an equimolar amount of tetraphenylphosphonium chloride readily yielded the corresponding organic adducts, and with mono- and di-halogenated alkanes generated a series of the corresponding esters of ferrocenylphosphonofluoridodithioates. Similarly, using 1,3-epithionaphtho[1,8-cd][1,2,6] oxadiphosphinine 1,3-disulfide or Belleau’s Reagent in place of FcLR resulted in the corresponding novel salts, adducts, and ester derivatives. All new compounds have been characterized by means of multi-NMR (1H, 13C, 31P, 19F spectroscopy and accurate mass measurement in conjunction with single crystal X-ray crystallography of four structures.

  12. Effect of Increased Water Intake on Urinary DNA Adduct Levels and Mutagenicity in Smokers: A Randomized Study

    Inmaculada Buendia Jimenez


    Full Text Available The association between fluid intake and bladder cancer risk remains controversial. Very little is known about to which extent the amount of water intake influences the action of excreting toxics upon the urinary system. This proof of concept trial investigates the effect of water intake on mutagenesis in smokers, a high risk population for bladder cancer. Methods. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria. Male subjects aged 2045–45 y/o, smokers, and small drinkers (24-hour urinary volume 700 mOsmol/kg. Outcomes. 4-ABP DNA adducts formation in exfoliated bladder cells in 24-hour urine collection and urinary mutagenicity in 24-hour urine. Test Group. Subjects consumed 1.5 L daily of the study product (EVIAN on top of their usual water intake for 50 days. Control Group. Subjects continued their usual lifestyle habits. Results. 65 subjects were randomized. Mean age was 30 y/o and mean cigarettes per day were 20. A slight decrease in adducts formation was observed between baseline and last visit but no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the groups. Urinary mutagenicity significantly decreased. The study shows that increasing water intake decreases urinary mutagenicity. It is not confirmed by urinary adducts formation. Further research would be necessary.

  13. Two food-borne heterocyclic amines: Metabolism and DNA adduct formation of amino-alpha-carbolines

    Frederiksen, Hanne


    The amino-alpha-carbolines 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (A alpha C) and 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido-[2,3-b]indole (MeA alpha C) are two mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines formed during ordinary cooking. Amino-alpha-carbolines can be formed in model systems by pyrolyzing tryptophan...... or proteins of animal or vegetable origin, furthermore they are found in many cooked foods, such as fish, meat, and chicken. The specific mutagenicity of the amino-a-carbolines are lower in the Ames Salmonella assay than other heterocyclic amines, but in rodent studies the carcinogenicity of the aminoa, alpha......-carbolines are comparable to other heterocyclic amines. The metabolic pathways of the amino-alpha-carbolines have been studied in vitro and in vivo, and the detoxified phase I and phase II metabolites characterized and quantified. The metabolic activation of the amino-a-carbolines and the formation of DNA-adducts have also...

  14. Point mutations induced by 1,2-epoxy-3-butene N1 deoxyinosine adducts.

    Rodriguez, D A; Kowalczyk, A; Ward, J B; Harris, C M; Harris, T M; Lloyd, R S


    The National Toxicology Program has recently classified 1,3-butadiene (BD) as a human carcinogen. BD is metabolized to the intermediates 1,2-epoxy-3-butene (EB), 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB), and 1,2-dihydroxy-3,4-epoxybutane. All three metabolites have been implicated in producing specific types of DNA damage and as genotoxic agents in mice, rat, and human cells. This study has focused on EB-induced N1 deoxyinosine lesions that are formed by deamination of deoxyadenosine following reaction of the epoxide at the N(1) position. The R and S stereoisomers of this lesion were incorporated site-specifically within the context of an 11-mer oligodeoxynucleotide, incorporated into M13mp7L2 single-stranded DNA, and transfected into E. coli. Both stereoisomers modestly reduced plaque-forming ability, indicating that neither lesion presents a base modification that cannot be bypassed. The resulting plaques were assessed for point mutations using differential hybridization and DNA sequence analyses. The overall mutagenic spectrum revealed that the N1 adducts were highly mutagenic (approximately 90% per replication cycle), causing a predominance of A --> G transitions.

  15. Non-protein-bound iron and 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts in classic autism.

    Pecorelli, Alessandra; Leoncini, Silvia; De Felice, Claudio; Signorini, Cinzia; Cerrone, Cosimina; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef


    A link between oxidative stress and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) remains controversial with opposing views on its role in the pathogenesis of the disease. We investigated for the first time the levels of non-protein-bound iron (NPBI), a pro-oxidant factor, and 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts (4-HNE PAs), as a marker of lipid peroxidation-induced protein damage, in classic autism. Patients with classic autism (n=20, mean age 12.0±6.2years) and healthy controls (n=18, mean age 11.7±6.5years) were examined. Intraerythrocyte and plasma NPBI were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and 4-HNE PAs in erythrocyte membranes and plasma were detected by Western blotting. The antioxidant defences were evaluated as erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) levels using a spectrophotometric assay. Intraerythrocyte and plasma NPBI levels were significantly increased (1.98- and 3.56-folds) in autistic patients, as compared to controls (p=0.0019 and pautism patients, with a consequent imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidant defences. Increased levels of NPBI could contribute to lipid peroxidation and, consequently, to increased plasma and erythrocyte membranes 4-HNE PAs thus amplifying the oxidative damage, potentially contributing to the autistic phenotype.

  16. Theoretical Investigation of Detailed Thermodynamic Character of Possible Difunctional Adducts Model

    CHANG Guan-Ru; ZHOU Li-Xin; CHEN Dong


    The B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory was used to optimize trans-[Pt(NH3)(Am)G-L], where Am = quinoline or thiazole and L is chosen as the model for functional groups of peptide side chains, and for adenine and guanine sites of DNA as the ultimate target of platinum anticancer drugs. Bond dissociating energy and stability energy of complexes are chosen to study detailedly ther- modynamic character of possible difunctional adducts model. In order to investigate the influence of a polarizable environment on the energy of the Pt-L bond formation, we adopt a new bonding energy formula brought forward by Lippard and his coworkers: ΔH(Sol) = ΔH(SCF) + ΔG(Solv), which is quite appropriate to compare with what is found in experimental studies. Our calculated results demonstrate that N-containing ligands are more favored in view of thermodynamics both in gas phrase and in solution. However, it is worthly to be noted that addition of solvation free energies result in moderate correction of bonding energy in relative ordering, and the largest ones both present in imidazole ligand, not in guanine ligand. Finally, the nature of bond is analyzed in terms of partial charges distribution based on NBO population.


    Daouda Ndoye


    Full Text Available Cy2NH2BzCO2•SnPh3Cl, Bz2NH2BzCO2•SnPh3Cl, BzCO2SnPh3•SnPh3Cl•1/4Bz2NH2Cl, Bz2NH2BzCO2•SnPhCl(OH2, Bz2NH2BzCO2•SnBu2Cl2, [BzCO2SnPh3][SnPhCl3•EtOH•H2O] adducts and complexes have been obtained on allowing Cy2NH2BzCO2 or Bz2NH2BzCO2•4H2O to react respectively with SnPh3Cl, SnPh2Cl2 or SnBu2Cl2 in specific ratios. The molecular structures of these compounds have been determined on the basis of infrared and NMR data. The suggested structures are discrete, dimers and tetramer, the tin atom being tetra-, penta- and hexacoordinated; the benzyl carboxylate anions are monodentate, bidentate and chelating and the cations involved in hydrogen bonds.

  18. Effect of center of pressure modulation on knee adduction moment in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis.

    Haim, Amir; Wolf, Alon; Rubin, Guy; Genis, Yulya; Khoury, Mona; Rozen, Nimrod


    The knee adduction moment (KAM) provides a major contribution to the elevated load in the medial compartment of the knee. An abnormally high KAM has been linked with the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Footwear-generated biomechanical manipulations reduce the magnitude of this moment by conveying a more laterally shifted trajectory of the foot's center of pressure (COP), reducing the distance between the ground reaction force and the center of the knee joint, thus lowering the magnitude of the torque. We sought to examine the outcome of a COP shift in a cohort of female patients suffering from medial knee OA. Twenty-two female patients suffering from medial compartment knee OA underwent successive gait analysis testing and direct pedobarographic examination of the COP trajectory with a foot-worn biomechanical device allowing controlled manipulation of the COP. Modulation of the COP coronal trajectory from medial to lateral offset resulted in a significant reduction of the KAM. This trend was demonstrated in subjects with mild-to-moderate OA and in patients suffering from severe stages of the disease. Our results indicate that controlled manipulation of knee coronal kinetics in individuals suffering from medial knee OA can be facilitated by customized COP modification.

  19. Structural basis for recognition of 5'-phosphotyrosine adducts by TDP2

    Shi, Ke; Kurahash, Kayo; Gao, Rui; Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Tainer, John A.; Pommier, Yves; Aihara, Hideki


    The DNA repair enzyme TDP2 resolves 5'-phosphotyrosyl-DNA adducts, and is responsible for resistance to anti-cancer drugs that target covalent topoisomerase-DNA complexes. TDP2 also participates in key signaling pathways during development and tumorigenesis, and cleaves a protein-RNA linkage during picornavirus replication. The crystal structure of zebrafish TDP2 bound to DNA reveals a deep and narrow basic groove that selectively accommodates the 5'-end of single-stranded DNA in a stretched conformation. The crystal structure of the full-length C. elegans TDP2 shows that this groove can also accommodate an acidic peptide stretch in vitro, with Glu and Asp sidechains occupying the DNA backbone phosphate binding sites. This extensive molecular mimicry suggests a potential mechanism for auto-regulation and how TDP2 may interact with phosphorylated proteins in signaling. Our study provides a framework to interrogate functions of TDP2 and develop inhibitors for chemotherapeutic and antiviral applications.

  20. Hypervalent Compounds as Ligands: I 3 -Anion Adducts with Transition Metal Pentacarbonyls

    Rogachev, Andrey Yu.


    Just a couple of transition metal complexes of the familiar triiodide anion are known. To investigate the bonding in these, as well as isomeric possibilities, we examined theoretically adducts of I3 - with model organometallic fragments, [Cr(CO)5] and [Mn(CO) 5]+. Bonding energy computations were augmented by a Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) perturbation theory analysis and Energy Decomposition Analysis (EDA). The bonding between I3 - and the organometallic fragment is substantial, especially for the electrostatically driven anion-cation case. "End-on" coordination is favored by 5-13 kcal/mol over "side-on" (to the central I of I3 -), with a ∼10 kcal/mol barrier for isomerization. A developing asymmetry in the I-I bonding of "end-on" coordinated I 3 - led us to consider in some detail the obvious fragmentation to a coordinated I- and free I2. While the signs of incipient fragmentation in that direction are there, these is a definite advantage to maintaining some I- to I2 bonding in triiodide complexes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  1. Real-Time Knee Adduction Moment Feedback for Gait Retraining Through Visual and Tactile Displays

    Wheeler, Jason W.


    The external knee adduction moment (KAM) measured during gait is an indicator of tibiofemoral joint osteoarthritis progression and various strategies have been proposed to lower it. Gait retraining has been shown to be an effective, noninvasive approach for lowering the KAM. We present a new gait retraining approach in which the KAM is fed back to subjects in real-time during ambulation. A study was conducted in which 16 healthy subjects learned to alter gait patterns to lower the KAM through visual or tactile (vibration) feedback. Participants converged on a comfortable gait in just a few minutes by using the feedback to iterate on various kinematic modifications. All subjects adopted altered gait patterns with lower KAM compared with normal ambulation (average reduction of 20.7%). Tactile and visual feedbacks were equally effective for real-time training, although subjects using tactile feedback took longer to converge on an acceptable gait. This study shows that real-time feedback of the KAM can greatly increase the effectiveness and efficiency of subject-specific gait retraining compared with conventional methods. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  2. Quantification of nerve agent VX-butyrylcholinesterase adduct biomarker from an accidental exposure.

    Solano, Maria I; Thomas, Jerry D; Taylor, James T; McGuire, Jeffrey M; Jakubowski, Edward M; Thomson, Sandra A; Maggio, Vincent L; Holland, Kerry E; Smith, J Richard; Capacio, Benedict; Woolfitt, Adrian R; Ashley, David L; Barr, John R


    The lack of data in the open literature on human exposure to the nerve agent O-ethyl-S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VX) gives a special relevance to the data presented in this study in which we report the quantification of VX-butyrylcholinesterase adduct from a relatively low-level accidental human exposure. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry using the fluoride ion regeneration method for the quantification of multiple nerve agents including VX. Six human plasma samples from the same individual were collected after the patient had been treated once with oxime immediately after exhibiting signs of exposure. Detection limits of approximately 5.5 pg/mL plasma were achieved for the G-analogue of VX (G-VX). Levels of the G-VX ranged from 81.4 pg/mL on the first day after the exposure to 6.9 pg/mL in the sample taken 27 days after the exposure. Based on the reported concentration of human butyrylcholinesterase in plasma of approximately 80 nM, it can be calculated that inhibition levels of >or= 0.05% of BuChE can be accurately quantified. These data further indicate that the fluoride ion regeneration method is a potentially powerful tool that can be used to assess low-level exposure to VX.

  3. Real-time knee adduction moment feedback training using an elliptical trainer.

    Kang, Sang Hoon; Lee, Song Joo; Ren, Yupeng; Zhang, Li-Qun


    The external knee adduction moment (EKAM) is associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in many aspects including presence, progression, and severity of knee OA. Despite of its importance, there is a lack of EKAM estimation methods that can provide patients with knee OA real-time EKAM biofeedback for training and clinical evaluations without using a motion analysis laboratory. A practical real-time EKAM estimation method, which utilizes kinematics measured by a simple six degree-of-freedom goniometer and kinetics measured by a multi-axis force sensor underneath the foot, was developed to provide real-time feedback of the EKAM to the patients during stepping on an elliptical trainer, which can potentially be used to control and alter the EKAM. High reliability (ICC(2,1): 0.9580) of the real-time EKAM estimation method was verified through stepping trials of seven subjects without musculoskeletal disorders. Combined with advantages of elliptical trainers including functional weight-bearing stepping and mitigation of impulsive forces, the real-time EKAM estimation method is expected to help patients with knee OA better control frontal plane knee loading and reduce knee OA development and progression.

  4. Cathode buffer composed of fullerene-ethylenediamine adduct for an organic solar cell

    Kimoto, Yoshinori; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Fujita, Katsuhiko


    We developed a fullerene-ethylenediamine adduct (C60P-DC) for a cathode buffer material in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, which enhance the open-circuit voltage (V oc). The evaporative spray deposition using ultra dilute solution (ESDUS) technique was employed to deposit the buffer layer onto the organic active layer to avoid damage during the deposition. By the insertion of a C60P-DC buffer layer, V oc and power conversion efficiency (PCE) were increased from 0.41 to 0.57 V and from 1.65 to 2.10%, respectively. The electron-only device with the C60P-DC buffer showed a much lower current level than that without the buffer, indicating that the V oc increase is caused not by vacuum level shift but by hole blocking. The curve fitting of current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics to the equivalent circuit with a single diode indicated that the decrease in reversed saturation current by hole blocking increased caused the V oc.

  5. Serendipitous compositional and structural diversity in urotropine adducts of binary cadmium xanthates

    Tan, Yee Seng; Azizuddin, Aliaa Diyana [Malaya Univ., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Chemistry; Campian, Marius V.; Haiduc, Ionel [Babes-Bolyai Univ., Cluj-Napoca (Romania). Dept. of Chemistry; Tiekink, Edward R.T. [Sunway Univ., Bandar Sunway (Malaysia). Centre for Crystalline Material


    Three new compounds, Cd(S{sub 2}COMe){sub 2}(hmta) (1), Cd(S{sub 2}COEt){sub 2}(hmta)0.5 (2) and Cd(S{sub 2}COiPr){sub 2}(hmta) (3), have been isolated from a systematic study of adduct formation between Cd(S{sub 2}COR){sub 2}, R = Me, Et and iPr, precursors and potentially polydentate hmta; hmta is urotropine (hexamethylenetetramine). The compounds have been characterised by a variety of spectroscopic techniques including a photoluminescence study in both solution and the solid-state, as well as by thermal methods. Crystallography shows 1 to have μ{sub 2}-bridging hmta leading to a one-dimensional coordination polymer. This framework is essentially repeated in 2 but with a μ{sub 3}-bridging hmta so that Cd(S{sub 2}COEt){sub 2} entities decorate the chain. By contrast, a binuclear zero-dimensional aggregate with terminally bound hmta is found in 3. The influence of steric bulk of the alkyl substituents in Cd(S{sub 2}COR){sub 2} is pivotal in determining the ultimate structural outcome.

  6. Synthesis and Isolation of cis-2 Regiospecific Ethylene-Tethered Indene Dimer-[70]Fullerene Adduct for Polymer Solar Cell Applications.

    Tao, Ran; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Higashino, Tomohiro; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Imahori, Hiroshi


    Although the utilization of [70]fullerene bis-adducts can enhance the power conversion efficiencies of polymer solar cells (PSCs) owing to their strong absorption intensities and high-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy levels, this synthetic strategy typically yields a mixture of regioisomers that would mask the intrinsic device performances depending on the substituent pattern on the [70]fullerene derivatives. In this study, a single cis-2 regioisomer of C70 bis-adduct (cis-2-[70]BIEC) has been prepared for the first time by the same strategy that had been applied to [60]fullerene to obtain a regioisomerically pure C60 bis-adduct (cis-2-[60]BIEC). Diels-Alder reaction was conducted between a rationally designed ethylene-tethered indene dimer and [70]fullerene, followed by isolation using high-performance liquid chromatography suitable for the separation of fullerene derivatives. A series of structural analysis techniques including NMR spectroscopies and X-ray crystallography were used to identify the absolute configuration of the bis-adduct. A systematic study on the optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties of cis-2-[70]BIEC as well as the corresponding regioisomer mixture (bis-[70]BIEC) and the monoadduct (α-mono-[70]BIEC) has been performed to examine the effect of the pure cis-2 regioisomer. More importantly, their properties are compared with those of cis-2-[60]BIEC to address the effect of fullerene cage structures, that is, C60 versus C70. The PSC based on cis-2-[70]BIEC and poly(3-hexylthiophene) showed a remarkable power conversion efficiency of 4.2%, which is higher than those with bis-[70]BIEC (2.2%), α-mono-[70]BIEC (2.2%), cis-2-[60]BIEC (2.8%), and even a prevalent high-performance C70 monoadduct ([70]PCBM, 3.8%). Our synthetic strategy will pave the way for further development on the rational design and isolation of single fullerene bis-adduct regioisomers exhibiting high device performances.

  7. Quantification of DNA adducts formed in liver, lungs, and isolated lung cells of rats and mice exposed to (14)C-styrene by nose-only inhalation.

    Boogaard, P J; de Kloe, K P; Wong, B A; Sumner, S C; Watson, W P; van Sittert, N J


    Bronchiolo-alveolar tumors were observed in mice exposed chronically to 160 ppm styrene, whereas no tumors were seen in rats up to concentrations of 1000 ppm. Clara cells, which are predominant in the bronchiolo-alveolar region in mouse lungs but less numerous in rat and human lung, contain various cytochrome P450s, which may oxidize styrene to the rodent carcinogen styrene-7,8-oxide (SO) and other reactive metabolites. Reactive metabolites may form specific DNA adducts and induce the tumors observed in mice. To determine DNA adducts in specific tissues and cell types, rats and mice were exposed to 160 ppm [ring-U-(14)C]styrene by nose-only inhalation for 6 h in a recirculating exposure system. Liver and lungs were isolated 0 and 42 h after exposure. Fractions enriched in Type II cells and Clara cells were isolated from rat and mouse lung, respectively. DNA adduct profiles differed quantitatively and qualitatively in liver, total lung, and enriched lung cell fractions. At 0 and 42 h after exposure, the two isomeric N:7-guanine adducts of SO (measured together, HPEG) were present in liver at 3.0 +/- 0.2 and 1.9 +/- 0.3 (rat) and 1.2 +/- 0.2 and 3.2 +/- 0.5 (mouse) per 10(8) bases. Several other, unidentified adducts were present at two to three times higher concentrations in mouse, but not in rat liver. In both rat and mouse lung, HPEG was the major adduct at approximately 1 per 10(8) bases at 0 h, and these levels halved at 42 h. In both rat Type II and non-Type II cells, HPEG was the major adduct and was about three times higher in Type II cells than in total lung. For mice, DNA adduct levels in Clara cells and non-Clara cells were similar to total lung. The hepatic covalent binding index (CBI) at 0 and 42 h was 0.19 +/- 0.06 and 0.14 +/- 0.03 (rat) and 0. 25 +/- 0.11 and 0.44 +/- 0.23 (mouse), respectively. The pulmonary CBIs, based on tissues combined for 0 and 42 h, were 0.17 +/- 0.04 (rat) and 0.24 +/- 0.04 (mouse). Compared with CBIs for other genotoxicants

  8. Noncovalent interactions of a benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide with DNA base pairs: insight into the formation of adducts of (+)-BaP DE-2 with DNA.

    Hargis, Jacqueline C; Schaefer, Henry F; Houk, K N; Wheeler, Steven E


    Noncovalent complexes of a tumorigenic benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide with the guanine-cytosine (GC) and adenine-thymine (AT) base pairs have been examined computationally. (+)-BaP DE-2 forms covalent adducts with DNA via nucleophilic attack on the (+)-BaP DE-2 epoxide. Computational results predict five thermodynamically accessible complexes of AT with (+)-BaP DE-2 that are compatible with intact DNA. Among these, two are expected to lead to adenine adducts. In the lowest energy AT...(+)-BaP DE-2 complex, which has a gas-phase interaction energy of -20.9 kcal mol(-1), the exocyclic NH(2) of adenine is positioned for backside epoxide attack and formation of a trans adduct. The most energetically favorable complex leading to formation of a cis ring-opened adduct lies only 0.6 kcal mol(-1) higher in energy. For GC...(+)-BaP DE-2, there are only two thermodynamically accessible complexes. The higher-lying complex, bound in the gas phase by 24.4 kcal mol(-1) relative to separated GC and (+)-BaP DE-2, would lead to a trans ring-opened N(2)-guanine adduct. In the global minimum energy GC...(+)-BaP DE-2 complex, bound by 27.3 kcal mol(-1), the exocyclic NH(2) group of cytosine is positioned for cis epoxide addition. However, adducts of (+)-BaP DE-2 with cytosine are rarely observed experimentally. The paucity of cytosine adducts, despite the predicted thermodynamic stability of this GC...(+)-BaP DE-2 complex, is attributed to the electrostatic destabilization of the benzylic cation intermediate thought to precede cis addition.

  9. Spin adducts of several N-2-(2-alkoxycarbonyl-propyl)-alpha-pyridylnitrone derivatives with superoxide, alkyl and lipid-derived radicals.

    Stolze, Klaus; Udilova, Natascha; Rosenau, Thomas; Hofinger, Andreas; Nohl, Hans


    Several derivatives of N-t-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) such as N-2-(2-ethoxycarbonyl-propyl)-alpha-phenylnitrone (EPPN) have recently been reported to form superoxide spin adducts (t(1/2) ca. 2-7 min at pH 7.0), which are considerably more stable than their respective PBN or DMPO adducts (t(1/2) ca. 10 and 45 s, respectively). In continuation of our studies on structure optimization of EPPN derivatives, a series of 12 novel spin traps with 2-, 3- and 4-pyridinyl substituents was synthesized and fully characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and IR spectroscopy. In addition to the replacement of the phenyl ring by a 2-, 3- or 4-pyridinyl substituent, the ethoxy group of the parent compound EPPN was replaced by either a propoxy, iso-propoxy, or cyclopropylmethoxy moiety. Superoxide adducts of all PPyN derivatives were considerably more stable than those of the respective EPPN derivatives with half-lives ranging from about 6 to 11 min. In addition, alkoxyl radical adducts were also considerably more stable than those of the EPPN series. Hydroxyl radical adducts were not detected, on the other hand, very stable spin adducts were formed from a series of carbon centered radicals, e.g. from the methyl or hydroxymethyl radical. The novel spin traps are offering an alternative to PBN or POBN, especially where the higher stability of oxygen-centered radical adducts is of major importance. All of them can easily be synthesized from commercially available compounds in two or three steps.

  10. Complex relationships between occupation, environment, DNA adducts, genetic polymorphisms and bladder cancer in a case-control study using a structural equation modeling.

    Stefano Porru

    Full Text Available DNA adducts are considered an integrate measure of carcinogen exposure and the initial step of carcinogenesis. Their levels in more accessible peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs mirror that in the bladder tissue. In this study we explore whether the formation of PBL DNA adducts may be associated with bladder cancer (BC risk, and how this relationship is modulated by genetic polymorphisms, environmental and occupational risk factors for BC. These complex interrelationships, including direct and indirect effects of each variable, were appraised using the structural equation modeling (SEM analysis. Within the framework of a hospital-based case/control study, study population included 199 BC cases and 213 non-cancer controls, all Caucasian males. Data were collected on lifetime smoking, coffee drinking, dietary habits and lifetime occupation, with particular reference to exposure to aromatic amines (AAs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. No indirect paths were found, disproving hypothesis on association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk. DNA adducts were instead positively associated with occupational cumulative exposure to AAs (p = 0.028, whereas XRCC1 Arg 399 (p<0.006 was related with a decreased adduct levels, but with no impact on BC risk. Previous findings on increased BC risk by packyears (p<0.001, coffee (p<0.001, cumulative AAs exposure (p = 0.041 and MnSOD (p = 0.009 and a decreased risk by MPO (p<0.008 were also confirmed by SEM analysis. Our results for the first time make evident an association between occupational cumulative exposure to AAs with DNA adducts and BC risk, strengthening the central role of AAs in bladder carcinogenesis. However the lack of an association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk advises that these snapshot measurements are not representative of relevant exposures. This would envisage new scenarios for biomarker discovery and new challenges such as repeated measurements at different

  11. Variation in PAH-related DNA adduct levels among non-smokers: the role of multiple genetic polymorphisms and nucleotide excision repair phenotype.

    Etemadi, Arash; Islami, Farhad; Phillips, David H; Godschalk, Roger; Golozar, Asieh; Kamangar, Farin; Malekshah, Akbar Fazel-Tabar; Pourshams, Akram; Elahi, Seerat; Ghojaghi, Farhad; Strickland, Paul T; Taylor, Philip R; Boffetta, Paolo; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza; van Schooten, Frederik J


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) likely play a role in many cancers even in never-smokers. We tried to find a model to explain the relationship between variation in PAH-related DNA adduct levels among people with similar exposures, multiple genetic polymorphisms in genes related to metabolic and repair pathways, and nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity. In 111 randomly selected female never-smokers from the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran, we evaluated 21 SNPs in 14 genes related to xenobiotic metabolism and 12 SNPs in eight DNA repair genes. NER capacity was evaluated by a modified comet assay, and aromatic DNA adduct levels were measured in blood by32P-postlabeling. Multivariable regression models were compared by Akaike's information criterion (AIC). Aromatic DNA adduct levels ranged between 1.7 and 18.6 per 10(8) nucleotides (mean: 5.8 ± 3.1). DNA adduct level was significantly lower in homozygotes for NAT2 slow alleles and ERCC5 non-risk-allele genotype, and was higher in the MPO homozygote risk-allele genotype. The sum of risk alleles in these genes significantly correlated with the log-adduct level (r = 0.4, p adduct levels. NER capacity was affected by polymorphisms in the MTHFR and ERCC1 genes. Female non-smokers in this population had PAH-related DNA adduct levels three to four times higher than smokers and occupationally-exposed groups in previous studies, with large inter-individual variation which could best be explained by a combination of Phase I genes and NER capacity.

  12. Non-covalent C-Cl…π interaction in acetylene-carbon tetrachloride adducts: Matrix isolation infrared and ab initio computational studies

    Ramanathan, N.; Sundararajan, K.; Vidya, K.; Jemmis, Eluvathingal D.


    Non-covalent halogen-bonding interactions between π cloud of acetylene (C2H2) and chlorine atom of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) have been investigated using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy and quantum chemical computations. The structure and the energies of the 1:1 C2H2-CCl4 adducts were computed at the B3LYP, MP2 and M05-2X levels of theory using 6-311 ++G(d,p) basis set. The computations indicated two minima for the 1:1 C2H2-CCl4 adducts; with the C-Cl…π adduct being the global minimum, where π cloud of C2H2 is the electron donor. The second minimum corresponded to a C-H…Cl adduct, in which C2H2 is the proton donor. The interaction energies for the adducts A and B were found to be nearly identical. Experimentally, both C-Cl…π and C-H…Cl adducts were generated in Ar and N2 matrixes and characterized using infrared spectroscopy. This is the first report on halogen bonded adduct, stabilized through C-Cl…π interaction being identified at low temperatures using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy. Atoms in Molecules (AIM) and Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analyses were performed to support the experimental results. The structures of 2:1 ((C2H2)2-CCl4) and 1:2 (C2H2-(CCl4)2) multimers and their identification in the low temperature matrixes were also discussed.

  13. An integrated QSAR-PBK/D modelling approach for predicting detoxification and DNA adduct formation of 18 acyclic food-borne α,β-unsaturated aldehydes

    Kiwamoto, R., E-mail:; Spenkelink, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Punt, A.


    Acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes present in food raise a concern because the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety is considered a structural alert for genotoxicity. However, controversy remains on whether in vivo at realistic dietary exposure DNA adduct formation is significant. The aim of the present study was to develop physiologically based kinetic/dynamic (PBK/D) models to examine dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of a group of 18 food-borne acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes without 2- or 3-alkylation, and with no more than one conjugated double bond. Parameters for the PBK/D models were obtained using quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) defined with a training set of six selected aldehydes. Using the QSARs, PBK/D models for the other 12 aldehydes were defined. Results revealed that DNA adduct formation in the liver increases with decreasing bulkiness of the molecule especially due to less efficient detoxification. 2-Propenal (acrolein) was identified to induce the highest DNA adduct levels. At realistic dietary intake, the predicted DNA adduct levels for all aldehydes were two orders of magnitude lower than endogenous background levels observed in disease free human liver, suggesting that for all 18 aldehydes DNA adduct formation is negligible at the relevant levels of dietary intake. The present study provides a proof of principle for the use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling to facilitate group evaluations and read-across in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Physiologically based in silico models were made for 18 α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. • Kinetic parameters were determined by in vitro incubations and a QSAR approach. • DNA adduct formation was negligible at levels relevant for dietary intake. • The use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling facilitates group evaluations and read-across.

  14. Some Lewis acid-base adducts involving boron trifluoride as electrolyte additives for lithium ion cells

    Nie, Mengyun; Madec, L.; Xia, J.; Hall, D. S.; Dahn, J. R.


    Three complexes with boron trifluoride (BF3) as the Lewis acid and different Lewis bases were synthesized and used as electrolyte additives in Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2/graphite and Li[Ni0.42Mn0.42Co0.16]O2/graphite pouch cells. Lewis acid-base adducts with a boron-oxygen (Bsbnd O) bond were trimethyl phosphate boron trifluoride (TMP-BF) and triphenyl phosphine oxide boron trifluoride (TPPO-BF). These were compared to pyridine boron trifluoride (PBF) which has a boron-nitrogen (Bsbnd N) bond. The experimental results showed that cells with PBF had the least voltage drop during storage at 4.2 V, 4.4 V and 4.7 V at 40 °C and the best capacity retention during long-term cycling at 55 °C compared to cells with the other additives. Charge-hold-discharge cycling combined with simultaneous electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed that impedance growth in TMP-BF and TPPO-BF containing cells was faster than cells containing 2%PBF, suggesting that PBF is useful for impedance control at high voltages (>4.4 V). XPS analysis of the SEI films highlighted a specific reactivity of the PBF-derived SEI species that apparently hinders the degradation of both LiPF6 and solvent during formation and charge-hold-discharge cycling. The modified SEI films may explain the improved impedance, the smaller voltage drop during storage and the improved capacity retention during cycling of cells containing the PBF additive.

  15. Observation of an Acryloyl–Thiamin Diphosphate Adduct in the First Step of Clavulanic Acid Biosynthesis

    Merski, Matthew


    The first committed biosynthetic step toward clavulanic acid, the clinically-important β-lactamase inhibitor, is catalyzed by the thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme N2-(2-carboxyethyl)arginine synthase (CEAS). This protein carries out a unique reaction among ThDP-dependent processes in which a C–N bond is formed, and an electrophilic acryloyl–thiazolium intermediate of ThDP is proposed to be involved, unlike the nucleophilic enamine species typically generated by this class of enzymes. Here we present evidence for the existence of the putative acryloyl adduct, and report the unexpected observation of a long-wavelength chromophore (λ = 433 nm), which we attribute to this enzyme bound species. Chemical models were synthesized that both confirm its expected absorption (λ = 310–320 nm), and exclude self-condensation and intramolecular imine formation with the cofactor as its cause. Circular dichroism experiments and others discount charge transfer as a likely explanation for the ~120 nm red shift of the chromophore (~25 kcal). Examples are well-known of charged molecules that exhibit significantly red-shifted UV-visible spectra compared to their neutral forms as, for example, polyene cations and dyes such as indigo and the cyanines. Rhodopsin is the classic biochemical example where the protein (opsin)-bound protonated Schiff base of retinal displays a remarkable range of red-shifted absorptions modulated by the protein environment. Similar tuning of the chromophoric behavior of the enzyme-bound CEAS acryloyl•ThDP species may be occurring. PMID:18052280

  16. Aberrant repair of etheno-DNA adducts in leukocytes and colon tissue of colon cancer patients.

    Obtułowicz, Tomasz; Winczura, Alicja; Speina, Elzbieta; Swoboda, Maja; Janik, Justyna; Janowska, Beata; Cieśla, Jarosław M; Kowalczyk, Paweł; Jawien, Arkadiusz; Gackowski, Daniel; Banaszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Krasnodebski, Ireneusz; Chaber, Andrzej; Olinski, Ryszard; Nair, Jagadesaan; Bartsch, Helmut; Douki, Thierry; Cadet, Jean; Tudek, Barbara


    To assess the role of lipid peroxidation-induced DNA damage and repair in colon carcinogenesis, the excision rates and levels of 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (epsilondA), 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (epsilondC), and 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-epsilondG) were analyzed in polymorphic blood leukocytes (PBL) and resected colon tissues of 54 colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients and PBL of 56 healthy individuals. In PBL the excision rates of 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine (epsilonAde) and 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine (epsilonCyt), measured by the nicking of oligodeoxynucleotide duplexes with single lesions, and unexpectedly also the levels of epsilondA and 1,N(2)-epsilondG, measured by LC/MS/MS, were lower in CRC patients than in controls. In contrast the mRNA levels of repair enzymes, alkylpurine- and thymine-DNA glycosylases and abasic site endonuclease (APE1), were higher in PBL of CRC patients than in those of controls, as measured by QPCR. In the target colon tissues epsilonAde and epsilonCyt excision rates were higher, whereas the epsilondA and epsilondC levels in DNA, measured by (32)P-postlabeling, were lower in tumor than in adjacent colon tissue, although a higher mRNA level was observed only for APE1. This suggests that during the onset of carcinogenesis, etheno adduct repair in the colon seems to be under a complex transcriptional and posttranscriptional control, whereby deregulation may act as a driving force for malignancy.

  17. A variety of electrostatic interactions and adducts can activate NAD(P) cofactors for hydride transfer.

    Meijers, Rob; Cedergren-Zeppezauer, Eila


    In NAD(P)-dependent enzymes the coenzyme gives or takes a hydride ion, but how the nicotinamide ring is activated to form the transition state for hydride transfer is not clear. On the basis of ultra-high resolution X-ray crystal structures of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (LADH) in complex with NADH and a number of substrate analogues we proposed that the activation of NADH is an integral part of the enzyme mechanism of aldehyde reduction [R. Meijers, R.J. Morris, H.W. Adolph, A. Merli, V.S. Lamzin, E.S. Cedergren-Zeppezauer, On the enzymatic activation of NADH, The Journal of Biological Chemistry 276(12) (2001) 9316-9321, %U; R. Meijers, H.-W. Adolph, Z. Dauter, K.S. Wilson, V.S. Lamzin, E.S. Cedergren-Zeppezauer, Structural evidence for a ligand coordination switch in liver alcohol dehydrogenase, Biochemistry 46(18) (2007) 5446-5454, %U]. We observed a nicotinamide with a severely distorted pyridine ring and a water molecule in close proximity to the ring. Quantum chemical calculations indicated that (de)protonation of the water molecule can be directly coupled to activation of NADH for hydride transfer. A systematic search of the Protein Data Bank (PDB) for atoms that come within van der Waals distance of the pyridine ring of the nicotinamide reveals that a large number of NAD(P)-containing protein complexes are involved in electrostatic interactions with the enzymatic environment. Using the deposited diffraction data to analyze the cofactor and its surroundings, we observe several adducts between protein atoms and the pyridine ring that were not previously reported. This further indicates that the enzymatic activation of NAD(P) induced by electrostatic interactions is an essential part of the hydride transfer mechanism.

  18. Single-stranded oligonucleotide adducts formed by Pt complexes favoring left-handed base canting: steric effect of flanking residues and relevance to DNA adducts formed by Pt anticancer drugs.

    Saad, Jamil S; Marzilli, Patricia A; Intini, Francesco P; Natile, Giovanni; Marzilli, Luigi G


    Platinum anticancer drug binding to DNA creates large distortions in the cross-link (G*G*) and the adjacent XG* base pair (bp) steps (G* = N7-platinated G). These distortions, which are responsible for anticancer activity, depend on features of the duplex (e.g., base pairing) and of the cross-link moiety (e.g., the position and canting of the G* bases). The duplex structure stabilizes the head-to-head (HH) over the head-to-tail (HT) orientation and right-handed (R) over left-handed (L) canting of the G* bases. To provide fundamental chemical information relevant to the assessment of such duplex effects, we examine (S,R,R,S)-BipPt(oligo) adducts (Bip = 2,2'-bipiperidine with S,R,R,S chiral centers at the N, C, C, and N chelate ring atoms, respectively; oligo = d(G*pG*) with 3'- and/or 5'-substituents). The moderately bulky (S,R,R,S)-Bip ligand favors L canting and slows rotation about the Pt-G* bonds, and the (S,R,R,S)-BipPt(oligo) models provide more useful data than do dynamic models derived from active Pt drugs. All 5'-substituents in (S,R,R,S)-BipPt(oligo) adducts favor the normal HH conformer (∼97%) by destabilizing the HT conformer through clashes with the 3'-G* residue rather than through favorable H-bonding interactions with the carrier ligand in the HH conformer. For all (S,R,R,S)-BipPt(oligo) adducts, the S pucker of the 5'-X residue is retained. For these adducts, a 5'-substituent had only modest effects on the degree of L canting for the (S,R,R,S)-BipPt(oligo) HH conformer. This small flanking 5'-substituent effect on an L-canted HH conformer contrasts with the significant decrease in the degree of R canting previously observed for flanking 5'-substituents in the R-canted (R,S,S,R)-BipPt(oligo) analogues. The present data support our earlier hypothesis that the distortion distinctive to the XG* bp step (S to N pucker change and movement of the X residue) is required for normal stacking and X·X' WC H bonding and to prevent XG* residue clashes.

  19. Simultaneous quantification of haemoglobin adducts of ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, acrylonitrile, acrylamide and glycidamide in human blood by isotope-dilution GC/NCI-MS/MS.

    Schettgen, T; Müller, J; Fromme, H; Angerer, J


    Haemoglobin adducts are highly valuable biomarkers of cumulative exposure to carcinogenic substances. We have developed and applied an analytical method for the simultaneous quantification of five haemoglobin adducts of important occupational and environmental carcinogens. The N-terminal adducts were determined with gas chromatography as pentafluorophenylthiohydantoine derivatives according to the modified Edman-procedure and subsequent acetonization of the glycidamide adduct N-(R,S)-2-hydroxy-2-carbamoylethylvaline (GAVal). The use of self-synthesized labelled internal standards in combination with tandem mass spectrometry using negative chemical ionisation guarantees both high accuracy and sensitivity of our determination. The limit of detection for N-2-hydroxyethylvaline (HEVal), N-(R,S)-2-hydroxypropylvaline (HPVal), N-2-carbamoylethylvaline (AAVal) and N-(R,S)-2-hydroxy-2-carbamoylethylvaline (GAVal) was 2 pmol/g globin, for N-2-cyanoethylvaline (CEVal) it was determined as 0.5 pmol/g globin, which was sufficient to determine the background levels of these adducts in the non-smoking general population. The between-day-precision for all analytes using a human blood sample as quality control material ranged from 4.7 to 12.3%. We investigated blood samples of a small group (n=104) of non-smoking persons of the general population for the background levels of these haemoglobin adducts. The median values for HEVal, HPVal, CEVal, AAVal and GAVal in a group of 92 non-smoking persons were 18.1, 4.1, <0.5, 29.9 and 35.2 pmol/g globin, respectively. The adduct levels in 12 persons reporting exposure to passive smoke at home were similar for most adducts with median values of 17.2, 4.1, 1.0, 24.9 and 29.7 pmol/g globin for HEVal, HPVal, CEVal, AAVal and GAVal, respectively. Our results point to an elevated uptake of acrylonitrile caused by passive smoking as indicated by higher levels of the corresponding haemoglobin adduct CEVal.

  20. 乙烯基DNA加合物检测技术研究%Analytical Method for Etheno DNA Adducts

    田永峰; 侯宏卫; 刘勇; 胡清源; 王安


    In order to deeply study etheno-DNA adducts, The variety of DNA oxidative damages, repair mechanisms, and their products are summarized. The generative mechanism in vivo and analytical method of etheno-DNA adducts, including 1, N6-ethenoadenine (eAde), 1, N2- ethenoguanine (εGua), and 3, N4-ethenocytosine (εCyt) are reviewed. The current analytical methods of etheno-DNA adducts have been discussed, which include lmmunoaffinity Chromatography/32p-postlabelling technique (IC-32P), Gas Chromatogeraph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). and liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). IC-32phas the excellent performance on the sensibility, but when determining etheno-DNA adducts, complex operations and many steps have been involved. As analytical devices, the characteristics of mass spectrometer make the device obtain ideal sensibility and specificity. GC-MS method has the lower limit of determination than that for IX-MS/MS method. As sample derivatization is needed, the sample usually cost more for the method of GC-MS during the pre-handling; LC-MS/MS method offers many practical advantages on the pre-handing, stability, selectivity, and sensibility. These advantages could enhance the efficiency of samples analysis. IX-MS/MS is the ideal analytical method for the research on etheno-DNA adducts. The mechanism of DNA oxidative damage is inconclusive. As the biomarkers of DNA oxidative damages, etheno-DNA adducts possess significant meanings on the risk evaluation of lipid peroxidation.%为了深入的研究乙烯基DNA加台物,本文综述了DNA氧化损伤的种类、修复机制和产物以及3种乙烯基DNA加台物:乙烯基腺嘌呤(1,N6-ethenoadenine,εAde)、乙烯基鸟嘌呤(1.N2-ethenoguanine,εGua)和乙烯基胞嘧啶(3,N4-ethenocytosine,εcyt)的体内生成机制.讨论了目前检测乙烯基DNA加合物的方法,如32P-标记法,气相色谱-质谱法,液相色谱-串联质谱法等.32P-标记法在检测灵敏度方面表现

  1. DNA adducts in human and mouse skin maintained in short-term culture and treated with petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils.

    Carmichael, P L; Ni Shé, M; Phillips, D H


    Human and mouse skin samples maintained in short-term organ culture were treated topically with used engine oils from petrol- and diesel-powered vehicles. Mice were also treated topically in vivo for comparison. DNA was isolated and analysed by 32P-postlabelling and the labeled DNA digests were resolved on polyethyleneimine-cellulose tlc sheets. A large number of radioactive adduct spots were observed in DNA from skin treated with the used petrol-engine oil, indicating the formation of adducts by many components of the complex oil mixture. Total adduct levels were similar in mouse skin (both in vivo and in vitro) and in human skin, although qualitative differences in the adduct maps were apparent between the human and mouse skin DNA. Treatment with the used diesel engine oil produced adduct levels no greater than that of control samples in mouse skin (in vivo and in vitro), although significant levels were found in human skin DNA from one donor. The results correlate well with the carcinogenic activity of these oils in experimental animals, helping to substantiate the conclusion that petrol engine oils (but not diesel engine oils) may present a carcinogenic risk to man if appropriate measures to minimise skin contact are not observed.

  2. DNA polymerase eta participates in the mutagenic bypass of adducts induced by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide in mammalian cells.

    Alden C Klarer

    Full Text Available Y-family DNA-polymerases have larger active sites that can accommodate bulky DNA adducts allowing them to bypass these lesions during replication. One member, polymerase eta (pol eta, is specialized for the bypass of UV-induced thymidine-thymidine dimers, correctly inserting two adenines. Loss of pol eta function is the molecular basis for xeroderma pigmentosum (XP variant where the accumulation of mutations results in a dramatic increase in UV-induced skin cancers. Less is known about the role of pol eta in the bypass of other DNA adducts. A commonly encountered DNA adduct is that caused by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE, the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of the environmental chemical benzo[a]pyrene. Here, treatment of pol eta-deficient fibroblasts from humans and mice with BPDE resulted in a significant decrease in Hprt gene mutations. These studies in mammalian cells support a number of in vitro reports that purified pol eta has error-prone activity on plasmids with site-directed BPDE adducts. Sequencing the Hprt gene from this work shows that the majority of mutations are G>T transversions. These data suggest that pol eta has error-prone activity when bypassing BPDE-adducts. Understanding the basis of environmental carcinogen-derived mutations may enable prevention strategies to reduce such mutations with the intent to reduce the number of environmentally relevant cancers.

  3. Acrolein- and 4-Aminobiphenyl-DNA adducts in human bladder mucosa and tumor tissue and their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells.

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Weng, Mao-wen; Hu, Yu; Chen, Wei-sheng; Chou, David; Liu, Yan; Donin, Nicholas; Huang, William C; Lepor, Herbert; Wu, Xue-Ru; Wang, Hailin; Beland, Frederick A; Tang, Moon-shong


    Tobacco smoke (TS) is a major cause of human bladder cancer (BC). Two components in TS, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and acrolein, which also are environmental contaminants, can cause bladder tumor in rat models. Their role in TS related BC has not been forthcoming. To establish the relationship between acrolein and 4-ABP exposure and BC, we analyzed acrolein-deoxyguanosine (dG) and 4-ABP-DNA adducts in normal human urothelial mucosa (NHUM) and bladder tumor tissues (BTT), and measured their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells. We found that the acrolein-dG levels in NHUM and BTT are 10-30 fold higher than 4-ABP-DNA adduct levels and that the acrolein-dG levels in BTT are 2 fold higher than in NHUM. Both acrolein-dG and 4-ABP-DNA adducts are mutagenic; however, the former are 5 fold more mutagenic than the latter. These two types of DNA adducts induce different mutational signatures and spectra. We found that acrolein inhibits nucleotide excision and base excision repair and induces repair protein degradation in urothelial cells. Since acrolein is abundant in TS, inhaled acrolein is excreted into urine and accumulates in the bladder and because acrolein inhibits DNA repair and acrolein-dG DNA adducts are mutagenic, we propose that acrolein is a major bladder carcinogen in TS.

  4. Interaction of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide isomers with human serum albumin: Site specific characterisation of adducts and associated kinetics

    Motwani, Hitesh V.; Westberg, Emelie; Törnqvist, Margareta


    Carcinogenicity of benzo[a]pyrene {B[a]P, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)} involves DNA-modification by B[a]P diol epoxide (BPDE) metabolites. Adducts to serum albumin (SA) are not repaired, unlike DNA adducts, and therefore considered advantageous in assessment of in vivo dose of BPDEs. In the present work, kinetic experiments were performed in relation to the dose (i.e. concentration over time) of different BPDE isomers, where human SA (hSA) was incubated with respective BPDEs under physiological conditions. A liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry methodology was employed for characterising respective BPDE-adducts at histidine and lysine. This strategy allowed to structurally distinguish between the adducts from racemic anti- and syn-BPDE and between (+)- and (‑)-anti-BPDE, which has not been attained earlier. The adduct levels quantified by LC-UV and the estimated rate of disappearance of BPDEs in presence of hSA gave an insight into the reactivity of the diol epoxides towards the N-sites on SA. The structure specific method and dosimetry described in this work could be used for accurate estimation of in vivo dose of the BPDEs following exposure to B[a]P, primarily in dose response studies of genotoxicity, e.g. in mice, to aid in quantitative risk assessment of PAHs.

  5. Evaluation of a patient-specific cost function to predict the influence of foot path on the knee adduction torque during gait.

    Fregly, Benjamin J; Reinbolt, Jeffery A; Chmielewski, Terese L


    A large external knee adduction torque during gait has been correlated with the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Though foot path changes (e.g. toeing out) can reduce the adduction torque, no method currently exists to predict whether an optimal foot path exists for a specific patient. This study evaluates a patient-specific optimization cost function to predict how foot path changes influence both adduction torque peaks. Video motion and ground reaction data were collected from a patient with knee OA performing normal, toe out, and wide stance gait. Joint and inertial parameters in a dynamic, 27 degree-of-freedom, full-body gait model were calibrated to the patient's normal gait data. The model was then used in gait optimizations that predicted how the patient's adduction torque peaks would change due to changes in foot path. The cost function tracked the patient's normal gait data using weight factors calibrated to toe out gait and tested using wide stance gait. For both gait motions, the same cost function weights predicted the change in both adduction torque peaks to within 7% error. With further development, this approach may eventually permit the design of patient-specific rehabilitation procedures such as an optimal foot path for patients with knee OA.

  6. A resonance Raman enhancement mechanism for axial vibrational modes in the pyridine adduct of myoglobin proximal cavity mutant (H93G).

    Franzen, Stefan; Brown, Derek; Gaff, John; Delley, B


    The proximal cavity mutant of myoglobin consists of a mutation of the proximal histidine to glycine (H93G), which permits exogenous ligands to bind to the heme iron. A non-native pyridine ligand can ligate to the heme to yield a five-coordinate adduct, H93G(Pyr), that cannot be formed freely in solution since the six-coordinate bis-pyridine adduct is more stable than the five-coordinate adduct. We have used resonance Raman spectroscopy in the Soret band region of the heme to study the enhancement of axial vibrations of bound pyridine in the H93G(Pyr) adduct. The observation that the pyridine ring breathing mode (ν(1)) and the symmetric ring stretching (ν(3)) modes are enhanced under these conditions is explained by a computational approach that shows that coupling of the π-system of the heme with the p-orbitals of the pyridine is analogous to π-backbonding in diatomic ligand adducts of heme proteins. The result has the broader significance that it suggests that the resonance enhancement of pyridine modes could be an important aspect of Raman scattering of pyridine on conducting surfaces such as those studied in surface enhanced Raman scattering experiments.

  7. Tamoxifen Forms DNA Adducts In Human Colon After Administration Of A Single [14C]-Labeled Therapeutic Dose.

    Brown, K; Tompkins, E M; Boocock, D J; Martin, E A; Farmer, P B; Turteltaub, K W; Ubick, E; Hemingway, D; Horner-Glister, E; White, I H


    Tamoxifen is widely prescribed for the treatment of breast cancer and is also licensed in the U.S. for the prevention of this disease. However, tamoxifen therapy is associated with an increased occurrence of endometrial cancer in women and there is also evidence that it may elevate the risk of colorectal cancer. The underlying mechanisms responsible for tamoxifen-induced carcinogenesis in women have not yet been elucidated but much interest has focussed on the role of DNA adduct formation. We investigated the propensity of tamoxifen to bind irreversibly to colorectal DNA when given to ten women as a single [{sup 14}C]-labeled therapeutic (20 mg) dose, {approx}18 h prior to undergoing colon resections. Using the sensitive technique of accelerator mass spectrometry, coupled with HPLC separation of enzymatically digested DNA, a peak corresponding to authentic dG-N{sup 2}-tamoxifen adduct was detected in samples from three patients, at levels ranging from 1-7 adducts/10{sup 9} nucleotides. No [{sup 14}C]-radiolabel associated with tamoxifen or its major metabolites was detected. The presence of detectable CYP3A4 protein in all colon samples suggests this tissue has the potential to activate tamoxifen to {alpha}-hydroxytamoxifen, in addition to that occurring in the systemic circulation, and direct interaction of this metabolite with DNA could account for the binding observed. Although the level of tamoxifeninduced damage displayed a degree of inter-individual variability, when present it was {approx}10-100 times higher than that reported for other suspect human colon carcinogens such as PhIP. These findings provide a mechanistic basis through which tamoxifen could increase the incidence of colon cancers in women.

  8. Modeling the conformational preference of the carbon-bonded covalent adduct formed upon exposure of 2'-deoxyguanosine to ochratoxin A.

    Sharma, Purshotam; Manderville, Richard A; Wetmore, Stacey D


    The conformational flexibility of the C8-linked guanine adduct formed from attachment of ochratoxin A (OTA) was analyzed using a systematic computational approach and models ranging from the nucleobase to the adducted DNA helix. A focus was placed on the influence of the C8-modification of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) on the preferred relative arrangement of the nucleobase and the C8-substituent and, more importantly, the anti/syn conformational preference with respect to the glycosidic bond. Although OTA is twisted with respect to the base in the nucleobase model, addition of the deoxyribose sugar induces a further twist and restricts rotation about the C-C linkage due to close contacts between OTA and the sugar. The nucleoside model preferentially adpots a syn orientation (by 10-20 kJ mol(-1) depending on the OTA conformation) due to the presence of an O5'-H···N3 interaction. However, when this hydrogen bond is eliminated, which better mimics the DNA environment, a small (simulations and free energy analysis predict that both syn- and anti-conformations of OTB-dG are equally stable in helices when paired opposite cytosine. These results indicate that the adduct will likely adopt a syn conformation in an isolated nucleoside and nucleotide, while a mixture of syn and anti conformations will be observed in DNA duplexes. Since the syn conformation could stabilize base mismatches upon DNA replication or Z-DNA structures with varied biological outcomes, future computational and experimental work should elucidate the consequences of the conformational preference of this potentially harmful DNA lesion.

  9. Metabolomic profiling unravels DNA adducts in human breast that are formed from peroxidase mediated activation of estrogens to quinone methides.

    Nilesh W Gaikwad

    Full Text Available Currently there are three major hypotheses that have been proposed for estrogen induced carcinogenicity, however exact etiology remains unknown. Based on the chemical logic, studies were undertaken to investigate if estrogens could generate quinone methides in an oxidative environment which then could cause DNA damage in humans. In presence of MnO2 estrogens were oxidized to quinone methides. Surprisingly quinone methides were found to be stable with t1/2 of 20.8 and 4.5 min respectively. Incubation of estrogens with lactoperoxidase (LPO and H2O2 resulted in formation of respective quinone methides (E1(E2-QM. Subsequent addition of adenine to the assay mixture lead to trapping of E1(E2-QM, resulting in formation of adenine adducts of estrogens, E1(E2-9-N-Ade. Targeted ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS based metabolomic analysis of the breast tissue extracts showed the presence of adenine adducts of estrogens, E1(E2-9-N-Ade, along with other estrogen related metabolites. Identity of E1(E2-N-Ade in LPO assay extracts and breast tissue extracts were confirmed by comparing them to pure synthesized E1(E2-9-N-Ade standards. From these results, it is evident that peroxidase enzymes or peroxidase-like activity in human breast tissue could oxidize estrogens to electrophilic and stable quinone methides in a single step that covalently bind to DNA to form adducts. The error prone repair of the damaged DNA can result in mutation of critical genes and subsequently cancer. This article reports evidence for hitherto unknown estrogen metabolic pathway in human breast, catalyzed by peroxidase, which could initiate cancer.

  10. Enhanced Stability of Blood Matrices Using a Dried Sample Spot Assay to Measure Human Butyrylcholinesterase Activity and Nerve Agent Adducts

    Perez, Jonas W.; Pantazides, Brooke G.; Watson, Caroline M.; Thomas, Jerry D.; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Rudolph C.


    Dried matrix spots are safer to handle and easier to store than wet blood products, but factors such as intra-spot variability and unknown sample volumes have limited their appeal as a sampling format for quantitative analyses. In this work, we introduce a dried spot activity assay for quantifying butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) specific activity which is BChE activity normalized to the total protein content in a sample spot. The method was demonstrated with blood, serum, and plasma spotted on specimen collection devices (cards) which were extracted to measure total protein and BChE activity using a modified Ellman assay. Activity recovered from dried spots was ∼80% of the initial spotted activity for blood and >90% for plasma and serum. Measuring total protein in the sample and calculating specific activity substantially improved quantification and reduced intra-spot variability. Analyte stability of nerve agent adducts was also evaluated, and the results obtained via BChE-specific activity measurements were confirmed by quantification of BChE adducts using a previously established LC-MS/MS method. The spotted samples were up to 10-times more resistant to degradation compared to unspotted control samples when measuring BChE inhibition by the nerve agents sarin and VX. Using this method, both BChE activity and adducts can be accurately measured from a dried sample spot. This use of a dried sample spot with normalization to total protein is robust, demonstrates decreased intra-spot variability without the need to control for initial sample volume, and enhances analyte stability. PMID:25955132

  11. Quantification of Carbohydrates and Related Materials Using Sodium Ion Adducts Produced by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization

    Ahn, Sung Hee; Park, Kyung Man; Moon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Seong Hoon; Kim, Myung Soo


    The utility of sodium ion adducts produced by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization for the quantification of analytes with multiple oxygen atoms was evaluated. Uses of homogeneous solid samples and temperature control allowed the acquisition of reproducible spectra. The method resulted in a direct proportionality between the ion abundance ratio I([A + Na]+)/I([M + Na]+) and the analyte concentration, which could be used as a calibration curve. This was demonstrated for carbohydrates, glycans, and polyether diols with dynamic range exceeding three orders of magnitude.

  12. Feasibility of Biomonitoring of Exposure to Permethrin Through Analysis of Long-Lived (Metabolite) Adducts to Proteins


    reaction with amino groups of the protein, leading to so-called Schiff base adducts (Grubb et al., 1993; Smith et al., 1990), which may eventually...22 Schiff base Amadori product OH C COOH HO O(C(O)R O NH proteinprotein OH C COOH HO O(C(O)R OH N O COOH HO OC(O)R OH OH trans...via the Schiff base mechanism , but also by nucleophilic displacement, as did lysine 541. However, for lysine 199 the Schiff base formation

  13. Triphenyl phosphine adducts of platinum(IV) and palladium(II) dithiocarbamates complexes: a spectral and in vitro study

    Manav, N.; Mishra, A. K.; Kaushik, N. K.


    Triphenyl phosphine adducts of dithiocarbamate complexes of platinum(IV) and palladium(II) of the type [Pt(L) 2PPh 3Cl 2] and [Pd(L) 2PPh 3] [L: morpholine dithiocarbamate (L 1), aniline dithiocarbamate (L 2) and N-(methyl, cyclohexyl) dithiocarbamate (L 3)] were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, electronic, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. Thermal studies of the complexes were carried out. In vitro antitumor activity has been screened towards human adenocarcinoma cell lines and showed significant inhibition even at very low concentration.




    Full Text Available Four new phenylarseniato adducts and derivatives have been synthesized on allowing SnR2Cl2 (R = Ph, Bu to react with Cy2NH2.NH2PhAsO3H.3/2H2O in specific ratios. The obtained new tin (IV compounds were studied by infrared, infinite chain and discrete structures were suggested on the basis of spectroscopic data, the oxyanion behaving as a bridging bidentate or a tridentate ligand. When secondary interactions are involved supramolecular architectures were obtained.

  15. Hyphenating the curtius rearrangement with Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts: synthesis of biologically active acyloins and vicinal aminoalcohols

    Amarante, Giovanni W.; Cavallaro, Mayra; Coelho, Fernando, E-mail: coelho@iqm.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Sintese de Produtos Naturais e Farmacos


    Using Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts as substrates, the Curtius rearrangement was performed in a sequence that allowed the synthesis of several hydroxy-ketones (acyloins) with great structural diversity and in good overall yields. These acyloins in turn were easily transformed into 1,2-anti aminoalcohols through a highly diastereoselective reductive amination step. The synthetic utility of these approaches was exemplified by performing the syntheses of (+-)-bupropion, a drug used to treat the abstinence syndrome of smoker and (+-)-spisulosine, a potent anti-tumoral compound originally isolated from a marine source. (author)




    Full Text Available The proposed structures for the studied adducts - DABCO.3[NiCl2·2H2O].EtOH and 2DABCO.3CuCl2.4EtOH or 3DABCO. 4CuCl2.5EtOH are discrete with two or three metallic components, the environments around the Nickel centres being octahedral or square planar, while being octahedral , linear or a square based prism around the Copper centres, the DABCO behaving as a monodentate or bridging bidentate ligand or being lattice. Extra intermolecular interactions via hydrogen bonds when considered, may lead to supramolecular architectures.

  17. ()-Garner aldehyde derived Baylis-Hillman adduct: A potential substrate for the synthesis of D- phytosphinosine analogue

    Gulshan Kumar; Amanpreet Kaur; Vasundhara Singh


    A short, facile and efficient synthesis of D-lyxo-phytosphingosine analogue has been achieved. The key steps involved are the Baylis-Hillman reaction of (S)-Garner aldehyde with methyl acrylate to obtain the corresponding adduct as the potential substrate, to which was added decylmagnesium bromide to obtain the E-trisubstituted alkene followed by OsO4/NMO mediated dihydroxylation gave the desired D-lyxophytosphingosine analogue intermediate diol which on acid hydrolysis resulted in the formation of the target molecule in good yield.

  18. Quantification of Carbohydrates and Related Materials Using Sodium Ion Adducts Produced by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization

    Ahn, Sung Hee; Park, Kyung Man; Moon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Seong Hoon; Kim, Myung Soo


    The utility of sodium ion adducts produced by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization for the quantification of analytes with multiple oxygen atoms was evaluated. Uses of homogeneous solid samples and temperature control allowed the acquisition of reproducible spectra. The method resulted in a direct proportionality between the ion abundance ratio I([A + Na]+)/I([M + Na]+) and the analyte concentration, which could be used as a calibration curve. This was demonstrated for carbohydrates, glycans, and polyether diols with dynamic range exceeding three orders of magnitude.

  19. Typical signature of DNA damage in white blood cells: a pilot study on etheno adducts in Danish mother-newborn child pairs

    Arab, K; Pedersen, Marie; Nair, J;


    The impact of DNA damage commonly thought to be involved in chronic degenerative disease causation is particularly detrimental during fetal development. Within a multicenter study, we analyzed 77 white blood cell (WBC) samples from mother-newborn child pairs to see if imprinting of DNA damage...... in mother and newborn shows a similar pattern. Two adducts 1,N(6)-ethenodeoxyadenosine (epsilondA) and 3,N(4)-ethenodeoxycytidine (epsilondC) were measured by our ultrasensitive immunoaffinity (32)P-post-labeling method. These miscoding etheno-DNA adducts are generated by the reaction of lipid peroxidation...... arising from endogenous reactive aldehydes in WBC of both mother and newborn can be reliably assessed by epsilondA and epsilondC as biomarkers. The high correlation of etheno adduct levels in mother and child WBC suggests that a typical signature of DNA damage is induced similarly in fetus and mother...

  20. Detection of Radical Adducts with Small Molecular Weights by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization with Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    TIAN,Yao-Wei; SUN,Shi-Hao; XIE,Jian-Ping; ZONG,Yong-Li; NIE,Cong; GUO,Yin-Long


    As an alternative method, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS) has been successfully used to detect and identify free radical adducts with small molecular weights of hydroxyl and 2-cyano-2-propyl radicals trapped with 5,5-dimethylpyrroline N-oxide (DMPO). The detection and identification by MS/MS experiments using sustained offresonance irradiation collision-induced dissociation (SORI-CID) of [(DMPO+·OH-·H)+H+] (m/z 130.0868) and [DMPO+2 ·CH(CH3)2CN+H+] (m/z 250.1917) have demonstrated that MALDI-FTMS could be an effective method for detection and identification of free radical adducts. Other radical adducts have been also detected and identified. The approach of MALDI-FTMS is simple, fast, and sensitive which has potential for high-throughput analysis.

  1. Bulky DNA Adducts in Cord Blood, Maternal Fruit-and-Vegetable Consumption, and Birth Weight in a European Mother-Child Study (NewGeneris)

    Pedersen, Marie; Schoket, Bernadette; Godschalk, Roger W


    Background: Tobacco-smoke, airborne, and dietary exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been associated with reduced prenatal growth. Evidence from biomarker-based studies of low-exposed populations is limited. Bulky DNA adducts in cord blood reflect the prenatal effective dose...... with those with high intake (-58 g; 95% CI: -206, 90 g)Conclusions: Maternal exposure to genotoxic agents that induce the formation of bulky DNA adducts may affect intrauterine growth. Maternal fruit and vegetable consumption may be protective.Citation: Pedersen M, Schoket B, Godschalk RW, Wright J, von......, Kleinjans JC, Segerbäck D, Kogevinas M. 2013. Bulky DNA adducts in cord blood, maternal fruit-and-vegetable consumption, and birth weight in a European mother-child study (NewGeneris). Environ Health Perspect 121:1200-1206;


    Chenna, Ahmed; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Bonala, Radha R.; Johnson, Francis; Huang, Bo


    N2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-O-DMT-3'-phosphoramidite has been synthesized and used to incorporate the N2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2'-dG (N2-4-HOPh-dG) into DNA, using solid-state synthesis technology. The key step to obtaining the xenonucleoside is a palladium (Xantphos-chelated) catalyzed N2-arylation (Buchwald-Hartwig reaction) of a fully protected 2'-deoxyguanosine derivative by 4-isobutyryloxybromobenzene. The reaction proceeded in good yield and the adduct was converted to the required 5'-O-DMT-3'-O-phosphoramidite by standard methods. The latter was used to synthesize oligodeoxynucleotides in which the N2-4-HOPh-dG adduct was incorporated site-specifically. The oligomers were purified by reverse-phase HPLC. Enzymatic hydrolysis and HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of this adduct in the oligomers.

  3. Discrimination of Isomeric Carbohydrates as the Electron Transfer Products of Group II Cation Adducts by Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Huang, Yuting; Dodds, Eric D


    The rapid and unambiguous distinction of isomeric carbohydrate structures persists as a tremendous analytical challenge. This paper reports the first exploitation of carbohydrate/metal ion interactions in concert with gas-phase ion chemistry to improve discrimination of oligosaccharide isomers by both ion mobility spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. This is demonstrated for two isomeric pentasaccharides and two isomeric hexasaccharides, each studied in an underivatized form as their calcium ion adducts, barium ion adducts, and gas-phase electron transfer products thereof. With appropriate selection of the charge carrier, transfer of a single electron to the carbohydrate metal ion adducts resulted in isomer-distinguishing shifts in their ion/neutral collision cross sections and the appearance of unique features in their vibrational activation/dissociation spectra. These findings suggest novel and elegant gas-phase strategies for rapid differentiation of isomeric oligosaccharides.

  4. Trifluoroacetylated adducts in spermatozoa, testes, liver and plasma and CYP2E1 induction in rats after subchronic inhalatory exposure to halothane.

    Oropeza-Hernández, Luis F; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Reyes-Mejía, Raul A; Serrano, Carmen J; García-Latorre, Ethel A; Dekant, Wolfgang; Manno, Maurizio; Albores, Arnulfo


    The induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 in testes and liver and the presence of trifluoroacetylated (TFA) adducts in spermatozoa, testes, liver and plasma were investigated in rats subchronically exposed by inhalation to halothane (15 ppm/4 h/day/5 days/week/9 weeks). After halothane exposure, p-nitrophenol hydroxylase (p-NPH) activity increased 3.2-fold and CYP2E1 apo-protein content 7-fold in testes, whereas in liver, p-NPH increased 2.3-fold and CYP2E1 apoprotein content 1.4-fold. These results suggest a differential inductive effect of halothane on CYP2E1 in these tissues. Moreover, TFA adducts were present in microsomes of testis and liver and in plasma of halothane-treated rats. The immunoblot analysis of testicular microsomes showed two intense TFA protein bands of 63 and 59 kDa, whereas in liver three intense bands of 100, 76 and 63 kDa were observed. Bands of similar molecular weights to those observed in liver were detected in the plasma of halothane-treated animals. In addition, TFA adducts were detected by immunofluorescence in spermatozoa, probably in the acrosome and/or perinuclear theca region, and in the distal tail of spermatozoa. The increase in CYP2E1 apoprotein and p-NPH activity observed in testis and liver microsomes suggests that halothane induces its own biotransformation both hepatically and extrahepatically and in addition, that the nature of the TFA adducts will depend on the proteins present in each tissue. Also, the presence of TFA adducts in spermatozoa may result from the activation of halothane in the reproductive tract. The detailed mechanism of TFA adduct formation and its consequences on the spermatozoa function remain to be fully clarified.

  5. Structure and mechanism of error-free replication past the major benzo[a]pyrene adduct by human DNA polymerase κ.

    Jha, Vikash; Bian, Chuanbing; Xing, Guangxin; Ling, Hong


    Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is a well-known and frequently encountered carcinogen which generates a bulky DNA adduct (+)-trans-10S-BP-N(2)-dG (BP-dG) in cells. DNA polymerase kappa (polκ) is the only known Y-family polymerase that bypasses BP-dG accurately and thus protects cells from genotoxic BP. Here, we report the structures of human polκ in complex with DNA containing either a normal guanine (G) base or a BP-dG adduct at the active site and a correct deoxycytidine. The structures and supporting biochemical data reveal a unique mechanism for accurate replication by translesion synthesis past the major bulky adduct. The active site of polκ opens at the minor groove side of the DNA substrate to accommodate the bulky BP-dG that is attached there. More importantly, polκ stabilizes the lesion DNA substrate in the same active conformation as for regular B-form DNA substrates and the bulky BPDE ring in a 5' end pointing conformation. The BP-dG adducted DNA substrate maintains a Watson-Crick (BP-dG:dC) base pair within the active site, governing correct nucleotide insertion opposite the bulky adduct. In addition, polκ's unique N-clasp domain supports the open conformation of the enzyme and the extended conformation of the single-stranded template to allow bypass of the bulky lesion. This work illustrates the first molecular mechanism for how a bulky major adduct is replicated accurately without strand misalignment and mis-insertion.

  6. Analysis of protein adducts as biomarkers of short-term exposure to ethylene oxide and results of follow-up biomonitoring.

    Bader, Michael; Will, Wolfgang; Frey, Gunild; Nasterlack, Michael


    An accidental exposure of six workers to ethylene oxide (EO) provided the rationale for a biomonitoring and follow-up study, whose aim was to analyse protein adduct kinetics and examine the differentiation between accidental and environmental exposure, e.g., from tobacco smoke. For this purpose, the decrease in the concentration of the haemoglobin adduct N-2-hydroxyethylvaline (HEV) was followed during a five-month period after the accident, together with N-2-cyanoethylvaline (CEV) and urinary cotinine, two well-established biomarkers for smoking. The follow-up study showed that EO adduct concentrations significantly increased after a short but presumably high exposure. Initial biomonitoring revealed HEV levels above 500 pmol g(-1) globin in all cases, with a maximum of about 2,400 pmol g(-1) globin. This compares to a German EKA value (exposure equivalent for carcinogenic substances) for a daily 8-h-exposure to 1 ppm EO of 90 μg L(-1) blood (~3,900 pmol g(-1) globin). The adduct levels dropped in accordance with the expected zero-order kinetics for a single exposure. After the five-month observation interval, the HEV concentrations in blood reflected the individual background from tobacco smoking. The results of this study show that even a short exposure to ethylene oxide may result in a significant rise in haemoglobin adduct levels. Although protein adducts and their occupational-medical assessment values are considered for long-term exposure surveillance, they can also be used for monitoring accidental exposures. In these cases, the calculation of daily 'ppm-equivalents' may provide a means for a comparison with the existing assessment values.

  7. Identification of novel disulfide adducts between the thiol containing leaving group of the nerve agent VX and cysteine containing tripeptides derived from human serum albumin.

    Kranawetvogl, Andreas; Küppers, Jim; Gütschow, Michael; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Elsinghorst, Paul W; John, Harald


    Chemical warfare agents represent a continuous and considerable threat to military personnel and the civilian population. Such compounds are prohibited by the Chemical Weapons Convention, to which adherence by the member states is strictly controlled. Therefore, reliable analytical methods for verification of an alleged use of banned substances are required. Accordingly, current research focuses on long-term biomarkers derived from covalent adducts with biomolecules such as proteins. Recently, we have introduced a microbore liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry method allowing for the investigation of two different classes of adducts of the nerve agent VX with human serum albumin (HSA). Phosphonylated tyrosine residues and novel disulfide adducts at cysteine residues of HSA were produced by enzymatic cleavage with pronase and detected simultaneously. Notably, the thiol containing leaving group of VX (2-(diisopropylamino)ethanethiol, DPAET) formed disulfide adducts that were released as cysteine and proline containing dipeptides originating from at least two different sites of HSA. Aim of this study was to identify assumed and novel adducts of DPAET with HSA using synthetic peptide reference compounds. Two novel tripeptides were identified representing disulfide adducts with DPAET (Met-Pro-Cys-DPAET, MPC-DPAET and Asp-Ile-Cys-DPAET, DIC-DPAET). MPC-DPAET was shown to undergo partial in-source decay during electrospray ionization for MS detection thereby losing the N-terminal Met residue. This results in the more stable Pro-Cys-DPAET (PC-DPAET) dipeptide detectable as protonated ion. The limit of detection for MPC-DPAET was evaluated, revealing toxicologically relevant VX plasma concentrations. The results provide novel insights into the reactivity of VX and its endogenous targets. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. DNA adducts and PM(10) exposure in traffic-exposed workers and urban residents from the EPIC-Florence City study.

    Palli, Domenico; Saieva, Calogero; Munnia, Armelle; Peluso, Marco; Grechi, Daniele; Zanna, Ines; Caini, Saverio; Decarli, Adriano; Sera, Francesco; Masala, Giovanna


    Air pollution and particulate matter in urban areas have been associated with increased mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and increased cancer risk. Carcinogenic effects of particulate matter have been related to the contents of specific compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The latter may form bulky DNA adducts, that may be considered as candidate markers of cancer risk. We have recently shown that traffic-exposed workers and the general population in Florence have divergent levels of DNA adducts, possibly related to different levels of exposure to genotoxic agents from vehicle emissions. In the current study, in a series of 214 Florence City healthy adults enrolled in a prospective study in the period 1993-1998 (152 residents / 62 traffic-exposed workers), we investigated the correlation between individual levels of DNA bulky adducts and PM(10) exposure scores based on daily environmental measures provided by the local Environmental Protection Agency for the whole study period, by two types of urban monitoring stations (high- and low-traffic). We found that PM(10) cumulative scores from high-traffic stations over the last 1-2 weeks prior to blood drawing significantly correlated (r=0.58, p=0.02) with DNA adduct levels among non-smoking traffic-exposed workers (but not among residents with no occupational exposure to vehicle emissions). A multivariate regression analysis adjusted for possible confounders confirmed these findings. PM(10) scores from low-traffic stations did not show any correlation. These results show that DNA adduct levels in non-smoking workers reflect the average levels of exposure to PM(10) in high-traffic urban areas experienced over a time period of 1-2 weeks. Since DNA adduct levels have been found predictive of lung cancer risk, our findings provide clues relevant to the reduction of genotoxic damage and possibly cancer risk among traffic-exposed urban workers.

  9. Conditions for sample preparation and quantitative HPLC/MS-MS analysis of bulky adducts to serum albumin with diolepoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as models.

    Westberg, Emelie; Hedebrant, Ulla; Haglund, Johanna; Alsberg, Tomas; Eriksson, Johan; Seidel, Albrecht; Törnqvist, Margareta


    Stable adducts to serum albumin (SA) from electrophilic and genotoxic compounds/metabolites can be used as biomarkers for quantification of the corresponding in vivo dose. In the present study, conditions for specific analysis of stable adducts to SA formed from carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were evaluated in order to achieve a sensitive and reproducible quantitative method. Bulky adducts from diolepoxides (DE) of PAH, primarily DE of benzo[a]pyrene (BPDE) and also DE of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBPDE) and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DBADE), were used as model compounds. The alkylated peptides obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of human SA modified with the different PAHDE were principally PAHDE-His-Pro, PAHDE-His-Pro-Tyr and PAHDE-Lys. Alkaline hydrolysis under optimised conditions gave the BPDE-His as the single analyte of alkylated His, but also indicated degradation of this adduct. It was not possible to obtain the BPDE-His as one analyte from BPDE-alkylated SA through modifications of the enzymatic hydrolysis. The BPDE-His adduct was shown to be stable during the weak acidic conditions used in the isolation of SA. Enrichment by HPLC or SPE, but not butanol extraction, gave good recovery, using Protein LoBind tubes. A simple internal standard (IS) approach using SA modified with other PAHDE as IS was shown to be applicable. A robust analytical procedure based on digestion with pronase, enrichment by HPLC or SPE, and analysis with HPLC/MS-MS electrospray ionisation was achieved. A good reproducibility (coefficient of variation (CV) 11 %) was obtained, and the achieved limit of detection for the studied PAHDE, using standard instrumentation, was approximately 1 fmol adduct/mg SA analysing extract from 5 mg SA.

  10. Novel Fragmentation Pathways of Anionic Adducts of Steroids Formed by Electrospray Anion Attachment Involving Regioselective Attachment, Regiospecific Decompositions, Charge-Induced Pathways, and Ion-Dipole Complex Intermediates

    Rannulu, Nalaka S.; Cole, Richard B.


    The analysis of several bifunctional neutral steroids, 5-α-pregnane diol (5-α-pregnane-3α-20βdiol), estradiol (3,17α-dihydroxy-1,3,5(10)-estratriene), progesterone (4-pregnene-3,20-dione), lupeol (3β-hydroxy-20(29)-lupene), pregnenolone (5-pregnen-3β-ol-20-one), and pregnenolone acetate (5-pregnen-3β-ol-20-one acetate) was accomplished by negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) employing adduct formation with various anions: fluoride, bicarbonate, acetate, and chloride. Fluoride yielded higher abundances of anionic adducts and more substantial abundances of deprotonated molecules compared with other investigated anions. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of precursor [M + anion]- adducts of these steroids revealed that fluoride adduct [M + F]- precursors first lose HF to produce [M - H]- and then undergo consecutive decompositions to yield higher abundances of structurally-informative product ions than the other tested anions. In addition to charge-remote fragmentations, the majority of CID pathways of estradiol are deduced to occur via charge-induced fragmentation. Most interestingly, certain anions exhibit preferential attachment to a specific site on these bifunctional steroid molecules, which we are calling "regioselective anion attachment." Regioselective anion attachment is evidenced by subsequent regiospecific decomposition. Regioselective attachment of fluoride (and acetate) anions to low (and moderate) acidity functional groups of pregnenolone, respectively, is demonstrated using deuterated compounds. Moreover, the formation of unique intermediate ion-dipole complexes leading to novel fragmentation pathways of fluoride adducts of pregnenolone acetate, and bicarbonate adducts of d4-pregnenolone, are also discussed.

  11. Aflatoxin-albumin adduct formation after single and multiple doses of aflatoxin B(1) in rats treated with Thai medicinal plants.

    Vinitketkumnuen, U; Chewonarin, T; Dhumtanom, P; Lertprasertsuk, N; Wild, C P


    The objective was to conduct an assessment of the ability of two Thai medicinal plants, Cymbopogon citratus Stapf and Murdannia loriformis, to modulate levels of serum aflatoxin-albumin (AF-albumin) adducts following aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) exposure in rats. The influence of the plant extracts on AF-albumin adduct formation after a single exposure to 250 microg/kg body weight (bw) AFB(1) was measured over a 48-h period. Rats received M. loriformis extract (3 g/kg bw) or C. citratus Stapf extract (5 g/kg bw) daily for the week prior to the AFB(1) administration. In control rats, maximum adduct levels were observed 12 h post-AFB(1) treatment but in the animals receiving Murdannia extract, maximum levels occurred earlier, at 4 h post-treatment. No such effect was observed with the Cymbopogon extract. Daily treatment of rats with AFB(1) at 250 microg/kg bw for 3 weeks caused serum AF-albumin adduct levels to accumulate over a 10-14 day period and reach plateau levels 4.4-fold higher than observed after a single dose. Treatment with Murdannia extract for 1 week before and then throughout the AFB(1) exposure period resulted in a slight decrease in the AF-albumin adduct levels in the first week of the intervention. After that time, however, the reduction in adduct levels in the Murdannia extract group did not differ significantly from controls. No significant alteration in the biomarker levels was seen with the Cymbopogon extract treatments compared to control rats.

  12. Determination of hemoglobin adduct of a musk xylene metabolite in trout as biomarker of exposure by gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    MOTTALEB Mohammad Abdul; KARIM Mohammad Rezaul


    Musk xylene(MX) is frequently used as fragrances in formulation of personal care products. Quantification of a bound 4-aminoMX(4-AMX) as cysteine adducts in trout hemoglobin(Hb) was made by gas chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry(GC/MS). The Hb samples were collected from trout after 24 h exposure to MX at 10 μg/g, and or menhaden oil(control). The formation of cysteine-Hb adduct was observed from nitroso derivative of MX, released by alkaline hydrolysis. The released 4-AMX metabolite was extracted in nhexane. The extract was then reduced by evaporation, and analyzed by GC/MS. When similar agreement of mass spectral features and retention time of 4-AMX were obtained in both standard and sample solutions, the presence of 4-AMX metabolite in the Hb was confirmed.The concentration of 4-AMX was found to be 3.1 x 10-6- 6.9 x 10-6 mg/g in the Hb solution. Quantitation was made based on an internal standard, a calibration plot, and response factor. In the non-hydrolyzed and laboratory blank extracts, the 4-AMX metabolite was not detected. Additionally, coeluting and interfering ions were observed in the biological samples.

  13. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Adduct [La(NO3)3*4H2O]*2(BQEB)

    朱文祥; 苟宝迪; 张永安; 李言; 陈学安


    New podand compound 1,2-bis (8′-quinolyloxy ethoxy) benzene (BQEB) was prepared. A lanthanum adduct with BQEB was synthesized and its structure was characterized by X-ray crystal analysis using Mo Kα radiation (λ=0.071073 nm). Crystal data: space group C2/c, Z=4, a=1.8636(3) nm, b=2.0036(3) nm, c=1.5186(3) nm, α=90.00°, β=91.452(14)°, γ=90.00°, Rf=0.0373 for 6520 observed data. In the crystal structure the La3+ is ten-coordinated by three NO-3 and four H2O. Two podand molecules link to the coordination core via O—H…N (average O…N=0.2766(3) nm) hydrogen bonds. The adduct has a one-dimensional chain sandwich structure consisting of every two podand molecules with a [La(NO3)3*4H2O] as a bridge. The whole crystal is packed in a manner of…LLMLLMLL….

  14. Malabaricone C-containing mace extract inhibits safrole bioactivation and DNA adduct formation both in vitro and in vivo.

    Martati, Erryana; Boonpawa, Rungnapa; van den Berg, Johannes H J; Paini, Alicia; Spenkelink, Albertus; Punt, Ans; Vervoort, Jacques; van Bladeren, Peter J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M


    Safrole, present in mace and its essential oils, causes liver tumors in rodents at high dose levels due to formation of a DNA reactive 1'-sulfooxysafrole. The present study identifies malabaricone C as a mace constituent able to inhibit safrole DNA adduct formation at the level of sulfotransferase mediated bioactivation. This inhibition was incorporated into physiologically based biokinetic rat and human models. Dosing safrole at 50mg/kg body weight and malabaricone C-containing mace extract at a ratio reflecting the relative presence in mace, and assuming 100% or 1% uptake of malabaricone C-containing mace extract, the model predicted inhibition of 1'-sulfooxysafrole formation for rats and humans by 90% and 100% or 61% and 91%, respectively. To validate the model, mace extract and safrole were co-administered orally to Sprague-Dawley rats. LC-ECI-MS/MS based quantification of DNA adduct levels revealed a significant (padduct formation by malabaricone C-containing mace extract in the liver of rats exposed to safrole. The data obtained were used to perform a refined risk assessment of safrole. Overall, the results suggest a lower tumor incidence when safrole would be tested within a relevant food matrix containing sulfotransferase inhibitors compared to dosing pure safrole.

  15. Formation of Metal-Adducted Analyte Ions by Flame-Induced Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Wang, Chin-Hsiung; Shiea, Jentaie


    A flame-induced atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (FAPCI) source, consisting of a miniflame, nebulizer, and heated tube, was developed to ionize analytes. The ionization was performed by reacting analytes with a charged species generated in a flame. A stainless steel needle deposited with saturated alkali chloride solution was introduced into the mini oxyacetylene flame to generate alkali ions, which were reacted with analytes (M) generated in a heated nebulizer. The alkali-adducted 18-crown-6 ether ions, including (M + Li)(+), (M + Na)(+), (M + K)(+), (M + Rb)(+), and (M + Cs)(+), were successfully detected on the FAPCI mass spectra when the corresponding alkali chloride solutions were separately introduced to the flame. When an alkali chloride mixture was introduced, all alkali-adducted analyte ions were simultaneously detected. Their intensity order was as follows: (M + Cs)(+) > (M + Rb)(+) > (M + K)(+) > (M + Na)(+) > (M + Li)(+), and this trend agreed with the lattice energies of alkali chlorides. Besides alkali ions, other transition metal ions such as Ni(+), Cu(+), and Ag(+) were generated in a flame for analyte ionization. Other than metal ions, the reactive species generated in the fossil fuel flame could also be used to ionize analytes, which formed protonated analyte ions (M + H)(+) in positive ion mode and deprotonated analyte ions (M - H)(-) in negative ion mode.

  16. Ion mobility studies of carbohydrates as group I adducts: isomer specific collisional cross section dependence on metal ion radius.

    Huang, Yuting; Dodds, Eric D


    Carbohydrates play numerous critical roles in biological systems. Characterization of oligosaccharide structures is essential to a complete understanding of their functions in biological processes; nevertheless, their structural determination remains challenging in part due to isomerism. Ion mobility spectrometry provides the means to resolve gas phase ions on the basis of their shape-to-charge ratios, thus providing significant potential for separation and differentiation of carbohydrate isomers. Here, we report on the determination of collisional cross sections for four groups of isomeric carbohydrates (including five isomeric disaccharides, four isomeric trisaccharides, two isomeric pentasaccharides, and two isomeric hexasaccharides) as their group I metal ion adducts (i.e., [M + Li](+), [M + Na](+), [M + K](+), [M + Rb](+), and [M + Cs](+)). In all, 65 collisional cross sections were measured, the great majority of which have not been previously reported. As anticipated, the collisional cross sections of the carbohydrate metal ion adducts generally increase with increasing metal ion radius; however, the collisional cross sections were found to scale with the group I cation size in isomer specific manners. Such measurements are of substantial analytical value, as they illustrate how the selection of charge carrier influences carbohydrate ion mobility determinations. For example, certain pairs of isomeric carbohydrates assume unique collisional cross sections upon binding one metal ion, but not another. On the whole, these data suggest a role for the charge carrier as a probe of carbohydrate structure and thus have significant implications for the continued development and application of ion mobility spectrometry for the distinction and resolution of isomeric carbohydrates.

  17. Mechanism of repair of 5'-topoisomerase II-DNA adducts by mammalian tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2

    Schellenberg, Matthew J; Appel, C Denise; Adhikari, Sanjay; Robertson, Patrick D; Ramsden, Dale A; Williams, R Scott [NIH; (Georgetown); (UNC)


    The topoisomerase II (topo II) DNA incision-and-ligation cycle can be poisoned (for example following treatment with cancer chemotherapeutics) to generate cytotoxic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) with topo II covalently conjugated to DNA. Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (Tdp2) protects genomic integrity by reversing 5'-phosphotyrosyl–linked topo II–DNA adducts. Here, X-ray structures of mouse Tdp2–DNA complexes reveal that Tdp2 β–2-helix–β DNA damage–binding 'grasp', helical 'cap' and DNA lesion–binding elements fuse to form an elongated protein-DNA conjugate substrate-interaction groove. The Tdp2 DNA-binding surface is highly tailored for engagement of 5'-adducted single-stranded DNA ends and restricts nonspecific endonucleolytic or exonucleolytic processing. Structural, mutational and functional analyses support a single–metal ion catalytic mechanism for the exonuclease-endonuclease-phosphatase (EEP) nuclease superfamily and establish a molecular framework for targeted small-molecule blockade of Tdp2-mediated resistance to anticancer topoisomerase drugs.

  18. Glycidol exposure evaluation of humans who have ingested diacylglycerol oil containing glycidol fatty acid esters using hemoglobin adducts.

    Honda, Hiroshi; Fujii, Kenkichi; Yamaguchi, Tohru; Ikeda, Naohiro; Nishiyama, Naohiro; Kasamatsu, Toshio


    Glycidol fatty acid esters (GEs) have been found as impurities in refined edible oils including diacylglycerol (DAG) oil, and concerns of possible exposure to glycidol (G), a known animal carcinogen, during digestion have been raised. We previously measured N-(2,3-dihydroxy-propyl)valine (diHOPrVal), a G hemoglobin adduct, for DAG oil exposed and non-exposed groups and showed there was no significant difference between them. In the present study, we conducted an additional analysis to verify the outcome of the previous report. The first experiment was designed as a matched case-control study to adjust variables with an increased sample size. The average levels of diHOPrVal were 6.9 pmol/g-globin (95%CI: 4.9-9.0) for 14 DAG oil exposed subjects and 7.3 pmol/g-globin (95%CI: 6.1-8.5) for 42 non-exposed volunteers, and no significant difference in levels was found between the two groups. In a second experiment, we compared the adduct levels of 12 DAG oil exposed subjects before and after discontinuing use of DAG oil, and found there was no significant change in diHOPrVal levels (from 7.1±1.1 to 7.5±1.4 pmol/g-globin). These results suggest that there was no increased exposure to G for humans who ingested DAG oil daily, although the evaluated population was limited.

  19. Fibre-induced lipid peroxidation leads to DNA adduct formation in Salmonella typhimurium TA104 and rat lung fibroblasts.

    Howden, P J; Faux, S P


    Certain end-products of lipid peroxidation bind to DNA forming a fluorescent chromophore. Incubation of both Salmonella typhimurium TA104 and a rat lung fibroblast cell line, RFL-6, with various types of mineral fibre resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in DNA fluorescence. The increase in DNA fluorescence was shown to be directly related to the amount of iron that could be mobilized from the fibre surface using in vitro studies in the absence of cells or bacteria. Crocidolite and man-made vitreous fibre-21 (MMVF-21) mobilized significant quantities of iron and were significantly more active than chrysotile and refactory ceramic fibre-1 (RCF-1). Fibre-induced malondialdehyde-DNA adduct formation, the fluorescent product, was increased by incubating cells with buthionine sulfoximine and ameliorated by co-treatment with N-acetylcysteine, indicating a protective role for glutathione. Similarly, vitamin E was also shown to inhibit DNA adduct formation. These results suggest that mineral fibre-induced lipid peroxidation produced genotoxic products which can diffuse into nucleus and interact with cellular DNA. In conclusion, fibre-induced lipid peroxidation may be a possible mechanism in the genotoxic action of fibrous materials.




    Full Text Available Three new organotin complexes (two selenito and an oxalate one adducts have been synthesized and studied by infrared and Mössbauer techniques. A discrete structure is suggested with a bi-unidentate selenito oxyanion and trans bipyramidal SnPh3 residue; the oxalato adduct can be seen as an insertion compound between C2O4(SnPh32 and [Cu(En3]C2O4•4SnPh2C2O4. This last compound has a discrete ionic structure with cis coordinated SnPh2 residues.

  1. Replication past the butadiene diepoxide-derived DNA adduct S-[4-(N(6)-deoxyadenosinyl)-2,3-dihydroxybutyl]glutathione by DNA polymerases.

    Cho, Sung-Hee; Guengerich, F Peter


    1,2,3,4-Diepoxybutane (DEB), a metabolite of the carcinogen butadiene, has been shown to cause glutathione (GSH)-dependent base substitution mutations, especially A:T to G:C mutations in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 [Cho, S. H., et al. (2010) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 1544] and Escherichia coli TRG8 cells [Cho, S. H., and Guengerich, F. P. (2012) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 25, 1522]. We previously identified S-[4-(N(6)-deoxyadenosinyl)-2,3-dihydroxybutyl]GSH [N(6)dA-(OH)2butyl-GSH] as a major adduct in the reaction of S-(2-hydroxy-3,4-epoxybutyl)glutathione (DEB-GSH conjugate) with nucleosides and calf thymus DNA and in vivo in livers of mice and rats treated with DEB [Cho, S. H., and Guengerich, F. P. (2012) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 25, 706]. For investigation of the miscoding potential of the major DEB-GSH conjugate-derived DNA adduct [N(6)dA-(OH)2butyl-GSH] and the effect of GSH conjugation on replication of DEB, extension studies were performed in duplex DNA substrates containing the site-specifically incorporated N(6)dA-(OH)2butyl-GSH adduct, N(6)-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutyl)deoxyadenosine adduct (N(6)dA-butanetriol), or unmodified deoxyadenosine (dA) by human DNA polymerases (Pol) η, ι, and κ, bacteriophage polymerase T7, and Sulfolobus solfataricus polymerase Dpo4. Although dTTP incorporation was the most preferred addition opposite the N(6)dA-(OH)2butyl-GSH adduct, N(6)dA-butanetriol adduct, or unmodified dA for all polymerases, the dCTP misincorporation frequency opposite N(6)dA-(OH)2butyl-GSH was significantly higher than that opposite the N(6)dA-butanetriol adduct or unmodified dA with Pol κ or Pol T7. LC-MS/MS analysis of full-length primer extension products confirmed that Pol κ or Pol T7 incorporated the incorrect base C opposite the N(6)dA-(OH)2butyl-GSH lesion. These results indicate the relevance of GSH-containing adducts for the A:T to G:C mutations produced by DEB.

  2. Detection and quantitation of benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adducts in brain and liver tissues of Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence and Mackenzie Estuaries

    Shugart, L.R.


    It should be noted that there are few analytical techniques available for the detection and quantitation of chemical adducts in the DNA of living organisms. The reasons for this are: the analytical technique often has to accommodate the unique chemical and/or physical properties of the individual chemical or its metabolite; the percentage of total chemical that becomes most of the parent compound is usually detoxified and excreted; not all adducts that form between the genotoxic agent and DNA are stable or are involved in the development of subsequent deleterious events in the organism; and the amount of DNA available for analysis is often quite limited. 16 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Structural characterization of diastereoisomeric ethano adducts derived from the reaction of 2'-deoxyguanosine with trans,trans-2,4-decadienal.

    Loureiro, Ana Paula M; de Arruda Campos, Ivan P; Gomes, Osmar F; di Mascio, Paolo; Medeiros, Marisa H G


    Background levels of exocyclic DNA adducts have been detected in rodent and human tissues. Several studies have focused on bifunctional electrophiles generated from lipid peroxidation as one of the endogenous sources of these lesions. We have previously shown that the reaction of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dGuo) with trans,trans-2,4-decadienal (DDE), a highly cytotoxic aldehyde generated as a product of lipid peroxidation in cell membranes, results in the formation of a number of different base derivatives. Three of these derivatives have been fully characterized as 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts. In the present work, four additional adducts, designated A3-A6, were isolated from in vitro reactions by reversed-phase HPLC and fully characterized on the basis of spectroscopic measurements. Adducts A3-A6 are four diastereoisomeric 1,N(2)-hydroxyethano-2'-deoxyguanosine derivatives possessing a carbon side chain with a double bond and a hydroxyl group. The systematic name of these adducts is 6-hydroxy-3-(2'-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentafuranosyl)-7-((E)-1-hydroxy-oct-2-enyl)-3,5,6,7-tetrahydro-imidazo[1,2-a]purin-9-one. The proposed reaction mechanism yielding adducts A3-A6 involves DDE epoxidation at C2, followed by nucleophilic addition of the exocyclic amino group of dGuo to the C1 of the aldehyde and cyclization, via nucleophilic attack, on the C2 epoxy group by N-1. The formation of adducts A1-A6 has been investigated in acidic, neutral, and basic pH in the presence of H(2)O(2) or tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Neutral conditions, in the presence of H(2)O(2), have favored the formation of adducts A1 and A2, with minor amounts of A3-A6, which were prevalent under basic conditions. These data indicate that DDE can modify DNA bases through different oxidative pathways involving its two double bonds. It is important to structurally characterize DNA base derivatives induced by alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes so that the genotoxic risks associated with the lipid peroxidation

  4. Molar ratios of therapeutic water-soluble phenothiazine⋅water-insoluble phospholipid adducts reveal a Fibonacci correlation and a putative link for structure–activity relationships

    Keyzer, Hendrik; Fey, S. J.; Thornton, Barry


    1,2diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospholipids (PL) with even-numbered symmetric saturated diacyl chains with the headgroups choline (PC), glycerol (PG), serine (PS), ethanolamine (PE), phosphatidic acid (PA). We observed water soluble products with replicable molar ratios (MR) that could be divided into two...... larger than that of the self-associated pure PTH. In summary, the reproducibility and similarity of the measurements using different PTH derivatives and PL suggests that similar adducts are formed in all the cases. We propose that the PTH$PL adduct has a “helical shape” showing Fibonacci properties...

  5. Mutations Induced by Benzo[a]pyrene and Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in lacI Transgenic B6C3F1 Mouse Lung Result from Stable DNA Adducts

    Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) are carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that are each capable of forming a variety of covalent adducts with DNA. Some of the DNA adducts formed by these PAHs have been demonstrated to spontaneously depurina...

  6. Effects of the co-carcinogen catechol on benzo(a)pyrene metabolism and DNA adduct formation in mouse skin

    Melikian, A.A.; Leszczynska, J.M.; Hecht, S.S.; Hoffmann, D.


    We have studied the effects of the co-carcinogen catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) on the metabolic activation of (/sup 3/H) benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in mouse skin, in vivo and on the binding of BaP metabolites to DNA and protein at intervals from 0.5-24 h. Upon topical application of 0.015 mg (/sup 3/H)BaP and 0.25 or 0.5 mg catechol per mouse, catechol had little effect on the total amount of (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolized in mouse skin, but it affected the relative proportions of (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolites. Catechol (0.5 mg/mouse) decreased the proportion of water-soluble (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolites, ethyl acetate-soluble polar metabolites and quinones, but doubled the levels of unconjugated 3-hydroxy-BaP at all measured intervals after treatment. Catechol also caused a small increase in the levels of trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydroBaP and trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydroBaP 0.5 h after treatment. Two hours after treatment, the levels of these metabolites subsided to those of the controls. Catechol did not affect the levels of glutathione conjugates of BaP. However, it caused a decrease in glucuronide and sulphate conjugate formation from BaP. Catechol caused an approximately 2-fold increase in the formation of anti-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydroBaP (BPDE) DNA adducts and elevated the ratio of anti-syn-BPDE-DNA adducts 1.6 to 2.9-fold. Catechol treatment increased the radioactivity associated with epidermal proteins after (/sup 3/H)BaP application. Because catechol increased levels of 3-hydroxyBaP, we considered the possibility that 3-hydroxyBaP might enhance the tumor initiating activities of BaP or BPDE in mouse skin; a bioassay demonstrated that this was not the case. The results of this study indicate that one important effect of catechol related to its co-carcinogenicity is its ability to enhance formation of anti-BPDE-DNA adducts in mouse skin.

  7. Towards biomarker-dependent individualized chemotherapy: exploring cell-specific differences in oxaliplatin-DNA adduct distribution using accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Hah, Sang Soo; Henderson, Paul T; Turteltaub, Kenneth W


    Oxaliplatin is a third-generation platinum-based anticancer drug that is currently used in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Oxaliplatin, like other platinum-based anticancer drugs such as cisplatin and carboplatin, is known to induce apoptosis in tumor cells by binding to nuclear DNA, forming monoadducts, and intra- and interstrand diadducts. Previously, we reported an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) assay to measure the kinetics of oxaliplatin-induced DNA damage and repair [Hah, S. S.; Sumbad, R. A.; de Vere White, R. W.; Turteltaub, K. W.; Henderson, P. T. Chem. Res. Toxicol.2007, 20, 1745]. Here, we describe another application of AMS to the measurement of oxaliplatin-DNA adduct distribution in cultured platinum-sensitive testicular (833K) and platinum-resistant breast (MDA-MB-231) cancer cells, which resulted in elucidation of cell-dependent differentiation of oxaliplatin-DNA adduct formation, implying that differential adduction and/or accumulation of the drug in cellular DNA may be responsible for the sensitivity of cancer cells to platinum treatment. Ultimately, we hope to use this method to measure the intrinsic platinated DNA adduct repair capacity in cancer patients for use as a biomarker for diagnostics or a predictor of patient outcome.


    Induction of DNA adducts, tumors, and Ki-ras oncogene mutations in strain AlJ mouse lung by ip. administration of dibenz[a,h]anthracene Previous studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (P AH) induced lung tumors in the strain NJ mouse model system have demonstrated qua...

  9. Pharmacodynamics of cisplatin in human head and neck cancer : correlation between platinum content, DNA adduct levels and drug sensitivity in vitro and in vivo

    Welters, M.J.P.; Fichtinger-Schepman, A.M.J.; Baan, R.A.; Jacobs-Bergmans, A.J.; Kegel, A.; Vijgh, W.J.F. van der; Braakhuis, B.J.M.


    Total platinum contents and cisplatin-DNA adduct levels were determined in vivo in xenografted tumour tissues in mice and in vitro in cultured tumour cells of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and correlated with sensitivity to cisplatin. In vivo, a panel of five HNSCC tumour lines grow

  10. An integrated QSAR-PBK/D modelling approach for predicting detoxification and DNA adduct formation of 18 acyclic food-borne a,ß-unsaturated aldehydes.

    Kiwamoto, R.; Spenkelink, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Punt, A.


    Acyclic a,ß-unsaturated aldehydes present in food raise a concern because the a,ß-unsaturated aldehyde moiety is considered a structural alert for genotoxicity. However, controversy remains on whether in vivo at realistic dietary exposure DNA adduct formation is significant. The aim of the present s

  11. Novel missense mutation in the L1 gene in a child with corpus callosum agenesis, retardation, adducted thumbs, spastic paraparesis, and hydrocephalus

    Sztriha, L; Frossard, P; Hofstra, RMW; Verlind, E; Nork, M


    Corpus callosum agenesis, retardation, adducted thumbs, spastic paraparesis, and hydrocephalus (CRASH syndrome) is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by mutations in the neuronal cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1CAM) gene. L1 plays a key role in axon outgrowth and pathfinding during the development o

  12. Comparative synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry and 32P-postlabeling analysis of PAH-DNA adducts in human lung and the relationship to TP53 mutations

    Andreassen, Åshild; Kure, Elin H.; Nielsen, Per Sabro;


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts were studied in human lung from 39 lung cancer patients by synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometric (SFS) and 32P-postlabeling assays. Regression analysis of the samples failed to detect any correlation between benzo[a]pyrene-diolepoxide (BPDE)...

  13. Protection by quercetin and quercetin-rich fruit juice against induction of oxidative DNA damage and formation of BPDE-DNA adducts in human lymphocytes

    Wilms, L.C.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Boots, A.W.; Kleinjans, J.C.S.


    Flavonoids are claimed to protect against cardiovascular disease, certain forms of cancer and ageing, possibly by preventing initial DNA damage. Therefore, we investigated the protective effects of the flavonoid quercetin against the formation of oxidative DNA damage and bulky DNA adducts in human l

  14. Inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase-catalyzed synthesis by intercalated DNA Benzo[a]Pyrene 7,8-Dihydrodiol-9,10-Epoxide adducts.

    Parvathi Chary

    Full Text Available To aid in the characterization of the relationship of structure and function for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT, this investigation utilized DNAs containing benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE-modified primers and templates as a probe of the architecture of this complex. BPDE lesions that differed in their stereochemistry around the C10 position were covalently linked to N (6-adenine and positioned in either the primer or template strand of a duplex template-primer. HIV-1 RT exhibited a stereoisomer-specific and strand-specific difference in replication when the BPDE-lesion was placed in the template versus the primer strand. When the C10 R-BPDE adduct was positioned in the primer strand in duplex DNA, 5 nucleotides from the 3΄ end of the primer terminus, HIV-1 RT could not fully replicate the template, producing truncated products; this block to further synthesis did not affect rates of dissociation or DNA binding affinity. Additionally, when the adducts were in the same relative position, but located in the template strand, similar truncated products were observed with both the C10 R and C10 S BPDE adducts. These data suggest that the presence of covalently-linked intercalative DNA adducts distant from the active site can lead to termination of DNA synthesis catalyzed by HIV-1 RT.

  15. Increased accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal adducts in male GSTA4/PPAR alpha double knockout mice enhances injury during early stages of alcoholic liver disease

    Hepatic lipid peroxidation and accumulation of aldehyde-adducted proteins occur early in alcohol-mediated injury and are postulated to mediate the subsequent pro-inflammatory and fibrotic responses observed in alcoholic liver disease. To test the significance of lipid peroxidation formation in the ...


    Reactions of Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-quinone with Deoxyguanosine and Deoxyadenosine at Physiological pH: Identification and Characterization of Stable AdductsNarayanan Balu, William T. Padgett, Guy Lambert, Adam E. Swank,Ann M. Richard, and Stephen NesnowEnvironmen...

  17. Fullerene films and fullerene-dodecylamine adduct monolayers at air-water interfaces studied by neutron and x-ray reflection

    Wang, J.Y.; Vaknin, D.; Uphaus, R.A.;


    Neutron and X-ray reflection measurements and surface pressure isotherms of spread films of the fullerene-dodecylamine adduct C60-[NH2(CH2)11CH3]x all indicate that this material may form monomolecular layers on water surfaces. The reflection data sets (neutron on both H2O and D2O) can be accounted...

  18. Ethanol Withdrawal Increases Glutathione Adducts of 4-Hydroxy-2-Hexenal but not 4-Hydroxyl-2-Nonenal in the Rat Cerebral Cortex

    Ethanol withdrawal increases lipid peroxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoate (DHA; 22:6; n-3) in the CNS. In order to further define the role of oxidative damage of PUFA during ethanol withdrawal, we measured levels of glutathione adducts of 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (GSHHE) a...

  19. Smoking, DNA Adducts and Number of Risk DNA Repair Alleles in Lung Cancer Cases, in Subjects with Benign Lung Diseases and in Controls

    Marco Peluso


    Full Text Available Smoke constituents can induce DNA adducts that cause mutations and lead to lung cancer. We have analyzed DNA adducts and polymorphisms in two DNA repair genes, for example, XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln genes and XRCC3 Thr241Met gene, in 34 lung cancer cases in respect to 30 subjects with benign lung cancer disease and 40 healthy controls. When the study population was categorized in base to the number of risk alleles, adducts were significantly increased in individuals bearing 3-4 risk alleles (OR=4.1 95% C.I. 1.28–13.09, P=.009. A significant association with smoking was noticed in smokers for more than 40 years carrying 3-4 risk alleles (OR=36.38, 95% C.I. 1.17–1132.84, P=.040. A not statistically significant increment of lung cancer risk was observed in the same group (OR=4.54, 95% C.I. 0.33–62.93, P=.259. Our results suggest that the analysis of the number of risk alleles predicts the interindividual variation in DNA adducts of smokers and lung cancer cases.

  20. The dramatic effect of the annealing temperature and dielectric functionalization on the electron mobility of indene-C60 bis-adduct thin films.

    Orgiu, Emanuele; Squillaci, Marco A; Rekab, Wassima; Börjesson, Karl; Liscio, Fabiola; Zhang, Lei; Samorì, Paolo


    Herein we report on the charge transport properties of spin-coated thin films of an n-type fullerene derivative, i.e. the indene-C60 bis-adduct (ICBA). In particular, the effects of annealing temperature and duration as well as surface functionalization are explored. Electron mobilities approaching 0.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) are reported.